Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems: Methods and Applications [2 ed.] 9780128198858, 0128198850

Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems, 2nd edition, presents a fully updated comprehensive analysis of thermal ener

1,516 338 61MB

English Pages 640 [772] Year 2020

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems: Methods and Applications [2 ed.]
 9780128198858, 0128198850

Table of contents :
Title-page_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Storage-Systems
Advances in Thermal Energy Storage Systems
Copyright_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Storage-Systems
Copyright
Contents_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Storage-Systems
Contents
List-of-Contributors_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Storage-Systems
List of Contributors
1---Introduction-to-thermal-energy-stor_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Stor
1 Introduction to thermal energy storage systems
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Basic thermodynamics of energy storage
1.2.1 Sensible heat storage
1.2.2 Latent heat storage
1.2.3 Thermochemical energy storage
1.2.4 Comparison of thermal energy storage types
1.3 Overview of system types
1.3.1 Sensible storage
1.3.1.1 Underground thermal energy storage
1.3.1.2 Water storage
1.3.1.3 Molten salts
1.3.2 Latent heat storage with phase change materials
1.3.3 Thermochemical storage
1.3.3.1 Heating
1.3.3.2 Cooling
1.3.3.3 Seasonal storage
1.3.3.4 Thermochemical energy storage for concentrating solar power
1.4 Environmental impact and energy savings produced
1.4.1 Refrigeration applications
1.4.2 Solar power plants
1.4.3 Mobile heat storage for industrial waste heat recovery
1.4.4 Buildings
1.4.5 Aquifer thermal energy storage in a supermarket
1.5 Conclusions
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments 1st edition
Acknowledgments 2nd edition
References
2---Advances-in-thermal-energy-storage-system_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energ
2 Advances in thermal energy storage systems: methods and applications
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Principles of sensible heat storage systems involving water
2.1.2 Advances in the use of water for heat storage
2.1.2.1 Hot water stores for solar domestic hot water systems
2.1.2.2 Hot water stores for solar heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water supply
2.1.3 Future trends
2.1.4 Sources of further information and advice
References
3---Advances-in-molten-salt-storage-systems-using-_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-
3 Advances in molten salt storage systems using other liquid sensible storage media for heat storage
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Principles of heat storage systems using molten salts and other liquid sensible storage media
3.2.1 Thermal storage media used for large scale
3.2.2 Direct heating with molten salt
3.2.3 Two-tank indirect storage system
3.3 Advances in molten salt storage
3.3.1 Low melting–point formulations
3.3.2 Heat capacity improvements
3.3.3 Progress in thermal stability enhancement
3.4 Advanced concepts for other liquid-media based systems
3.4.1 Liquid metals and alloys
3.4.1.1 Alkali metals
3.4.1.2 Heavy metals
3.4.1.3 Fusible metals
3.4.2 Ionic liquids
3.5 Molten salts for advanced solar thermal energy power
3.5.1 Carbonate molten salts
3.5.2 Chloride molten salts
3.6 Additional future trends
References
Sources of further information and advice
4---Using-concrete-and-other-solid-storage-medi_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Ene
4 Using concrete and other solid storage media in thermal energy storage systems
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Principles of heat storage in solid media
4.2.1 Materials
4.2.2 Storage configurations
4.3 State-of-the-art regenerator-type storage
4.4 Advances in the use of solid storage media for heat storage
4.4.1 Concrete storage
4.4.1.1 Concrete storage design
4.4.2 Regenerator storage
4.4.2.1 Applications
4.4.2.2 Design aspects
4.4.3 The CellFlux concept
4.4.4 Particulate storage
References
5---The-use-of-aquifers-as-thermal-energy_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-St
5 The use of aquifers as thermal energy storage systems
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Background
5.1.2 Current status
5.2 Thermal sources
5.2.1 Cold sources
5.2.2 Hot or warm sources
5.3 Aquifer thermal energy storage
5.3.1 Thermal loads
5.3.2 Delivery system
5.3.3 Aquifer thermal energy storage store
5.3.4 Optimum systems
5.4 Thermal and geophysical aspects
5.4.1 Modeling and calculating thermal effects in aquifer thermal energy storage systems
5.4.2 Geochemical aspects
5.5 Aquifer thermal energy storage design
5.5.1 Well design
5.5.2 Well field layout
5.5.2.1 Clustering strategies
5.5.2.2 Distance between warm and cold well
5.5.2.3 Angle with respect to regional flow
5.6 Aquifer thermal energy storage cooling only case study: Richard Stockton College of New Jersey (currently Stockton Univ...
5.6.1 Aquifer storage system
5.6.2 Cost-effectiveness
5.6.2.1 Fuel costs
5.6.2.2 Maintenance
5.6.2.3 Replacement
5.6.2.4 Avoided costs
5.6.2.5 Installation costs
5.6.2.6 Financial analysis
5.7 Aquifer thermal energy storage district heating and cooling with heat pumps case study: Eindhoven University of Technology
5.7.1 Project description
5.7.2 Environmental impacts
5.7.3 Evolution of the project
5.8 Aquifer thermal energy storage heating and cooling with deicing case study: aquifer thermal energy storage plant at Sto...
5.8.1 Aquifer thermal energy storage plant
5.8.2 Cost-effectiveness
5.9 Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References
Further reading
6---The-use-of-borehole-thermal-energy-s_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Sto
6 The use of borehole thermal energy storage systems
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Historical development
6.1.2 Specifics of borehole thermal energy storage
6.1.3 Principles of borehole thermal energy storage
6.1.4 Underground thermal conditions
6.1.5 Applications of borehole thermal energy storage
6.1.6 Environmental aspects of borehole thermal energy storage
6.2 System integration of borehole thermal energy storage
6.2.1 Energy balance (ordered annual performance curve)
6.2.2 Temperature levels
6.2.3 Borehole thermal energy storage for heating, cooling, and combined heating and cooling
6.3 Investigation and design of borehole thermal energy storage construction sites
6.3.1 Site investigation: thermal response test
6.3.2 Geometry: the arrangement of compact hexagonal or quadratic borehole heat exchangers, distance and depth of borehole ...
6.3.3 Design procedure, geological and hydrogeological survey, system simulation, and numerical simulation
6.4 Construction of borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy storage
6.4.1 Construction of single-U, double-U, and coaxial borehole heat exchangers
6.4.2 Drilling
6.4.3 Materials for borehole heat exchangers
6.4.4 Installation and grouting
6.4.5 Heat transfer fluid (water or water/antifreeze mixture)
6.4.6 Layout of the hydraulic circuit
6.5 Examples of borehole thermal energy storage
6.5.1 Solar district heating in Neckarsulm, Germany
6.5.2 Solar district heating at Okotoks, Canada
6.5.3 Solar district heating with hybrid storage in Attenkirchen, Germany
6.6 Conclusion and future trends
References
7---Analysis--modeling--and-simulation-of-under_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Ene
7 Analysis, modeling, and simulation of underground thermal energy storage systems
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Aquifer thermal energy storage system
7.2.1 Scope
7.2.2 Basic equations and modeling approach
7.3 Borehole thermal energy storage system
7.3.1 Conceptualization of borehole heat exchanger
7.3.2 Implementation of borehole heat exchangers
7.3.2.1 Analytical borehole heat exchanger solution
7.3.2.2 Numerical borehole heat exchanger solution
7.4 FEFLOW as a tool for simulating underground thermal energy storage
7.5 Applications
7.5.1 Model verification
7.5.1.1 Verification against moving line source theory
7.5.1.2 Verification against Neckarsulm experimental borehole thermal energy storage
7.5.2 Groundwater influence
7.5.2.1 Modeling
7.5.2.2 Simulation
7.5.2.3 Impact on the temperature distribution of the underground
7.5.2.4 Impact on the storage efficiency
References
8---Using-ice-and-snow-in-thermal-energy_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Sto
8 Using ice and snow in thermal energy storage systems
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Snow and ice properties
8.2 Principles of thermal energy storage systems using snow and ice
8.2.1 Snow storage in thermally insulated buildings
8.2.2 Snow storage in thermally insulated pits
8.2.3 Underground snow storage
8.3 Design and implementation of thermal energy storage using snow
8.4 Full-scale applications
8.4.1 The Sundsvall snow storage plant
8.4.2 The Sapporo Airport snow storage plant
8.5 Future trends
References
9---Solid-liquid-phase-change-materials-for_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-
9 Solid-liquid phase change materials for thermal energy storage
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Principles of solid-liquid phase change materials
9.2.1 Classification of phase change materials
9.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of organic and inorganic phase change materials
9.2.3 Shortcomings of phase change materials
9.2.3.1 Extended heat exchanger surface and addition of highly conductive materials (static method)
9.2.3.2 Dynamic phase change material system
9.3 Methods to determine physical and technical properties of phase change materials
9.3.1 Latent heat capacity measurement
9.3.2 Thermal conductivity measurement
9.3.3 Viscosity measurement
9.3.4 Density and thermal expansion measurement
9.3.5 Thermophysical properties of building materials incorporating phase change materials
9.4 Comparison of physical and technical properties of key phase change materials
9.5 Future trends
References
10---Microencapsulation-of-phase-change-materia_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Ene
10 Microencapsulation of phase change materials for thermal energy storage systems
10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 Morphology of the capsules
10.2 Microencapsulation of organic phase change materials
10.2.1 Microencapsulation of phase change materials with polymer shell
10.2.1.1 Interfacial polymerization
10.2.1.2 In situ polymerization
10.2.1.3 Suspension polymerization
10.2.1.4 Coacervation-phase separation method
10.2.1.5 Spray drying and other methods of phase change material microencapsulation
10.2.1.6 Microencapsulation of phase change materials with other methods
10.2.2 Microencapsulation of phase change materials with inorganic shell
10.2.2.1 Sol–gel method
10.2.2.2 Self-assembly method
10.2.3 Microencapsulation of phase change materials with organic–inorganic hybrid shell
10.3 Microencapsulation of inorganic salt hydrate phase change materials
10.4 Shape-stabilized phase change materials
10.4.1 Polymer-based shape-stabilized phase change materials
10.4.2 Electrospun form-stable phase change materials
10.4.3 Expanded material-based intercalation composite phase change material
10.4.3.1 Graphite and activated carbon-based intercalation composite phase change material
10.4.3.2 Clay-based intercalation composite phase change material
10.5 Conclusions and perspectives
References
11---Design-of-latent-heat-energy-storage-syst_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Ener
11 Design of latent heat energy storage systems using phase change materials
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Phase change material requirements and considerations
11.2.1 Temperature and enthalpy
11.2.2 Compatibility and stability
11.2.3 Thermal conductivity
11.3 Heat exchange systems
11.3.1 Storage with heat transfer on internal heat transfer surfaces
11.3.1.1 Heat exchanger type
11.3.1.2 Direct contact type
11.3.1.3 Module type
11.3.2 Storage with heat transfer by exchanging the heat storage medium
11.4 Design methodologies
11.4.1 Comparison metrics
11.4.2 Effectiveness
11.4.3 UA value
11.4.4 Log mean temperature difference
11.4.5 Numerical approaches
11.4.6 Conduction transfer functions and building simulations
11.5 Future trends
References
12---Modeling-of-heat-transfer-in-phase-change-m_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-En
12 Modeling of heat transfer in phase change materials for thermal energy storage systems
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Inherent physical phenomena in phase change materials
12.2.1 Moving solid–liquid interface
12.2.2 Buoyancy effects in the melt
12.2.3 Volume change at phase change
12.2.4 Phase change over an extended temperature range
12.2.5 Enthalpy hysteresis
12.3 Modeling methods and approaches for the simulation of heat transfer in phase change materials for thermal energy storage
12.3.1 Basic formulation
12.3.2 Motion in the liquid phase
12.3.3 Enthalpy-porosity approach
12.3.4 Density/volume change
12.3.5 Solid motion in the liquid
12.3.6 Enhanced systems
12.3.7 Close-contact melting
12.4 Examples of modeling applications
12.4.1 Melting in a vertical circular tube
12.4.2 Melting in a spherical enclosure
12.4.3 Solidification in a vertical cylindrical enclosure
12.4.4 Melting in a typical storage unit
12.4.5 Close-contact melting in a rectangular cavity and in a typical storage unit
12.5 Future trends
12.5.1 Computational constraints
12.5.2 Use of commercial codes
12.5.3 Material properties
12.5.4 Hysteresis and subcooling
References
Sources of further information and advice
Sources that give a general perspective on latent-heat thermal energy storage systems
Sources that give a mathematical background on the basic Stefan problem and its extensions
Sources that deal with mathematical modeling of melting and solidification problems
Sources that deal with general approaches to modeling of heat transfer in phase-change materials
Sources that deal with enthalpy and enthalpy-porosity methods of modeling
Sources that deal with volume-of-fluid method of modeling for multiphase systems
Sources that deal with close-contact melting in common geometries
13---Integrating-phase-change-materials-in-therm_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-En
13 Integrating phase change materials in thermal energy storage systems for buildings
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Integration of phase change materials into the building envelope: physical considerations and heuristic arguments
13.2.1 Physical considerations
13.2.2 Heuristic arguments
13.3 Organic and inorganic phase change materials used in building walls
13.3.1 Organic phase change materials
13.3.2 Inorganic phase change materials
13.4 Phase change material containment
13.4.1 Impregnation of building materials with phase change materials
13.4.2 Micro-encapsulation of phase change material
13.4.3 Shape-stabilized phase change material
13.4.4 Other containers
13.5 Measurement of the thermal properties of PCM and PCM integrated in building walls
13.5.1 Differential scanning calorimetry
13.5.2 The T-history method
13.5.3 The guarded hot-plate setup
13.6 Experimental studies
13.7 Numerical studies
13.8 Conclusion
References
14---Sorption-systems-for-thermal-ener_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Stora
14 Sorption systems for thermal energy storage
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Principles of sorption reactions
14.2.1 Generalities
14.2.2 Closed versus open sorption storage systems
14.2.3 Basic thermodynamics of sorption storage
14.2.4 Classification of sorbent materials
14.2.4.1 Zeolites
14.2.4.2 Zeotypes
14.2.4.3 Composite sorbents
14.3 Main characterization techniques of sorbent materials
14.3.1 Equilibrium curves
14.3.2 Heat of sorption
14.3.3 Sorption kinetic
14.4 Sorption storage prototypes
14.4.1 Closed cycles
14.4.2 Open cycles
14.5 Conclusion and future perspectives
References
15---Modeling-of-sorption-systems-for-ther_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-S
15 Modeling of sorption systems for thermal energy storage
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Reactor level (continuum approach)
15.2.1 Sorption equilibrium and sorption heat
15.2.1.1 Langmuir
15.2.1.2 Dubinin-Astakhov and Dubinin-Radushkevich
15.2.1.3 Toth
15.2.1.4 Dual-site sips
15.2.2 Heat and mass transfer in a closed sorption system
15.2.2.1 Implementation and numerical methods for the solution
15.2.3 Heat and mass transfer in an open sorption system
15.2.3.1 Implementation and numerical methods for the solution
15.3 Reactor level (noncontinuum lumped parameter approach)
15.4 System level (black-box models)
15.5 Applications
15.5.1 Thermodynamic models: selection of optimal adsorbent pairs for different applications
15.5.2 Heat and mass transfer in a closed reactor: evaluation of achievable specific cooling power
15.5.3 Lumped parameter approach: dynamic optimization of adsorbers design
15.5.4 Black-box models: evaluation of the integration of a sorption system in different climates
15.6 Conclusion
References
16---Using-thermochemical-reactions-in-therm_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy
16 Using thermochemical reactions in thermal energy storage systems
16.1 Introduction
16.1.1 Operation principle
16.1.2 Storage temperature
16.1.3 Storage integration
16.2 Applications of reversible gas-gas reactions
16.2.1 Chemical heat pipe
16.2.2 Thermochemical storage
16.3 Applications of reversible gas-solid reactions
16.3.1 Closed system
16.3.1.1 Heat transformation/thermal upgrade
16.3.1.2 Thermochemical heat storage based on Ca(OH)2
16.3.2 Open system: utilizing pressure or concentration differences
16.3.2.1 Systems based on (waste) steam
16.3.2.2 Systems based on pressurized hydrogen
16.4 Conclusion
References
17---Modeling-thermochemical-reactions-in-the_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energ
17 Modeling thermochemical reactions in thermal energy storage systems
17.1 Introduction
17.1.1 Thermochemical heat storage
17.1.2 The sorption and desorption processes on the nano/microscale
17.1.2.1 Heat and mass transfer in the grains
17.1.2.2 Heat and mass transfer in the pores
17.1.3 Range of modeling scales for a complete solid sorption heat storage system
17.1.3.1 Molecular level
17.1.3.2 Grain level
17.1.3.3 Powdery level
17.1.3.4 Reactor level
17.1.3.5 System level
17.1.4 Outline of the chapter
17.2 Grain model technique (Mampel’s approach)
17.2.1 Introduction
17.2.2 Mampel’s model
17.2.3 Numerical implementation
17.2.4 Conclusion
17.3 Reactor model technique (continuum approach)
17.3.1 Mass and heat balances
17.3.2 Kinetics and equilibrium models
17.3.3 Example hydration zeolite
17.4 Molecular simulation methods: quantum chemical simulations (DFT)
17.4.1 Hohenberg–Kohn theorems
17.4.2 Kohn–Sham equations
17.5 Molecular simulation methods: statistical mechanics
17.5.1 Ensembles
17.5.1.1 Microcanonical (NVE) ensemble
17.5.1.2 Canonical (NVT) ensemble
17.5.1.3 Other ensembles
17.6 Molecular simulation methods: molecular dynamics
17.6.1 Reactive force field method
17.6.2 Force field optimization
17.7 Properties estimation from molecular dynamics simulation
17.7.1 Estimating the density and temperature
17.7.2 Radial distribution function
17.7.3 Estimating the diffusivity
17.7.4 Estimating thermal conductivity
17.8 Examples
17.8.1 Water binding energy of MgSO4 crystal
17.8.2 Equations of state for hydrated crystals of MgSO4
17.8.3 Diffusivities: molecular dynamics simulations using developed reactive force fields
17.8.4 Thermal stability of salt hydrates
17.8.5 Composite and doped materials based on salt hydrates
17.8.6 Thermal conductivity of salt hydrates
17.9 Conclusion and future trends
17.9.1 Limitations of molecular modeling
17.9.2 Coarse graining and the development of design rules for future materials
17.9.3 Methods and techniques
Acknowledgments
References
18---Monitoring-and-control-of-thermal-ene_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-S
18 Monitoring and control of thermal energy storage systems
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Overview of state-of-the-art monitoring and control of thermal energy storage systems
18.3 Stand-alone control and monitoring of heating devices
18.4 Data logging and heat metering of heating devices
18.4.1 Heat meters
18.4.2 Wireless technologies
18.5 Future trends in the monitoring and control of thermal storage systems
18.5.1 Fully integrated control and monitoring of heating devices
18.5.2 Controls for the optimization of thermal loading
18.5.3 Efficient use of thermal energy (thermal unloading)
18.5.4 Development of building management systems
18.5.5 Mini-BeMS
18.5.6 Weather monitoring/prediction technologies
18.5.7 Web-enabled control and monitoring systems
18.6 Sources of further information and advice
References
19---Thermal-energy-storage-for-space-heating-and-_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-
19 Thermal energy storage for space heating and domestic hot water in individual residential buildings
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Requirements for thermal energy storage in individual residential buildings
19.2.1 Space heating
19.2.2 Domestic hot water
19.3 Thermal energy storage for space heating in individual residential buildings
19.3.1 Sensible heat storage
19.3.1.1 Individual storage
19.3.1.1.1 The building as heat store
19.3.1.1.2 Hot water store
19.3.1.1.3 Night storage
19.3.1.2 Shared storage
19.3.1.2.1 Artificial underground storage
19.3.1.2.2 Geothermal storage
19.3.1.2.3 Aquifer storage
19.3.2 Latent heat storage
19.3.3 Sorption heat storage and thermochemical heat storage
19.4 Conclusion and outlook
References
20---Thermal-energy-storage-systems-for-cooli_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energ
20 Thermal energy storage systems for cooling in residential buildings
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Sustainable cooling through passive systems in building envelopes
20.3 Sustainable cooling through phase change material in active systems
20.4 Sustainable cooling through sorption systems
20.5 Sustainable cooling through seasonal storage
20.5.1 Underground thermal energy storage
20.5.2 Water pits and solar ponds
20.5.3 Thermochemical storage
20.6 Other options of sustainable cooling with thermal energy storage
20.6.1 Integration of thermal energy storage in building energy systems
20.6.2 Integration of thermal energy storage in district cooling systems
20.7 Conclusion
Acknowledgment
Acknowledgments 1st edition
Acknowledgments 2nd edition
References
21---Thermal-energy-storage-systems-for-dist_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy
21 Thermal energy storage systems for district heating and cooling
21.1 Introduction
21.2 District heating and cooling overview
21.3 Advances in applications
21.3.1 Typical cash flows from thermal storages
21.3.2 A variation assessment method
21.3.3 Distributed heat storages
21.3.4 Hourly heat storage in distribution networks
21.3.5 Daily heat storages in district heating systems
21.3.6 Weekly heat storages in district heating systems
21.3.7 Seasonal heat storages in district heating systems
21.3.8 Daily cold storages in district cooling systems
21.4 Investment costs
21.5 Future trends
21.5.1 Seasonal heat storage in district heating systems
21.5.2 Exchanging balancing power with electric grids
21.6 Information sources
References
22---Waste-heat-recovery-using-thermal-e_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Sto
22 Waste heat recovery using thermal energy storage
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Generation of waste process heat in different industries
22.3 Application of thermal energy storage for valorization of waste process heat
22.3.1 Manufacturing industry
22.3.2 Other industrial activities
22.4 Conclusion
References
23---Thermal-energy-storage-systems-for-cogene_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Ener
23 Thermal energy storage systems for cogeneration and trigeneration systems
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Overview of cogeneration and trigeneration systems
23.3 Design of thermal energy storage for cogeneration and trigeneration systems
23.4 Implementation of thermal energy storage in cogeneration and trigeneration systems
23.5 Future trends
23.6 Conclusion
23.6.1 International associations
23.6.2 Research groups
References
Sources of further information and advice Books and handbooks
24---Thermal-storage-for-concentrating-so_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-St
24 Thermal storage for concentrating solar power plants
24.1 Thermal energy storage and concentrating solar power
24.2 Basic storage concept for concentrating solar power
24.2.1 Direct storage of liquid heat transfer medium
24.2.2 Steam accumulators
24.2.3 Dual-media concepts (thermocline)
24.2.4 Floating barrier concepts
24.2.5 Solid media storage concepts
24.2.6 Latent heat storage concepts
24.2.7 Thermochemical energy storage
24.3 Thermal energy storage in commercial solar thermal power plants
24.3.1 Indirect two-tank molten salt storage
24.3.2 Steam accumulators
24.3.3 Direct storage of liquid heat transfer medium
24.4 Conclusion and future trends
References
25---Thermal-energy-storage-systems-for-gr_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-S
25 Thermal energy storage systems for greenhouse technology
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Greenhouse heating and cooling
25.2.1 Heating systems in greenhouses
25.2.2 Cooling systems in greenhouses
25.2.3 Humidity control in greenhouses
25.3 Thermal energy storage technologies for greenhouse systems
25.3.1 Underground thermal energy storage systems for greenhouses
25.3.1.1 Aquifer thermal energy storage
25.3.1.2 Borehole thermal energy storage
25.3.1.3 Cavern thermal energy storage
25.3.2 Phase change material
25.3.3 Water tanks
25.4 Case studies for thermal energy storage in greenhouses
25.4.1 Underground thermal energy storage
25.4.1.1 The Netherlands
25.4.1.2 Turkey
25.4.1.3 Norway
25.4.1.4 Switzerland
25.4.1.5 United States
25.4.1.6 Canada
25.4.1.7 Belgium
25.4.2 Phase change material
25.4.2.1 Turkey
25.4.2.2 Germany
25.4.2.3 China
25.5 Conclusion and future trends
References
26---Thermal-energy-storage-in-the-tran_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Stor
26 Thermal energy storage in the transport sector
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Applications of thermal energy storage in the transport sector
26.2.1 Latent heat storage applications
26.2.2 Adsorption heat storage applications
26.2.3 Thermochemical energy storage applications
References
27---Thermal-energy-storage-for-temperature-_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy
27 Thermal energy storage for temperature management of electronics
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Thermal storage for thermal management: concept
27.3 Hybrid heat sink
27.4 Portable electronics
27.5 Pulsed power electronics
27.6 Batteries
27.7 Photovoltaic panels
27.8 Future trends
References
Index_2021_Advances-in-Thermal-Energy-Storage-Systems
Index

Polecaj historie