Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering: Select Proceedings of TRACE 2020 981336968X, 9789813369689

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Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering: Select Proceedings of TRACE 2020
 981336968X, 9789813369689

Table of contents :
Preface
Acknowledgements
Contents
About the Editors
Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance of Irregular Buildings
1 Introduction
2 Materials and Methods
2.1 Building Configuration
2.2 Modelling of URM Infills
3 Results and Discussion
4 Conclusion
References
Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition Waste Used in Rigid Pavements
1 Introduction
1.1 Pavements
1.2 Construction and Demolition Waste Composition
2 Methodology
3 Result and Discussion
References
Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Tunneling-Induced Ground Settlement in Clayey Soil
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Study
2.1 Establishment of Physical Model
3 Finite Element Study
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusion
References
Blast-Resistant Stability Analysis of Triple Tunnel
1 Introduction
2 Blast Loading
3 Results and Discussion
4 Conclusions
References
Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge
1 Introduction
2 Validation
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Methodology
3.2 Effect of Skew Angle
3.3 Proposed Equations for Forces and Deflection
4 Conclusions
References
Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost and Time Overruns in Construction Projects
1 Introduction
2 Background Study
3 Research Methodology
3.1 Overrun Factors Identification
3.2 Questionnaire Survey and Respondents
4 Analysis of Data and Results
4.1 Analysis for Reliability of Questionnaire
4.2 Ranking of Overrun Factors
5 Discussion and Guidelines
6 Conclusion
References
Factors Influencing the Behavior of Rockfill Materials
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Studies, Observation and Discussion
2.1 Material Properties
2.2 Experimental Data Analysis Programme
3 Conclusions
References
Swelling Behavior of the Expansive Soil Prepared with Calcium Bentonite
1 Introduction
2 Materials
2.1 Natural Soil
2.2 Bentonite
2.3 Expansive Soil
3 Experimental Work
3.1 Preparation of Test Sample
3.2 Laboratory Tests
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Consistency Limits
4.2 Compaction Tests
4.3 Free Swell and Swelling Pressure
4.4 Effect of Swelling Pressure Over Lightweight Structure
5 Conclusions
References
Assessment of Corrosion in Rebars by Impressed Current Technique
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Program
2.1 Preparation of Specimen
2.2 Impressed Current Technique Setup Used for Inducing Reinforcement Corrosion
3 Results and Discussions
3.1 Time for the First Crack Development
3.2 Mass Loss
3.3 Degree of Corrosion
3.4 Induced Corrosion Current
4 Conclusion
References
Evaluation of Dynamic Properties and Liquefaction Studies for Sandy Soil—A Case Study
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Work
2.1 Material Used
2.2 Experimental Programme
2.3 In Situ Density and Moisture Content Tests
2.4 Relative Density Tests
2.5 Resonant Column Tests
2.6 Cyclic Simple Shear Tests
2.7 Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential
3 Results and Discussions
4 Conclusions
Reference
Frequencies of Stiffened Lock Gate Coupled with Undisturbed Fluid
1 Overview
2 Modelling
3 Mathematical Formulation
3.1 Truncation of Infinite Length
3.2 Finite Element Formulation
4 Result and Discussion
5 Conclusions
References
Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil Reinforced with Geofiber
1 Introduction
2 Materials and Method
2.1 Materials
2.2 Method
3 Test Results and Its Findings
3.1 Effect of Polypropylene Fiber Content on Specific Gravity
3.2 Variation of Void Ratio (e) with Increment of Pressure at Different Contents of Polypropylene Fiber
3.3 Consolidation Parameters
4 Conclusions
References
Alkali Activated Material Brick
1 Introduction
2 Literature Study
2.1 Essential Characteristics of Bricks
3 Material and Methodology
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusion
References
Influence of Micropiles on the Bearing Capacity of a Layered Soil System—A Numerical Study
1 Introduction
2 Numerical Modelling
2.1 Material Properties
2.2 Meshing and Boundary Conditions
2.3 Validation
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Settlement Contours
4 Conclusions
References
Comparative Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing with Varying Depth of Soil Reinforcement
1 Introduction
2 Modelling of Reinforcement-Soil Interface
3 Bearing Capacity Factors for Unreinforced and Reinforced Soil
4 Modelling in Optum G2 for Analysis Purpose
5 Result and Discussion
6 Application of the Result
7 Conclusion
References
A Review on Soil Remediation by Fenton Process
1 Introduction
2 General Steps to Minimize Soil Contamination
3 Advanced Oxidation Processes
4 Soil Remediation by Fenton Process
5 Conclusion
References
To Study the Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour of Hollow Core Slab
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
3 Experimentation
3.1 Preliminary Tests on Cement
3.2 Preliminary Tests on Coarse Aggregate
3.3 Calculations
3.4 Description of Construction Materials
3.5 Detail of Slab
3.6 Detail of the Normal Slab (s1)
3.7 Detail of Hollow Core Slab (s2)
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Temperature Analysis
4.2 Flexural Test
4.3 Fire Test
4.4 Comparison of Results
5 Conclusion
References
Interaction of Transmission Tower Footing with Twin Rock Tunnel
1 Introduction
2 Finite Element Analysis
3 Results and Discussion
4 Conclusion
References
Fluid–Structure Idealization in Intze Tank under Seismic Loads
1 Introduction
2 Materials and Methods
3 Result and Discussion
3.1 Single-Mass Idealization (Case 1)
3.2 Two-Mass Idealization (Case 2)
3.3 Numerical Calculation by IITK-GSDMA Guidelines
3.4 Calculation for Stiffness
3.5 Two-Mass Idealization using Finite Element Method
3.6 Single-Mass Model with Masonry Infill Panel Modelled as Equivalent Diagonal Strut (Case 3)
3.7 Two-Mass Model with Masonry Infill Panel Modelled as Equivalent Diagonal Strut (Case 4)
4 Conclusion
References
A Review on Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) Toward Green and Circular Economy
1 Introduction
2 Alkali-Activated Materials
3 Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW)
4 Factors Influencing Alkali Activation of Precursors and Potential of Construction and Demolition as Precursor Material
5 Conclusions
References
Experimental Study on the Effects of Nanomaterials in Clayey Soil of Aligarh City of Northern India
1 Introduction
2 Nanotechnology and Geotechnical Engineering
3 Experimental Program
3.1 Materials
3.2 Synthesis of Clay Nanocomposites with Fe2O3, MWCNTs and SWCNTs
4 Results and Discussions
4.1 Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies (SEM)
4.2 FTIR Studies
4.3 X-Rays Diffraction Studies
4.4 Effect of Different Nanomaterials and Water Content on Engineering Properties of the Soil
4.5 Effect of Nanomaterials on Swelling Potential of the Soil
4.6 Effect of Nanomaterials on Cohesion and Angle of Friction of the Soil
5 Conclusions
References
Analysis of Effect of Anti-slide Pile on Stability of Slopes
1 Introduction
2 Bishop’s Method
3 Numerical Modelling
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Influence of Length of the Pile
4.2 Influence of Spacing of Piles
4.3 Influence of Pile Positioning
4.4 Bending Moment and Shear Force on the Anti-slide Pile
4.5 Earth Pressure on the Pile
5 Conclusion
References
Performance Evaluation of Base Isolated Building
1 Introduction
2 Design of Base Isolated Structure
3 Numerical Modeling and Analysis
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusions
References
An Experimental Study on Effect of Partial Replacement of Rubber Tyres Dust as Fine Aggregates on Compressive Strength of Concrete
1 Introduction
2 Materials and Methods
3 Mix Design
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusion
References
Benchmarking Civil Engineering Education in India
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
3 Challenges in Civil Engineering Education in India
4 Visualization and Computational Tools
5 Benchmarking Problems
6 Discussion
7 Conclusion
References
Effective Utilization of Fly Ash and Steel Slag for Partial Replacement of Cement and River Sand for Sustainable Construction
1 Introduction
2 Material and Proportioning
2.1 Binder
2.2 Aggregates
2.3 Materials Proportioning for Concrete
2.4 Casting, Curing and Testing
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Compressive Strength
4 Conclusions
4.1 Future Scope
References
Dynamic Behavior of Base Isolated Howe Bridges-Seismic Resistant
1 Introduction
1.1 Application in Bridges
2 Seismic Base Isolation
3 Model Description
4 Methodology
4.1 Response Spectrum Method
5 Result and Discussion
5.1 Model 1—Non-Isolated HOWE Bridge
5.2 Model 2—Isolated HOWE Bridge
6 Conclusion
Reference
Comparative Study on Behavior of Structures Subjected to Seismic and Blast Loads
1 Introduction
1.1 Objectives of the Study
1.2 Model Description
2 Methodology
2.1 Response Spectrum Analysis
2.2 Details of Load
3 Result Analysis
3.1 Regular Shape Buildings
3.2 Irregular L-Shaped Buildings
4 Conclusion
References
A Mathematical Correlation of Compressive Strength Among Silica, Alumina and Calcia Present in Composite Red Mud and Iron Ore Tailingbricks
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Work
2.1 Materials
2.2 Mix Proportions
2.3 Tests Performed
3 Analysis of the Results
4 Conclusions
References
Investigation on the Impact Behavior of Concrete Panels Subjected to Drop Weight Impact
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Work
2.1 Materials
2.2 Mix Proportions
2.3 Sample Preparations
2.4 Testing Method
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Normal Concrete Panel
3.2 Self-compacting Concrete Panel
3.3 Comparison Between Normal Concrete Panel Versus SCC Panel
4 Conclusions
References
Stability of Slab on Elastic Foundation
1 Introduction
2 Objective
3 Methodology
3.1 ANSYS Modelling
4 Results
5 Conclusion
References
Rice Husk Ash and Basalt Fibre-Based Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete in Rigid Pavements. A Review
1 Introduction
2 Materials Used
2.1 Rice Husk Ash
2.2 Basalt Fibre
2.3 Alkaline Activators
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Effect of Various Type of Fibres in Geopolymer Concrete
4 Conclusion
4.1 Research Significance
4.2 Research Gap
References
Comparative Seismic Analysis Between Elevated Circular Water Tanks Using Equivalent Static Method and Response Spectrum Method
1 Introduction
2 Model Provisions
3 Literature Review
4 Design and Geometric Configuration
5 Static Seismic Analysis
5.1 Result Analysis
6 Dynamic Analysis
6.1 Result Analysis
7 Conclusion
References
Rice Husk Ash and Basalt Fibre-Based Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete in Rigid Pavements Under Ambient Curing Conditions
1 Introduction
2 Materials Used
2.1 Rice Husk Ash
2.2 Basalt Fibres
2.3 Alkaline Activators
2.4 Aggregates
3 Specimen Preparation and Testing
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusion
References
Use of Crushed Waste Glass (CWG) for Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete Production: A Review
1 Introduction
2 Properties of Glass
3 Problems Related to Land Filling of Glass
4 Crushed Waste Glass Used in Concrete Production
4.1 Dry Density
4.2 Workability of the Concrete
4.3 Compressive Strength
4.4 Tolerance for 7 Days
4.5 Tolerance for 28 Days
4.6 Tensile Strength
4.7 Flexural Strength
5 Summary and Conclusion
6 Future Scope
References
Seismic Evaluation of RC Structure with Distinct Placement of Columns and Shear Walls
1 Introduction
1.1 Methodology
2 Modeling and Analysis
2.1 Modeling
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Base Shear for Four Models
3.2 Base Shear Carried by Shear Wall
3.3 Natural Period for Four Models
3.4 Story Drift for Four Models
3.5 Story Displacement of Four Models
4 Conclusions
References
Study on Retrofitting Technique to Increase the Height of an Existing Building
1 Introduction
2 Requirement for Retrofitting of Structures
3 Causes of Failure of Structure
4 Mathematical Modeling
5 Conclusion
References
Sustainable Concrete with Substitute Materials: A Review
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
2.1 Materials Used as Partial Replacement of Cement
2.2 Alternative Eco-Friendly Admixtures
2.3 Materials Used as Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates
3 Conclusion
References
Theoretical Framework for Response Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Cased Explosive Charges
1 Introduction
2 Loading Characteristics
2.1 Blast Loading: Bare and Cased Explosive Charges
2.2 Fragment Loading: Cased Explosive Charges
3 Response Assessment: Flexural Members
4 Case Studies
4.1 Cased Explosive Charge: No Reduction
4.2 Cased Explosive Charge: With Reduction
4.3 Discussions
5 Conclusions
References
Development of Real-Time Monitoring System for Early Age Cementitious Materials
1 Introduction
2 Development of the Real-Time Monitoring System
3 Experimental Test
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusion
References
Bagasse Ash (ScBa) and Its Utilization in Concrete as Pozzolanic Material: A Review
1 Introduction
2 ScBa
2.1 Physical Properties (P.P.) and Chemical Properties (C.P.)
2.2 Effects of ScBa on the Fresh Properties (FP), Hardened Properties (HP), and D.B. Properties of Concrete
3 Material Characterizations
4 Conclusions
References
Seismic Analysis of Multistorey RC Building with Vertical Setback and Its Retrofit Strategies
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
3 Analysis
3.1 Modelling
3.2 Building Design Features
3.3 Type of Building Models and Its Features
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Base Shear Due to Fundamental and Program Calculated Time Period
4.2 Centre of Mass and Rigidity
4.3 Mode Shape Vibration
4.4 Storey Drift
4.5 Joint Displacement
4.6 Storey Stiffness
4.7 Torsional Irregularity Check Ratio
4.8 Retrofit Strategies
5 Conclusion
References
Seismic Torsion Behaviour and Rigidity Analysis of Multistory Plan Asymmetric RC Building
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
3 Analysis
3.1 Modelling
3.2 Model Types
3.3 Model Data
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Model Participating Mass Ratio
4.2 Time Period for the Modes of Vibration
4.3 Story Drift
4.4 Maximum Joint Displacement
4.5 Eccentricity
4.6 Torsional Irregularity
4.7 Base Shear
4.8 Storey Stiffness
4.9 First Vibration Mode Shape of Models
5 Conclusion
References
Analysis and Design of Diagrid Buildings
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
3 Analysis
4 Building Configuration
5 Results and Discussions
5.1 Internal Column Axial Force
5.2 Storey Stiffness
5.3 Base Shear and First Mode Time Period
5.4 Mass Participation Ratios
5.5 Concrete and Reinforcement Quantity
6 Conclusions
References
“A Review Paper on Seismic Vulnerability and Evaluation Methodology of Buildings”
1 Introduction
2 Review on Existing Vulnerability Methods
3 Theoretical Investigation
4 Conclusions
References
Modified Mass Damping Parameter for Better Prediction of Across Wind Response of Chimneys
1 Introduction
2 Background Information of the Suggested Method and MDP Parameter
3 Response Variation with MDP, { 22m2e 2ρD2 sqrt }—Application to Chimney Data
4 A Simple Procedure for Computing Across Wind Response, ( σy De ) for a New Given Chimney
5 Conclusions
References
A Novel Approach for Testing of Concrete Affected by Urea
1 Introduction
2 Literature Review
3 Rationale for the New Approach
4 Testing Methodology
5 Results and Discussion
5.1 Result from Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Testing
5.2 Result from Crack Width Measurement Using Travelling Microscope
6 Conclusion
References
A Review on Performance of Structure and Its Retrofitting Measures
1 Introduction
1.1 Seismic Analysis
2 Seismic Strengthening
2.1 Steps of Retrofitting
3 Retrofit Strategy and System
4 Material Used for Retrofitting
5 Selection of Retrofitting Method
5.1 The Following Retrofitting Method for Concrete Members Are Carried Out
5.2 Retrofitting as a Structural Body.
5.3 Foundation Retrofitting
5.4 Building Deficiencies in Case of RCC Structure.
6 Case Study
6.1 Methodology
6.2 Results Obtained from the Rapid Visual Screening
6.3 Data
6.4 Retrofitting of Columns: Details of the retrofitting of Columns for According to Different Condition at Different Story:
6.5 Retrofitting of Beams
6.6 Shear Walls
6.7 Retrofitting of Slabs
7 Conclusion
References
Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Using Sensors
1 Introduction
2 Methodology
2.1 Experimentation Materials and Model
2.2 Analysis of Truss Bridge
2.3 Experimentation
2.4 Procedure
3 Results and Discussions
3.1 First Damage Scenario
3.2 Second Damage Scenario
4 Conclusions
References
Shear Bond Strength of Brick Masonry
1 Introduction
2 Characteristics of Materials
2.1 Bricks
2.2 Mortar
3 Experiments on Triplet Specimens
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusions
References
Stability Analysis of Precast Concrete Wall Panels and Its Utility
1 Introduction
2 Stability Analysis of Precast Concrete Walls
2.1 Overturning check
2.2 Sliding check
2.3 Stress check
2.4 Ballast Load
3 Conclusions
References
The Decision-Making Criteria for Adaptive Reuse for Sustainable Development
1 Introduction
2 The Concept of Adaptive Reuse
2.1 Adaptive Reuse Methods
3 Challenges in Decision-Making Process
4 Review of Models for Adaptive Reuse Decision Making
4.1 Peter Bullen and Peter Love Decision Making Model
4.2 Mohamed and Alauddin Decision Criteria Model
5 Analysis and Discussion
6 Conclusion and Recommendation
References
Influence of Size and Depth on Load Capacities of Shallow Foundations Under Limiting Settlement Criteria
1 Introduction
2 Site Stratigraphy
3 Analytical Methodology
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Influence of Footing Depth on Foundation Settlement
4.2 Influence of Footing Depth on Depth of Influence Zone
4.3 Influence of Footing Depth on Maximum Vertical Load at Limiting Settlement
5 Conclusions
References
Investigation on Behaviour of Alternate Roofing System Using Arch Panels
1 Introduction
2 Materials and Methodology
3 Experimental Investigation
3.1 Workability Test
3.2 Compressive Strength Test
3.3 Split Tensile Test
3.4 Modulus of Elasticity Test
4 Analytical Investigation: Finite Element Analysis Using Abaqus CAE
5 Results and Discussions
5.1 Test Results of Basic Materials
5.2 Test Results of Concrete
5.3 Results of Numerical Analysis of Arch Panels in Abaqus
5.4 Behaviour of Full-Scale Arch Panel Roofing System
5.5 Cost and Energy Analysis of Arch Panel Roofing System and Conventional Roofing System
6 Conclusions
References
Analysis of Interlocking Block Masonry
1 Introduction
2 Manufacturing Process
2.1 Interlocking Blocks
2.2 Stabilized Earth Blocks
3 Materials Used
3.1 Stabilized Earth Blocks and Interlocking Blocks
3.2 Cement Mortar
4 Experimental Investigation
4.1 Interlocking and Stabilized Earth Blocks
4.2 Cement Mortar
4.3 Interlocking Block and SEB Prisms
5 Analytical Investigation
6 Results and Discussion
6.1 Results of Experimental Investigation
6.2 Results of Analytical Investigation
6.3 Cost and Material Estimation
7 Conclusion
References
Studies on Properties of Compressed Mud Blocks
1 Introduction
2 Materials and Their Properties
3 Details of Experimental Investigations
4 Results and Discussion
5 Conclusions
References
Effect of Grain Size on the Rheology of Fly Ash Slurry
1 Introduction
2 Rheological Experimental Setup
3 Properties and Range of Parameters Used in Experimentation
4 Result and Discussions
4.1 Effect of Solid Concentration on Slurry Rheology
5 Conclusions
References
Studies on Influence of Variation in Joint Thickness on Strength of Masonry with the Emphasis in Bond Characteristics
1 Introduction
2 Methodology and Materials
3 Experimental Investigations and Analytical Investigation
3.1 Experimental Investigations
3.2 Finite Element Method
3.3 Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) Model
3.4 Material Modeling
4 Results and Discussions
4.1 Results of Experimental Investigation.
4.2 Results of Numerical Investigations.
5 Conclusion
References
Experimental Analysis of Flow Value of Cement Mortar with Various Admixtures
1 Introduction
2 Materials and Methods
3 Results and Discussion
4 Conclusion
References
Assessment of Real House Price Using Machine Learning
1 Introduction
2 Literature Survey
3 Problem Definition
4 Experimental Result
5 Conclusion
References
Flexural Buckling of Concrete-Filled Aluminium Alloy CHS Columns: Numerical Modelling and Design
1 Introduction
2 Numerical Modelling
2.1 Modelling Assumptions
2.2 Model Validation
3 Parametric Study
4 Assessment of Strength Predictions
5 Conclusions
References
Numerical Study of Aluminium Alloy Square Hollow Section Columns
1 Introduction
2 Numerical Modelling
3 Parametric Study
4 Assessment of Eurocode Strength Predictions
5 Conclusions
References
Stability of a Structure Using Eurocodes
1 Introduction
1.1 Vertical Loads or Gravity Loads
1.2 Lateral Loads or Horizontal Loads
1.3 Overhang Deflection
2 Literature Review
3 Conclusions
References

Citation preview

Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering

Sanjay Kumar Shukla Sudharshan N. Raman Bishwajit Bhattacharjee J. Bhattacharjee   Editors

Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering Select Proceedings of TRACE 2020

Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering Volume 143

Series Editors Marco di Prisco, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy Sheng-Hong Chen, School of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China Ioannis Vayas, Institute of Steel Structures, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece Sanjay Kumar Shukla, School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia Anuj Sharma, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA Nagesh Kumar, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Chien Ming Wang, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering (LNCE) publishes the latest developments in Civil Engineering - quickly, informally and in top quality. Though original research reported in proceedings and post-proceedings represents the core of LNCE, edited volumes of exceptionally high quality and interest may also be considered for publication. Volumes published in LNCE embrace all aspects and subfields of, as well as new challenges in, Civil Engineering. Topics in the series include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Construction and Structural Mechanics Building Materials Concrete, Steel and Timber Structures Geotechnical Engineering Earthquake Engineering Coastal Engineering Ocean and Offshore Engineering; Ships and Floating Structures Hydraulics, Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering Environmental Engineering and Sustainability Structural Health and Monitoring Surveying and Geographical Information Systems Indoor Environments Transportation and Traffic Risk Analysis Safety and Security

To submit a proposal or request further information, please contact the appropriate Springer Editor: – Pierpaolo Riva at [email protected] (Europe and Americas); – Swati Meherishi at [email protected] (Asia - except China, and Australia, New Zealand); – Wayne Hu at [email protected] (China). All books in the series now indexed by Scopus and EI Compendex database!

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/15087

Sanjay Kumar Shukla · Sudharshan N. Raman · Bishwajit Bhattacharjee · J. Bhattacharjee Editors

Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering Select Proceedings of TRACE 2020

Editors Sanjay Kumar Shukla Edith Cowan University Joondalup, WA, Australia

Sudharshan N. Raman Monash University Malaysia Selangor, Malaysia

Bishwajit Bhattacharjee Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi New Delhi, Delhi, India

J. Bhattacharjee Department of Civil Engineering Amity University New Delhi, Delhi, India

ISSN 2366-2557 ISSN 2366-2565 (electronic) Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering ISBN 978-981-33-6968-9 ISBN 978-981-33-6969-6 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Preface

The present global objective in civil engineering is to meet the ever-growing demand to handle rising population, various energy–environmental concerns and safety of structures and inhabitants. The 3rd International Conference on “Trends and Recent Advancement in Civil Engineering” (TRACE) was hosted by the Department of Civil Engineering during 20 and 21 August 2020, at Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India. TRACE 2020 focused on advances and rapid evolution of various areas in civil engineering. The conference witnessed participation and presentation of research papers (topical reviews and original articles) from academia, industry experts and researchers from R&D centres from India and abroad. The conference proceedings was classified into three titles: • Advances in Geotechnical, Structural Engineering and Rehabilitation; • Advances in Energy and Built Environment; • Advances in Water Resources and Transportation Engineering. The title Advances in Geotechnical, Structural Engineering and Rehabilitation covers papers on contemporary geotechnical, structural engineering and repair/rehabilitation of structures technologies which includes the following: • Covers a wide range of research areas in structural engineering and geo-technical engineering, making it a useful reference resource for researchers, academicians and practising engineers; • Presents recent advances in structural engineering along with contributions from top experts in the field; • Includes articles on applications like structural health monitoring, vibration control, nanomaterials, machine learning and artificial intelligence.

v

vi

Preface

All papers have been selected for publication. It is believed that this collection will be useful to a fairly wide spectrum of audience like researchers, application engineers and industry managers. Joondalup, Australia Selangor, Malaysia New Delhi, India New Delhi, India

Dr. Sanjay Kumar Shukla Dr. Sudharshan N. Raman Dr. Bishwajit Bhattacharjee Dr. J. Bhattacharjee

Acknowledgements

This conference was organized to fulfil the vision of honourable Dr. Ashok K. Chauhan, Founder President of Ritnand Balved Education Foundation (RBEF), and under the able leadership of honourable Dr. Atul Chauhan, Chancellor, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India. I am honoured to organize this prestigious conference which connected the world’s foremost industries with topmost academia. I express my sincerest thanks to all the lead speakers and authors of original research papers for their contribution. I also express thanks to all the reviewers for their cooperation in the review process. I am happy to express my deep sense of gratitude to our publication sponsor Springer Nature India Pvt Ltd. for publishing the conference proceedings. I express my warm gratitude towards all our sponsors: Academic Partners: Liverpool John Moores University, UK, National University of Malaysia, Rowan University, USA; Industry Partner: Defence Infrastructure Planning and Management (DIPM) Council of India; Knowledge Partners: Institution of Civil Engineers, UK; Indian Association of Structural Engineers (IAStuctE); Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) India; Indian Geotechnical Society (IGS) and Indian Building Congress (IBC). Finally, I compliment my team members, mainly Dr. S. Varadharajan and Dr. Priyanka Singh, for their hard work and enthusiasm to make TRACE 2020 a grand success story. I am confident that TRACE 2020 will allow exciting and meaningful conversations, partnerships and collaborations in construction technology and infrastructure growth. Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India November 2020

Dr. J. Bhattacharjee Editor and Co-Chair, TRACE 2020

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Contents

Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance of Irregular Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zaid Mohammad, Mohd. Akif Razi, and Abdul Baqi Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition Waste Used in Rigid Pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prakhar Duggal, Anuj Bhardwaj, Dushyant Pratap Singh, Ajit Singh, Ishant Bajaj, and R. K. Tomar Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Tunneling-Induced Ground Settlement in Clayey Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Md. Rehan Sadique, Amjad Ali, Mohammad Zaid, and M. Masroor Alam

1

13

23

Blast-Resistant Stability Analysis of Triple Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mohammad Zaid and Irfan Ahmad Shah

35

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preeti Agarwal, P. Pal, and P. K. Mehta

43

Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost and Time Overruns in Construction Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shubham Sharma and Ashok Kumar Gupta Factors Influencing the Behavior of Rockfill Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uday Bhanu Chakraborty and N. P. Honkanadavar

55 65

Swelling Behavior of the Expansive Soil Prepared with Calcium Bentonite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Khurram Kirmani, Kausar Ali, and M. A. Khan

77

Assessment of Corrosion in Rebars by Impressed Current Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meenakshi Dixit and Ashok Kumar Gupta

89

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Evaluation of Dynamic Properties and Liquefaction Studies for Sandy Soil—A Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. P. Honkanadavar and Uday Banu Chakraborthy

99

Frequencies of Stiffened Lock Gate Coupled with Undisturbed Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Deepak Kumar Singh, P. Pal, and S. K. Duggal Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil Reinforced with Geofiber . . . . . . . 119 Tousif Ali, M. A. Khan, and Kausar Ali Alkali Activated Material Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Hiral Modha, Nerit Sharma, and Suryakant Singh Influence of Micropiles on the Bearing Capacity of a Layered Soil System—A Numerical Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Irfan Ahmad Shah, Mohammad Zaid, and Kausar Ali Comparative Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing with Varying Depth of Soil Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Gurjas Singh Pahuja, Prakhar Duggal, Lavish Siddiqui, Ujjwal Bhardwaj, Milan Thakur, and Hammad Ahmad A Review on Soil Remediation by Fenton Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Mohsin Anwer, Atif Husain, and Talha Zafar To Study the Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour of Hollow Core Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Masha Kundal, R. K. Tomar, Prakhar Duggal, Ananya Dhar, and Yuvraj Kochar Interaction of Transmission Tower Footing with Twin Rock Tunnel . . . . 189 Mohammad Zaid, Mohd. Faraz Athar, and Md. Rehan Sadique Fluid–Structure Idealization in Intze Tank under Seismic Loads . . . . . . . 199 M. Tabish, Zaid Mohammad, and Abdul Baqi A Review on Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) Toward Green and Circular Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Christian Balemba, Brenda Mirenge, Dani Konde, Nabil Hossiney, Srinidhi Lakshmish Kumar, and K. Sarath Chandra Experimental Study on the Effects of Nanomaterials in Clayey Soil of Aligarh City of Northern India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Jibran Qadri, M. A. Khan, Mohammad Zaid, and Sharique Ahmad Analysis of Effect of Anti-slide Pile on Stability of Slopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Rashid Shams and Athar Hussain Performance Evaluation of Base Isolated Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Ahmed Bilal, Pankaj Agarwal, and Md. Rehan Sadique

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An Experimental Study on Effect of Partial Replacement of Rubber Tyres Dust as Fine Aggregates on Compressive Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Athar Hussian, Devesh Mawai, Rashid Shams, Saurabh Kumar, and Inder Kumar Yadav Benchmarking Civil Engineering Education in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Bansal Sunita and Anjali Gupta Effective Utilization of Fly Ash and Steel Slag for Partial Replacement of Cement and River Sand for Sustainable Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Vibha N. Dalawai, Lakshmi Srikanth, Ishwarya Srikanth, and Madasamy Arockiasamy Dynamic Behavior of Base Isolated Howe Bridges-Seismic Resistant . . . 293 G. Sridevi, B. Umesh, G. Sudarshan, and A. Shivaraj Comparative Study on Behavior of Structures Subjected to Seismic and Blast Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 G. Sridevi, G. Sudarshan, A. Shivaraj, and B. Umesh A Mathematical Correlation of Compressive Strength Among Silica, Alumina and Calcia Present in Composite Red Mud and Iron Ore Tailingbricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 M. Beulah, Pranab Das, G. Gayathri, M. R. Sudhir, K. Sarath Chandra, and P. Sasha Rai Investigation on the Impact Behavior of Concrete Panels Subjected to Drop Weight Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Partheepan Ganesan, S. Purushotham Rao, and Vineela Jalagadugula Stability of Slab on Elastic Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 J. Bhattacharjee and Anas Mubin Rice Husk Ash and Basalt Fibre-Based Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete in Rigid Pavements. A Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Mahapara Abbass and Gyanendra Singh Comparative Seismic Analysis Between Elevated Circular Water Tanks Using Equivalent Static Method and Response Spectrum Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Abhishek Dixit Rice Husk Ash and Basalt Fibre-Based Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete in Rigid Pavements Under Ambient Curing Conditions . . . . . . 385 Mahapara Abbass and Gyanendra Singh

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Use of Crushed Waste Glass (CWG) for Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete Production: A Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Akash Johari and Kedar Sharma Seismic Evaluation of RC Structure with Distinct Placement of Columns and Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 J. Bhattacharjee and Vivek Kumar Study on Retrofitting Technique to Increase the Height of an Existing Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 J. Bhattacharjee and Nidhi Singh Sustainable Concrete with Substitute Materials: A Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Priya Pahil, Sunita Bansal, and Anjali Gupta Theoretical Framework for Response Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Cased Explosive Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Abhiroop Goswami and Satadru Das Adhikary Development of Real-Time Monitoring System for Early Age Cementitious Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Shemin T. John, Merin Susan Philip, Aman Singhal, Pradip Sarkar, and Robin Davis Bagasse Ash (ScBa) and Its Utilization in Concrete as Pozzolanic Material: A Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Pooja Jha, A. K. Sachan, and R. P. Singh Seismic Analysis of Multistorey RC Building with Vertical Setback and Its Retrofit Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Abin Jose and Nilesh B. Mishra Seismic Torsion Behaviour and Rigidity Analysis of Multistory Plan Asymmetric RC Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Dinesh Rawat and Nilesh B. Mishra Analysis and Design of Diagrid Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 Neha Chandra and Nilesh B. Mishra “A Review Paper on Seismic Vulnerability and Evaluation Methodology of Buildings” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 Siddharth and A. K. Sinha Modified Mass Damping Parameter for Better Prediction of Across Wind Response of Chimneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 S. Arunachalam A Novel Approach for Testing of Concrete Affected by Urea . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Ravindra Kumar Goliya and Nitin Kumar Samaiya

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A Review on Performance of Structure and Its Retrofitting Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 J. Bhattacharjee and Pankaj Goyal Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Using Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 C. L. Mahesh Kumar, K. G. Shwetha, and N. Aravind Raj Shear Bond Strength of Brick Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 K. Madhavi, M. V. Renuka Devi, K. S. Jagadish, and S. M. Basutkar Stability Analysis of Precast Concrete Wall Panels and Its Utility . . . . . . 591 J. Bhattacharjee and Aiman Ather The Decision-Making Criteria for Adaptive Reuse for Sustainable Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Deepak Tulsiram Patil, Anushree Patil, and Jayashree Patil Influence of Size and Depth on Load Capacities of Shallow Foundations Under Limiting Settlement Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609 Sanjana Sajeev, Tanisha Shetty, Mir Basith Ali, Ramesh Vandanapu, and Vidya Mohanan Investigation on Behaviour of Alternate Roofing System Using Arch Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 H. M. Pooran, M. V. Renuka Devi, and S. M. Basutkar Analysis of Interlocking Block Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 Y. N. Vinay, K. Srinivas, M. V. Renuka Devi, and S. M. Basutkar Studies on Properties of Compressed Mud Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 M. Vinayak, M. Nitish, H. M. Siddarth Gowda, S. M. Basutkar, K. Madhavi, and M. V. Renuka Devi Effect of Grain Size on the Rheology of Fly Ash Slurry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659 Navneet Kumar, Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Desh Bandhu Singh, Anuj Kumar Sharma, and Sanjeev Kumar Sharma Studies on Influence of Variation in Joint Thickness on Strength of Masonry with the Emphasis in Bond Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 L. Govardhan, S. M. Basutkar, K. Madhavi, and M. V. Renuka Devi Experimental Analysis of Flow Value of Cement Mortar with Various Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 Mohan Kantharia and Pankaj Kumar Mishra Assessment of Real House Price Using Machine Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Shiv Shankar Prasad Shukla, Samir Kumar Pandey, Ujjwal Bharadwaj, and Anil Kumar Yadav

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Flexural Buckling of Concrete-Filled Aluminium Alloy CHS Columns: Numerical Modelling and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 Evangelia Georgantzia and Michaela Gkantou Numerical Study of Aluminium Alloy Square Hollow Section Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709 Michaela Gkantou Stability of a Structure Using Eurocodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 J. Bhattacharjee and Rabia Rafiq

About the Editors

Dr. Sanjay Kumar Shukla is Founding Research Group Leader (Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering) at the School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia. He is Founding Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering. He holds the Distinguished Professorship in Civil Engineering at Delhi Technological University, Delhi, VIT University, Vellore, Amity University, Noida, Chitkara University, Himachal Pradesh, and V. R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, India. He graduated in Civil Engineering from BIT Sindri, India, and earned his M.Tech. in Civil (Engineering Geology) Engineering and Ph.D. in Civil (Geotechnical) Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur, India. His primary areas of research interest include geosynthetics and fibres for sustainable developments, ground improvement techniques, utilization of wastes in construction, earth pressure and slope stability, environmental, mining and pavement geotechnics, and soil–structure interaction. He is an author/Editor of 16 books, including 7 textbooks, and more than 260 research papers, including 160 refereed journal papers. He has been honoured with several awards, including IGS Award 2018 by the International Geosynthetics Society, USA, in recognition of outstanding contribution to the development and use of geosynthetics. He is Fellow of Engineers Australia, Institution of Engineers (India), and Indian Geotechnical Society, and Member of American Society of Civil Engineers, International Geosynthetics Society, and several other professional bodies. Dr. Sudharshan N. Raman is Associate Professor in the School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia. He obtained his Ph.D. with a focus in structural engineering and infrastructure protective technologies from The University of Melbourne, Australia. Dr. Raman is Past President of the Malaysian Chapter of the American Concrete Institute (Malaysia Chapter—ACI); Fellow of the Chartered Association of Building Engineers (CABE), UK; Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE); Member of American Concrete Institute (ACI); and Committee Member of the Civil and Structural Engineering Technical Division of The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM). Over the years, he has built his reputation as an active researcher in concrete structures and materials, and infrastructure protective technologies. Dr. Raman has published extensively in the areas of cement and concrete xv

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About the Editors

engineering, and structural resilience; has served as reviewer for prestigious journals in civil and structural engineering, and built environment; and currently sits in the editorial boards of three international journals. Prior to joining the academia, he was in employment with an engineering design consultant, and a specialist prestressed concrete contractor. Dr. Bishwajit Bhattacharjee is Emeritus Professor at the Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi. He obtained B.Tech. (Hons.) degree from IIT Kharagpur, M.Tech. and Ph.D. degrees from IIT Delhi. He worked for M/s Gammon India for two years after B.Tech. He is Nominated Fellow of Indian Association of Structural Engineers and Member of several professional bodies such as ICI. He was involved with academic activities with several international institutions, namely EPFL Switzerland, University of Dundee UK, University of Dresden Germany, and Catholic University at Leuven, Belgium. He is involved with industry as a consultant also in training. Dr. Bhattacharjee has supervised 162 M.Tech. and 26 Ph.D. theses till date and currently guiding 7 ongoing Ph.D. research projects. He has published more than 150 papers in journals and conferences. He is active in several national committees involving DST, CBRI, NCCBM, Dr. Fixit Laboratory, BIS, etc. A bio-sketch of Prof. Bhattacharjee titled “A Teacher and a Research worker” under the feature “People” is available in August 2012 issue of ICJ and also under the title “Gems of Structural Engineering” in SEFI. A recipient of ICI lifetime achievement award (North) 2012, he acted as Member of the editorial board of Magazine of Concrete Research and International Journal of 3R’s. He is Guest Editor of ICJ January 2015 issue on “Concrete Research” and also in 2019. Dr. J. Bhattacharjee is Former Chief Engineer and Jt. Director General (Ministry of Defence/MES) and Professor in Amity University, Noida, since January 2012. He obtained his B.E. (Civil) degree from B.E. College, Shibpur, Calcutta; M.Tech. (Structure) from IIT Madras and had M.Phil. degree from Madras University. He got Ph.D. degree in Disaster Management from Shri Venkateswara University, Uttar Pradesh. He has vast experience of over 49 years in the industry in planning, designing and execution of various types of Civil Engineering works. He has presented/published technical papers more than 135 numbers so far on various subjects in national/international seminars/conferences and journals. He is Life Member of 17 (seventeen) Technical Bodies in India/abroad and is Governing Council Member of Indian Building Congress (IBC). He has received two prestigious “Awards for Excellence” from Indian Building Congress (IBC) for two prestigious Projects of Consultancy jobs. He received “CIDC Vishwakarma awards” for best professionally managed company for two years in 2009 and 2010 on behalf of the company. He was considered as a Rehabilitation expert in the Department. He has developed and is teaching number of new courses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, while serving in the Department of Civil Engineering at Amity University. He has written a Book on Concrete Structures- Repair, Rehabilitation & Retrofitting, which was published by CBS publishers on August 16. He is the recipient of CIDC Viswakarma Awards 2017 in the category of “Achievement for Academician”.

Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance of Irregular Buildings Zaid Mohammad, Mohd. Akif Razi, and Abdul Baqi

1 Introduction Infrastructural development has considerably increased the population growth in the hilly regions. Since there is a dearth of plain ground in hilly regions, the construction is restricted to be carried out on hill slopes. The buildings constructed on hill slopes show different structural response when subjected to seismic forces as compared to that resting on the levelled ground. Stepback configuration is generally preferred for the buildings to be built on the steep slopes; however, a setback-stepback configuration may also be considered. Buildings resting on hill slopes have unsymmetrical structural configuration due to which the centre of mass and centre of stiffness vary along various floors and impart twisting moment in structural members, in addition to the lateral loads, when subjected to seismic forces. Further, there is a problem of short column effect in hill buildings, since they have columns of varying lengths at same storey level. The shorter column on the uphill side has higher stiffness and attracts more lateral forces as compared to that of the column on downhill side. Hence, it is more vulnerable to damage under earthquake loads. Previous studies show that infill panels significantly affect the seismic behaviour of hill buildings. The presence of masonry infills, usually used as partition walls and exterior coverings, increases the lateral stiffness and strength of the structure considerably under seismic loading. On the contrary, it produces torsional effects due to irregular distribution at same storey, soft storey effect due to differential stiffness and short column effect due to partial infills. Z. Mohammad (B) · Mohd. A. Razi · A. Baqi Department of Civil Engineering, ZHCET, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India e-mail: [email protected] Mohd. A. Razi e-mail: [email protected] A. Baqi e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 S. Kumar Shukla et al. (eds.), Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 143, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6_1

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Z. Mohammad et al.

In the last few decades, many studies have been performed on the seismic behaviour of hill buildings and frame-masonry interaction. The complexity in mathematical modelling formulation and analysis of RC frames with URM infills subjected to lateral loads was addressed. Kumar and Paul [1] presented seismic analysis of stepback and setback buildings on hill slopes with infill panels. The study presented transformation of element stiffness values about a reference axis, and the obtained results were compared with the Indian Standard Code 1893 (1984). Mohammad et al. [2] investigated the behaviour of hill buildings of varying configurations under seismic load conditions and observed that setback-stepback configurations showed better resistance than the stepback building configuration under earthquake loads. Birajdar and Nalawade [3] focused on seismic analysis of buildings with various configurations and suggested that stepback building is more vulnerable to seismic excitation than other configuration of buildings. Kadid and Boumrkik [4] evaluated the performance of RC frames using pushover analysis and suggested that properly designed frames enhance seismic performance. Kaushik et al. [5] conducted a comparative study by considering different analytical models for masonry infills and found that single equivalent strut model can be used at soft storeys to account the lateral stiffness of infills. Davis et al. [6] performed various seismic analysis approaches on two different buildings with horizontal as well as vertical irregular geometry and observed that shear demand in soft storeys was considerably increased after stiffness of infills was taken into account. Murthy and Jain [7] carried out a study on the seismic response of RC framed buildings including infills and found that masonry panels impart increase in lateral stiffness and energy absorption capacity of the building. Mohammad et al. [8] investigated the influence of masonry infills on hill buildings and stated that the modelling of masonry infills should be included in the structural design procedure as the infills impart lateral stiffness to overall RC frame, and in result, enhance the energy dissipation capacity of building produced to seismic vibrations. However, the study was limited to response spectrum analysis only. The studies carried out so far emphasized on the structural behaviour of hill buildings and frame-infill interaction in normal buildings constructed on plain ground. But very few studies have been conducted on the behaviour of masonry infills in hill buildings under earthquake loads. IS 1893 (Part 1) has recommended to carry out three-dimensional dynamic analysis for the buildings with geometrical, mass and stiffness irregularity to ascertain the true response of buildings subjected to lateral loads [9]. The code also recommends to analyse infill panels as structural member in the analysis and should be modelled as an equivalent diagonal strut in structural design of RC frames. Also, the inelastic behaviour of hill buildings should be analysed in order to get the true response of structure.

Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance …

3

2 Materials and Methods The present study investigates the structural response of two different types of buildings resting on an inclined terrain, viz. stepback and setback-stepback, under seismic loads. Effect of masonry infills on the seismic behaviour of the considered configurations has been analysed. Response spectrum analysis and nonlinear static pushover analysis were employed to ascertain the seismic response of building configurations. The obtained seismic parameters from the analyses were compared as variation in the values of fundamental time period, lateral drift, and lateral shear at foundation level in along as well as across hill slope direction. The elasticity modulus and Poisson’s ratio of concrete material were taken as 25,000 N/mm2 and 0.2, respectively. The concrete mix and reinforcement steel were assumed as M25 and Fe500, respectively. For seismic analysis, rigid frame diaphragm is considered in floor systems, and support conditions are assumed to be fixed at foundation level. Due to accidental eccentricity, the torsional effects are considered in the analysis in accordance with IS 1893 (Part 1): 2016. For nonlinear analysis, plastic hinges were allocated at the ends of all the frame elements in all the models. The load application is considered to be displacement control in pushover analysis. When the load was incrementally increased, structure members may start to yield and lead to failure eventually. The members experience change in stiffness sequentially and demonstrate various stages as shown in Fig. 1, viz. immediate occupancy, life safety and collapse prevention levels.

2.1 Building Configuration Four different models of stepback and setback-stepback building configurations with and without URM infills were analysed. The length of each bay along and across the slope in all the models was taken as 7 m and 5 m, respectively (Fig. 2). The slope of ground is assumed to be 27° with the horizontal. The load due to URM infills was considered at periphery of the building in case of bare frames. The various parameters considered in the analysis of different building configurations are mentioned in Table 1. Fig. 1 Force versus deformation curve for plastic hinge at different stages

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(a) Stepback Building

(b) Setback-Stepback Building

Fig. 2 Finite element models of different hill building configurations

Table 1 Parameters considered in different building configurations [3]

Geometric parameters

Seismic parameters

Thickness of slab = 0.150 m

Zone = V

Height of each storey = 3.5 m

I = 1.5

Depth of foundation = 1.75 m

R=5

Column size = 0.23 m × 0.50 m

Soil condition = II (i.e. medium)

Beam size = 0.23 m × 0.50 m

Live load = 3 kN/m2

2.2 Modelling of URM Infills In RC framed buildings, the influence of infill panels on the lateral stiffness of the buildings under seismic loads could be represented by modelling the infills as a diagonal strut as shown in Fig. 3. In the present study, these diagonal struts are modelled as diagonal truss elements allowing only three degrees of freedom (translational) per node at each end of the element so that only axial forces were able to transfer in the Fig. 3 Equivalent diagonal strut formulation [9]

Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance …

5

Table 2 Width of masonry strut Direction

H (m)

L ds (m)

E f (GPa)

E m (GPa)

Column size (mm)

t (m)

αh

wds (m)

Across slope

3.0

6.1

25

13.8

230 × 500

0.23

3.91

0.62

Along slope

3.0

7.8

25

13.8

230 × 500

0.23

2.55

0.95

strut (Fig. 4). The width and material properties of diagonal struts were kept similar to masonry infill panels. The width of struts has been calculated as per IS 1893 (Part 1): 2016 (see Table 2). L ds wds = 0.175 ∝−0.4 h

(1)

where  ∝h = h

4

E m t sin 2θ 4E f Ic h

 (2)

where wds = width of strut; L ds = length of strut; E m = Young’s modulus of masonry panel; E f = Young’s modulus of RC beams and columns; t = thickness of masonry panel; θ = angle of strut with horizontal; I c = moment of inertia of adjoining column; h = clear height of panel. The values of different parameters taken for calculating width of the struts in along and across the slope directions are mentioned in Table 2, and the material properties for masonry were assumed as given by Agarwal and Shrikhande [10] and approximated as per IS 1905. The value of Young’s modulus of masonry was assumed as 13,800 N/mm2 , and Poisson’s ratio was taken to be 0.16.

3 Results and Discussion The two different building configurations with and without masonry infills were analysed for seismic loads with an effect of accidental eccentricity in accordance with the codal provisions. In all the models, the seismic force was applied independently in both the directions, i.e. along and across the hill slope. The results obtained from the analysis have been discussed in terms of fundamental time period, maximum top storey displacement, base shear at foundation level and plastic hinge formation pattern, and compared within the considered configurations. The dynamic properties obtained from the analysis of bare frames and frames with masonry infills modelled as equivalent diagonal strut along hill slope direction are shown in Table 3. As the masonry infills were incorporated in hill buildings, the values of time period and top storey displacement in stepback configurations were found to

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Z. Mohammad et al.

Bare Frame

URM Infills

Fig. 4 Different building configurations with and without URM infills

be reduced by about 25% and 28% in along and across slope directions, respectively, whereas, in case of setback-stepback configuration, these values were drastically reduced by about 46% and 75% in both along and across hill slope directions. In stepback configuration, the values of top storey displacement were found to be reduced to 1/8th in models with masonry infills. Whereas, in setback-stepback models with masonry infills, it was reduced to 1/10th due to the geometry of structure and less seismic weight compared with stepback buildings. In all the hill buildings, a reduction in the base shear on the uphill side (Frame ‘E’) was observed in along slope direction and found to be about 11.5% in stepback models and 53.2% in setback-stepback models, respectively (Figs. 5 and 6). However, the base shear value increased significantly in both the configurations in along and across slope directions. In stepback building, base shear was found to be 47.4% and 60.1% higher, whereas in case of Setback-stepback building, the value of base shear was increased by 47% and 57.5% in along and across slope directions, respectively. It was also observed that due to inclusion of masonry infills, there was an increase in the shear demand in columns especially at the lower storeys in both the directions. This was due to the presence of foundations at that levels, which were experiencing higher base shear due to attraction of large forces by infills. The maximum value of storey shear was found to be 5515.347 kN in along slope direction and 4725.619 kN in across slope direction in stepback building configuration (Table 3).

Setback-Stepback

Stepback

Building Ttype

0.403

0.297

URM infills

0.310

URM infills

Bare frame

0.416

Bare frame

0.486

0.636

0.516

0.718

0.294

0.360

0.310

0.382

Along

Along

Across

FTP by IS 1893 (s)

FTP by RSA (s)

Table 3 Seismic response of different building configurations

0.486

0.636

0.516

0.718

Across

3.676

13.175

9.008

14.142

Along

Maximum top storey displacement (mm)

10.497

42.610

25.992

48.421

Across

3530.8

1872.3

3822.3

2012.5

Along

Base shear (kN)

3530.8

1500.9

3822.3

1525.6

Across

Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance … 7

8

Z. Mohammad et al. Along Slope

Across Slope

URM Infills

Bare Frame

0

11.6

100

408.7

200

0

259.2

263.3

152.5

300 100

Frame A Frame B Frame C Frame D Frame E

232.8

400

258.0

500

89.9

200

600

24.6

158.4

300

700

298.7

400

419.4

305.9

309.0

500

344.6

405.0

600

800

Shear Force (kN)

700

13.3

Shear Force (kN)

800

URM Infills

900 633.5

716.2

900

26.8

Bare Frame

Frame A Frame B Frame C Frame D Frame E

Fig. 5 Shear force distribution in columns at foundation level in stepback building

Across Slope

Along Slope URM Infills

236.5 177.3

100 50

129.7

112.4

105.8

91.3

150

77.9

200 115.0

288.1

185.2

250

24.0

100

147.0

200

11.4

138.1

300

139.9

400

190.4

320.9

500

Shear Force (kN)

616.2

600

13.1

Shear Force (kN)

700

URM Infills

300

800

25.7

Bare Frame

Bare Frame

0

0 Frame A Frame B Frame C Frame D Frame E

Frame A Frame B Frame C Frame D Frame E

Fig. 6 Shear force distribution in columns at foundation level in setback-stepback

All the analytical models were then analysed by performing the nonlinear static pushover analysis after designing the reinforced concrete frame for assessing the seismic response of structure. The plastic hinge formation pattern in different hill building configurations with and without URM infills has been obtained. The observed hinge patterns are shown in Figs. 7 and 8. Points viz. A, B, C, D and E represent the force deformation behaviour of plastic hinge. In bare frame models, it was found that the maximum damage occurred in the top storeys where plastic hinges were first developed in beams and then in columns in both the configurations in along slope direction. Whereas, in case of frames with masonry infills, plastic hinges were developed only in short columns and beams adjacent to short columns.

Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance …

9

Bare Frame

URM Infills

Step 1

Step 2

(a) Along slope direction

Bare Frame

URM Infills

Step 1

Step 2

(b) Across slope (Downhill side) Bare Frame

URM Infills Step 1

Step 2

(c) Across slope (Uphill side)

Fig. 7 Plastic hinge formation pattern in stepback building

4 Conclusion In this study, seismic behaviour of two different hill building configurations with and without URM infills was analysed, and it was concluded that the URM infills entirely change the seismic response of a building, and thus, it is important to incorporate these elements in the analysis and design of the building structure. Also, infills not only provide bracing effect in the structure, but also attract large shear forces due to their high in-plane lateral stiffness and increase storey shear by increasing shear

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Bare Frame

URM Infills

Step 1

Step 2

(a) Along slope

Bare Frame

URM Infills

Step 1

Step 2

(b) Across slope (Downhill side)

Bare Frame

URM Infills Step 1

Step 2

(c) Across slope (Uphill side)

Fig. 8 Plastic hinge formation pattern in setback-stepback building

demand in the surrounding frame elements of the structure. The plastic hinge formation in the considered building configurations suggests that the maximum damage occurred in the top storeys of bare frame model, where plastic hinges were first developed in beams and then in columns in both the configurations in along slope direction. On the other hand, building frames with masonry infills showed plastic hinge formation in short columns and beams adjacent to short columns, hence showing the increased strength demand. Also, on the basis of obtained results, it could be

Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance …

11

suggested that setback-stepback buildings perform better than stepback buildings under seismic loads, since the former showed less base shear as compared with the later configuration.

References 1. Kumar S, Paul, DK (1998) A simplified method for elastic seismic analysis. J Earthquake Eng 2:241–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469809350321 2. Mohammad Z, Baqi A, Arif M (2017) Seismic response of RC framed buildings resting on hill slopes. In: 11th international symposium on plasticity and impact mechanics (IMPLAST 2016). Proc Eng 173:1792–1799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.12.221 3. Birajdar BG, Nalawade SS (2004) Seismic analysis of buildings resting on sloping ground. In: 13th world conference on earthquake engineering (13WCEE). Paper no. 1472, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. https://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/13_1472.pdf 4. Kadid A, Boumrkik A (2008) Pushover analysis of reinforced concrete frame structures. Asian J Civil Eng (Build Housing):75–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-013-0179-8 5. Kaushik HB, Rai DC, Jain SK (2008) A rational approach to analytical modelling of masonry infills in reinforced concrete frame buildings. In: 14th world conference on earthquake engineering (14WCEE). Corpus ID: 165155308, Beijing, China. https://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/ article/14_05-01-0317.PDF 6. Davis R, Krishnan P, Menon D, Prasad AM Effect of infill stiffness on seismic performance of multi-storey RC framed buildings in India. In: 13th world conference on earthquake engineering (13WCEE). Paper no. 1198, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. https://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/art icle/13_1198.pdf 7. Murty CVR, Jain SK (2000) Beneficial influence of masonry infill walls on seismic performance of RC frame buildings. In: 12th world conference on earthquake engineering (12WCEE). Paper no. 1790, Auckland, New Zealand. https://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/1790.pdf 8. Mohammad Z (2019) Effect of unreinforced masonry infills on seismic performance of hill buildings. VW Appl Sci 1(1):37–47. https://doi.org/10.36297/vw.applsci.v1i1.29 9. IS 1893 (Part 1) (2016) Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures. BIS, New Delhi 10. Agarwal P, Shrikhande M (2006) Earthquake resistant design of structures, (Ninth reprint, Aug 2011) ed., Prenctice Hall India (PHI)

Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition Waste Used in Rigid Pavements Prakhar Duggal, Anuj Bhardwaj, Dushyant Pratap Singh, Ajit Singh, Ishant Bajaj, and R. K. Tomar

1 Introduction The main idea of using construction and demolition waste is reducing the use of natural materials and proper use of C&D waste by replacing coarse aggregates and fine aggregates. C&D waste leads to many problems if not used properly. It occupies large land for its land disposal. Out of total C&D waste, 30–40% is only concrete [1]. This concrete can be separated by the other waste and recycled for using in future construction works. 1. 2. 3.

In 2010, amount of construction demolition waste produced was 10–12 million tonnes [2]. According to central board of pollution control in 2011 was 12 million tonnes and in 2017 was 25–30 million tonnes [2]. According to the building materials and technology promotion council centre for fly ash research management from 2005 to 2013 was 165–175 million tonnes [2].

Figure 1 shows the solid waste generated tonnes/day in different cities of India. As we can see that the waste generated daily is in very large quantity and if not used properly can lead to many problems related to the environment.

1.1 Pavements Pavement can be defined as the superimposed layer of the road made of selected and processed material which has a function to distribute the load downwards. The P. Duggal (B) · A. Bhardwaj · D. P. Singh · A. Singh · I. Bajaj · R. K. Tomar Department of Civil Engineering, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, U.P., India e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 S. Kumar Shukla et al. (eds.), Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 143, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6_2

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P. Duggal et al.

Waste generated in different cities (tonnes/day) 40000 30000 20000 10000 0

Delhi

Bhopal

Mumbai

Pune

Bengaluru Ahmedabad

Waste generated in different ci es ( tonnes/day)

Fig. 1 Waste generated in different cities

Fig. 2 Different road layers

Load

Hot mix asphalt surface course Hot mix asphalt base course Dense graded aggregate sub base course Stable subgrade

construction of road is based on the multilayer distribution system that distributes the load applied by the vehicles (Fig. 2). A.

Types of pavement 1.

2.

B.

Flexible pavements: This type the pavement has very low or negligible flexural strength and is flexible in structure under loading action. Flexible pavement is made by the mixture asphalt or bituminous material and aggregates. Bitumen acts as a binding material and is flexible in nature. Mechanism of load distribution occurs in flexible pavements. Rigid pavements: This type of pavement has flexural strength or rigidity and has high modulus of elasticity. It is generally made of Portland cement concrete. The concrete pavements are generally expected to resist the load up to 45 kg/cm2 of flexural strength. The design of the rigid pavements is based on the resistance of cement concrete slab to the load acting on it.

Components of Rigid pavement 1.

Subgrade: This is the lowest layer which is supporting all other layers and the traffic loads. If the subgrade settles down or it yields due to inadequate compaction due to the vehicle load applied, different failures can be observed in rigid pavements [3] (Fig. 3).

Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition … Fig. 3 Rigid pavements components

15

Shoulder P.Q.C Slab Dry lean concrete Sub-Base Drainage layer Sub grade

2.

3.

4.

C.

Advantages of Rigid pavement 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

D.

Granular base: It is made up of crushed aggregates. This layer is constructed below the rigid pavement to give a stabilized platform to the upper layers. It transfers the load in the downward to the layers below. Granular base also avoids the retaining of water and further avoid the deformation due to moisture [3]. Granular sub-base: It has to serve as an effective drainage layer of the pavements structure. This adequate drainage in rigid pavement prevents early failure due to the excessive moisture content present in the subgrade [3]. Concrete slab (pavement): This layer comes in the direct contact with the vehicle tires. It is made up of concrete and prevents water infiltration that further avoids deformation caused due to moisture. Thickness of this layer is 150-300 mm [3].

Rigid pavement has better design period 40–50 years It is economical, i.e. has less initial and maintenance cost than flexible pavement Minimum maintenance results in less traffic disruption and better traffic flow It can also be constructed if the conditions if the subgrade are not good Quality of ride does not deteriorate with time It saves fuel than that of flexible pavement Pavement thickness is less than that of flexible pavement.

Advantages of C&D Waste 1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

The use of construction and demolition waste reduces overall project cost as the extra purchases can be avoided. If it is used on-site, then it reduces transportation cost. It also reduces the use of disposal facilities and further reduces environmental issues. It reduces environmental impact which is caused due to the production of new materials. Use of waste also conserves the landfill spaces. It provides employment for the process of recycling of the construction and demolition waste.

16

P. Duggal et al.

Fig. 4 Graphical representation of C&D waste composition

COMPOSTION OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE % other 16%

Rubble 24%

Metal 8%

Wood 30% PlasƟc 3%

Building material 19%

1.2 Construction and Demolition Waste Composition Figure 4 shows the graphical representation of the composition of construction and demolition waste [4]. It is shown that construction and demolition waste contain building water (19%), metal (8%), plastic (3%), wood (30%) rubble (24%) and other (16%). The waste contains concrete in 30–40% that can be further recycled and used for the future construction work. This waste can also be used in construction of rigid pavements by replacing the natural aggregates by the construction and demolition concrete waste. This is further experimentally identified further in this paper.

2 Methodology Tests were performed on natural aggregates, recycled aggregates and cement, and then, five mixes were formed. M40 mix design was made. In mix-1, 100% normal aggregates were used. In mix-2, 85% natural aggregate and 15% recycled aggregates were used. In mix-3, 70% natural aggregate and 30% recycled aggregates were used. In mix-4, 55% natural aggregates and 45% recycled aggregates were used. In mix-5, 40% natural aggregates and 60% recycled aggregates were used. Then after 28 days, all the mixes were tested for compressive strength, and mix with strength more than target strength was considered. A.

Test on aggregates 1.

Crushing value test: This test was performed to measure the resistance to crushing due to compressive load applied on the aggregates [5]. In this test, the sample is placed in three layers in a cylinder by tamping each layer. Then, the cylinder is placed in testing machine, and load is applied for 10 min and then released. Weight of material passing through 2.36 mm sieve is weighted.

Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition …

2.

3.

4.

B.

Impact value test: This test was performed to find the resistance to sudden impact of load applied on the aggregates [5]. In this test, the aggregate sample is placed in a cylinder, and 25 sudden impacts are given on each layer of aggregates placed in cylinder, and total three layers are tamped and filled until it is full. Water absorption test: It is the test performed to determine the percentage of water absorption of the aggregates. The aggregates are soaked in water for 24 h and then oven dried weight, wet weight and submerged weight is taken into consideration [5]. Specific gravity: It is defined as the ratio of weight of aggregates to the weight equal volume of water. In this test, the weighted aggregates are placed in wire mesh bucket. Then, the bucket is placed in water and weighted after 24 h. The weight of submerged bucket with aggregate is also noted. This property helps in mix design formation and for preparation of workable mix [5].

Test on Cement 1.

2.

3.

C.

17

Fineness test: This test determines the size of cement particles and directly effects the heat of hydration [6]. In this test, different size of sieves are used, and a sample is passed through these sieves to obtain the final cement particles passed through all the sieves which was observed 8%. Normal consistency test: This sample is made of cement and water, and the vicat plunger is penetrated through the mix. This test is conducted to determine the optimum amount of water required for particular weight of cement [6]. In this test, a cement–water paste is made with weighted quantity of water and cement. This was observed 28%. Specific gravity: It is ratio of the weight of the volume of cement to the weight of the volume of equal water. This helps to determine the mass of cement for concrete [6]. This was observed 3.15.

Mix Design Step 1

Determination of target strength Ftarget = Fck + (1.65 × S) = 40 + 1.655 = 48.26

where S F target

Standard deviation (as per Table 8, page 23 IS: 456) is target strength.

Step 2

Selection of the water and cement ratio As per Table-5 (Based on exposure and type of cement), page 20 IS: 456

18

P. Duggal et al.

Table 1 Correction in water content Parameters

Values as per the standard reference condition

Value as per the present problem

Correction in water content

Slump value

25–50 mm

50–15

+3

Shape of aggregate

Angular

Angular



For mild exposure condition, it is taken as 0.55 = 0.5 Water/Cement ratio = 0.5 Step 3

Calculation of Water Content Maximum water content = 186 kg (for nominal max size of aggregate-20 mm) Estimated water correction = 186 + (3/100)186 = 191.6 kg/m3 As per IS: 456, 8.2.4.2 Page. 19. Maximum water content = 450 kg/m3 (Table 1).

Step 4

Selection of cement content W/C ratio = 0.5 Water content = 191.6 kg/m3 Cement content = 191.6/0.5 = 383.2 kg/m3 As per IS: 456, Table-5 Page. 5 Check of minimum cement content for mild exposure condition = 300 kg/m3

Step 5

Estimation of Coarse aggregate proportion (Table 2) For the maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm Zone - 2 of fine aggregate

Table 2 IS: 10262 2009 Table-9 Nominal max size of aggregate Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate (mm) for different zones of fine aggregate Zone-4

Zone-3 Zone-2 Zone-1

10

0.50

0.48

0.46

0.44

20

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.60

40

0.75

0.73

0.71

0.69

Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition …

19

Table 3 Weight of material for six cubes Cement (kg)

Mix-1

Mix-2

Mix-3

Mix-4

Mix-5

8.6

8.6

8.6

8.6

8.6

Water (kg)

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

20 mm NA (kg)

15

12.48

10.2

8.01

5.83

1.97

3.93

5.90

7.87

8.32

6.8

5.34

3.88

1.31

2.62

3.93

5.24

14

14

14

14

20 mm RA (kg) 10 mm NA (kg)

10

20 mm RA (kg) Fine aggregate (kg)

14

Table 4 Aggregate test values Water absorption

Natural aggregate

Recycled aggregate

1.10

3.52

Impact value

14.75

22.54

Specific gravity

2.82

2.54

Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate = 0.62 Volume of fine aggregate = 1 − 0.62 = 0.38 Step 6

Estimation of mix ingredients (a) (b) (c) (d) (d) (e) (f)

D. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Vol. of concrete = 1 m3 Vol. of cement = (383.2/3.15) × (1/1000) = 0.122 m3 Vol. of water = (191.6/1) × (1/1000) = 0.1916 m3 Vol. of total aggregate vol. of aggregate = 1 − (0.122 + 0.1916) = 0.6864 m3 Mass of coarse aggregate = 0.6864 × 0.62 × 2.82 × 1000 = 1200.101 kg/m3 Mass of fine aggregate = 0.6864 × 0.38 × 2.63 × 1000 = 685.51 kg/m3 (Table 3).

Readings Aggregate test (Table 4) Slump test (Fig. 5; Table 5) Compaction factor value (Fig. 6; Table 6) Compressive strength test (Figs. 7 and 8; Tables 7 and 8)

3 Result and Discussion 1.

Compressive strength for the 7 days of 100% natural aggregate (mix-1) is 37.61 Mpa. Strength obtained for the 7 days of 15% recycled aggregate replacement

20

P. Duggal et al.

Fig. 5 Graphical representation of slump test values Table 5 Slump test readings for different mix

Mix

Slump test value (mm)

1

80

2

75

3

65

4

70

5

75

Fig. 6 Graphical representation of compaction factor values Table 6 Compaction factor value readings for different mix

Mix

Compaction factor value

1

0.932

2

0.956

3

0.934

4

0.930

5

0.927

Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition …

Fig. 7 Graphical representation of compressive strength of mix after 7 days

Fig. 8 Graphical representation of compressive strength of mix after 28 days Table 7 7 days compressive strength value readings for different mix

Table 8 28 days compressive strength value readings for different mix

Mix

7 days compressive strength (Mpa)

1

37.61

2

33.25

3

36.25

4

30.82

5

25.66

Mix

7 days compressive strength (Mpa)

1

50.26

2

44.09

3

48.69

4

40.84

5

34.17

21

22

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

P. Duggal et al.

(mix-2) is 33.25 Mpa which is lower than mix-1. Strength for the 7 days of 30% recycled aggregate replacement (mix-3) is 36.25 Mpa that performed better. Strength for the 7 days of 45% recycled aggregate replacement (Mix 4) is 30.82 Mpa that is lower than other mixes. Strength of mix-5 is 25.66 Mpa that is lowest of all other mixes. Compressive strength after 28 days for the 100% natural aggregate (mix-1) is 50.26 Mpa that is higher than the target strength of the 40 Mpa concrete. Strength obtained for the 15% recycled aggregate replacement (mix-2) is 44.09 Mpa which is lower than the target strength and lower than mix-1. Strength for 30% recycled aggregate replacement (mix-3) is 48.69 Mpa that is higher than the target strength and performed better. Strength for 45% recycled aggregate replacement (mix-4) is 40.84 Mpa that is lower than target strength and other mixes. Strength of mix-5 is 34.17 Mpa that is lower than target strength and lowest of all other mixes. It can be observed that the 30% replacement of recycled aggregate with the natural aggregate gives strength that is more than target strength. Hence, 30% recycled aggregate can be used for the construction of rigid pavements to obtain required strength. It can be observed that the percentage of water absorption of recycled aggregate is more than that of conventional aggregates. Recycled aggregates have less specific gravity than that of the normal aggregates. In this study, demolished aggregate is used for construction in cement concrete pavement. Economically and environmentally, the recycled aggregate can be the alternate for the conventional aggregates up to certain percentage.

References 1. Jindal A, Praveen Kumar GD, Ranischung RN (2014) Recycled concrete aggregates for rigid pavements, Oct 2014 2. Central Pollution Control Board 3. IRC-058-1988 Code for Rigid pavement 4. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways Specifications (2010) 5. IS: 2386 (1963) Methods of test for aggregate for concrete (P-III): specific gravity, density, voids, absorption. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi 6. IS: 456 Guidelines for concrete mix design

Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Tunneling-Induced Ground Settlement in Clayey Soil Md. Rehan Sadique , Amjad Ali , Mohammad Zaid , and M. Masroor Alam

1 Introduction In metropolitan cities where the road traffic suffers heavily due to daily congestion, the underground transport system has emerged as effective measures of mass transportation, as indicated by the increasing popularity of subway system in major cities all over the world. Underground mass transportation has developed as one of the strongest solutions for the city having a big congested population. The trend of construction of underground tunnel has increased in last two decades worldwide. China has emerged as leader in underground metro construction with average addition of 270 km per annum. Underground tunnel is looking to be the safe option for the operation of high-speed vehicle. Several researchers had carried out studies to understand the behaviour of tunnels under different type of loading conditions [1–5]. Analytical methods and field observations were used by researchers to study the ground settlement due to excavation of the soil for the tunnel construction [6]. The settlement of the ground follows a pattern which has been discussed, and the settlement profiles were suggested in the case of clayey soil [7]. Moreover, it has been concluded that foundations rested on clayey have more settlement than sandy soil foundations [8]. The advancement of tunnel face for excavation has a significant effect on the ground settlement [9]. The Mohr–Coulomb material model has been Md. R. Sadique (B) · A. Ali · M. Zaid · M. Masroor Alam Geotechnical Engineering Section, Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P. 202002, India e-mail: [email protected] A. Ali e-mail: [email protected] M. Zaid e-mail: [email protected] M. Masroor Alam e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 S. Kumar Shukla et al. (eds.), Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 143, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6_3

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Md. R. Sadique et al.

used in the finite element analysis of shallow and deep tunnels and concluded that the properties of the soil and the method of excavation have a major role in the behavior of ground settlement and face deformation [10]. Furthermore, the influence of nonlinear interaction in the case of segmental tunnel has been studied using numerical modeling [11]. Moreover, the influence of twin tunnel construction on the settlement of the existing tunnel was studied for horse-shoe shape tunnel and concluded that the corners of the tunnel are the most critical locations [12]. Based on field data, physical model and using the discrete element method, a study has been carried out for jointed Rockmass having tunnel and formulas for settlement profile and displacement has been provided [13]. Moreover, it has been suggested to use the simple constitutive material model of soil for predicting the settlements due to tunneling [14]. However, the study of the tunnel has been an area of interest for several researchers [15–23]. In the present paper, the soil has been procured from local site in Aligarh district, U.P., India. The general test for classifying the soil was performed in the laboratory. This soil has been used to model the experimental setup, and experimental study has been carried out. Further, numerical study has been carried out for the validation of experimental data using finite element software GEO5.

2 Experimental Study In the experimental program, physical model has been established to study the effect of excavation on the surface of the tunnel model and liner of the tunnel. Prerequisite soil testing has been done to classify the soil. The cohesion and angle of friction come out to be C = 14 kN/m2 and F = 28°, respectively. After all the basic test on soil, it has been shown in tabular form, and after that, classification of soil has been done. Table 1 shows the results of soil test. On the basis of soil test result, the soil has been classified as low plastic silt-low plastic clay (ML-CL soil). Table 1 Results of soil test

Test

Results

Water content

14.465%

Specific gravity

2.68

Consistency result

LL = 28%, PL = 22%

Proctor compaction

17.5

Triaxial test

C=

Soil classification

ML-CL

kN , OMC = 16% m3 kN 14 m 2 , F = 28˚

Experimental and Numerical Modeling …

25

2.1 Establishment of Physical Model A cubical physical model of size 1 m has been made. The material used in making the cubical box is galvanized iron sheet of 14-gauge thickness. An opening of vertical wall with the arch roof shape of width 30 cm and height of vertical wall of 15 cm and radius of arch having a 15 cm radius has been made at the center of cubical box. And this opening is assembled with the aluminum lining of thickness 22-gauge and 26-gauge. The overburden depth is 33 cm. The tank is embedded into the ground up to the depth of 20 cm. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of tunnel model. The lining is filled with soil to avoid the deformation of lining and to simulate the field condition, and the cube was filled after installation of lining, the final experimental model is shown in Fig. 2. Numerical modeling has been evolved as one of the most powerful tools to design and analyze the complex geotechnical problems. In the present chapter, different types of software exclusively used in geotechnical studies have been mentioned, and the different program of Geo5 has been discussed. The numerical modeling of the present study has been discussed. The 2D static analysis has been carried out using finite element software GEO5.

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of physical model

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Fig. 2 Tunnel model before and after filling and compaction of soil

3 Finite Element Study In the past studies, it has been observed that finite element method has added advantages of analysis for tunnels under varying type and degree of loading [24–28]. In this study, the GEO5 FEM-Tunnel analyzer has been used to simulate the various phases of tunneling. The analysis comprises in various stages. (a) Preprocessing or modeling: In this stage, we create a soil tunnel model along with all input data. (b) Processing or analysis: In this stage, analysis has been performed and (c) Postprocessing or generation of results: In this stage, we obtained final results in the form of contour images. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been carried out for a cubical tunnel model of size 1 m is taken into consideration, the tunnel opening is taken as horse-shoe shape, having base width 30 cm, vertical wall height is 15 cm and radius of arch as 15 cm. The center of the tunnel is at a depth of 50 cm below the ground surface. A two-dimensional finite element simulation model for tunnel excavation has been modeled. All components of the tunnel geometry have been modeled separately. Model considers all relevant components of the construction process as separate components (including: material type, tunnel lining etc.) as shown in Table 2. In geometric model, width and height of soil domain have been chosen similar to the condition as taken in the experimental modeling. An interface of size 1 m by 1 m has been made similar to our physical model (see Fig. 3). Soil having properties from Table 1 has been assigned to the model after interface has been completed. The soil is low plastic clay-low plastic silt. The mesh has been generated using the mesh generation option. The 3-noded triangular mesh has been assigned for the whole model. Once the mesh is generated, the next stage, i.e., the excavation stage has been carried out. In the excavation stage, the percentage of excavation has been assigned by deactivating the percentage of soil inside the liner. The liner has been applied, the analysis of stresses and settlement has been performed in further stages, and results are displayed in the forms of contours which are shown in result and discussion section.

Experimental and Numerical Modeling … Table 2 Input parameters for FEA analysis

27

Size of model

1m×1m×1m

Over burden depth of tunnel liner

0.35 m

Liner shape

Vertical wall with arch roof

Liner material

Aluminum

Liner dimension

Width = 0.3 m, height of vertical wall = 0.15 m radius of arch portion = 0.15 m

E liner

69 GPa

G liner

25 GPa

Poisson ratio

0.33

Fig. 3 Interface of GEO5 for modeling

4 Results and Discussion Experimental investigation has been carried out on physical model, and their results are presented in the form of a graph. The result obtained is settlement at different stages of excavation, the surface settlement and deformation of the liner have been shown in the result. Produced vehicular vibration and the vehicular vibration behind the wall of lining have been recorded and presented in the form of a graph. The result of excavation obtained in the experimental analysis has been validated using Geo5 software in two-dimensional static. Settlement, shear stress and Mises stress of soil have been shown in the form of contours and graphs. The surface settlement has been plotted and compared for the 22-gauge and 26-gauge liners for the 100% excavation. The emphasis has been given at the longitudinal settlement profile of the tunnel due to excavation.

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The settlement along the tunnel direction has been plotted for 100% excavation in both the cases of 22 gauge (0.7 mm) and 26 gauge (0.5 mm). At 100% excavation of the soil from the liner of the tunnel, the settlement is in the range of 0.8–1.1 mm for 22 gauge (0.7 mm) and 1.85 to 2.1 mm for 26 gauge (0.55 mm), and variation in the settlement along the length of tunnel is less. The peak settlement is almost at the center of model for both thickness of the liner as shown in Fig. 4. The plot of internal deformation of lining after excavation has been drawn and has been observed that 22-gauge liner has less internal deformation compared to 26-gauge liner. For 22-gauge liner, maximum is about 0.6 cm almost at the center of liner, but for 26-gauge liner, the maximum deformation is about 2.5 cm, and almost throughout the length, the deformation is more than 2 cm as shown in Fig. 5. Figure 6 shows the results of experiment noted using dial gauge at crown of the tunnel. The maximum settlement obtained is 0.12 mm for 22-gauge thickness liner and 0.16 mm for 26-gauge thickness liner which is after 100% excavation. It has been noted that there is a significant difference in settlement of tunnel lining at crown in case of both the liners. The stress analysis has been performed, and stress contour was obtained. The maximum stress has found to be at the base of the model having value as 19.76 kPa,

Settlement (mm)

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

80

100

Length of tunnel (cm)

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

22 gauge

26 gauge

Fig. 4 Surface settlement at 100% excavation

Deformation (cm)

0 0.5

0

20

40

60

Length of tunnel (cm)

1 1.5 2 2.5 3

22 Gauge

26 Gauge

Fig. 5 Internal deformation of lining for 22 gauge and 26 gauge

Experimental and Numerical Modeling … 0

Settlement (mm)

0

20

29 40

60

80

100

% Excavation

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

22 Gauge

26 Gauge

Fig. 6 Deformation of crown of lining observed with dial gauge

Fig. 7 a Effective stress without excavation and b shear stress without excavation

as plotted in Fig. 7a. The stress in the area of tunnel is in the range of 6 to 13.50 kPa. The stress is due to overburden of soil. The maximum stress is 19.76 kPa which is at the base of model. Further, the shear stress before the excavation was also negligible as shown in Fig. 7b. After 100% excavation, the analysis was run, and the settlement in the form of contour was obtained. The maximum settlement obtained is 0.199 mm which is at the crown of lining. At the base of lining settlement, contour is negative which means there is heaving at the base of lining. In the springer, the range of settlement is 0.150–0.180 mm (see Fig. 8a). The stress contour is also obtained as shown in Fig. 8b. The maximum stress is 20.45 kPa at the base of model. The stress at the base of the lining is in the range of 0 to 4 kPa. At the crown the stress is about 0–4 kPa and in the springer portion of lining have stress in the range of 6–14 kPa. The shear stress contour after 100% excavation without lining is also obtained as shown in Fig. 9a. The maximum shear stress is at both sides of the springer, i.e., left and right springer. At both sides, the stress is almost same, but their direction is different. The maximum shear stress is 6.14 kPa. The shear stress coming is very less compared to shear resisting capacity of soil.

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Fig. 8 a Settlement at 100% excavation without lining and b effective stress at 100% excavation without lining

Fig. 9 a Shear stress at 100% excavation without lining and b settlement at 100% excavation with lining

After 100% excavation, the lining has been installed, and again, the analysis has been done, and settlement contour has been obtained. The maximum settlement obtained is 0.199 mm at the crown which is exactly equal to settlement at 100% excavation without lining. At the base of lining settlement, contour is negative which means there is heaving at the base of lining. In the springer, the range of settlement is 0.150–0.180 mm. There is not any further increment of settlement after the installation of lining because the stiffness has increased (see Fig. 9b). The stress contour is also obtained as shown in Fig. 10a. The maximum stress is 20.47 kPa at the base of model which is almost equal to the effective stress at 100% excavation without lining. The stress at the base of the lining is in the range of 2– 4 kPa. At the crown, the stress is about 6–14 kPa. There is not any further increment of stress after the installation of lining. The shear stress contour after 100% excavation with lining is also obtained as shown in Fig. 10b. The maximum shear stress is at both sides of the springer, i.e., left and right springer. At both sides, the stress is almost same, but their direction is

Experimental and Numerical Modeling …

31

Fig. 10 a Effective stress at 100% excavation with lining and b shear stress at 100% excavation with lining

different. The maximum shear stress is 6.14 kPa. The shear stress coming is very less compared to shear resisting capacity of soil. There has been no further increment of stress after the installation of lining.

5 Conclusion The importance of underground tunnel has increased significantly due to the vision of smart transport system in modern cities. In the present study, the effect of excavation on the settlement and stresses has been studied using the physical model of size 1 m3 . The liner used is made up of aluminum of thickness 22 gauge and 26 gauge. Numerical analysis has been carried out using 2D GEO5 finite element software. The soil used in entire study is ML-CL, i.e., low plastic silt to low plastic clay. The following points are concluded: • The surface settlement just above the crown is maximum and throughout the excavation length. • The settlement across the tunnel axis reduces significantly as move away from tunnel axis. At a distance three times the radius (a/r = 3) of tunnel, the settlement has reduced to 20% of maximum settlement. • The settlement observation across the tunnel axis may be a function of opening shape, and hence, the permission of construction for superstructure in the vicinity of tunnel will also depend upon the opening shape. • Since the stiffness of liner plays an important role in minimizing the ground settlement, the ground settlement decreases as the thickness of liner increased. Hence, in the case of greenfield tunneling, thinner section can be adopted to make the project economic. However, in projects where tunneling is required under the existing township, the permissible ground settlement is negligible. Hence, the designer has to stick with the thicker and stiff cross section.

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References 1. Zaid M, Talib A, Sadique MR (2020) Effect of joint orientation on the seismic stability of rock slope with transmission tower. In: Latha Gali M, Raghuveer Rao P (eds) Geohazards. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 86. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-156233-4_118 2. Naqvi MW, Akhtar MF, Zaid M, Sadique MR (2021) Effect of superstructure on the stability of underground tunnels. Transp Infrastruct Geotech 8:142–161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40515020-00119-6 3. Zaid M, Rehan Sadique M (2021) A simple approximate simulation using Coupled Eulerian– Lagrangian (CEL) simulation in investigating effects of internal blast in rock tunnel. Indian Geotech J. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-021-00511-0 4. Zaid M, Sadique MR, Alam MM (2021) Blast analysis of tunnels in Manhattan-Schist and Quartz-Schist using coupled-Eulerian–Lagrangian method. Innov Infrastruct Solut 6:69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-020-00446-0 5. Zaid M, Mishra S (2021) Numerical analysis of shallow tunnels under static loading: a finite element approach. Geotech Geol Eng. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-020-01647-1 6. Boscardin MD, Cording EJ (1989) Building response to excavation-induced settlement. J Geotech Eng 115:1–21 7. Mair RJ, Taylor RN, Bracegirdle A (1993) Subsurface settlement profiles above tunnels in clays. Géotechnique 43:315–320 8. Nakai T, Xu L, Yamazaki H (1997) 3D and 2D model tests and numerical analyses of settlements and earth pressures due to tunnel excavation. Soils Found 37:31–42 9. Karakus M, Fowell RJ (2003) Effects of different tunnel face advance excavation on the settlement by FEM. Tunn Undergr Sp Technol 18:513–523 10. Galli G, Grimaldi A, Leonardi A (2004) Three-dimensional modelling of tunnel excavation and lining. Comput Geotech 31:171–183 11. Nouban F, Abazid M (2017) Plastic degrading fungi trichoderma viride and Aspergillus nomius isolated from local landfill soil in Medan. IOP Sci 8:68–74 12. Jiang B, Chen L, Yang JS, Wang S, Ng CWW (2017) Effects of twin-tunnel excavation on an existing horseshoe-shaped tunnel considering the influence of a settlement joint. Can Geotech J 54:1346–1355 13. Li Y, Qi T, Lei B, Qian W, Li Z (2019) Deformation patterns and surface settlement trough in stratified jointed rock in tunnel excavation. KSCE J Civ Eng 23:3188–3199 14. Miliziano S, de Lillis A (2019) Predicted and observed settlements induced by the mechanized tunnel excavation of metro line C near S. Giovanni station in Rome. Tunn Undergr Sp Technol 86:236–246 15. Yu G et al (2020) Particularity and prediction method of ground settlement caused by subway tunnel construction in permafrost area. In: Lecture notes in civil engineering, vol 49. Springer, pp 531–539 16. Zaid M, Athar MF, Sadique MR (2021) Effect of rock weathering on the seismic stability of different shapes of the tunnel. In: Proceedings of the Indian Geotechnical Conference 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 137. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-64660_59 17. Athar MF, Zaid M, Sadique MR (2019) Stability of different shapes of tunnels in weathering stages of basalt. In: Proceedings of National Conference on Advances in Structural Technologies (CoAST-2019) 18. Zaid M, Mishra S, Rao KS (2020) Finite element analysis of static loading on urban tunnels. In: Latha Gali M, PRR (eds) Geotechnical Characterization and Modelling. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 85. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6086-6_64 19. Naqvi MW, Zaid M, Sadique MR, Alam MM (2017) Dynamic analysis of rock tunnels considering joint dip angle: a finite element approach. In: 13th international conference on vibration problems

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20. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2020) Dynamic analysis of tunnels in Western Ghats of Indian Peninsula: effect of shape and weathering. In: Pathak KK., Bandara JMSJ, Agrawal R (eds) Recent Trends in Civil Engineering. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 77. Springer, Singapore. https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-5195-6_57 21. Zaid M, Naqvi MW, Sadique MR (2021) Stability of arch tunnel in different magnitude of earthquake with effect of weathering in Western Ghats of India. In: Proceedings of the Indian Geotechnical Conference 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 138. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-981-33-6564-3_40 22. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2019) Effect of joint orientation and weathering on static stability of rock slope having transmission tower. In: 7th Indian young geotechnical engineers conference— 7IYGEC 2019 15–16 Mar 2019, NIT Silchar, Assam, India Silchar 23. Gahoi A, Zaid M, Mishra S, Rao KS (2017) Numerical analysis of the tunnels subjected to impact loading. In: Proceedings of 7th Indian Rock Conference (IndoRock2017) 24. Zaid M, Sadique MR, Samanta M (2020) Effect of unconfined compressive strength of rock on dynamic response of shallow unlined tunnel. SN Appl Sci 2:2131. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s42452-020-03876-8 25. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2020) Blast resistant behaviour of tunnels in sedimentary rocks. Int J Prot Struct. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041419620951211 26. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2021) The response of rock tunnel when subjected to blast loading: finite element analysis. Engineering Reports. 3:e12293. https://doi.org/10.1002/eng2.12293 27. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2020) Numerical modeling of internal blast loading on a rock tunnel. Adv Comput Des 5(4):417–443. https://doi.org/10.12989/ACD.2020.5.4.417 28. Zaid M, Sadique MR, Alam MM, Samanta M (2020) Effect of shear zone on dynamic behavior of rock tunnel constructed in highly weathered granite. Geomechanics and Engineering 23(3):245–259. https://doi.org/10.12989/GAE.2020.23.3.245

Blast-Resistant Stability Analysis of Triple Tunnel Mohammad Zaid

and Irfan Ahmad Shah

1 Introduction Underground transportation has become an important part of the modern transportation system. The tunnels are being constructed in the built-up area having scarcity of surface to accommodate large traffic infrastructure. Moreover, they also provide faster means of transportation. Several metro cities of the world are constructing underground infrastructure for transportation in the form of metro. Studies were carried out on single tunnel under the blast and static loading conditions [1–9]. Further, twin tunnels were also studied by several researchers [10–13]. However, the studies dealing with triple tunnel are rare. Twin tunnels are being studied for the dynamic response when subjected to blast loading. Tiwari et al. [13] carried out a study for the twin tunnel when a blast event assumed to have occurred at the internal of the tunnel. Their study was based on nonlinear elastoplastic behaviour of material. The finite element software Abaqus was used for the study. The blast explosive was assumed in the form of TNT charge that was modelled using Coupled-Eulerian–Lagrangian method. They concluded that the deformation in the tunnel is inversely proportional to the overburden depth of tunnel. Later, they studied the twin tunnel when subjected to blast loading in sand and concluded that the clearance between the twin tunnel and amount of charge weight is the factor that governs the deformation in the tunnel liner and the soil mass [10]. The studies involving triple tunnel is actively researched for the past few years. However, the major responses of these tunnels were studied due to earthquake loading [14, 15]. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to study the response of triple tunnel when subjected to blast loading at its internal surface.

M. Zaid (B) · I. A. Shah Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 S. Kumar Shukla et al. (eds.), Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 143, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6_4

35

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M. Zaid and I. A. Shah

2 Blast Loading The finite element analysis has been carried out in the present paper for the triple tunnel. The blast analysis has been incorporated by an empirical approach, i.e. CONWEP method in Abaqus. The triple tunnel section from the published paper has been adopted in the present study [14]. The triple tunnel is a combination of three open spaces. There are two circular sections having internal diameter of 5.5 m and a box connecting both the outer circular section with 11.78 m of arch length. Moreover, the distance between circular sections is 15.5 m centre to centre. Further, the total width of the triple tunnel is 27.5 with 0.5 m of tunnel liner thickness. The geometry and numerical model are shown in Fig. 1. Numerical model has total dimensions as 82.5 by 82.5 m, and the tunnel has 40 m of length.

Fig. 1 Numerical model for blast study of triple tunnel a cross section of tunnel, b meshed model and c triple tunnel liner

Blast-Resistant Stability Analysis of Triple Tunnel

37

Table 2 Input parameters of Mohr–Coulomb model

Medium weathered basalt

Density (kg/m3 )

Young’s modulus (GPa)

Poisson’s ratio

Cohesion (MPa)

Friction angle (°)

UCS (MPa)

2560

2.770

0.272

8.080

43.870

17.800

The rockmass has been modelled by adopting Mohr–coulomb material model. It incorporates the elastoplastic behaviour of rockmass surrounding the tunnel. Input parameters of numerical model are shown in Table 2. For a general loading criterion, the type of a rockmass has a direct influence over the tunnel behaviour [16]. Several researchers have assumed basalt rock in different studies [17–25]. Moreover, the concrete liner of triple tunnel has been modelled as concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model. M30 grade of concrete has been adopted for the current concrete liner. The properties of M30 grade concrete liner were adopted from the research paper by [26]. The CONWEP method of blast analysis has been adopted for the present analysis. A 1000 kg TNT explosive has been assumed to act at three different locations. The three different locations are mentioned as three separate cases. In Case 1, the TNT has been assumed at the centre of middle tunnel, Case 2 has TNT in left-sided tunnel, and Case 3 has TNT in right-sided tunnel. The different locations were presented in Fig. 1a. Numerical model has been meshed with C3D8R element type for both rockmass and the concrete liner. Based on mesh convergence study, the size of the element has been adopted as 0.7 m throughout the model. Boundary conditions have been kept fixed at the base and roller support at the sides. The roller support allows the deformation in vertical directions neglecting movement in other directions. The results were obtained in terms of deformation, stress, strain and damage for the rockmass and the concrete liner.

3 Results and Discussion The blast analysis of triple tunnel has been carried out in the present finite element analysis study. Abaqus/Explicit, a finite element software was used to carry out the finite element modelling and analysis. The CONWEP method of blast analysis has been adopted for the present study. The results were obtained for deformation, stress, strain and damage for the triple tunnel constructed in a medium weathered basalt rock. Figure 2 has been plotted for the deformations observed at the ground surface along the transverse direction in different cases when triple tunnel was subjected to blast loading. It has been observed that major portion of the deformation was concentrated above the tunnel section. Moreover, the maximum deformation has been observed when the blast was assumed in the middle section of triple tunnel.

M. Zaid and I. A. Shah

Deformation at the ground surface (m)

38 0.0050 0.0040 0.0030 0.0020 0.0010 0.0000

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Length of the tunnel (m) Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Fig. 2 Deformation profile of triple tunnel for different cases at the ground surface in the transverse direction when subjected to blast loading

Maximum Principal stress at the ground surface (MPa)

However, there has been negligible difference in the value of deformations in all the three cases. The peak of the deformations clearly shows the location of blast event. Figure 3 represents the response of maximum principal stress along the transverse direction of the triple tunnel. There are three different peaks at different positions along the axis. The different peaks are representing the location of the blast event. By comparing the deformation graph and the stress graph, it has been noted that if the value of deformation is higher, then the value of stress is small for the particular case. The comparison of three different cases helps to understand that the central part of the tunnel, i.e. the area lying just above the tunnel opening in the transverse direction, shows significant deformation. Therefore, the structures constructed just above the triple tunnel are vulnerable to most disturbances. Moreover, the maximum principal strain is also an important parameter in the study of elastoplastic materials. The maximum principal strain along the transverse length of the model has been plotted for different cases and shown in Fig. 4. The maximum principal stress and maximum principal strain shows similar response as observed from Figs. 3 and 4.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 0

10

20

-0.2

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Length of the tunnel (m) Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Fig. 3 Variation of maximum principal stress with transverse direction for different cases at the ground surface when subjected to blast loading

Maximum Principal strain at the ground surface

Blast-Resistant Stability Analysis of Triple Tunnel

39

0.00020 0.00015 0.00010 0.00005 0.00000 -0.00005

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Length of the tunnel (m) Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Fig. 4 Variation of maximum principal strain with transverse direction for different cases at the ground surface when subjected to blast loading

Figure 5 shows the deformation contour of the Case 1, when the TNT explosive has been assumed in the central section of the triple tunnel. From the deformation contour, it has been noted that the deformation is concentrated around the triple tunnel section, and the maximum deformations occur at the concrete liner. Therefore, the blast resistance method must have major concentration at the tunnel opening while designing for blast-resistant structure. Moreover, the damage in the concrete liner of triple tunnel has been presented in terms of compression damage and tension damage contours in Fig. 6. This shows that almost whole tunnel has been failed due to blast load. However, if the amount of the TNT assumed will be less than the present case, then the damage will be concentrated up to central section only. Therefore, it has been observed that the modern tunnel transportation system requires the blastresistant design. Moreover, the simulation of the designed projects will prove an insight before actual field. Fig. 5 Deformation contour for the case 1 when the triple tunnel was subjected to blast load

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Fig. 6 Contours of a compression damage and b tension damage for the case 1 when the blast has been assumed to occur inside the triple tunnel

4 Conclusions The finite element analysis simulation has been performed in the present paper. The triple tunnel constructed in medium weathered basalt rock has been adopted. The concrete liner and the rockmass surrounding the tunnel have been assumed as an elastoplastic material. Abaqus/Explicit has been used for the simulation of finite element problem of blast event. This study concludes 1. 2.

3. 4.

Maximum deformation observed in Case 1, Case 2 and Case 3 is 3.99 mm, 3.37 mm and 3.31 mm, respectively. Maximum principal stress and strain are concentrated in the middle one-third section of ground surface. The peaks in both the cases have been observed corresponding to position of explosive charge (blast load). The concrete lining of the present triple tunnel is not serviceable for the existing loading condition. The concrete lining has failed in both compression and tension in all the three cases. Therefore, strengthening of the concrete lining is needed for present triple tunnel.

References 1. Naqvi MW, Akhtar MF, Zaid M, Sadique MR (2021) Effect of superstructure on the stability of underground tunnels. Transp. Infrastruct. Geotech. 8, 142–161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40 515-020-00119-6 2. Zaid M, Rehan Sadique M (2021) A simple approximate simulation using coupled eulerian– lagrangian (CEL) simulation in investigating effects of internal blast in rock tunnel. Indian Geotech J. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-021-00511-0 3. Zaid M, Sadique MR & Alam MM (2021) Blast analysis of tunnels in Manhattan-Schist and Quartz-Schist using coupled-Eulerian–Lagrangian method. Innov. Infrastruct. Solut. 6:69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-020-00446-0 4. Zaid M, Mishra S (2021) Numerical analysis of shallow tunnels under static loading: A finite element approach. Geotech Geol Eng. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-020-01647-1

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5. Zaid M, Sadique MR & Samanta M (2020) Effect of unconfined compressive strength of rock on dynamic response of shallow unlined tunnel. SN Appl. Sci. 2, 2131. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s42452-020-03876-8 6. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2020) Blast resistant behaviour of tunnels in sedimentary rocks. Int J Protective Struct. https://doi.org/10.1177/2041419620951211 7. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2021) The response of rock tunnel when subjected to blast loading: Finite element analysis. Eng Rep. 3:e12293. https://doi.org/10.1002/eng2.12293 8. Zaid M, & Sadique MR (2020) Numerical modeling of internal blast loading on a rock tunnel. Adv Comput Des 5(4):417–443. https://doi.org/10.12989/ACD.2020.5.4.417 9. Zaid M, Sadique MR, Alam MM, Samanta M (2020) Effect of shear zone on dynamic behavior of rock tunnel constructed in highly weathered granite. Geomech Eng 23(3):245–259. https:// doi.org/10.12989/GAE.2020.23.3.245 10. Tiwari R, Chakraborty T, Matsagar V (2016) Dynamic analysis of a twin tunnel in soil subjected to internal blast loading. Ind Geotech J 46(4):369–380 11. Shirinabadi R, Moosavi E (2016) Twin tunnel behavior under static and dynamic loads of Shiraz metro, Iran. J Mining Sci 52(3):461–472 12. Verma AK, Jha MK, Mantrala S, Sitharam TG (2017) Numerical simulation of explosion in twin tunnel system. Geotech Geol Eng 35(5):1953–1966 13. Tiwari R, Chakraborty T, Matsagar V (2015) Dynamic analysis of twin tunnel subjected to internal blast loading. Adv Struct Eng Mech 1:343–354 14. Naseem A, Kashif M, Iqbal N, Schotte K, De Backer H (2020) Seismic behavior of triple tunnel complex in soft soil subjected to transverse shaking. Appl Sci 10(1):334 15. Naseem A, Schotte K, De Pauw B, De Backer H (2019) Ground settlements due to construction of triplet tunnels with different construction arrangements. Adv Civ Eng 16. Zaid M, Shah I, Farooqi M (2019) Effect of cover depth in unlined himalayan tunnel: a finite element approach. In the proceeding of 8th Indian rock conference, Indian International Centre, New Delhi, India, 03–04 Mar 2019, ISBN No. 81-86501-27-1 17. Gahoi A, Zaid M, Mishra S, Rao KS (2017) Numerical analysis of the tunnels subjected to impact loading. In: Proceeding of 7th Indian Rock Conference ISBN 81-86501-25-1 18. Zaid M, Naqvi MW, Sadique MR (2021) Stability of arch tunnel in different magnitude of earthquake with effect of weathering in Western Ghats of India. Proceedings of the Indian Geotechnical Conference 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, Vol. 138. doi: 10.1007/978981-33-6564-3_40 19. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2020) Dynamic analysis of tunnels in Western Ghats of Indian Peninsula: effect of shape and weathering. In: Pathak K.K., Bandara J.M.S.J., Agrawal R. (eds) Recent Trends in Civil Engineering. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 77. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-5195-6_57 20. Zaid M, Mishra S, Rao KS (2020) Finite element analysis of static loading on urban tunnels. In: Latha Gali M., P. R.R. (eds) Geotechnical Characterization and Modelling. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 85. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-60866_64. 21. Zaid M, Athar MF, Sadique MR (2021) Effect of rock weathering on the seismic stability of different shapes of the tunnel. Proceedings of the Indian Geotechnical Conference 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, Vol. 137. doi: 10.1007/978-981-33-6466-0_59 22. Athar MF, Zaid M, Sadique MR (2019) Stability of different shapes of tunnels in weathering stages of basalt. In: Proceedings of national conference on advances in structural technology, pp 320–327 23. Zaid M, Khan MA, Sadique MR (2019) Dynamic response of weathered jointed rock slope having the transmission tower. In: Proceedings of national conference on advances in structural technology. 414–422 24. Zaid M, Sadique MR (2019) Effect of joint orientation and weathering on static stability of rock slope having transmission tower. In: 7th Indian young geotechnical engineers conference— 7IYGEC 2019 15–16 Mar 2019, NIT Silchar, Assam, India Silchar

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25. Zaid M, Talib A, Sadique MR (2018) Stability analysis of rock slope having transmission tower. IJRECE 6 26. Sadique MR, Ansari MI, Athar MF (2018) Response study of concrete gravity dam against aircraft crash. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 404 (1)

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge Preeti Agarwal , P. Pal , and P. K. Mehta

List of Notation θ BMDL SFDL VDDL BMRDL(o) BMRLL(o) SFRDL(o) SFRLL(o) VDRDL(o) VDRLL(o) BMLL SFLL VDLL BMRDL(i) BMRLL(i) SFRDL(i) SFRLL(i) VDRDL(i) VDRLL(i)

Skew angle Bending moment (maximum) due to DL Shear force (maximum) due to DL Vertical deflection (maximum) due to DL Bending moment ratio due to DL for outer girder Bending moment ratio due to LL for outer girder Shear force ratio due to DL for outer girder Shear force ratio due to LL for outer girder Vertical deflection ratio due to DL for outer girder Vertical deflection ratio due to LL for outer girder Bending moment (maximum) due to LL Shear force (maximum) due to LL Vertical deflection (maximum) due to LL Bending moment ratio due to DL for inner girder Bending moment ratio due to LL for inner girder Shear force ratio due to DL for inner girder Shear force ratio due to LL for inner girder Vertical deflection ratio due to DL for inner girder Vertical deflection ratio due to LL for inner girder

P. Agarwal (B) · P. Pal · P. K. Mehta Civil Engineering Department, MNNIT, Allahabad, U.P. 211004, India e-mail: [email protected] P. Pal e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 S. Kumar Shukla et al. (eds.), Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 143, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6_5

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1 Introduction Over the last few decades, numerous bridges have been constructed because of the tremendous development in traffic. The box girder bridge is being constructed/preferred nowadays because of its economy, aesthetics, torsional rigidity, etc. Most of the bridges are supported orthogonal to the traffic direction and are termed as normal bridges. The skewness is introduced mainly because of the existing facilities, site limitations, mountainous territories and complex intersections. Skew box girder bridge is one whose girders may form any angle, except 90° with the abutment. The inner and outer girders of the skew box girder bridge deck are defined based on traffic direction, which is shown in Fig. 1. Many studies are available on skew bridges, and this study includes a few of these. Brown and Ghali [1] presented a semi-analytic method for the analysis of skew box girder bridges. The results obtained from this method are validated with experimental test results and numerical finite element results. Huo and Zhang [2] studied the effect of skewness, varied from 0 to 60°, on reactions at the piers of continuous bridges subjected to live loads using finite element analysis. Nouri and Ahmadi [3] investigated the effect of skewness on continuous composite girder bridges subjected to AASHTO HS20-44 from the finite element method (FEM). He et al. [4] presented the results of static and dynamic testing of continuous prestressed concrete box girder bridge models (1:8 scale) with 45° skew. Mohseni and Rashid [5] investigated the stresses in the skew multicell bridge, using SAP2000. Yalcin [6] investigated the effect of live load distribution on skewed integral abutment bridges and skewed simply supported bridges. Gupta and Kumar [7] determined the absolute bending moment in a simply supported skew-curved bridge using FEM. Gupta et al. [8] Fig. 1 Skew box girder bridge deck

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge

45

evaluated frequencies of one, two and three cells RC curved bridge using finite element analysis. Agarwal et al. [9] investigated the maximum bending moment and shear force in a single cell skew bridge using FEM and the effect of the span, girder spacing and span-depth ratio was presented. In the aforementioned literature, the investigators mostly studied the composite I-girder skew bridge considering AASTHO loading, and only a few studies are available on skew box girder bridge. Also, the effects of both dead load (DL) and live load (LL) on skewed bridges are not considered in the analysis. Additionally, there are only a few studies available on Indian loading. In view of the above, the present investigation aims to evaluate the effect of the skew angle on the RC bridge due to DL and LL. The statistical approach deduces many equations to evaluate the bending moment ratio (BMR), the shear force ratio (SFR) and the vertical deflection ratio (VDR) under DL and LL. Here, the BMR is the ratio of maximum BM for any skew bridge (θ) to the maximum BM for a straight bridge. Similarly, other ratios are defined in this study.

2 Validation Figure 2 shows the RC box girder bridge which is used for validation. This similar model was presented by Gupta and Kumar [7]. In finite element modelling, four noded shell element with six degrees of freedom at each node is used for analysis. The cross section properties for the model are as follows: Span—27.40 m; Width— 10.80 m; Depth—2.96 m; Kerb on both sides of deck—0.2 m and thickness of top and bottom flanges—250 mm and 280 mm, respectively. The concrete’s material properties considered are follows: Grade of concrete = M25; Poisson’s ratio = 0.2; Elastic modulus = 2.5 × 104 N/mm2 and Density = 25 kN/m3 . The bridge is evaluated for dead and live loads (70R tracked vehicle), implemented at a minimum clear distance of 1.2 m from the kerb edge. The mesh size is considered

Fig. 2 Cross section of box girder bridge deck (all dimensions are in metre)

46

P. Agarwal et al. 4.10

MLL,max (kNm)

MDL,max (MNm)

7.4 7.2 7.0 6.8

Gupta & Kumar results (2018) Present results

6.6 6.4

4.05

Gupta & Kumar results (2018) Present results

4.00 3.95 3.90 3.85

0

10

20

30

40

3.80

50

0

10

20

30

Skew angle (º)

Skew angle (º)

(a) For dead load

(b) For live load

40

50

40

50

Fig. 3 Variation of MBM with skew angle in outer girder 0.90

7.2

MLL,max (MNm)

MDL,max (MNm)

7.4

7.0 6.8

Gupta & Kumar results (2018) Present results

6.6 6.4

0

10

20

30

40

50

0.85 0.80 0.75

Gupta & Kumar results (2018) Present results

0.70 0.65

0

10

20

30

Skew angle (º)

Skew angle (º)

(a) For dead load

(b) For live load

Fig. 4 Variation of MBM with skew angle in inner girder

as 20 cm. The maximum bending moment (MBM) due to DL and LL is calculated and compared. The present results are found to be in close agreement with Gupta and Kumar’s result [7]. The modelling process is therefore appropriate and can be applied with varying parameters for further investigation. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the maximum bending moment (MBM) for outer and inner girders under DL and LL, respectively, having different skew angles. The percentage variation between these two results is within 5%. The modelling process can be accepted and is applied with varying parameters for further investigation.

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge

47

3 Results and Discussion 3.1 Methodology The steps involved in modelling the bridge are shown in Fig. 5, where the input parameters considered are the geometrical properties, material properties, boundary conditions and loading conditions. The outputs are the effects of skew angles on bending moment, shear force and vertical deflection. The behaviour of box girder bridge decks is examined for various skew angles. The relevant deck data considered for the analysis are as follows: Total width = 11.5 m consisting of roadway = 7.5 m; Kerb = 0.45 m on both sides and Footpath = 1.5 m on both sides. Figure 6 displays the box girder bridge deck model. The material properties of M40 grade of concrete used in bridge models are as follows: Poisson’s ratio = 0.2; Density = 25 × 103 N/m3 ; Elastic modulus = 3.16 × 104 N/mm2 and Modulus of rigidity = 1.31 × 107 MPa. The material properties of Fe500 grade of reinforcing steel are as follows: Density = 78 kN/m3 ; Yield strength = 500 N/mm2 ; and Elastic modulus = 2 × 105 N/mm2 ; and Modulus of rigidity = 7.69 × 107

Fig. 5 Flow diagram for modelling

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Fig. 6 Model of bridge deck system (dimensions are in metre)

N/mm2 . The analysis is done using CSiBridge v.20.0.0 software [10]. Girders and slab are modelled using the four noded shell element having six degrees of freedom at each node. The section is finalised as per the specifications of IRC 21:2000 [11]. In this study, Class 70R load is used; however, the results of only 70-R track loading are presented because it is found to develop more severe stresses and deflection in comparison with any other IRC loadings. As per IRC-6 specification [12], this load is applied at a distance of 1.2 m from the kerb face. Simply supported boundary condition is used for the analysis of all bridge deck models. In the analysis, it is found that the results are converging at a mesh size of 100 mm, so 100 mm mesh size is used for parametric study.

3.2 Effect of Skew Angle The effect of skew angle on bending moment (BM), shear force (SF) and vertical deflection (VD) on both the girders of the box girder under DL and LL is investigated. A bridge of 25 m span (L) and span-depth ratio (L/d) 10 is considered for the analysis. Figure 7 shows the variation of BM along outer and inner girders, for different skew angles. It is evident from the figure that DL-BM is the same along both the girders for a straight box girder bridge. In the case of LL, the BM is higher along the inner girder than that of the outer girder because the LL is placed close to the inner girder. When the skew angle varies, maximum BM shifts towards the girders’ obtuse corner due to DL and LL. The DL-BM decreases considerably with the increase in skew angle in both the girders. The LL-BM increases with the skew angle. For skew angle, less than 30°, variation in BM is insignificant for both the girders. When the skew angle varies from 30° to 60°, for both the girders, the DL-BM is found to decrease within a range of 2.8–9.1% with respect to those in straight bridges. The LL-BM at outer girder increases in the range of 1.5–19.1% for the skew angle variation from 0 to 60°, with respect to the straight bridge. However, the BM for inner girder is found to be insignificant for a similar variation. Figure 8 shows the variation of SF along outer and inner girders for different skew angles. It is seen that SF increases with the skew angle at the obtuse corner

49

7000

7000

6000

6000

5000

5000

BMDL (kNm)

BMDL (kNm)

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge

4000 3000 2000

4000 3000 2000

1000

θ = 0° θ = 40 °

0 0

5

θ = 10 ° θ = 50 °

θ = 20 ° θ = 60 °

θ = 30 °

10

15

20

1000 0

25

θ = 0° θ = 40 °

0

5

θ = 10 ° θ = 50 °

θ = 20 ° θ = 60 °

θ = 30 °

10

15

20

25

Distance along girder (m)

Distance along girder (m)

b) Inner girder

a) Outer girder

15000 14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

BMLL (kNm)

BMLL (kNm)

(i) For dead load

θ = 0° θ = 40°

0

5

θ = 10° θ = 50°

10

θ = 20° θ = 60°

15

θ = 30°

20

25

15000 14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

θ = 0° θ = 40 °

0

Distance along girder (m)

5

θ = 10 ° θ = 50 °

10

θ = 20 ° θ = 60 °

15

θ = 30 °

20

25

Distance along girder (m)

a) Outer girder

b) Inner girder

(ii) For live load

Fig. 7 Effect of skew angle on variation of DL and LL moment

and decreases at the acute corner of both the girders. For both the girders, the DL-SF increases by 6.0, 12.2, 18.3, 24.5, 29.4 and 31.2% for skew angle 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°, respectively, with respect to the straight bridge. At outer girder, LL-SF increases by 3.8, 8.6, 11.1, 14.1, 15.5 and 16.8% for the skew angle of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°, respectively, with respect to the straight bridge. However, there is a change in the behaviour of skewed bridges in comparison with the straight bridge. While for the inner girder, the respective changes are within a range of 1.5–8.2%. There is a change in the behaviour of skewed bridges in comparison with the straight bridge. Figure 9 shows the vertical deflection variation with the skew angle. For smaller skew angles (up to 20°), the variation in VD is found to be insignificant. The DL-VD decreases with the increase in skew angle in both the girders. In the outer girder, the LL-VD decreases up to 50°, while in the inner girder, it increases with skew angle. The DL-VD is found to decrease by in the range of 2.7–16.2% in both the girders for skew angle variation from 30 to 60°. In the outer girder, the LL-VD increases by about 5% for skew angle variation from 30 to 60°, while in the inner girder, the respective changes are within a range of 1.9–8.1%.

50

P. Agarwal et al. 1500

1500

θ = 0º θ = 40º

θ = 10º θ = 50º

θ = 20º θ = 60º

θ = 30º

θ=0º θ = 40 º

500

500

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

SFDL(kN)

1000

SFDL(kN)

1000

0

θ = 20 º θ = 60 º

10

15

5

θ = 30 º

20

25

Distance along girder (m)

Distance along girder (m)

-500

0

θ = 10 º θ = 50 º

-500

-1000

-1000

-1500

-1500

a) Outer girder

b) Inner girder

(i) For dead load 2000 θ = 0º θ = 40º

θ = 10 º θ = 50º

θ = 20º θ = 60º

3000

θ = 30º

θ = 0º θ = 40 º

θ = 10 º θ = 50º

θ = 20º θ = 60º

10

15

θ = 30 º

2500

2000

SFLL(kN)

SFLL(kN)

1500

1000

1500

1000

500 500

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

0

0

5

Distance along girder (m)

20

25

Distance along girder (m)

a) Outer girder

b) Inner girder

(ii) For live load

Fig. 8 Effect of skew angle on variation of DL and LL shear force

3.3 Proposed Equations for Forces and Deflection A few equations are proposed to evaluate the effect of skew angle on the BMR, SFR and VDR for both outer and inner girders of the bridge. The two primary loads, i.e. dead load and IRC class 70 R track load, are considered separately for developing the proposed equations. The value of BMR in the outer girder is represented by BMRDL(o) , while its value in the inner girder due to DL is represented by BMRDL(i) . Likewise, other ratios also presented. The proposed equations for DL and LL are as follows: (A)

For DL • At outer girder, BMRDL(o) = cos(55.3θ )

(1)

SFRDL(o) = 1 + 0.00587θ

(2)

VDRDL(o) = cos(0.00962θ )

(3)

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge

51 6

6

5

4

VDDL(mm)

VDDL(mm)

5

3

3

2

2

1

0

4

1

0

θ = 0° θ = 40°

θ = 10 ° θ = 50°

θ = 20° θ = 60°

5

10

15

θ = 30°

20

0

25

0

θ=0 ° θ = 40°

θ = 10 ° θ = 50°

θ = 20° θ = 60°

5

10

15

Distance along girder (m)

θ = 30° 20

25

Distance along girder (m)

a) Outer girder

b) Inner girder

(i) For dead load 8

14 13

7

12 11 10

5

VDLL(mm)

VDLL(mm)

6

4 3

0

8 7 6 5 4

2 1

9

3 θ = 0º θ = 40 º 5

θ = 10 º θ = 50 º 10

θ = 20 º θ = 60 º

2

θ = 30 º

15

20

1 25

0

0

Distance along girder (m)

θ = 0º θ = 4 0º

θ = 10 º θ = 50 º

θ = 20º θ = 60 º

5

10

15

θ = 30 º 20

25

Distance along girder (m)

a) Outer girder

b) Inner girder

(ii) For live load

Fig. 9 Effect of skew angle on variation of deflection due to DL and LL

• At inner girder,

(B)

BMRDL(i) = 1 − 4.7012 × 10−7 × θ 3

(4)

SFRDL(i) = 1 + 0.00581θ

(5)

VDRDL(i) = cos(−0.00937θ )

(6)

BMRLL(o) = 1 + 8.2073 × 10−7 × θ 3

(7)

SFRLL(o) = 17.41363/(8.0739 + 17.12901θ ) − 1.15669

(8)

For LL • At outer girder,

VDRLL(o) = 1 + 1.29243 × 10−8 × θ 4 − 5.16631 × 10−5 × θ 2

(9)

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Table. 1 Verification of the proposed equation Forces

BM (kNm)

Girder

Outer

Skew angle (degree)

For dead load Using proposed equation

Using FEM

% error

For live load Using proposed equation

Using FEM

% error

50

5787

5910

2.19

10,878

11,009

1.18

Inner

50

5909

5896

0.13

14,478

14,428

0.35

SF (kN) Outer

40

1256

1266

0.79

1861

1877

0.82

Inner

40

1253

1256

0.90

2785

2787

0.05

Outer

60

4.304

4.304

0

6.988

7.138

2.09

Inner

60

4.348

4.347

0.04

12.193

12.435

1.97

VD (mm)

• At inner girder, BMRLL(i) = 1 + 0.00037θ

(10)

SFRLL(i) = 1 + 0.00141θ

(11)

VDRLL(i) = 1 + 1.67403 × 10−5 × θ 2

(12)

The effect of skew angle on BM, SF and VD in a single cell bridge under DL and LL is studied. Some of the results obtained from the present analysis are reported in Table 1 for the validation of the proposed equations. In all cases, the outcomes deduced from the equations are found to be very close to those obtained from the finite element analysis.

4 Conclusions A study was performed to evaluate the behaviour of skew box girder bridges under both DL and LL, and the following conclusions are drawn: • The skew bridge’s influence is insignificant up to 20°, so these bridges can be treated as the straight one. • For DL, the BM decreases significantly with increment in skew angle, while for LL, it increases. • SF increases with the skew angle at obtuse corner, while it decreases at the acute corner of both the girders. In the inner girder, the effect of the skew angle on LL-SF is insignificant.

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge

53

• Under DL, the VD decreases with the increase in skew angle in both the girders. Under LL, in the outer girder, it decreases up to 50°, while in the inner girder, it increases with skew angle. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the financial support offered under TEQIP by the MNNIT Allahabad.

References 1. Brown TG, Ghali A (1975) Semi-analytic solution of skew box girder bridges. Prof Instn Civ Eng Part 2:487–500. https://doi.org/10.1680/iicep.1975.3677 2. Huo XS, Zhang Q (2008) Effect of skewness on the distribution of live load reaction at piers of skewed continuous bridges. J Bridge Eng 13(1):110–114. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASC E)1084-0702(2008)13:1(110) 3. Nouri G, Ahmadi Z (2012) Influence of skew angle on continuous composite girder bridge. J Bridge Eng 17(4):617–624. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)BE.1943-5592.000027 4. He XH, Sheng XW, Scanlon A, Linzell DG, Yu XD (2012) Skewed concrete box girder bridge static and dynamic testing and analysis. Eng Struct 39:38–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstr uct.2012.01.016 5. Mohseni I, Rashid AK (2013) Transverse load distribution of skew cast-in-place concrete multicell box-girder bridges subjected to traffic condition. Lat Am J Solids Stru 10:247–262. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-78252013000200002 6. Yalcin OF (2017) A comparative study of live load distribution in skewed integral and simply supported bridges. KSCE J Civ Eng 21(3):937–949. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205016-0871-0 7. Gupta T, Kumar M (2018) Flexural response of skew-curved concrete box-girder bridges. Eng Struct 163:358–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.063 8. Gupta N, Agarwal P, Pal P (2019) Free vibration analysis of RCC curved box girder bridges. Int J Tech Innov Mod Eng. Sci 5:1–7 9. Agarwal P, Pal P, Mehta PK (2019) Analysis of RC skew box girder bridges. Int J Sci Innov Eng Tech 6:1–8 10. CSiBridge manual: a general finite element program for bridges, version 20.0 11. Indian Road Congress (IRC 21) (2000) Standard specification and code of practice for road bridges, section III-cement concrete (planed and reinforced), 3rd edn, New Delhi, India 12. Indian Road Congress (IRC 6) (2016) Standard specification and code of practice for road bridges, section II-loads and stresses, New Delhi, India

Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost and Time Overruns in Construction Projects Shubham Sharma and Ashok Kumar Gupta

1 Introduction Cost overrun and delay in projects is a foremost challenge associated with nearly all projects in the construction industry. Inclination of construction projects towards overruns is because of risk and uncertainties involved in these projects. In developing countries, this problem is more severe as in some projects cost and time exceed double the amount than anticipated [1]. Construction plays an important role in economic growth of a country and also considered as largest generator of employment opportunities. Despite of its importance in development of a country, it has to face many challenges. In construction industry, a project is considered as successful if it meets both the criteria of budget and deadline [2]. Construction projects that fail to meet these criteria will have to face losses in terms of cost and time. To complete the project within budget and deadline, generally quality of project delivered is sacrificed. The major reason for these overruns is the lack of knowledge regarding the factors affecting cost and time. A construction project mainly consists of two major phases, namely pre-construction phase and construction phase. There is a need of applying risk management process in both the stages of the project. Both the stages play an important role in successful completion of project objectives. First stage is mainly about planning, scheduling, deciding budget, etc. Pre-construction is considered an important stage if managed precisely ensures more profits and less uncertainties [3]. Second stage consists of implementation of the things that was planned and scheduled in first stage with continuous monitoring and controlling. Overruns can affect the project objectives in terms of cost, time, quality and productivity [4]. In S. Sharma (B) · A. K. Gupta Department of Civil Engineering, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, H.P., India e-mail: [email protected] A. K. Gupta e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 S. Kumar Shukla et al. (eds.), Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 143, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6_6

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this research for identification and management of overrun in construction projects, we will use framework consisting of three steps, namely identification of factors responsible for overruns, assessment of identified factors and providing mitigation measures [5]. The aim of this research is to identify critical overrun factors present in construction industry and to manage them such that it has minimum negative effects on the project cost and time.

2 Background Study A number of factors are responsible for cost and time overruns in construction projects. Previous studies have defined cost overrun in a project as the difference between total cost required for completion of project and the estimated/budgeting cost at time of agreement or contract [6, 7]. According to the literature, time overrun is defined as difference between time required for completion of the project and time agreed in agreement or contract for delivering the completed project [8]. The results of past studies clearly state that cost and time overrun badly affects the project as well as the associated construction companies. In some case, even companies go bankrupt due to these overruns [9]. So, there is need of systematic study of these overruns which can provides clarity about the critical overrun factors involved. The first step suggested by literature is identification of factors involved in construction projects. This is an important step as without knowing what factors are involved, we cannot proceed further [10]. Next step is assessment of the identified overrun factors. This step will help us in identifying critical factors having maximum impact on overruns. Last step is suggesting mitigation measures and continuous monitoring over the construction process. For positive results, monitoring and control are important as new overrun factor can emerge at any time during the construction process.

3 Research Methodology 3.1 Overrun Factors Identification Starting with the identification of cost and time overrun factors involved in construction projects. A total of forty-four overrun factors were identified through a detailed literature review related to cost and time overruns. Then, these factors were categorized into four major categories, namely project scope, management related, legal constraints faced and site-resource related. Project scope category consists of eight factors, management category consists of six factors, legal-constraint category and site-resource-related category consist of fifteen factors each.

Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost and Time Overruns … Table 1 Role and years of experience of respondents

Category

Range

57 Number of participants

Role of participants Project manager 19 Site supervisor

32

Engineer

41

Contractor

9

Consultant

4

Years of experience 20 years

13

3.2 Questionnaire Survey and Respondents A questionnaire was prepared from the identified overrun factors. It consists of three parts—first part was about respondents’ profile and second part was explaining the Likert scale. A five-point Likert scale (1 = very less impact and 5 = very high impact) was used for assessing the impact of overrun factors. A total of 155 survey forms were distributed, out of which 105 completely filled survey forms were collected and used in this research. Data obtained from Likert scale was assessed in Minitab. The survey was conducted in two states of India, namely Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. This survey was filled by respondents involved in dealing with cost and time overruns. The respondents were having different roles like engineer, site supervisor, project manager, contractor and consultant. These survey forms were filled by respondents having experience of working in different parts of India. So, the results of this study can be generalized for all the construction projects. Fifty-five (52.38%) respondents were having experience of more than ten years in construction industry. Number of respondents along with their roles and years of experience are shown in Table 1.

4 Analysis of Data and Results 4.1 Analysis for Reliability of Questionnaire Internal consistency of overrun factors and questionnaire survey reliability are important aspects to judge whether the survey results are appropriate or not [11, 12]. This was done by using a statistical software named Minitab to check Cronbach alpha. Generally, Cronbach alpha has a value between 0 and 1. Higher the value higher is

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the reliability and internal consistency [13]. Overall, Cronbach alpha for questionnaire was found to be 0.852, which ensures high reliability and internal consistency of data collected.

4.2 Ranking of Overrun Factors For analysis of different overrun factors, relative importance index (RII) technique was used. This method was found appropriate for ranking of critical risk factors as compared to other methods [14–16]. RII was calculated by using Eq. (1) RII =



ai ∗ n i / N ∗ A

(1)

where ai = assigned weight to ith response, ni = frequency of ith response, N = total number of respondents, A = highest weight. Value of RII indicates the impact of factor on cost and time overrun in a project. Higher the value of RII more critical the factor. RII for different categories was found using Eq. (1) and considering factors present in that category only. RII for project category was found to be 0.698, RII for management category was found to be 0.727, RII for legal-constraints faced category was found to be 0.672, and RII for site-resource related category was found to be 0.692. Similarly, Cronbach alpha for different categories was found using Minitab and considering factors present in that category only. Cronbach alpha for project category was found to be 0.723, Cronbach alpha for management category was found to be 0.810, Cronbach alpha for legal-constraints faced category was found to be 0.776, and Cronbach alpha for site-resource-related category was found to be 0.753. RII for different overrun categories along with Cronbach alpha is shown in Table 2. After calculating RII, overrun factors were arranged in ascending order such that factor with highest RII value was ranked first and factor with lowest RII value was ranked last. The value of RII ranged between 0.8171 (high) and 0.5657 (low) for 44 overrun factors. Top five overrun factors identified in construction projects are Table 2 Overrun categories with Cronbach alpha and RII

Overrun category Project Management

Number of questions

RII

Cronbach alpha

8

0.698

0.723

6

0.727

0.810

Legal and constraints faced

15

0.672

0.776

Site and resource related

15

0.692

0.753

Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost and Time Overruns …

59

delay in obtaining permission from authorities, poor supervision and site management, unrealistic time schedule, unforeseen ground conditions and lack of skilled professionals. RII value for different overrun factors is calculated in Table 3.

5 Discussion and Guidelines In previous studies, very less research is done collectively on both the overrun factors, i.e. cost and time [17, 18]. This study identifies the most critical overrun factors responsible for project failures in terms of achieving its objectives within budget and time allocated. Top fifteen overrun factors categorization along with their overall ranking and ranking within category are shown in Table 4. In top fifteen overrun factors, it was found that four factors were from each project-related and management category. Two factors were from legal-constraints category, and five factors were from site-resource-related category. Top factors identified in project-related category were unrealistic time schedule, change in scope of work and rework due to error in execution. Top factors identified from management category were poor supervision and site management, poor leadership and management qualities, and slow decisionmaking from owner. Top factors recognized from legal-constraints category were delay in obtaining permission from authorities and penalties resulting from low qualities. Top factors identified from site-resource-related category were unforeseen ground conditions, lack of skilled professionals and extreme weather conditions. For successful achievement of project objectives, this study suggests the following guidelines. • Developing the framework: A framework should be prepared project-specific for both the stages, i.e. preconstruction stage as well as construction stage. • Identified overrun factors: Identified overrun factors should be managed as soon as possible to decrease its negative effects and increase positive project outcomes. • Overrun stage: As overrun can occur in any stage from commencement till accomplishment of the project. These overrun factors should be further divided into following stages to have better understanding and control. These stages are feasibility stage, procurement stage, construction stage, operation stage and transfer stage. • Monitor and control: New overrun factors keep on emerging in a construction project. Overrun management is an iterative process with continuous addition of new emerged factor in management plan. This ensures better control over cost and time overruns.

6 Conclusion The findings of this research fill the knowledge gap and discloses the critical overrun factors present in construction industry. Critical overrun factors need to be managed

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Table 3 Ranking of overrun factors using RII Overrun ID

Overrun factor

 W

RII

OR19

Delay in obtaining permission from authorities

429

0.8171

1

OR10

Poor supervision and site management

418

0.7962

2

OR2

Unrealistic time schedule

416

0.7924

3

OR35

Unforeseen ground conditions

413

0.7867

4

OR31

Lack of skilled professionals

409

0.7790

5

OR3

Change in scope of work

401

0.7638

6

OR12

Poor leadership and management qualities

400

0.7619

7

OR36

Extreme weather conditions

398

0.7581

8

OR7

Rework due to error in execution

397

0.7562

9

OR15

Penalties resulting from low qualities

396

0.7543

10

OR9

Slow decision-making from owner

393

0.7486

11

OR44

Design changes

387

0.7371

12

OR1

Poor preliminary estimates and understanding

383

0.7295

13

OR30

Poor labour productivity

381

0.7257

14

OR11

Improper planning during bidding stage

380

0.7238

15

OR32

Use of improper construction methods

373

0.7105

16

OR16

Conflict between owners and other parties

371

0.7067

17

OR28

Inadequate experience of contractor

369

0.7029

18

OR43

Unrealistic inspection and testing methods

368

0.7010

19

OR4

Disputes in contract documents

367

0.6990

20

OR13

Poor means of contracting

365

0.6952

21

OR17

Changes in government regulations and laws

362

0.6895

22

OR42

Delay in inspection and testing

359

0.6838

23

OR23

Slow response by the consultant’s engineers to inquires

357

0.6800

24

OR33

Shortage of manpower

355

0.6762

25

OR21

Working on multiple projects at same time

352

0.6705

26

OR18

Delays in contractors claims settlements

351

0.6686

27

OR40

Change in material prices or price escalation

348

0.6629

28

OR41

Inefficient use of equipment

344

0.6552

29

OR20

Financial constraints of contractors

343

0.6533

30

OR22

Lack of motivation for contractor, e. g. Incentives

342

0.6514

31

OR24

Bribes and corruption

340

0.6476

32

OR37

Inaccurate specification

339

0.6457

33

OR5

Lack of similar work experience

338

0.6438

34

OR14

Poor organizational structure for client or consultant

335

0.6381

35

OR6

Frequent change of sub-contractors

334

0.6362

36

Rank

(continued)

Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost and Time Overruns …

61

Table 3 (continued) Overrun ID

Overrun factor

 W

RII

Rank

OR29

Consultant or architect’s reluctance for change

332

0.6324

37

OR34

Site accidents due to negligence

330

0.6286

38

OR39

Delay in handing over of site

329

0.6267

39

OR26

Theft of material

324

0.6171

40

OR27

Knowledge on construction regulations

321

0.6114

41

OR38

Site accidents due to lack of safety measures

317

0.6038

42

OR25

Hostile political conditions

309

0.5886

43

OR8

Improper knowledge of materials required

297

0.5657

44

Table 4 Categorization of top 15 critical overrun factors Critical overrun factors categorization

RII

Overall ranking

Ranking within category

Project Unrealistic time schedule

0.7924

3

1

Change in scope of work

0.7638

6

2

Rework due to error in execution

0.7562

9

3

Poor preliminary estimates and understanding

0.7295

13

4

Poor supervision and site management

0.7962

2

1

Poor leadership and management qualities

0.7619

7

2

Slow decision-making from owner

0.7486

11

3

Improper planning during bidding stage

0.7238

15

4

0.8171

1

1

Penalties resulting from low qualities 0.7543

10

2

Management

Legal and constraints faced Delay in obtaining permission from authorities Site and resource Unforeseen ground conditions

0.7867

4

1

Lack of skilled professionals

0.7790

5

2

Extreme weather conditions

0.7581

8

3

Design changes

0.7371

12

4

Poor labour productivity

0.7257

14

5

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before it can negatively affect construction project. Poor management and execution of tasks in project will require extra resources to get back on track. So, overrun factors should be managed as soon as they emerge. Site-resource-related category was found to be most critical with five overrun factors in top fifteen. The top five factors recognized with highest value of RII were delay in obtaining permission from authorities with RII value of 0.8171, poor supervision and site management with RII value of 0.7962, unrealistic time schedule with RII value of 0.7924, unforeseen ground conditions with RII value of 0.7867 and lack of skilled professionals with RII value of 0.7790. For different construction projects, overrun factors may slightly vary. Further scope of this study is similar identification and ranking of critical overrun factors can be done project specific, i.e. considering a particular project like building project, infrastructure project, energy project, etc. Region of project can also be considered as sometimes factors change according to the location of the project. So, this research is significant for engineers, project managers, construction practitioners, risk managers, etc. as they have to deal with cost and time overrun in construction projects.

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Factors Influencing the Behavior of Rockfill Materials Uday Bhanu Chakraborty and N. P. Honkanadavar

1 Introduction Due to natural availability, capability to absorb seismic energy and flexibility to adapt in different foundation conditions, the blasted/river bed materials (rockfill) are being used in the construction of earth core rockfill dam (ECRD)/concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD). Availability of modern heavy construction equipment of earth and rock and nearby accessible materials makes such dams cost-effective. In this paper, rockfill material is considered as a shell and provides the internal stability to the structure. Rockfill material is also useful for distributing the water load on a wider foundation. The strength has been influenced by various factors for both riverbed and quarried rockfill material. There are many researchers who studied the rockfill material investigation and reported the results. Prominent among them are Lowe [8], Marsal [10], Marachi et al. [9], Gupta [4], Honkanadavar [14], Honkanadavar and Sharma [15]. Physical properties of rock, from which rockfill material was collected, are represented by fine to medium grained, gray, moderate hard to hard, granite. This study deals with the laboratory investigation of rockfill material mainly large size compression triaxial test and subsequent study and analysis of engineering behavior viz., stress, strain and volume change behavior. Experimental data showed that the results depend on various factors and which influence the shear strength parameter, φ. At the time of laboratory investigation, the highest particle size is reduced to dmax of 25, 50 and 80 mm by using one of the most popular techniques, i.e., parallel gradation technique. At pre-determined relative density (i.e., 87%), nine nos. of large size triaxial tests were carried out on modeled rockfill material under consolidated drained (CD) condition with confining pressure ranging from 4 to 12 kg/cm2 as the height of the proposed dam is approximately 136 m. U. B. Chakraborty (B) · N. P. Honkanadavar Central Soil and Materials Research Station, New Delhi, India e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021 S. Kumar Shukla et al. (eds.), Advances in Geotechnics and Structural Engineering, Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 143, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-6969-6_7

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2 Experimental Studies, Observation and Discussion 2.1 Material Properties Rockfill material used in this investigation was collected from basted quarries. It consists of angular to sub-angular shape. Rockfill prototype material consists of grading material from 600 mm to