Advances in Control Instrumentation Systems: Select Proceedings of CISCON 2019 [1st ed.] 9789811546754, 9789811546761

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Advances in Control Instrumentation Systems: Select Proceedings of CISCON 2019 [1st ed.]
 9789811546754, 9789811546761

Table of contents :
Front Matter ....Pages i-xi
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Review on Power Conditioning (E. P. Jayakrishnan, Jaseena Sayed)....Pages 1-8
Design of CRONE-Based Fractional-Order Control Scheme for BIS Regulation in Intravenous Anesthesia (Bhavina J. Patel, Hiren G. Patel)....Pages 9-25
Design and Implementation of 2-DOF PI Controller Schemes for Conical Tank System with Evaluation on Robustness (Winston Netto, Rohan Lakhani)....Pages 27-39
Development of Control Strategies for Load Demand Management in WECS (R. Latha, P. Bhagavathy)....Pages 41-49
Perceptual Linear Prediction Feature as an Indicator of Dysphonia (Jennifer C. Saldanha, Malini Suvarna)....Pages 51-64
Motion Estimation of Autonomous Vehicle in Noisy Surroundings Using Kalman Filter (Ankur Jain, B. K. Roy)....Pages 65-75
Simultaneous Vehicle Steering and Localization Using UKF (Ankur Jain, B. K. Roy)....Pages 77-87
Hybrid Wideband Digital Integrator (Jayalaxmi Devate, Niyan Marchon)....Pages 89-95
Digital Differentiator and Its Application to Edge Detection (Jayalaxmi Devate, Niyan Marchon)....Pages 97-105
Comparative Study of Anti-windup Techniques on Performance of Adaptive Cruise Control (Ankur Jain, Prangshu Saikia)....Pages 107-116
A Mechanism to Generate Voice for Speech Impaired Through Hand Gesture (M. Madhushankara, Prashanth Kumar Shetty)....Pages 117-125
Robust Controller for Seismic Response Mitigation ( Kavyashree, Shantharama Patil, Vidya S. Rao)....Pages 127-133
Smart Waste Disposal System (H. Sumangala Prabhu, Vaishnavi Bhat, Vidya S. Rao)....Pages 135-142
Enhanced Performance and Robustness of PID Controllers for Unstable Time Delay Systems Using Pole Placement Method (C. RaviKishore, R. Padma Sree)....Pages 143-159
Exponential Cipher Based on Residue Number System for the Security of Text Document (Shivani G. Aithal, Smitha N. Pai)....Pages 161-171
Finite Element Analysis of the Human Eye for a Range of Intraocular Pressure (R. Vivek Suganthan, S. Meenatchi Sundaram, S. Ve Ramesh, Thomas Rinu, R. Pai, Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader et al.)....Pages 173-181
Role of Visible Light Communication in Enhancing the Safety of Cyber-Physical Systems (Aldrin Claytus Vaz, C. Gurudas Nayak, Dayananda Nayak)....Pages 183-192
An Experimental Setup for Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Control for Indirect Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive (B. T. Venu Gopal, E. G. Shivakumar, H. R. Ramesh)....Pages 193-203
A Platform for Free Weight Exercise Monitoring Using Passive Tags (Damayanti Bhattacharya, K. Aneesha Acharya)....Pages 205-214
Analysis of Stiction Fault in Pneumatic Control Valves (Bhagya R. Navada, K. V. Santhosh)....Pages 215-226
Joint Angle Trajectory Tracking and Vibration Control of a Two-Link Flexible Link Manipulator (TLFM) in the Presence of Unmatched Disturbances (Kshetrimayum Lochan, Jay Prakash Singh, Binoy Krishna Roy)....Pages 227-239
Performance Analysis of a Tiltrotor UAV Flight Stability Using PID Controller (Navya Thirumaleshwar Hegde, V. I. George, C. Gurudas Nayak)....Pages 241-251
Synchronisation Between Two Uncertain Highly Complex Hyperchaotic Systems in the Occurrence of Unmatched Disturbances Using Disturbance Observer-Based Adaptive SMC (Jay Prakash Singh, A. B. Sarkar, Kshetrimayum Lochan, Binoy Krishna Roy)....Pages 253-265
Smart Interacting Mirror on the Wall (Rohan V. Ranjith, Punya Gulati, Jeane Marina Dsouza)....Pages 267-279

Citation preview

Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 660

V. I. George B. K. Roy   Editors

Advances in Control Instrumentation Systems Select Proceedings of CISCON 2019

Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering Volume 660

Series Editors Leopoldo Angrisani, Department of Electrical and Information Technologies Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy Marco Arteaga, Departament de Control y Robótica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, Mexico Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi, Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, Delhi, India Samarjit Chakraborty, Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, TU München, Munich, Germany Jiming Chen, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Shanben Chen, Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China Tan Kay Chen, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore Rüdiger Dillmann, Humanoids and Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany Haibin Duan, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, China Gianluigi Ferrari, Università di Parma, Parma, Italy Manuel Ferre, Centre for Automation and Robotics CAR (UPM-CSIC), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Sandra Hirche, Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Science, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany Faryar Jabbari, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA Limin Jia, State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China Janusz Kacprzyk, Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland Alaa Khamis, German University in Egypt El Tagamoa El Khames, New Cairo City, Egypt Torsten Kroeger, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Qilian Liang, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA Ferran Martín, Departament d’Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain Tan Cher Ming, College of Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore Wolfgang Minker, Institute of Information Technology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany Pradeep Misra, Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA Sebastian Möller, Quality and Usability Laboratory, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany Subhas Mukhopadhyay, School of Engineering & Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, Manawatu-Wanganui, New Zealand Cun-Zheng Ning, Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Toyoaki Nishida, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Federica Pascucci, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi “Roma Tre”, Rome, Italy Yong Qin, State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China Gan Woon Seng, School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore Joachim Speidel, Institute of Telecommunications, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany Germano Veiga, Campus da FEUP, INESC Porto, Porto, Portugal Haitao Wu, Academy of Opto-electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China Junjie James Zhang, Charlotte, NC, USA

The book series Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering (LNEE) publishes the latest developments in Electrical Engineering - quickly, informally and in high quality. While original research reported in proceedings and monographs has traditionally formed the core of LNEE, we also encourage authors to submit books devoted to supporting student education and professional training in the various fields and applications areas of electrical engineering. The series cover classical and emerging topics concerning: • • • • • • • • • • • •

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V. I. George B. K. Roy •

Editors

Advances in Control Instrumentation Systems Select Proceedings of CISCON 2019

123

Editors V. I. George Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering Manipal Institute of Technology Manipal, Karnataka, India

B. K. Roy Department of Electrical Engineering National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam, India

ISSN 1876-1100 ISSN 1876-1119 (electronic) Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering ISBN 978-981-15-4675-4 ISBN 978-981-15-4676-1 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4676-1 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Preface

Control Instrumentation System (CISCON) is the annual conference event organized by the Department of instrumentation and control engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology. The department initiated CISCON in the year 2004 to provide a platform for its first batch of B.E. in instrumentation and control engineering students to have interaction and exchange of ideas with their counterparts in and outside the institution. This is first of its kind in the institute and under the able leadership of Dr. V. I. George. With very few institutes in the country offering this specialized interdisciplinary course, people working in both Instrumentation and Control Engineering sought after for this conference every year and this has gained lots of recognition. The conference has been sponsored by national research organizations like Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to name a few. The proceedings of CISCON has been brought out regularly since its inception. In 2015, it was decided to bring out the published papers in Scopus indexed journals to give additional incentive to authors who put forward their research articles to CISCON, and the same trend has continued till 2017 with the rapid increase in submission. In 2018, presented papers were published in Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering published by Springer Nature. The conference has attracted a large number of papers in varied disciplines like process control, automation, renewable energy, robotics, image processing, sensor and instrumentation, etc. Out of the total 85 papers submitted, 76 papers were sent for double-blind review after preliminary inspection and plagiarism check. Out of these, 24 papers have been accepted and presented in the conference and would be considered for publication in this book as chapters. We believe that the proceedings of the conference will be well received by researchers working in the domain and get inspiration for budding researchers to explore more into the varied domains in which the papers are presented. The papers presented in this proceedings are mainly in the domain of process control,

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Preface

automation, instrumentation, robotics, image processing and many more. The readers of this proceedings will get an insight into the varied areas in which contemporary research is being carried forward in this domain and get started to go ahead. These papers will give openings for the beginners and also the direction for those who are working in these specific domains already. We are confident that the proceedings will be accepted by prospective researchers very well and give encouragement for us to go ahead with organizing CISCON every year with lot many new ideas and scope. This event was made possible by the utmost support from Chancellor of MAHE Padmashree Awardee Dr. Ramadas M. Pai, Pro Chancellor Dr. H. S. Ballal, Vice Chancellor Dr. Vinod Bhat, Registrar Dr. Narayana Sabhahit, Chief Warden, Section Heads of finance, transport, accommodation and other logistic services and they deserve our heartfelt gratitude. Director of Manipal Institute of Technology Dr. Srikanth Rao, Joint Director Dr. B. H. V. Pai and Dr. Dayananda Nayak, the Head of the Department, Instrumentation and Control Engineering, deserve lots of appreciation for their constant guidance and motivation. The convener of the conference, Dr. Santhosh K. V., deserves a special recognition for his several months of untiring work towards this conference. Our sincere gratitude to the administrating staffs of Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal Institute of Technology and also the Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering for their wholehearted support in making the conference event. Our sincere acknowledgement to the unanimous technical reviewers, to all contributing authors for taking time and effort to send their research work and adhering to all review comments and formatting requirements. We also wish to place our gratitude to the Springer Nature for accepting our request to publish the accepted/presented papers in CISCON 2019. Finally, our acknowledgement for all who have directly or indirectly helped us in organizing this event successfully and bring out this proceedings. Manipal, India November 2019

Prof. V. I. George Prof. B. K. Roy

Contents

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Review on Power Conditioning . . . E. P. Jayakrishnan and Jaseena Sayed

1

Design of CRONE-Based Fractional-Order Control Scheme for BIS Regulation in Intravenous Anesthesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bhavina J. Patel and Hiren G. Patel

9

Design and Implementation of 2-DOF PI Controller Schemes for Conical Tank System with Evaluation on Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . Winston Netto and Rohan Lakhani

27

Development of Control Strategies for Load Demand Management in WECS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. Latha and P. Bhagavathy

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Perceptual Linear Prediction Feature as an Indicator of Dysphonia . . . Jennifer C. Saldanha and Malini Suvarna Motion Estimation of Autonomous Vehicle in Noisy Surroundings Using Kalman Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ankur Jain and B. K. Roy

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Simultaneous Vehicle Steering and Localization Using UKF . . . . . . . . . Ankur Jain and B. K. Roy

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Hybrid Wideband Digital Integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jayalaxmi Devate and Niyan Marchon

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Digital Differentiator and Its Application to Edge Detection . . . . . . . . . Jayalaxmi Devate and Niyan Marchon

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Comparative Study of Anti-windup Techniques on Performance of Adaptive Cruise Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Ankur Jain and Prangshu Saikia

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Contents

A Mechanism to Generate Voice for Speech Impaired Through Hand Gesture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 M. Madhushankara and Prashanth Kumar Shetty Robust Controller for Seismic Response Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Kavyashree, Shantharama Patil, and Vidya S. Rao Smart Waste Disposal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 H. Sumangala Prabhu, Vaishnavi Bhat, and Vidya S. Rao Enhanced Performance and Robustness of PID Controllers for Unstable Time Delay Systems Using Pole Placement Method . . . . . . 143 C. RaviKishore and R. Padma Sree Exponential Cipher Based on Residue Number System for the Security of Text Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Shivani G. Aithal and Smitha N. Pai Finite Element Analysis of the Human Eye for a Range of Intraocular Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 R. Vivek Suganthan, S. Meenatchi Sundaram, S. Ve Ramesh, Thomas Rinu, R. Pai, Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Manali Hazarika, and H. Girish Role of Visible Light Communication in Enhancing the Safety of Cyber-Physical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Aldrin Claytus Vaz, C. Gurudas Nayak, and Dayananda Nayak An Experimental Setup for Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Control for Indirect Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 B. T. Venu Gopal, E. G. Shivakumar, and H. R. Ramesh A Platform for Free Weight Exercise Monitoring Using Passive Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Damayanti Bhattacharya and K. Aneesha Acharya Analysis of Stiction Fault in Pneumatic Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Bhagya R. Navada and K. V. Santhosh Joint Angle Trajectory Tracking and Vibration Control of a Two-Link Flexible Link Manipulator (TLFM) in the Presence of Unmatched Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Kshetrimayum Lochan, Jay Prakash Singh, and Binoy Krishna Roy Performance Analysis of a Tiltrotor UAV Flight Stability Using PID Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Navya Thirumaleshwar Hegde, V. I. George, and C. Gurudas Nayak

Contents

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Synchronisation Between Two Uncertain Highly Complex Hyperchaotic Systems in the Occurrence of Unmatched Disturbances Using Disturbance Observer-Based Adaptive SMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Jay Prakash Singh, A. B. Sarkar, Kshetrimayum Lochan, and Binoy Krishna Roy Smart Interacting Mirror on the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Rohan V. Ranjith, Punya Gulati, and Jeane Marina Dsouza

About the Editors

Dr. V. I. George completed his B.E. in Electrical Power Engineering (1983) from Mysore University, M.Tech. (1987) in Instrumentation and Control Engineering from NIT Calicut and Ph.D. (2004) in ‘Robust Control of Dynamic Systems’ from NIT, Tiruchirappalli. He joined as Faculty in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in the year 1985, 1992 promoted as Reader, 2004 as Professor and Head of the Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering (ICE). He was the elected Vice President of the Systems Society of India during the period 2005-07 and also Vice President of ISSE 2014 onwards. He is a Fellow of Institution of Engineers India, Fellow of Systems Society of India, Senior Member of IEEE, Fellow of Indian Society of Systems for Science and Engineering (ISSE), and Life Member of ISTE. He has published more than 172 research papers in peer-reviewed national and international journals, and conference proceedings. He received the Vikram Award instituted by the Systems Society of India, Fellow award from ISSE and Distinguished Alumnus award from MIT Manipal. In 2016, Dr. V.I. George received the Lifetime Achievement Award for his contribution and achievements in the field of control systems instituted by Venus International faculty awards. In 2012, he published a textbook on Digital Control Systems. Dr. B. K. Roy received his B.E. from NIT Silchar in 1985, M.Tech. and Ph.D. in Control Systems from IIT Kharagpur in 1989 and 1998, respectively. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam, India. Dr. Roy has 33 years of teaching experience. He has been actively involved with various administrative activities both at departmental and institute levels. He is a member of many professional bodies like The Institute of Engineers (India), IEEE, ISA, Senior Member of International Association for Computer Science and Information Technology and a Life Member of ISTE and SSI. He works in the field of application of linear and nonlinear control systems, nonlinear dynamics, chaos theory, control and application of chaos theory, fault detection and diagnosis, railway safety, image processing, robotics and control. Dr. Roy has published more than 80 papers in international journals, 10 papers in national journals, more than 90 papers in international conference proceeding and 8 book chapters. xi

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Review on Power Conditioning E. P. Jayakrishnan and Jaseena Sayed

Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an attractive solution to much security, environmental and process monitoring problems. One of the challenges that we face while deploying wireless sensor networks is the provision to power them up. Normally, like any electronic system, we use batteries. Batteries have many drawbacks such as short lifetime, periodic on-site checkup and maintenance and need regular replacement. This causes a decrement in the reliability of the system under concern. Thus, any alternate solution is to be devised. This leads us to focus on the area of energy harvesting. This work focuses on the vibration-based energy harvesting, specifically using piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectric materials produce an alternating voltage upon application of a mechanical strain; hence, we need to rectify the output from the piezomaterial for it to be fed as an input supply to the sensor networks. The physical dimensions and material properties highly influence the production of voltage due to the varying strain on the piezomaterial. The resonance frequency which produces a voltage in the range of 3–3.3 V is found, tested and obtained in real time. Keywords Wireless sensor networks · Energy harvesting · LTSpice · Battery · PZT · PVDF

1 Introduction The idea of widely interconnected, dynamic and rapid sensing and computing networks has been developed for many decades. The combination of sensing and wireless communication has led to the development of WSNs. The basic building blocks a sensor node has are (i) sensing subsystems to read or acquire the data, (ii) a subsystem to process the data, (iii) a wireless subsystem for communication, also the power supply; usually a battery is used to power the subsystems. Generally, it is very difficult or sometimes impossible to recharge the batteries depending on the terrain E. P. Jayakrishnan · J. Sayed (B) TKM College of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala, India e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020 V. I. George and B. K. Roy (eds.), Advances in Control Instrumentation Systems, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 660, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4676-1_1

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or geography where the sensors are installed, and they will be very large in number. Wherever the site of installation be, the purpose of continuous functioning must be met; to fulfill this requirement needs periodic onsite checkup and maintenance act, which may take a long time to process and face a delay in the duty assigned with the networks which is not a good sign. This difficulty must be overcome by any methods, which can extend the lifetime of battery without exceeding the budget of the overall system. Among the three subsystems described, the communication subsystems consume more energy than remaining two. It is seen that the supply voltage of using majority of sensor platforms is in the range from 2.7 to 3.3 V, so the task of designer of harvesting system is to have a voltage of 3.6 V, to meet the requirements. The challenges to be dealt with the battery-powered networks are the current leakages that consume the battery even if it is not in use, the weather conditions to which the batteries are subjected to and resultant chemical leakages that can cause environmental problems [1]. Limited energy density of batteries is also a limiting factor in these operations. What happens as the consequence of these limiting factors is that the battery drains much before its approximated life span depleting the efficiency of the node.

2 Literature Review Vibration-based energy harvesters have been a serious topic of research for powering the wireless sensors for over a decade. Even if the methodology adopted or ways travelled differ by each research, the prime goal is to utilize the vibration energy from the ambient environment and power the low power electronic loads such as wireless sensor nodes. The typical discussion on energy harvesting covers the means such as electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric based [2]. Each of these techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages; of these three, the one special with piezomaterials are that they do not want a separate power source to operate, and they are basically economic, less complex in structure and improved power density [3–5]. Such materials when stressed by a mechanical force generate an alternating voltage, and this is called the direct piezoelectric effect; the reverse also happens where an electric field tends to deform the material [6]. Several literature so is available in this area of research, and all of them have the common subsystems for the piezo-system; they are piezoelectric transducer, rectifier, power converter and the load. The transducer converts the vibrational energy into electrical energy which is harvested by the converter to drive the load. The load may be discontinuous or continuous with low duty cycle. There are piezoelectric ceramics and films; the selection of material depends upon the application and medium of application; for example, when we use the system in a moist atmosphere, there is a chance of deterioration of the material and loses its piezoelectric property. Lead zirconium titanate materials are used widely, because the efficiency with which it generates a voltage with proportion to the mechanical force is higher than other available materials. The operation of piezomaterial is characterized by certain constants, the charge constant and the voltage

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Review on Power Conditioning

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mode constants. Two modes of operation are denoted by d31 and d33 mode. If the voltage output and the responsible force are perpendicular to each other, it is the d31 mode. Coupling factor of d33 mode is generally higher than that of d31 mode for all piezomaterials, which shows a higher efficient conversion [8]. It is mentioned that the material generates and ac voltage, requires rectification and conditioning. The diode rectification and further DC-DC converter stage are there. The disadvantages of them being, losses due to high input currents and forward voltage drops which could not be eliminated; these two predominantly causes inefficient power conversion [9–11]. A dual polarity boost converter is reported in a direct AC to DC converter [11]. This system has the drawback of having two larger capacitors and inductors, where the discharge of the capacitors result in large voltage drops resulting in the converter response to be slower [12]. The author explains this circuit following the assumption that the periodic excitation and the speed of the mass are in phase. In case of frequency deviation, the output power reduces. Overcoming this issue requires additional circuitry which again reduces the output power. In case of nonlinear loads, the rectifier circuits are unsuitable for low-voltage applications. Utmost care must be taken while deciding the harvesters, which implies the specificity of the power management circuit to be used.

3 Energy Harvester Description The power generated by the piezoelectric material cannot be directly given to the load under consideration; they have to be properly conditioned. Upon varying vibrations, the piezomaterial generates proportional voltage thereby the power; this is allotted to the power conditioning system. A boost rectifier is used along a buck boost converter for rectifying and boosting the level of voltage from the source, the final output being stored in a battery, viz. Li-ion, a super capacitor, etc. We cannot completely eliminate the dependence on rechargeable battery owing to the reason that the sensor node is not always in high or active state. This method may be thought as a harvest store–use method instead of direct harvest and use method. The intermittency of vibrations or variation in amplitude of vibrations some way drives us to depend on such a method. There we need mechanisms like the maximum power point tracking and power electronic circuits with lower switching losses. In instances we use the battery, in order to protect the battery from the damage due to overcharging and over discharging a battery control unit is needed. It is followed by a regulator, highly efficient in providing the regulated voltage (Fig. 1). A simple selection of piezomaterials is not enough for satisfying the goal of generating the electrical power to drive the load. The kind of piezoelectric material configuration selected depends upon the medium of application, power budget, the cost and size considerations. Like any materials, the vandalism and corrosion stands limiting factors for piezomaterials too. However, the basic and foremost index of selection is the charge and voltage constants. In this work, we focus our work on piezoelectric cantilever beam and piezoelectric disks, both available off the shelf.

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AC/DC

PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL

RECTIFIER

LOAD

BATTERY

REGULATOR

Fig. 1 Block diagram of the energy harvester

Fig. 2 Representation of cantilever beam

While using the cantilever, any one of the ends of the beam is fixed and the next end kept free. In this configuration, when the force is distributed uniformly, the free end starts oscillation and experiences a certain displacement. The property of piezoelectric materials is such that any mechanical impact on it produces a proportional output voltage. Any such changes in physical dimensions of the beam material have direct effect on harvested power. The piezoelectric materials will not produce an output power upon constant application of constant value of pressure; there should always be a gradient of power on the surface of the material and definitely depends on the material selected and the direction of application of pressure. The equivalent structure is shown in Fig. 2. The equivalent circuit is drawn with a resistive load in megaohms, while the capacitor range is in microfarad. The piezoelectric transducers can be modeled as a voltage source in series with a capacitor and resistor or charge source parallel with resistor and capacitor. Figure 3 shows the equivalent circuit of a basic piezoelectric sensor which when excited by a force displaces from its mean position. The two current sources are used to simulate the up and down motions of the sensor used. The power waveform from each of the resistors over a range is shown; the maximum power is ~160 mW from one sensor, but in practical scenario, we cannot expect this value of power (Fig. 4).

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Review on Power Conditioning

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Fig. 3 Equivalent circuit simulated in LTSpice

Fig. 4 Power output from various resistors connected to a single piezosensor

3.1 Power Conditioning Circuit The output power from the vibration energy harvester is comparatively low, which compels us to use a power conditioning circuit. This circuit must efficiently transfer the energy, and the accumulation must be managed well. Figure 5 shows the schematic diagram of the proposed power conditioning circuit, which includes AC-DC boost

Fig. 5 Power conditioning circuit

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E. P. Jayakrishnan and J. Sayed

converter. Some assumptions are made while designing the circuit, main assumption being that the input to the conditioning circuit is a sinusoidal voltage. The input signal frequency is much less compared to the switching frequency of the converter. During the boost operation, voltage across the switch is expressed as V1 (t) = (1 − d1 − d2 )Vin (t) + d2 Vo (t)

(1)

V1 is the voltage across the switch, Vin is the input voltage, Vo is the output voltage,d1 and d2 are the duty cycles of the switches 1 and 2, respectively L=

0.2Ts (Vo − Vin ) i in

(2)

Lithium-ion battery is chosen by considering advantages such as long battery life, low battery cost, very low self-discharge, lightweight, high-energy density of 3.7 V, 150 mAh. The LTC1761 buck regulator is used to provide a regulated voltage of 3.3 V. It draws a supply current of only 20 µA during the operation and