Administration of Indian Resources in the United States, 1933-1941

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Administration of Indian Resources in the United States, 1933-1941

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e w m a a m m m m tm m t hbotkcss

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M Itfc e d in p a rtia l fw lfiX to a it o f tb© requirement# fm Wm do&m® o f B ootor o f FbXXo©osihy# i& th e Bopsoteast o f F o lltio& l SeXmm* in the Graduate QoXXem

o f th e sta te t&iivereXty o f las®

J u ly , 104S

ProQuest Num ber: 10831746

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The q u a lity of this re p ro d u ctio n is d e p e n d e n t upon the q u a lity of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u th o r did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be n o te d . Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will in d ica te the d e le tio n .

uest ProQuest 10831746 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C o p yrig h t of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

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mmmsm&n*

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a ta to to # w ffim tto o r te ® , t o r t s , lottos?® ts m te lltm 8m im © ffio ie lo , p erio d icals* and books# In a d d itio n , smoh natorl&X m s s m K d t o n intom im m a t t o la k e a to to Am& O fflo o , S ta m p o lia , ZtoKM sto; Hod L to A@my# fiod to ko , Sttsmaaotas OooooXlOafcea % © n o y , O&so X a ko , B in so sjo to g t o

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fftosoasliu S iiw r o iH d a ie A o to M to o f tosfctodn& oo a ro t o

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t o s t o t l, ton top &oo, and /XXoa fo r th e ir w t os to r “to o ls o o to tte o f to to fo w a r B rte p fo r h is v & to b lo iisalertonoo la tech***

a&cjuea o f m w m d ii mid to J^rofoasor Porter fo r h is o c^ o o tio a s on m o m * o M o a a p m o M m m a iM tm m

la r t o t o * t o

f in a l t o f t *

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H ito s ^ ta Q fflm M b ^ to o a s X y presided m X ta lo m tc ria lo , t o

Hr# t o h io Biiim oy, F iold Agmb in o t e c o o f orgpEdgation, XoJdg sta to s t o a , B to m p o lis , Blanoooto., has tokoa a personal in te re s t in t o

~ It *

ooric by a t a lt iio e m m te lp fa l a o g g to ta ® x to tiy © to jaaterio ls oonyoos o f natwisX®# fte

© u tte r* © w ife & o j* t o s a t e b t o f g r a titu d e f o r t o *

p atien t t o t o a t o t o i i i g ©M in p w t o n g t o typing t o d t e o r t o tta u

f i t t e s t t e r vM u a bX o o t o t o m * #

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VMUL D ifftrM tt * * » * * * # • • * * .......................... 10

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96

f& O f 1W I MI nCfwSX9 X$ay b® aw ilaa« SBw A jfc ^ j.u U l

ft

iba?©© d is tin c t chapters tim e iia# fm tta s w 2ip p fe » 0t o f iw to tb®

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M l fik

t o d f m i tern tbo

&f tm Infewte®* o im m ttr ittit

o f tte fim i ttt&pfetr ism a t$m &x&p m mmntstmbioia. by tte t t e supw lijiaatarfc, 9fetMi ism iit tei© doeom m lim tiogu mmMm MSt Iw d ly &m$liam&* m& &hiMwm mm mmt to distant b o a tin g aohooie to bo oOM&aO* ite osq^aaaie®* 5b the professional m m M m m th * sm te sm tim o m e am ssspm im by th o o m ^X X a ta m t o f p p m m io tto l a m to e ta lco X d iv is io n © a t bh® itm to g tc s a G ffio© d u rin g bh® m o m atlagfrasr* fh® ©onoontm bian o f p ro fe s s io n a l and to o lm ic a l in tb® Wmtdsig&tm O ffio © vowatod in a aotod S rapror^^E t in

f r t i t y o f m fe pwfawod cm the In X935 am i t

Chapter ttas© began

by gmsttoaX project© being erooutod in

XmaX nm m in o o o p w a tio a w ith XoeaX groom * Sk® D is te ie t am W a s h in g to nO ffice©w os a e s re iymmm tom end In tb ed e v e lo p m e n t of ■g^.

XooaSL psfo^rai^Se

Gmm&mimmr 0o ilie r reecs&aam® th e p ro je c t ootbodp by noons o f i&sXob Xoeal agam ies m y stud y p ro je ct© to bo undw taken. TOes© p ro jo e te to iM

than beooae th e &rpexnpc&taX program fo r th a t aroa*

L

fu n c tio n o f th e D is ty le b

o ffic e s is to psmMm

le e o l egaaal«9 w ith w perfc sdrie© m i b® s iip e w ls e te c h n ic a l o p e ra tio n s*

A noasaal, healthy*

smmwM? a c tiv ity is replacing in s tltm tto -

0 % im m I c v e re m tra lis & tie i* o f a d m ln is tra tie s . in yemhiagbcgu p i H te r * t e a t t e a t te ® t t e u su ally © ® te te d

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hmm&mlm*

©eeaicm of

t t e pe&iey o f

bmmm m m p o s itiv e , M m * 4®' o f M m s y a , 1807*

t e a t y teetn g 00 ® p eliay mm® to a « m t e » on Iteoh 3 , 18711 through tli® In d ia n a p p ro p ria tio n etet fo r th e fis c a l yoocr 1872* 41 m t t e posrfeaiBte to te a ty snaMngs fli£ K lS S l* t e m f l o no Indian notion os? trib ® w ith in tW tS itS l S ta te t e l l bo a te te e % © d o r re o o g n ite 0 0 on t e ^ t e o n t n o tio n , tr ib e , o r power w ith v&mz th e TMIbed State® 38®y e o n te e t by tre a ty ! S y a y tte ffu rte r* $ha* nothing te o ln o te a te d t e l l b® e m ia te S a lS ^ S S B B E te os? im pair th® o b lig a tio n o f any te a t y heretofore la w fu lly nod® and r a tifie d w ith any te fc Indian n atio n 03? t3?ib©*w m m S rp M b o r 17, 1778, t® n o te 3 , 1871, m m r a tifie d between the

371 tre a tie s

and Indian trib e® * FollowtnG tho

tre a ty miSdng p®»iodt tb© m m m m m t continued to nocotiot© w ith Indian tribe® through in fe rn a l o ^ o am it® * *8b©®e Gc^roeosato boooao © ffeotiv© thrm ^b t e i r mmismmt in to law by Congress, but in tho absence o f a p M t publi® lands could be set aside fo r In d ian u®o by set o f Congress o r by executive order.

42

Tjm reservation pea?iod te n d e d tx m

diooontinmBoc o f

^

tre a ty making la 1871 to tho e m o to a t o f tho a X lo to a t law In 108?*

f h ls poriod m o eharast& rtod by tho segregation o f Indians on

ix

yeeosm tio& s m& tho loom aoo o f s&tiona# B sm sgtost tho period* reservation agent®

em p lote adm ini^sm tive o o a tm l oritat@ pmoattftX* Hatter® gmmmXty offootln a policy* work taLottvo to leg isla tio n * decision© , taaft m iito ore liko* w ise tbo roapom iblX lty o f tbo Diameter o f tatfa#

01

Xme&iately aUbegdlmte to tbo D irector o f ta d a io tbo A ssistan t B ta o to r o f ta d o » aid the A ssistan t to tbo D irector of

ta d a # tibo A ssistan t D irector performs o ffice dot loo durinc tho absonoo

-



© f th® D ire c to r **aa iroeli o th e r m k m ~m may presorlfe© * Tho A s s is ta n t to th e D ire c to r a te is foseesdatisg p o lic ie s , ro^iotas cM oigao QO£m3$oml®m& tm t e s p e c ia lly th a t re la tin g to th e «aoefe o f tb o OH and Oos S e c tio n , tb o 1*an& C laim s Section*. and p a rt o f tb o m srk o f tb o Land

M Jw tam t se c tio n .

eg

fb a soste o f the l*m& B i r is t e i s oanp&£ixi@ I*aM O la te , O il os& Qas, M

ew ng s ix o m ttm a

l M $n stem b* M

Beoor&s,

D rafting, and Land /c^ u lsltio n * B u tte pstfoa»wfi by tb» %m& S l a t e Section o o s s is t o f preparing report© ©as b i l l s introduced i s Congress tim tb s oottlsnacattt o f tr ib a l © la t e , J#©t t o ©u©h rssXe® t o

XMmios?

r e g u x a jtto ®

# w *p?toh^ purpose©* Xaaao®

m

Bmmtms® o f

to

tb o

to p yo o to ®f$ m tm m ® mm p aMto allott® ©

o r M e h elm * w tsajptood f t * t o to n o ftt o f the aX X o tto a t th e

O toorotioe o f too

o f th e Interior*

igs&

oas iim ixxotto ftteetvetiee® * Xoeeoa op® ato© tilth oce^ esailm * I f l i t t l e 9

!2,090*787

4,888,609 8 ,178,m

M

AM w

1 ,6 0 7 ,m s

867,198 808*091 186,190

MMBVfcwMi

3iijff3«!Sr^t3®E*

Xg&*$m

4m*m&

l 947f>,X51 780,99$

M o

_ „

W to l

mffUm

fa ta l

B asest fo r *h© £fem$© XaMs in

xm , w

■|T,TSl

and Horr iJcactoo, the

Indian ranges are ems&m<fe&y otoctad# Sosso o f ©ho wwfctaoefcom 300000130 or© afcoctei. mmh tsete? th e ir norm ! earryina ©apaoitloa* Indian

ltve&fc©©& may $$p&S w ithin reasonable lim its without dXatuifcinc the oocsioEsi© teXame*

179

• m

nwBS cMam too te c a ffie te & t approbate© Xcm©* m f« e » te

m m&tokpIm

m i ppopertiess has

p n ^

o f In a im

s e rio u s ly baM im pped*

f t e tro w in g up © f m tm m to&m tmmtoo in to a llo tM tte rnd th e opening

o f ow e reroo^tesi® to hasesfessi sa tw teve tMfstssftea a Xon^tesssa ' ----- — -

3 fspaa sd H ln g 0pm *» felons. W$m f t e d tasofe® o f feta mtarprta® on Tam 30, 1938, c m ta iv o o f sfem psgo, m ro m t a i a t #X#lia » il0 * 0 ^ i, m i feta liq u id aoaots • © to ta l fa r

prodoeiag t o o r t o s o o financed u ltb la t o © rm to l goal*

*ia© o f M la s^ o w to roaooreea by proaa©, and to toooh conservation o f

”T© toaeSi mm& tym tm m t o t o s t o p rin cip les by providing advisory# t o t o t o , t o m sgm vtary a to to m © In pXoanlng, toroiopixig, t o t o e t i t o n g o f t o o t o l t opeyatitms o f to to o m p o t o t o s , a a q p a to ta e * © toll? ©©soto** ttam * t o t a f t o t i t o * t o In t o © o to mm m $& wm o f

© toib fto» «*

Although t o t o Act© to © t o t o t t o t o &ppr©p?tetiaa o f €88*000*008 t o 0 m v t o t o f t o « Cong**** t o t o t o l y a$p?op?teb©&#

to to o m $ %$m§ m to M to to

#

$ M M #ooo t o to n * t o #4 0 0 * 0 0 0 t o ao»

egapmto# i f to o a p p ro p ria tim , im m - m m to © to t o

mm o f §0*071*439, t o

© t o it to!@ © ttans tets&iiag #§#0©s*l40*©9 w m

©pp?©to by t o o b 1 , 1940,

S0LS

Tim fo llm lssg tabu lation 1© fmm tb# ©iByy^l report o f tlso tod to? to ttomik i w

toSsg too 00, xoni®^

A|?ipp0priatl,csns to r Eovolvteg Credit toad© IjjP L U

m M37 1988 IW 1940 IS , 1942

. .t o r t W 3908T

2,800,000 080,000 820,000 400,000 400,000 249,600 280,000

MEilnlGtraticai W ffiK o

80,000 65,000 128,000 120,800 122,800 122,800 138,700

O ap lto t o d

2,480,000 018,000 898,000 279,800 277,800 127,100 114,300

By 194S awe than one-half o f the $10,000,000 authorised by bh® Sadis® Heoreaniisaticin dot w ill haro bean appropriated. note tho gradual deesease to the a x n t appropriated fa n 1936 to 1942 ana tho gradual toersaa® la the costs o f atatototsation fo r tho saao period. Appropriations fo r adatoistaution ansant to approEiaatoly 14 par cent

M S ~

Off tl5Q $1830 ISfeiefc X3Q&Q

ffSPQBI 1906 to 18£3*

tlio

m®mm® i&m 19Q6 to 194£, tho e&pitol fmfi off @4f£88»4O0 $mtm&s tm loam* ^^s^wiattom tm m$mmm of admlnistratim mt vm& in assy ffiooal ©easy mar until total ate adElMotnatlw

ad? ©aep©t3il©&#

w i ^ w l » i»r » i ia r

B a te © on In d ia n trib e to abi© to te o s r

ffr ® th e

B m lv ia ® O ro& it Fund# i t s M i bo im osrpos^toa* In a d d itio n to ad op ting a o o n e tltu ftlo s i and t H M

no p a ir e d n o te tb * 3 M to n B o w p a to tita n

A rt, tlao trib e M r t alo© ret© t i p

end aooopt a © h a rto r off Ij^ o rp o ra ^

tlcm # eff&er whieh th e te lb © ssny a p p ly a te a to m m a I t e

p w M c 4 by

th e Sooroboyy off th© tn tm im * Wfam the application fa r th e %®m is eaBS&ofce&j, i t to d e liv e re d to th e

m tportetojatom t, vM> in

tiom te n r ta i t to t i » Smmtmy off the ift& erinr* it f to r b© ho© ®i>|stwM th e loan, © tK s^ to n b Qt&op e m r in g the beareri© and ©©naitlono i i arabmtbbod t o bh© tr ib a l e a e r m tltin through th© mmnsmtotm mspm* tetoodooff* I t I mmhmnm effteetire ^ ta a tfeo t fih & l e©rp©r®bion & © lIrw o

to bb© im posrinlm tait th e repaired ©opiee# vftiieb isaab bo retumod uifcMn n in ety day© ffo llerta g approval off tho loon % tho S e m ta r y off th© inte& er# ^ho loon agpremont compsrUsoo th e approved application* 310 o o ^ o fftin ^ p a p m # m

i t e l © rte * ©ml not© 03? note©#

B o te * a tr ib a l ©orsxxmtion 3 M

application fo r a loan# on

appm taal i s mdo off reservation assets# tc ttm S m x^iieh tho tr ib o I s ready to

a te it© fin a n cia l and buslnos© polioioo* Iff tho land

io t e th e amufft part divided in to IMivi&iMl ©UotaMcts# a raacfcer off

- 149 ~

separate p rojects nagr b® a

«M&© i f i t i s tr lb o lly omoft*

en terprise w ill perhaps be In orta?.

aeeiaed

a® TO S ieg© e u t i l r e m i t fro m a e a r e f u l a ttfe iy a f r e s e r v a t io n reocro rooo

«as& ptom lng; fir s t# th e as& retey o f th e I b t e t e i s aero i t o i y to *$£**** a lean based on a

p S » t m& seeooa# th e eater"*

p riso |» mr® lIM br to bo ©sseeeesfat* AH extremes o f t o s s mm ptaeod tas& iab aly in depooitortoo th a t t e e h im approved by th e Oomiojsionor o f M ia n Affaire* B ote® advene®® ere enie* secu rity wm t be given the g m m m t by th e tr ib a l e e r p m tim # ant e l l ®$m m m by pxs& ietw y note

er

by th e

m e t be evMoneod

n o te # A bond which 10 sa tisfa cto ry to the

ta m ie e im e r o f M ia n A ffaire m e t be ten teh ed i f m o ffic e r o f the tr ib a l corporation to a d ies the m i l t funds* M e those fumSa are te sM

by 0 bcetM gmttsanettt iia b m e M ®a@n&» tosewer# m bona la 330 w p iy e d *

A fte r the trib a l corpom tim feeo somrea a loon from the B m t ir t e C re d it Band* i t m y In t e n p ro vid e loans to eovpom to

m te p ? & te # em pw ativee# sred it m im e* os? i n d M t e l Mla&o* Several procedural oiep s w e necessary before a loan nay bo $m be& by a tr ib a l mrporotioisu The application fo r a loan io i w p r d by an m bem tm a&e&t wos&lnc with th e M ia n . Ho loan i s permitted u n less approved by the cred it a@©ntf the only am o p tim to t e e m l® bain§ e&eoe where th e Oairnioaioncr o f M ia n A ffairs grants th ee In urltia©* or t&ea fu lly ©@eu»e& loons w ill bo mix2 w ithin ono

- ISO

yeaar* a? i t th e mm mt &&m a et mc&ed $&oo9 %&&m these eaa d liioa e, the cred it agwK ussy d elegate to th e j^sarratiar* sw^eetatandwt fin a l mjtfre&ity to approv© the loacu a fte r the ap plication i s aspperea by the c r ed it ageat* i t th w @m® to th e lo c a l ore&ii e c m ltte e fo r oeasMoasa* tic&* oad i t approved* ispooae&s to th© re&osm&ioa o^ceiir&csaaw tm M s rwas®w^«^tese* tti& X m im

by th e rwarr&bia* eoperia-

tw d eat* th e ©ppXioMiou §eea t o the cr e d it egeM la tb s m gim z& a ttim 9 wMX© certain o f the lo w ap p lication s w o t m to the tm O ffice tm tim %

$b* tr ib a l ocrperafctoi M s the r o sp m sib illty o f eepX&isiias to each te sw w p th e e o tis * o f a l l inefcrraw ts that nsod algaiag sad M i tb s tasit o f iiapreeslhg 13p m th e bm vm w the edo$mbe ears o f a l l $r©perty s o w e d t y the X&m ©ad th e i&aeoasity f w ftiX fillia e the p m rfa lw * o f th e loan egreem at. necessary records, f i l e s , and ooeomsts w e t be leapt by tb© tr ib a l aorporaticm* sad signed repeats w&e o s dtejataa by th e oem iesiixQer o f Indian Mf%$m+ ©redXb fund eeeawit® «m to t o leapt separate ttm tb s other eesow b s o f the tr ib a l edeojBBte

mmHtp

4® r e q u ir e d b y th e c o r p o r a tio n

osx

M l le w s «md advances, th e eorpcmafciGs retaining t i t l e to property w t l l th e lo w M e been repaid- O w a s le a i fo r ropaywat w e t bo ra@l&fcors& e t the e g w e y o ffic e o r according to sta te t o * Incase froa c r ed it financed a e t ir it i w , w eb a® crop® w d liv e sto c k , nay oosvo a s

a basis Itor Xmm F lee typos o f oppXleoM® far Ioann or© considered to bo la the preferred 0X000. th e f ir s t ecm elW atiaa 1® give© applicants t&o

jU&

^

pseaeaat m M m m o f prote&lo srueeoss la a prodassbiro project# £ppXi~

cants s&ba an £H3taafe£isl*©a ro tatio n ftr industry asm given second ncKasi&oratioa* W & & oonsM eratioa i s given applicants ta rin g a $*3pii^i®& && fin a n c ia l

t& ilo i n w

tem $m a M gli

iogroo of IMissa Mood ©ro 0 m I M

r&o Wsal

MvpofiMkftlcii &&9Q0 fifbb ironsid&rabian to M lw oCtor&ag udo^a&te #Mr^Wl#W#'

$M&2$ fund#ta s tyn o bt o u b H is s e dfor

03?e d u c a **

t& o m l asirnmm la co n n e c tio n**ifc& $ te erg an lm b i*ma n dwgemtion 0 #a co rp o rateenterprise* « 9 © p bw itet t e c o n s e n ti of tte interior* & ® w m l s w t liswt^ fe ©m m m $ tefw

t o .vm& to pms^mm or of Indian

0f %b&

w a it

tm &® m p

tm mm$M» $ to o $ » $ « w 2&of tea ocm iaaiaa*' is sswaawtorn lo w m too o c s p w ititro s # co rp o rate

fa th e rs # ssw sisM E ts iq p & tiy fe & a *

tevtag o ta ffio & a n t

IM U l d op oaitod a t b te agency o f f te© t o fin a n c e b te jmtpaeod undor**

tf^ j i^ i i Xyyii-^ ^^8jP)j. oasrloS to tsfoft&o yyyi.it ©off j^rsicBao ta&ioso to ta l

IM abtete^ osaoatei §BOOO* $0 tosp its feoosSs and ooecrate in 0 xm££om condition* tlm trltet corporationmm% m qa ir©b o rro w c roto fbw tetsi

ntetewswto and

jm pW Ot to®p record® and nocouefca* m a fo llo w

p ro o a d u ra am tb* O c ra n ls w & te n e r of Indiand ffa lm n

mmh

USB®

iwrd^mot#

tettn ato tribal c o rp o ra tio n ©m yb os o X o c ro a dto onte^oos

u&tx& or© c^m ardoalX y to m o flo la l t o t t o t r it e * C ooperative n?ojoota gnha slto*MK& wmintlm* atero o *a n d000 o f ta rn ra o c iiln o rym y

t o flm noed by te© trltoX o w o r o tio n . A oooporotivo cntorpriao nnnt

omsisfc o f a t XmM tim

Indians

m Imm

ecsp orattou Indian c r ed it m la m m® Of th e Federal Credit Uhion

in a ©bartered m&vs the ygm i&im B

M cred it onions mm ©coperabiv© in

n& teo* tbo m m regntoiostn t&it&k gcm m em m m tivzm &m>ly a lso to

Crop t o n s are ssad© fo r n et im e M t o m n a to in g

cm year, ssith the

th e ©pop© are SnweetcHSU Locma fo r the pusratoe o f

U vootoa^t m®h$ms& end other o ^ ip a s t are m&m&M to r a t m lt m tog&& o f f im ym m * m tm & P j &&$m o f t o m to to c p e m tto e and cred it m t a a m o ftotMMtaaft by th e © tosiotep o f the e^ e g p r to * but in no e m it a^* a t o n aeeeei ton& y year®*0®* fte

tnfrareefe ra te i s ©Ji^tac^^ w th e

fo r

%mm t o tr ib a l zm pom tiom * t o a ©aaeryto ©tog© o f X per © to i® wm^o t o ooror the o^ponooa o f e te ln to w tfm * t a r n , X&ma r e o e to d

trader th e OldtoroHSt ifyidtnii Welfare dot* ^bsrtl^* ii’s dtvidnois and ©Qopopattv o o tw roir d t o e t ly fron th e $or«iiM Jt# t o e a ©arsying © tooo o f S per ©eat* 'trib al ©orper& ttos saoy eto$© a m&tejm in te re st ra te o f S per sent ©fc t o to t o so c ia l t o ©eoaonie 468

ro ^ s lre m fts o f th© i-to ajo Indians*

Buying tho flm a l yoor 1937 t o laboratory t o 1,338 sheep, o f t&ioh 6S9 m *e ©eee* Thea© ©we© war© divided in to fir e graupa, each o f tahieh w

la tarn divided Into oirtooa peas ©eeordlsg to vjocd and

• S0© «•>

body

mmSmmt&m*

S to * p m m® t o ® bred t o w

whioh t o

booa

eto to a fm mmm im m vm m t* M to t to to ta b ility of to roiou®

typo® o f w ool fo® m m $o mgo* © ffcwaj® X M to w * employed to oeavo

rag® o f t o m r lc w grades o f m®%* to®® b le to ta wore judged aeeto** 4-grtt to

to t o i r re la tiv e ^paX ily#

At t o * t o e t o X t o m t o y a r s w te to e d w ith eroasing to © msH m m w ith mto&m m m o f - to M am jo ty p e , T h is e ffo r t AM n o t

isoot with, mmmm beenm® t o wool p t o o t o m s lee® t o la t o t o s s r fo r Indian b a n to r a to too* t o t A m th© ®M type HaroJo to o p * Oroooing M h o n lM M r m

w ith n a tiv e to e p

m m m m to ro & ta to to to

to

mm mm o f

d to p p a to ra m t* t o r n

m®$Mw o f Xoei>® and to I mmmm

y ie ld o f mo3u Th© r e s u lt, to m m * «

a w ool o f t o f t , t o e end

th a t e t o o it o m ob grease* T h is w ool hmmm knotty,

idn$cy t o m

p o o r, X w py rugs* £M h b e tto r fo r rag® lam bom t o Bem ey* ©a

m o l o f th o

bread to e p ,*® 8

Qmm b re e & to in t o

la b o ra to ry d u rin g t o

calendar

193® o o n e le to o f © roesto IJavej© m m w ith Rcmoy t o Corre&talo »

i f A» e ffo r t m a laade in th is re a e o ro li to re ta in t o

d e s ira b le

fle se ® t m llt io s end h t o ib t o o f th e Raw Jo sheep to . to oodbtse those

qmXltt@s w ith t o g reater t o more uniform p ro to tism of tho to rcv o d ty p o s . Bom o f thorn e ffo rt© hare p t o t it o a la rg e r* le s s taap yt o b o to t o t o ®

flo o m to ® t o

Sl&m je parent t o

a body ocsnform tioia

which la m jptoor to that o f t o Usm jo t o e p froa t o standpoint o f p to m tim #

466

T te Bmmjo- Sheep Breeding Laboratory tra® o otG b lio to on a



b a s is *

2X 0



3©iaatiefco h&pod tlia t d m ± m thiB p e rio d a a ffic ic a fc

s tw s rte ? b re e d m

w ild

b© doroX eped wto SseXp tm iM

In to th e Ito r a jo

f&oofcs the desirod points a t $&£&ity Sueu&o* tmm& fleesecs, cmi m ol th a t is adapted to th o ra g

o f th o llO m J® w o e *u w

Getif&ed t*ib& t$w Stomp %rnm$Mm %£fom®8mw fm tho ixsgmm* tm & o f s ta & p im e h w m th e o o t^ X i£ te m t o f m

p a s tw o s *. In 193? a n d

I960 tb s 2tav*|o tr ib e sectspei loon s te rn tb© reMma^s&n© funds fo r th is iNixpNMM#' % t t e us© o f m

pastures* th e liam $m pmpom to inprsr©

tb e lr dsoop by proper fcmw$lu$# octx&rol o f tel^ teg d a tes, cu»d ellnim ** tio a of

sheep loooo 0 * By tho spring o f X9S9 a m i pastures

s b o c M u n til X#h l® i w

project w

M i hm m o o fe M lfltM tiU l 3&© X © « $ fm

t h is

p u li m ©greed* acooriliig to gon m m sit ere& it agmto«

Much to p w ■ c M

mm m&ot

In tho tceftftiouo o f liv e s to c k imoase&mt

m ags th o te lim o # tsso enjoyed th o sfctaiXabtm th a t ocoos through th o

400 oooo^tiotoem t o f good masts*

M outstanding a i^ o f the govesm ent has been th e o a lo^ ^ M it

o f tho 3&mjo Eosoroatloa to poller© the pressure opes i t s poaowroeo. *$Mm e ffo r t hfto besm | « t i o i l y su ccessfu l, but naay p ro to n s y et

am ain to b© a©Xy©&* M tm © s t r a t i® o f aeroral years, Congress, by the s e t o f

S$ap©b 1 , XS39# returned to th e i&wajo Kcrorratloa a tra ct o f land ©©r of tm m planted s mriba? of trees and viw® prMmlngt msatw of tm iM m who how otered fo r tS star no©* tab© how saved seeds; gnsslbar of fto ilio # planting in dry flfMN) yioMs of potato©©* ©chhsg®©* tfnafcoa** ©t#*$ mM>©r ©f W N t of fruit* wgetaEbtai* m ats ©anted and ©attested vote? o f th©a©$

wfJw

o f houses* barm , p ou ltry hmsa&ft* to ile t® *

root collar©* ©fca** w In m m and aM o r being b u ilt s amount of wool tw iw has bought mid ©old, with price® paM? M l of eggs* SKteirt Mile* and hs&tor producers various piaooa of clothing im&® by Hovajo tm tktm i wmfom of droa®©% ^ H a » apram* and iMsoaino* ©t©** 4V9 $fea - m i cmmmt o f c le r ic a l mmlc M o n g lo fl th » c a to n a im m$tem I t a mass o f wro d bap©*1* f© teoop aaemtfc© record® o f then® m attoro would ra q u ir© cm o ffic e o f M tio fc ic te is * da I t is a M c rM e ffo d *

Urn m&motm division w ot s m t lmm%® to sottotca® a© o^tcsaaicm vmfkem a lio itM bo fpood from a la rg o b s te o f th o c le r ic a l wogtu Ho ohouH ho In s tru c tin g th o Indian® in th o ir homes and fie ld s ra th e r them wtsgaa o u t re p o rts to bo m x t to th o WoOhingtosi O ffic e * g a w rm e n t m

'fh©

i l l a ffo rd to ha w axte na lon ts a te ra p o rfo m c le r ic a l

woKle whan loaa mspemiw® ^ X o y e e s can bo O btained fo r th is typ o o f w rfe * fte e © ra o o a m n ta tlo n a re a d ily present tta is o X w ® : f ir s t * a d d lt larv­ a l © x tw s iw w te m

«bo a rc p ro p e rly q u a lifie d ahould bo cs^oyods

aacosjd* c le r ic a l m c ta ra to headl© rm ^jia o mete should bo oeeuro&i

and third* report© Should be s ta n to d is o i oad sim plified* Qaly auoh M ftm m tim as la e sse n tia l fo r eteiM ctra tiv o purposes should bo

©btateed*

* *31V m

m m k m d m tim to the

capacity o f tto spango has

n et a# yet been © sw ifted* $hto p ^ p m la Im ® cmsa&m* The brtmt o f

state; reduction w 0 bo bam® by l a w sta te mmara ta s te r as rteue~ tto a essmot b# eeiispXette by .ramwtog t^ M o s s stools* no

mXtrnim. te a

h e marrived at in rtem togthe stote of law m ar®to afair tear©

of tho m w * 3tw» teri&mbal out tte t m® m&® to a ll bote® rsgatela00 of © to ©tecm»&* mm® of tte p eerWmuSm suffer sw oreh e a d s h ip s *

3&ia iroia©

p e p m te c resu ltM to d istru st a te apposition

t o tho erosion control program* fho Xtete Hirsts A sse^ to ttes

th oT m ta m tio n of

te e o pto th o s e t ill teM o r©te e s ©aMMe® h e te nw o rnM pte o u t* B ten etias. of tte h ates of the large ocm orotol s h e e pm m a rsts c a ton o t b om toJ u s tio © * for tteea omtxe& tew o e o n rtetheir tso1thb ye x ­ ploiting tribal totes* Activities of th otorgsetaisM o te o po e m c s e

■steaM to Just too b© re str ic te d to tho in te re st o f th e toXX steep omar* 3hto teJectiTO might bo stetow te by taxing b ates that ham above 481 a stated AisjMsfW xm Kkmp o f stesp* Improved steep, p ractices are g rea tly n otete cm tho riavajo Iksmamfttosu

comprise toprovte brotetog p ra ctices, a te

tho reduction o f steep tra ilin g * liv e sto c k brotetog i s mecmtrolXed, patelcm ta& y to the sm all bates* Tho btscte run with tho me® a t a l l tim es, v®m&t-to® to tho b irth o f totes about tho f ir s t o f April* which i s at le a s t a ten th too ©arly* to tho 1JavaJo o o ttls iteu stry biOXs run xtfflx the 000s the en tire j w

a te calves arc bom at a l l times*

* ms -

it e b a lit y « f tafen and oato® i s

Mgti attrtej severe* ooia

springs* ®to hyos&to s««MUk sanM b© ©otoa hy aottlng aside a aeg&rafce p&stoo far bmfe « a trolls soft ^th&al&S&g tom far breeding purpose*® issrin® sort&im se&sms of tho year#

48S

t o Hamj© tmSX® hi® sheep w l i mam t o n i s msoeeoary*

Ho tm$M& M i to o p ©ofto! a t M s bsgjBfc aM telv o s hi® to a p hoe® aasb aadka^h and s iw tto ® m l moan* HSw am fiyivtm to mfcm ami then, to o s rta la brcmso^plauts fo r salt®* Tfco sheop floofc i s eom ^antly m th a w m * o f t o a t m tro t* BummssIv® fcm ito g lm @ both the M g e crnd tho ■mmm* By psmvMiiig s w e m l tesir o a tm t m tm rtm p to e s aa& roheirXX**

to tto

o f to t oM imfeMritiag places* xsuoh tm & lteg oot&d ho

t&tsSaotoU I t t o i&nmjo eooM ho fmboomt to hod hi® t o o p out a t

s l 4# j In pto® of thteiwc to ® hook to Mo hogtm* s t i l l wm® tr a ilin g «ouS4 ho M t e t o t o * ^

Bn t o tm & btm o f m ito r development on t o Bacwtjo Ito0orra~ tio n , to r

3Mkso&i ira f t e t&o

o f m ta r m m imiXt* In 1939 t&o

e s s g jo s a ie dm s to s S ^ s & te g ?

projects* W bis* type of sm tw

of tl*o rsmgo* but

4oroXopwt trill not iaorease tbo o&rgyXng i t tgiXX diafcritnsfco isb© Xiveoboel; worn 48$ to oprojects arep ro p js s X yp l& e o d *

area? tao w age* providing In ita wasm ftotionfltf ibo

El^it® iiS^oo lo t X