A Syntactic Study of Tlingit

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A Syntactic Study of Tlingit

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A SYNTACTIC STUDY OF TLINGIT Constance M. Naish Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s

LANGUAGE DATA Amerindian S e r i e s #6

Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s 7500 West Camp Wisdom Road D a l l a s , Texas 75236

PREFACE The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s upon which t h i s present study i s based were undertaken p r i m a r i l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t r a n s l a t i n g p a r t s o f t h e New Testament i n t o t h e T l i n g i t language. T h i s work would n o t have been p o s s i b l e a t a l l w i t h o u t t h e generous h e l p and f r i e n d s h i p of t h e T l i n g i t people themselves. For a l l who have shared w i t h my c o l league and myself the treasures o f t h e i r 1anguage I am most g r a t e f u l . There a r e f r i e n d s i n most of t h e southeastern Alaska communities who have aided i n these s t u dies, b u t p a r t i c u l a r mention must be made o f t h e people o f Angoon, who welconied us and befriended us from t h e beginning; I wish t o express here my g r a t i t u d e t o them all.

I am e s p e c i a l l y indebted t o t h e l a t e Rev. George R. B e t t s , D r . Walter A. Sobol e f f and M r . Robert Zuboff, who have each i n h i s own way c o n t r i b u t e d so much t o o u r understanding of t h e T l i n g i t people and t h e i r language. The t e x t a t t h e end o f t h i s study was given by M r . B e t t s , who most generously gave permission f o r t h e p u b l i s h i n g of any m a t e r i a l s he f u r n i s h e d us. This study i n i t s o r i g i n a l form was presented t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f London i n 1966, i n f u l f i l m e n t o f p a r t o f t h e requirements f o r t h e degree o f Master o f A r t s . I t was undertaken a t t h e suggestion o f colleagues i n t h e Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s and was made p o s s i b l e through t h e kindness o f Professor N.C. S c o t t and h i s s t a f f i n t h e General L i n g u i s t i c s Department o f t h e School o f O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n Studies. I am indebted t o both SIL and SOAS f o r t h e t r a i n i n g I have received i n general 1 i n g u i s t i c s .

I am g r a t e f u l t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Professor R.H. Robins, f o r a l l h i s valuable counsel and c r i t i c i s m s , and f o r h i s g e n e r o s i t y i n g i v i n g of h i s time so f r e e l y on my behal f. My colleagues i n t h e N o r t h Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s as we11 as time f o r t h e w r i t i n g t h i s . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t y p i n g o f t h e manuscript.

America Branch and t h e B r i t i s h Home D i v i s i o n o f t h e have g i v e n much p r a c t i c a l h e l p and encouragement, o f t h i s work. I w i s h t o express my g r a t i t u d e f o r t o Miss Barbara A. Newman f o r undertaking t h e

To my colleague i n t h e T l i n g i t work, Miss G i l l i a n Story, I would l i k e t o express my s i n c e r e thanks f o r her i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement, and f o r t h e many hours o f discussion from which I have always b e n e f i t e d . R e l a t i v e l y minor changes have been made i n t h e body o f t h i s work s i n c e t h e o r i g i n a l t h e s i s was submitted. The m a j o r i t y o f these have been occasioned by t h e d e s i r e t o b r i n g t h i s work i n t o l i n e w i t h Miss S t o r y ' s A Morphological -Study of T l i n g i t , which i s t o be published i n t h e same s e r i e s w i t h t h i s present work. The analysed t e x t a t t h e end c o n s t i t u t e s t h e one major a d d i t i o n . --A

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface L i s t o f Tables L i s t o f Symbols Map o f t h e T l i n g i t Area INTRODUCTION 1.1 The T l i n g i t Language 1 1.2 A Sketch o f t h e Mode1 1 1.3 General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T l i n g i t Grammar

2

THE TRANSCRIPTICN 2.1 S y m b o l i z a t i o n o f t h e Segmental Phonemes 4 2.2 The Phonetic Value of t h e Symbols 4 2.2.1 Consonants 4 2.2.1.1 Obstruents 4 2.2.1.2 Sonorants 5 2.2.1.3 Laryngeal s 5 2.2.2 Vowels 5 2.2.2.1 'Long' and ' S h o r t ' Vowels 5 6 2.2.2.2 A n a p t y c t i c Vowels 2.3 Symbolization o f Suprasegmental and Other Features 2.3.1 Syllables 6 2.3.2 Tone Groups 7 2.4 Synibol i z a t i on and D e f i n i t i o n o f Words 7 2.4.1 D e f i ~ i t i o nof F u l l Words 7 2.4.2 D e f i n i t i o n o f C l i t i c s 8 2.5 Representation o f Morphophonemics 8 2.5.1 V a r i a n t Forms O c c u r r i n g i n Compounds 9 2.5.2 V a r i a n t Forms O c c u r r i n g i n P r e f i x e s 9 2.5.3 V a r i a n t Forms O c c u r r i n g i n S u f f i x e d Stems 9 2.5.4 V a r i a n t Forms O c c u r r i n g i n S u f f i x e s 9 2.5.5 V a r i a n t Forms Occuring i n Words Followed by C l i t i c s TI-IE SENTENCE 3.1 D e f i n i t i o n 11 3.2 The Major Sentence 11 3.2.1 S u b o r d i n a t i o n 11 : 3.2.2 Coordination 13 3.2.3 Parataxis 14 3.3 The Minor Sentence 19 3.3.1 Incomplete Sentences 20 3.3.2 Exclamatory Sentences 21 3.3.2.1 I n t e r j e c t o r y Sentences 21 3.3.2.2 Vocative Sentences 21 3.4 Sentence L i n k i n g 22 THE CLAUSE 4.1 4.2

Definition 23 The Verbal Clause

23

6

10

4.2.1 Classes o f Verbal Clause 23 4.2.1.1 The S i t u a t i o n a l Clause 25 4.2.1.2 The Concomitant Clause 25 4.2.1.3 The Causal Clause 26 4.2.1.4 The Complemental Clause 26 4.2.1.5 The Supplemental Clause 26 4.2.1.5.1 The A d d i t i v e Supplemental Clause 4.2.1.5.2 The F i n a l Supplemental Clause 4.2.2 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Verbal Clause 28 4.2.2.1 The Verbal Phrase 29 4.2.2.2 The Nominal Phrase 29 4.2.2.2.1 The Nominal Phrase F u n c t i o n i n a as4.2.2.2.2 The Nominal Phrase F u n c t i o n i n g as 4.2.2.2.3 The Nominal Phrase F u n c t i o n i n s as 4.2.2.2.4 The Nominal Phrase ~ u n c t i o - i n gas 4.2.2.3 The L o c a t i v e Phrase 32 4.2.2.4 The A d v e r b i a l Phrase 32 4.2.2.5 The Clause ~ a r ~ i n a l - 3 4 4.2.2.6 M u l t i p l e Occurrences o f Phrases 4.2.2.6.1 ~ e s t r i c t e dOccurrences 34 4.2.2.6.2 Free Occurrences 35 4.2.2.6.3 Extensions 36 4.2.2.6.4 Coordination 37 4.2.2.7 Orders o f Occurrence 38 4.2.3 Types o f Verbal Clause 39 39 4.2.3.1 - P a r a d i g m a t i c Clause Types 4.2.3.1.1 The I n d i c a t i v e Clause 39 4.2.3.1.2 The O p t a t i v e Clause 41 4.2.3.1.3 The D e s i d e r a t i v e Clause 41 4.2.3.1.4 The I m p e r a t i v e Clause 42 4.2.3.2 Thematic Clause Types 43 4.2.3.2.1 The T r a n s i t i v e Clause 43 4.2.3.2.2 The I n t r a n s i t i v e c l a u s e 44 4.2.3.2.3 The S t a t i v e Clause 44 4.2.3.2.4 The Impersonal Clause 45 4.3 The Non-verbal Clause 46 4.3.1 The Nominal Clause 46 4.3.2 The L o c a t i v e Clause 47 4.3.3 The U n i t a r y Clause 48 4.4 M o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e Clause 48 4.4.1 Interrogative Modification 48 5- 1 4.4.2 Dubi t a t i v e M o d i f i c a t i o n 4.4.3 Emphasis 51 4

-

I

I 1

I I

I

-__-.-

27 28

Subiect 2 9Object 30 I n d i r e c t Object Extension -

-

- v - - -

31

-

34

I

THE PHRASE AND THE EXTRAPHRASAL WORD CLASSES 5.1 General 53 5.2 D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e Phrase and Phrase Classes 5.2.1 The Verbal Phrase 53 5.2.2 The Nominal Phrase 53 5.2.3 The L o c a t i v e Phrase 53 5.2.4 The A d v e r b i a l Phrase 53 5.3 M a r g i n a l s 53

53

I

5.3.2.2 ~ o s t m a r ~ i n a l s 6 0 5.3.2.2.1 Free Postmarginals 60 5.3.2.2.2 Imperative Postmarsinals 64 5.3.2.2.3 The Temporal ~ o s t m i r ~ i n a l 64 5.3.2.2.4 The Phrasal I n t e r r o g a t i v e Postmarginal 5.3.2.3 Quasi-marginals 65 5.4 S y n t a c t i c Markers 67 5.4.1 The S i t u a t i o n a l S y n t a c t i c Markers 67 5.4.2 The Ad.iunctiva1 S v n t a c-t i c- Marker< . .- . ..- . 68 -5.4.3 The ~ o m ~ l e m e n t a! li y n t a c t i c Marker 68 5.4.4 The S u b j e c t i v a l S-yntactic Marker 68 5.4.5 The Locative s y n t a c t i c Marker 68 5.5 I n t e r j e c t i o n s 69 5.6 The Conjunction 69 -

I

I

I

.

WORD CLASSES 6.1 General 69 6.2 Nuclear Word C l a s s e s 69 6.2.1 The Verb 70 6.2.2 The Nominal 70 6.2.3 The Locative 70 6 . 2 . 4 The Adverb 70 70 6.3 Nuclear Nard Groups 70 6.4 Sate1 1 i t e Word C l a s s e s 6.4.1 The Pronominal 70 6.4.1.1 Functions and Forms 72 6.4.1.2 Semantic C a t e g o r i e s 73 6.4.2 The Demonstrative 75 6.4.3 The D i r e c t i o n a l 77 6.4.4 The Modifier 79 6.5 I n t e r r o g a t i v e Word Class 80 THE VERBAL PHRASE AND THE VERB 7.1 General 82 7.2 Function o f t h e Verbal Phrase 7.3 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Verbal Phrase 7.3.1 The Nucleus 82

82 82

7.3.2 The S a t e l l i t e s 83 7.3.2.1 The Pronominals 83 83 7.3.2.2 The D i r e c t i o n a l s -7.4. Classes o f t h e verb-word 84 84 7.4.1 Axial and A u c i l i a r y Verbs 7.4.2 T r a n s i t i v e , I n t r a G i t i v e , S t a t i v e , and In~personal Verbs 7.5 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Verb Word 85 7.5.1 The Verb Stem 85 867.5.2 The Extensor 7.5.3 The Theme 86 7.5.4 The I n f l e c t i o n 90 7.5.5 The Paradigms 91 7.5.6 The S t r u c t u r e of t h e A u x i l i a r y 94 7.6 Relation o f Paradigms t o Other Elements 95 95 7.6.1 Paradigms Cooccurring w i t h t h e Auxi 1 i a r y 7.6.2 Paradigms Cooccurring wi t h D i r e c t i o n a l s 95 -

I

-

65

84

7.6.3 7.6.4

Paradigms Cooccurring w i t h t h e N e g a t i v e A d v e r b i a l Phrase 96 Paradigms Cooccurring w i t h P a r t i c u l a r S i t u a t i o n a l S y n t a c t i c Markers

THE NOMINAL PHRASE AND THE NOMINAL

.

8.1 General 97 8.2 F u n c t i o n o f t h e Nominal Phrase 97 8.3 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Nominal Phrase 98 98 8.3.1 Type 1: The I n c l u s i v e 8.3.2 Type 2: The Numeral 99 8.3.3 Type 3: The Pronoun 99 8.3.4 Type 4: The A p p e l l a t i o n 99 8.3.5 Type 5: The Noun 99 8.3.5.1 Type 5a: The Type A Noun Phrase 100 8.3.5.1.1 The Nucleus 100 8.3.5.1.2 The S a t e l l i t e s 101 8.3.5.2 Type 5b: The Type B Noun Phrase 105 8.3.5.2.1 The Nucleus 105 8.3.5.2.2 The S a t e l l i t e s 105 8.3.6 The C l ause Constructs 106 8.3.6.1 The A t t r i b u t i v e Clause C o n s t r u c t 106 8.3.6.2 The I n f i n i t i v e Clause C o n s t r u c t 107 8.4. Classes o f t h e Nominal Word 108 8.4.1 Class 1: The I n c l u s i v e 108 8.4.2 Class 2: The Numeral 108 8.4.3 Class 3: The Pronoun 108 8.4.4 Class 4: The A p p e l l a t i o n 109 8.4.5 Class 5: The Noun 109 8.5 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Nominal Word 110 8.5.1 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e I n c l u s i v e , Numeral, Pronoun and A p p e l l a t i o n 8.5.2 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Noun 110 8.5.2.1 The Noun Stem 110 8.5.2.2 The Noun I n f l e c t i o n 112 THE LOCATIVE PHRASE AND THE LOCATIVE 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 9.5 9.5.1 9.5.2

General 112 F u n c t i o n o f t h e L o c a t i v e Phrase 112 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e L o c a t i v e Phrase 113 Type 1: The I n d e f i n i t e L o c a t i v e 113 Type 2: The D i r e c t e d L o c a t i v e 114 Type 3: The Areal L o c a t i v e 114 114 Type 4: The Postposi t i onal L o c a t i v e Classes o f t h e L o c a t i v e Word 115 115 Class 1: The I n d e f i n i t e L o c a t i v e 115 Class 2: The D i r e c t e d L o c a t i v e Class 3: The Areal L o c a t i v e 116 Class 4: The P o s t p o s i t i o n a l L o c a t i v e 116 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e L o c a t i v e Word 116 The L o c a t i v e Stem 116 The L o c a t i v e I n f l e c t i o n 116

THE ADVERBIAL PHRASE AND THE ADVERB 10.1 General 117 10.2 F u n c t i o n o f t h e A d v e r b i a l Phrase 10.2.1 The Negative A d v e r b i a l Phrase 10.2.2 The L o c a t i o n a l A d v e r b i a l Phrase

117 118 120

110

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10.2.3 The A d j u n c t i v a l A d v e r b i a l Phrase 121 10.2.4 The Complemental A d v e r b i a l Phrase 122 10.2.5 The Temporal A d v e r b i a l Phrase 123 10.2.6 The Modal A d v e r b i a l Phrase 123 10.3 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e A d v e r b i a l Phrase 125 125 10.3.1 Type 1: The Nominal Phrase 10.3.2 Type 2: The L o c a t i v e Phrase 127 10.3.3 Type 3: The S a t e l l i t e Word 128 10.3.4 Type 4: The Adverb Word 128 10.3.4.1 The Negative Subtype 129 10.3.4.2 The Complex Subtype 131 132 10.3.4.3 The Simp1 e Subtype 10.3.4.4 The Possessed Subtype 133 10.3.5 Summary o f t h e S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Classes of t h e A d v e r b i a l Phrase 10.3.6 Summary o f Overlap 134 10.4 Classes o f t h e Adverb Word 135 135 10.4.1 Class 1: The N e g a t i v e Word 10.4.2 Class 2: The L o c a t i o n a l Adverb 135 10.4.3 Class 3: The Temporal Adverb 136 10.4.4 Class 4: The Modal Adverb 136 10.5 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Adverb Word 137 10.5.1 M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y Simple Adverbs 137 10.5.2 M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y Complex Adverbs 137 10.5.2.1 Adverbs Formed by Cornpoundi ng 137 10.5.2.2 Adverbs Formed by A f f i x a t i o n 137 Annotated T e x t

138

B ib l iography Footnotes

153 158

134

LIST OF TAGLES

.. .... . ... ... .. . ... .. ...... .....

Table 1

Consonants

4A

Table 2

Vowels

4B

Table 3

C r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Clauses by . Function and S t r u c t u r e . . . .

Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9

. ...

24

. Extensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verb Theme S t r u c t u r e . . . . . . . . . . I n f l e c t i o n a l Elements o f t h e Verb . . . .

71

Forms and Functions o f t h e Pronominals

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Paradigm Types w i t h . Respect t o Paradigm Classes . .

. ...

85 87 90A

93

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Adverbial Phrase Types w i t h Respect t o t h e Adverbial Phrase Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

LIST OF SYMBOLS References given a f t e r each l a b e l a r e t o t h e s e c t i o n i n t h e study where t h e r e l e v a n t d e f i n i t i o n i s t o be found. Clause l e v e l independent c l a u s e ( 3 . 2 ) (add) a d d i t i v e (4.2.1.5.1) i ndepCl included c l a u s e ( 4 . 2 . 1 ) (final ) f i n a l (4.2.1.5.2) i ncl Cl subordinate clause (4.2.1) aCC attributive clause subordCl c o n s t r u c t (4.2.1) (sit) s i t u a t i o n a l (4.2.1.1) i CC infinitive clause (conc) concomitant ( 4 . 2 . 1 . 2 ) construct (4.2.1) (cause) causal ( 4 . 2 . 1 . 3 ) complemental (4.2.1.4) InamC1 nominal c l a u s e t y p e (4.3.1) ( compl) /locCl l o c a t i v e clause type (4.3.2) /uni tC1 uni t a r y c l a u s e type ( 4 . 3 . 3 ) Phrase l e v e l VP verbal phrase ( 5 . 2 . 1 ) t r a n s i t i v e verbal phrase ( 7 . 2 , 4.2.3.2.1) VPtr VPi n i n t r a n s i t i v e verbal phrase ( 7 . 2 , 4.2.3.2.2) VPs t s t a t i v e verbal phrase ( 7 . 2 , 4.2.3.2.3) VPim impersonal verbal phrase ( 7 . 2 , 4.2.3.2.4) NP nominal phrase (5.2.2) NPn n u c l e a r nominal phrase ( 8 . 2 ) NPt s a t e 1 1i t e nominal phrase ( 8 . 2 ) nominal phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s s u b j e c t (4.2.2.2.1) NPs nominal phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s o b j e c t (4.2.2.2.2) NPo APm/NP(=NPi) nominal phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s i n d i r e c t o b j e c t (4.2.2.2.3, 10.3.1) nominal phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s extension (4.2.2.2.4) N Pe AP/NP nominal phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s (marked) adverbial ( 8 . 2 , 10.3.1) possessor nominal phrase c o n s t r u c t ( 8 . 2 ) PNP mNP m o d i f i e r nominal phrase c o n s t r u c t (8.3.5.1.2) LP l o c a t i v e phrase (5.2.3) LPn n u c l e a r l o c a t i v e phrase ( 9 . 2 ) l o c a t i v e phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s e x t e n s i o n ( 9 . 2 ) LPe l o c a t i v e phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s o b j e c t ( 9 . 2 ) LPo AP/LP l o c a t i v e phrase f u n c t i o n i n g a s adverbial ( 9 . 2 , 10.3.2) mLP m o d i f i e r l o c a t i v e phrase c o n s t r u c t (8.3.5.1.2) AP a d v e r b i a l phrase ( 5 . 2 . 4 ) APn n e g a t i v e a d v e r b i a l phrase ( 1 0 . 2 . 1 ) AP1 l o c a t i v e a d v e r b i a l phrase (10.2.2) APa a d j u n c t i v a l a d v e r b i a l phrase (10.2.3) APc complemental adverbial phrase (10.2.4) AP t temporal adverbi a1 phrase (10.2.5) APm modal adverbial phrase (10.2.6) mAP m o d i f i e r adverbial phrase c o n s t r u c t (8.3.5.1.2) APm/NP s e e under NP AP/NP s e e under NP APILP s e e under LP AP/P~ pronominal word f u n c t i o n i n g a s a d v e r b i a l (10.3.3) AP/dm demonstrative word f u n c t i o n i n g a s adverbial (10.3.3) AP/dr d i r e c t i o n a l word f u n c t i o n i n g a s adverbial (10.3.3) CM c l a u s e marginal ( 4 . 2 . 2 . 5 )

rluclear. w u r x ~ \ u . 1 1

v a ux /opt /desid /imper /part /PU~P /con j

a x i a l verb ( 6 . 2 . 1 , 7.4.1) / a t t r i b a t t r i b u t i v e verb (7.5.5) a u x i l i a r y verb ( 6 I 2 . 1 , 7 i 4 . 1 ) o p t a t i v e verb (4.2.3.1.2, 7.5. d e s i d e r a t i v e (4.2.3.1.3, 7.5.5) ni i n c l u s i v e (8.411) imperative verb (4.2.3.1.4, 7 . 5 . 5 ) nm numeral ( 8 . 4 . 2 ) p a r t i c i p i a l verb ( 7 . 5 . 5 ) nP pronoun ( 8 . 4 . 3 ) purposive verb (7.5.5) na appellation (8.4.4) c o n j u n c t i v e verb ( 7 . 5 . 5 ) nn noun ( 8 . 4 . 5 ) 1 l o c a t i v e (6.2.3) li indefinitelocative(9.4.1) Id directed locative (9.4.2) la areal l o c a t i v e (9.4.3) lp postpositional l o c a t i v e (9.4.4) a adverb (6.2.4) an n e g a t i v e adverb ( 1 0 . 4 . 1 ) a1 l o c a t i o n a l adverb (10.4.2) at temporal adverb (10.4.3) am modal adverb (10.4.4) s a t e l l i t e word (6.1) m m o d i f i e r (6.4.4.) pr pronominal ( 6 . 4 . 1 ) dm demonstrative ( 6 . 4 . 2 ) ma premodifier (6.4.4) dr directional (6.4.3) mp p o s t m o d i f i e r (6.4.4) n u c l e a r and s a t e 1 1i t e word (interr) interrogative (6.5) e x t r a p h r a s a l word (5.1) mgc mga mgP m!3q

sm intj conj

c l a u s e marginal (5.3.1) phrase premarginal (5.3.2.1) phrase postmarginal (5.3.2.2) phrase quasi-marginal (5.3.2.3) s y n t a c t i c marker ( 5 . 4 ) i n t e r j e c t i o n (5.5) conjunction ( 5 . 6 )

Map of T l i n g i t Area

INTRODUCTION

1.1 The T l i n g i t Language The T l i n g i t language i s spoken today by some o f t h e T l i n g i t peoples o f s o u t h e a s t e r n Alaska and w e s t e r n Canada. E s t i m a t i o n s o f t h e n u m e r i c a l s i z e o f t h e T l i n g i t s which have been g a t h e r e d v a r y from 5,000 t o 8,000. Not a l l o f t h e s e a r e speakers of t h e language s i n c e b i 1 in g u a l ' i sm among t h e younger adul t s has g i v e n p l a c e t o m o n o l i n g u a l i s m i n E n g l i s h among t h e c h i l d r e n . Tlingit i s i s l a n d s of a f i v e l a t i t u d e 60'N) t o t i e s a r e found on d i a l e c t described Juneau, S i t k a and

spoken i n communities s c a t t e r e d a l o n g t h e c o a s t and on t h e hundred m i l e s t r i p , s t r e t c h i n g f r o m Y a k u t a t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y K e t c h i kan ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y l a t i t u d e 55"N). A few s ~ n a l l e rcommunit h e b o r d e r s o f B r i t i s h Colombia and Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s . The h e r e i s t h a t o f t h e c e n t r a l area, whose c h i e f communities a r e Angoon. I t i s i n t h e l a t t e r v i l l a g e t h a t most d a t a was g a t h g r e d .

The e a r l i e s t r e c o r d s o f c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e T l i n g i t s a r e t h o s e o f e x p l o r e r s , who were b e g i n n i n g t o p e n e t r a t e t h e w a t e r s o f t h e n o r t h P a c i f i c i n t h e m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The f i r s t such r e c o r d i s t h a t o f a member o f t h e B e r i n g expedit i o n o f 1741. Most e a r l y c o n t a c t s were made by t h e Russians, who were t h e f i r s t t o i n v e s t i g a t e and r e c o r d t h e language. Works w h i c h a r e concerned w i t h t h e T l i n g i t language, o r w i t h a s p e c t s o f t h e c u l t u r e w h i c h have a c l o s e b e a r i n g on t h e language, w i l l be found l i s t e d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y a t t h e end o f t h i s work. S p e c i a l m e n t i o n s h o u l d be made o f t h e work o f Franz Boas, whose grammatical n o t e s a r e t h e e a r l i e s t d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i v e work o n T l i n g i t grammar. There has been much s p e c u l a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p which T l i n g i t bears t o o t h e r N o r t h American I n d i a n languages, and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o Athapas kan. T l i n g i t has s t r o n g n i o r p h o l o g i c a l resemblances t o members of t h e Athapaskan language f a m i l y , b u t t h u s f a r a d e a r t h o f s a t i s f a c t o r y cognates has g i v e n r i s e t o v a r y i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . No o t h e r h y p o t h e s i s as t o t h e language f a m i l y members h i p o f T l i n g i t i s known t o t h e w r i t e r . 1.2

A Sketch b f h e

Model

The aim o f t h i s s t u d y was t o p r e s e n t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s y n t a x o f T l i n g i t o f t h e conversatio!lal and n a r r a t i v e s t y l e s , t o s e r v e as t h e b a s i s for- knowledge needed f o r B i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n work. There i s no one r e c o g n i z e d d e s c r i p t i v e model w h i c h t h i s work can c l a i m t o f o l l o w i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f such a d e s c r i p t i o n . The a n a l y t i c a l procedures upon w h i c h i t i s based have been t h o s e which use t h e b a s i c concepfs o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g of language and o f t h e ' s l o t - c l a s s ' c o r r e l a t i o n . Terms which a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y 'tagmemic' do2not o c c u r i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , however; i t i s from t h e ' s t r u c t u r e - f u n c t i o n ' model t h a t t e c h n i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y has c h i e f l y been borrowed. Thc l e v e l s o f d e s c r i p t i o n s e t up f o r T l i n g i t a r e sentence, c l a u s e , phrase, word and morpheme. A t each l e v e l t h e r e i s a grammatical u n i t , b e a r i n g t h e same name as t h e l e v e l a t which i t i s found. Each such u n i t comprises one o r more u n i t s of t h e l e v e l below, w i t h o r w i t h o u t s y n t a c t i c markers. Conversely, each u n i t comp r i s e s ( p a r t o f ) t h e u n i t a t t h e l e v e l above i t . The f u n c t i o n of a u n i t i s i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n as an element o f s t r u c t u r e i n t h e l e v e l above i t ; t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a u n i t i s i t s c o m p o s i t i o n i n terms of u n i t s f r o m t h e l e v e l below. Down-ranking may occur, i n w h i c h case a u n i t f r o m t h e same o r a h i g h e r l e v e l w i l l be f u n c t i o n i n g as an element a t t h a t l e v e l . Such a (down-ranked) u n i t i s termed a ' c o n s t r u c t ' .

A s u b u n i t , o c c u r r i n g a t a s u b l e v e l , i s p o s t u l a t e d between phrase and word l e v e l : t h i s i s t h e word group. A word group comprises two ( n u c l e a r ) words which f u n c t i o n as a u n i t e d head o f t h e phrase. The word group l e v e l i s t r e a t e d as a s u b l e v e l o n l y , because i t does n o t occur t h r o u g h o u t t h e language, b u t i t s presence i s r e s t r i c t e d t o o n l y a few phrase types. S i m i l a r l y , i n t h g m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n of c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f words ( n o t a b l y v e r b s ) , a s u b l e v e l may be p o s t u l a t e d below word l e v e l , v i z . stem l e v e l . A stem ( t h e u n i t a t t h i s l e v e l ) comp r i s e s one o r more r o o t ( s ) , w i t h o r w i t h o u t stem-forming a f f i x e s . Roots and a f f i x e s a r e monomorphemic, f u n c t i o n i n g as nucleus and s a t e l l i t e r e s p e c t i v e l y . ' C l a s s e s ' a r e s e t up on t h e b a s i s o f f u n c t i o n , t h a t i s , those u n i t s w h i c h have t h e same f u n c t i o n a t a h i g h e r l e v e l a r e c o n s i d e r e d members o f t h e same c l a s s . 'Types' a r e s e t up on t h e b a s i s o f s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i s , t h o s e u n i t s which comprise t h e same elements a r e c o n s i d e r e d members o f t h e same t y p e . There i s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y c o n s i d e r a b l e congruence between f u n c t i o n and s t r u c t u r e . Most u s u a l l y , f u n c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r y arid c l a s s e s a r e s e t up b e f o r e types. Where convenient, however, s t r u c t u r e may be t a k e n as p r i m a r y . 'Syntagmatic f e a t u r e s 1 5 as such have n o t been mentioned i n t h i s s t u d y ; such f e a t u r e s as o r d e r , agreement and r e 1 a t i o n s h i ps have been d e s c r i b e d where it has been deemed a p p r o p r i a t e a t each l e v e l . The s y n t a c t i c markers o f sentence and c l a u s e l e v e l s have been a b s t r a c t e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n o t h e r words, w i t h f u n c t i o n a t a h i g h e r 1eve1 t h a n t h e phrase; these m i g h t t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d s y n t a g m a t i c f e a t u r e s . 1.3

General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T l i n q i t Gramniar

one o r Sentences may be m i n o r ( 3 . 3 ) o r m a j o r ( 3 . 2 ) . These l a t t e r COIII~ I I more c l a u s e ( s ) , w i t h o r w i t h o u t s y n t a c t i c markers ( 5 . 4 ) . Clauses nay be v e r b a l The former f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e sentence as independent, (4.2) o r non-verbal ( 4 . 3 ) . s u b o r d i n a t e o r i n c l u d e d clauses. The non-verbal c l a u s e s (which a r e o f much l e s s f r e q u e n t occurrance) f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e sentence as independent o r i n c l u d e d c l a u s e s o n l y . A c r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l c l a u s e proves c o n v e n i e n t -i n t o two s e t s o f c l a u s e t y p e s (4.2.3), p a r a d i g m a t i c and t h e m a t i c -- s i n c e t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n between v e r b a l paradigm o r theme (7.5.3) and o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e clauses. Clauses comprise phrases ( 5 . 2 ) , w i t h o r w i t h o u t c l a u s e m a r g i n a l s (5.3.1 ) ( t h e s e l a t t e r i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e c l a u s e ) . There a r e f o u r c l a s s e s o f phrase: v e r b a l , nominal, l o c a t i v e and a d v e r b i a l . A l l phrases comprise a phrase For t h e base, w i t h o r w i t h o u t p r e c e d i n g and/or f o l l o w i n g phrase m a r g i n a l s ( 5 . 3 . 2 ) . most p a r t , b o t h c l a u s e and phrase m a r g i n a l s a r e p r i m a r i l y s t y l i s t i c i n meaning. Phrase bases comprise one o r more w o r d ( s ) . S y n t a c t i c markers ( 5 . 4 ) , which may be word (2.4. I ) , c l i t i c ( 2 . 4 . 2 ) o r s u f f i x , f u n c t i o n a t sentence and c l a u s e l e v e l t o d e f i n e ( i n p a r t ) t h e f u n c t i o n o f v a r i o u s elements. Down-ranking o f sentences, clauses and phrases t o f o r m c o n s t r u c t s i s o f q u i t e f r e q u e n t occurrence. There i s a s t y l i s t i c p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t sentences, so t h a t c o m p l e x i t y i n any one area o f t h e s t r u c t u r e u s d a l l y r e s u l t s i n s i m p l i c i t y a t o t h e r p o i n t s . S t r u c t u r e s which a r e s u b o r d i n a t e a r e much more common t h a n t h o s e which a r e c o o r d i n a t e . Word o r d e r w i t h i n t h e phrase i s f i x e d e x c e p t i n g i n one s t r u c t u r e 6 ; phrase o r d e r w i t h i n t h e c l a u s e i s n o t , a1 though t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p r e f e r r e d o r d e r s (4.2.2.7). The t h e o r e t i c a l maximum of phrases w i t h i n t h e c l a u s e i s never found; t h e t h e o r e t i c a l rnaxinium o f words w i t h i n t h e phrase base lndy be found i n sorlie phrase types. There i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r semantic expansion o f a phrase by irleans o f a second phrase ( w h i c h has agreeliient (4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.6.3) w i t h a ~ o s s e s s i v epronominal i n t h e f i r s t ) r a t h e r than by i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f elements w i t h i n one phrase.

:Of these interjections ( 5 . 5 ) function only a t sentence l e v e l ; marginals ( 5 . 3 ) , ;syntactic markers ( 5 . 4 ) and the conjunction ( 5 . 6 ) function b o t h a t phrase and high-.. e r levels (and n o t wit.hin the phrase base); the remainder function within the phrase base. These l a t t e r classes may be divided into nuclear (6.2)-verb, nominal, locave, directional and t i v e and adverb- andsa t e l l i t e (6.4)-pronominal, demonst\%ati modifier; the former may function as the unmarked nucleus of a phrase, the l a t t e r e i t h e r may not function as nucleus or may d o so only when f ~ l l o w e dby a syntact i c marker. The great majority of words belong to the verb ( 7 . 4 ) and nominal ( 8 . 4 ) word classes, which are open s e t s . A cross-classification of words into interrogative and non-interrogative yields a small interrogative word c l a s s ( 6 . 5 ) , a1 1 other words being non-interrogative. A verb comprises a theme ( 7 . 5 . 3 ) (which i s a stem preceded immediately by an extensor, and, in a 1 imited number of cases, derivational prefixes) with or without inflectional a f f i x e s . Verb themes are t r a n s i t i v e , i n t r a n s i t i v e , s t a t i v e or impersonal. Verb forms a r e assigned to paradigrns ( 7 . 5 . 5 ) (each paradigm being a s e t of forms varied only as to pronominal subject prefix) which niay be niain, subordinate, a t t r i b u t i v e or infini t i v e . Mai n and subordinate inflected Forms function in the verbal phrase of independent ( o r included) and subordinate clauses respectively; a t t r i b u t i v e inflected forms function in the nominal phrase as satel 1 i te and i n f i n i t i v e inflected forms are substitutable for a nominal phrase ( 8 . 3 . 6 ) . Prefixation i s almost e n t i r e l y limited t o verb forms, which have considerably more prefixation than suffixation. Limited inflectional suffixation i s found among nominal (8.5) and locative ( 9 . 5 ) words. The members of other classes a r e in most cases monomorphemic. Where t h i s i s not the case, word stems usually comprise e i t h e r two roots or a root and a derivational s u f f i x . C l i t i c s occur as elements a t sentence and clause levels. They a r e phonologically dependent, b u t form an IC with the t o t a l clause or phrase, rather than with the word they immediately follow. These cl i t i c s are a1 1 members of the synt a c t i c marker class (which includes also certain f u l l words in i t s membership). There i s congruence of grammatical and phonological''bbundaries a t the sentence level. A t lower 1 evels t h i s congruence 'is often incomplete, b u t considerable.

. .

.

2.

2.1

THE TRANSCRIPTION

Symbol i zation of the Segmenta 1 Phonemes

The symbols used here in the transcription of Tlingit a l e , with a few exce ptions, those in quite common use in American linguistics. The symbol ( f o r glottalized sounds) and the lowered d o t ( f o r uvular sounds) are avoided by use of C y (where C stands for any consonant) for glottalized sounds and the International Phonetic Alphabet symbols G , q and X for the uvular series. To avoid the raised h for aspirated sounds, the normal voiced and voicel2ss symbols are used for unaspirated and aspirated stops respectively. The forty-two consonant and eight vowel phonemes are s e t o u t in tables 1 and 2.

2.2

The Phonetic Value of the Symbols

I n t h i s section the s ~ ~ n which ds the above sy~nbolsrepresent will be described. Where i t i s useful, phonetic features common t o a group of sounds will be described for the group as a whole, rather than for each individual sound. 2.2.1 Consonants The con2onants of Tlingit may be conveniently subdivided into three groups: ( 1 ) Obstruents , consisting of stops (including affricated stops) and f r i c a t i v e s , ( 2 ) Sonorants, consisting of nasal and semi vowels , ( 3 ) Larynegeal s , consisting of glottal stop and f r i c a t i v e . 2.2.1.1 Obstruents Obstruents occur a t three major points of articulation - alveolar, velar and uvular. Modifications a t the alveolar point give four different groups: ( a ) simple, consisting of the three stops d, t , t ' which have no affricated release. These are phonetically somewhat fronted. ( b ) apical, consisting of the three stops j I, t ' , which have a grooved sibilant release, and the two fricatives s , s ' . These are a l l articulated with the tongue t i p . ( c ) lamina1 , consisting of the three stops j, E , E', which have a grooved s i b i l a n t release, and the f r i c a t i v e 5. These contrast with the apical s in that they are articulated with the blade of the tongue and are phonetically palato-a1 veolar. ( d ) l a t e r a l , consisting of the three stops A , A, k ' , which have a lateral release, and the two fricatives 4, 4 ' . Modifications a t the velar point give two different groups: ( a ) simple, consisting of the three stops g , k, k ' and the two fricatives x , x ' . These are articulated with the 1ips unrounded. ( b ) 1abial ized, consisting of the three stops gw, Kw, K ' w and the two fricatives XU, x Y u . These are articulated with simultaneous roundi ng of the 1 ips. Uvular obstruents may also be simple ( G , q , q ' , X, X ' ) or labialized (Gw, q", q'w, XU, X ' w ) . These two series contrast with each other in the same way as do the two velar series. The point of articulation for these uvulars i s the back part of the s o f t palate. The contrast between simple velars (and uvulars) and their labialized counterparts i s neutral ized in the fol lowing positions: contiguous t o back (rounded) vowels; preceding close front (unrounded) vowels; as the second member of a double consonant cluster whose f i r s t member i s a labialized phoneme. I n a l l these positions the simple (velar and uvular) series of symbols will be used in transcription.

S

plain

T

P

glottal ized

I

glottal ized

t9

X'

t

s'

x'

NASAL SEMIVOWEL

Y

Tab1 e 1 .

k'

Consonants

1

k'w

.

X ' ~

X'

X"J

I

FRONT

NON-FRONT

1ong

i

u

short

1

u

1ong

e

a

short

E

A

CLOSE

OPEN

T a b l e 2.

Vowels

The o b s t r u e n t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a f i v e - w a y manner c o n t r a s t o f p l a i n s t o p , a s p i r a t e d s t o p , g l o t t a l i z e d s t o p , p l a i n f r i c a t i v e and g l o t t a l i z e d f r i c a t i v e . I n t h e s i m p l e a l v e o l a r s e r i e s t h e l a s t two o f t h e s e a r e a b s e n t and i n t h e lamina1 s e r i e s t h e r e i s no g l o t t a l i z e d f r i c a t i v e . The p l a i n s t o p s a r e always r e l e a s e d and q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r w i t h v o i c i n g i n i n t e r v o c a l i c environments and o c c a s i o n a l l y elsewhere a l s o . The s i m p l e and l a b i a l i z e d a s p i r a t e d s t o p s a r e always a s p i r a t e d i n s y l l a b l e onset; t h e a f f r i c a t e d a s p i r a t e d s t o p s have l e s s n o t i c e a b l e a s p i r a t i o n , b u t - o n t r a s t w i t h t h e u n a s p i r a t e d s t o p s i n s y l l a b l e o n s e t . I n s y l l a b l e coda t h e r e i s n e u t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e p l a i n and a s p i r a t e d s t o p s ; i n t h i s p o i s t i o n t h e p l a i n s t o p symbols w i l l be used. The g l o t t a l i z e d s t o p s and f r i c a t i v e s a r e e j e c t i v e , b e i n g a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s g l o t t a l c l o s u r e . The u v u l a r g l o t t a l i z e d s t o p q ' i s o c c a s i o n a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a f f r i c a t e d r e l e a s e . The p l a i n f r i c a t i v e s a r e v o i c e l e s s and ung l o t t a l i z e d a t a l l times, b u t may sometimes be s l i g h t l y a s p i r a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . The a l v e o l a r p l a i n f r i c a t i v e s s. S , 4, may be s y l l a b i c i n c e r t a i n environments (see 2.3.1). The u v u l a r p l a i n f r i c a t i v e has a u v u l a r t r i l l v a r i a n t t h a t f r e e l y f l u c t u a t e s w i t h t h e norm. 2.2.1.2

Sonorants

The s o n o r a n t s c o n s i s t o f one n a s a l and two semivowels. The nasal n i s a l v e o l a r i n a l l environments. The two semivowels c o n t r a s t as t o p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n - y i s p a l a t a l and w i s l a b i o v e l a r . 2.2.1.3

Laryngeals

3

The two s i m p l e g l o t t a l sounds, a s t o p and a f r i c a t i v e , a r e symbolized b y and h r e s p e c t i v e l y .

7

The g l o t t a l s t o p i s n o n - f a c u l t a t i v e when o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l t o a t o n i c s y l la b l e and/or when i t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e consonant i n i t i a l t o a stem; elsewhere i t i s f a c u l t a t i v e ( t h a t i s , i n g e n e r a l , when word i n i t i a l i n a n o n - t o n i c s y l l a b l e ) . I t i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n i t s n o n - f a c u l t a t i v e occurrences o n l y . 2.2.2

Vowels

The e i g h t vowel symbols r e p r e s e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g sounds: i c l o s e f r o n t unrounded vowel, L h a l f c l o s e t o c l o s e f r o n t unrounded vowel, e h a l f open t o h a l f c l o s e f r o n t unrounded vowel, E open t o h a l f open f r o n t unrounded vowel, u c l o s e back rounded vowel, u h a l f c l o s e t o c l o s e back rounded vowel, a open c e n t r a l vowel and A h a l f open c e n t r a l vowel. The vowel u tends t o be lowered t o h a l f open p o s i t i o n when c o n t i g u o u s t o a u v u l a r ; t h e degree o f l o w e r i n g may i n c r e a s e when u i s between two u v u l a r s . 2.2.2.1

' L o n g ' and ' s h o r t ' vowels

F o r t h e purposes o f d e s c r i p t i o n t h e s e e i g h t vowels a r e r e f e r r e d t o two groups - l o n g ( i , e, a, u ) and s h o r t ( L , E , u , ,) vowels. There i s some c o n t r a s t i n p h o n e t i c d u r a t i o n between t h e vowels of t h e s e two groups. There i s f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t i n t h a t l o n g vowels may o c c u r w i t h b o t h h i g h and l o w t o n e ( 2 . 3 . 2 ) whereas s h o r t vowels o n l y o c c u r w i t h h i g h tone. Granimatical l y r e l e v a n t c o n t r a s t s a r e : ( a ) t h a t

most verb stems employ the contrast of long vowel versus i t s short counterpart in d i f f e r e n t inflected stem forms ( 7 . 5 . 1 ) , and ( b ) a noun stem having a short vowel in final position has a variant form, containing the long vowel counterpart when suffixed (2.5.3). 2.2.2.2.

Anaptyctic vowels Two anaptyctic vowels a r e found, i and u , whose occurrence i s predictable from the structure. The environments in which these occur may be summarized as follows: ( a ) between a (grammatical) nucleus having a final double consonant clust e r and a (grammatical) sate1 1 i t e having an i n i t i a l consonant, and ( b ) between a s a t e l l i t e consisting of an a t t r i b u t i v e clause construct having a f i n a l double consonant c l u s t e r , and following nucleus (of necessity the nucleus of a nominal phrase [8.3.5.2]) having an i n i t i a l consonant. These anaptyctic vowels a r e not symbol ized since, given the grammatical s t r u c t u r e , the presence of such a vowel i s predictable. Which vowe15(that i s , whether i or u ) occurs i s dependent upon the phonological environment . 2.3

Symbol ization of Suprasegmental and Other Features

The levels s e t u p f o r the phonological analysis of Tl ingi t , and the units operating a t these levels, are: the phoneme, s y l l a b l e , tone group, span and pause group. So f a r , only the symbols which represent the phoneme level have been described. The span ( a unit consisting of a number of closely related tone groups, with the tone of the final tone group being the most prominent) and the pause group (a unit consisting of spans and bounded on e i t h e r side by pause) a r e not symbolized in t h i s transcription. The boundaries of any utterance given will also be pause group boundaries, however, and the span i s usually co-terminous with the boundaries of the major ICs of the clause ( o r sentence). Tone group boundaries also a r e not marked, b u t the tonic s y l l a b l e i s (see 2.3.2). 2.3.1

Svllables Every vowel defines a s y l l a b l e peak and every vocalic s x l l a b l e contains a V and VC occur vowel. Vocalic s y l l a b l e patterns are V , V C , C V , CVC, AND CVCC. only in the precontour of the tone group ( t h a t i s , as non-tonic s y l l a b l e s ) i n i t i a l to a grz;.yatical word; CV and CVC occur in a l l environments; CVCC occurs only f i n a l t o the tone group ( i n almost a l l cases as a tonic s y l l a b l e ) . The plain f r i c a t i v e s (2.2.1 . I ) , s , 5 , and 4 , may form consonantal s y l l a b l e s ; in t h i s case the f r i c a t i v e i s of longer duration (than when functioning as a s y l l a b l e margin) and/or constitutes a peak in breath force. These consonantal syllables a r e The environments in which these consonancongruent with total grammatical words. t a l syllables occur i s r e s t r i c t e d t~ the following: ( a ) between two consonants within a tong group, preceding the tonic s y l l a b l e , e.g. du.w~G.4.t i g ' t h e pupil of his eye' ; ( b ) i n i t i a l to the tone group and preceding e i t h e r a consonant, or a vowel which may be potentially preceded by a g l o t t a l stop (2.2.1.3) ( t h a t i s , a vowel i n i t i a l t o a grammatical word), e.g. 4. qurtlni 'blind person', 4. uSk'5 ' e v i l ' . Spaces i n the transcription mark the boundaries of grammatical words ( 2 . 4 . ) . While these a r e grammati cal--not phonologi cal--uni t s , there i s a considerable degree of congruence between word boundaries and syllable boundaries, apart from those s y l l a b l e boundaries which occur word medial ly in polysyllabic words. In these cases, word medial syllable boundaries may be predicted as follows: an intervocalic single consonant constitutes a s y l l a b l e onset and not a s y l l a b l e coda, since V and VC syllables do not occur word medially. For the same reason, a c l u s t e r of two consonants i s divided between a s y l l a b l e coda and a s y l l a b l e onset.

Exceptions t o t h i s congruence a r e as f o l l o w s : ( a ) when a ( g r a m m a t i c a l ) s a t e 1 1 i t e word which i s vowel f i n a l precedes a ( g r a m m a t i c a l ) n u c l e a r word, which, due t o t h e occurrence of a consonantal v a r i a n t f o r m o f a p r e f i x ( 2 . 5 . 2 ) , has a c l u s t e r o f two coti-sonants i n i t i a l l y Y g t h e f i r s t o f these consonants belongs (phonol o g i c a l l y ) t o t h e p r e c e d i n g s y l l a b l e , e.g. y a n . t u 9 i d ' w e ' r e w a l k i n g a l o n g ' ; ( b ) when one o f t h e f r i c a t i v e s s, 5 , o r 4, f u n c t i o n i n g as a grammatical word, i s preceded by a sate1 1 it e word w h i c h c o n t a i n s no t o n i c s y l l a b l e ( i n t h e case o f S and 4 ) and which i s vowel f i n a l ( i n t h e case o f a l l t h r e e ) , t h e f r i c a t i v e c o n s t i t u t e s t h e coda o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s y l l a b l e , e.g. ya S . n ~ d ~ ? e 'nh e ' s d r e s s i n g ' (compare ye. g. n ~ d ~ ' 6 . j ' h e dresses t h u s ' ) . S y l l a b l e boundaries as such a r e t h e r e f o r e n o t symbolized, s i n c e t h e y may be p r e d i c t e d i n accordance w i t h t h e above statements. 2.3.2

Tone arouDs

Every tone group c o n s i s t s of one o r more s y l l a b l e s , one o f which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e t o n i c s y l l a b l e . There a r e two phonemic tones, h i g h and low, symbolized by G and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y (where v r e p r e s e n t s t h e vowel o f t h e t o n i c s y l l a b l e ) . More t h a n one word may o c c u r w i t h i n t h e t o n e group, b u t s i n c e t h e t o n i c s y l l a b l e i s always c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i n a l word o f t h e tone group, t h e t o n e group boundary may be p r e d i c t e d ( g i v e n t h e t o n i c s y l l a b 1 e) and i s t h e r e f o r e n o t symbol i z e d . The p i t c h c o n t o u r of t h e t o n e group i s p r e d i c t a b l e i n terms o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e t o n i c s y l l a b l e and t h e h i g h o r low t o n e o c c u r r i n g w i t h i t , as f o l l o w s : ( a ) t h e p i t c h e s of t h e p r e c o n t o u r s y l l a b l es ( i f any) a r e more o r l e s s mid, w i t h t h e p i t c h of t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e somewhat h i g h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s and t h e p i t c h e s o f c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s , o r those c o n t a i n i n g a l o n g vowel, s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than those o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s y l l a b l e s ; ( b ) i f t h e t o n i c s y l l a b l e has a h i g h tone, t h e p i t c h e s of t h e p o s t c o n t o u r s y l l a b l e s ( i f any) f a l l t o low, u n l e s s t h e s y l l a b l e immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e t o n i c s y l l a b l e i s s h o r t , when t h e p i t c h o f t h e s y l l a b l e i s m a i n t a i n e d a t a h i g h l e v e l , o r u n l e s s t h e f i n a l . s y l l a b l e o f t h e t o n e group i s a c l i t i c (see 2.4.2); ( c ) i f t h e t o n i c s y l l a b l e has a low tone, t h e p i t c h o f t h e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e ( i f any) r i s e s t o a m i d l e v e l and t h e p i t c h o f any second s y l l a b l e f o l l o w i n g t h e t o n i c i s low. 2.4

S y m b o l i z a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n o f Words

There a r e two main t y p e s o f words i n T l i n g i t - f u l l words and c l i t i c s . The boundaries o f f u l l words a r e shown by spaces; t h e boundary between a cl i t i c and t h e preceding word i s shown b y a hyphen, and between a c l i t i c and t h e f o l l o w i f i g word by a space, s i n c e a l l c l i t i c s have p h o n o l o g i c a l t i e s w i t h t h e preceding word. 2.4.1

D e f i n i t i o n o f f u l l words

F u l l words ( h e r e a f t e r termed words) a r e grammatical u n i t s and f o r t h e most p a r t grammatical c r i t e r i a a r e used t o d e l i m i t them. However, i n a few cases ( t o be d e s c r i b e d below), p h o n o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a have i n f l u e n c e d d e c i s i o n s . As has a1 r e a d y been s t a t e d , (2.3.1 ) , t h e r e i s congruence between p h o n o l o g i c a l and grammat i c a l l e v e l s t o a considerable extent a t t h i s p o i n t . There i s no one b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e word i n T l i n g i t . The c r i t e r i o n of independence ( i . e . t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f occurrence as a minimal f r e e form, bounded on e i t h e r s i d e b y i n d e f i n i t e pause) may be used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m a j o r i t y of words. I n some cases, however, minimal f r e e forms prove t o be l a r g e r t h a n words, when t h e a d d i t i o n a l c r a t e r i a o f i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y , e x t e r n a l m o b i l i t y and u n i n t e r r u p t i b i l i t y are applied. Two f u r t h e r c r i t e r i a a r e used: s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y and t h e occurrence of a s i n g l e t o n i c s y l l a b l e .

I n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y . The i n t e r n a l p a r t s o f T l i n g i t words a r e p r e f i x e s , stenis (which may c o n s i s t o f more t h a n one r o o t ) and s u f f i x e f , The o r d e r i n which many morphemes f r o m these t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s niay o c c u r i s f i x e d w i t h i n t h e word. E x t e r n a l m o b i l i t y . When elements which cannot be u t t e r e d as f r e e forms o c c u r i n a v a r i e t y o f p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c l a u s e , t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d , on t h i s b a s i s , t o be words. There a r e u s u a l l y p h o n o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a which s u p p o r t t h i s d e c i s i o n . F o r example, t h e phrase p r e m a r g i n a l s (5.3.2.1 ) a r e e s t a b l i s h e d as words on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r g r e a t m o b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e c l a u s e ( t h y # ~iiayC O O C C U ~ - w i t h any phrase type), coup1 ed w i t h t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l independence. U n i n t e r r u p t a b i l ity. I f a f r e e forni i s found between two s t r e t c h e s o f speech which, as f a r as o t h e r c r i t e r i a a r e concerned, a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be one word, t h e n t h e s e two s t r e t c h e s a r e two words. T h i s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e v e r b a l phrase (7.3.2.2), where c e r t a i n p a r t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d as words by t h i s c r i t e r i o n a l o n e . These o c c u r o n l y i n a r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d o r d e r w i t h i n t h e v e r b a l phrase. The occurrence o f f r e e forms between t h p ~ eelements and t h e verb i s t a k e n as evidence f o r c o n s i d e r i n g them t o be words. S u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y . I f an element i s a member o f a grammatical c l a s s which c o n t a i n s o t h e r members which a r e words, i t i s a word. T h i s c r i t e r i o n i s o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e s o l e one i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e word s t a t u s of an element, as, f o r example, i n t h e case o f c e r t a i n o f t h e o b j e c t pronominal s e r i e s ( 6 . 4 . 1 . I ) . Occurrence of a s i n g l e t o n i c s y l l a b l e . I t may be s t a t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l l y t h a t a worc does n o t c o n t a i n more t h a n one t o n i c s y l l a b l e ( i t may, i n t h e case o f c e r t a i n marg i n a l ~and s a t e l l i t e words, c o n t a i n no t o n i c s y l l a b l e a t a l l ) . T h i s c r i t e r i o n i s o n l y used, a l o n g w i t h morphophonemic c r i t e r i a , i n making d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g compounding (2.5.1 ) . 2.4.2

D e f i n i t i o n o f c l it i c s

Those elements which a r e p h o n o l o g i c a l l y dependent, w h i l e f u n c t i o n i n g grammatic a l l ) as independent words ( o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e c r i t e r i a o f e x t e r n a l m o b i l i t y and u n i n t e ~ r u p t i b i lty, i as g i v e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s paragraphs), a r e c l i t i c s . Every c l it i c f o l l o w s t h e word upon which i t i s p h o n o l o g i c a l l y dependent. Most u s u a l l y , i t forms sn I C w i t h a s t r u c t u r e l a r g e r than t h a t word ( t h a t i s , w i t h a u n i t o f which t h a t word 1s an e l e m e n t ) . These c l i t i c s a r e p h o n o l o g i c a l l y dependent i n one o f two ways: ( a ) t h e consonantal c l it i c s ( - d ' i l l a t i v e ' , -j ' s u b j e c t i v a l ' , -.J ' i n s t r u m e n t a l ' , - x ' ' a d e s s i v e ' - X ' p r o l a t i v e ' and - X 'complemental ' ) c o n s t i t u t e , p h o n o l o g i c a l l y , ( p a r t o f ) t h e coda of t h e p r e c e d i n g s y l l a b l e ; ( b ) t h e s y l l 7 Q i c c l it i c s ( - d e ' a l l a t i v e ' , -dnX ' a b l a t i v e ' , A AX ' t r a n s l a t i v e ' and -Ga ' o b j e c t i v e ' ) o c c u r as ( p a r t o f ) t h e p o s t c o n t o u r o f t h e p r e c e d i n g t o n e group, p r o d u c i n g t o n e p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e u n i q u e t o these s t r u c t u r e s .

2.5

R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Morpbophonemics

There a r e a number o f morphophonemic statements which may b e made t o desc r i b e g e n e r a l l y t h e v a r i a n t forms of stems and a f f i x e s which a r e p h o n o l o g i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d . I n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n , t h e a c t u a l f o r m o c c u r r i n g i n each p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t w i l l be g i v e n . . Those v a r i a n t forms w h i c h a r e gra~nriiaticall y cov(i t i o n e d w i 11 b e discussed under t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t word ( o r a f f i x ) ". Only a b r i e f summary w i 11 b e g i v e n h e r e of those v a r i a n t forms w h i c h a r e p h o n o l o g i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d , s i n c e t h e s e a r e f o r t h e most p a r t f e a t u r e s o f t h e morphologv r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e

,

syntax16. These w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d under f i v e heads: v a r i a n t froms o c c u r r i n g i n ( 1 ) compounds, ( 2 ) p r e f i x e s , ( 3 ) s u f f i x e d stems, ( 4 ) s u f f i x e s , and ( 5 ) words f o l l o w ed b y c l i t i c s . 2.5.1

V a r i a n t forms o c c u r r i n g i n-.compounds -

1. A stem which has a f o r m c o n t a i n i n g a t o n i c s y l l a b l e ( 2 . 3 . 2 ) when o c c u r r i n g as a f r e e form, has a v a r i a n t f o r m c o n t a i n i n g no t o n i c s y l l a b l e when o c c u r r i n g as t h e f i r s t element o f a compound (8.5.2.1 [21, 9 . 5 . 1 ) . 2. A stem w h i c h has a f o r m c o n t a i n i n g a l o n g vowel when o c c u r r i n g as a f r e e form, has a v a r i a n t f o r m c o n t a i n i n g t h e c o r r e s s p o n d i n g s h o r t vowel ( 2 . 2 . 2 . 1 ) when o c c u r r i n g as t h e f i r s t element o f a compound word. 2.5.2

V a r i a n t forms o c c u r r i n g i n p r e f i x e s

1. I n f l e c t i o n a l v e r b a l p r e f i x e s (7.5.4 t a b l e 7 ) w h i c h have a f o r m o f t h e c a n o n i c a l shape CV i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s , have a v a r i a n t f o r m o f t h e c a n o n i c a l shape C i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e forms t u - ' f i r s t person p l u r a l subj e c t ' and du- ' f o u r t h person s u b j e c t ' w h i c h have o n l y one f o r m each. I n mostlyases t h e consonantal f o r m c o n t a i n s t h e same consonant as i s p r e s e n t i n t h e CV form . The t o t a l CV p a t t e r n o f t h e p r e f i x s t r i n g i s t h e c h i e f f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g which v a r i a n t form occurs. 2. The theme, p r e f i x (7.5.3 t a b l e 6 ) kr.- has consonantal v a r i a n t forms k- and g-, which o c c u r as s y l l a b l e o n s e t and coda r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2.5.3

V a r i a n t forms o c c u r r i n g i n s u f f i x e d stems

1. A noun stem w h i c h has a f o r m c o n t a i n i n g a f i n a l s h o r t vowel when o c c u r r i n g u n s u f f i x e d , has a v a r i a n t f o r m c o n t a i n i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l o n g vowel when f o l l o w ed b y a consonantal s u f f i x ( 8 . 5 . 2 . 1 [ 4 ] ) . 2. A noun stem which has a f o r m c o n t a i n i n g a f i n a l s h o r t vowel w i t h h i g h t o n e when o c c u r r i n g u n s u f f i x e d , has a v a r i a n t f o r m c o n t a i n i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d i ng l o n g vowel w i t h a low t o n e when f o l l o w e d b y a s u f f i x w i t h i n i t i a l vowel i n i t s b a s i c f o r m (8.5.2.2). 2.5.4

V a r i a n t forms o c c u r r i n g i n s u f f i x e s

1. A noun s u f f i x w i t h b a s i c f o r m a s i m p l e v e l a r consonant (8.5.2.1[41), has a v a r i a n t f o r m c o m p r i s i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r consonant f o l l o w i n g a stem c o n t a i n i n g a f i n a l c e n t r a l (open n o n - f r o n t ) vowel. 2. S u f f i x e s h a v i n g t h e f o r m - i ( C ) ( 7 . 5 . 4 t a b l e 7; 8 . 5 . 2 . 2 ) , have v a r i a n t forms as f o l l o w s : -wu(C) f o l l o w i n g stems h a v i n g a f i n a l rounded vowel; - y i (C) f o l l o w i n g stems h a v i n g a f i n a l non-rounded vowel ; -u(C) f o l l o w i n g stems c r i t a i n i n g a rounded vowel f o l l o w e d by a v e l a r , u v u l a r o r l a b i o v e l a r consonant, and >terns c o n t a i n i n g a l a b i a l i z e d consonant i n t h e i r u n s u f f i x e d f o r m ( t h e c o n t r a s t o f l a b i a l i z e d versus s i m p l e w i l l be n e u t r a l i z e d p r e c e d i n g t h e c l o s e vowel o f t h e s u f f i x , see 2 . 2 . 1 . 1 ) . 3. The o p t a t i v e s u f f i x (7.5.5) has t h e f o r m - i G b u t i s a p a r t i a l e x c e p t i o n t o t h e s t a t e m e n t above, s i n c e i t has a v a r i a n t f o r m - G whose d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h e same as t h e combined d i s t r i b u t i o n o f -wu(C) and - y i ( C ) above. I t a l s o has a v a r above. i a n t f o r m -uG which has t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n as -u(C) 4. The l o c a t i v e s y n t a c t i c marker ( 5 . 4 . 5 ) has t h e f o r m - u f o l l o w i n g consonant f i n a l words and t h e v a r i a n t f o r m -wu f o l l o w i n g vowel f i n a l words.

2.5.5

V a r i a n t forms o c c u r r i n q i n words f o l l o w e d by c l i t i c s ,

1. A stem which has a form c o n t a i n i n g a s h o r t f i n a l vowel when o c c u r r i n g w i t h o u t a f o l l o w i n g c l it i c , has a v a r i a n t form c o n t a i n i n g t h e corresponding l o n g vowel when f o l l o w e d by a c l i t i c . Exceptions t o t h i s a r e t h e l o c a t i v e words which have t h e forms 7 i ' i n d e f i n i t e l o c a t i v e ' , k i ' h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e ' f 8 d y i ' v e r t i c a l s u r f a c e ' when o c c u r r i n g f o l l o w e d by consonantal c l i t i c s (2.4.2) o r by no c l i t i c and which have t h e v a r i a n t forms ?a, ka and ya r e s p e c t i v e l y when o c c u r r i n g f o l l o w e d by s y l l a b i c c l i t i c s . 2. An a d v e r b i a l pronominal (6.4.1.1) stem has a form c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h tone when f o l l o w e d by a consonantal c l i t i c and a v a r i a n t form c o n t a i n i n g a low t o n e when f o l lowed by a s y l l a b i c c l i t i c .

3. THE SENTENCE

3.1

Definition

The sentence i s t h e l a r g e s t grammatical u n i t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . Grammatically, i t i s p o t e n t i a l l y a complete u t t e r a n c e ; p h o n o l o g i c a l l y , i t has t h e p o t e n t i a l i t y of b e i n g bounded on e i t h e r s i d e b y i n d e f i n i t e pause. I n continuous n a r r a t i v e t h e r e i s u s u a l l y a gradual d o w n d r i f t o f p i t c h and r i t a r d a n d o from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e sentence t o t h e end.

A l l sentences can be r e f e r r e d t o one o f two sentence types - major o r m i n o r . These a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m each o t h e r b y t h e f a c t t h a t m a j o r sentences a r e d i r e c t l y r e f e r a b l e t o t h e b a s i c s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e independent c l a u s e , whereas m i n o r sentences a r e n o t . M a j o r sentences a r e t h e r e f o r e expandable; minor sentences a r e r a r e l y more t h a n a word o r a phrase.1 3.2

The M a j o r Sentence

A m a j o r sentence i s composed o f one o r more clauses, w i t h o r w i t h o u t synt a c t i c markers. I n terms o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e m a j o r sentence, t o g e t h e r w i t h c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of t h e i r s t r u c t u r e , clauses may be c l a s s i f i e d as ( 1 ) independent, ( 2 ) s u b o r d i n a t e and ( 3 ) i n c l u d e d . An independent c l a u s e i s n u c l e a r t o t h e sentence; s u b o r d i n a t e and i n c l u d e d clauses a r e s a t e l l i t e . Only an independent clause, t h e r e f o r e , may o c c u r as a monoclausal m a j o r sentence. Subordinate clauses o c c u r o n l y i n sentences composed o f clauses l i n k e d by s u b o r d i n a t i o n , and i n c l u d e d c l a u s e s o n l y i n sentences composed o f clauses l i n k e d by i n c l u s i o n . Independent clauses and i n c l u d e d clauses m y e i t h e r be v e r b a l (4.2) o r non-verbal ( 4 . 3 ) ; subo r d i n a t e clauses a r e always v e r b a l . Examples o f monoclausal sentences a r e : Verbal

t~dgE xlij2 aw~JiG we yesterday (brown)bear it - h e - k i 1 l e d t h a t 'Yesterday t h a t man k i l l e d a (brown) bear. '

qd nian

we xG3 YiG that bear you-kill ' K i l l t h a t bear!' Non-verbal

t 'ewu we xG3 hid house behind-sm that bear 'The bear i s b e h i n d t h e house. '

Clauses may be l i n k e d t o f o r m complex sentences by s u b o r d i n a t i o n , c o o r d i n a t i o n , p a r a t a x i s and i n c l u s i o n . S u b o r d i n a t i o n and i n c l u s i o n r e s u l t i n sentences o f t h e s t r u c t u r e ' nucleus + sate1 1 it e ' ; c o o r d i n a t i o n and p a r a t a x i s r e s u l t i n s e n t ences o f t h e s t r u c t u r e ' nucleus + nucleus ' . 3.2.1

Subordination

dne o r more s u b o r d i n a t e clauses may occur w i t h , and s a t e l l i t e t o , an independ e n t clause. The n u c l e a r verb o f t h e s u b o r d i a n t e c l a u s e may be followed by a s y n t a c t i c marker; when a s y n t a c t i c marker occurs, i t d e f i n e s t h e subclass of t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e (4.2.1). Subclasses o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e a r e s e t up on t h e b a s i s o f cooccurrence w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f s y n t c t i c marker, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n f l e c t e d form o f t h e n u c l e a r verb o f t h e clause.

9

The semantic f u n c t i o n s of these s u b o r d i n a t e clauses w i t h i n t h e sentence a r e as f o l l o w s : Situational Concomitant Causal

-

temporal ( o f t e n i n Engl i s h t r a n s l a t e d 'when, a f t e r ' ) temporal ( o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d by ' a s soon as, w h i l e ' )

-

statement o f ' c a u s e ' , o f which t h e main c l a u s e i s t h e ' e f f e c t ' Complemental - e x p r e s s i o n o f a thought 4 Supplemental

-

a d d i t i v e (as an expansion o r rep1 acement o f some element i n t h e main c l a u s e ) f i n a l (as a statement o f i n t e n t i o n , n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e )

The concomitant and complemental clauses always precede t h e c l a u s e t o which t h e y a r e s a t e l l i t e . The o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e clauses do n o t o c c u r i n an a b s o l u t e l y f i x e d o r d e r , b u t preferences may be n o t e d as f o l l o w s : t h e s i t u a t i o n a l and causal clauses most u s u a l l y precede t h e c l a u s e t o which t h e y a r e s a t e l l i t e ; t h e supplemental ( a d d i t i v e and f i n a l ) most u s u a l l y f o l l o w s . The f o l l o w i n g a r e examples o f sentences c o m p r i s i n g independent and subo r d i n a t e clauses:

A

B

I S sub. clause

IN ind. clause

C

D

2N sub. clause

E 3s sub. clause

3N sub. clause

2s sub. sentence 1s s u b o r d i n a t e sentence i n d e p e n d e n t

Situational +non-verbal independent Causal + independent

s e n t e n c e

(w6 xG3 A X s ~ t i n ) 4 70na du j? ( t h a t bear i t he-saw) n o t gun h i s hand 'He had no gun w i t h him (when he saw t h e b e a r ) .

'

(AX k i ya k ~ n d ~ t i x ' i - JX i AWC) ~64- AX (my on-at a l o n g b i t i n g - i n s t r . ) recip.-from dag yAXwatYi y o u t I-elbowed 'Because i t was c l o s i n g up on me, I elbowed i t a p a r t . '

Independent + w6 qi du tuwi s~gfi (w6 x f i j A wuJ2Gi) supp. a d d i t i v e t h a t man h i s w i l l - a t is-glad ( t h a t bear i t h e - k i l l e d ) 'The man wants ( t o k i 11 t h e b e a r ) . ' The most usual cooccurrences o f s u b o r d i n a t e clauses w i t h i n t h e sentence a r e of a s i t u a t i o n a l o r concomitant c l a u s e w i t h one o f t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s o f s u b o r d i n a t e clause. Two s i t u a t i o n a l clauses a1 so occur q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n one sentence.

A m u l t i - c a u s a l s t r u c t u r e , having i t s own h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , may be l i n k e d b y s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o a monoclausal s t r u c t u r e : (A)

w i n ~ n i sA

/

? A - ~ A X ke w j ~ ? a k' v x ~ d t a /' ( c ) X A ~ (D) yAn y ~ G ~ s t i n/ d ( E ) / ~ dX ~ X i y i (B)

W ~

/

G A G A X ~ ~ XA~ W ~

(A) There came a t i m e / ( B ) K u x a t t s i a looked up / f i n i s h steering / (E) while I ate.

(C)

A

B

C

D

1S sub. clause

I N ind. clause

2N sub. clause

3N sub. clause

t o c a l l me /

(Dl to

E

3s sub. clause

2S sub. sentence

1 S s u b o r d i n a t e sentence i n d e p e n d e n t

s e n t e n c e 1

Although i n t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of cases s u b o r d i n a t e and independent clauses occur i n s e r i a l o r d e r , t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s o f one c l a u s e o c c u r r i n g p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y w i t h i n another: Subordiante c l a u s e w i t h i n independent clause:

E , A hu'-3 him-by

AWL$ ~ ( E ' Ayu' n r \ h i s Y r \ d i wuduqeyi (

t h a t debt

they-paid

) )

nNde k,~dund home-to they-sent-them

' I t was through him t h a t (when they p a i d t h e d e b t ) t h e y went home.'

Independent c l a u s e w i t h i n s u b o r d i n a t e clause:

(Y ti AX w ~ n ~ d i j w~y:) u A X tuwd s ~ g d this my sheep my w i l l i s - g l a d ' (These my sheep) I want (you t o f e e d ) . ' 3.2.2

( A XY6-X ~d it'ixi) ( i t mouth-to i t you-give)

Coordination

Independent clauses may occur i n c o o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p , 1 i n k e d by t h e c o n j u n c t i o n q ~ 'and' (5.6): s ~ g u n e n h ~ s u ? i q ~ Xe1 kdx qusti n o t bread they had not r i c e there-was 'They had no bread and t h e r e was no r i c e '

A

.

Very f r e q u e n t l y t h e n u c l e a r verbs of t h e c o o r d i n a t e clauses have t h e same theme ( i . e . d e r i v a t i o n a l p a r t s , see 7.5.3): ke A ~ t i d j q , ~?{-d wu4 L t 7 d (theme = 1 - t i d up it-was-moving there it-was-shifting ' move-by-waves ' ) ' I t was moving up and down and s h i f t i n g around on t h e waves. '

Q u i t e a h i g h percentage o f c o o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s have n o t o n l y t h e same v e r b a l theme, b u t t h e same i n f l e c t e d form ( 7 . 5 . 5 ) o f t h e n u c l e a r verb:

'*

S3 ke k ~ g ~ ? e ' J g long-seaweed up it-grows kelp ' B o t h l o n g seaweed and k e l p grow u p ' .

$6

too

ke k ~ g , ~ ~ ~ i ! j up it-grows

There appears t o be a s t y l i s t i c r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e l e n g t h o f t h e t o t a l sent e n c e produced by c o o r d i n a t i o n . If t h e f i r s t c l a u s e i s r e l a t i v e l y l o n g , q ~ may f u n c t i o n as a h e s i t a t i o n form, i n which case t h e two c l a u s e s w i l l r e t a i n independent p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s ( o f p i t c h d o w n d r i f t and r i t a r d a n d o ) . Otherwise, these f e a t u r e s w i l l span t h e t o t a l c o o r d i n a t e sentence. C o o r d i n a t i o n i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e i n c l a u s e l i n k i n g and o n l y one example has been found of a sentence formed by c o o r d i n a t i o n o c c u r r i n g as an element o f a l a r g e r sentence. (A) ?d ~ A W~ h i n 4 n g i d l q ~ / ( B ) ?