A survey of the idea of God in twenty-five Jewish religious school textbooks

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A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Edward Zerin May 1950

UMI Number: EP56166

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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e , has been prese n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f the U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a t io n . D ate .....................

Dean Guidance Committee





. . •

.................. .

Why this investigation

• • • • • • • « •

Previous studies in this field


• * . • •

Purpose and scope of this study ........ II*


4 5





The Elementary Department • • » • • • • • When the Jewish People Was Young

• • •


9 9

Names of the Deity * ..............


Where the Deity dwelled

• • • . • •


Nature of the Deity • • • • • • • • •


Revelation of the Deity » • * • • • •


Worship of the Deity



Miscellaneous • • • •



How the Jewish People Grew Up * • . • • Names of the Deity


• • • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity * ..............


Revelation of the Deity • ..........


Worship of the Deity


• • » • • • • •

Miscellaneous • .................... How the Jewish People Lives Today • • • Names of the Deity

* • • • • • • • •

25 26 26




PAGE Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity • • • • • • • • • *


Revelation of the Deity



Worship of the Deity• • • • • • • • •


Miscellaneous • • . ...............




The Primary Department



Bible Tales for Very Young Children ..................

Book I Names of the Deity

• •


32 32

Where the Deity dwelled


Nature of the Deity • • • • « • • • •


Revelation of the Deity •


Worship of the Deity

• • • • • • • •





Bible Tales for Very Young Children Book II


Names of the Deity



• • • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • • •


Nature of the D e i t y . . . . . . . . .


Revelation of the Deity . • • • • • •


Worship of the Deity

» • • • • • • •


Miscellaneous • » » . • • • ........





The Elementary Department


• • • • » • •

The Story of Genesis Bible Reader I



Names of the'. >Deity » • • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled

• • • • • •




*.• . • • •


Nature of the Deity Revelation of the Deity Worship of the Deity Miscellaneous



56 57

Out of the House of Bondage Bible Reader I I .............. .


Names of the Deity • • • • • • % • »


Where the Deity dwelled

• • • • • •


• • • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the Deity

• • • • « .


Worship of the Deity *



Into the Promised Land BibleReader III


Names of the Deity . * • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled

• • • • • •




Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the Deity

• • • • * •

Worship of the Deity • • • • • • • Miscellaneous

• • » • • • • • • • .

80 •

82 85


PAGE In the Land of Kings and Prophets


Bible Reader I V .........


Names of the Deity

• • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity • • • • • • • •


Revelation of the Deity • • • • • •


Worship of the Deity

• * • • • • •


Miscellaneous • • • • • • • • • • •




The Primary Department • • • • • • « • •


The Great March Book ! • • • • • • • •


Names of the Deity • • • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled

• • • • • •


• • • • • • • «


Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the Deity

• • • • • •


• • • • • • •


• » » • • • • • • • •


Worship of the Deity Miscellaneous

The Elementary Department

• • • » • • •


The Great March Book II

• • • • • • *


Names of the Deity • • • • • • • • »


Where theDeity dwelled

* • • • • •


» • • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the Deity

• • • • • •



PAGE Worship of the Deity Miscellaneous


. . . . . . .


• • • • • • • • • •



. . . •

• • « . • • •

Fun on Sukos

111 Ill Ill

Names of the Deity • • • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled

. . . . . .


• • • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the Deity Worship of the Deity



• • • • • • •


Happy Chanuko


Names of the Deity


Where the Deity dwelled


Nature of the Deity


. • • • • • • •

Revelation of the Deity

• • • • • •


• • • • • • •


Purim Parade • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Passover Party


Worship of the Deity

Wames of the Deity • • • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled

• • • . • •


. . • • • • • .


Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the Deity Worship of the Deity

• • • • * . * • • • • • •

116 116


PAGE Shovuos Time

• • • ........... . . .

Names of the Deity


• • • ........


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • « •


Nature of the Deity • • • • • • • •


Revelation of the Deity • • • • • •


Worship of the Deity


• • • » • • •

The Jewish Child Every Day Names of the Deity

• » • • *


• • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • •


Nature of the D e i t y .........


Revelation of the Deity • • • • . .


Worship of the Deity


• • • • • • •

Now We Begin Names of the Deity

119 • • • • • • • »


Where the Deity dwelled • • » • • •


Nature of the ^eity • • . . . » • •


Revelation of the Deity • • • • • •


Worship of the Deity

• • • • • • •


The Primary Department • • • • • • • • •


Primary Songs and Games Names of the Deity

• • • • • • •


• • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled Nature of the Deity

• • • • • •


• . . • • • • +




PAGE Revelation of the Deity • • • • • •


Worship of the Deity •



. . . . . .

Happy Holidays • • • • • • •

Names of the Deity


• • • • • • • •


Where the -^eity dwelled • • # . . .


Nature of the Deity

• • • • • • •


Revelation of the Deity • • • • • •


Worship of the ^eity

. . . . . . .


Down Holiday Lane • • • • • • • • • •


Names of the ^eity

. . . . . . . .


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity • • • • * • • •


Revelation of the "^eity • • • . . .


Worship of the Deity

• • • • • • *


The Elementary Department • • • • • • •


Days and

Ways • • • • • • • • • • • •

Names of the Deity


• • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • •


Nature of the ^eity • • • • • • • .


Revelation of the Deity • • • • • •


Worship of the ^eity


. . . . . . .



• . .


Tlie Elementary Department


Dorothy and David Explore Jewish Life


Names of the Deity • • • 1 ........


Where the Deity dwelled • • • • « •


Nature of the Deity


« • • • • • • «

Revelation of the D©ity

* . . • . •

Worship of the Deity • • • « • • • • The Stream of Jewish Life

143 143

» « • • • •


^ames of the Deity • • • • • • • • •


Where the Deity dwelled

# • • • • •


• • • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the ^eity


Worship of the Deity • • • • • • • Michael Turns the Globe


• • • • • • •


% m e s of the Deity • • • • • * • • •


Where the Deity dwelled

• • • • • •


• • • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity

Revelation of the Deity Worship of the Deity Miscellaneous VIII#





• • • • • • •


• • • • « • • .




149 150


PAGE General summary


The Pre-School Department • • • • • • Names of the Deity

150 150

* • • • • • • •


'Where the Deity dwelled • • • • • •


Nature of the Deity • • • • • • • •


Revelation of the Beity . . . . . .


Worship of the Deity



The Primary Department

• • • • • • .


• • • . . . • •


Where the Deity dwelled • • • » • •


Nature of the ,Deity



Revelation of the Deity • • • • • •


Worship of the Deity


Names of the Deity

• • • • • • •

The Elementary Department • • • » • • Names of the Deity


• • • • • • • •


Where-the Deity dwelled • • • • • •


^ature of the Deity • • . • • • • •


Revelation of the D e i t y .........


Worship of the Deity

• • • • • » •


• • • • • • •


General trends observed •

Absence of organization . . . . . . .


Limited concern with conceptual : * development • • • • • • • • • • • • Emphasis on .the historical God


168 171


PAGE Explanation of miracles • • • • • • • Recommendations


• • • * • • • * * • • •


173 .


CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION WHY THIS INVESTIGATION The kaleidoscopic changes which have taken place in the life of the Jewish people in the last two decades have cast a new emphasis upon Jewish education in the United States*

First, the destruction of European Jewry

has placed the responsibility for the spiritual and cul­ tural survival of the Jew upon the shoulders of the remaining Jews of the world*

The most important and surely

the largest center of Jewish population resides in this country*

Second, the birth of the State of Israel is

bringing to the American Jew, as the crisis situation points to subsidence within a foreseeable future, the re­ alization that he can no longer live vicariously in the hopes and dreams of other Jews but must plan and provide, Jewishly speaking, for himself as well*

Now that the

!tre con struct ion of the nation11 has been undertaken with increasing success, the 11preservation of the soul,*1 as it is called in the tradition, namely, the spiritual and cultural welfare of the individual in every situation and land in which he may reside, is coming more and more to the fore*

2 Thus* the task confronting Jewish education in the United States is a two-fold one:

1) to develop

curricula and foster institutions worthy of the glorious heritage which has now been entrusted to it, and 2) w-to render the Jewish heritage relevant to the moral and spiri­ tual needs of the individual in the environment in which he finds himself#tf^ Educators readily voice the feeling that the tradi­ tional methodology and curricula are inadequate to ful­ fill these two needs.

Changed environmental factors plus

the anamalous position of the Jew, in his own mind as well as in the mind of the non-Jew, have outmoded concepts and techniques which served the f athers well in the old world#

From all walks of Jewish life come suggestions#

Some concern themselves with the description of nthe new emphasis in American Jewish education*^; others give cri­ tiques of Jewish education, pointing out criticisms as well as trends.^

Such words as: nreconstructn^ and 11experiment1*^

are found very frequently in literature#

For example, an

^ Mordecai Kaplan, The Future of the American Jew (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1948X, P* 446# 2

Israel S. Chipkin, 11A Decade of Progress in Jewish Education,1> Jewish Education 21:17, Winter, 1949# ® Samuel M. Blumenfield, ,THistorical Developments of Jewish Education in America,11 Jewish Education, 21:45, Winter, 1949#

experimental curriculum workshop was established by the Commission on Jewish Education of the Central Conference of American Rabbis*®

In summary, the words of Dr* Mordecai

M* Kaplan may be quoted:

11 * * * while it is evident that

Jews cannot do without their tradition, it is equally evident that they cannot do with that tradition as it is • •*tt*^ Basic to the Jewish way of life is the God-concept* From its earliest beginnings, the Jewish people sought to relate its experiences to the Divine*

The Bible is the

record of the Jewish people in olden times as it discovered God and attempted to live by His precepts and commands*


a result, Jewish education for many centuries began with the study of the Book of Leviticus so that from early childhood the Jew might come to know that which was !tpure,11 the commandments which guided him in his daily life and in matters of great import*

It was hardly necessary, for

^ Milton Steinberg, A Partisan Guide to the Jewish Problem (New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1945), p* 1'85* ® Emanuel Gamoran, An Evaluation upon an Article entitled nReligious Education for Liberal Progressives11 by Ernest J* Chave, Religious Education, XLV:89, March, 1950* ® Solomon B* Freehof, "Report on Commission on Jewish Education*}/ Fifty-eighth Yearbook of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, (Philadelphia:~Tewish Publication Society, 1^49), p. 143. *7 Mordecai M* Kaplan, Judaism in Transition (New York: Behrmanfs Jewish Book House, 1941), p* 143*

example, to teach, children a philosophic conception of God, wsince all they had to know about God was that, by conforming to Godfs law as prescribed in the Torah and by performing the rites which it enjoined, they did something that was bound to bring them great reward#11

Such a concept, however,

is no longer tenable in our generation.

Scientific skepti­

cism plus the persistence of evil in the world have called for a philosophic interpretation of God.

The God of the

fathers, it is readily recognized, must become our God if life is to be lived with an awareness of the Divine# PREVIOUS STUDIES IN THIS FIELD To this writer!s knowledge there has never been a study made, whether in Orthodox, Conservative or Reform circles, which sought to analyze the God-concept taught to Jewish children#

Almost all scientific studies in Jewish

education have concerned themselves with historical analyses of movements and trends*

There is, therefore, no precedent

in Jewish education for a survey similar to the one attempted in this study# Two known works in the field of Christian education served;.as precedents, however.

8 Ibid, p. 152.

One study analyzed the God-

concept In a series of Protestant educational textbooks.


The other study was a survey of the concepts of God and war in the Old Testament PURPOSE AND SCOPE OP THIS STUDY /

/What kind of conception of God are we teaching to our Jewish children today?


It is the purpose of this study to analyze the Godt

concept as presented in a sampling of the textbooks publi­ shed by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations/ The / scope of this study, however, is a limited one, for it will not attempt to evaluate its findings, except in so far as they fall into categories or else seem to contradict each other or reflect trends.

There will be no attempt to

categorize the facts with reference to their modern scien­ tific value.

This aspect alone could readily serve as the

basis of a second study. The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, through its Commission on Jewish Education headed from its inception by Dr. Emanuel Gamoran, in a little over a quarter of a *

9 Angus Hector MacLean, The Idea of God in Protestant Religious Education (Teachers College Contributions to' Education, No. 410* New Yorks Teachers College, Columbia Uni­ versity, 1930). ' Marion Benedict, God and ^ar in the Old Testament (Teachers College Contribution to" Education, No. New Yorks. Teachers College, Columbia University, 1988). /

century of existence, has pioneered in the field of textbooks for the Jewish School*

For the first time in the history of

Jewish educational work, which ranges over many centuries, has a ”systematic series of publications been produced so consistent in panning and generally so suitable for the objectives sought and certainly so many-sided in its variety?1* All groups in Jewish life use these textbooks, although they were designed primarily for distribution in Reform or Liberal Jewish Schools* Twenty-five textbooks, covering all phases of the curriculum, were selected for this documentary survey* teacherrs manuals nor workbooks were investigated*



textbooks were selected in the Pre-School Department; six, in the Primary Department; while in the Elementary Department twelve textbooks were surveyed* In order to facilitate the planning of footnotes, the following procedure is to be pursued: after each reference, the page on which it is to be found in the textbook under survey, is to be found in parentheses immed­ iately adjoining the reference; all references to books other than the one under survey are made In the standard manner* The thesis is divided into eight chapters* 11 Solomon B* Freehof, op» cit*, p* 149*


V Chapter I which contains the introduction and statement of scope and purpose, there are six chapters presenting the anlyses of the textbooks*

Chapter II deals with

textbooks designed to teach History; Chapter III, Bible; Chapter IV is a continuation of the preceeding chapter; Chapter V, Post-Biblical stories; Chapter VI, Customs and Ceremonies; and Chapter VII, Demography*

The eighth

and concluding chapter presents a statement of summary and recommendations* A list of the textbooks examined follows: Pre-School Department Fun on Sukos, by Jane Bearman Happy Chanuko, by Jane Bearman Purim Parade , by Jane Bearman Passover Party, by Jane Bearman Shovuos lime, by Jane Bearman The Jewish Child E^ery Day, by Edith S* Covich How We Begin, by Marion J* and Efraim M* Rosenzweig Primary Department Primary Songs and Games, by Adeline R. Rosewater Hillel* s Happy Holidays, by Mamie G* G&moran Bible Tales for Very Young Children Book I, by Lenore Cohen

8 Bible Tfeles for Very Young Children Book XI, by Lenore Cohen Down Holiday Lane , by Hose W* Golub The Great March Book I, by Rose G# Lurie Elementary Department The Great March Book II, by Rose G* Lurie Michael Turns the Globe, by Deborah Pessin 1/hen the Jewish People was Young, by Mordecai I. Soloff Days and Wflys, by Mamie G. Gamoran The Story of Genesis Bible Reader I, by Adele Bildersee Out of the House of Bondage Bible Reader II, by Adele Bildersee How the Jewish People Grew Up, by Mcrdecai I. Soloff Dorothy and David Explore Jewish Life, by Michael Conovitz Into the Promised Land Bible Reader III, by Rabbi Jacob D* Schwarz Into the Land of Kings and Prophets Bible Reader IV, by Rabbi Jacob D* Schwarz The Stream of Jewish Life, by Dorothy Alofsin How the Jewish People Lives Today (Revised up to 1949), by M0rdecai I* Soloff


CHAPTER II THE IDEA OP GOD IN TEXTBOOKS DESIGNED FOR TEACHING HISTORY There were no textbooks devised for the teaching of History below the Elementary Department# THE ELEMENTARY DEPARTMENT **“•

^faeri the Jewish People Was Young by Mordecai I# Soloff'*’ When the Jewish People Was Young was the first in a

series of three textbooks designed for 11the teaching of Jewish history to children in the Intermediate grades#n (p# ix) This volume, published in 1934, covered the period from the time of Abraham to the Babylonian Exile and was Intended for use in the fourth grade Y/here the age level was around nine# (p# x)

The 1949-50 Catalogue of the Union of American

Hebrew Congregations recommended this textbook for use in the fifth grade where the age level ranged between ten and eleven# ■"

1 All textbooks surveyed for purposes of this study are listed in the 1949-50 Catalogue of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations#

10 1*. Names of the Deity: God (p*. 10), God of the Patriarch Abraham (p*. 82), God of the Jews (p* 138), Jewish God (p* 238) Lord (p. 273) I (p. 26), He (p. 91), His (p. 27), Who (p* 239), Him (p. 27) In dealing with other peoples, the following names for deities were used: god (p*10), idol (p* 10), Baal (p* 114), idols of Baal (p* 116), gods of the Assyrians (p* 243), Babylonian gods (p* 271) The author has used the term 11Jews” throughout the book, substituting the term in places where the phrases "Hebrews*1 or "Israelites" would have been more historically correct• (p* xi)

This same policy was utilized by the

author in all three of his books* 2•

Where the Deity Dwelled s A legend told that Elijah went up to heaven* (p* 200) At Mt# Sinai, Moses gave the Jews the commandments of

God* (p. 83) 3*

Nature of the Deity: one (p* 84$, great and powerful (p* 88) not like a man who could be bribed (p* 220), so great

that could not be offended by man (p* 227)

11 ruled over all the lands in the world (p* 240), ruled over the Jews and all other people (p*.239) tOO kind and good to want child sacrifice (p« 27) story teller related:

created grass, trees, rivers,

seas, fish, birds, animals, men (p« 40) ; created Sinai (p# 84) Some of the qualities were anthropomorphic in nature: made bargain with Abraham (p* 26), had desires to drive out the Canaanites (p* 95), made promises (p* 97), became angry (p* 203), made plans to destroy a city (p* 26) The Doity also intervened in the lives of men: took part in wars and fought the enemies of the Jews (p# 100), ark and priests were His symbols (p* 100), brought famine (p. 204.) Some of the interventions in the affairs of men were on the miraculous side: was a great God who could do mighty deeds and perform great miracles (p. 40), visited Egyptians with plagues (p* 75), water gushed forth when Moses struck the rock (p« 82), a great poet many years later told that the sun stood still in the heavens while Joshua waged war (p* 101), rewarded with a child (p* 125), helped Israel across the Red Sea (p* 82) The Deity also had special relationships with indi­ viduals : Moses felt that if he tried hard enough to save

12 the Jews, God would help him (p. 73); 14 fact, he was so sure of God*s help that he succeeded in kindling the hope of escape among the Jews. (p. 65) There was a special agreement between the Deity and the Jewish people &

The Jewish people agreed to follow the

commandments of God,(p. 85) after Moses had been sent to save them# (p* 73)

Moses taught them, and they became a

religious people because they believed in a great God# (p# 96) God gave them Canaan (p# 95); however,- in order to take possession of the land they had to have the help of God# (p# 95)

The knowledge that God was ever-ready to help them

strengthened the hearts of the Jewish warriors, (p. 82) God would help them conquer the land# (p# 88)

As soon as

the Jews forgot their religion, something happened which made them realize who their real God was. (p. 88)


dnemy would come and oppress the people# (p. 114)


time a leader or judge appeared and made the people remem­ ber God for a while and return to His worship#

The Jews

then realized that God had saved them from their enemies# (P* 112) Religion was the strongest link between the Jews; if they forgot their God, they would no longer exist as a people# (p. 117)

Israel was God's chosen people* (p. 272)

This did

not mean that God would forgive them if they were wrong;

God would punish them severely if they sinned against Him# God did expect the Jews to be better than any other people on earth#

He expected them to teach others how to live the

good life and how to worship God#

The Jews were to be an

example for all other people# (p# 272) Jews were brothers, servants of a great God#


His sake, therefore, Jews should be ready to work together and help each other# (p# 141)

The Jewish people was still

alive today because it worshipped one God, used the Hebrew language, observed its customs, studied its literature and history; if this were not so, the Jewish people might die# (p# 80) The Deity desired:- one should know God and follow His laws (p* 80), worship only one God and no other (p# 84), observe the Sabbath (p* 84), honor one's parents (p# 84), bring the holy ark into Jerusalem and build a Temple for it 1

(p# 160), not sacrifices but deeds of kindness and justice (p# 193), Jews should live better lives (p# 218), rich should be fair to the poor (p# 218), judges should be honest (p# 218), one should be as kind to non-Jews as to Jews (p# 218), one should do God's will (p# 230), love God and show that love not by bringing sacrifices but by following the advice of the prophets to be kind, fair and honest and not to worship Baal (p# 231), one should find favor before Him by loving Him and

14 obeying His laws (p* 255) The Deity also rewarded and punished* Disapproval was expressed by the Deity for:

making pictures or statues

of God (p* 84), stealing (p« 84), killing (p* 84), envying other people (p« 84), bribing judges and the bribing God with sacrifices (p* 216), Jews to hurt their neighbors (p. 218), dishonesty and unkindness (p. 227) Punishment was visited by the Deity for the following acts:

wickedness of the Canaanites (p. 95), disobeying the

laws of Moses and forgetting God (p. 192), disobeying God*s laws (p# 192), wickedness (p* 193), kings permitted the people to worship Baal (p. 204), not doing Godfs will (p. 230), forsaking God and worshipping gods of the Assyrians (p* 238) The punishments visited included:

Canaanites were

driven from the land (p* 95), trouble (p. 192), famine (p* 204), sorrow, perhaps destruction of the kingdom (p. 230), the Jewish people might have died had they continued in their evil (p. 238), Babylonians were driven from Palestine (p. 272) The following activities were deserving of rewards by the Deity:

obeying God*s laws (p# 85), being true to

God (p* 117), being kind, honest and fair to other people (p. 192) The rewards of the Deity consisted of:

God1s help

15 (p. 85), peace (p* 117), happiness (p. 192) The Deity did not want to punish the Jewish people; He really loved the Jewish people*(p. 229)

He "brought

suffering upon them to make them realize that unless they worshipped Him and lived the good life, they could not be happy* (p* 229)

He did not bring trouble merely because

He was angry nor because He wanted to punish* (p. 238) This was His method of teaching them that He wanted them to love Him and worship Him as they should, (p* 238) However, there was a further and different thought that even if God were to destroy the remaining kingdom of Judeq;., He would always leave some of the best Jews so that they might spread the teachings of God throughout the world, (p. 244)

Moreover, God would not punish children for the ,

sins of the fathers if they themselves did no wrong and worshipped Him in accordance with the laws and customs of the Jewish people; only those guilty of wrong would be punished* (p. 273) Some day all people would recognize the greatness of God and come to Jerusalem to learn His laws.

Then there

would be great rewards no more war, peace, happiness, breaking of swords, making of tools for plowing* (p. 244) 4.

Revelation of the D0itys Those passages which revealed the Deity as speaking

16 or answering were described as stories from the Bible or as legends» (p. 200) was revealed to:

On the other hand, the will of the Deity Moses after many hours of thinking about

God (p. 73), Elijah who went to the desert where he would have plenty of time to think and could learn to know God (p. 200), Isaiah who imagined a beautiful sight in which a burning stone touched his lips and purified him (p. 240), Gideon who felt that God Himself was telling him (p. 116), Samuel whom many Jews belietfed God helped to see and under­ stand things which no ordinary man could (p. 135) The Deity also sent individuals to be His messengers; after thinking about God, Moses felt that he had to take Israel out of Egypt (p. 135), Gideon felt that G0d was telling him to defend the Jews (p. 116), Isaiah was purified so that he might speak to the Jews in the name of God (p* 240) In a Bible story, an angel conveyed God’s message to Abraham, (p. 26) Ezekiel told of a vision in which he had heard God’s voice (p. 273) In a Bible story, God answered the prayer of Elijah. (p. 205) The Deity was revealed through events.

Israel heard

about the God of the patriarch Abraham and they saw what He did to bring them out of Egypt and across the Bed Sea. (p. 82,)

17 The people of Jericho heard what God had done to the Egypt­ ians* (p* 100)

When the Jews heard the report of how God

had helped them, they learned to love and respect God* (p* 201)

When the Assyrians fled, the Jews recognized

that the god of the Assyrians was no god hut that the Lord was* (p* 243) Individuals also taught the message of God: spoke to the Jews in the name of God* (p* 240)



spoke to persuade the people to worship God in the desired way* (p. 255)

Moses taught the Jews to know God* (p. 82)

At Mt* Sinai Moses told them of God, while lightning and thunder played; Moses gave the Jews the commandments of God* (p* 83)

Moses taught the Jew® how to follow Godfs command­

ments and how to worship Him. (p* 90) The Kohanim were appointed to minister at the altar because not everyone knew how to sacrifice to God* (p* 85) The prophets made the Jewish people want to worship their God* (p* 189)

In Palestine, when the people lived in towns,

learned and wise Jews felt that there they could easily teach children to know God and to worship Him* (p* 132) That it was necessary to teach the Jews to worship God more than a thousand years after Abraham did not mean that the teachers were bad; It merely pointed out how much had to be done before idol worship could be uprooted from among the people* (p. 199)

18 5*

Worship of the Deity: sacrifices were brought on the Sabbath (p. 84),

an altar on which to bring animal sacrifices (p* 85), came near to the tabernacle in which the Holy Ai>k stood only when they worshipped God (p. 86), at feasts v/ould offer sacrifices to God and sometimes to Baal also (p* 131) sacrifices necessary to make God give His blessing and help (p* 131), fine clothes and much wealth not needed to worship God (p* 201), better to pray than to bring sacrifices to the Temple (p. 276) Since not everyone knew how to sacrifice, the Kohanim were appointed* (p* 85)

It was customary.for only a

holy man to offer sacrifices# (p# 147) Solomon built a magnificent Temple for worship of God# (p* 174)

There was a Holy Ark for the stone tablets

and altars for sacrifices#

(p# 175)

There was the belief

that the Temple was so holy that God would never destroy it (p# 254); that the people, too, were safe as long as they were in or near the Temple* (p# 254)

In Babylonia It was

taught that noone could be a good Jew merely by bringing sacrifices*

(p* 275)

Praying was the method of worshipping

God outside of Palestine*

(p* 275)

The Deity was petitioned for: help so that the tribe could grow (p* 23), help to escape into the desert (p* 65),

19 guidance (p. 77), rain (p* 204), fire from heaven (p* 206), destruction of all altars in Judea except the one in the Temple (p. 254), a city that it might be saved (p* 26) Prayers were answered:

God answered Abrahamfs

prayer by making a bargain with him (p* 26), sent east wind to aid Moses (p. 77), sent rain and fire in answer to Elijah (p. 205) 6*

Miscellaneous: Vows*

Jephthah made a vow to God that whatever he

would see first coming out of his house he would sacrifice, were he, of course, successful in battle* (p* 117) Comparative religion*

Long before one ever thought

of a God who ruled over the whole world, people worshipped only idols* (p* 10) 10)

^hese were made of wood or stone* (p*

They were supposed to help those who pleased them and

to harm those who angered them* (p* 10)

Gifts were brought

to them in order to win their favor* (p* 10)

Some gods

wanted child sacrifice, and the oldest son was brought* (p* 10)

The idols made the fields yield food* (p* 199)


worship did not require strict laws, merely the bringing of sacrifices

once in a while, and then one could become

drunk or cheat if he wanted* All people near the Jews worshipped many gods* please these gods, they brought sacrifices*


The Jews, too,


did what their neighbors did, thinking that God expected of them no more than to see the smoke of their sacrifices* A. gift to God seemed to be the right thing.

A sacrifice

removed God's anger and enabled one to escape His punishment* (p. 237) EUch nation had its own god who protected and cared for the nation.

These gods fought with each other whenever

the nations fought.

The defeated nation had the weaker and

smaller god; moreover, the losers accepted the religion of the stronger group.

Thus, the Canaanites worshipped the

God of the Jews, but then t h e y turned to the Assyrian gods when the Jews were defeated* (p. 238) II*

How the Jewish People Grew Up by Mordecai I. Soloff How the Jewish People Grew Ups covering 11the history

of the Jewish People from the time of the Return to Pales­ tine in 536 B.C.E* to their exile from Spain in 1492,t! (p. x) was the second in a series of history books designed for use in the Intermediate grades*

This volume, specifically,

while intended originally for use in the fifth grade, was later recommended for use in the sixth grade where the age of the students ranged between eleven and twelve years, (p. vii) The book was published in 1936.

21 1*

Names of the Deity t God (p* 2) Lord (p» 69) Thee (p* 238), Thou (p* 238), Thy (p* 238), He (p* 48),

Him (p. 4), His (p. 14), Himself (p* 44), Who (p. 90) In the Hebrew the following terms were usedi


meaning tfLordtt (p* 154), Elohenu, meaning tTour God (p# 154) From the religions of the neighboring peoples came the following terms:

idol (p* 67), Greek gods (p« 65),

Zeus (p* 56), Greek idol Zeus (p* 55) 2*

Where the Deity Dwelled: a God in heaven (p* 90)


Nature of the Deity: great (p« 52), mighty (p* 97), one (p. 154), could not

be seen (p* 135) in a story, the Deity promised the birth of a child (p* 204) Fountain of a man’s life (p. 238), my friend and my lamp, implying that man’s light would never fade nor that his foot would ever slip, for God would surely help one if he obeyed His commandment s (p# 238) The Deity had a special relationship and dealing with


God gave the Torah to the Jews so that they could

be a holy people# (p# 90)

He would be their God* (p* 154)

In order to become true servants of God, the people had to know Godfs law and will and follow it# (p# 4)

There were

many Jews who preferred to die rather than disobey the laws of the Torah, (p# 69) and worship idols# (p# 67)

When the

Romans came, many of the people did not care who ruled over them as long as they were able to live in pease and serve God as the Torah commanded them# (p* 98)

In their persecu­

tions, the Jews struggled on, hoping that some day God would put an end to their troubles, for as the left hand of God had dealt out pain so 'the right hand would bring them back again, it was held* (p* 239) in the Book of L^fe* (p* 239)

Their names were also enrolled Their faith in God made it

possible for them to enjoy life, and they looked hopefully toward the time when the Messiah would bring happiness to all# (p* 239) The Deity desiredr

observance of the Gabbath and holy

days (p* 4), worship of God (p* 38), honesty, kindness and thoughtfulness of others (p* 5), know Godls law well and follow it(p* 39) A story told that certain Jews suffered because they obeyed the laws of God*

In the end, however, they were saved

and the wicked individuals were punished# (p# 69)

23 4.

Revelation of the Deity: In a story, it was stated that a voice was heard# (p*

224) The Kohen Gadol was a holy man who spoke in the name of God* (p* 39)

The prophets tried to teach the people how

God wanted them to live* (p* 4) Many Jews believed that the Torah was so wonderful that no man could have written it*

They said that God Him­

self gave the ^orah to Moses, who passed it on to Joshua and so forth from generation to generation* (p. 44)


passage stated that God gave the Torah to the Jews* (p* 90) No other point of view was expressed about the Torah, even though the above discussion was couched within the frame v/ork of the phrase Mmany Jews believe • • *tf The Soferim felt that the Torah came from God; there­ fore, it contained solutions to all important problems.*


answers could be found if the Torah were studied diligently* It was important to know and to study both the Oral and the Written Law* (p* 81) Nachmanides expressed the thought that everything in the Torah was not only true but also holy*

One could find

out all the secrets about God, the Messiah, the world to come and everything else that he might want to know by really under­ standing the Torah* (p* 259)

24 5*

Worship of the Deity: When the Temple was destroyed it was no longer neces­

sary to bring sacrifices to the Temple.

Instead of sacrifices,

one would show kindness to others, act honestly, play fair* (p. 140)

To this was added that one should pray to God

regularly even as sacrifices had been brought to the Temple* Synagogues were organized* and no longer were the Kohanim permitted to bring sacrifices for the people* (p. 140) Every person felt that he was obligated to take part in the service.

The Synagogue held the Jews closer to God and to

the Torah, (p. 141)

Animal sacrifice came to an end* (p. 141)

Prior to the destruction of the Temple, piligrimages were made there to serve and worship God in His Holy Temple* (p* 84)

Alexander the Great brought a sacrifice to the

Temple to show that he was a friend of the Jews and the Kohen Gadol served a great God and deserved, as a result, great respect* (p* 51) It was felt that only true Jews should be permitted to build the Temple.

The Jews did not want to be friendly

with a people, the Samaritans, who worshipped God In a man­ ner which they believed to be wrong, (p.


The author

added that this was understandable if one remembered that the Jews had left the comforts of Babylonia to suffer many hardships in Palestine because they wanted to be loyal Jews* (p* 16)

25 Nothing was so important to the Jews as proper worship of God. (p. 22)

When the Temple was destroyed, the Anshe

Kenneseth Hagadol wanted to help the people pray to God and composed several prayers, (p. 48) The Wailing Wall, following the destruction, became a place of prayer for the Jews. {p. 48) The Deity was petitioned for : protection even as He had protected the fathers in ancient days (p. 48), the Messiah (p. 125) The Maccabeans made thank-offerings for God*s help. (p* 72)

A poem of praise said, nI love Thee in solitude and

throng; I T11 praise Thee and sing my song alway.” (p. 238) 6.

Miscellaneous: Comparative religion.

The Christians worshipped

Jesus as though he were God. (p. 118)

The Mohammedans

believed in only one God and that He alone should be wor­ shipped. (p. 157) worship.day.

He was an invisible God who disliked idol

He was worshipped through prayer several times a

Maimonides held that Jews did not become Mohammedans

merely by reciting the prayer, wGod is one and Mohammed is His prophet*tt (p. 249)

26 III*

How The Jewish People Lives Today by Mordecai I# Soloff How The Jewish People Lives Today was published as

the third and final volume on Jewish history for the Inter­ mediate grades*

While originally intended for use in the

sixth grade, it was later suggested for study in the seventh grade where the age level was between twelve and thirteen years* (p* viii) The edition revised to 1949 was utilized for purposes of this study* 1*

Names of the Deity: God (p* 229), Almighty God (p* 314) Father (p* 9) He (p* 8), His (p* 9), Him (p. 10) In the Hebrew the following terms were used:


meaning 11Lord” (p* 397), Elohenu, meaning 11our Godt! (p* 397) idol (p* 80) 2*

Where the Deity Dwelled: The only suggestion was that God was everywhere* (p* 93)


Nature of the Deity: one (p* 4), everywhere (p. 9), knew everything (p. 9),

much wiser,greater and more important than man (p* 9) Father of all men (p.- 8)


close (p* 99) There was a relationship between the Deity and the Jewish people*

When conditions were wretched in Poland in

the seventeenth century, the only hope of the Jew# lay in their belief that God would send His messenger, the Messiah, and save them* (p* 68)

Happy or unhappy, rich or poor, Jews

everywhere remained loyal to their God* (p* 362)

.They also

remained loyal to their people and to their country* (p* 363) In America, Jews have been able not only to e arn a living but also to worship God in peace* (p* 388)

As to the fortune

of the Jew, he felt that with the help of God he would be


able to triumph over many difficulties* (p* 399) Polish Jewry was divided into Chasidim and Misnagdim, each following a different path to the same God.

(p* 98)

Today, Orthodox, Conservative and Reform all believe that God is one, that we are all His children, equallin His sight, deserving the same opportunities and aspiring to­ gether to remove hate and war from the earth*' (p* 397) To reach this goal, all Jews must stand together, united in , friendship and faith in God*

All Israelites are brothers

and are responsible for one another*s welfare and happiness* (p. 397) The Deity desired:

man should live peacefully and

act justly (p* 8) There were three ways of pleasing God:

man should

28 be humble and realize that God was greater, wiser and more important than man; man should be cheerful at all times, for he lived in a world in which there was much beauty which brought joy to the heart of man; when praying one should forget all ©l&e, recite prayers enthusiastically, for only when sincere can man come close to God. (p* 93) 4*

Revelation of the Deity: Some people believed that the Baal Shem Tov was so

pious and understood GodTs ways so well that he could talk to Him face to face* (p* 96) The Baal Shem Tov was so naned because people believed that he performed miracles with God*s name* (p* 95) There was a story that an angel promised that a son would be born; whether this story was true people did not inquire, but they believed it nonetheless* (p* 91) People would turn to the Tzadik for advice and help, for they believed that he could ask God for guidance* (p* 97) 5*

Worship of the Deity: In sixteenth century Poland, Jews worshipped God in

the manner that suited them best, without interference from their non-Jewish neighbors* (p* 56)

When conditions became

so wretched, their only hope lay in the belief that God would

29 would send His messenger, the Messiah, and save them# (p* 68) Pious people would go to the tomb of Moses Isserles in Krakow and write little prayers on slips of paper and leave them on the grave in the hope that God would grant their requests for the sake of Isserles who was righteous and God-fearing* (p* 40) The Chasidim believed that it was necessary to worship God with joy and enthusiasm. laws*

It was not enough merely to obey

They were eager to talk to God directly and tell him

of their love for Him and of their joy at being His children* (p* 80)

For example, Israel of the Good Hame was very en­

thusiastic when he thought or spoke of God*

During prayer,

he would close his eyes and forget the world about him, and A

it seemed as though he were talking directly to God* (p* 80) The Chasidim taught, that even if a person were not learned he could pray to God*

One could pray in a field

(p* 93) as well as in a Synagogue (p» 93), for God loved all people* (p* 93) another* (p* 93)

One could please God by helping one

Since one should recite onefs prayers with

enthusiasm, it was permissible for one to delay his morning prayers until he felt the urge to pray, because only when a man was sincere could he come close to God* (p* 93)


pecially, people who were fin trouble loved to believe that God was close to them and would listen to their prayers even though they were not learned* (p* 99)

30 The Rabbis, however, taught that only by the study of Torah, especially Talmud, could one worship God* (p* 93) Elijah of Vilna did not approve of prayer as the most im­ portant means of serving God$ true understanding and love of God could come only to one who studied His Torah and His laws* (p* 103)

After a number of years, some learned people

concluded that it was just as important to worship God in joy and in love as to study His laws and observe them* (p* 99) Abraham Geiger noted that the forms of worship among Jews had changed through the ages*

Long ago, they built

places of worship in or near the towns where they lived* Later they believed they could truly worship in only one place, the Temple to which sacrifices would be brought*


the Temple was destroyed, all Jews began to worship in Syna­ gogues, but they offered prayers instead of sacrifices* (p* 144)

Reform Judaism eliminated the prayers calling for God

to bring Jews back to Palestine* (p* 148) Jews like all other Jews worshipped God*

However, Reform (p* 206)


tive Jews could not understand how Jews could pray with un­ covered heads* (p* 218) 6*

Miscellaneous; There was discussion concerning the status of the


Jews were Jews not only because they were born Jews,

but they were Jews because they also believed that one can

32 ■become a better human being by serving God and by leading others to serve Him* (p* 10)

Some thought that a Jew was one

who believed in one God* (p* 4) There was discussion on the s u b j e c t of prejudice and how to eliminate it*

The religio'as Jew would give the answer

that Jews ought to continue to live as Jews and try to teach all people that God was the Father of all men and that He wanted us to live peacefully and act justly* (p* 8)


ians and Jews would then realize that they were all brothers, the children of God*

They would tinderstand that even though

people were not all alike, they were still equal in the sight of God*

This would lead to the tolerance of differences

and even to the appreciation of differences among people* (p* 9)

It was difficult to teach the world that God was the

Father and that differences should be tolerated* (p* 10)

CHAPTER III THE IDEA OP GOD IN TEXTBOOKS DESIGNED FOR TEACHING BIBLE CONTENT Textbooks designed for the teaching of Bible content were found only in the Primary and Elementary Departments* This chapter will treat those textbooks suggested for use in the Primary Department*

Chapter IV will continue the

analysis of textbooks in the Elementary Department* THE PRIMARY DEPARTMENT I*

Bible Tales for Very Young Children Book I by Leonore Cohen

Bible Tales for Very Young Children Book I was, as the title indicated, 11•• • a book

of Bible stories • • *tt

(p* vii) published in 1934 for use in the firstgrade, where the age level wassix and seven years* 1*

Names of the Deity: God (p* 56), God of Mercy (p* 121), Almighty God (p*

God of your fathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (p* 114), God of Israel (p* 121), God of the Hebrews (p* 124), My father1 God (p* 137) Lord (p. 26) I am that I am (p. 114)

I (p* 6), My (p. 114), Me (p* 121), Thou He (p. 18), His

(p. 148),

(p. 114), Him (p. 137)

The text also contained references to pagan deities under the following names: (p. 124),

god (p* 124), god of the river

god of the Egyptians (p. 147), idol (p. 1)

It was also mentioned that the name of God was not in the book of the names of the gods* (p. 121) 2*

Where the Deity Dwelled: heaven (p. 25), most high (p* 12) mountain top (p. 145), in the new country where He

may be worshipped in peace (p. 6) in this place, and I knew it not (p. 47), Jacob took stones and marked the place and called it Bethel, House of God (p. 47) Moses took off his shoes, for during the burning bushepisode, he

was standing on holy ground (p* 114)

While the Deity was in individual places, He was with Jacob no matter where He went* (p. 47)

His power filled the

universe.(p. 121) 3.

Mature of the Deity: great (p. 4), most high (p. 12), made heaven and earth

(p. 12), gave commands (p. 12), had laws (p* 146), could not be seen (p* 146), was not an idol (p. 4), near (p. 4), had

34 pity on poor slaves in Egypt (p# 113), had pity on thorn bush (p* 113), His power filled the universe (p* 121), was before the world saw light (p* 121), would, be when the world was no more (p* 121), made Pharaoh (p* 121), Pharaoh breathed with God*s spirit (p. 121), superior over other gods (p* 123), people held God higher than other gods (p« 133), saved (p* 187), helped provide venison (p. 39), gave corn (p* 40), ruled the world (p. 4) The Deity intervened in the lives of individuals• He saved Ifegar when she was in trouble (p. 59), gave children to barren women (p* 18), gave children (p# 59), when God took care there was no need to be afraid (p* 21), was with Moses and guided him (p# 114), tested individuals to know whether they loved Him (p. 19), sent individuals to do His work (p* 23), Jacob was able to fight with God and man and prevail (p* 114) The Deity was pictured as a magician*

He gave Moses

signs that He had appeared to Him (p* 115), turned the rod of Aaron into a snake (p* 121), was also more powerful than the other gods, for &aron*s snake swallowed all the other snakes (p* 121), water was turned to blood (p* 124), frogs came upon the land (p* 125), brought hail to destroy the crops (p* 126), locusts ate what was left (p* 126), Angel of Death killed the first born (p* 126), Moses waved his wand and the Red Sea divided (p* 137), quail and manna were

sent (p* 171), Moses struck the rock and water gushed forth (p. 171) There was a special relationship between the Deity and Israel*

He called Israel ”My people” • (p* 121) , Israel

was also referred to as 11a people saved by the Lord.” Ip* 187) He blessed Abraham with the promise that he would become the father of a great nation* (p* 6) nation* (p* 19)

God would watch over this

He also promised Abraham a more beautiful

land than the one in which he lived* (p* 9) the land over which he would walk, (p* 9)

It was to be In this promised

land Israel would be more happy* (p. 117) God saw how the people suffered in Egypt, and He had pity on tide poor slaves* (p* 114)

He was very much con­

cerned about bringing them out of Egypt* (p. 114)

He wanted

to bring them to the land flowing with milk and honey* Moses was sent to bring them out of Egypt* (p* 114)


was with Israel (p*. 135), and He would take care of Israel* (p* 136)

Israel would not need to fear its enemies, for no

matter what the enemies did Israel would win* over them*

God watched

Since the people of Israel were blessed from

the very first, they could not be cursed* (p* 169) After the incident of angel

the Golden Calf, God sent an

as a sign of forgivingthem* (p* 150) The Deity approved of certain conduct* He desired:

36 people should listen to His voice (p. 114), His leaders should have courage (p. 114), people should build altars, pray to Him and serve H^m (p. 9), obey His wishes (p. 9), love Him (p. 25), have no other gods before Him (p. 146), remember the Sabbath &ay to keep it holy (p. 146), honor onefs father and mother (p. 146) He did not desire child sacrifice, (p* 22) The Deity rewarded and punished.

He blessed those who

listened to His voice; even those who would come after them would be blessed (p. 26), sent manna and quail to those who believed in Him (p* 143), would send food and watch over those who obeyed Him (p. 143), He punished Moses by not permitting him to enter the promised land when he smote the rock instead of speaking to it (p. 172), plagues were visited upon Pharaoh for being stubborn (p. 125), the plagues ceased, however, whenever Pharaoh promised to let the people go (p. 125) 4.

Revelation of the Deity: The Deity was revealed through direct communication.

He spoke directly (p. 21), a voice out of the darkness (p. 55), the people heard a voice (p. 22), voice of G-od (p. 5), spoke through the burning bush (p. 114) Signs and wonders revealed the Deity.

He performed

miracles (p. 118), gave individuals power to interpret dreams

(p* 31), the hush burned but was Itself not consumed (p* 114) The Deity could,be seen» One phrase stated, 11• • • In the mountain where the Lord can be seen * • •** (p. 26) The Deity revealed His will 'by sending individuals or agents to carry out His mission*

Moses was sent to bring

the people out of Egypt (p. 114), God led Israel with a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night (p.


angel was sent to Moses to help him guide the people (p. 148), an angel with a flaming sword confronted Balaam and his ass (p. 168) The Deity was revealed in dreams* In..dreams H© spoke with Jews (p* 22), He spoke with non-Jews (p* 166), some peop'le heard the voice of God in a dream (p* 22) The will of the Deity was revealed through the answering of prayers* When Abraham was in trouble and wished to know what to do, He answered him. (p. 19) ffhe revelation of the Deity took place through the events of history.

Reoorts of what God had done to the

•Egyptians reached the other nations who then acknowledged God*s greatness,

(p. 157)

Jacob believed that if he were

able to complete

his mission, it would be a sign that God

was with him* (p* 40) Individuals taught God1s way* According to the text, Moses climbed to Mt* Sinai, after saying that he had heard the voice of God calling him to the mountain top.

At the

58 top, lie felt that God was near him*

As thunder followed light­

ning, Moses taught Israel the commandments of God* (?• 146) A few sentences later, it stated, ,fso the Lord gave the children of Israel commandments and told them how to live happily *.n (p* 146)

The followed, !,Moses picked up the two

stones into which he had hewed the Commands of God* was God*s law*


He would carry the tablets of stone down to

the people•" (p* 146) For forty days and nights, without any sleep, Moses pounded on the second set of the Ten Commandments and gave them to the people* (p* 151)

The second set was given after

Moses heard the voice of God, saying, 11Go up .to Mount Sinai again*

Write out the law that the people may always know

It*tt (p. 150) 5*

Worship of the Deity: The Deity was worshipped through sacrifices (p* 157),

prayers and blessings (p* 7), with songs (p* 137), and with bowed heads (p* 119) The following places were described as places of wor­ ship:

the Israelites were to build a Tabernacle in which to

provide a fitting place to keep the Law (p* 152), individual altars (p* 169), in the new country where He could be worshipped in peace (p* 6)

39 Thanksgiving, was offered to the Deity for being freed from prison (p. 74), for being saved from Amalek (p. 141), for being able to cross the Red Sea and be saved (p* 137) The Deity was petitioned to tell man what to do (p* 19), to save one*s child (p* 21), to take care of an individ­ ual on his journey (p* 33), to save one son from his brother (p* 54), for courage (p* 116), for water (p* 176) Blessings were invoked in the name of the Deity just before a father died (p* 40) and before going on a journey* (p* 45)

The nature of a blessing was such that it could be

stolen by one brother from the other* (p* 40) of blessings was:

The content

promise of corn, green pastures, brothers

would bow down before him, should be a leader of men, cursed b.e those Y/ho curse him, blessed be those who bless him, earth will give him her wealth, shall live by the sword, be his brother1s servant, when he will shake off his brother*s yoke, he shall be free forever (p* 40) 'Prayers were answered*

God answered Abraham not to be

sad, for He would watch over Hagar an& fter son* (p* 19) Similarly, Moses prayed for courage, and God sent Aaron to help him (p* 115)

When Moses prayed for water, the prayer

was answered* (p* 176) 6*

Miscellaneous: Pedagogic problems*

When Moses came before Pharaoh,

40 he was asked certain questions toy the ruler which raised what might toe called pedagogic problems with reference to the nature of the Deity*

These questions were:

what was

the name of the God, what has He done, what were His deeds, was He old or young, has He captured cities, how long has He ruled, was His name in the book of the names of the gods, what were the wonders of this God, could you show a sign of this God (p* 121) II.

Bible Tales for Very Young Children Book II toy Lenore Cohen

Bible Tales for Very Young Children Book II was publi­ shed In 1936 as a companion volume to Bible Tales for Very Young Children Book I.

Together they contained n * • . t o

the best of our knowledge, a complete collection of all the Bible stories which can be told to little children * • •” (p. viii)

The textbook was suggested for use in the second

grade where the age level was between seven and eight years* 1*

Hame of the Deity: God (p. 4), God of Daniel (p* 231), God Most High

(p* 225), God of Israel (p* 68), God of Abraham and Moses (p. 179), God of the armies of Israel (p* 105), God on high (p* 93)

41 Lord (p* 11), Lord of the World (p* 172), Lord of hosts (p* 105) I (p, 4), My (p. 142), Me (p, 58), You (p. 58), Your (p# 73), Thy (p. 153), He

(p# 27), His (p« 71), Whom

(p. 195), Him (p. 185) In connection with the religions of other peoples, the

following terms were used:

god (p* 33), idol (p. 44),

Baal (p# *35), Ashtoreth (p* 36), Dagon (p* 54) 2m

Where the Deity Dwelled: The Deity ruled on high (p* 220), prayers were directed

toward heaven (p* 30) On the other hand, no matter where David went, the Lord was with him (p* 112) There was no God in all the earth but in Israel (p* 195) 3*

Hature of the Deity: Glorious God on high (p* 93), God most high (p. 225) Maker of earth, sky, morning, night, kindness, right

(p. 93) living God (p# 100), Lord of the world (p* 172), neither born nor has died (p« 172) one true God (p* 220), whatever He said was right (p* 74), whatever God has said Would .happen (p* 73), steadfast


forever (p. 231), delivered and rescued (p. 231) kindness of &od was such that humans could show it one to another (p. 146), showed love for all His children (p. 202) The Deity intervened in the life of man.

When God

was with someone, that person need not he afraid, (p. 4) ,YYhereas Jonah was afraid when he heard the command of the Lord, there was no need for fear when the Lord watched over him. (p. 200)

Moreover, the way of life became clear, (p.


God was still with us as ^e had always been. (p. 8 ) Faith in God gave confidence, (p. 22)

Although the enemies

were mighty, faith in God defeated them. (p. 100) Similarly, David was saved from the lion and the bear with the help of God. (p. 102)

Because David was faithful,

God was with him wherever he went; on the other hand, He was not with Saul who had proven himself to be unfaithful, (p. 107)

Man stood before the Lord. (p. 195)

As a result, the

soldiers could not harm David, for the spirit of the “^ord had come upon them. (p. 108) promised a land and gave Israel a promised land (p. 33) won victories and helped overcome enemies (p. 30), gave strength (p. 58) chose person to be king and anointed him (p. 84), pro-

43 vided self with a king (p# 91), gave instructions as to procedure for choosing a king (p. 92) kept one from shedding blood (p# 137) sent people on missions (p* 137) gave David everything a man cuuld desire (p# 148), made the name of Solomon great (p. 161) divided the kingdom (p# 178), deferred punishment in the days of Ahab so that it might come in the time of his son (p# 190) Some of the interventions on the part of the Deity partook of a miraculous nature#

sent an angel to protect

(p* 222), saved Daniel from the lionfs den (p* 231), dried up the Red Sea (p* 16), withheld and sent rain (p* 182), provided the miracle of oil and food (p# 182), caused the dead to live again (p. 183), could kill and make alive (p* 193), cured leprosy wheras man could not (p. 193), caused Jonah to be swallowed by a whale and then caused him to be eschewed (p# 200), saved bodies from a fiery furnace (p* 221 ), There was a special relationship between the Deity and Israel#

Israel was called nMy p e o p l e ( p * 4)


would always be with Israel as He was with Moses# (p# 8 ) When peace was in the land, the people began to wor­ ship idols; as soon as they won a victory over the enemy which had come to punish them for their worship of idols,

44 they returned unto God* (p* 38) trouble*

God had helped Israel In

However, His help was not unconditional*

If they

would return to God with all their heart and forget foreign gods, He would save them from enemies* (p* 75) sought to united Israel under God. (p* 44) the name of God. (p* 105)

The Judges

They waged war in

Gideon did not want to be king,

for he felt that the Lord should reign over Israel.

(p. 52)

However, God made David king for the sake of God’s people Israel* (p. 143) The Deity approved of certain acts *

He desired:


should obey all the laws of Moses (p* 4), obey His commandments (p. 71), walk in His ways and keep His laws (p* 165), though God gave strength, one should be kind and harm no one* (p* 58), all the people should serve' the Lord (p* 148), people should turn from evil and repent (p* 201) He disapproved of other acts:

the giving up of land

inherited from the fathers (p. 189), accusing a man falsely of cursing God (p. 189) The Deity rewarded and punished* for wrong-doings which consisted of:

He punished man

affair with another

man’s wife (p. 158), evil done (p. 178), cruelty (p. 225), serving idols (p* 227),.forsaking commandments (p. 184) The punishments consisted of: evil which rose upon the house of David (p. 158), suffering of the people (p. 190)

45 removal of glory (p* 225), limiting the length of the exist­ ence of the kingdom (p* 227), the division of the kingdom (p* 178), sickness and famine (p. 184) Likewise the Heity rewarded those who did righteous­ ness and justice by removing suffering (p* 185) by giving glory and greatness (p. 225), saving those who served Him faithfully and those who trusted in Him (p. 230) Whereas the Deity weighed the good and the bad, He was also described as seeking repentence* (p* 227)


took pity on Ahab because he had humbled himself before Him; therefore, God did not send evil in Ahab!s day but withheld it until the reign of his son* (p* 190)

Whereas Jonah felt

that onee God had warned Nineveh to destroy it,. He should carry out His warning, God gave the people of Nineveh a chance to mend their ways* (p. 202) 4*

Revelation of the Deity: Revelation came through direct communication*


spoke directly (p* 4), people seemed to hear a voice (p* 294), people listened to the voice of God (p* 295), word of God (p. 74), God answered (p» 92), a voice seemed to say (p* 96), spirit of God seemed to have descended upon him (p*. 96), a voice said, **give the people My message*1 (p* 201) Signs and wonders revealed the Deity*

a son was born

according to the promise of the angel (p* 54), when Elijah

46 restored the boy to life, his mother acknowledged that he was a man of God and that the word of God in his mouth was true (p* 183), sent flames to burn the wood on Mt# Carmel which acknowledged that He was God of Israel (p* 185) The Deity sent individuals or His agents to carry out His missions*

angel spoke (p* 53), when the soldiers came

into the presence of the prophet, the Spirit of God came over them (p* 108), Jonah was ordered to talk against Nineveh (p* 197 )# sent angels to protect Shadrach (p* 222) The .Deity was revealed in a vision#

an angel appeared

in a vision (p# 53) The course of events revealed the work of the Deity# The people heard what the Lord had done for Israel In Egypt# (p# 16)

By winning victories for His people, God showed

that He was with them, (p# 30) Promised Land* (p# 33)

He had also given them the

By the exploits of David who came in

the name of God, the whole earth would know that there was a God in Israel* (p* 105) Individuals taught the way of God*

The priests could

show the people that God was still with them* (p# 8 )


prophets could cause one to hear the word of God# (p. 83) A man of God could hear the word of the Lord and relate it to the people* (p* 178) The revelation of God was evidenced by Scriptural

47 authority*

!lSo the Bible legend tells us* • • the sun stood

still . . • 11 (p* 30) 5*

Worship of the Deity: The manner of worship consisted of:

offering sacri­

fices (p* 164), songs sung in praise of God (p* 148), calling upon the name of the Lord (p* 185), silent prayer (p* 30), prayer (p* 67), bowing before an altar (p* 45), thanksgiving (p* 30), confession of sins before God (p. 75), pouring out the soul before the Lord (p* 67) The places where the Deity could be worshipped were: bowing before the altar on which sacrifices were placed (p* 45), lying on the floa?

(p* 108), turning to Jerusalem (p*

229) Worship of the Deity took place three times a day (p* 230), daily (p* 230), before going to sleep (p* 229), on specific occasions (p# 8 ) The Deity was petitioned for:

aid when in trouble

(p* 45), forgiveness (p* 45), a son (p* 53), water (p* 58), strength (p* 64), help against an enemy (p. 76), advice con­ cerning the selection of a king (p. 78), the Lord to be gracious and forgive David and cleanse him of his sins (p. 153), understanding heart to judge Israel and to know good from evil (p. 165), a boy that he might live again (p* 183), God to send flames so that the people would know that ,2© was

48 God in Israel (p# 185), save a ship (p# 200) Thanksgiving was offered to the Deity:

after a victory

(p# 11), for causing the sun to stand still (p* 30), for making the land safe from the enemy (p# 52), for keeping David from shedding blood (p# 137), for having given David a son to sit on his throne (p# 161), because Solomon loved the Lord (p# 164), for being allowed to build a Temple (p# 170} The Deity was blessed*(p# 137)

Songs were sung in

His praise# (p* 148) Prayer was effective,'for the Deity answered prayers. When Samson prayed for water, he saw a hollow in the rock and there was water# (p* 58)

When Samson prayed for strength,

he was given strength# (p# 64)

After a priest told Hannah

that' a son would be born unto her, Samuel was born; she stated, lfGod has answered my prayer#1* (p# 69)

Samuel said,

11God has helped us,!* after he had prayed for help* against the Philistines and their camp had become flooded# (p. 76)


prayed for advice concerning the choosing of a king, and God instructed him to do so* (p# 78}

Solomon prayed for an un-?

derstanding heart and to1know good from evil.

This request

pleased the Lord, and ^e gave Solomon not only that which he asked but also that which he had not asked, namely, honor and riches# (p# 165)

Elijah prayed that the boy might live %

again, and he did# (p# 183)

The Lord sent flames in answer

49 to Elijah^ prayer, (p. 185}

When the people of Nineveh


prayed for forgiveness, God decided not to destroy the city, for He felt that it would be better for Him to give them a chance to mend their ways. (p. 202) One of the results of prayer was that Saul, while praying, forgot his hatred of David, (p. 108) There were conditions, however, which were attached to prayer unto the Deity.

Samuel would pray to the Deity

in behalf of the people only if they would destroy their idols* (p. 75)

A man who cursed God could not utter prayers

to God. (p. 189)

If people worshipped only the One God,

peace and prosperity would come. (p. 45) 6.

Miscellaneous: Oaths.

The name of the Deity was invoked in oaths.

David swore before God. (p. 112) God. (p. 112)

Pledges were made before

Since Jonathan had given his word to David,

God was betwenn him and David forever, (p. 113) Battiecry.

Gideon used the name of the Lord. (p. 51)

Interjections. as:

The Deity was invoked in interjections

tfAs the Lord, the God of Israel lives . .-.fl(p. 180) Comparative

including Baal and

Religion. The Canaanites worshipped idols, Aslitoreth. (p. 35)

These idols could not

punish, even though someone broke them. (p. 45)

The Phili­

stine idol, Dagon, demanded wickedness and cruelty in order

to be pleased* (p*. §4)

When Israel entered Canaan, the

people felt that if they were to worship Canaanitish gods, the Canaanites would leave them alone* for by this act they lost their God*

This was not so, Once a people lost

its God, it must be driven out* (p* 35)



The Story of Genesis Bible Reader I by Adele Bildersee

The Story of Genesis was the first in a series of "Biblical Readers for children*" (p* viii)

It was origi­

nally published in 1924 and was designed for use in the fifth grade where the age level was between ten and eleven* 1*

Names of the Deity: God (p* 73), God Most High (p* 31), God of heaven

(p* 51), God


earth (p* 51), God ofmy masterAbraham

(p* 56), God


Abraham, thy father (p* 61),Godof Isaac

(p* 71), God

of my father (p* 79),

God of

He (p*

Nahor (p* 82), God Almighty

God of Beth-el (p*79), (p*



(p*40), Lord God (p* 6 )


of all the earth (p* 40)

I (p.

32), Me (p. 19), Thee(p. 139),Thy (p. 73),

103), Thou (p* 73), His (p*


52 2*

Where the Deity Dwelled: heaven (p# 43) Abraham went to the place where he had stood before

the Lord# (p* 40)

On the spot where Jacob had his dream,

he placed stones and called them Beth-el, God*s House, and the spot, the gate of heaven* (p* 73)

Jacob offered a

sacrifice in the mountain* (p* 82) 3*

Mature of the Deity: God Most High (p* 31), shepherd (p* 136), Angel

who saved from all evil (p* 136) created heaven, earth, sky, two great lights, man in His own image

(p* 1), gave names to the objects of

creation (p* 1), saw what He had made and called it good (p* 2 ), divided the light from the darkness (p* 1 ), set the lights in the sky (p* 2 ), provided man with every plant for food (p* 3), planted every tree and made it grow out of the ground (p» 5), finished His work on the seventh day and blessed it because on that day He rested (p* 4) Many of the attributes of the Pctity were anthropomor­ phic in nature *

cursed the ground (p* 7), made garments

§)# shut door of the ark (p* 15), remembered Noah (p* 15), said in His heart (p* 15), favor could be found in His eyes (p* 13), made promises (p* 18), needed reminders in

53 i

order to remember (p* 19), came down to see a city (p. 21), heard voice of a boy (p* 43), opened Hagarfs eyes (p# 43) The Deity intervened in the lives of individuals# cursed serpent and put enmity between serpent and man (p* 6), drove Adam and Eve out of Eden (p» 9), placed Cherubim at the gates so that no other could enter (p* 9), brought flood (p* 15), made a wind to pass (p* 15), confounded the languages of mankind (p# 21), scattered people abroad (p* 21), showed A braham a land (p* 24), promised a son to Sarah^,for nothing was too hard for the Lord (p* 32), caused fire to rain out of heaven (p* 40), overthrew Sodom and Gemorrah (p* 40), tested Abraham to determine whether he was God-fearing (p# 5), sent Joseph to Pharaoh in order for him to be alive to deliver his brothers (p* 125), was merciful and saved Lot (p* 40), could be reasoned with and changes His mind (p* 40), commanded man to eat fruit of every tree except tree of know­ ledge of good and evil (p* 5) The D©ity created male and female when He created man (p* 3), He blessed them (p* 3), when God was with some&ne he would grow (p* 43), when God was with someone he was not to be afraid (p* 72), he would be blessed and his seed made great (p* 73), he would be kept wherever he went and that which He had spoken concerning him would be fulfilled (p* 73), God was also a witness between men who made a covenant (p# 82)

54 The Deity had a relationship with the Patriarchs» Jacob was promised that he would be given land and that his seed would be as the du§t of the earth, and that God would fulfill all that He had promised* (p* 71), Similarly, He promised Isaac that He would make of him a great nation and Isaac was not to fear to go down to Egypt for the lord would go down with Him* (p* 136) The Deity rewarded and punished man for his actions* Rewards were offered for the following actions:

believe in

the Lord (pi. 32), righteousness (p* 13), not commit adultery (p* 97), The reward was: not destroy a city because of the righteous (p* 36), prosperity (p. 97), saved from the flood and made the recipient of a covenant (p. 13) Punishment came as the result of:

eating from the

fruit of the tree of good and evil (p« 5), killing a brother (p* 11), earth was evil before God (p* 12), seeing the dis­ tress of the soul .of a brother and refusing to help (p* 111), The punishments were in the form of$

death (p* 5),

cursing of the ground and causing man to toil for his food (p* 7), placing a sign upon the forehead and sending the person out from the presence of the Lord (p* 11), blotting out of man (p. 12), distress of famine and imprisonment (p* 111 )

• 55 Man could not hide his evil from God, for the Deity heard the voice of the brother^ blood* (p* 11)

He found

out the wickedness of man* (p* 121) Man was given freedom of choice*

If man did well,

God would receive his offering; if not, sin crouched at the door of man and unto him was its desire#

However, man might

rule over it* (p* 10) 4*

Revelation of the Deity: The Deity was revealed directly*, Adam and Eve hid

themselves from the presence of the Lord (p* 6 ), Cain com­ plained that his punishment would hide him from the face of the Lord (p* 6), Hoah walked with God (p* 12), Jacob wrestled with God and man and prevailed (p* 86), Jacob said that he had seen God face to face and had lived (p* 87) He spoke directly to man (p* 32), His voice was heard in the Garden of ^den (p* 61), appeared unto Abraham (p* 41),, Lord appeared at night (p* 37) The Deity sent individuals or agents to carry out His will*

angels came to Sodom and smote it (p* 37), angels

saved Lot and spoke with him (p* 40), angel of God called forth from heaven restraining Abraham (p# 43), angel was sent before Eliezer to guide him in his mission (p* 57), angel of God said in a dream (p* 79) Dreams revealed the Deity*

in a dream Jacob beheld

56 angels going up and down to heaven and earth, and the Lord stood besides him and said (p* 71), God spoke in a dream of the night and gave judgments (p* 80), God revealed what He was about to do in a dream to Pharaoh (p* 103), interpreta­ tions of dreams came from God (p. 103), because the spirit of God was in Joseph, he could interpret dreams; therefore, there was none so wise as he because God had shown him all of this (p* 105), when a dream was repeated it meant that the matter was established by God and that God would bring it to pass shortly (p* 105) 5*

Worship of the Deity: The .Deity was worshipped by:

offerings (p* 10),

calling upon the name of the Lord (p* 27), building an altar (p. 28), bowing down to the earth to the Lord (p* 57), prayer (p* 83), bowing the head (p. 57) Petitions were made to the Deity for:

good speed (p*

52), kindness to one*s master (p* 52), deliverance, for ^acob was not worthy of all the mercies and truth which G0d had shown to him (p* 83) The Deity was thanked for:

not forsaking His mercy and

truth and leading Eliezer to ^achelfs home (p* 55), for leading Eliezer in the right path (p* 57) Blessings were also pronounced in the name of the Deity* Blessings were specific and might be t aken away by one indi­

57 vidual from another (p* 68), a blessing once given could not be taken back (p# 68), a blessing was bestowed before onefs death (p* 64) The contents of blessings included: and let my name be named and let them

bless the boys

in them and the name of my fathers

grow into a great people in the midst of the

earth; behold, I die but God will be with you and bring you back (p* 132), a portion above that of his brother (p* 132), give thee of the dew of the heaven and fat places of the earth, plenty of corn and wine (p* 68), let people serve thee and nations bow down to thee (p. 68), be lord over thy brethren and let thy mother!s sons bow down to thee (p* 68), cursed be everyone who might curse you and blessed be every­ one who might bless you (p. 68), of the fat places of the earth shall be thy dwelling and of the dew of heaven from above (p* 69), by your sword shall you live and shall serve your brother (p. 69), when you shall break loose, then shall you shake his yoke from off your neck (p* 69), mercy before man (p# 142), that God be gracious unto one (p. 142) A pattern for the blessing of children was set for the future: 6*

God make thee as Ephraim and Manasseh (p# 136)

Miscellaneous: Vows*

if God would

Jacob made a vow with the Deity at Beth-el that be w ith him and keep him in his way so that he

58 return, then the Lord would he his God and this stone, God!s House, and of all that God would give him he would surely give a tenth to the Lord (p. 73), Joseph made the children of Israel vow that they would take his bones up from Egypt (p. 140) Covenant♦

Jacob and Laban made a covenant

nameof the Deity, by setting up a heap of stones

in the to testify

that God was a witness between them (p# 82) Abraham swore

in the name of the Lord (p. 31)

o£ the House of Bondage Bible Reader II by Adele Bildersee Out of the House of Bondage was the second series

in the

of Bible Readers and covered all the selected mater­

ials in the Pentateuch with the exception of the Book of Genesis, (p. viii)

It was designed for use in the fifth

grade where the age level was ten and eleven years. 1.

Names of the Deity: God (p. 9), God of thy (Moses) father, God of Abraham,

God of

Isaac and the God of Jacob (p. 11), God of your (people)

fathers (p* 12), God of the Hebrews (p. 12), God of Israel (p. 14), my father!s God (p. 58), God of the spirits of all flesh (p. 117)

Lord (p* 11), Lord our God (p* 24) I am that I am (p# 12), I am (p* 12) I (p. 11), My (p. 23), Mine (p* 46), He (p. 31), His (p* 44) 2*

Where the Deity Dwelled: Lord came down to earth to deliver Israel-(p* 11),

place where Moses stood before the burning bush was. holy ground (p# 11), Mt* Sinai or Horeb, as it was also called, was the mountain of God, the place where Israel was to serve God; there Moses went up to God, and the Lord called out of the mountain (p# 62}' He was God in heaven above and on earth beneath (p. 149) In whatever land Israel was driven by the Lord, there they could still find God (p* 148) 3.

Nature of the Deity: highly exalted (p. 148), gracious (p. 66), merciful

(p* 77), long-suffering (p» 77), abundant in goodness and truth (p* 77), mighty and awful (p* 153) made heaven and earth in six days and rested on the seventh and blessed the Sabbath and hallowed it (p* 64), made m a n ^ mouth (p. 13), makes a man dumb, deaf or blind (p* 13 ) jealous (p* 147), a devouring fire (p. 147), who

60 regarded not persons nor took rewards (p# 153), executed justice for fatherless and widows (p* 153), loved stranger (p* 153) G-od of gods, Lord of lords, great God (p* 153), none like Him among the mighty (p* 135), none like the Lord glorious in holiness, fearful in praises and doing wonders (p* 47) God was not a man that He should lie; neither the son of man that He should repent* He not do It$ good?

1/hen He has said, will

Or when he has spoken, will He not make it

When the Lord has blessed, non©' can call it back*

(p. 47) shall reign forever and ever (p* 47) Some of the attributes of the Deity were anthropo­ morphic in nature*

heard (p* 9), commanded (p* 50), wrath

waxed hot (p* 66), killed with the sword (p* 66), could be pursuaded (p. 72), remembered promises which He had made (p* 72), repented of the evil which He would have done(p* 72) The Deity intervened in the lives of individuals* became the mouth for Moses and sent Aaron as his spokesman (p. 13), led the people of Israel (p* 40), hardened the heart of Pharaoh (p* 40), fought for Israel (p. 42), threw riders into the sea (p* 44), right hand of the Lord dashed enemy into pieces (p* 46)

61 Some of the interventions of the Deity were of a miraculous nature,

brought east wind for the locusts (p* 30),

smote first born (p# 30), looked forth from a pillar of fire and cloud (p. 42), took the wheels from t he chariots of the Egyptians (p# 48), brought water from a tree (p* 105), caused bread to rain from heaven (p. 105), His hand was not waxed short, for He could provide flesh for six hundred thousand men on foot, although flocks, herds and fish might not suffice (p. 105), brought wind which carried quail from the sea to the camp (p# 105) The Lord became for Miriam and the children of Israel their strength, song and salvation (p* 46), He was called nmy God11 (p. 46) There was a special relationship between t he Deity and Israel.

Israel was called ftMy people*1 (p. 11), God

was the glory of Israel (p* 153), He had made Israel like the stars of the heavens (p# 153) The Deity heard the cry of Israel because of its bon­ dage# (p# 9) 9)

He remembered the covenant of the fathers# (p#

Because He loved the fathers, He chose their children

after them* (p* 149) (p* 11)

Therefore, He came down to deliver them#

Moses was sent to bring them out of Egypt# (p# 11)

The Lord had promised Israel a land and now He would take Israel out of Egypt to that land. (p. 36)

Israel need not

62 fear the Egyptians, for the Lord was fighting for them, (p* 42)

The people had but to see the deliverance of the Lord*

(p* 42)

He overthrew Egypt and caused the people to walk on

dry land through the Red Sea* (p* 44)

The Lord made a cove­

nant with Israel at Mt* Sinai at which time they promised to do all that the Lord had spoken* (p* 63)

Israel was to be

a kingdom of priests and a holy nation, God’s own treasure, if they kept the covenant* (p* 62) for God was holy* (p* 89)

They were to be holy,

To observe the Sabbath was where­

with God had brought Israel out of Egypt* (p* 52) tried the Lord* (p* 52)

Yet Israel

However, whenever they rebelled

against the Lord they were smitten or punished* (p* 113) Israel’s distinction from among all the other nations was the fact that the Lord went with them* (p* 75)


observance and doing of the commandments of the Lord was Israel’s wisdom and understanding in the sight of the peoples, for what great nation was there that had God so nightunto them as the Lord was whenever Israel called upon Him* (p.* 145) HocQn© could curse Israel, for it was blessed* (p* 129) pleased the Lord to bless Israel* (p. 137)


Even its dwell­

ing places were like aloes planted by the Lord* (p* 137) They were as cedars besides still waters* (p* 137) Israel’s seed was to be in many waters; Israel’s king would be higher than Agag; his kingdom would be exalted; all of this was to be, for God was unto Israel as the lofty horns of the wild-

63 ox; Israel would eat up the nations that were its enemies; blessed was everyone who blessed Israel; cursed were those who sought

to curse it. (p. 137)


Lord hadtaken Israel

out of the iron furnace,

Egypt, to be unto Him a people of inheritance, even as Israel was this day. (p. 147) The Deity tested Israel in order to determine whether it would walk in G-odfs laws or nt by the sending of bread from heaven, (p. 49) The Deity rewarded and punished.

If one sinned

against the Lord, the sin would find the perpetrator, (p. 142)

The Deity punished those who committed wrongs, (p.,

142) The following deeds brought punishement:


the Lord*s name in vain (p. 64), oppression of widow and orphan (p.

66), keeping a neighbor^ garment after sundown

(p. 66), slaying of the innocent

and righteous (p. 68),

making the Holden Calf (p« 72), not afflicting onefs soul on the Day of Atonement (p. 95), a soul which did work on the Atonement Day (p. 95), lusting for flesh (p* 106), re­ jecting the report of the two spies (p. Ill), Israelfs going without the Lord in the midst of it (p. 113), offering strange fires upon the altar (p. 117), people!s murmuring that Moses caused some of the people to be killed (p. 119), Mosesfs striking the rock twice (p. 124), Aaronfs rebelling

64 against the word of the Lord (p# 126), Balaam1s going against the wish of the Lord (p* 132), Israelfs repeated turning away from God and doing evil in the sight of the Lord to provoke Him (p* 148) The punishments included:

Lord did not hold guilt­

less those who took His name in vain (p* 64), wrath of God waxed hot and He killed with the sword (p# 66), God did not justify the wicked (p« 68), blotted sinner out of His book (p« 74), wrong-doer cut off from his people (p* 106), anger of the Lord was kindled and He smote with a very great plague (p* 106), enemy came and smote Israel (p. 113), Moses could not enter the promised land (p* 124), Aaron could not enter the promised land (p« 126), angel came to confront Balaam (p« 132), God would leave Israel in the wilderness to die (p* 140), people would be scattered to lands where they would serve gods which were the works of manfs hand, wood and stone which neither saw nor heard, nor ate, nor smelled (p* 148) Rewards were offered for:

honoring father and mother

(p* 64), keeping Godfs laws (p# 149) The rewards offered were:

long life on the land which

the Lord gave (p. 64), things go well with one and his chil­ dren so that he can prolong his days upon the land which the Lord gave him (p. 149) The Deity visited the iniquities of the fathers upon

the thi£*d and fourth generations of those who hated Him* (p* 64) He showed mercy unto the thousanth generation of those who loved Him and kept His commandments* (p* 64) On the other hand, we have the doctrine that whoever sinned against God, only him would the Deity punish and blot out of His book* (p* 74)

Thus, He would not punish Moses for

the sins of the people* (p* 74)

Moses pleaded with God

following the sin of Korah whether the Lord was justified in being angry with the entire congregation because of the sin of one man* (p* 117)

On the Day of Atonement, the

soul which transgressed, it along, would be destroyed from among its people* (p* 95) Even though the Lord forgave the people following the rejection of the report of the two spies, those men, who had seen the glory of God and the signs which He had performed in Egypt and in the wilderness and had yet put the Lord to proof those ten times and had not listened to His voice, would not see the land which had been promised; neither would any of them that despised God see it# (p* 112) However, Caleb, because he had another spirit and followed the Deity fully, would be brought to the promised land and his seed would possess it* (p* 113)

Even the little ones

would be brought to the land* (p* 113)

However, the rest of

the people would fall in the wilderness, and the children of

66 these people would wander in the wilderness forty years until the elders were consumed# (p. 113) Even though the Deity forgave, the guilty would hy no means be cleared# (p# 77) However, the arbitrariness of the Deity was expressed in another passage which stated that He would be gracious to those whom He would be gracious and would show mercy to those whom He preferred# (p# 76) Upon man was placed the emphasis for reward and punish­ ment#

God had set before man life and good, the blessing and

the curse; therefore, the advice was for him to choose life in order that he and his posterity might live# (p# 155) The Deity approved of certain activities#

He desired:

keeping His commandments (p* 64), remembering the Sabbath (p# 64), honoring father and mother (p#64), observing all His statutes and ordinances and doing them (p# 152), learning to fear Him (p# 146), loving Him with all one*s heart, soul and might (p# 152), cleaving to Him (p# 153), swearing by His name (p* 153), The matter was epitomized in the phrase:

to fear

the Lord, to walk in His ways, to love ^im, to serve the Lord with all thy heart and soul and to keep for thy good His commandments and statutes (p* 152) He also approved of:

returning before the sun went

down a neighborfs garment taken for a pledge (p# 66), re-

67 turning an enemies ox which might be lost (p. 68), releasing the ass of one that hated you (p* 68), leaving the c o m e r of the field and the gleanings of the vineyard for the poor and the stranger (p* 89), 3udgingc.ai neighbor in righteousness (p# 90), loving thy neighbor as thyself (p* 90), honoring the face of an old man, loving the stranger (p« 90) • The Deity did not approve of certain acts*

He did

not desire: turning unto idols and making of molten gods and im^LgpS' (p* 89), bowing down before idols (p# 64), taking His name in vairi (p. 64), swearing by His name falsely (p«» 89), murder, adultery, stealing, bearing false witness aga.ihstta neighbor (p* 64), dealing falsely (p* 89), coveting (p# 64), lying (p* 89), wronging and oppressing strangers, wronging widows and orphans, laying interest on money lent (p* 66), uttering false reports, putting hand with the wicked to an unrighteous witness, following the multitide to do evil and to pervert j’ustice, favoring a poor man in his cause, deciding unfairly the judgment of the poor in his cause, slaying the innocent and righteous (p* 68), oppressing and robbing neighbors, keeping a man’s wages until the morning, cursing the deaf, putting stumbling block before the blind, disrespecting the person of the poor and favoring the person of the mighty, talebearing, standing idly by a neighbor’s blood, hating thy brother in thy heart, taking vengeance,

68 bearing a grudge (p* 90), doing unrighteousness in meteryard, in weight or in measure (p* $1); 4*

Revelation of the Deity: Direct revelation*

The Lord spoke with Moses face

to face in the mount in the midst of the fire* (p* 150)


ever, it was stated that the people saw no manner of form* (p* 146)

Yet we read that Moses said that in the mount in

the midst of the fire the Lord spoke with the people face to face and that he, Moses, stood between the Lord and the people to declare unto them the word of the L0rd* (p* 150) In another passage, Moses hid his face,for he was afraid to look upon God* (p* 11)

Again when Moses asked to

see Godfs glory, the reply was that God*s goodness would pass before him, but that he could not see God*s face, for no man could see God and live* (p* 76)

Moses would, however,

see God*s back* (p* 76) Signs and wonders revealed t he Deity*

went before

Israel in a pillar of cloud by day and pillar of fire by night (p* 40), divided the Red Sea (p* 44), sent flesh and bread (p* 50) These and other signs were executed in order that Israel might see the great work which the ^ord did and come to fear the Lord and believe in Him and in H^s servant Moses # (p » 44)

The appearance of the glory' of the Lord was to demon­

strate to Israel that the Lord had brought it out of Egypt*

69 (p. 49)

Similarly the signs before Pharaoh and the hardening

of his heart were means of demonstrating to Pharaoh that the Lord was God* (p* 19)

Likewise in the future the works of

the Lord might be told unto the children in order that they might know that the Lord was God# (p# 28)

The plagues proved

for Israel that there was none like the Lord in all the earth* (p* 26)

The people had been kept alive in order that they

might be shown God*s power and that declaration of God*s name be made throughout all the earth* (p* 26) When the cloud covered the tent of meeting, the glory of the Lord appeared* (p* 117)

In the burning bush story,

one account stated t hat the angel of the Lord appeared to Moses* (p* 9)

A second account, God called to Moses out of

the bush (p* 9) wSince the great day when God created man on e arth was there ever such a great thing for a people to hear the voice of God speaking out of the midst of the fire and live* Or has the Lord ever taken unto Him a nation from other nations by trials, by signs and by wonders, and by war, or by a mighty hand and outstretched arm, and by great terrors according to all that the Lord did for you before your eyes*

All this was

so that you might know that the Lord He is God*

There is

none else besides Him*

Out of heaven He made you hear His

voice, that He might instruct you on earth*11 (p* 149) In Deuteronomy there was the statement that the com-

70 mandments of G-od were not in heaven nor beyond the seas*


word of God was very nigh one, in one*s mouth and in onefs heart that one might do it* (p* 155) The Deity sent individuals or representatives to carry out His missions*

The Lord sent Moses to b ring Israel out of

Egypt and to make known unto the people the statutes of the Lord* (p* 146)

Aaron went as Moses*s spokesman* (p. 13)

The Lord had also filled Bezalel with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding and in knowledge and in all manner of workmanship in order t hat he might teach* (p* 83)


Lord also^took of the spirit of Moses and put it upon the people chosen to assist Moses in judging* (p. 104) There were variant versions of the Mt* Sinai reve­ lation*

One account told that the Lord came in a thick

cloud and that the people would hear when He spoke with Moses so that they might believe in him forever* (p* 76) The voice of a very loud horn sounded*.

Mt* Sinai was on

smoke because the Lord had come down upon it in fire*


mountain quaked; the voice of the horn waxed louder and louder*

Moses spbke and God answered him by a voice*


God spoke all these words, saying • • *tt (p* 64) A second account told that Moses came up to Mt* Sinai at the request of the Lord in order that He might be given the tables of stone and the law and the command­ ment which God had written* (p. 69)

71 Concerning the second set of tablets, it was stated that the Lord would write them* (p* 76).}

However, we have

the statement that Moses wrote upon the tablets the words of the covenant, the ten words* (p*. 77) In the recapitulation in Deuteronomy, Moses related that the Lord spoke to the people out of the midst of the fire, and the people heard the voice of words but they saw no form; only a voice*

God declared His covenant and com­

manded the people to perform it*

The Lord wrote the ten

words upon two tables of stone and commanded Moses to teach them to the people* (p* 146) Angels were also sent to carry out the will of God* An angel confronted Balaam and opened his eyes* (p* 132) In Egypt, when the Lord heard the cry of the people, He sent an angel to deliver them* (p* 125)

There was mention

of a 11destroyer” in the plague of the first born* (p* 36) Dreams*

The Deity appeared to Balaam at night and

instructed him to speak only that which He had spoken to him* (p* 130) The Deity was revealed through prayers which were an­ swered*

Moses cried to the Lord for water, and the Lord showed

him a tree* (p* 48)

Before Pharaoh, Moses entreated the Lord

to remove the plagues, and the Lord did so* (p* 24) The course of events revealed the Deity*

The Lord

foretold to Moses the hardening of the heart of Pharaoh, and

72 it came to pass* (p* 22)

The children of Israel were ordered

to dwell in booths during the feast of Tabernacles in order that they might know that the Lord caused Israel to dwell In booths when He brought the people out of Egypt, (p* 97) The plagues were instituted in order that the name of God might become known throughout all the earth* (p* 26)


the plagues were to be retold to the children in order that they might know what the Lord did In Egypt* (p. 28)


had told the people that the Lord would surely remember them; now it came to pass that the Lord did remember them, and they took the bones of Joseph with them* (p* 40) 5*

Worship of the Deity: bowed heads (p* 14), sacrifices (p* 59), eating bread

before the Lord (p* 59), night of watching unto the Lord (p* 38), song unto the Lord (p* 44), offerings unto the Lord (p* 80), incense on firepan upon the altar (p* 119), going to the door of the tent of meeting and falling upon onefs face (p. 123), There were the appointed seasons of the Lord*


Sabbath in which no manner of work should be done on the seventh day of the week (p* 92), the Lord?s Passover, also known as the Feast of Unleavened Bread, was a memorial unto the Lord in which unleavened bread was to be eaten for seven days, an offering of fire made on all seven days, no manner

75 of servile work on the seventh day, wave-offering of the sheaf of the first fruits "before the Lord, meal-offering unto the Lord, first and seventh days were holy assemblies (p* 92), a holy convocation fifty days from the morrow after the day ofrest in which no manner of servile work was done, and a meal offering was made (p* 94), the first day of the seventh m onth was a memorial proclaimed by the blast of horns, an offering made by fire and abstaining from servile work (p* 95), the tenth day of the seventh month was a holy convoca­ tion in which one afflicted his soul and made an offering of fire, abstained from servile work (p* 95), the fifteenth day of the seventh month at the ingathering of the fruit was a feast of the Lord for seven days, the first and seven­ th days were of solemn rest, on the first day the fruits of goodly trees were t aken and one rejoiced before the Lord for seven days, dwelled in booths for seven days (p« 97), the year of Jubilee-;was r.every seventh year, a sabbath*'of solemn rest for the land (p# 98), every fiftieth year was to be hallowed and in which every man was to be returned unto his possession and every man unto his family, liberty was to be proclaimed throughout the land unto all the inhabi­ tants thereof, should not sow, reap that which grew or it­ self nor gather the grapes of undressed vines, for it was to be holy unto the people (p* 100)

74 Petitions were made to the Deity for:


whereby Aaron placed incense on a firepan on the altar (p* 119), water (p* 48), Moses entreated in behalf of Pharaoh that the plagues cease (p* 24) The Deity was praised because:

highly exalted, threw

rider into the sea, a strength and a song, became Israeli salvation, was Israel*s God, His right hand dashed the enemy in pieces, in the greatness of His excellency He overthrew those who rode against Israel, sent forth His wrath and it consumed the enemies (p* 44) III*

Into the Promised Land Bible Reader III by Rabbi Jacob D* Schwars

Into the Promised Land was the third volume in the Bible Reader series*

It d^alt with the period of the entrance

of the Israelites into Canaan through the reign of King Solomon*

The textbook was designed to serve the sixth grade,

ages eleven and twelve* (p* viii)

The book was published in

1927. 1*

Hames of the Deity: God (p* 2), God of Israel (p. 14), God of the armies

of Israel (p* 75), God of Jacob (p* 141), God of their (people) fathers (p* 18) Lord (p* 1), Lord your God (p. 2), Lord of Hosts (p* 48),

75 Lord God (p. 45) I (p. 1), My (p. l), Thee (p» 121), Thy (p. 54), Thine (p. 160), Thou (p. 160), He (p. 17), His (p. 24), Him (p» 54), Who (p. 152) god Dagon (p* 45) 2.

Where the Deity Dwelled: Heaven was called God*s dwelling place (p* 160), Deity chose a city (p. 161) The ground on which Moses stood as he beheld the burn­

ing bush was called holy ground (p* 8) A house was built where the Deity*s name should be (p# 160), this house could not be built by one who had waged war, but by one whose reign was characterized by quiet and peace (p. 141) On the other hand it was posited: truth dwell on the earth?

could God in very

behold the heaven and the heaven

of heavens could not contain Him; how much less the House which Solomon had built (p. 159) Was with David wherever he went (p* 108) 3*

Nature of the Deity: a God of salvation (p. 50), none like the Lord, no

rock like unto God, God of knowledge (p. 50), set the world on the pillars of the earth (p» 50), no god like God in the

76 in heaven above or on earth beneath (p# 159), alone knew the hearts of all the children of men (p* 161) The Deity intervened in the affairs of man#


and delivered a land (p# 1), fought for Israel, even conduct­ ing the invasion of Jericho (p# 11), promised a son (p# 35), selected Saul to be king (p# 61), had Saul anointed before Him in Gilgal (p# 61) There was no restraint to the Lord to save by the many or the few, for He saved not with the sword nor the spear (p* 75), killed and made alive (p# 50), brought down to the grave and brought up again (p* 50) Anthropomorphisms#

promised (p# 1),. fought (p* 15),

made poor and made rich (p# 50), brought low and brought up (p. 50) Special relationship existed between the Deity and individuals»

some children were dedicated to God (p* 48),

spirit of the l>ord came over individuals (p# 59), Lord loved Solomon and took him to be a son unto Him and the Lord . became a father to him (p* 141), Lord placed special power in the hair of Samson (p# 35) This special relationship could be dissolved:


the hair was shaven from Samsonfs head, he lost his power (p# 44), spirit of the Lord departed from Saul and an evil spirit terrified him (p* 71), the departure of the spirit of the Lord did not change the countenance of a man, for whereas a man

77 looked upon the outward appearance* the Lord looked upon the heart (p. 69) This relationship gave the individual special powers: strength to rend a lion, to rend rope as burnt flax, to smite one thousand men with the jawbone of an ass, to smite the enemy (p# 36), none of Samuel’s words fell to the ground and all knew that he was a prophet of the Lord who could judge Israel (p. 56), David became greater and greater and gained victories whereever he went and his throne was estab­ lished (p. 108), Solomons throne and kingdom were established forever (p# 141) Noione could put out his hand against the Lord’s anoin­ ted and be held guiltless (p# 85), even though one had been rejected, his person was held inviolate (p. 85), the person who did not keep watch over the Lord’s anointed deserved to die (p* 87) There was a special relationship between t he Deity and Israel*

The Lord was Israel’s God* (p* 6)

When Joshua

asked the people whether they would serve the Lord as their God, they answered that they would serve Him and not other gods, for He had brought them out of Egyptian bondage and had preserved the people; therefore, they would serve the Lord, for He was their God# (p# 17)

Israel had accepted the

Lord because He had fulfilled His part of the bargain, so to speak; now Israel would observe its part of the bargain#

78 (p. 17) The Lord also called Israel !fMy people.H (p. 108) He drought Israel out of Egypt

to set it apart from all

other peoples so that it could

be Hisinheritence• (p# 161)

The Deity fought for Israel .and gave it the land which He swore to its fathers, (p. 15)

Because of the Deity*s love

for His people, He made Solomon king to do justice and right­ eousness .(p. 152) However, as soon as Israel forsook the Deity and worshipped other gods, He delivered them into the hands of the enemies.

When they cried unto Him, He raised up judges

who saved them. (p. 18)


in the reign of Gideon, the

people think that their salvation

came through their own

hands because of their numbers, the number was reduced by the Lord who spoke with Gideon# (p. 27)

Gideon refused to become

king, for he felt that the Lord should rule over Israel, (p. 30) The Deity approved of certain acts.

He desired:

love the Lord your God (p. 16), walk in His ways, keep His commandments, cleave to Him, serve Him with all your heart and soul (p. 16), obeying is better than sacrificing, heark­ ening, better than the fat of rams (p. 67), not to slay another man in order to take his wife as one’s own (p. 114) The Deity rewarded and punished.

All actions were

weighed by the Deity (p. 50), there was not a man who had

not sinned (p. 161) Punishment was visited for the following acts: for­ saking the Lord and worshipping gods of the people around Israel (p* 18), evil of Eli’s sons (p. 54), action of the Amalekites in attacking Israel in the desert (p. 66), Saul’s disobeying the word of the Lord in not destroying all of the Amalekite’s property (p. 67), putting forth one's hand against the anointed of the Lord (p. 85), protesting that God had returned evil for good (p* 94), not listening to the word of the Lord and executing His wrath upon the Philistines (p* 98), taking another man’s life in order to gain his wife (p* 114) The nature of the punishment was:

deliverance into

the hands of the enemy (p* 18), utter destruction of the Amalekites (p* 66), tearing away of the kingdom from the ruler (p# 67), death (p. 94), evil within one’s house (p* 114) When Eli was informed of the evil which was impending, he replied that the Lord should do what seemed best to him* (p. 154)

Similarly David held, during the revolt of Absalom,

that if he found favor in the eyes of the Lord he would be returned to Jerusalem; if not, he was willing to have God do unto him what seemed best in His eyes* (p. 120) Rewards were offered for the following acts:


tion day and night in the law which Moses commanded (p* l), taking heed of one’s ways and walking before God in truth with all one’s heart and sould (p* 141)

80 The following rewards were offered:

onefs way became

prosperous and one had good success (p» 1), a man should not fail upon the throne of Israel (p. 141) If a man sinned against another man, God judged him; if a man sinned against the Lord, who could entreat for him? The answer presumably was no one* (p* 53) Repentence was possible, for when the people of Israel cried unto the Lord during their oppression by the enemies as punishment for their following other gods, the Deity raised up Judges and delivered them* Saul asked for forgiveness in order he was denied with

(p* 18)

However, when

to worship the Lord,

the thought that just as he had rejected

the Lord, so the Lord had rejected him. (p* 67) 4*

Revelation of the Deity: The Peity revealed Himself directly*

Samuel when he lay

He called unto

down to sleep in the Temple (p.

spirit of God cameupon the messengers of Saul

54), the

so that they,

too, began to prophesy (p* 78), the word of the Lord came to individuals, saying (p. 141) Signs and wonders revealed the Deity*

the witch of

Endor brought up a god-like figure from the earth in order that Samuel might inform Saul concerning the Philistines (p* 98), captain of the host of the Lord appeared in the battle of Jericho (p* 7), the walls of Jericho fell down after

81 the people had marched around it seven times, for the Lord had given them the city (p* 6), the waters of the Jordan divided as soon as the priests carrying the ark of the Covenant rested in the water; the people crossed on dry land, and as soon as the priests came up out of the water the waters returned to their original position (p* 6) These signs demonstrated that the Lord was among the people* (p* 6)

These wonders also magnified Joshua in the

sight of the people* (p. 6) Individuals or Cod1s messengers were sent to reveal His will*

He was with Joshua as He was with Moses (p* 2),

the spirit of the Lord clothed Gideon (p* 25), David came in the name of the Lord (p* 75), the Lord spoke through in­ dividuals (p* 98), the counsel of Ahithophel-was regarded like inquiring of the word of God (p* 125) Angels gave instructions (p* 25), made promises (p* 54) Dreams*

appeared to individuals in dreams (p* 25)

The course of events revealed the Deity*

the people

of other nations heard what He had done in Egypt and to Sihon and Og (p* 13), the people heard how the Lord had com­ manded to give to Israel all the land of Canaan and to destroy its inhabitants (p* 14), David came in the name of the ^ord against the Philistines so that the world might know that there was a God in Israel (p. 75), because of Solomon*s actions

82 and decisions, the people saw that the wisdom of Cod was in him (p. 147), the Queen of Sheba came from a far country to hear the wisdom of Solomon (p. 150) 5*

Worship of the Deity: Manner of worship:

falling on face to the earth (p.

8), singing (p. 21), bowing down and worshipping (p. 28), offerings and sacrifices (p. 67), pouring out water before the altar of the Lord (p. 112), prayer (p. 145) To obey was better than to sacrifice and to hearken was better than the fat of rams, (p. 67) Prayer was called ftpouring out the soul before the Lord.** (p. 49) The ark of the Covenant of the Lord was brought to the Sanctuary, unto the most holy part thereof, under the Cheru­ bim.

There was nothing in t he

ark savethe twotablets


Moses had put theifein at ^oreb* (p. 157) The Deity was petitioned:

that all His enemies perish

(p. 23), that those who loved Him might be ting in its might (p. 23), for

like the sun visi­

strengthinorder to


oneself upon his enemies (p. 45), advice for selecting a king (p. 59), one*s life might be of great value in the sight of the Lord and that He might deliver one from all trouble (p. 87), understanding heart to judge Thy people (p. 115), dis­ cernment between good and evil (p. 115)

83, God*s word to David be verified by there not failing a man to sit on the throne, if only Israel would take heed to its way to walk before God (p* 159), have respect for this prayer even though the House in which it is offered cannot contain God (p* 160), Godfs eyes may be opened toward this House night and day to hearken to the supplication of Solo­ mon and the people when they pray in the direction of this place, that God should hear in heaven and forgive (p# 160), if a man sin against a neighbor or an oath is exacted of him, if a man come and swear before Thine altar in this House, hear and judge Thy servants, condemning the wicked, to bring his way upon his own head and justifying the righteous to give him according to his righteousness (p. 160), when the heavens are shut up and

there is no rain because the people

sinned against Thee, if

they pray in the direction of this

House, then hear in Heaven and forgive Thy people and send rain upon Thy land (p# 160), when Israel is smitten because of a sin against Thee in this House, and'!they turn to Thee and confess Thy name and pray to Thee in this House, then hear and forgive the sins of Thy people Israel (p. 160), whatsoever prayer may be made by any man of Thy pepple Israel who shall know the plague of his heart and spread out his hands toward this House, hear and forgive; give to every man according to his heart, since Thou knowest his heart that they may fear Thee all the days on the land which Thou gavest

84 to our fathers (p* 160), concerning the stranger not of Israel, when he shall come and pray in the direction of this -Souse, hear and do according to all that the stranger called to Thee for that all peoples of the earth may know Thy name to fear Thee as doth Thy people Israel and may know that this House is called by Thy name (p.161), if Thy people battle an enemy and pray in the direction of this city, hear their prayer and maintain their cause (p. 161), if Thy people sin against Thee and Thou be angry and deliver them to an enemy and they bethink themselves In their captive land and make supplica­ tion to Thee, then hear and maintain their cause, forgive Thy people and cause them to find mercy before their captors (p* 161), may these words wherewith I have made supplication before the Lord be right to the Lord night and day, that H© may maintain the cause of His servant and the cause of His people as every day shall require, that all may know that He is God (p* 161), let the hearts of the people be perfect with the Lord to keep His commandments (p. 161) When David* s child was very sick, David besought God for the child and fasted and lay on the groxmd all night* When the child died, David went to the House of the Lord and worshipped*

When asked ^he. reason for this apparently strange

behavior, David replied that v/hile the child was yet alive, he fasted and wept for he did not know whether the Lord would be gracious to him and cause the child to live; now that the

85 child had died, wherefore should David fast?

Gould he bring

the child back to life? (p* 115) When a request in a petitional prayer pleased the Lord, He not only granted the request but He also added thereto* Thus, He added that for which Solomon did not ask to that for which he petitioned* (p* 145) The Deity was worshipped in thanksgiving s when the people heard the interpretation of the dream and that the enemy would be defeated (p* 28), Hannah gave thanks for the child (p* 50), for having kept one from evil (p* 53), for having been able to return the ark to Jerusalem (p* 107), for having set Solomon on the throne (p* 152), for having given David a wise son (p* 152), for having chosen Jerusalem as the city for the building of His House (p* 157), for having given His people rest according to His promise (p* 161), for the goodness which He had shown to David, Solomon and the people of Israel (p* 165), for having jbeturned the wickedness of Habal upon his head (p* 94) Blessings were also invoked in the name of the Deity:, that one might go in peace (p* 49), that God might grant one's petition (p* 49) 6*

Miscellaneous: Oaths *

Oaths were made in the name of the Deity*


formula was usually nas the Lord live th*11 (p* 78) Oaths contained promises: to deal kindly and truly with

86 an individual because of Information rendered during a mili­ tary siege (p* 3), to offer whatever came out of one’s house as a burnt offering to the Lord if one returned victoriously from battle (pi* 32), not to harm an individual (p* 95) An oath bound the Deity as a witness between indi­ viduals* (p* 32)

Once an oath was given, it could not be

retracted* (p* 33) Covenants were made in the name of the Deity*


David and Jonathan covenanted, they were to deal with each other kindly; even after Saul died, David sought to deal kindly with survivors* (p* 79) Interjections*

Interjections were made in the name

of the E>eity* (p* 112) Vows* Hannah vowed that if God were to give her a son, she would give him to the Lord all his days and that no razor would touch his head* (p* 48) IV*

In the Land of Kings and Prophets Bible Header IV by Rabbi Jacob D* Schwarz In the Land of Kings and Prophets was the fourth in

a series of Bible Readers*

This volume, published in 1928,

was designed for use in the sixth grade, age level eleven and twelve*

This textbook covered the material from the di­

vision of the kingdom to the destruction of the First Temple# (p* viii)

87 1*

Names of the Deity: God (p* 12), God of Israel (p. 18), God of their

(people) fathers (p* 12), God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel (p* 25), God of hosts (p* 28), God of Elijah (p. 51), God of David (p* 112), God of his (Manasseh’s) father (p* 125), God of the land (p* 107) Lord (p* 1), Spirit of the Lord (p* 3), Lord of hosts (p* 53) Holy One of Israel (p* 122) I (P* 3), Me (p* 3), My (p* 3), Thou (p* 11), Thee (p. 11), He (p. 6), His (p. 6), Him (p* 12), Who (p. 14) god (p* 1), idol (p*l), a host of names dealing with the gods of the other nations 2*

Where the Deity Dwelled: Heaven was called ’’His holy habitation*11 (p* 112)

Fire came from heaven in response to Elijah’s prayer* (p* 47-')' Elijah went heavenward in a fiery chariot during a whirl­ wind*

(p* 49)


(p* 42)

Heavenly host stood by the throne of the

Horeb was called

the Mount of God* (p* 28)

The temple in Jerusalem was called the House of the Lord*

(p* 80)

When the people were taken into captivity,

God’s anger was expressed by removing them from His sight,

namely, Jerusalem where His House was. (p. 108) He was a God of the land of Palestine, for captives were brought back from Babylonia to t each, the people who had been brought to Palestine, (p. 107) 3*

^ature of the Deity: with the judges in giving judgment (p. 14), knew

that the fathers did justice and righteousness and judged the cause of the poor and the needy (p. 149), none besides God to help against an enemy (p. 11) The nature of the Deity was very often anthropomorphic. was pictured sitting on a throne with the heavenly hosts stand­ ing by Him as He conducted a meeting of His hosts (p. 42), sought vengeance (p. 57), saw (p. 60), became angry (p. 108), changed His mind when propitiated (p. 112), heard and answered prayers (p. 122), repented of evil which He had pronounced (p. 143) The Deity intervened in the affairs of man,


widow to take care of Elijah (p. 16), brought Israel out of Sgypt (p* 108), would deliver from an enemy (p. 112), for the Lordfs arrow of victory would smite (p. 77), defended Jeru­ salem from enemies for His own sake and for the sake of His servant David (p. 112) Often these interventions were on the side of the mira­ culous.

ravens provided food for -^lijah (p. 16), a little

89 portion of meal held out until the day rain came (p* 18), dead child lived again (p. 19), provided meal for ^liyah which sustained him forty days and nights (p. 20), killed and made alive and cured leprosy (p* 70), a slight thing . to bring water when no water was seen (p« 54), had power to help and to cast down (p* 86) The Deity had a special relationship with individuals# David was called nMy servant11 (p. 3), Deity did things for the sake of ^avid (p* 3), prophet was called lfman of God11 (p* 18), one might inquire of a prophet concerning the waging of war (p* 40), a true prophet would say that which the Lord would tell him (p* 40), a false prophet would say that which flattered (p* 40), the prophets were called tlMy servants" (p« 57), Elisha was called a "holy man" (p* 163), and a "man of God" (p* 66) Individuals were sent on special missions*


was sent to Damascus (p* 28), to anoint kings and Elisha (p* 28), Jehu was anointed to become the instrument whereby the Lord would avenge the blood .of the prophets (p. 57), Amos was called from following the flock to prophesy to Israel (p* 95) Responsibility rested upon these .,individuals •


judge was not to judge for man, but for the Lord who was with him in giving judgment, and he should, therefore, consider what he is doing*(p* 14)

Special powers, some on the miraculous side, were given to these people.

Elijah and Elisha crossed the Jordan

on dry land by wrapping Elijah*s mantle about them and smi­ ting the waters (p. 49), Elijah went up to heaven in a fiery chariot (p. 51), this was explained by the fact that the spirit of the ^ord had taken Elijah and had cast him upon some mountain or valley (p. 51), Elisha filled empty vesselwith oil, which, in turn, replenished itself so that the woman could pay her debt (p. 63), fed a multitude of people with a slight amount of food (p. 63), caused an ax to float in the Jordan by throwing a stick into the waters (p. 63), caused dead child to live again (p* 67), dead revived when they touched Elishafs bones (p* 78) However, the Deity did not always tell Elisha what was to be (p* 67) One could find the Deity, if one sought Him. (p. 12), Elijah defined his seeking and carrying out the will of the Deity as being **jealous for the Lord*1 (p. 28) There was a special relationship between the Deity and Israel.

The Lord was called lfour Ood*1* (p. 11)

Him Israel relied* (p* 11)


War was waged in H^s name. (p. 11).

Likewise, Israel was 11the people of the Lord*11 (p. 57) brought,them up from Egypt* (p* 89)


There was a covenant

relationship between the people and the Deity in order that

they might be the Lordfs people* (p* 82)

Israel alone God

had known from among all the families of the earth; therefore, H© would visit all their iniquities upon them* (p* 89)


they had sinned, if they would seek good and not evil, the Deity might be gracious unto the remnant of the^people* (p* 92)

In quietness and confidence would be Israel*s strength,

and except it would have faith, it would not endure* (p* 101) Israel persisted in sinning*

With the destruction of

the First Temple, however, came the announcement that the Deity would not abandon Israel but would make a new covenant with Israel and Judah* This covenant was not to be like the former one with the fathers, but this one would find the laws written upon their hearts. would be His people.

H© would be their God, and they

They would no longer need to teach their

neighbors and their brothers, saying, ”know the Lord,11 for they would all know the Lord at that time. the greatest of them would know' Him*

From-the least to

Thus, the Lord would

forgive their iniquity and would remember no more their sins, and He would cause Israel to return.

H© would have compassion

on them* (p* 183) The Deity approved of certain acts*

He desired that

people do what was right and good in His sight, (p* 11)


was also referred to as 11walking in the way of David, turning not aside, right hand or left hand*11 (p. 128)


The Deity desired:

taking away high places, breaking

pillars, hewing down Asherim, removing mother Maachah from being Queen for she had made an image (p* 11), breaking down house of saal, slaying priests of Baal (p* 82), breaking the brazen serpent which Moses had made (p. 109) The Deity also desired that people seek Him by doing good and not evil that they might live* (p* 92) counselled to:

They were

love the good, establish justice in the gate

(p. 92), let justice well up as waters and righteousness as a mighty stream (p. 92), execute justice between men, not oppress the stranger, the fatherless and the widow, not shed the blood of the innocent (p* 138), judge cause of the poor and the needy (p* 144), free slaves after six years (p* 154) On the other hand, the Deity held the following to be!,evil in His sight11 (p* 10) : fearing other gods, walking in accordance with the practice of the nations whom He had cast out before Israel, building high places,*setting up pillars and Agfterim on high hills and under every leafy tree, making offerings on high places, serving idols, for­ saking aommandments of the ^eity, making molten images, wor­ shipping the hosts of heaven, serving Baal, making sons and daughters to pass through fire (p# 107), throwing down the altars of the Lord and slaying His prophets (p* 28), usurping the powers of the priesthood by the king (p* 98), sooth-

93 saying and sorcery (p. 124), dedicating horses and chariots at the entrance to the Temple to the sun (p. 133), going to Bethel and G-ilgal (p« 90) The Deity also did not desire:

hn ing up violence

and robbery, selling the righteous for silver, the needy for a pair of shoes, trampling upon the poor, hating him that re­ prove th in the gate, abhoring him that spoke uprightly (p* 90), killing a man in order to take possession of his property (p« 138), stealing, murdering, swearing falsely, offering Baal sacrifices and then coming to the Lord's House saying that one was delivered now in order to do those abominations again (p* 138), building a house in unrighteousness and injustice and by using a neighbor's labors without wages (p# 144) The work of man's hands would be rewarded (p. 3) and punished (p* 12) b£ the Deity-

The following factors brought

punishment: Solomon's heart was not whole with the Lord, and he did not keep God's covenant by building altars for his wives' gods (p# 3), forsaking the Deity (p* 12), shedding innocent blood (p« 60), not knowing how to do right (p# 90), becoming secure in one's position and then assuming that one's strength permitted him to sin against the Deity (p* 98), lacking faith (p* 101), worshipping idols which were the work of man's own hands (p* 104), doing more evil than the nations which the Lord had driven out of ^anaan (p* 125), not hearken­ ing to the words of the Book of Deuteronomy (p# 130), breaking

94 a covenant sworn in the name of the Deity (p* 152), re-enslaving a person who had served for six years (p# 155) The punishments consisted of:

tearing away of the

kingdom (p* 3), invasion by the enemy and stealing of the treasures from the House of the lord (p* 10), being forsaken by God (p* 12), having onefs blood licked by dogs (p* 33), pronouncement of doom and destruction of Jezebel (p* 60), captivity, where IsraelTs feasts would be turned into mourning, its songs, into lamentations, and its sanctuaries laid waste (p# 94), leprosy (p* 94), death (p* 98), lofty would be brought low (p* 101), wrath of the Lord became great (p* 130), evil would come upon Judah and Jerusalem (p* 127), pestilence (p. 155), famine (p* 155), death by the sword (p. 155) The Lord had a day on which He would visit His punish­ ment* (p* 155)

r ^hen idols would disappear, men would go

into clefts in rocks, into holes in the ground because of the terror of the -^ord, because of the glory of His majesty* (p* 104) The Deity also sent forewarnings through His prophets* (p. 107) Rewards were offered for:

hearkening to the Deity!s

commands, walking in His ways, and doing what w as right in His sight (p* 4), being with the Lord and seeking Him (p. 12), seeking good and not evil (p* 92), trusting in the Hor


Where the Deity Dwelled: Heaven was the residing place of the Deity*

lowing references established this concept:

The fol­

the Messiah was

sent down (p* 32), Torah was called “Daughter of Heaven,” and the Messiah, “Son of Heaven” (p* 35),

the heavenly curtains

were drawn (p* 58), the Lord and the angels looked down (p# 58), the singing on earth was heard in heaven (p* 62), mar­ riages were made in heaven (p. 85), the parchment was burning, but the letters were flying up to heaven (p* 219) 3;*

Hature of the Deity: one (p* 21), all living things were God (p* 73),

body and soul were part of God (p* 73) Some of the attributes of the Deity were anthropomorphic *

107 heard cry of the people and saw oppression (p* 57), had a heavenly host which He called into a meeting in order to help the Jews who were crying because of their oppression (p. 58) The Deity intervened in the affairs of man*

In the

session of the heavenly court, Gabriel, an angel, was the secretary*

The court sought a soul which would bring light

and joy to the suffering Jews*

Satan objected that there

was no man and wife on earth good enough to have such a son* Satan was sent to tempt an earthly couple, and he put on earthly clothes.

He failed in his mission.

So Israel of

the Great Soul was born* (p* 58) sent a Messiah who would deliver (p. 91), made marriages in heaven (p* 85) The Deity and individuals*

near (p* 71), near little

children (p* 66), even within little children at all times (p* 66), if one really wanted to see God, he would see Him, for no one was as near as God (p* 72), if one really wanted to find the Deity, he would find Him (p. 73), because the Deity was near, no one need have fear (p. 61), when the Lord was with one, he need have no fear (p* 71) On the other hand, only the good and kind could come near to God*(p* 76) all people were God*s children (p* 22), Father of us all (p* 22)

108 if a man were sick and he believed that G-od was the Father of us all, he was sure to get better (p# 69), one woman just trusted in God, and she became better (p# 69) Miracles#

Israel of the Great Soul came to be known

as the G-ood Master of the Name, presumably because he could work cures and miracles (p* 69) There was a special relationship between Israel and the Deity*

Israel was called ,!My people*1 (p# 57), Israel

could not go against the will of the Lord (p# 242), nor did Israel want to go against the will of the ^ord (p# 242) Israel had a mission to go throughout the world and teach that God was one and that all people were His children# (p# 22)

Also the Ten Commandments were to be obeyed by

everybody#(p# 165)

When the Messiah comes, the wanderings

would cease and peace would obtain# (p# 22)

The Deity was

concerned about the sufferings of the Jewish people and wished to do something for the Jews, according to a story# (p.


The Messiah was sent down to save the Jewish people* (p# 32) He was to redeem them from their suffering# (p# 32)


the Messiah comes, wars would cease, troubles would vanish from the earth; all people would be kind one to another and the whole world would be happy# (p#


Only the Messiah

dared utter the name of God#, (p# 33) The building of American Judaism was a God-given task* (p. 176)

109 4#

Revelation of the Deity: The Torah was called the. Daughter of Heaven, (p. 58)


Worship of the Deity: The House of Worship was known as God’s House, (p. 91) The ^hasidim believed that they could serve God by

eating and drinking as much as by praying, (p# 66) only another way of serving God. (p. 66)

It was

Because of his love

of God and man, the Hrayer of Israel Baal Shem Tov was as joyful as a song and as merry as a dance, (p. 66) In the Opthodox Synagogue the prayers were long because the individual wanted to talk to &od, to tell Him all his troubles and joys.

Therefore, though the prayer was long, for

the Orthodox Jew, the lengthy prayers said it all for him. (p. 171) It was good to give thanks to the Lord. (p. 66) The Deity was petitioned: for forgiveness of sins, (p* 127), to grant the Jews and America and the whole world a Happy New ^ear (p. 127), for the help man needed (p. 141), for bread to eat and raimant to wear, for instruction to under­ stand God’s mercies, that man may be grateful for all God’s goodness, dutiful to his parents, honest in his dealings, true in his words and actions, affectionate in his behavior to his fellow man, attentive to his teachers, and above all

devoted to God alone (p* 141) In the Synagogue, one cried to the -^ord for help* (p* 172) Lift up your hearts in prayer, in all your ways ack­ nowledge Him, and H© will direct your paths* (p* 141) 6*



Proclamations *

These were issued in the name of God*

(pp. 157, 159, 177) Interjections*

So help me God (p* 52)

Comparative religion*

Father Tomaso contended that

whether we knew it or not, the Lord always directed our paths* (p* 103)

He also held that while it was true that a Jewish

life had value, it would be still better if a Mohammedan could be persuaded to become a Christian* (p* 104)

Again, the

Jewish religion would not save a Jew from burning in hell after death* (p* 106) The Christian and the Jew carried out a plan together, even though each was of a different faith, for at heart each one was a man* (p* 149) The Moslem praised Allah for the sending of a guide to lead them in the darkness* (p* 103)

CHAPTER VI THE IDEA OP G-OD IN TEXTBOOKS DESIGNED FOR TEACHING CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIES Customs and Ceremonies was the only area of the curricUlturriin which textbooks were published for the Pre-School, Primary and Elementary Departments# THE PRE-SCHOOL DEPARTMENT on Sukos by Jane Searman Pun on Sukos was a npicture book about Sukos #tf (p# ii) It v/as published in 1946# 1#

Names of the Deity: God (p# 16) Lord (p# 14) Thou (p# 16), Who (p# 16) The following terms were a scribed to the Deity in the

Hebrew language:

ato, meaning MThouM (p# 16), adonoi, meaning

ftLordn (p* 16), elohenu, meaning t!our God11 (p# 16), me lech ho-olom, (meaning 11King of the universe11 (p# 16), asher, meaning "Who11 (p# 16) 2#

Where the Deity Dwelled: There Yrere no references»


Mature of the Deity elohenu, meaning 11our Ood" (p# 16), melech ho-olom,

meaning "King of the universe" (p# 16) The Deity intervened In the affairs of man*


man to take the lulov (p# 16), The following interventions were made in t he Shrews asher kid!shonu b fmitsvosov, meaning "Who has sanctified us with

commandments" (p# 16), v*tsivonu al n ftilas lulov,

meaning "and commanded us to take the lulov" (p# 16) 4#

Revelation of the Deity; There were no references#


Worship of the Deity: thanked for the fruits o f ‘the fall (p* 14) *

each morning of Sukos a blessing was recited in which

God was praised for having commanded the taking of the lulov (p. 16) *




Happy Chanuko 'by Jane Bearman

Happy Chanuko was a "picture book about C^an^o,." pub­ lished, in 1943# (p* ii)


Names of the Deity:

113 C-od (p. 7) Lord (p» 7) King of the universe (p* 9) Thou (p* 9), Who (p* 9) The Hebrew transliteration contained the following terms for the Deity:

Adonoy, meaning 110 Lord” (p» 6), Elo­

henu, meaning " our God” (p. 6), Melech ho-olom, meaning King of the universe*1 (p# 6), A to, meaning “Thou” (p* 6), asher, meaning “Who” (p. 6) 2#

Where the Deity Dwelled: There were no references •


Nature of the Deity: our God (p* 9), King of the universe (p» 9) The Hebrew transliteration contained the following


Elohenu, meaning “our ^od" (p* 6), ^elech ho-

olom, meaning "King of the universe" (p* 6) ^*He Deity Intervened in the affairs of man*


us to kindle the lights offChanuko (p. 7), permitted us to be present at this happy time, (p# 9) The -^ebrew transliteration ‘contained the following interventions on the part of the Deity:

aisher kid-shonu

b*mitsvosov, meaning "who has sanctified us by His commandmeats" (p* 6), v ’tsivonu l fhadlik ner shel '■'hanuko, meaning

114 uand commanded us to kindle the lights of Chanuko11 (p« 6), shehecheyonu v !kiyfmonu v fhigi-onu lazlman haze, meaning t!who has kept us alive, sustained us and brought us unto this time11 (p* 8) Some of the interventions were on the miraculous side* performed miracles for our forefathers in those days (p* 9)* The Hebrew transliteration contained the following reference:

she-oso nisim la-avosenu bayomim ho-hem baz,man

haze, meaning t!who performed miracles for our forefathers in those days at this season” (p# 8) 4#

Revelation of the Deity: There were no references#


Worship of the Deity: Blessings were recited when the Chanuko candles were

lit in which H0d was praised because:

commanded us to kindle

the lights of Chanuko (p# 7), performed miracles for our forefathers in those days at this season (p# 9) On the first night an additional blessing was recited in which God was praised for having permitted us to be present at this happy time, (p# 9) III# Purim Parade by Jane Bearman Purlin Parade was a !tpicture book about ^urim,11 published


115 in 1947* (p* ii)

There were no references whatsoever to the

Deity in this hook* IV*- Passover Party by Jane Bearman Passover Party was a lfpicture book about Passover,11 published in 1946i (p* ii) 1*

Names of the Deity: God (p. 8) Lord (p* 8) King of the Universe (p* 8) Thou (p. 8), Who (p* 8) The Bebpew transliteration contained the follovdng

names of the Deity:

adonoi, meaning ^Lord11 (p* 8), elohenu,

meaning 11our God" (p* 8), melech ho-olom, meaning uKing of the Universe11 (p* 8), ato, meaning ^Thou” (p* 8), asher, meaning 11Who” (p# 8) 2.

Where the Deity Bweiled: There were no references*


Nature of the Deity: our God (p* 8), King of the universe (p* 8), one (p*

20), created the fruit of the vine (p* 8) The Hebrew transliteration contained the following

116 qualities of the Deity:

elohenu, meaning 11our God*1 (p#

melech ho-olom, meaning "King of the universe” (p* 8), bore p*ri hagofen, meaning " created the fruit of the vine” (p* 8) The Deity Intervened in the affairs of man*


fied us with His commandments (p* 15), ordained that we should eat unleavened bread (p. 15) The Hebrew transliteration contained the followed inter­ ventions:

asher kidfshonu b fmitsvosov, meaning "who has

sanctified us through His commandments” (p.- 16), v rtsivonu al achilas matso, meaning " and commanded us to eat unleavened bread" (p* 16) 4*

Revelation of the Deity: There were no references*


Worship of the Deity: Blessings were recited in which ^od was praised: as

creator of the fruit of the vine (p. 8), because had sanctified us through Thy commandments and ordained that we should eat unleavened bread (p. 15) Shovuos Time by Jane Bearman Shovuos Time was a "picture book about Shovuos," publi­ shed in 1947* (p* ii)


117 1*

Names of tlie Deity: God (p* 5)


Where the Deity Dwelled: God!s voice called Moses to climb up Mt. ^inai*


Moses returned, he had the Ten Commandments# (p* 5) 3#

Nature of the Deity: According to the Ten Commandments, the Deity desired

that one honor Father and Mother, keep the, ^abbath and tell the truth# (p* 8) 4#

Revelation of the Deity: God*s voice called (p* 6) Whep Moses walked down from Mt# Sinai, he carried the

tablets of the Law# (p# 5)

Though/no mention was made of

Moses*s receiving the Torah on Mt* Sinai, the Torah was called the Five Books of Moses# (p# 5) 5#

Worship of the Deity: There were no references# VI#

The Jewish Child Every Day by Edith S# Covish

The JevdLsh Child Every Pay5 published in 1947, was a

1X8 “little book of stories and activities for the pre-school child 1*


Names of the Deity: God (p. 17) Lord (p* 17) King of the Universe (p* 17) Thou (p* 17), Who (p. 17)


Where the Deity Dwelled: There were no references*


Nature of the Deity: our God (p# 17), King of the Universe (p* 17), brought

forth bread from the earth (p. 17) 4*

Revelation of the Deity: . There we re no references*


Worship of the Deity: Though no mention was made of the Deity in the text,

prayers were recited on Shabos before the wine was drunk and before the bread was eaten*

The prayers were explained

X _________, Catalogue 1949-50 of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, p* 1*

119 as prayers of thanks for the good bread and wine and other good things to be eaten at the. Shabos meal* (p* 17)

In the

specific blessings which follow, the Deity was mentioned by name and was “blessed1* as “creator of the fruit of the vine,*1 and as the one who “brings forth bread from the earth**1 (p* 17) VII*.

Nov/ We Begin by Rosenzweig and Rosenzweig

How We Begin was published in 1937 as a manual in order “to give the very young Jewish child a pleasant intro­ duction to Jewish life through stories and play*“ (p* 1) After thirteen years, this manual is still in mimeographed form and issued in an experimental edition* In the English there are no references whatsoever to the Deity*.

Whatever references were extant could be found

only in a transliteration of the Hebrew, with a very free interpretation into English which omitted all references to the Deity*

These Hebrew passages were blessings to be re­

cited on specific occasions* 1*

Names of the Deity: Elohenu, meaning “our God“ (p* 140) Adonoy, meaning “Lord*1 (p* 140) Melech Ho-Olom, meaning “King of the Hniverse*1 (p * 140) Attoh, (meaning “Thou“ (p# 140), Asher, meaning “Who*1

(p* 140) *




2'.# Where the Deity Dwelled: There were no references* 3*

Nature of the Deity: * Elohenu, meaning "our God" (p. 140), Melekh Ho-Olom,

meaning "King of the universe" (p* 140) Boray pri ha-gofen, meaning "creator of the fruit of the vine" , (p* 140) , Ha~Motzi Lehem Min Ho-Orez, meaning "Who brings forth bread from the earth" (p* 140), HaMekadesh Es Ha-Shabbos, meaning "Who sanetifiest the Sabbath" (p* 140) The Deity intervened in the affairs of man* Asher Kiddeshonu BeMizvosov, meaning "Who has sanctified us with His commandments" (p* 140), Vezivonu LeHadlik Her Shel Shabbos, meaning "and commanded us to kindle the Lights of ’Shabbos" (p. 140) 4*

Revelation of the Deity: There were no references#


Worship of the Deity: Blessings were recited in which the Deity was Borukh,

meaning "praised" for having commanded to kindle the lights of the Sabbath (p* 140), for being the creator of the fruit of the vine (p* 140), for sanctifying the Sabbath, (p* 140), and for bringing forth bread from the earth (p* 140)


All of the above blessings were in Hebrew only* The free translation of each of the blessings into English* however, all without reference to the Deity, follows: how glad we are that ^abbath is here (p# 140), we are glad * for this good, sweet, red wine (p* 140), how glad we are for this Shabbos (p* 140), how glad we are for these good things to eat (p* 140)

THE PRIMARY DEPARTMENT Primary Songs and dames by Adeline Rosewater Primary Songs and Games was a “series of simple holi­ day songs and games, as well as Bible songs and games for little c h i l d r e n * T h i s mimeographed pamphlet was designed for use in the Kindergarten* 1*

Hames of the Deity: God (p* 1), A.y.• Lord (p* 11) Father (p* 2), Our Heavenly Father (p* 8), Father of

us all (p* 11), One who rules above (p» 11) He; (p*. 12), His (p* l), Him (p* 12) g—

i--- —

^ , Catalogue 1949—50 of the ^nion of American Hebrew Congregations, p* 3#

12:2 2*

Where the Deity Dwelled: Heaven was God*s dwelling place* (p* 8)

This concept

appeared frequently, though phrased in several different ways 2 One who ruled above (p* 11), God on high (p* 13) The Deity also dwelled on Mt* Sinai, for when Moses camd down the mountain, he carried^ God*s holy law* (p* 8) 3*

^ature of the Deity: there was only one true God (p* 1), Father of us all

(p. I D , Some of the ways in which the Deity intervened in the lives of men tended on the miraculous side*

While no mention

of the Deity was made, the following was described:

one song

told that the waters of the Jordan were held back so that the people could cross over while the priests, holding the ark, stood in the water (p. 17), the walls of Jericho crumbled when the horns of the Israelites were blown again on the sev­ enth day (p# 17), The Deity was mentioned, however, when the blackbirds brought food to Elijah when he was hungry* (p* 17) The Deity intervened in the affairs of men*

would help

the Macabbeans win their fight (p. 3), provided a father kind, a mother good and dear, a brother strong, a sister fair, a home so full of cheer (p* 3)

123 Some of the attributes of the Deity were anthropomorphic* made a promise to Noah to send no more floods and sealed His promise with a rainbow in the sky (p» 13), kept the animals and people safe from harm during the flood (p* 13) The Deity had a relationship with individuals.


only sent people on missions, but was also a protector of individuals, a shepherd who guarded His flock (p* 18), be­ cause of this protection, the individual should know no want, he should be lead where still waters flow, he should feed in green pastures, he wo^^ld be guided safely in straight paths of light by dayand night, for he knew that the


would be afraid of no evil,

Deity was here and that the goodness and

mercy of the Lord was near (p* 18) This relationship imposed a responsibility upon the individual*

children came to religious school so that like

the brave Jews of history, they would love the one true God and do His commandments (p* 1), they would be proud to save the Torah which God gave to Moses, and they would obey all its laws and think of them on the holy day of ^havuos (p* 8), the saving of the land which God gave to our fathers was con­ sidered an act of bravery (p* 5) There was a relationship between the Deity and Israel# He promised the

land and gave the land of Palestine to the

fathers (p# 5),

sent Moses to

save the people in Egypt (p. 8),

held back the waters of the Jordan so that the people could

124 cross over (p* 17), God gave Moses the T0rah (p* 8') The Deity rewarded*

Noah was spared during the flood

because he was a good man and feared the word of the Lord# (p• 13) 4#


Revelation of the Deity; The Deity revealed Himself to Moses on Mt# Sinai, for

when Moses came down he brought with him Godls holy Law (p# 8), this Law was the Torah and was given to Moses by God (p# 8) The Deity was described as possessing a ttword,! as was evidenced in the phrase t?word of God,r by which He made Himself known to man* (p# 13) 5*

Worship of the Deity: The Deity was thanked:

for our blessings day by day

(p#> 3), for the blessings which He had given me (p* 11), for we are all a happy loving family (p* 11), Elijah gave thanks for the blackbirds which brought food (p# 17), Noah gave thanks to God on high for His promise (p# 13) These prayers of thanksgiving were recited: on special occasions such as Mother*s Day ;(p* 11), Harvest Holiday (p* 3)« offered day by day (p# 2) Prayers were said individually or together (p# 3) The.dDeity was petitioned:

for forgiveness and for help

125 so that w© might do the right (p* 2), to save our dear land from war and to bring peace to every country in the world forevermore (p* 13), through a birthday wish was invoked to bless and keep individuals (p* 19)

Hlllel1s Happy Holidays by Mamie G* Gamoran Hillers Happy Hoiidays was the 11 • . . first in our children*s series on the Jewish holidays • • • this is the simplest book of stories concerning the Jewish holidays, the object of which is to convey all significant information which little children should know concerning the Jewish festivals* • » 11 (p. viii) The textbook was published in 1939 and was designed for use in the first grade v/here the children were between the ages of six and seven* 1*

Names of the Ueity: God (p* 6), God of Might (p* 173) Lord (p* 6) King of the Universe (p* 28), Hock of Ages (p* 93) X (p* 66), Thou (p* 6), He (p* 29), Himself (p* 29),

His (p* 97), Vi/ho (p* 6) The following terms were used in the Hebrew:


meaning t!our God11 (p* 7), Aapnoi, meaning ^Lord*1 (p* 7), Melech Ho-Olom, meaning MKing of the Universe1* (p* 114)*

126 At oh,meaning "Thou" (p»

7), Hu, meaning "He" (p* 173)

In describing the story of the Maccabeans,

the text


utilized the term "idols11 to represent the deity of the Syr­ ians in contrast to the God of the Jews# (p# 96) 2#

Where the Deity Dwelled: Mt# Sinai where His voice was heard (p* 190), Moses

received the Ten Commandments on Mt# Sinai (p* 194) God was everywhere (p#. 69) 3#

Nature of the Deity: one (p# 18), King of the universe (p» 28),



the fruit of the vine (p#- 7), brought forth bread from

the earth (p* 7), Creator of the fruit of the tree (p# 114), His mercy is forever (p# i73), remembered all that the Jews had done in all the years gone by (p# 29) The Deity intervened in the lives of men#


that the Sabbath and Chanuko lights be kindled (p# 6), com­ manded that leaven be removed from the home (p# 157), caused Israel to dwell in booths, even as He brought Israel out of Egypt (p# 66) permitted individuals to be present at a happy time (p* 28) Anthropomorphisms #

did favors for men (p# 166), re­

member bdr.and recalled (p# 29)

127; Some of the Deity1s dealings with man tended to be on the miraculous side*

while the Deity’s name was not invoked,

a story was told that on the Sabbath a river .would come to rest, ceasing altogether its turbulent flow of the weekday (p* 11), an old story told of the coming of Elijah at Passover time to sip from the fifth cup of wine; although Elijah could not be seen, the story indicated that the wine level became lower in the cup (p. 165), the visitation of the ten plagues was presented without the framework of a story (p* 166), the Deity was praised for the miracles v/hich He performed for the forefathers (p* 93), the cruse of oil which burned for eight days during Chanuko was merely stated as a fact without refer­ ence to the existence of a miracle (p* 100) A special relationship existed between the Deity and Israel* At Sinai, He proclaimed, MI am the Lord thy God TfiJho took thee out of Egypt*11 (p* 190) God*” (p* 6)

Israel spoke of Him as ”our

He performed miracles for the forefathers* (p*


On the New Year, He remembered nHis people Israel*” (p*


The prayer book told that God reminded Himself of all

that the Jewish people had done for all years passed*


remembered the great forefathers and recalled their good deeds* (p* 29)

Sometimes when Israel was in trouble, it

believed that God had forgotten the people, but it also be­ lieved that God would remember on the New Year Day and help the people in their trouble* (p* 29)

128 The Deity approved of certain acts.

He desired: man

should lfwaik in the light of the Lord” (p* 18), people should be good Jews (p* 191), they be good men and women (p* 191), light Sabbath candles (p. 6), light Chanuko candles (p. 93), removed the leaven from the household on Passover (p. 157), take the Lulov on Sukos (p* 69) 4.

Revelation of the Deity: The revelation of God to Israel came at Mt. ^inai;

however, there seemed to be variances in the text with ref­ erence to the role which Moses played.

One passage stated,

,fGod gave us the Topak11 (p# 80); another related, ”the Torah which ^od gave through Moses • •

(p. 18)

The main pas­

sage relating the episode of Mt. Sinaideclared that the rumblings and amid the lightningflashes



the roar of

the thunder a voice was heard which proclaimed, 11X am the Lord • • •”

Then later Moses wrote the Ten Commandments

on tablets of stone for the Israelites, (p. 190) Authority for narratives was ascribed to the Bible. M • . . all this is told in the Bible . . .

that is how we

knov/ about it today although it happened three thousand years ago » • •” (p. 190) 5.

Worship of the Deity: in olden times the people brought sheep for sacrifices

129 during the Passover season (p. 152), the Temple was the place where people went to pray and sacrifice (p# 152) Prayers of thanksgiving were offered hy the Maccabees for the help which God gave them, (p* 97) The Deity was petitioned: on the New Year Day that God would remember them and help them in their trouble (p. 29), during the &ol Nidre that if the Jew made a promise and did not keep it God would forgive him (p* 42), the Marranos peti­ tioned that though they need be secret Jews they might none­ theless be good Jews (p. 50) The concept of atonement was analyzed to mean, 11 • • • be sorry for doing wrong • • •w (p# 39)

Thus, on the -^ay

of Atonement, !the individual thought of the wrong done during the past year and then prayed to God to help him do good during the next year# (p. 39) Blessings were recited in which the Deity was praised: for being the Creator of the fruit of the vine (p# 7), Creator of the fruit of the tree (p* 114), for bringing forth bread from the earth (p# 7), for permitting us to be present at happy times (p* 28), for performing miracles for the fore­ fathers in ancient days (p# 97) Blessings were recited in which the Deity was praised for giving certain commands:

kindling of the Sa^ath lights

(p# 6), kindling of the Chanuko lights (p* 93), taking of the lulov (p. 69), removing leaven from the house (p# 157).

130 The Deity was invoked when an individual departed on a trip:

when Ruth went to the field of Boaz, Naomi said,

11 • • • may God be with you • • •” (p* 197) Elijah was earnestly sought* (p* 173)

The blessing of

Children were blessed

in the name of the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and ** in the name of the-Matriarchs, Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah* (p* 78) III#

Down Holiday Lane by Rose W* Golub

Down Holiday Lane was a book of stories related to the Jewish holidays which served 11 • • • as a sequel to Hillel1s Happy Holidays * * • 11 (p* vii)

The textbook was

published in 1947 and was designed for use in the

third grade,

for children between the ages of eight and nine* 1#

Names of the Leity: God (p* 48) Lord (p* 48) King of the. World (p* 48), Father (p* 125) You (p* 83), Thou

(p* 48), He (p* 31), Who (p*48)

In the Hebrew the following terms were used:


meaning "Lord” (p* 83), Mooz Tzur, meaning tfRock of A^estt (p* 69) Reference was made to the gods of other religions: (p* 146), the mighty (p. 83


131 In the Hebrew the following term was used:


meaning 11the mighty” (p. 83) 2»

Where the Deity Dwelled: There were no references.


Nature of the Deity: good (p. 31), King of the world (p. 48), brought forth

bread from the earth (p. 48) that there was none like the Deity was derived from the question nWho is like unto Thee, 0 Lord, among the mighty?n (p* 83) While no mention of the Deity was made, a story intro­ duced the existence of a good angel and a bad angel, (p. 66) Again, while the Deity was not mentioned, a story told of the miracle of the turning of a jug of oil into a jug of gold* (p. 78) Israel referred to the Deity as frour God11 (p. 48); however, He was also the Father of all mankind and this made all men brothers, (p. 125) 4.

Revelation of the^DeiJ>y: There were no references.


Worship of the Deity:

132 Reference was made to the Temple in ancient times* (p* 28)

This Temple was to serve as a symbol of brotherly love*

(p* 166)

No idols ever were to be set up in it* (p* 146)

Offerings and gifts were brought to the Temple* (p* 28)


was not necessary to offer one’s pet pigeon as a gift to the Temple; a jar of honey would be an acceptable offering*" (p. 30) The Deity was worshipped through prayer*

Prayers of t

thanks should be given to the Lord for He was good* (p* 31) The Deity was also petitioned for bravery* (p. 84) Blessings were invoked over wine and bread* (p* 66) A story was told wherein angels could bless or curse If the home were prepared for the &abbath, the good

angel would reward with the blessings of peace and friendship if the ^home were unprepared, the bad angel would curse with gloom and disorder for the coming week* (p* 66)


Days and Ways by Mamie G* Gamoran

Days and Ways was ”the first book on Jewish customs and ceremonies prepared for children in the intermediate grades • • *n (p* vii)

The textbook was published in 1941

and was designed specifically for use in the fifth grade where the age range was from ten to eleven years*