A supplementary story book for use in the kindergarten and primary grades

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A SUPPLEMENTARY STORY BOOK FOR USE IN THE KINDERGARTEN AND PRIMARY GRADES

A P ro je c t P re se n te d to th e F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l of E d u c a tio n The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree M a ste r of S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n

by M ild re d R i t a P i n c h o f f June 1950

UMI Number: EP46523

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP46523 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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This p ro ject report, w ritten under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and a p p r o v e d by him, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of E ducation in p a rtia l fulfillm ent of the requirements fo r the degree of M a ste r of Science in Education.

Date

1222^ . . . . . ^ . . . . . / . . . ? . . . ^ . . . . . . . .

dviser

D ean

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM...............................................................

1

I n t r o d u c t i o n .......................................................

1

S ta te m e n t o f t h e Problem •

*+

L im i ts o r Scope o f S tu d y

II.

III.

..................... .........................

6

O r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e P r o b l e m .......................

7

L i m i t a t i o n o f Media o f P r o d u c t i o n •

•.

11

SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURE

. .

12

P r o c e d u r e .................................................................

12

S t a n d a r d i z e d Word L i s t s .................................

12

V o c a b u la ry A n a l y s i s ..........................................

13

Number o f New Words . • • • • . . .

13

Word F orm s.................................................... .

17

R e p e titio n .

.................................

17

D i f f i c u l t y .......................................................

20

THE PROJECT.............................................................

22

Bunny W hite t a i l .............................................

23

_ IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................

50

BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................

52

APPENDIX...................................................................................

51*

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE I.

PAGE S c o re Card f o r E v a l u a t i n g T extbooks i n R e a d in g :

II.

R eading R e a d in e s s B ooks........................

C u m u lativ e Word L i s t o f V o c a b u la ry Used i n P r o j e c t ........................................................................

III.

3

lb

Words Used i n th e S t o r y Which Were n o t Used i n t h e F i r s t Grade R eading Program o f t h e S c o t t , Foresm an S e r i e s .................................

IV.

V o c a b u la ry Not on F i r s t 1500 Words on T h o r n d ik e ’ s Word L i s t ..............................................

V.

18

19

S c o re Card f o r E v a l u a t i n g T extbooks i n R eading f o r G rades One and T w o .......................

V I.

T a b le o f R eading E x p e c ta n c y - New York C i t y S c h o o ls 19 1+6-19^7 •

V II.

Grade

.................................

57

P la c e m e n t o f "Bunny W h i t e t a i l "

U sing t h e W innetka Grade P la c e m e n t F o rm u la. • • • . • • • • •

.................................

53

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM In tro d u c tio n .

A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s c o n t in u o u s ­

l y f a c e t h e problem o f s e l e c t i n g r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s from t h e mass o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t h as b ee n p r e v i o u s l y w r i t t e n .

Some

o f i t i s s t i l l i n u s e , b u t much o f i t h a s had t o be d i s c a r d e d , s i n c e t h e i n c r e a s e d , im p o rta n c e o f r e a d i n g c a l l s f o r new m ethods o f te a c h i n g r e a d i n g a s w e l l a s new m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e i n th e r e a d i n g prog ram . The p r o c e d u r e s and te c h n iq u e s i n t h e modern p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l c o n t r i b u t e t o an a c c e p ta n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e l i b r a r y a s th e h e a r t o f t h e modern s c h o o l . The r e a d i n g program r e p l a c e s t h e d e a d e n in g r e p e t i t i o n t o 11f i n i s h 11 t h e g r a d e r e a d e r . The r e a d i n g program i m p l i e s r e a d i n g many i n t e r e s t i n g books o f w id e ly v a r y i n g c o n t e n t a t t h e l e v e l o f read in g a b i l i t y th e c h ild p o sse sse s. More and more s c h o o l sy stem s a r e coming t o r e a l i z e t h e fu n d a m e n ta l im p o rta n c e o f r e a d i n g ; t h a t i t i s a b a s i c c o r n e r ­ sto n e o f th e e d i f i c e o f e d u c a tio n .

The t r e n d i s t o l a y a

c o n c r e t e f o u n d a t i o n from t h e m in u te t h e c h i l d e n t e r s s c h o o l . T h is does n o t mean t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e t o l e a r n how t o r e a d as soon a s th e y e n t e r s c h o o l; b u t i t means t h a t t h e program o f r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d i n g s h o u ld be s t a r t e d a s soon a s t h e c h i l d

1

S e l e c t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u p p le m e n ta ry and L i b r a r y Books i n C a l i f o r n i a C o u n t i e s . E s t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a D ep artm ent o f E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n No* 1 0 , May 1 5 ,1 9 3 * 0 , p . v .

2 e n te rs sc h o o l.

I t means t h a t d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s to w ard s

books and w ords s h o u ld be d e v e lo p e d e a r l y .

I t means t h a t

c o n c e p ts and b ac kg rou nd e x p e r i e n c e s s h o u ld be p a r t o f th e program and may s t a r t a s e a r l y a s t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n .

Ac­

c o r d in g t o C l a e s , k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s s h o u ld : . . . p r o v i d e r i c h and v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e s f o r c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h . . . d i s c u s s i o n s , b o o k s, l i t e r a t u r e , a r t and m u s i c . . . I f th e y g iv e c h i l d r e n c o n t a c t w i t h w r i t t e n f o rm s , t h e n th e c h i l d r e n w i l l be more a d e ­ q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d t o b e g in th e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g to read w ith s u c c e s s . 2 I n th e k i n d e r g a r t e n t h e r e s h o u ld be books t o be r e a d and lo o k e d a t , books t o add t o d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e s , and books t o f i t s p e c i a l tim e s and moods.^ The main f a c t o r s in v o lv e d i n s e l e c t i n g r e a d in g r e a d i ­ n e s s s t o r y books a r e c h o o sin g m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e i n t e r e s t i n g ; a r e a t t r a c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e d ; p ro v id e b ackg rou nd e x p e r i e n c e s ; d e v e lo p an i n t e r e s t i n books; c r e a t e a d e s i r e t o l e a r n how t o r e a d , o r t o r e a d b e t t e r ; and c r e a t e th e d e s i r e t o r e a d more books(See

T a b le I )

2 E t h e l Leppo C l a e s , ’’K i n d e r g a r t e n E x p e rie n c e a s a f a c t o r i n R eading R e a d in e s s i n th e f i r s t g r a d e s of th e Los A n g ele s County S c h o o l s , ” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’s t h e s i s , th e U n i v e r s i t y of S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 ^ 3 ). p . ^9, 3 D o ro th y H. S u l l i v a n , ’’Books f o r K i n d e r g a r te n S t o r y H o u r,” C h ild h o o d E d u c a t i o n . 2 ± : l+221 ^ 3 2 , A p r i l , 191+5* h S co re Card f o r E v a l u a t i n g T ex tb oo ks i n R e ad in g : R eading R e a d in e s s . C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e C u rric u lu m Commission. J a n u a r y , 19^5•

3 TABLE I CALIFORNIA STATE CURRICULUM COMMISSION J a n u a r y , 19^5 SCORE CARD FOR EVALUATING TEXTBOOKS IN READING READING READINESS BOOKS Item s o f C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i n g Books I.

A dequate amount o f m a t e r i a l t o d e v e lo p s c h o o l and i n t e r e s t s

200

II.

A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s t o g ra d e l e v e l A. C o n cepts w i t h i n p u p i l !s unde r s t a nd in g B. R eading d i f f i c u l t y 1. V o c a b u la ry 2 . S e n te n c e s t r u c t u r e 3 . P aragraph o r g a n iz a tio n

200

I I I . Type o f m a t e r i a l A, Wide v a r i e t y B. 1 . V o c a b u la ry developm ent 2 . V o c a b u la ry e n ric h m e n t

150

IV .

In te re stin g n e ss

150

Illu stra tio n s A. Form B. C o lo r C. R e l a t i o n t o s t o r y D. S t i m u l a t i o n

125

V.

V I. V II.

V III.

O r g a n iz a tio n and s t y l e Form at A. G e n e ra l a p p e a ra n c e B. Type C. M argins and a rra n g e m e n t D. Cover d e s i g n T e a c h e r* s manual T o ta ls

75 50

50

However, when s e l e c t i n g p rim a ry r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , th e b a s i s o f c h o ic e i s e n l a r g e d t o th e e x t e n t t h a t , " t h e c h o ic e o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s h o u ld be b ased on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f c o n t e n t , s t y l e and i n t e r e s t a p p e a l , a s w e l l a s on d i f f i ­ c u lty ,” j

(See A ppendix, T ab le V .)

T h is p r o j e c t has a t t e m p t e d t o keep t o th e p r i n c i p l e s of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n d e v e lo p e d ab o v e . S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .

The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s

p r o j e c t i s t o c r e a t e a s t o r y book s u i t a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n i n th e k i n d e r g a r t e n and p rim a ry g r a d e s . The f o l l o w i n g a r e th e s p e c i f i c u s e s f o r w h ich th e p r o j e c t was d e s ig n e d a s w e l l a s th e o b j e c t i v e s and con­ s i d e r a t i o n s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e te x t: 1.

T h is p r o j e c t i s p r i m a r i l y d e s ig n e d f o r c h i l d r e n who have r e a c h e d an ap p ro x im a te g rad e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y of l A , and have c o m p leted r e a d i n g a t l e a s t one s e r i e s o f b a s a l r e a d e r s , p r e f e r a b l y S c o t t , Foresman C u rric u lu m F o u n d a tio n B a s a l R e a d e r s , th r o u g h th e

5 A l b e r t J . H a r r i s , How t o I n c r e a s e R eading A b i l i t y (New Y ork: Longmans, G reen and Company, 1 9 ^ 1 ), p . 213.

f i r s t g ra d e .£ 2.

The p r o j e c t c o u ld be u se d f o r s u p p le m e n ta r y r e a d i n g p u r p o s e s ; p r o v id in g e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l f o r th o s e c h i l d r e n who need r e p e t i t i o n of words e n c o u n te r e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e i r r e a d i n g .

3.

The o b j e c t i v e i s t o c r e a t e a s t o r y u s in g v o c a b u la r y t h a t has b ee n checked a g a i n s t v a r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c word l i s t s and i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e r e a d i n g grade l e v e l f o r w h ich t h i s p r o j e c t i s i n t e n d e d .

1+.

The p r o j e c t may be u se d by th e t e a c h e r f o r r e a d in g t o th e c l a s s , e i t h e r i n th e k i n d e r g a r t e n o r th e f i r s t grad e where th e c h i l d r e n have n o t y e t a c ­ q u i r e d a p p r o x im a te l y 1 .*+ r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o r have n o t r e a d e x t e n s i v e l y i n a w e l l p la n n e d b a s i c r e a d i n g p ro g ra m .g

5.

The p r o j e c t may be s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d a s r e m e d ia l ■■■■** re a d in g m a te r ia l f o r r e ta r d e d re a d e rs in th e se co n d and t h i r d g r a d e s . ^

6 W illia m S . Gray and May H i l l A r b u th n o t. We Look and Bee (New Yorks S c o t t , Foresm an and Company, IS?1*-©) pp. ^ 8 ; Gray and A r b u t h n o t , We Work and P la y (New York: S c o t t , Foresm an and Company, 19^+6), ppT ; Gray and A r b u th n o t, We Come and Go (New Yorks S c o t t , Foresm an and Company, 1 9 ^ 6 ), pp. 72; Gray and A r b u t h n o t, Fun W ith D ick and Jane (New Yorks S c o t t , Foresm an and Company, 19*fS) , p p . 15*9; Gray and A r b u t h n o t, Our New F r i e n d s (New Y ork: S c o t t , Foresm an and Company, 19*+0), p p . 191* 7 I n f r a C h a p te r 2 , page 1 f o r e n u m e r a tio n o f th e v a r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c word l i s t s u se d i n th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e t e x t . 8 Use o f R e ad e rs i n t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls 19 1+8-19lt9 (C u rric u lu m D i v i s i o n Los A ng eles C i t y S ch o o ls E C -1 0 3 )•

9 R e ta r d e d r e a d e r s a r e h e re u se d t o r e f e r t o c h i l d r e n who a r e a p p r o x im a te ly one y e a r b e h in d t h e i r r e a d i n g e x p e c ta n c y , b a s e d upon g ra d e norms and I . Q. See A p pend ix , T ab le V I.

6 6.

The p r o j e c t may be s u c c e s s f u l l y combined w i t h a s o c i a l s t u d i e s u n i t d e a l i n g w i t h th e home o r fa m ily l i f e ,

7.

The p l o t o f th e s t o r y c e n t e r s a b o u t a prob lem c o n s id e r e d r e a l t o c h i l d r e n . ^

8.

The i l l u s t r a t i o n s s h o u ld d e m o n s tr a te th e a c t i o n s t a k i n g p la c e i n th e s t o r y , and th e a t t r a c t i v e c o l o r s sh o u ld c a t c h t h e c h i l d fs i n t e r e s t .



The p r o j e c t may be u s e d p u r e l y f o r p u rp o se s o f r e a d i n g e n jo y m e n t.

L im its o r Scope o f S t u d y .

T h is p r o j e c t i s o f n e c e s s i t y

l i m i t e d i n i t s s c o p e , f o r i t i s p r i m a r i l y i n te n d e d t o p r o v id e i n t e r e s t i n g su p p le m e n ta ry r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l b a s e d upon words s e l e c t e d from s c i e n t i f i c word l i s t s f o r th e g rad e l e v e l f o r w h ich t h i s p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d . ^ S in c e most of th e words u s e d have b ee n g r a d u a l l y in t r o d u c e d i n th e S c o t t , Foresm an B a s ic B eading s e r i e s , i t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t t h e s e books be r e a d b e f o r e t h i s p r o j e c t i s u s e d by th e c h i l d r e n . ^

10 When a C h ild i s D e s t r u c t i v e (New Y ork: New York Committee on M en tal H ygiene o f t h e S t a t e C h a r i t i e s A id C om m ittee, I 9 V7 ) , P« 5* 11

I n f r a C h a p te r 2 f o r word l i s t s u s e d .

12

See f o o t n o t e number 6 p . T a b le number 2 .

7 W herever new words a p p e a r , i t i s t o be n o te d t h a t i t i s so done t o add c o h e s iv e n e s s t o th e developm ent o f th e s t o r y ; su c h a s , names o f a n i m a l s , sounds and o t h e r s l i s t e d b e lo w .^ O r i e n t a t i on o f th e P r o b le m.

The p ro b lem , th e s t o r y

book, s p e c i f i c a l l y sh o u ld e x h i b i t c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s d e ­ s ir a b le fo r f i r s t year read in g .

The p rob lem was n o t d e s ig n e d

t o i n t r o d u c e new w o rd s , s i n c e i t s use i s d e p e n d e n t upon th e p r i o r u se o f b a s a l r e a d e r s . ^ One p u rp o se of th e p r o j e c t was t o p r o v id e i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g m a t t e r on th e l e v e l of c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y i n th e f i r s t g rad e w i t h an a p p ro x im a te m e n ta l age o f 6 .

I t was i n te n d e d

t o prove e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o b o th boys and g i r l s o f t h a t age. The pro b lem i n t r o d u c e d i n th e s t o r y i s c o n s id e r e d r e a l t o many c h i l d r e n .

F r e q u e n t l y , t h a t problem l e a d s t o v a r i o u s

ty p e s of b e h a v io r m a la d j u s tm e n ts . a d ju s tm e n t of su c h c h i l d r e n .

T h is s t o r y can h e lp i n th e

The r e a l i t y o f th e pro blem

s i t u a t i o n t o c h i l d r e n i s r e c o g n iz e d by t h e New York M en tal Hygiene Committee o f th e S t a t e C h a r i t i e s Com m ittee. He may f e e l j e a l o u s . He may t h i n k t h a t h i s p a r e n t s o r t e a c h e r s lo v e a n o t h e r c h i l d more, t h a t someone has t a k e n h i s p la c e i n t h e i r h e a r t s . . . . P a r t o f th e s o l u t i o n , . . . l i e s i n making him f e e l t h a t he i s lo v e d , w a n te d , i m p o r ta n t 13

I n f r a C h a p te r 2*

Ik-

See F o o tn o te s numbers 6 and 9*

15

See f o o t n o t e number 10 -

8 The p r o j e c t in v o lv e s th e home, w hich i s a u n i t o f work f r e q u e n t l y d e a l t w i t h i n th e f i r s t and seco n d g rad e s o c i a l s t u d i e s program .

The theme of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r Los

A n g ele s C i t y S c h o o ls k i n d e r g a r t e n and g rad e one i s : Home and S c h o o l. 1. 2.

3. *+. 5.

An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e home and s c h o o l en v iro n m e n t i n w h ich t h e p u p i l l i v e s . An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f th e p eo p le i n b o th home and s c h o o l who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n th e w e l f a r e o f t h e p u p i l . S o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t w h ich e n a b le s t h e p u p i l t o l i v e h a p p i l y and s e c u r e l y w i t h i n h i s own home and s c h o o l . I n i t i a t i v e and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s i n r e c o g n i z i n g and s o l v i n g problem s a c tiv itie s. An a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s fo r w o rk .^

The i l l u s t r a t i o n s have been c o r r e l a t e d a s much a s p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e a c t i o n t a k i n g p la c e i n th e s t o r y . They a r e ex em p lary o f t h e k in d o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s c h i l d r e n l i k e b e s t , a s summ arized by G oodykoontz: 1. 2.

C h i ld r e n l i k e books t h a t have a t l e a s t o n e - q u a r t e r page p i c t u r e s p a c e . C h i ld r e n l i k e f u l l page o r l a r g e p i c t u r e s .

16 See I n s t r u c t i o n a l Guide f o r T e a c h e rs o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls (Los A n g e le s : Los A n g e le s C i t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t P u b l i c a t i o n s , 19*+2) , p . 17.

9 3. *+. 5. 6.

7. 8.

9.

C h ild re n p r e f e r stro n g c o l o r s . C h i ld r e n l i k e b o ld c e n t r a l g ro u p s w i t h few b u t s t r i k i n g d e t a i l s . R e a lis tic p ic tu re s are p re fe rre d to c o n v e n tio n a liz e d p ic tu r e s . A c ti o n , humor and s t o r y a r e p r e f e r r e d p ic tu re s ty p e s. Young c h i l d r e n l i k e a b r o a d e r ra n g e of p i c t u r e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r th a n t h e y u s u a l l y re c e iv e . Young c h i l d r e n do n o t c a r e e s p e c i a l l y f o r p ic tu re s of c h ild a c t i v i t i e s . O ld er c h i l d r e n l i k e p i c t u r e s r e l a t e d t o i n - s c h o o l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . ^

The p r o j e c t i s d e s ig n e d t o meet th e n eed s o f th e d e v e lo p in g k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d .

As r e p o r t e d i n Lee and L ee,

th e P asadena s c h o o ls r e c o g n i z e th e d e v e lo p in g i n t e r e s t s i n th e k i n d e r g a r t e n a s f o l l o w s : R eading The c h i l d *1. *2.

R e c o g n iz e s t h a t p r i n t e d symbols have meaning a s a s o u rc e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and p l e a s u r e . E v id e n c e s i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d . * a . E n jo y s l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s . * b . E n jo y s lo o k in g a t p i c t u r e b o o k s. * c . R e c o g n iz e s books a s a s o u rc e o f p le a su re . * d . H andles books c a r e f u l l y , e . E n jo y s fu n n y p a p e r s .

17 Bess G oodykoontz, "The R e l a t i o n o f P i c t u r e s t o R eading C om p rehensio n," E le m e n ta ry E n g l i s h R ev iew . 13s 1 2 5 -1 2 8 , A p r i l 1936.

10 T h is i s combined w i t h th e O ra l E x p r e s s io n developm ent a s f o llo w s : O ra l E x p r e s s io n The c h i l d *1. *2. *3 . 5-. 5. 6. *7. *8 .

E n jo y s s h a r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r s . I s a b l e t o t e l l sim p le e x p e r i e n c e s . I s a b l e t o r e t e l l and d r a m a tiz e sim p le s t o r i e s . S peaks t o th e g rou p n a t u r a l l y and s p o n ta n e o u s l y . T a lk s lo u d enough f o r l i s t e n e r s t o h e a r . F a c e s p e r s o n s t o whom he i s s p e a k in g . L i s t e n s w i t h i n t e r e s t and can r e t e l l s t o r i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s t o l d by o t h e r s . Uses i n c r e a s e d and m e a n in g fu l v o c a b u l a r y . lo

Ite m s s t a r r e d a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e f o r u se w ith t h i s p r o je c t. The p r o j e c t was d e s ig n e d t o be a d a p t a b l e t o th e t e a c h ­ in g o b j e c t i v e o f making r e a d i n g a s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . The g u id a n ce of r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e when i t c r e a t e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r th e s o c i a l s h a r i n g o f r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ..................... A number o f s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ’s r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t th e ,frecom m endation o f a f r i e n d 11 i s one o f t h e most i m p e lli n g r e a s o n s f o r c h o o s in g a book. When, a s a r e s u l t of many e x p e r i e n c e s i n e n jo y in g and e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r r e a d i n g t o g e t h e r , i t becomes th e a c c e p t e d t h i n g among a group o f c h i l d r e n t o r e a d good b o o k s, t h e r e i s e v id e n c e o f w ise a d u l t g u id a n c e . O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d i s c u s s , d e b a t e , drama­ t i z e , and n b r o a d c a s t ” a b o u t s t o r i e s and books th e y have r e a d h e lp t o c r e a t e su ch an atm o sp h ere

18 S u g g e s t i o ns t o T e a c h e rs i n Gu i d i n g P u p i l E x p e r i ­ e n c es . P r o v i s i o n a l I s s u e (P a sad e n a C i t y S c h o o ls , 193^7, P r e f a c e p . x x x i v - 5 x i v . , c i t e d by J . Murray Lee and D o ris May L ee, The C h ild and H is C u rric u lu m (New Y ork: D. A p p le to n C e n tu ry Company, 19**o3, P. 330,331* 19 Guid in g th e Growth o f Reading I n t e r e s t s ( E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a rc h B u l l e t i n of th e B u reau o f R e f e r e n c e , R e s e a rc h and S t a t i s t i c s , Number 8 , Board o f E d u c a tio n o f th e C i t y of New Y ork, May 19^5) p . 10.

11 L im its o f Media of P r o d u c t i o n .

The form o f t h i s

p r o j e c t was d i c t a t e d by s t a n d a r d s s e t by t h i s u n i v e r s i t y , and t h u s th e fre ed o m o f s e l e c t i o n o f s i z e , and m e c h a n ic a l q u a l i t i e s o f th e p r o j e c t was l i m i t e d .

The p r o j e c t may

s u i t a b l y be bound w i t h a h a r d , d u r a b le c o v e r i n g , b r i g h t y e llo w i n c o l o r . in c h e s.

The s i z e w ould p r e f e r a b l y be 8 -J- by 9

The p a p e r w ould be o f a h e a v i e r q u a l i t y . These i l l u s t r a t i o n s w ere done i n p a s t e l c h a l k , f o r

p u rp o s e s o f e x p e d ie n c y .

However, t h e r i c h c o l o r to n e s

a c h ie v e d a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y .

In r e g u la r p ro d u c tio n , a

f o u r c o l o r p r o c e s s o r o f f s e t p r i n t i n g w ould be u s e d .

12 CHAPTER I I SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURE S e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f back gro un d and p r o c e d u r e of th e p r o j e c t have b een d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p te r I .

Those a s p e c t s

p r i m a r i l y in v o lv e d th e ty p e o f book t h a t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n i h th e k i n d e r g a r t e n and p rim a ry g r a d e s . ^ T h is c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s th e s c i e n t i f i c background and p ro c e d u re f o llo w e d i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f th e v o c a b u la r y f o r th e p ro b lem ; a s w e l l a s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e v o c a b u la r y in c lu d e d * S t a n d a r d iz e d Word L i s t s .

V a r io u s word l i s t s w ere

c o n s u l t e d i n th e p r e p a r a t i o n of th e s t o r y w h ich were e x tr e m e ly u s e f u l *

These l i s t s w ere th e s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s

f o r word s e l e c t i o n . Up t o th e p r e s e n t , t h e T h o rn d ik e and G ates l i s t s have been th e ones most commonly u s e d by w r i t e r s o f s c h o o l b o o k s. T hese l i s t s have had a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g th e t r e n d to w ard books w i t h s im p le r and more u n ifo rm v o c a b u l a r i e s . 21

20

C f . Ante

C h a p te r I .

21 Edward L. T h o r n d ik e , The T e a c h e r *s Wordbook (B ureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs C o l le g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New Y ork, 1921) 131* pp; A r t h u r L. G a te s , A R eading V o c a b u la ry f o r th e P r i marv G r a d e s . ( r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d ; B u reau o f P u b l i ­ c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs C o l le g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New Y ork, 1935) 29 PP*; c i t e d by A l b e r t J* H a r r i s , How t o I n c r e a s e R eading A b i l i t y (New Yorks Longmans G reen and Company, 19W ) p. 226.

13 The two l i s t s m e n tio n e d a s w e l l a s s e v e r a l o t h e r s w ere u se d i n th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e t e x t . £2 VOCABULARY ANALYSIS Number o f New W ords.

T h ere i s a sum t o t a l of

227 d i f f e r e n t words I n th e b o o k .^ ^

F o r t y - e i g h t words

a r e n o t in c lu d e d i n th e f i r s t y e a r r e a d i n g program of th e S c o t t , Foresm an s e r i e s .

T h i r t y - e i g h t w o rd s, t h a t

a r e i n t h e s t o r y , a r e i n c lu d e d i n th e seco nd g rad e

22 A S tu d y o f th e V o c a b u la ry of C h i l d r e n Bef or e E n t e r i n i I h e F i r s t Grade ( i n t e r n a t i o n a 1 K i n d e r g a r t e n U nion C h ild S tu d y C om m ittee, W ashing­ t o n , B .C . , 1928) 36 p p ; B. R. Buckingham and E. W. D o lch , A Combined Word L i s t (B ostons Ginn and Company, 1938) 184 p p . 5 C la r e n c e R. S to n e , A Graded V o c a b u la ry f o r P rim a ry R ead in g ( S t . L o u is : W ebster P u b l i s h i n g Company, 193 8 ) 61 PP* 5 E. W. D olch, ,!A B a s ic S i g h t V o c a b u la ry 11 Elemen t a r y S ch o o l J o u r n a l 3 6 :4 5 6 - 6 0 , F e b r u a r y

19367 W. George Hayward and Nancy M. Ordway. ’’V o c a b u la r ie s o f R e c e n tly P u b lis h e d P r e - P r i m e r s , ” E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l J o u r n a l 37*60 8-6 17 , A p r i l 1937* 23

See T ab le I I .

TABLE II CUMULATIVE WORD LIST OF VOCABULARY USED IN PROJECT A

Be

Cold

Able

B e a u tifu l

Could

About

B ecause

C r ie d

A fter

Bee

Cry

A gain

Been

C ry in g

A ll

Began

D ark

Along

Big

Day

A lso

B ig g e r

D ear

Am

B ir d s

D e a r ly

And

Blow

Do

Answered

B reak fast

Does

Any

B rig h t

D o e sn !t

Anyone

B r o th e r

Don!t

Are

B rought

Door

As

Bunny

Down

Ask

Busy

Eat

Asked

But

E v er

At

Buzz

E v ery

Ate

By

Everyone

Away

Cabbage

Everyw here

Awoke

C a lle d

F ast

Baby

Came

F a th e r

Back

Can

F ie ld

Bad

Care

F ix

TABLE II (continued) CUMULATIVE WORD LIST OF VOCABULARY USED IN PROJECT Flew

His

M a tte r

F low er

Home

Me

For

Hop

More

F rie n d

House

Morning

From

How

Mother

Fun

Hummed

Mr.

G e ttin g

H urt

M rs.

Glad

I

Must

Go

If

N eig h b o rs

Going

In

Never

Good

Is

New

Got

It

Next

G ra ssh o p p e r

Just

No

Grew

Knew

N oise

Grows

L ate

Not

Had

Laugh

Now

Happen

Leaves

Of

Happy

L eft

Old

Have

L ifte d

Our

He

L ike

O utdoors

Head

L iste n e d

Over

Heard

L ittle

Owl

H elp

Long

P la y

Her

Look

P le a s e

Him

Love

R a b b it

H im seIf

Made

Ran

16 TABLE II (continued) CUMULATIVE WORD LIST OF VOCABULARY USED IN PROJECT R obin

S ure

Was

Run

Sun

Watch

Sad

T a il

W atched

S a d ly

Take

We

S a id

T a lk

W e ll

Sat

T e ll

Went

Saw

Thank

Were

Say

T hat

What

Says

The

When

Scared

T here

Where

See

Then

W hile

She

T h in g s

W hite

S h in in g

Thought

Who-00-00

Shook

T hrough

Why

S ho uld

T ill

W ill

S in g in g

Time

Wind

S lo w ly

To

Wise

So

Too

W ith

Some

Took

Wonft

Som ething

T ree

Woods

Soon

Under

Would

S o rry

Up

Wrong

S p rin g

Us

Yes

S ta rte d

V ery

You

S to p p e d

V isite d

Your

S ud d en ly

Want

17 r e a d i n g program o f th e S c o t t , Foresm an s e r i e s . ^ T w enty-one words a r e n o t w i t h i n th e f i r s t 1500 words on T h o r n d i k e 's word l i s t . , ^ Word F orm s.

Words form ed by th e a d d i t i o n

of s , e s , d , e d , y , l y , i n g , e r and e s t (c o m p a ris o n ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d v a r i a n t s o f th e b a s i c w ords as l i s t e d on th e v a r i o u s s c i e n t i f i c word l i s t s *

Compound

words a r e l i k e w i s e c o n s i d e r e d b a s i c , and so were u s e d , i f e a c h component p a r t o f th e word a p p e a r e d on th e s t a n d a r d word l i s t s . H e p e titio n .

P r o v i s i o n was made f o r much

r e p e t i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y , so a s t o p r o v id e need ed word r e p e t i t i o n i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s .

2h

See T a b le I I I .

25

See T a b le IV.

18 TABLE I I I

WORDS USED IN THE STORY WHICH WERE NOT USED IN THE FIRST GRADE READING PROGRAM OF THE SCOTT, FORESMAN SERIES

A ble ♦About ♦Answered Awoke

♦ F ix ♦Flew F lo w er

More ♦N eighbors ♦Never

♦Gave

O u ts id e

♦Bad

♦Grew

Owl

♦B ecause

♦Happen

♦Should

♦Bee

♦Heard

♦Sing

♦ B ig g e r ♦ B r ig h t ♦By

Hummed ♦H urt If

♦ s io w iy S ta rte d ♦ S o rry

♦Buzz

♦ L eft

♦Sun

♦Care

♦ L ift

♦ S u r e ly

♦ C rie d

♦ L iste n

♦Through

♦Cry

♦Long

♦ V isit

♦Does

♦Lot

♦Ever

♦ M a tte r

Who- 0 0 - 0 0 ♦Would Wrong

♦ Words s t a r r e d a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e seco n d g ra d e books i n t h e S c o t t , Foresm an s e r i e s .

19 TABLE IV

WORDS ROT AMONGST THE FIRST 1?00 ON THORNDIKE *S WORD BOOK

Anyone A te B ig g e r Buzz Cabbage D oesn*t E veryone Everyw here Flew G ra ssh o p p e r Hop Hummed Leaves O utdoors Owl R a b b it R obin S cared S h in in g Shook Wonft

20

D iffic u lty ’’The d i f f i c u l t y o f a book depends l a r g e l y on th e v o c a b u la r y t h a t i t c o n t a i n s . A book w h ic h u s e s a s m a ll number o f words t h a t o c c u r a g a i n and a g a i n te n d s t o be e a s y ; one w hich employs a l a r g e number o f new w o rd s , many of w h ich a r e u se d o n ly once o r t w i c e , t e n d s t o be d i f f i c u l t . The s e n t e n c e - s t r u c t u r e and th e f a m i l i a r i ­ t y o r s t r a n g e n e s s o f th e c o n t e n t a r e a ls o s ig n if ic a n t f a c to rs in d i f f i ­ c u l t y . ” 25 The a t te m p t was t o p r o v id e e a s y , g r a d e d , r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l f o r c h i l d r e n , and so t h e f a c t o r s en u m erate d above were c o n s id e r e d i n th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e s t o r y . The book was g ra d e d a c c o r d in g t o th e fo rm u la u se d i n th e W innetka C h a rt f o r d e te r m in in g g rad e p lacem en t of C h i l d r e n ’s b o o k s . 27 The e le m e n ts t h a t go i n t o t h i s fo rm u la a r e s 1. 2. 3.

26

I n a th o u s a n d w o rd s , from a s y s t e m a t i c sa m p lin g o f th e book, how many d i f f e r e n t w ords a r e t h e r e ? Of t h i s same th o u s a n d w o rd s , how many a r e n o t among th e 1 J?00 commonest words i n th e la n g u a g e ? Out o f s e v e n t y - f i v e s e n t e n c e s , sam pled s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , how many a r e n e i t h e r complex n o r compound?

H a r r i s , op c i t . p. 2 0 3 .

27 C a r l e t o n W. Washburne and Mabel V ogel M o rp h ett lfGrade P lac em e n t o f C h i l d r e n ’s B o o k s ,” E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l J o u r n a l 3 8 :3 5 5 - 6 1+ J a n u a r y 1938, d i s c u s s i n g W innetka C h a rt f o r D eterm ing Grade P lacem ent o f C h i l d r e n ’s Books.

21 The fo rm u la a s f o llo w s : Number o f d i f f e r e n t w ords i n 1 ,0 0 0 m u l t i p l i e d by .0 0 2 5 5 , P lu s number o f d i f f e r e n t uncommon w ords i n 1 ,0 0 0 m u l t i p l i e d by .0*4-58, P lu s a c o n s ta n t 1.29*+* Minus number o f sim p le s e n te n c e s i n 75 m u l t i p l i e d by .0 3 0 7 , Y ie ld s th e g rad e o f r e a d in g a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r s a t i s f y i n g r e a d in g o f th e b o o k .2g A cc o rd in g t o t h i s fo rm u la , th e g rad e p la cem en t of th e book c r e a t e d i s

28

i b i d . p . 359.

29

See a p p e n d ix p . 57.

CHAPTER III

BUENY WHITETAIL

23

W R I T T E N !

BY

MILDRED PINCHOFF ILLUSTRATED

BERNARD

BY

GRUVER

2b

11 was s pr i n g . The b i r d s were s i n g i n g . The f l o w e r s were b e a u t i f u l . The b r i g h t sun was s h i n i n g . Everyone was happy. t

2?

Y e s , e v e r y o n e was happy but l i t t l e Bunny W h i t e t a i l . L i t t l e Bunny W h i t e t a i l s a t under a t r e e , a n d c r i e d and c r i e d and c r i e d . 2

26

Along came a g r a s s h o p p e r . He went h o p , h o p , h o p from t r e e t o t r e e . When he saw t h e s ad bunny he s a i d , " Wh a t i s t h e m a t t e r , Sunny W h i t e t a i l ? Why a r e you c r y i n g ? "

27

r,

Sunny W h i t e t a i l l i f t e d h i s head s a d l y , a n d s a i d , ‘' P l e a s e d o n ' t ask me , Mr . Gr a s s h o p p e r . 1 d o n ' t want t o t a l k a bo u t i t to anyone." Then Sunny W h i t e t a i l began to cry a g a i n . He c r i e d and c r i e d and c r i e d . 4

28

Ne x t , a l o n g came Mr s . Be e . "Buzz, b u z z , b u z z , ' 1 s he hummed as she f l e w from f l o w e r to f l o w e r . "Why are you c r y i n g , Bunny W h i t e t a i l ? " she s a i d . 5

29

Bunny W h i t e t a i l s a d l y l i f t e d his head. ’’P l e a s e d o n Tt ask me, Mrs. Be e . I d o n ’ t want t o t a l k about i t t o a n y o n e . ” Then Bunny W h i t e t a i l began t o c ry a g a i n . He c r i e d and c r i e d and c r i e d .

6

30

Ne x t , Mr. Robin f l e w by. He saw t h e bunny c r y i n g . "Why ar e you c r y i n g , Bunny W h i t e t a i l ? " he a s k e d . Bunny W h i t e t a i l s a d l y l i f t e d h i s he a d. Then he s a i d , " P l e a s e go away, Mr. Ro bi n . I d o n ’ t want to t e l l a n y o n e . " 7

31

Soon t h e sun went down. It g o t c o l d . The wind began t o bl o w. Then i t g o t dar k. But Bunny W h i t e t a i l j u s t s a t under t h e t r e e , and c r i e d and c r i e d and c r i e d .

32

S u d d e n l y , Bunny W h i t e t a i l heard a n o i s e . It s c a r e d him. It we n t , " Wh o - - o o - - o o He l o o k e d up. There in t h e t r e e over h i s head he saw Mrs. Owl. 9

33

Wise Mrs. Owl knew t h a t i t was t i me f o r a bunny t o be at home. So she s a i d , "Bunny W h i t e t a i l , i t i s getting la te. Do you have a home?" "Yes, "answered Bunny s a d l y . "When are you g o i n g home?" as ked Mrs. Owl. " I t i s dark in t he woods . And i t i s c o l d . " 10

35

**I am not g o i n g home," s a i d Bunny W h i t e t a i l . "Never, n e v e r , ne ve r w i l l I go home." Mrs. Owl was a w i s e o l d o wl . So s h e s a i d , " T e l l me what i s wrong. I w i l l help you." " We l l , " s a i d Bunny whitetail. "I am sad b e c a u s e I have a new baby brother. Mother doe s n o t l o v e me any more. " "¥/hy do you s ay t h a t , Bunny W h i t e t a i l ? " as ke d Mrs. Owl. "I am s u r e t h a t you must be wrong. "

11

36

" No , ” s a i d Bunny W h i t e t a i l . ” I know! Every morni ng a f t e r I awoke, Mother and I went t o t h e c abbage f i e l d . We a t e . Then we ran t hr ough t h e woods . We v i s i t e d our f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s . We had f un a l l day l o n g . But now Mother i s busy wi t h Baby R a b b i t . She d o e s n ’ t go w i t h me t o t h e cabbage field. We d o n ’ t run t hr ough t he wo o ds . 'We d o n ’ t have fun a l l day l o n g . ”

37

"Every t i me I ask Mother t o p l a y w i t h me, s he s a y s , "No, Bunny W h i t e t a i l . Baby Rabbi t i s t o o 1 i 1 1 3. e t o be l e f t by himself. I must t a k e c a r e of

him. When he grows b i g g e r we w i l l a l l go to t h e cabbage f i e l d to e a t . When Baby Rabbi t grows b i g g e r we can a l l run t hr ough t he woods t o s e e our f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s . But now I can not go wi t h you.

38

Wise Mrs. Owl s l o w l y shook her he a d. Then s he s a i d , "Bunny W h i t e t a i l , w i l l you do what I t e l l you t o do? You w i l l be happy a g a i n i f you do a l l t h a t I s a y . " Bunny W h i t e t a i l had heard about w i s e Mrs. Owl. So he s a i d , "Yes, Mrs. Owl. I w i l l do a l l t h a t you s a y . I want t o be happyXao'a i n . "

39

a ba b y . You now. Whe n y you must ask can h e l p her Baby Ra bb i t . Yo u sho ul d and do as sh She l o v e s yo 15

IfO

"When Baby Ra bb i t grows b i g g e r , Mother w i l l have more t i me f o r p l a y . And t he n you w i l l be a b l e t o p l a y w i t h Baby Ra bb i t t o o . He w i l l be b i g . He w i l l want t o be your f r i e n d . " 16

1m m *

"Thank you, Mrs. Owl. I w i l l do a s you s a y , " s a i d Bunny W h i t e t a i l . "You w i l l not be s o r r y , " s a i d Mrs. Owl. Bunny W h i t e t a i l s t o p p e d crying. Then he ran home as f a s t as he c o u l d . 17

h2

^3

When Bunny W h i t e t a i l got t o t he door of h i s h o u s e , he saw Mother R a b b i t , Fa t he r R a b b i t , and Baby Rabbit. Mother Rabbi t ran t o him and c r i e d , '*Bunny W h i t e t a i l , where have you been? We have l o o k e d e v e r y wh e r e f o r you. We ar e g l a d t h a t you sre w e l l . We ar e g l ad t h a t you are not h u r t . ”

18

!+>+

3unny W h i t e t a i l was s o r r y t h a t ha had made Mother and Fa t he r l o o k f o r him. He s a i d , "I am s o r r y . It w i l l ne v e r happen a g a i n . I was a bad bunny. I wonf t e v e r do i t a g a i n . ”

*+6

The n e x t morn i n vo< ,* when Bunny W h i t e t a i l a wo k e , he a s k e d Mot he r R a b b i t i f he c o u l d do s o m e t h i n g t o help her. Mo t he r R a b b i t s a i d , ” Y e s , d e a r Bunny W h i t e t a i l . Goul d you wa t c h Baby R a b b i t while [ f i x breakfast f o r us ? F a t h e r R a b b i t b r o u g h t us some c a b b a g e l e a v e s . " Bunny W h i t e t a i l s a i d , HY e s , M o t h e r . I w i l l be glad to help y o u . ” rtYou a r e a d e a r B u n n y , ” Mo t he r R a b b i t s a i d .

20

if 7

-i

Bunny W h i t e t a i l t ook Baby Rabbi t o u t d o o r s . He wat c he d Baby Ra bbi t t i l l Mother c a l l e d t o t hem. Bunny t h o u g h t t o h i m s e l f , " I t i s fun t o wat ch Baby Rabbit. And Mother was so v e r y g l a d t h a t I as ked to help." 21

b8

*+9

Bunny W h i t e t a i l s t a r t e d back t o t h e h o u s e w i t h Baby R a b b i t . He s t a r t e d t o s i no . He was happy now. Bunny W h i t e t a i l was happy t h a t he had l i s t e n e d t o Mr s . Owl . He l i k e d t o h e l p Mother. He l i k e d t o wa t c h Baby R a b b i t . I t was f u n t o p l a y w i t h Baby R a b b i t . And Bunny W h i t e t a i l knew now, t h a t when Baby R a b b i t gr ew up he wo ul d ha v e a good f r i e n d . He woul d have a f r i e n d who woul d l i k e t o do t h e t hi nc s s t h a t he l i k e d to do. He wo ul d h a v e a f r i e n d who a l s o l i k e d t o run t h r o u g h t h e wo o d s , and l a u g h , and s i n g .

22

50

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The p r o j e c t d i s p l a y s a d a p t i v e n e s s t o th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d itio n s: 1.

I t c a n be u s e d i n th e f i r s t g rad e r e a d in g prog ram .

2.

I t has a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y s e l e c t e d v o c a b u la r y .

3.

I t can be u se d f o r r e a d i n g e n jo y m e n t.

*+.

I t can be r e a d t o th e c h i l d r e n who a r e c a p a b le o f r e a d i n g i t f o r th e m s e l v e s .

5.

I t ca n be u se d by th e secon d and t h i r d g rad e t e a c h e r a s s u i t a b l e f i r s t g rad e m a t e r i a l f o r her re ta rd e d re a d e rs .

6.

I t can be s u i t a b l y combined w i t h a s o c i a l s t u d i e s program a b o u t th e home.

7.

The p l o t o r p roblem s i t u a t i o n can be u n d e r ­ s to o d by c h i l d r e n .

8.

The i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e a t t r a c t i v e .

9.

I n th e k i n d e r g a r t e n , i t can be u se d a s a p i c t u r e book t o c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n b o o k s.

not

10.

I t i s s u i t a b l e f o r b u i l d i n g a wholesome a t t i t u d e tow ard books and r e a d i n g .

11.

I t can be u se d by c h i l d r e n i n th e c la s s r o o m t o r e t e l l th e seq uence o f e v e n ts i n th e s t o r y .

12.

I t may as th e

1 3.

I t can be u se d a s a n a u d ie n c e r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n o f a c h i l d i n th e f i r s t g r a d e .

be u s e d i n t h e a r e a of la n g u ag e e x p e r i e n c e s u b j e c t o f an o r a l book r e v ie w .

51 I t may be u s e d f o r d r a m a t i z a t i o n i n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r im a r y g r a d e s . A d a p ta tio n o f t h i s p r o j e c t t o th e v a r i o u s c la s s r o o m and i n d i v i d u a l n ee d s i s a n e c e s s i t y .

An

a n a l y s i s o f th e p r e v io u s r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f th e c h ild r e n , as w e ll as t h e i r ag e , I n te llig e n c e Q u o tie n t, g rad e and r e a d i n g l e v e l o f a c h ie v e m e n t, s h o u ld d e te r m in e w h ich of th e s u g g e s te d u s e s a r e b e s t s u i t e d f o r any g iv e n i n d i v i d u a l o r g ro u p .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

52

A S tu d y o f t h e V o c a b u la ry o f C h i l d r e n B e fo r e E n t e r i n g The F i r s t G rade. I n t e r n a t i o n a l K in d e r g a r te n Union C h ild S tu d y Com m ittee, W ashington B .C ., 1928. 36 PP* B u c k in g h a m ,B u rd e tte R. and D olch, Edward W., A Combined Word L i s t . B o sto n : Ginn and Company, 1936"! 10+ pp. C l a e s , E t h e l Leppo, " K in d e r g a r te n E x p e r ie n c e a s a F a c t o r i n R eading R e a d in e s s i n t h e F i r s t G rades o f t h e Los A n g eles County S c h o o l s ." ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r f s T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 ^ 3 ) , 5*f pp . D o lch , Edward W ., "A B a s ic S i g h t V o c a b u la r y ," E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l J o u r n a i l 6 : % 6 - 6 0 , F e b r u a r y 1936. F o w lk e s, JohnGuy, E v a l u a t i n g S ch o o l T e x tb o o k s . S i l v e r , B u r d e t t and Company, 1 9 2 3 . 3*+ PP*

New Y ork:

F r a u z e n , Raymond Hugh and K n ig h t, F r e d e r i c k B i t t e r f i e l d , T extbook S e l e c t i o n . B a lti m o r e : Warwick and Y ork, 1922. 9*f pp . G a te s , A r th u r I . , A R eading V o ca b u lary f o r t h e P rim a ry G ra d e s, R e v is e d and E n la r g e d . B ureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Hew Y ork, 1935* 29 p p . G oodykoontz, B e s s , "The R e l a t i o n o f P i c t u r e s t o R eading C o m preh en sio n ," E le m e n ta ry E n g l i s h Review 1 3 :1 2 5 - 1 2 8 , A p r i l , 1936. G ray, W illia m S . and A rb u th n o t, May H i l l , Fun W ith D ick and J a n e . New Y ork: S c o t t , Fordsman and Company, 1 9 % , If? 9 pp . , Our New F r i e n d s . l 9 ^ 0 . ~ T 9 “ p‘:---------. We Come and Go. 1 9 % . 72 p p .

New York: S c o t t , Foresm an and Company, New Y ork: S c o t t , Foresm an and Company,

_______ , We Look and S e e . 1 9 % . " 4 8 pp •

New York: S c o t t , Foresm an an d Company,

_______, We Work and P l a y . 1 9 % • £2 "pp •

New York: S c o t t , Foresm an and Company,

G u id in g th e Growth o f R eading I n t e r e s t s . ( E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a rc h B u l l e t i n o f t h e B u reau o f R e f e r e n c e , R e s e a rc h and S t a t i s t i c s , No. 8 , B oard o f E d u c a tio n o f t h e C i ty o f New Y ork, May 1 9 % ) , 38 p p . H a r r i s , A l b e r t J . , How t o I n c r e a s e R eading A b i l i t y . New York: Longmans, G reen and Company, 1 9 % ! ?03 p p .

53

Hayward, W. G eorg e, and Ordway, Nancy M ., ’’V o c a b u la r ie s o f R e c e n tly P u b lis h e d P r e - r r i m e r s E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l J o u r n a l 3 7 :6 0 8 -6 1 7 , A p r i l 1937. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Guide f o r T e a c h e rs o f E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l s , Los A n g e le s: Los A n geles C i t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t P u b l i ­ c a t i o n s , No, 3 8 1 , 19^2. 157 PP* L ee, M urray J . and L ee, D o ris May, The C h ild and His C u rric u lu m . New York: D. A p le to n -C e n tu r y Company, 1 ^ 0 . 652 pp. M a y fa rth , F r a n c e s , E d i t o r , S t o r y t e l l i n g . C hildhood E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 ^ + 2 ^ 3 6 pp .

A sso c ia tio n f o r

S co re Card f o r E v a l u a t i n g T extbo ok s i n R e a d in g ; R eading R e a d i n e s s . C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e C u rric u lu m Commission J a n u a r y , 19*+5. S co re Card f o r E v a lu a tin g T ex tb o o k s i n R e a d in g : Grade One and Grade Two. C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e C u rric u lu m Commission J u ly , 19^4. S e l e c t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u p p le m e n ta ry and L i b r a r y Books i n C a l i f o r n i a C o u n t i e s . S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n No. 10, May 15, 193^- 32 p p. S to n e , C la re n c e R. ”A G raded V o c a b u la ry F or P r i marv R e a d in g . S t . L o u is : W e b ste r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1936. 61 pp. S u l l i v a n , D o ro th y H a z l e t t , ’’Books f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n S t o r y H o u r,” C h ild ho od E d u c a t i o n . 21:*+22, A p r i l , 19*+5« T h o rn d ik e , Edward L ee, The T e a c h e r !s Wordbook. B ureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs C o l le g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New Y ork, 1921. 13*+ pp. Use of R e a d e rs i n t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls . C u rric u lu m D i v i s i o n , Los A ngeles C i t y S c h o o ls , 19*+8-19*+99 E C -103. 18 pp. W ashburn, C a r l e t o n W. and M o rp h e tt, Mabel V o g e l, ’’Grade P l a c e ­ ment o f C h i l d r e n ’s Books” E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l J o u r n a l 3 8 : 3 5 5 - 6 \ J a n u a r y 1938. When a C h ild i s D e s t r u c t i v e . New Y ork: Committee on M en tal Hygiene o f th e S t a t e C h a r i t i e s A id C om m ittee, 19*+7. 10 p p . W h ip p le, Gertrude, P ro c e d u re s Used i n S e l e c t i n g S c h o o lb o o k s . C h icag o: U n i v e r s i t y o f C hicago P r e s s , 1936. 175 PP-

APPENDIX

TABLE V CALIFORNIA STATE CURRICULUM COMMISSION CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING TEXTBOOKS IN READING FOR _ _______________ GRADES ONE AND TWO (A dopted J u l y 19, 1 9 W W e ig h tin g I.

Amount o f m a t e r i a l A.

The s e r i e s must p r o v id e f o r a d e q u a te m a t e r i a l t o i n i t i a t e r e a d i n g and s h a l l i n c l u d e : 1.

2.

F i r s t - g r a d e books a.

A r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s book d e s ig n e d t o d e v e lo p v a r i o u s s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s w hich p r e p a r e c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r b e g in n in g r e a d i n g ex p e rien ce s.

b.

P re p rim e r d e s ig n e d t o e x te n d e x p e r i e n c e s by t h e u se o f b o th p i c t u r e s and t e x t w h ich g r a d u a l l y d e v e lo p s a f u n c t i o n a l v o c a b u la r y .

c.

P rim er t h a t u t i l i z e s and e x te n d s t h e b a s i c v o c a b u la r y of th e p r e p r im e r i n lo n g e r r e a d i n g u n i t s .

d.

A f i r s t r e a d e r t h a t u t i l i z e s and e x te n d s t h e b a s i c v o c a b u la r y of p r e p r im e r and p rim e r i n lo n g e r r e a d i n g u n i t s w i t h sim p le p l o t s made c l e a r th r o u g h th e use of p ic tu re s.

S e c o n d -g ra d e books a.

II.

A second r e a d e r t h a t u t i l i z e s and e x te n d s th e b a s i c v o c a b u la r y of th e p r e v io u s books i n t h e s e r i e s .

A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f m a t e r i a l t o th e grad e l e v e l A.

200

The c o n c e p ts t r e a t e d i n th e m a t e r i a l must be w i t h i n th e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f p u p i l s o f t h e g r a d e s f o r w hich t h e s e r i e s i s i n te n d e d

200

TABLE V (continued-} CALIFORNIA STATE CURRICULUM COMMISSION CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING TEXTBOOKS IN READING FOR GRADES ONE AND TWO —W e ig h tin g and must be d e s ig n e d t o e x te n d and e n r i c h p u p il e x p e rien ce s. B.

III.

IV .

1.

V o c a b u la ry s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and drawn from s c i e n t i f i c word l i s t s .

2.

S e n te n c e s t r u c t u r e sim p le and d i r e c t .

3.

P a r a g r a p h s s h o r t and w e l l o r g a n i z e d .

Type o f M a t e r i a l A.

The s e r i e s must p ro v id e a w ide v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s w h ich le n d th e m s e lv e s t o th e t e a c h i n g o f b e g in n in g r e a d i n g .

B.

The f o l l o w i n g s h a l l r e c e i v e a d e q u a te tre a tm e n t: 1.

V o c a b u la ry developm ent

2.

V o c a b u la ry e n ric h m e n t

^ Q

In te re st A,

V.

The r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y o f th e m a t e r i a l s must be a p p r o p r i a t e .

The m a t e r i a l s must r e p r e s e n t a wide v a r i e t y o f p u p i l s 1 i n t e r e s t s , be w r i t t e n i n an i n t e r e s t i n g m anner, and be a p p e a l i n g t o c h ild re n .

I l l u s t r a t i o n s — The i l l u s t r a t i o n s must c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s of th e c h i l d r e n . A.

Sim ple i n form

B.

P le a sin g in c o lo r

C.

I l l u s t r a t e th e p o i n t of t h e s t o r y

D.

S tim u la te d is c u s s io n

125

TABLE V (continued) CALIFORNIA STATE CURRICULUMCCMMISSION CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING TEXTBOOKS IN READING FOR GRADES ONE AND TWO

56

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- W e ig h tin g V I. O r g a n iz a tio n and s t y l e 7J A.

The m a t e r i a l must be w e l l w r i t t e n and must be o r g a n iz e d on th e b a s i s of a d e f i n i t e and a c c e p t a b l e plan*

V I I . Form at A.

V III.

JO

The f o llo w in g a s p e c t s o f fo rm a t and o t h e r m e c h a n ic a l f e a t u r e s must conform t o a c c e p ta b le sta n d a rd s: 1•

G e n e ra l a p p e a ra n c e

2.

Type

3*

M argins and a rra n g e m e n t o f m a t e r i a l on page

*+•

Cover d e s ig n

A ids f o r t e a c h e r s A.

The s e r i e s must be accom panied by a t e a c h e r * s manual*

50

5? TABLE VI TABUS OF READING EXPECTANCY 1946-194.7 NEW YORK CITY SCHOOLS I . Q. Grade Nora*

75

80

1.2

-22

-25

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7 1.8 1.9 2a 2.2

1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

ia 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 .0

1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1

1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2

1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.3

1.9 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

2.0 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

2.0 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.6

2.1 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.8

2.2 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.9

2.7 2.8 2.9 3a 3.2

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

2.2 2.3 202.5 2.6

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

2.4 2.5 2 .6 2.7 2.9

2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0

2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2

2.8 2.9 3.1 3.3 3*4

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.7

3.2 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8

3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 4 .0

3.5 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.2

3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2

2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4 .0

3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2

3.9 4 .1 4 .2 4.3 4 .4

4.1 4.2 4.3 4*4 4 .6

4.3 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.8

4 .4 4 .6 4.7 4 .9 5.0

4.5 4.7 4.9 5.0 5.3

4.8 4 .9 5.0 5.3 5.4

4.7 4.8 4.9

3.5 3.6 3.7

3.8 3.8 3.9

4 .0 4.1 4.2

4.2 4.3 4 .4

4.5 4 .6 4.7

4.7 4.8 4*9

5.0 5.1 5.2

5.2 5.3 5.4

5.4 5.5 5.6

5.6 5.8 5.9

5.9 6.0 6a

6.1 6.2 6.4

5.1 5.2 5.7 5.8 5.9

3.8 3.9 4.3 4.4 4.5

4 .0 4 .1 4*6 4.6 4.7

4.3 4a 4.8 4 .9 5.0

4 .6 4.7 5.1 5.2 5.3

4.8 4.9 5a 5.5 5.6

5.1 5.2 5.7 5.8 5.9

5.3 5.5 6.0 6.1 6.2

5.6 5.7 6.3 6a 6.5

5.9 6.0 6.6 6.7 6.8

6.1 6.2 6.8 7.0 7.1

6.4 6.5 7.1 7.3 7.4

6.6 6.8 7.4 7.5 7.7

6.1 6.2 6.7 6.8 6.9

4 .6 4.7 5.1 5.1 5.1

4 .9 5.0 5.4 5.5 5.5

5.2 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.9

5.5 5.6 6.0 6.1 6.2

5.8 5.9 6a 6.5 6*6

6.1 6.2 6.7 6.8 6.9

6.4 6.5 7.0 7.1 7.2

6.7 6.8 7a 7.5 7.6

7.0 7.1 7.7 7.8 7 .9

7.3 7.4 8.0 8.2 8.3

7.6 7.8 sa 8.5 8.6

7.9 8.1 8.7 8.8 9.0

7.1 7.2 7.7 7.8 7.9

5.3 5.4 5.8 5.9 5.9

5.7 5.8 6.2 6.2 6.3

6.0 6.1 6.5 6.6 6.7

6.3 6.4 6.9 7.0 7.1

6.7 6.8 7.3 7.4 7.5

7.1 7.2 7.7 7.8 7.9

7.5 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.3

7.8 7 .9 8.4 8.6 8.7

8.2 8.3 8.9 9.0 9.1

8.5 8.6 9.2 9.4 9.5

9.2 8.9 9.0 9.4 9.6 10.0 9.8 10.1 9.9 10.3

8.1 8.2 8.7 8.8

6.0 6.2 6.5 6.6

6.5 6.6 7 .0 7 .0

6.9 7.0 7.4 7.5

7.2 7.3 7.8 7 .9

7.7 7.8 8.3 sa

8.1 8.2 8.7 8.8

8.5 8.6 9.1 9.2

8.9 9.7 10.1 10.5 9.3 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 9.6 10.0 i o a 10.9 11.3 9.7 10.1 10.5 11.0 1 1 .4

TABLE VII GRADE PLACEMENT OF "BUNNY WHITETAIL" USING THE WINNETKA GRADE PLACEMENT CHART

Number o f d i f f e r e n t w ords - 2 2 7 x .00255* *5788? Number o f uncommon words

-

21x.O lf85= 1 .0 1 8 5 1 .5 9 7 3 5 / 1 .2 9 ^ 2 .8 9 1 3 5

Humber o f sim p le s e n t e n c e s - 50x.0307= 1 .5 3 5 0 Grade P lac em e n t

1 .3 5 6 3 5