A Study of Thumos in Early Greek Epic 9004092609, 9789004092600

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A Study of Thumos in Early Greek Epic
 9004092609, 9789004092600

Table of contents :
A STUDY OF THUMOS IN EARLY GREEK EPIC
CONTENTS
Acknowledgements
I. θυμός: A Statement of the Problem
II. A Summary of Previous Studies of θυμός
III. An Analysis of the Usage of θυμός in Early Greek Epic
IV. θυμός Examined Further: Connections with the Winds
Appendix
Bibliography
Index

Citation preview

A STUDY OF THUMOS IN EARLY GREEK EPIC

MNEMOSYNE BIBLIOTHECA CLASSICA BATAVA COLLEGERUNT A. D. LEEMAN · H. W. PLEKET · C. J. RUI.JGH BIBLIOTHECAE FASCICULOS EDENDOS CURAVIT C. J. RUIJGH, KLASSIEK SEMINARIUM, OUDE TURFMARKT 129, AMSTERDAM

SUPPLEMENTUM CENTESIMUM DECIMUM QUARTUM

CAROLINE P. CASWELL

A STUDY OF THUMOS IN EARLY GREEK EPIC

A STUDY OF THUMOS IN EARLY GREEK EPIC BY

CAROLINE P. CASWELL

E.J. BRILL LEIDEN • NEW YORK • K0BENHA VN • KOLN 1990

ISSN 0169-8958 ISBN 90 04 09260 9

© Copyright 1990 by E. J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or translated in any form, by print, photoprint, microfilm, microfiche or any other means without written permission from the publisher PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

To Jonathan, Christian and Adam.

CONTENTS Acknowledgements ... ........................... ........................ ..... .................... .......

IX

I. 0uµoc;: A Statement of the Problem .....................................................

1

II. A Summary of Previous Studies of 0uµ6c; ..........•................................

5

III. An Analysis of the Usage of 0uµ6c; in Early Greek Epic ..................

11

IV. 0uµ6c; Examined Further: Connections with the Winds ...................

51

··········~·········································································.. ················

65

Bibliography. ..................................................................................................

79

Index ..............................................................................................................

81

Appendix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Heartfelt thanks to all those who encouraged me to persist in this effort and gave me much good advice. In particular, I would like to thank Gregory Nagy, who never flinched at the audacity of my undertaking, and Carl Ruck, who was unfailingly kind and supportive. My thanks go also to Emily Hanawalt for her support and to Charles Beye for his trenchant criticism and support. This work is, I hope, a small contribution to a field of enormous questions, many of them no doubt unanswerable. Any errors of execution or reasoning are my responsibility alone.

CHAPTER ONE

GYMOL: A STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The most-used psychological term in Homeric diction has received little attention since Joachim Bohme published his work Die Seele und das /ch im Homerischen Epos in 1929. Both he and R. B. Onians in his Origins of European Thought undertook to discuss all the terms relating to early Greek psychology and physiology, Bohme concentrating on the psychology and Onians blending the two. These ambitious enterprises, hampered som~what by the wish to discover a logical system for the Homeric terminology of inner experience, allowed for too little attention to be given to variations in the use of 0uµ6c;. Therefore, although these works remain most valuable,1 the conclusions are insufficient for a clearer understanding of the· semantic range of 0uµ6c;. The problem is well-known. Generations of classicists and readers of Homer both in the original and in translation have been making do with approximations in meaning which range from "soul" to "anger", but it is clear that these words do not adequately express what was intended by the Greek. And yet the uses of 0uµ6c; are so varied, covering almost every important aspect of inner human experience, that it seems possible only to translate each occurrence as is fitting to that passage without attempting consistency. Under these circumstances, there is definitely a need for a thorough investigation of the semantic range of 0uµ6c;. In his book Nature and Culture in the Iliad, James M. Redfield has identified 0uµ6c; with the breath and has added a challenge thereto: 8uµ6 YE µEVOIVCll) TTOAEµf(EIV, CJAACl TE t.a0pr;i yuia ~apuvnai, ~OE KIXClVEI 6f1t1a TE 11:al r.1µ6c;, ~Aa~ETOI OE TE youvcd i6vTI. 8c; OE K cxv~p oi'vo10 11:oprnoaµEvoc; 11:al t5w5~c; cxv5paoi 5uoµEVEEOOI nav17µEp1oc; TTOAEµf(r;i, 0apoaHov vu oi ~Top tvl cpprnfv, ou5E Tl yuia nplv 11:aµVEI, nplv navTac; tpw~oai TTOAEµo10. 0

But bid the Achaians to take bread and wine beside the swift ships; for that is µEvoc; and strength. A man will not be able to fight against (an adversary) all day long until sunset without food; even if in his 0uµ6c; he is eager to fight, yet secretly his limbs grow heavy, and hunger and thirst catch up with him, and his knees are impeded as he moves. But the man who is sated with wine and food may fight the enemy all day, and his ~Top in his cppEvEc; is courageous, nor do his limbs grow weary before all have given ground. Here the purely physical is opposed to the 0uµ6c; which is eager to fight despite lack of food. And yet it can be said, according to this passage, that the 0uµ6c; of an unfed man is not strong enough to carry on the battle. In light of the preceding passage in this section, 0uµ6c; increases and decreases. Consider in this connection Hephaistos' story of how Zeus, in a rage, hurled him from Mt. Olympus, and when he landed "there was little 0uµ6c; in me." In sum, these passages show that 0uµ6c; decreases in direct relation to the conditions existing in the body. §12. Physiology, cont.: cpp~v/cppe:vEpEvac; aµq>EKCIAUljlEV,

nor ever at any time has l'poc; thus surrounded my q>pEvEc;,

At XIV 294 a similar line occurs: 60

See 35.

36

AN ANALYSIS OF THE USAGE OF 0YMrn: IN EARLY GREEK EPIC

we:; 5' 'i5Ev, we:; µ1v l'pwc:; TTUKIVOp£vac:; aµq>EKCIAUlflEV,

When he saw her, thus desire surrounded his close-knit q>prvEc:;,

But at XIV 315-316, 9uµ6c; is used: OU yap TTW TTOT£ µ' WOE 0Eac:; l'poc:; ou5E yuvaiKOi 0£ oi nupi xahov i~vaTE, 0£pµETE 5' u5wp, ~ OE TETCIPTrl u5wp Eq>opEI Kai nup CXV£Ka1E TTOAAOV UTTO Tp1no61 µEyCXA½)' ialVETO 5' u5wp.

In the passages where iafvw is used metaphorically, 9uµ6c; is generally the part of the person affected, cppEvEc; occurring twice as the location: XXIII

XXIV

xv H. Dem.

597 598 599

600

119 147 176

196 164 165 379 64 65 434 435 436

................... Toio OE 0uµoc:; iaveri we:; E'i' TE mpi OTOXUEOOIV Hpori Ar,1ou aA5~ot::ovToc:;, OTE q>p1ooouo1v apoupar we:; apa 001, MEVEAaE, µETa q>prni 0uµoc:; iaver,. 5wpa 5' 'Ax1AA~'f q>EpEµEv, TCI KE 0uµov i~vr;i.

....••.•.......... oi OE i56vTEprni 0uµoc:; iaver,. ..... ofo TE 0uµov CIEi 5µwrno1v ialvEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , , , E'( TTOTE 0~ OEU ~ ETTEi ~ l'py½) Kpa5lr,v Kai 0uµov '(r,va. we:; TOTE µEv np6nav ~µap 6µ6q>pova 0uµov l'xouoai TTOAAa µaA° CXAA~AWV Kpa5lr,v Kai 0uµov '(aivov aµq>ayana(6µEvar cxxtwv 5' anrnaUETO 0uµ6c:;.

The cppEvEc; are the location or the container of the 9uµ6c;, as was mentioned originally in connection with the return of consciousness after syncope in §5. Here, at xv 165, just as water must be warmed within a kind of vessel, 9uµ6c; is warmed in the cppEvEc;. Kpa6fri is used twice in the Hymn to Demeter, in combination with 9uµ6c;. In this context, 9uµ6c;, cppEvEc;, and

AN ANALYSIS OF THE USAGE OF 8YMO! IN EARLY GREEK EPIC

37

Kpcx61r, can be considered functional synonyms; but only 0uµ6c; and Kpa6fr, are directly affected by the action of the verb, whereas q,pEvE-oµai, occurs only twice in the Iliad with 0uµ6c; and once in the Hymn to Apollo. The occurrence with a psychological term is so low that we can only note the preference for 0uµ6c;. §46. Emotion: µEvo1vcxw: The verb µEvo1vcxw is used infrequently to express eagerness. The pertinent passages demonstrate that the terms 0uµ6c; and q,pEvEc; are used interchangeably, in the dative case. §47. Emotion: T1TuoKOµa1: The verb T1TuoKOµai "to take aim, be eager," occurs only with q,pEvET' ~&/; 1uyr;i, ......... .

And when their father was first angry in his 6uµ6c; at Obriareus and Kottos and Gyges ......... . The incidence of these unusual expressions is too insignificant to encourage drawing conclusions. §57. Emotion: grief: In the expression of grief, there is again a wide variety and 0uµ6c;/cpp~v/cppEvEc;IK~p/Kpa8iri/~Top function as synonyms. However, the passages themselves show a decided preference for 0uµ6c; as the subject or object of the verb, or as the location or indirect object of the emotion. ¢pEvEc;, which in any case is preferred as the location, occurs less than half as often as 0uµ6c;. The verbs and nouns included in this group are as follows: ClXEUW, axvuµm, ClKaxi(w, K~8w, 68upoµm, 611ocpupoµm, OTEvaxi(w, ouvExw, q>0iw, and then a11 yoc;, axoc;, K~8oc;, µE11E8riµa, nEv0oc;, and 68uvri. It will again be noticed in the passages cited in the appendix that repetition of formulae accounts for a larger number of passages from the Odyssey than from the Iliad. §58. Emotion: rnTEbw, 8aKvw: Epic diction depicts the 0uµ6c;, and less often the q>pEvEc;, as being bitten or devoured in difficult situations. For example, at VI 200-202, Bellerophon's isolation is described: OAA° OTE &~ KOi KEIVOc; an~xeno TTOOI 6EOIOIV, ~Toi 6 KOTT m&iov TO 'A;>..~rov oToc; 6.;>..aTo, OV 6uµov KOTE&wv, TTCXTOV ov6pwrrwv OIAEEIVWV"

But when indeed he was hated by all the gods, then he wandered alone over the Aleian plain, devouring his own 6uµ6c;, shunning the path of men; A similar expression occurs at ix 75 and x 143: KE1µE6° 6µou KOµCIT(i) TE KOi &;>..yrn1 6uµov EbOVTEc;.

We lay together eating our 6uµ6c; with weariness and cares. At V 493, the q>pEvEc; are affected: "Oc; cpaTO foprr17&wv, &a KE &/: cppEvoc; "EKTop1 µu6oc;·

Sarpedon spoke thus, and his speech bit the cppEvEc; of Hektor. And at viii 185, Euryalos' challenge to Odysseus is a biting one, 0uµo8aK~c; yap µu0oc;. §59. Emotion: Other unusual expressions for grief: There are four other metaphorical expressions used to describe grief, all suggesting a physical affect upon the 0uµ6c;/q>p~v/q>pEvEc;. At XVII 564 (and see also XX 425), the effect of Patroklos' death upon others is described thus: , ....... , , µaAO yap µE 60VWV EOEµCXOOOTO 6uµov .

. . . . . . . . . . for in dying he touched my 6uµ6c;.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE USAGE OF 8YMOl IN EARLY GREEK EPIC

41

At V 748, the same verbal root is used with a different prefix:66 "Hpri 6i: µaaT1y1 9owc; ETTEµafETo apa 'i'rrnouc;·

Hera lashed the horses swiftly with a whip; .....

It would seem, therefore, that behind the metaphorical expression in the first passage cited here, there is a literal sense implying again that the 0uµ6c; has a substantial nature. Intensity of emotion is also conveyed by the use of the verb aµuoow with 0uµ6c;. At XIX 284-285, aµuoow is used of the laceration of the breast in mourning: aµcp' ClUT½) xuµEV'7 Afy' EKWKUE, XEpai 6' aµuaaE OT~9EC1 T ~6' anaA~v 6E1p~v i6i: KClAO np6awna . 0

. . . . . pouring herself about him, she cried shrilly, and she tore her breast with her hands, and her soft neck and fair face.

At I 243-244, Akhilleus predicts to Agamemnon how he will feel if the leader of the Greeks should persist in his current course of action: ....•..... au 6' cv6081 9uµov aµu~rn; xwoµEvoc; 0 T ap10TOV 'Axmwv ou6i:v ETEIOClOTO, TOV CE avaKTa XOAOpEvEc;, he himself escaped from his father's house. Emotional restraint again is synonymous with restraint in action, restraint in the sense of acting in the way that is expected of one. The same equation between the physical and the emotional levels is made in the description of the coward at XIII 279-283: TOU µEv yap TE KOKOU TpETTETOI xpwi:; OAAU51i:; OAAf"l, ou5E oi aTpEµai:; ~0801 Epf"lTUET° EV cpprni 0uµ6i:;, OAACX µETOKAalEI Kai /;n' aµupr;i nU,ayoc; µEya KUµCITI Kwq>4>, 6oo6µEvov A1yEwv avEµwv ACll\f'rJPCX KEAEU8a CIUTWopµcxoµcx1, ETTOTpuvw, avwyw, ETTIOOEUW: There are in this context several verbs which do not occur frequently but which are particularly important for a thorough understanding of the associations of 8uµ6c;. The first of these, Eq>opµcxoµcx1, is used only with 8uµ6c;. 'EnoTpuvw occurs twice in parallel construction with avwyw and another three times by itself. 8uµ6c; and µEvoc; are functional synonyms in this group of passages, q>pEvEprnf occur eight times and once respectively to indicate the location of the activity. Generally, a speech, an important event, or a divine agent cause the 8uµ6c;/~Top/K~p to be aroused in these terms. In this group of passages, 8uµ6c; is decidely the dominant element. §80. Motivation: 6pfvw, cont.: The fact that the verb 6pfvw is not a simple equivalent for the arousing of emotion becomes clearer upon examining its use in descriptions of weather. The particular association is that with storm winds, as can be seen from the following passages, II 292-294, IX 4-7, XI 296-298, and vii 271-274: 7

AN ANALYSIS OF THE USAGE OF 0YMm IN EARLY GREEK EPIC

49

Kai yap Tlp~v during the state of consciousness. 8uµ6c; is affected by the life of the body; but its

50

AN ANALYSIS OF THE USAGE OF 6YMm: IN EARLY GREEK EPIC

substance is visualized by epic diction as being different from that of the cppe:vEc;. The place of the 0uµ6c; is in the cpp~v/cppe:vEc; during consciousness; and it is conceived of as flexible in its proper state, whereas the cppe:vEc; are properly "close-knit". 2. Intellect/cognition: the apparent synonymity among 0uµ6c;, v6oc;, and cpp~v/cppe:vEc; is rather an indissoluble connection between the two functions of thinking and feeling. Again in this context, the 0uµ6c; must be in the cppe:vEc; in order to function properly. It can also be surmised that the presence of 0uµ6c; in some passages of a primarily cognitive nature suggests an admixture in the intellectual function of feeling. 3. Emotion: 0u µ6c; plays the most important role in this context of any of its functional synonyms. Its functional synonyms ~TOp/K~p/Kpcx6fri occur infrequently, and cpp~v/cppe:vEc; usually appears as the location rather than the psychological element directly affected. The fact that 0uµ6c; is the constant factor in passages describing a large number of emotions suggests that it itself is the neutral bearer of emotion. 4. Inner debate/conflict: 0uµ6c;/cpp~v/cppe:vEc;/~TOp function as synonyms, with preference for the first three in parallel construction. Since these passages describe the inner conflict caused by the need to make a choice between two alternative courses of action, it seems reasonable to suppose that epic diction remains true to the inner complexity by including both intellectual and emotional factors. 5. Motivation: 0uµ6c;/µe:voc;/~Top/K~p/Kpcx6fri are functional synonyms, but 0uµ6c; is by far the most frequently used. Location, when mentioned, is usually Evi oT~0rnoi and rarely Evi cpprnf. This context is characterized by intensity, which is often amplified by the presence of a divine agent. This group of passages also demonstrates a very significant association with winds and storms on the part of verbs used with 0uµ6c; to describe inner motivation. §83. Summary, cont.: It has been seen, therefore, that 0uµ6c; plays a definite role in each context. Its function in the inner life of the individual is bound up with its relationship to the cpp~v/cppe:vEc;, not strictly as a synonym, for this relationship seems to be rather that of contained to container. When the 0uµ6c; is not contained in the cpp~v/cppe:vEc;, the intellectual function is impaired and the emotions become uncontrollable. Hence no doubt the later semantic developments of 0uµ6c; which came to be thought of as violent emotion per se. And no doubt also, this later development depends to a certain extent on the fact that inner turmoil when pictured in terms of the 0uµ6c; is compared to violent storms and winds on the water.

CHAPTER FOUR

8YM02 EXAMINED FURTHER: CONNECTIONS WITH THE WINDS

In the summary at the end of the last chapter, it was shown that 0uµ6c; in Homeric diction follows certain patterns which become apparent only after an examination of all the contexts in which it occurs. Though the analysis untangles much of the confusion surrounding this word, yet one more step needs to be taken; for underlying its importance in the inner psychology/ physiology of the human organism are other less obvious though closely related associations which have been touched on but not yet fully discussed. The etymology of 0uµ6c; is not fully solved, more because of the extent of its application than because of available evidence. Plato connected 0uµ6c; with the verb 0uw, a relationship which can be fully accepted in light of its associations with the winds. Furthermore, the relationship to fumus as well as the semantic divergence from it will be understandable.I The connection of the noun ljlUX~ to the verb ljlUXW having been found acceptable, there will be little difficulty in going one step further. For 0uµ6c; the missing link is to be found in the context of winds and storms, where 0uE1v describes the movement of storm winds, and to which winds the movement of 0uµ6c; within the individual in conflict is compared.2 In the examination of the characteristics exhibited by 0uµ6c; in the different contexts, it was found that epic diction endows the word with certain definite characteristics which are not applied to other psychic entities. First, and perhaps most noticeably, 0uµ6c; has a consistent relationship with -0101 6rn101v Epic; ni:oE ~E~p16ulll opyaAEf), 5ixa CE Oq>IV 1:vi q>pEOi 9uµoc; Of)TO" ouv 5' ETTEOOV µEya:>-c.p TTaTayc.p, ~PCXXE 5' n'.ipElll x9wv, oµq,i CE OCXATTIY~EV µEyac; oupavoc; ......... .

Strife fell among the other gods, extremely harsh, and their 9uµ6c; in the q,p~v blew asunder. They fell together with a great din, and the wide earth rang, and the great heaven trumpeted round about.

Although the emotional situation in the second passage differs from that in the first, the main point to be made from both is the same: as the winds are roused and blow violently in a storm, so does the 0uµ6c; move impetuously within the cpp~v/cppEvEc; of the person in conflict. Passages comparing the winds with 8uµ6c; do not occur in large numbers; but there are associations with words having to do with winds and storms which substantiate the evidence in these similes. At the end of Chapter III, it was seen that 0uµ6c; dominates the context of motivation, marked particularly by the verbs 6pfvw, cxvfriµ1; ETToTpuw and EmooEuoµai. These words also occur in the context of weather, a fact which probably accounts for the preference for 0uµ6c; over other psychological entities.s At XXIII 208-215, Akhilleus prays to Zephyr and Boreas for help in lighting Patroklos' funeral pyre: "o:>-A° 'Ax1AEU.aooE Be oi Cj)IAOV ~ yq8oouvq, ................................ .

272 326 556 557

.•.................l3cxo1>.Euc; B' tv Toio1 01wnq oK~mpov i'xwv toT~KEI tn' oyµou yq86ouvoc ~ -

yq86ouvoc

IV XVIII BouAOUCXI

XII

xv

174 596

''Enop1 yap oi 8uuoc tBouAETO KuBoc; 6pe~cx1.

66 H.Apol.

APPENDIX

532 533

.....••............... o'i' µEAE6wvac; Bou>-Eo8' apya>.fouc; TE rr6vouc; Kai OTEIVECJ 8uµw·

221 264

... , ........... 0 Tl

l,lEVOIVCIW

XIV XIX

ii

vi xv

111

~ 0601 l,lEVOIVQC, "YrrvE, TlrJ 6E OU TQUTa µETa ~ 0601 l,lEVOIVQC; Ei' mp yap 8uµw YE l,lEVOIVCl(j! TTOAEµi{EIV, .................. , Ei'8E oi auTc;i ZEuc; aya8ov TEAEOEIEV, 0 Tl .10Ta 6E 'iETO 8uµw TEioaa8a1 °EAEVrJ-iE1v 6i E 'iETo 8uµ6c·

256 243 826 234

OAAOI TE TpwEc; µiya KEV KExapoiaTO 8uµw, Tu6d6r, t.16µr,6Ec;, tµc;i KExap1aµEvE 8uµw,

480

..................cpipo1 6' ifvapa l3poT6EvTa KTEivac; 6~rov av6pa, ~ 6E q,piva µ~TrJP· c;i cpi>.01, ~TOI KA~poc; Eµ6c. xaipw 6E Kai auToc; 8uµw, ETTEi 6oKEW VIKrJOEµEv "hTopa 6iov. 6iE MEvoma6r,, Tc;, Eµc;i KEXCJf,?101,lEVE 8uµw, ..... 6 6E ~ ~01 ~ Kai H>.mTo viKr,v. ................. xaipE 6E 8uµw· ......................ou6E Tl cpr,µ1 TTOIOIV 6µwc; 8uµov KEXCJf,?QOEl,lEV, .......... naTpOKAE µ01 6E1A6 TTAEiOTOV KEXaf,?101,lEVE 8uµw, 'De; cpaT', 'A8r,vair, 6E f.lETEOOUTO, xaipE 6E 8uµw, 'De; cpaT' 'A8r,vair,, 6 6' Emi8ETo, ~ 6E 8uµw,

164

33 34 248 180

TITUOKOl,l!ll

XIII viii 'iEµa1

II

VIII XIII

..........................6 6E 'iETO 8uµw '16oµEv~a l3a>.Eiv· .....................

xaipw

I

V X VI VII XI XIII XIV

xv

XIX XXI XXII

xxiv

XXIV

iv vi viii

xiv xxii xxiii Erga

481 191 192 608 609

156 97 98 287 423 224 545 490 491 311 71

259. 260 23 78 79 394. 395 483 113 411 266 683

a>.>.' ~TOI KEiv6c; YE OE8Ev {wovToc; CIKOUWV ~ Tt.;, EV 8uµw •....................... 6wpov i:xwv trri v~a Kl()pa{Eo, NEOTOpi6r,, Tc;, Eµc;i KEX~P'.01,lEVE' 8Ub!_W, ...........................auTap Eµov ~ ~-. Emi ~6r, µ01 Kpa6ir, ThpaTTTo vho8a1 ~ oi 6µrJAIKlrJ µEv ErJV, KEXClf,?IOTO 6E 8uµw. .......... avaf, 6 EV 8uµw, ypr,u. xaipE Kai '(oxrn µr,6.6>.u{E' OU µiv TOI 8uµoc KEX!lf,?QOETCJI', ............ ..... OU yap Eµc;i 8uµw KEXCJf,?101,lEVOC EOTIV' 0

APPENDIX

ff.Dem. ff.fferm. ff.Dion.

458 520 55

aonaoiwc; 5' 'i'5ov CIAA~Aac;, KExapqvTo 5E 0uµw. navT' av Eµc;> 9uµw KExap1oµtva Kai cpiAa t'p601c;. 9apOEI, t!>iE KaTwpt Tc;> Eµc;> KExap1oµEVE 9uµw·

TipnwLTtpnoµa1

XIX

xx

XXI

iv viii xxi

Erga

Theog. ff.Apo/. ff.fferm. ff.Aphr. ff.Pan.

19 312 313 23 45 46 106 107 102 367 368 105 57 58 357 358 36 37 51 341 342 564 565 72

73 45

46

47

auTap ETTEi cpprniv ~01 TETapnETo 5ai5a:>.a AEuoowv, , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , , , , , . , , , , , .. ou5E Tl 9uµW TEPTTETO, .........•...•...................... ~µEvoc;, i'v9' opowv ~ TEplfloµai- .......... ~v5EKa 5' ~µaTa 9uµov hcpnETO 0To1 cpiAOICJIV EA9wv EK A~µvo10· ......................... .............................oi µEv i'nE1Ta moooio1 nponapo18E 9upawv 9uµov ETEpnov, OAAOTE µcv TE yo'-!) cppcva TEpnoµa1, .......... ........................auTap '05uooEuc; Tcpnn' EVi ~ ~CJIV CIKOUWV ~5E Kai OAAOI auTap EYW YEAOW Kai Tcpnoµa1 acppov1 9uµw. , . , ... , . , , . , , . , , . , , .. , .. , .. , .. c;, KEV OTTaVTE.wv YE Kai µcya 5w,;i, ~ Tc;> 5wp'-!) Kai TEpmTal ov KaTa 9uµ6v· TUV(l, Mouoawv apxwµE9a, Tai ti1i naTpi uµvEuoa1 TEPTTOUCJI µcya v6ov EVTO.a 5t ocp101v ~ ~ . .....•..........To µ1v ou TTOTE r:>.nno ~ TE9vaµEV, ..•.................... , .. , ......•...........µa:>.a 5i ocp101v EATTETO ~ auT TE KTEVEEIV EAaav T4'> Ep1auxEvac; Ynnouc;· .....................Emi ouKETI EATTETQ ~ t'yxoc; EXWV EV XE1pi µax~oECJ8a1 TpwECJCJIV. npiv µEv yap µ01 ~ EVi CJT~9ECJCJIV EWATTEI ~ 5~ nou µa:>.'~ EVi ~ . cpai61µ4'> 'AXIAAEU, ......................o OU TTOTE £A TTETO ~ OUTW yap TTOU µ' fil_rru' EVi ~ v~mov dvai. Ocppa µEV uµiv ~ EVI CJT~9ECJCJIV @fill

o

67

68 xxi

xxiii xxiv

APPENDIX 329 96

97 157

158

345 346 313 314

VOOT~OEIV '05uo~a TTOAU!)' apa 8uµoc tvi OT~8EOOIV twATTEI ........ VEup~v tvTaVUEIV 610YOTEUOEIV TE 016~pou. vuv µcv rn; Kai EATTET° tvi cppcoiv ~BE µcvo1v~ y~µa1 nrivc>.6rrc1av, ...................... OTTTTOTE 5~ p' '05uo~a tcATTETO OV KaTa 0uµov [UV~-6xou Taprrqµcva1 ~BE Kai UTTVOU, ....•............. 8uµoc 6' ETI vwYv EWATTEI µi(co8a1 (EVl(l ~6' ay>.aa 5wpa 616woE1V.

tet>.w

IX iii vii

xviii XVI XVII

XXI

XXIII XXIV

xi xiii xiv xxi xxiv Theog.

177 342 395 184 228 427 255 256

488 489

702 703 65 66

177 178 894 236 237 204 205 40

445 273 511 512

446

auTap tmi OTTEIOCJV T ETTIOV 0' ooov /j8EAE 8uµ6c. 0

.........................ETI 5' /j8EAE 0uµw Eio16fov Tpwwv Kai 'Axaiwv (j)UAO~lv,aiv~v. • .............•.......•....... El ou ye 8uµw 04> t8EAEIC •••.........•............. ....•.............•.......... /j0EAE 8uµoc TE1poµcvo1c; hapo101v aµuvcµcv, ........ ......................... TTEpi 6' q8EAE 8uµw tK.aivav. ..................TO BE ThapTOv q8EAE 8uµw a(a1 tmyvaµ1t1ac; 56pu µEtAIVOV AiaKi5ao, Ei OU YE 04> 8uµw t8EAOIC-. ............... .......................mpi 5' q8EAE 8uµw Moao8ai q,i>.ov ui6v ................... '"Oc; E-tc,v KaTaTcevriuiric:~6'7 yap TETEAEOTal µ01 q,i>.oc q8EAE 8uµ6c. OTTI KEV .c 8uµ6c. 01t'Eal, a'( K t8EAQ08a, TTCJTEp .ouoa,

a

0

0

we;

mi8w

IV VI VII IX

XII XIII XVI XXII vii ix

xiv xxiii H.Dem.

104 51 120 121 184 386 587 173 788 842 78 91 258 33 500

290 230 337 329 330

'"Oc; q,h' 'A8rivairi, Tei> BE ~ aq,pov1 mi8c1v· '"Oc; (j)ClTO, Tei> 6' apa 8uµov tvi OT~8EOOIV ETTE18c· '"Oc; EiTTWV rrapETTEIOEV a5EX.~ECI ~•• ...................... 1va µa na801 ~ ~ ...................... ETTEi na8ov filing ~ ..................... l:\ooOVTO yap a>.yEO 8uµr;i. ........... , , ... , .. , TOT QV TTa80V a>.yEa 9iiw, ~ Eµci> 8_uw KCli µr,TEpl, .•.••.....••••••.. ........................... a>.yEa 6' Eµnr,c:; tv 8_uw KCITOKEio8a1 taooµEV axvvµEvoi mp·

808

~

IX XIII XVI XVIII

XXII XXIV

V

ix X

xii

55 224 397 53 522 523 568 4 83 75 143 427

0

TW vuv µ~ µ01 µa>.>.ov EV ~ ~ 6pivr;ic:;, no>.>.a 6' 1:1 y' tv TTOVT.yEQI 8uµov tpcx8wv. KEtµE8' 6µou KClµCXT.~y~v,.,5oa &~ nae~_c; a>.yEa euµw. ............ .EµE & ou nwc; EOTIV anavTac; av0pwnouc; CIVEXE08a1, EXOVTCI mp aAyEa 0uµw. T~V &' aµa xapµa Kai a>.yoc EAE q,pEua, TW OE oi OOOE 6aKpuocp1 n>.~o0Ev, ..................... . ........................ ~ TE Kai OAAwc; KEiTai EV aAyE01 0uµoc, ETTEi cp1AOV WAEo' CIKOIT'7V. 0

KQOoc. µEAEOqµa, 6&uvq. nEv0oc

611

612 171 412 124

CwEI tvi OT~0EOOIV i'xwv a>.1aOTOV CIVIQV 0uµw Kai Kpa610, .................. . ....... Eml µ1v OXOC KpaOIQV Kai 0uµov '(KaVEV" .......... ,EXW f>' ~• 0Kp1Ta 0uµW. "EKTopa &' aivov axoc TTUKaOE ~ ~v1oxo10·

316

XIII XIV

xv

XVI XVII XIX XXIV xi

xviii xx

H.Dem.

147

86

475 208 52 83

125 91

208

274 347 348 285

286 40 90

XVIII

436

8

viii ix

430 149 12

xiv XXIII iv xx xxiii

197 62 650 56 342

ii

xix

I XVIII

13

343

79

117 118

362 73 88

XXII vii xi xvii xviii

89 242 218 219 195 470 324

CIA,>.et TO~: aivov a~oc K~a&1q~ Kai 0uµov IKCIVEI' Kai ocp1v gxQC KaTa 0uµov Ey1yvETo•••......• ................... Tpwac; &' ~i!>.>.aJ3E 0uµov. CIAACI To&' aivov axoc Kpa&1qv Kai 0uµov IKCIVEI, "EKTopa &'aivov axoc TTUKaOE ~ aµcpi µE>.aivac;· J3a0Eiav· ................•.••... i'xw &' ~· OKp1Ta 0uµw. ....... .tµoi &' axoc ~u YEVEOKETO KQpo81 µa>.>.ov, CIAACI Tof>' aivov OXOC K ~ Kai 0uµov IKCJVEI' ...•.•.•............. ocpp' ETI µa>.Aov, &u,, axoc Kpa&1qv AaEpTICJOEW 'O&uo~oc;.

we; cpaTo, TOV &' axoc 6(u KaTa q,pEva TUlyE

~u OE µ1v ~ axoc i'>.AaJ3Ev, ......•. , , , T~V &c:;:, axoc aivoTEpov Kai KUVTEpov YKETO 0Ul,JOV aµcpayanaCoµEvai· ~ &' anrnauETO ~ µ~ &~ µ01 TEAEwo1 0Eoi KaKa Kq6Ea ~ . TOOoa&' Evi q,pEoiv ~OIV CIVEOXETO ~ Auypa, a>.X ayE mip17oa1, od&aoov &l;>ano ~ ~ ooi &' Eµa ~ ~ EnETp.>.ov 6&upoµEvoc; OTEvaxi{w. OU Tl &1anp~(a1µ1 AEywv Eµa ~ a 8Ul,JOU, EUTE TOV unvoc; i!µapnTE, >.uwv 1,JEAE!iqµaTa 8uov, OTTTTOT av~p TOIOUTOqµaTa ~ . EUTE TOV unvoc; i!µapnTE, >.uwv l,JEAEOQl,JaTa 8uµou, TOUT apa OEUTaTOV dmv i'noc;, OTE oi y>.uKuc; unvoc; >.uo1µE>.~c; EnopouoE, >.uwv 1,JEAE&qµaTa 0uµou. vuv OE µ01 cmp~nouc; 6&uvac EµJ3a>.AETE ~ µ~ µ01 µa>.Aov 8uµov EVITTA~O(l.>.' ou&' EXE TTEv0oc Evi .' 0 YE µEi;>µqi;itlE KaTCX cpi;iiva Wµqi;11fo "Oµqi;iifoc µr,Tpi 6' tµ~ Bixa euµoc tvi ~ µEi;>µqi;iilEI, Kai KEV cµov KaTCX euµov aµuµova µEi;>µqi;iffoc cppaoaoµat, ............................. . TTOAACX 6c µEi;>µqi;i1lE KaTCX cpi;iiva Kai KaTCX euµ6v, a>.>.a Ti µ01 TOBE euµ6c tvi ~ i µEi;>µqi;iilEt, µEi;iµqi;i1lE 6' ETTma , ~6Kr,~E Bi o_i KaTa, euµov ..............•...61xa BE µEi;>µqi;11lEv, µEi;>µqi;11lE 6' ETTE1Ta KaTCX~ Kai KaTa euµov KUaaa1 Kai TTEp1cpvvat EOV TTaTEp', ............ . 0

rn

III. Passages Containing Verbs of Motivation, Chapter III, Sections 73--Sl avwyw

IV

VI

VII VIII

IX

263 439 444 74 189 322 101 102 702 703

......... ,W.6, xaXrnov !ii TE TTOVTOV i'8'7KEV. 0

0

0

0

8rnyovia

108

109 110 268 269 319 320 323

Ei'rraTE !)' we; TCI rrpwTa 8rni Kai yaia yivovTo Kai TTOTaµoi Kai TTOVTOc; amip1Toc; 0'1'6µaT1 8uiwv aOTpa TE AaµTTETOWVTa Kai oupavoc; Eupuc; UTTEp8EV' aY p' aviµwv rrvo1601 Kai oiwvoic; aµ' foovTa1 WKElr:J.yoc;,40 CIAK~. 18 li>.Xr,KTOc;,23,31,43,52,56,60 a>.uoow,41 aµcpi, 18 aµcp1KaAUTTTW, 18 liµrrvuTo, 13n, 22 aµuoow ova-, 13 n., 41 av8avw, 37 livcµoc;, 61 CIVEXW, 39 avir,µ1, 48, 53, 54 avwyw,48

CITTEIAEW, 41 OTTO T~c; 0uocwc; Kai {focwc; T~c; lf/UX~c;. 11 (arrolrrhoµa1, 15 apapiOKW, 19n OTl'l, 19, 60 licp81rn, 30n axcuw, 40 l:ixvuµai, 40 lixoc;, 19, 40 i3a>.>.oµa1, 19n 13iri, 37 i3>.cµcaivw, 41 i3ou>.~ 19, 29-30 i3ou>.oµa1, 37 yr,0iw 28, 37 yr,0oouvr,, 37 yr,06ouvoc;, 37 y1yvWOKW, 3, 22, 27-28 8ar{6µcvoc;, 45-46 8CJKVW 40, 41 8aµa{w 3, 43-44

INDEX

6,cr,47 61aAcyoµa1, 45, 47 61av61xa, 45 61appaiw, 58 !iixa,45 6,xea,45 61x8a61a, 46 601etw,46 t8£AW 38 Ei'&wAov, 14 tK 8uµou (j>IAEOV, 35 tK 8uµou (j>IAEWV, 35 EATToµa,, 38 Eµm601, 18, 19 Eµm6o