A study of the trends in music reading in the elementary schools

Citation preview

A STUDY OF THE TRENDS IN MUSIC READING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

A T h esis P resen ted to t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f M usic The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R eq u irem en ts f o r th e Degree M a s t e r o f M usic

by R uth E. D avis Ju n e 1942

UMI Number: EP61755

All rights reserved INFO RM ATIO N TO ALL USER S The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP 61755 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

This thesis , written by

RUTH ETHEL DAVIS under the direction of h..QFFaculty Com mittee, an d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been presented to and accepted by the Council on Graduate Study and Research in partial fulfill­ m en t of the r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r the d e g r e e of

MASTER OF MUSIC

TjC Z T -

D ean

Secretary D ate...

J.uae.*...134& ...........

F aculty C om m ittee

^

Chairman

D ed icated To My M o t h e r N e t t i e Lew is D av is

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h e r a p p r e c i a t i o n D r s . Max T . K r o n e , a n d P a y Adams f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l s u g g e s tio n s and c r i t i c i s m s .

to

Most d e e p l y and m ost d i r e c t l y t h e a u t h o r i s i n d e b t e d t o M iss M a r g u e r i t e Hood, C hairm an o f t h e C om m ittee on T h e s i s F o r m , S c h o o l o f M u s i c , f o r h e r m an y s u g g e s t i o n s and h e r c a r e f u l re a d in g o f th e m a n u s c rip t d u rin g i t s p rep aratio n fo r p u b licatio n .

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PACE

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED . . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ................................ P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y ..............................................

1 .

3

I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s t u d y .....................................

4

D efin itio n

o f t e r m s ...............................................

6

M u s i c r e a d i n g .........................................................

6

A ppreciation

...................................................................

A c t i v i t y a n d m e t h o d . ' ..................................... II.

1

7 8

METHODS OF PROCEDURE AND SCOPE OF STUDY. . . Q u estio n n aire

9

........................................................................

9

....................................................

12

A u t h o r i t i e s on m u s i c e d u c a t i o n .......... .................

12

M usic e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e

14

L ib rary in v e s tig a tio n

...............................

Y e a r b o o k s ........................................

14

M u s i c S e r i e s ......................................................... Scope and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c h a p t e r s t u d i e s III.

15 .

15

READING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.........................

18

G eneral e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y

..........................

18

..........................

18

....................................

19

PHILOSOPHIES REGARDING THE PLACE OF MUSIC

T r a d itio n a l school c u rricu lu m M od e rn s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m

CHAPTER

PAGE M u s i c p h i l o s o p h i e s ..............................

21

J o h n W. B e a t t i e ...................................................... M ursell-G lenn

21



21

C l e l l a L . P e r k i n s ................................................. B e a t r i c e Perham

. . . . .

P la c e o f m usic r e a d in g

. . .

22

. .

23

i n t h e new s c h o o l

..............................

Summary IV .

22

24

A STUDY OF THE OBJECTIVES OF MUSIC READING ADVOCATED BY PRESENT DAY MUSIC EDUCATORS M usic E d u c a to r s *

N a tio n a l C onference

B altim o re P u b lic Schools Alma M. N o r t o n

..

26

. . . .

27

. . . . . . . . . .

29

................................... .....

• • •

S u m m a r y ............................................................................ V.

30 31

A STUDY OF THE METHODS AND PROCEDURES USED IN THE TEACHING OF MUSIC READING E xperience v e rsu s s k i l l s

..........................

33

...............................................

33

M u s i c a c t i v i t i e s ........................................................... Grade l e v e l f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n o f n o t a t i o n P r im a r y G rade l e v e l

34 . .

36

....................................................

36

B a s i c t e x t b o o k s ...................................................... Q u estionnaire Survey re p o rt

.............................................. • .....................

. . . . . . . .

37 37 38

K a r l W. G e h r k e n s

........................................

39

S tate



39

of C alifo rn ia

..........................................

CHAPTER

PAGE J a m e s L . M u r s e l l ..............................................................

39

A r c h ib a ld D avison

40

.........................................................

In te rm e d ia te grade le v e l C om parative f i n d in g s

..........................................

40

....................................................

42

M ethods u s e d i n p r e s e n t i n g m u sic r e a d i n g

• .

42

I n d u c t i v e m e t h o d ..............................................................

42

D e d u c tiv e m ethod

42

M usic r e a d i n g

..........................................

standards fo r in te rm e d iate

g r a d e s ........................................................................................

44

D y k e m a - C u n d i f f ..............................

44

K a r l W. G e h r k e n s ..............................................................

45

F r a n c e s W r i g h t ..............................

46

C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n

.

46

M u s i c H o u r S e r i e s .........................................................

47

W orld o f M usic S e r i e s

47

..........................

S u m m a r y ............................................................. VI.

47

A DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN THE TEACHING OF MUSIC READING

...............................

49

F a c t o r o f i n t e r e s t ..............................................................

50

T h e t e a c h i n g o f m u s i c t h e o r y .....................................

52

A llo tm en t o f c l a s s

54

t i m e ..............................

U se o f s y l l a b l e s ................................................................... C r itic is m o f the

s y s t e m ..........................................

S u rv iv a l v alu e of s y lla b le s

..........................

55 56 59

viii CHAPTER

V II.-

PAGE W eak n esses o f t h e s o l - f a m ethod . . . . .

60

C o n c l u s i o n s ........................................................................

61

S u m m a r y ........................................................................................

62

SUMMARY OP T R E N D S ...................................................................

64

S p ecific

t r e n d s ...................................................................

G e n e r a l t r e n d s ........................................................ V I I I . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .....................................

64 65 66

C o n c l u s i o n s ...................................................

66

R ecom m endations

68

.............................

In teg ra tio n

....................................................

68

E v alu atio n

....................................................

70

New t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e

..........................................

72

B I B L I O G R A P H Y .............................................................................................

74

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on M u s i c H e a d i n g

...............................

10

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED A.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h t h e w r i t e r wa s c o n c e r n e d i n th is

s t u d y was t o d i s c o v e r t h e r e c e n t a t t i t u d e s a n d

p r a c t i c e s r e g a r d i n g t h e t e a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d in g in t h e elem entary sch o o l. tw en tieth cen tury , th e a b i l i t y

U n til th e second decade o f the p u b lic

s c h o o l m usic e d u c a to r s c o n s id e r e d

t o r e a d m usic a t

ta n t o b jectiv es

s i g h t one o f th e m ost im por­

in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l program .

m ethods a n d schem es were d e v i s e d w hereb y i t ta u g h t m ost e f f e c t i v e l y .

R ecen tly ,

Many

c o u ld be

t h e f a l l a c y o f an

a b s t r a c t t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y was r e a l i z e d a n d e d u c a t o r s d e t e r m i n e d t o f i n d some o t h e r m e a n s o f j u s t i f y i n g place

its

in th e e d u c a ti o n a l program . T his t r a n s i t i o n

fro m t h e o l d s c h o o l t o t h e new was

ev id en t d u rin g a d isc u ssio n m usic a t

o f t h e aim s o f p u b l i c

school

th e S u p e r v is o r s 1 N a tio n a l C onference in 1915, a t

w h i c h t i m e G e h r k e n s made t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s The s p e c i f i c m eans f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e s e aim s may v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s , b u t i t i s th e se n se o f t h i s body o f m usic s u p e r v i s o r s t h a t th e m ost d i r e c t a p p ro a c h i s a t p r e s e n t to be found in th e e x p r e s s iv e s in g in g by th e c h ild r e n

2 th e m s e lv e s o f a l a r g e amount o f t h e b e s t m usic a v a i la b l e , and i t i s t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t in t h i s s in g in g th e a r t s id e and t h e s c ie n c e s id e o f m usic n e e d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a n t a g o n i s t i c , a s some h a v e s e e m e d t o a s s u m e , b u t e a c h may c o n t r i ­ b u t e s o m e t h i n g t o t h e sum t o t a l o f m u s i c a l i n f l u e n c e t h a t wo a r e s e e k i n g t o e x e r t u p o n t h e c h ild . I t i s o u r b e l i e f a l s o , h o w e v e r , t h a t when t h e s c i e n c e s i d e i s e m p h a siz e d , i t w ould a lw a y s be a s a means t o an end a n d n e v e r i s an end i n itse lf. In o th e r w ords, t h a t a lth o u g h s k i l l in s ig h t re a d in g , k een ness in a n a ly s is in e a r t r a i n i n g , a n d some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e o r e t i c a l f a c t s may a l l b e d e s i r a b l e , y e t t h e s e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f m u s ic a l s tu d y m ust n e v e r be a llo w ed to i n t e r f e r e w ith th e l e g i t i m a t e w orking o u t o f th o s e e m o tio n a l an d a e s t h e t i c p h a s e s o f m usic w hich c o n s t i t u t e th e r e a l e s s e n c e o f t h e a r t ; in o t h e r w ords, t h a t i t i s th e a r t s i d e o f m usic w i t h i t s s o m e w h a t i n t a n g i b l e i n f l u e n c e w h i c h we a r e seek in g to c u l t i v a t e r a t h e r than th e sc ie n c e s id e w ith i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s along th e l i n e o f m e n t a l t r a i n i n g a n d i t s more e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d r e s u l t s .**As t i m e w e n t o n , m a r k e d c h a n g e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s i g h t r e a d i n g p ro g ram became e v i d e n t . d ifferen t

schools o f th o u g h t.

T h e r e w e r e tw o

The o n e b e l i e v e d t h a t

m usic r e a d i n g s h o u ld be e l i m i n a t e d e n t i r e l y , th at i t

was d e a d e n i n g t o

suggesting

the c h i l d ’ s i n t e r e s t .

The o t h e r

a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d an a p p r o a c h t o m u sic r e a d i n g m dthout d e s tro y in g the c h i l d ’ s love f o r sin g in g . A u t h o r i t i e s on m u s i c h a v e p u b l i s h e d b o o k s a n d a rticle s

on t h e s u b j e c t .

T e a c h e rs have d e v i s e d m ethods

-** K a r l W. G e h r k e n s , M u s i c S u p e r v i s o r ’ s N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s ( C h i c a g o : M usic S u p e r v i s o r s 1 N a tio n a l C onference, 1915), p. 75.

3 t h a t w i l l m ak e m u s i c r e a d i n g m o r e m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e a v e r a g e classro o m s tu d e n t. and th a t

is:

They a l l

s e e m t o a g r e e on o n e f a c t

The m u s i c p r o g r a m s h o u l d b e o n e t h a t w i l l

e n ric h the liv e s

o f e v ery s tu d e n t and c r e a t e w ith in

the

i n d i v i d u a l a b e t t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g o f m usic in g e n e r a l . If

t h i s be t r u e , m usic r e a d i n g i s

a c tiv ity but i t

is

o n l y one o f t h e many e x p e r i e n c e s w h ic h

p la y a v i t a l p a r t in D avison p u ts i t

an i m p o r t a n t

th e c h ild * s m u sica l developm ent.

s o w e l l when h e s a y s :

S ig h t re a d in g i s o f undoubted v a lu e I f i t i s th e means to an e n d , a n d i f i t o f f e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f g a i n i n g a f i r s t - h a n d know ledge o f good m u sic ; b u t a s an e d u c a ti o n a l o b j e c t i v e , i t r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e w o r s t e d u c a t i o n a l f a l l a c i e s B.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e o f t h i s (1)

s t u d y was t o :

d is c o v e r the e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo s o p h ie s re g a rd in g th e

s u b j e c t o f m usic r e a d i n g p h a se s o f m usic s tu d y ,

in i t s

rela tio n

to th e o th e r

(2) d e te r m in e th e e x t e n t to w hich

t h e s e p h i l o s o p h i e s h a v e b e en p u t I n t o p r a c t i c e b y means o f th e m ethods and p r o c e d u r e s a c t u a l l y b e in g u se d in th e te a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g ,

(3)

o f p resen t day procedures,

a n d ( 4 ) make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s

p

ascertain

th e w eaknesses

A r c h i b a l d T hom pson D a v i s o n , M u s i c E d u c a t i o n i n A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 2 6 ) , p p . 5 6 - 5 7 .

4 fo r th e ir co rrectio n . C. Too l i t t l e

IMPORTANCE OP THE STUDY h a s been done i n th e f i e l d

in m usic e d u c a ti o n .

L ike a l l

of research

o th e r s u b je c ts in th e

school

c u r r ic u lu m , m usic r e q u i r e s r e s e a r c h in o r d e r t h a t th e teach in g o f i t s success.

s u b j e c t m a t t e r may m e e t w i t h s a t i s f y i n g

M usic e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d b e g in

to r e a l i z e

the

im p o rtan c e o f such r e s e a r c h in o r d e r to d e te rm in e what i s b e in g done b y th e d i f f e r e n t co u n try .

Prom su c h a s t u d y ,

te a c h e rs th ro u g h o u t th e th e w eaknesses in our p u b lic

s c h o o l m u s i c t e a c h i n g may b e d e t e r m i n e d a n d a d j u s t m e n t s s u g g e s t e d w h e r e b y t h e s e w e a k n e s s e s may b e o v e r c o m e . B e a t t i e c o n te n d s t h a t m usic h a s n o t k e p t up w ith th e tim es as h a s th e o th e r s u b je c ts in m u s i c i a n s a r e d o i n g p r e t t y m u ch t h e f o r ty y ears ago.

th e c u rricu lu m ;

same t o d a y a s t h e y d i d

He s a y s ,

We h a v e b e t t e r a n d m o r e m a t e r i a l s , we h a v e r e f i n e d t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e , we know i n f i n i t e l y m o r e a b o u t v o i c e p r o d u c t i o n , we h a v e some new d e v i c e s , some n e w m a c h i n e r y . B u t, in th e elem en­ t a r y g r a d e s , we h a v e n o t m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r e d o u r i d e a s a s t o w h a t s h o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n o r how i t should be done. E i t h e r we a r e a c o m p l a c e n t l o t o f te a c h e rs s a t i s f i e d to fo llo w th e lin e o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , o r o ur e d u c a tio n a l o u tlo o k i s too n a rro w t o e n a b le us t o lo o k c r i t i c a l l y a t what we a r e d o i n g . 3

3 J o h n W. B e a t t i e , M u s i c S u p e r v i s o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b o o k , 1 9 3 1 ,^ ( C h i c a g o : M usic S u p e r v i s o r s * N a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e ), p . 351.

5 We m u s i c i a n s m u s t l e a r n

to a n a ly z e and e v a l u a t e .

E v a l u a t i o n m ust t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l aim s an d p ractices,

o l d an d new,

s o t h a t o u r o b j e c t i v e s may h a v e

m oro m o a n i n g a n d p r o c e d u r e s s e t u p w h e r e b y we may o b t a i n these o b je c tiv e s. A lthough th e need f o r r e s e a r c h i s p h a se s o f m usic e d u c a tio n ,

th is p articu lar

c o n f in e d to th e f i e l d o f m usic r e a d i n g . rec o g n ize s the

e v id e n t in a l l stu d y has been

Everyone

s h o r t com ings o f o u r m usic r e a d i n g p ro g ram .

A l m o s t a s m an y m e t h o d s a r e f o u n d f o r t e a c h i n g m u s i c r e a d i n g a s t h e r e a r e t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r v i s o r s who t e a c h it.

Y et no one e x p r e s s e s c o m p le te s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h

re g a rd s to the r e s u l t s . I n a r e c e n t s t u d y on t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f m u s i c t e a c h i n g m ad e b y H e l e n E . H a n s o n ,

s h e was a b l e t o c o n c l u d e

th at

th e c o n te n t o f t h e m usic

there

is

a w ide v a r i a t i o n

c u rricu lu m in d i f f e r e n t

in

s e c tio n s thro u g h o u t th e c o u n try ;

t h a t t o o many t e a c h e r s a r e u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l m e th o d s a n d are ig n o rin g th e fin d in g s of re s e a rc h ; c la rific a tio n is

and t h a t a

o f t h e aim s and p u r p o s e s o f m usic e d u c a ti o n

v i t a l to i t s

d ev elo p m en t.^

A p p a r e n t l y t o o many m u s i c t e a c h e r s a r e

still

4 H e l e n E . H a n s o n , ’’The C r i t i c i s m o f M u s i c T e a c h i n g Taken fro m P e r i o d i c a l s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 112*

clin g in g

t o t h e m e th o d s w h ic h w ere s e t up many y e a r s ago

f o r te a c h in g m usic. read ing .

T his i s

A l t h o u g h we r e a l i z e

esp ec ially tru e

th a t ap p reciatio n

t h e aim and o b j e c t i v e o f a l l o u r t e a c h i n g , adapt a p p re cia tio n

o f m usic should he

we a t t e m p t t o

to o u r m usic r e a d in g program r a t h e r

t h a n _fco a d a p t o u r m u s i c r e a d i n g p r o g r a m t o a p p r e c i a t i o n . D. M usic r e a d i n g . r e fe rre d to as

DEFINITION OF TERMS In th e p a s t ,

sig h t read in g.

m usic r e a d i n g h a s been

The t e r m s , m u s i c r e a d i n g

a n d s i g h t r e a d i n g h a v e two d i f f e r e n t m e a n in g s . I m p lie s t h a t t h e m usic i s r e a d a t f i r s t a c c o m p lis h su c h an o b j e c t i v e , be m astered ;

The l a t t e r

g lan ce.

m any s k i l l s

To

w ould h av e t o

a n d , a s s u c h , m u sic r e a d i n g w ould h av e no

p la c e in th e p r e s e n t d ay e d u c a ti o n a l program . In th is

s tu d y t h e w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s m usic r e a d i n g

t o mean a g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e p r i n t e d page in m usic and th e a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t it

in an i n t e l l i g e n t m anner. M ursell,

m usic r e a d i n g ,

in o u t lin in g says?

t h e aim s f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f

’’E s t a b l i s h t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d

m usic in th e o r d i n a r y se n se o f th e p h r a s e . ”5

In

itself,

® J a m e s L. M u r s e l l , ’’R e a d i n g M u s i c , ” T h i r t y - f i f t h Y earbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie t y f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n . P a r t I I (B loom ington, I l l i n o i s ; P u b lic S chool P u b lis h in g C o m p an y, 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 1 0 0 .

7 th is

su g g ests th a t the

s t a n d a r d s f o r m usic r e a d in g

n o t be such a s t o e x p e c t a c h i l d t o r e a d m usic a t I n v ie w o f t h e m ea n in g o f t h e s e two e x p r e s s i o n s , m usic r e a d i n g h a s been u se d th r o u g h o u t t h i s A p p reciatio n . in terp retatio n

should sig h t.

th e term

study.

Some t e a c h e r s h a v e a s u p e r f i c i a l

o f t h e m eaning o f t h e word a p p r e c i a t i o n .

They c o n s i d e r i t

a p a r t i c u l a r p h a se o f m usic t e a c h i n g

r a t h e r t h a n an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f a l l m u s ic t e a c h i n g . f i n d t e a c h e r s g r o p i n g a r o u n d i n one s p e c i f i c u su ally th at of lis te n in g ,

We

field ,

w ith the r e s u l t th a t v e ry l i t t l e

i s acco m p lish ed in th e grow th o f th e i n d i v i d u a l . The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s

o f t h e w o r d lla p p r e c i a -

t i o n n a re found in W ebster; (a) A f a i r and j u s t e x am in atio n . (b) A f u l l y s e n s i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d in g o f a l l good q u a l i t i e s t o be ju d g ed .

the

(c) A j u s t v a lu a tio n o r r e c o g n itio n o f w o rth . J u d g in g from t h e a b o v e , a c e r t a i n amount o f know ledge,

s o t h a t i n t e l l i g e n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may b e m a d e ,

is

one o f t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t r u e a p p r e c i a t i o n .

If

stu d en ts are

in th e tr u e

t o become r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t i v e

sense o f the

w o r d , t h e y s h o u l d know s o m e t h i n g

a b o u t th e f a c t o r s w hich c o n t r i b u t e of try in g

o f m usic

to te a ch a lis te n in g

t o good m u s ic .

lesso n ,

In stead

th e m usic t e a c h e r

sh o u ld u n d e rs ta n d and d e v e lo p th e b a s ic p r i n c i p l e s

of

8 i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e rs ta n d in g o f any s u b je c t m a tte r b ein g tau g h t. p a r t in

M usic r e a d i n g m o st c e r t a i n l y p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t such a program b u t i t

m ust be a p p r o a c h e d so t h a t

better* u n d e r s ta n d in g o f m usic i n g e n e r a l i s r e a l i z e d . A c t i v i t y and m ethod. t h e word a c t i v i t y i s im ply?

In p re s e n t day e d u c a tio n ,

fre q u e n tly heard.

L e a r n in g i s an a c t i v e

take p lace

th in g and t h i s

thro u g h a c t i v i t i e s .

t a l k ab o u t and p la n m ethods,

J u s t what d o es i t l e a r n i n g may

E d u c a to rs and te a c h e rs

yet th e y o v erlo o k the

f ic a n c e o f th e c h i l d grow th th ro u g h e x p e r ie n c e s . a m ethod i s o b jec tiv e ,

sig n i­ W hereas,

t h e t e a c h e r * s p r o c e d u r e u s e d i n a t t a i n i n g an an a c t i v i t y i s

th e c h ild * s

a c c o m p lish in g th e g o a l s e t up in t h i s e f f e c t i v e m ethod r e s u l t s U n t i l such tim e a s betw een t h e s e tw o,

e x p erien c e in o b jec tiv e .

An

in p u rp o sefu l a c t i v i t i e s . te a c h e rs a re a b le

to draw a l i n e

o u r o b j e c t i v e s w i l l n e v e r be r e a c h e d .

U n im a g in a tiv e t e a c h e r s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y p r o j e c t i n g m ethods on t h e i r c h i l d r e n

in t h e i r teach in g of the

su b ject m atter

and n o t c r e a t i n g e x p e rie n c e s th ro u g h p u rp o s e fu l a c t i v i t i e s . A good t e a c h e r i s a m a s te r o f a l l m ethods, n o t m a s te re d by a m ethod. E d u c a t o r s w o u l d b e m uch m o r e s u c c e s s f u l i f w ould d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s

th ey th at w ill

p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s i n w o rk in g to w a rd an o b j e c t i v e r a t h e r th a n m a s t e r i n g a m ethod f o r i t s

own s a k e .

CHAPTER II METHODS OP PROCEDURE AND SCOPE OP STUDY T h i s s t u d y was c o m p i l e d b y m eans o f a l i b r a r y in v estig atio n g atio n

and a q u e s tio n n a ir e .

The l i b r a r y i n v e s t i ­

in clu d ed re s e a rc h o f l i t e r a t u r e

in th e f i e l d

m usic e d u c a tio n t h a t p e r t a i n e d to m usic r e a d i n g . s u c h r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l on t h e s p e c i f i c h a s been c o n fin e d to p u b l i c a t i o n s e d i t e d A. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,

of

A ll

study o f tre n d s s in c e 1930.

QUESTIONNAIRE a s a m p l e o f w h i c h i s g i v e n on

t h e p r e c e e d i n g p a g e , was u s e d i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r g e n e r a l l y what th e p r a c t i c e s a r e re a d in g a t th e p re s e n t tim e.

in th e t e a c h i n g o f m usic

A cross sectio n

of repre­

s e n t a t i v e p e o p le t e a c h i n g m usic th r o u g h o u t th e c o u n tr y was c h o s e n . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o n e o r two c a s e s ,

th e

in fo r­

m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d b y a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . A t t h e M usic E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n M ilw aukee, W is c o n s in , to in terv iew reactio n s

in M arch,

th e people l i s t e d

1942,

t h e w r i t e r was a b l e

below and g e t t h e i r p e r s o n a l

to t h e m usic r e a d i n g program a s w e ll a s a

s u m m ary o f t h e t r e n d s i n t h e i r

in d iv id u a l school s itu a -

10

TABLE I QUESTIONNAIRE ON MUSIC READING 1*

When i s

fo rm a l m usic r e a d in g f i r s t ________

your school? 2*

Yirithin t h e l a s t

p re se n te d in

____ _______ _________ _______

te n y e a r s , h a s t h e r e been a n y change

o f t h e g r a d e l e v e l a t w h i c h f o r m a l m u s i c r e a d i n g was i n t r o d u c e d ? _________________' 5,

If

so,

_______

i n w h i c h g r a d e was i t

presen ted b efo re th is

c h a n g e ? __ 4.

5.

_________

U n d e r lin e t h e m ethod u s e d i n

te a c h in g m usic re a d in g :

so l-fa

sy lla b le s, n e u tra l

sy llab le,

n o tes,

o r ______________________________________ ________________

Has t h e r e b e e n a n y c h a n g e i n u s e d ? _____

n u m b ers, names o f

t h e m ethod o f p r o c e d u r e _ _ _ ______ _

_________

6.

Why w e r e t h e a b o v e c h a n g e s made? __________________________

7•

Do y o u p r e p a r e f o r m u s i c r e a d i n g b y t h e p h r a s e - w i s e approach thro u g h th e sta ff d rills?

8*

In d ica te

songs o r by i s o l a t e d n o te and

_____ __________________________________________

t h e s t e p s u s e d i n your m ethod o f t e a c h i n g

a n e w m u s i c r e a d i n g s o n g _____________ ___________________

9.

How m a n y m i n u t e s d a i l y a r e a l l o t t e d

t o m usic in

the

u p p e r g r a d e s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ? ______ ________

11

TABLE I 10.

( contin u ed )

A p p r o x i m a t e l y how m a n y o f t h e s e m i n u t e s a r e g i v e n o v e r t o m u s i c r e a d i n g ? ______________________________________

11.

Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s

o f t h e m usic

r e a d i n g b e in g done i n your s c h o o ls a t t i m e ? __ 12.

G ive r e a s o n s :

_____________ __

th e p re s e n t

12

tio n s.

A q u estio n n aire of th is n a tu re is

stu d y in g tre n d s in

th at

u s e f u l in

one i s a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e what i s

a c t u a l l y b e in g done in th e f i e l d o f m usic r e a d i n g . The f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e r e s p o n d e d i n Name

th is

P o sitio n

surveys; P lace

H e l e n B o s w e l l ------------- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c L o u i s v i l l e , K y. L a u r a B r y a n t — --------- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c I t h a c a , N. Y. S a r a h C r a m p t o n ----------- S p e c i a l M u s i c T e a c h e r * ------------------- D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n L a u r a D e e -------------------- S u p ' v ' r . R u r a l C o n s fd ft e d S c h o o ls M o r r i s C o u n t y , N. J . M a r y Dona v a n - ------------- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c - — G r e e n w i c h , Conn* C h e s t e r D u n c a n - --------- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c - — P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n J a c o b Evan s o n — D ir e c to r o f Vocal M u s i c - --------------------- P i t t s b u r g h , P e n n a . L i l l i a n P o x ----------------- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c — P a s a d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a . J o h n C . K e n d a l l - ------- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c - - - D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o G lenn G i l d e r s l e e v e — D i r e c t o r o f M u s ic -— S t a t e o f D elaw are M a b e l l e G l e n n - ---------—D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c ----K a n s a s C i t y , Mo. M a r g a r e t G o h e e n - ------- T e a c h e r o f M u s i c - ----T a c o m a , W a s h i n g t o n E a s t e r n W ashington E v e l y n G o o d s e l l --------- D e p t , o f M u s i c C ol. o f E d u catio n G e o r g e L. L i n d s a y ----- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c - — P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n a . A l t a A. P o l l e y - --------- S u p e r v i s o r o f E le m e n ta ry M usic-L os A n g e le s , C a l i f . L u th e r R ichm ond- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c ----S t a t e o f V i r g i n i a E . J . S c h u l t z ------------- Cha i r m a n , Mus i c D e p a r t m e n t ------------U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma G r a c e V. W i l s o n D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c ----W i c h i t a , K a n s a s B.

LIBRARY INVESTIGATION

A u t h o r i t i e s on m u s i c e d u c a t i o n .

The p h i l o s o p h i e s ,

a i m s , a n d p r o c e d u r e s recom m ended b y many o t h e r o u t s t a n d ­ in g m usic e d u c a t o r s w ere d i s c o v e r e d b y th e s u b j e c t m a t t e r d is c u s s e d in t h e i r books and a r t i c l e s . d iscu ssio n s,

Through th e s e

t h e t r e n d s i n m u sic r e a d i n g were p a r t l y

15 d eterm in ed .

The f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s

lists Name

P o sitio n

J o h n W. S e a t t l e ----------------H e a d o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u s i c a t N orthw estern U n iv e rs ity , E v an sto n , I l l i n o i s E d w a r d B . B i r g e ---------------- F o r m e r l y P r o f e s s o r o f p u b l i c s c h o o l m usic a t I n d ia n a U n i v e r s i t y . One o f t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e M usic H our S e r i e s and chairm an o f th e c o m m itte e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e M .E.N .C. to o u t li n e a co u rse o f s tu d y in m usic f o r th e I n t e r m e d i a t e G ra d e s . He a l s o s e r v e d a s c h a i r m a n o f t h e c o m m itte e i n 1928 w h ic h d e t e r ­ m ined t h e S t a n d a r d s o f A t t a i n ­ m ents in S ig h t S in g in g a t th e end o f t h e S i x t h g r a d e . H a n n a M. C u n d i f f -------------- F o r m e r l y D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c a t M arsh all C o lleg e, S ta te T each er’ s C o l l a g e , H u n t i n g t o n , W. V a . P e t e r W. D y kem a ----------------P r o f e s s o r o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , T e a c h e r ’ s C o l l e g e , C olum bia U n iv ersity . E d ito r of th e S inging S c h o o l M usic S e r i e s . K a r l W i l s o n G e h r k e n s ------ C h a i r m a n o f t h e r e c e n t c o m m i t t e e a p p o i n t e d by t h e M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a tio n a l C onference to o u t l i n e a C o u rse o f S t u d y i n M usic f o r G r a d e s O n e , Two, a n d T h r e e . Head o f th e D epartm ent o f P u b lic S c h o o l M usic a t O b e r l i n C o l l e g e , O b e r li n , O hio. M ab elle G lenn D i r e c t o r o f M usic in P u b l i c S c h o o l s a t Kansas C ity , M is s o u ri. One o f t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e W orld o f M usic S e r i e s . J a m e s L. M u r s e l l • — C h airm an o f t h e M usic E d u c a t i o n D epartm ent o f T e a c h e r’ s C o lle g e , Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y . Alma M. N o r t o n -------------------F o r m e r l y P r o f e s s o r o f M u s i c E d u c a ­ tio n a t A rizona S ta te T ea c h e r’ s C o l l e g e , Tempe, A r i z o n a .

14 Nam©

P o sitio n

B e a t r i c e P e r h a m ----------------- F o r m e r l y H e a d o f t h e M u s i c D e p a r t ­ m e n t , The U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l , O hio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . In stru ct o r o f M usic a t N o r t h w e s t e r n U n iv e rs ity , U n iv e rs ity o f Idaho, and W ashington S t a t e T e a c h e r ’ s C o lleg e, E lle n sb u rg . C le lla L ester P erk in s F o rm e rly head o f th e D epartm ent o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M usic a t S t a t e Norm al S c h o o l, L e w is to n , I d a h o , and t e a c h e r o f m usic in C hicago H igh S c h o o ls . A n na E . P i e r c e * P r o f e s s o r o f M usic a t U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a , Iowa C i t y . L i l i a B e l l e P i t t s ----------- - A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f M u s i c E ducation a t T e a c h e r’ s C o lle g e , Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y . H e rm a n F . S m i t h --------------- D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , M ilw aukee, W is c o n s in P u b l i c S chools. A dvisory E d ito r o f th e S i n g i n g S c h o o l M usic S e r i e s . F ran ces W right A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f M usic a t U n iv ersity of C a lifo rn ia a t Los A n g e l e s . M usic e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . w ere recommended a s a id s to

tex ts

in

The b o o k s e x am in e d

teach er tra in in g

the av erag e classro o m te a c h e r,

sch o o ls,

as

and as re fe re n c e

m a t e r i a l f o r th e t e a c h e r s o r s u p e r v is o r s and s tu d e n ts o f m usic.

L itera tu re

p u b lish ed fo r th is

c e r t a i n l y c o n tro l the tre n d s

p u r p o s e would m ost

in m usic e d u c a tio n an d s h o u ld

be in c lu d e d in a stu d y o f t h i s n a tu r e . Y earbooks.

A rticles

found in

t h e M usic E d u c a t o r s ’

N a tio n a l C onference Y earbooks in c lu d e th e d is c u s s io n s and s p e e c h e s made a t

the conference co n v en tio n s.

U n til

15 recen tly ,

t h e C o n f e r e n c e m e t u n d e r t h e name o f t h e M u s i c

S upervisors*

N a t io n a l C o n feren ce and d u r in g t h a t tim e ,

t h e Y e a r b o o k wa s c a l l e d

t h e M usic S u p e r v i s o r * s N a t i o n a l

C onference Y earbook. The N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n a p p o i n t e d a c o m m i t t e e i n 1 9 3 4 t o m ake a s t u d y o f m u s i c ed u catio n .

As a r e s u l t o f t h i s

in v estig atio n ,

T h i r t y - f i f t h Y earbook, p u b lis h e d by t h i s

Part I I

so ciety ,

of is

c o n f i n e d t o M usic E d u c a t i o n . These d i s c u s s i o n s re v e a le d ' th e a t t i t u d e s o f c l a s s ­ r o o m t e a c h e r s a s w e l l a s m an y o t h e r s a n d w e r e v e r y v a l u ­ a b l e in d e te r m in in g t h e t r e n d s o f m usic r e a d in g in

the

elem en tary sc h o o ls. M usic S e r i e s .

The M u s i c S e r i e s p u b l i s h e d s i n c e

1930 w ere i n c l u d e d i n t h i s

in v estig atio n .

o u r m usic program s u s e th e s e books a s b a s i c

S in c e m ost o f tex tbook

m a t e r i a l f o r t h e m u sic r e a d i n g p r o g r a m , t h e w r i t e r deemed it

n e c e s s a r y t o exam ine t h e m eth o d s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e s e

series.

M ethods a r e i m p o r t a n t s i n c e ,

ap p lica tio n , C.

through t h e i r

th e y d e te rm in e t h e t r e n d s in m usic e d u c a ti o n .

SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTER STUDIES

T h is s t u d y h a s n o t a t t e m p t e d t o o u t l i n e a m ethod f o r te a c h i n g m usic r e a d in g in

the e lem en tary school b u t

16 r a t h e r I t h a s a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r what o b j e c t i v e s a r e b e in g a d v o c a te d by p r e s e n t d a y e d u c a to r s and t o d e te rm in e w hether o r n o t th e s e o b je c tiv e s a re b ein g a t t a i n e d

thro u g h

th e su g g e ste d p ro ce d u res found in p r e s e n t day te a c h in g

kn a n a l y s i s o f t h e t r e n d s a n d t h e

•o f m usic r e a d i n g ,

r e l a t i o n s h i p o f th e m usic r e a d i n g program to m u s ic a l o b j e c t i v e s h a s b een made.

By m e a n s o f t h i s

an aly sis,

some o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e m u s i c r e a d i n g p r o g r a m h a v e been d is c o v e re d .

In o rd e r to accom plish th e s e aim s,

the

s tu d y h a s been o r g a n iz e d a s f o l lo w s 5 C h a p te r T h ree m akes a s t u d y o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s concerning p u b lic

sc h o o l m usic te a c h in g a s i n d i c a t e d by

th e m usic e d u c a to rs in t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s to d a t e . C h a p te r P o u r makes a s t u d y o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s a d v o c a te d by p r e s e n t d ay m usic e d u c a to r s in o f m usic r e a d i n g . to d eterm in e

the te a c h in g

T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made i n o r d e r

th e p u rp o se o f m usic r e a d i n g i n

the

e d u c a tio n a l program . C hapter F ive u sed in

sum m arizes th e m ethods and p r o c e d u r e s

th e te a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g .

H erein i s d i s ­

co v ered th e a c t u a l accom plishm ent in th e te a c h in g o f th e su b ject as

in d ic a te d in

th e q u e s t io n n a ir e and l i b r a r y

in v estig atio n . C hapter S ix d e te rm in e s th e w eaknesses o f th e m usic r e a d in g program a s e v id e n c e d in th e p r e s e n t a t i o n

17 o f th e m a t e r ia ls in d ic a te d in C hapter F iv e . C h a p te r Seven sum m arizes th e t r e n d s

in

t h e m usic

r e a d in g e d u c a ti o n a l program . G hapter E ig h t s t r e s s e s

the need fo r r e v is io n

in

p r o c e d u r e s and m ethods i n th e t e a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d in g in o rd e r t h a t i t s

r i g h tf u l p lace in

p r o g r a m m ay b e r e a l i z e d .

t h e m odern e d u c a t i o n a l

CHAPTER III PHILOSOPHIES REGARDING THE PLACE OP MUSIC READING IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS A.

GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY

E d u ca tio n i s grow th. still;

C iv iliza tio n

n e i t h e r can e d u c a ti o n .

So t h a t e d u c a t i o n c a n k e e p

up w i t h s o c i a l an d econom ic c h a n g e s , ed u cato rs

to

does n o t stan d

it

is necessary for

exam ine t h e i r a im s and o b j e c t i v e s fro m tim e

to tim e and e v a lu a te

them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e

changes.

M e a n i n g f u l o b j e c t i v e s o f some t i m e p a s t m ay h a v e n o p l a c e in

t h e new p r o g r a m .

n ecessitate

A c ritic a l

an aly sis

a change o f p la n o r s o l u t i o n ;

should n o t h e s i t a t e

t o make t h e s e

f u t u r e n e e d s demand th e m .

and e d u c a to rs

changes a s p r e s e n t and

In o th e r w ords,

be o rg a n iz e d b u t n o t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d sense.

o f o b j e c t i v e s m ay

sc h o o ls should

i n a 11w o o d e n w

B e f o r e e x a m in in g t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f modern m u sic

ed u cato rs,

l e t u s exam ine t h e t r e n d s

T ra d itio n a l school cu rricu lu m .

i n m odern e d u c a t i o n . T he t r a d i t i o n a l

s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was com posed o f a l a r g e n u m b er o f s u b j e c t s t a u g h t more o r l e s s Em phasis in t h i s se lec te d ,

in d ep en d en tly of each o th e r.

t y p e o f s c h o o l wa s on s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,

o rganized,

and g ra d e d by a d u l t s

fo r ch ild ren

to

19 learn*

In tills

and f a c t s .

se lec tio n ,

P rim arily ,

le a rn in g w ith in

e m p h a s is was p l a c e d upon s k i l l s

the

c u rric u lu m c o n s i s t e d o f book

th e c la ss ro o m and sc h o o l b u i l d i n g s .

Modern s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m .

The m o d e r n s c h o o l

s t r e s s e s grow th and s u g g e s ts th e i n t e g r a t i o n m a tte r in a tta in in g

th is

o b jectiv e.

of su b ject

In p la c e

ty p ed s u b je c t m a tte r o u tlin e d by a d u lts ,

of stereo ­

experiences of

t h e c h i l d w hich a i d in f o s t e r i n g h i s g row th a r e c o n s id e r e d o f p r i m a r y i m p o r ta n c e b y t h e modern e d u c a t o r s . ly ,

th e developm ent o f s k i l l s

f o r t h e i r own s a k e i s

c o n s id e re d seco n d ary w hile a c t i v i t i e s ing tak e th e p la c e o f th e s e M ursell says t h a t , a bundle o f h a b i t s . o f form ing h a b i t s ; rig h t h a b its.

C onsequent­

w h ic h h a v e more mean­

sk ills.

y e a r s a g o , man was c o n s i d e r e d

E d u c a t i o n * s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y wa s t h a t g o o d t e a c h i n g was t h e f o r m a t i o n

o f the

T o d a y , man i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a c r e a t u r e o f

h a b i t s b u t r a t h e r a c r e a t u r e o f im pulse and w i l l .

H is

a c t i o n s a r e d e te rm in e d by g o a ls o r p u rp o s e s .

H is b e h a v io r

d ep en d s upon f e e l i n g and e m o tio n .

tendency,

im pulsion,

"A ttitu d e,

d e s i r e a r e v a s t l y more i m p o r t a n t th a n im m e d ia te

a c h i e vemen t . M

1 J a m e s L. M u r s e l l , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b o o k ( C h i c a g o : M usic E d u cato r's* N a t i o n a l C o n fe re n ce , 1936), p . 39.

20 T h i s new s c h o o l h a s o f t e n b e e n c e n s u r e d , b y t h e o l d sch o o l.

The l a t t e r

in stitu tio n

w hich a llo w s th e

th o y p le a s e , c ritic ism

the

it

is not a f a ir

is

ch ild ,

ch ild ren

when t h e y p l e a s e ,

Fo rm erly, to d ay ,

i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s n ew e d u c a t i o n a s a n t o do e x a c t l y a s

a n d how t h e y p l e a s e .

T his

one.

t h e e m p h a s i s was on t h e

on t h e c h i l d .

su b ject m atter;

More c o n s i d e r a t i o n

is

given

e n a b l in g him t o m eet th e w ants and n e e d s in

d a i l y l i v i n g more i n t e l l i g e n t l y .

In

so d o i n g ,

independent

s u b j e c t s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r can no l o n g e r e x i s t a s t h e y have in

the p a s t .

day ed u catio n i s ch ild a t h is

A dm itting t h a t th e

em phasis in p r e s e n t

p l a c e d on t h e i n t e r e s t s

and n eed s o f th e

p re s e n t l e v e l o f developm ent,

t h e new s c h o o l

c o n s id e rs th e needs o f th e in d iv id u a l c h ild and s o c ie ty , and a tte m p ts to b h i l d a c u rric u lu m around th e s e n e e d s. T h i s new e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d d o e s n o t s u g g e s t t h a t o b je c tiv e s or purposes a re n o t im p o rtan t. th e r e s u l ts

On t h e c o n t r a r y ,

o f su ch a program w i l l depend upon th e

t e a c h e r 1s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o b je c tiv e s. m aster of a l l

The t e a c h e r i n th e

sk ills

of th ese

such a s i t u a t i o n m ust be a

and,

in

t u r n , m ust be a b le to

c o n t r o l e x p e r ie n c e s w hich w i l l

r e s u l t in a tt a i n i n g h e r

o b jec tiv e s.

th e f a ilu r e

in

In e a r l i e r y e a rs,

and w eaknesses

t h e p r o g r a m o f t h e n e w s c h o o l were d u e m o s t l y t o

t e a c h e r !s

i n a b i l i t y t o do t h i s .

th e

21 B. W ith t h i s

MUSIC PHILOSOPHIES

e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e new s c h o o l i n m in d ,

o n e m ay now i n t e r p r e t

th e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e m usic

e d u c a t o r s w i t h more u n d e r s t a n d i n g

so t h a t m u s i c s

t h i s new c u r r i c u l u m m ay b e d e t e r m i n e d .

place

in

The w r i t e r c o n ­

t e n d s t h a t one m u st h a v e an e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y b e f o r e s e t t i n g up any o b j e c t i v e s . v iew ,

the o b je c tiv e s

o f the b e l i e f s

K eeping t h i s

p h ilo s o p h y in

s h o u l d th e n t e n d t o b e an e x p r e s s i o n

i n d i c a t e d i n o n e 1s p h i l o s o p h y .

J o h n W. B e a t t i e .

J o h n W. B e a t t i e

m odern e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s e ffic ie n c y .T h is

i n two w o r d s — fls o c i a l

b ein g t r u e ,

enrichm ent o f l i v i n g

sum m arizes

he s u g g e s ts p l a c in g

t h r o u g h m u s i c 11 f i r s t

nt h e

among o u r

o b j e c t i v e s and m a i n t a i n s k e e p in g a l l o t h e r aim s s u b o r d i n ate

to t h i s .

I t m ig h t be b e t t e r to c o n s i d e r t h e e n r i c h ­

m ent o f l i v i n g

th ro u g h m usic a s our p h ilo s o p h y in

teach in g

m usic and th e n

s e t u p o b j e c t i v e s w h e r e b y t h i s g o a l m ay b e

rea liz ed . M u rs e ll- G lenn. prim ary b u sin e ss o f th e

M ursell-G lenn s c h o o l m usic

t e l l us t h a t teacher

is

wt h e

to f o s t e r

^ John W. Beattie, Music Supervisors1 National Conference Yearbook (Chicago; Music Supervisors1 National Conference, 1931), p. 351. 3 I b id . . p.

355.

22 and d ev elo p the

* w i l l t o b e m u s i c a l 1 .**^

M ursell* s d e f i n i t i o n m entioned e a r l i e r ,

In view o f

o f t h e new e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y

h is

p h ilo s o p h y o f s c h o o l m usic te a c h in g

i s m o r e c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d when h e r e f e r s t o t h e w i l l t o be m u s ic a l.^ C l e l l a L. P e r k i n s . p u b lic atio n , says,

M iss P e r k i n s ,

in a r e c e n t

s t a t e s h e r p h i l o s o p h y v e r y s i m p l y when s h e

tlT he c h i l d

s h o u l d n e v e r b e made t o f e e l t h a t h e i s

l e a r n i n g o r s tu d y in g m usic b u t r a t h e r t h a t h e i s m u s i c . 1*6

M usic t e a c h e r s ,

m usic r e a d i n g ,

e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who t e a c h

w o u l d b e m u ch m o r e s u c c e s s f u l i f

th o u g h t w ere k e p t u pperm ost in B e a t r i c e Perham .

en jo y in g

th is

th e i n s t r u c t o r * s m ind.

i ^ f t e r exam ining s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s

and books p u b lis h e d by m usic e d u c a t o r s ,

th e w r i t e r found

f e w a u t h o r s who h a d a p r o f o u n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t p h i l o s o p h y throughout t h e i r

s ta te m e n t o f o b j e c ti v e s and m ethods.

o f t h e s e a u t h o r s was B e a t r i c e P e r h a m .

So t h a t

One

t h i s new

^ J a m e s L. M u r s e l l a n d M a b e l l e G l e n n , T he .. P s y c h o l ­ o g y o f S c h o o l M u s i c T e a c h i n g (New Y o r k ; S i l v e r B u r d e t t a n d C o m p an y, 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 3 4 . 6 M ursell,

o£ .

c i t . . p.

39.

6 C l e l l a L e s t e r P e r k i n s , How t o T e a c h M u s i c t o C h i l d r e n ( C h i c a g o ; H a l l a n d M c C r e a r y Co m pan y, 1 9 3 6 ) , p .

3.

23 p h i l o s o p h y m ay b e a p p l i e d i n o u r m u s i c t e a c h i n g , M i s s Perham s u g g e s t s c r e a t i v e

le a rn in g by say in g ,

f o r a n e w e m p h a s i s on c r e a t i v e

learn in g

”We m u s t c a l l

through e x p e rie n c e ,

r a t h e r t h a n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e m p h a s i s on s k i l l s a n d tech n iq u es as p r e r e q u is ite s to

e x p e r i e n c e . !t>^

M iss Perham

h a s a v e ry p ro fo u n d p h ilo s o p h y and n e v e r l o s e s it

in

the p r e s e n ta tio n C.

of her m ateria ls,

PLACE OF MUSIC HEADING IN THE NEW SCHOOL

Under t h e o ld c o n c e p tio n , glance)

reading a t

sig h t

(first

was t h e g o a l o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l m u sic

program .

In

such a program ,

th e prim ary o b je c tiv e . th e u ltim a te

o b jec tiv e

th e m astery o f s k i l l s

Today,

ap p re cia tio n

o b jectiv e ?

is

wa s

co nsidered

o f o u r sc h o o l m usic te a c h in g .®

m u s ic r e a d i n g p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n th is

sig h t of

Does

the r e a l i z a t i o n

M u rsell says t h a t

some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e

score a id s in b e t t e r a p p re c ia tio n ;

a p e rs o n can see what

of

he h e a r s — th e v is u a l su p p o rts th e a u r a l .^

e d itio n ;

B e a t r i c e P e r h a m , M u s i c i n t h e New S c h o o l ( R e v i s e d C h i c a g o ; N e l l A. K j o s a n d Com pan y, 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 1 6 .

® S upra.,

p.

7.

® J a m e s L. M u r s e l l , ’’R e a d i n g M u s i c , ” T h i r t y - f i f t h Y earbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tu d y o f Educa­ t i o n , P a r t I I (B loom ington, I l l i n o i s ; P u b lic School P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 1 0 1 .

24 B eattie

claim s t h a t ,

^C ertain

sk ills

and know ledge

a r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t m u s i c m ay r e a c h i t s d e ve l opme nt .

To f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n

m usic r e a d in g h a s a p la c e in tio n ,

the o p in io n

coming t o b e l i e v e

t h e p ro b le m o f s i g h t r e a d i n g can in

m u sic a l and i n t e r e s t i n g ,

th at

th e developm ent o f a p p r e c i a ­

we f i n d i n D y k e m a - C u n d i f f i fiWe a r e

no w t h a t

h ig h est

i t s e l f be

thus stre n g th e n in g in s te a d o f

im p a irin g th e lo v e o f m usic. M u s i c r e a d i n g c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y o n e o f t h e m any a c t i v i t i e s n e c e ssa ry in m u sica l background. in

I t h o l d s no more an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e

th e c u r r i c u lu m th a n a n y o t h e r p h a se o f th e m usic

program . a b ility

N o t t o o m uch t i m e s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o i t . to r e a d m usic a t

im portant a c t i v i t i e s , tio n In

e s ta b lis h in g a w ell-ro u n d ed

s i g h t were o u r o b j e c t i v e ,

w hich a r e

e s s e n tia l to

If

the

o th er

the r e a l i z a ­

o f o u r aim In m u sic e d u c a t i o n c o u ld n o t b e i n c l u d e d

the c u rric u lu m . D.

SUMMARY

S u m m a rizin g t h e new p h i l o s o p h i e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e

to

J o h n W. B e a t t i e , S u p e r v i s o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r ­ ence Y earbook (C hicago: S u p e r v i s o r s 1 N a tio n a l C o n fe re n ce , 1931), p . 355. ^ P e t e r W. Dykema a n d H a n n a h M. C u n d i f f , New S c h o o l M u s i c H a n d b o o k ( B o s t o n : C, C. B i r c h a r d & C o . , 1 9 3 9 ) . p . 149.

25 m usic t e a c h i n g ,

one m ig h t sa y t h a t

o f th e sc h o o l m usic t e a c h e r , t o learn in g

through experien ce

b e m ade t o f e e l t h a t h e i s but ra th e r th a t he is

I t _is t h e p r i m a r y d u t y

t e a c h m usic b y c r e a t i v e

so t h a t t h e c h i l d

sh all never

le a r n in g or stu d y in g m usic .

en.joying m u s i c ; in

to be m u sica l i s d e v elo p ed in

so d o in g t h e w i l l

th e c h iId and h i s l iv i n g

is

en ric h ed through h is m usical e x p e rie n c e s. It

i s g r a n t e d t h a t m usic r e a d in g p l a y s a p a r t i n

th e c h i l d ’ s m u sica l developm ent.

However,

in

c o n tra s t to

th e u se o f s i g h t r e a d i n g a s t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l i n m usic e d u c a t i o n , modern e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y r e c o g n i z e s m u sic r e a d i n g a s m e r e ly one p hase in t h e develo p m en t o f b e t t e r m usic a p p r e c i a t i o n .

CHAPTER IV A STUDY OF THE OBJECTIVES OF MUSIC READING ADVOCATED BY PRESENT DAY MUSIC EDUCATORS H a v in g r e c o g n i z e d , m u s i c ’ s p l a c e i n t h e new e d u c a ­ t i o n a l program ,

It

is

th e purpose of t h i s

c h a p t e r t o make

a s t u d y o f t h e aim s an d o b j e c t i v e s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e te a c h in g o f m usic r e a d in g . d e te rm in e d w hether o r n o t fu n ctio n in g as i t

in

th e child* s a t t i t u d e in o u tlin in g a l i s t

i t m ay b e

th e m usic r e a d in g program i s

t h e modern p h i l o s o p h y o f t e a c h i n g ,

and i n t e r e s t a re o f p rim ary im portance o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r m usic r e a d i n g .

M ursell su g g ests th a t sk ills

so d o i n g ,

s h o u l d i n t h e new s c h o o l .

As i n d i c a t e d

d ev elo p in g

In

these a re n e c e ssa ry a t t r i b u t e s

in

when h e s a y s ;

A t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s have a perm anence w hich i s la c k e d b y s p e c i f i c know ledge and s p e c i f i c s k i l l . A s k i l l , p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d , i s an I n t e r e s t re n d e re d h ig h ly s p e c i f i c and a p p lie d to a v e ry d e f i n i t e and d e ta ile d p ro b lem atic s i t u a t i o n . ! M iss Perham f u r t h e r e m p h a siz e s th e

im portance o f

a t t i t u d e s when s h e s a y s ; P l e a s u r e a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e tw o i m p o r t a n t g o a l s o f m u s i c e d u c a t i o n , f o r we know t h a t w i t h o u t t h o s e

! James L. Mursell, Music Educators’ National Conference Yearbook (Chicago; Music Educator’s National Conference,"~1938), p. 73.

27 two e l e m e n t s f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g w o u ld b e a t a s t a n d ­ still, Our im m e d ia te aim , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o c o n t i n u a l l y f o s t e r th e j o y and s a t i s f a c t i o n w hich c om e s w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u s i c ; a n d t h r o u g h th e w ise g u id an ce o f th e te a c h e r , to see to i t t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s w hich b r i n g a b o u t t h a t jo y and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l a l s o c o n s t a n t l y c h a l l e n g e c h i l d r e n a n d t e a c h e r s t o go f u r t h e r i n t o t h e r e a l m o f m u s i c , a n d t o p e n e t r a t e more d e e p l y i t s m e a n in g .2 A. * MUSIC EDUCATORS* NATIONAL CONFERENCE U n til re c e n tly ,

t h e M usic E d u c a to rs *

C onference had done v e ry l i t t l e

N atio n al

to change th e o b j e c ti v e s

In r e g a r d to m usic r e a d i n g o u t l i n e d by th e c o n fe re n c e in 1921, w hich re a d s By th e end o f th e s i x t h g r a d e , p u p i l s s h o u ld have a c q u ire d th e a b i l i t y to sing a t s ig h t, u sin g w ords, a u n iso n song o f hym n-tune g r a d e ; o r u s in g s y l l a b l e s , a t w o - p a r t song o f h y m n -tu n e g r a d e , and th e e a s i e s t t h r e e - p a r t son g s; th e s e to be in any key; to in c lu d e any o f the m easures and rhythm s in o r d i n a r y u s e ; to c o n ta in any a c c i d e n t a l s ig n s and to n e s e a s i l y in tr o d u c e d ; and in g e n e r a l t o b e o f t h e g r a d e o f f o l k s o n g s s u c h a s HThe M i n s t r e l. Boy. A lso know ledge o f t h e m a jo r and m inor k e y s and t h e i r s i g n a t u r e s . A b ility of at l e a s t t h i r t y p e r-c e n t o f the p u p ils to sin g i n d i v i d u a l l y a t s i g h t m usic sung b y th e c l a s s a s a whole..® One c a n r e a d i l y s e e t h a t t h e a b o v e l i s t

of o b jec-

^ B e a t r i c e P e r h a m , M u s i c i n t h e New S c h o o l e d i t i o n ; C h i c a g o ; N e i l A. K j o s C o . , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 3 .

(R ev ised

® E. B. Birge, Music Supervisors * National Confer­ ence Yearbook (Chicago; Music Supervisors’ National Conference, 1928), p. 366.

tiv e s

w ould h a v e v e r y l i t t l e

m usic program *

C onsequently,

m eaning in t h e p r e s e n t d a y in 1936,

a com m ittee

a p p o i n t e d b y t h e C o n f e r e n c e o u t l i n e d a new l i s t tiv e s

f o r the

F o llow ing i s

o f objec

e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l m usic r e a d in g program . th e o b je c tiv e

fo r g rad es one,

recom mended b y t h e c o m m i tt e e

tw o, an d t h r e e s

To f a m i l i a r i z e t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e n o t a t i o n o f s i m p l e s o n g s s o t h a t t h e r e m ay b e l a i d t h e b e g in n in g s o f a sound f o u n d a tio n f o r s i g h t - s i n g i n g , and a s t i l l k e e n e r u n d e rs ta n d in g o f m usic i t s e l f through th e study o f i t s n o t a t i o n .4 In 1938, B irg e fo r grades fo u r,

fiv e,

su b m itted the fo llo w in g o b je c tiv e s and s i x ;

Our p r e s e n t c o n c e p tio n o f e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n h a s f o r m a n y r e a s o n s made i t s e e m i n c r e a s i n g l y u n d e s i r a b l e t o s e t up r i g i d s t a n d a r d s o f s p e c i f i c achievem ents f o r a l l p u p i ls . M usic a p p r e c i a t i o n in i t s w id est sense i s the g e n e ra l g oal of a l l sc h o o l m usic te a c h i n g ; and p r o g r e s s i s to be m e a su re d b y an a b i d i n g i n t e r e s t in m u sic r a t h e r t h a n b y f i x e d a c h i e v e m e n t s i n t o n a l memory, rh y th m ic re s p o n s e , o r s i g h t re a d in g and o th e r s k i l l s . . . . The a v o c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e , t h a t o f c u l t i v a t i n g th e am ateur s p i r i t w ith i t s a t t e n d ­ a n t s k i l l s , i s p o s s ib le and h ig h ly d e s i r a b l e . T h is o b j e c t i v e b e a r s f r u i t in com m unity a n d f e s t i ­ v a l c h o ru s e s , c h o ir s , g le e , and m a d rig a l c lu b s , com m unity and S u n d a y S c h o o l o r c h e s t r a s , s m a ll e n s e m b le g r o u p s , a n d a l l t h e many a m a t e u r m u s ic a c t i v i t i e s w i t h w h i c h we a r e f a m i l i a r , a n d w h o s e p e r s o n n e l , in t h e i r sc h o o l d a y s , form ed a c o n s id ­ e ra b le p ercen tag e of th o se a tte n d in g sch o o l. A nother o b j e c ti v e e q u a lly p o te n t and d e s i r a b l e i s t h a t o f m usic a s a p a r t o f g e n e r a l c u l t u r e .

4 Karl W.- Gehrkens, Music Educators* National Con ference Yearbook (Chicago; Music Educators National Conference, 1936), p. 164.

29 P robably th is o b je c tiv e a p p lie s d i r e c t l y to a m a j o r i t y o f p u p i l s i n t h e s c h o o l s , t h o s e who l a t e r on w i l l b e c o n s u m e r s r a t h e r t h a n p e r f o r m e r s o f m u sic.5 A com parison o f th e o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d w ith those in

1921

1938 b y t h e m u s i c e d u c a t o r s i n d i c a t e s

t r e n d in m usic e d u c a tio n a t o b jectiv e

in

fo r th e f i r s t

the p re s e n t tim e.

th ree

grades in d ic a te s

the

The the

im portance o f a p re -e x p e rie n c e p e rio d in th e p r e p a r a tio n f o r m usic r e a d i n g . r e fe rre d to

The a v o c a t i o n a l an d c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s

in th e upper elem en tary grade o u tlin e

th e im portance o f s k i l l s

as w ell as a c t i v i t i e s

d e v e l o p a m ore c o m p l e t e a p p r e c i a t i o n B.

in d icate

w hich w i l l

o f m usic in g e n e r a l .

BALTIMORE PUBLIC SCHOOLS

An e x c e l l e n t r e f e r e n c e on m u s i c r e a d i n g m ay b e found in

th e B a ltim o re C ourse o f S tu d y .

The o b j e c t i v e s

read; To d e v e l o p a n i n t e r e s t i n , a n d a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f th e b e s t in m usic th r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n and liste n in g . To e s t a b l i s h a n d m a i n t a i n r i g h t a t t i t u d e s th ro u g h a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n good m usic. To p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l know ledge and c a p a b i l i t y i n m u sic a s a n a t u r a l o u t c o m e o f t h e p u p i l 1s s c h o o l m u s i c e x p e r i e n c e . ^

® Edward B. B i r g e , M usic E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a rb o o k ( C h ic a g o ; M usic E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C onference, 1938), p. 401. 6 Jo h n D en u es, M usic E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e re n c e Y e a rb o o k (C h ic a g o ; M usic E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1937), p . 101.

30 C.

ALMA M. MORTON

M iss N o rto n h a s w r i t t e n

a d is c u s s io n re g a rd in g the

problem s in v o lv e d in o u t l i n i n g a l i s t p u b lic

school m usic.

of o b jectiv es

for

She su m m arizes t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t

o f s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g m usic re a d in g ? 1. A l l s t u d e n t s should le a r n to s in g in th e g ra d e s c h o o ls w h eth er b y r o t e o r n o te w i l l be d eterm in ed by th e a b i l i t y o f the c h ild con cerned . 2. P u p i l s who h a v e t h e a b i l i t y s h o u l d h a v e l e a r n e d t o s i g h t r e a d w e ll enough to jo in c h o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t s i n g two a n d t h r e e p a r t a r r a n g e ­ m ents by th e tim e t h e y le a v e th e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l. 3. A l l p u p ils sh o u ld have had enough t r a i n i n g so t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o f o l l o w t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a m elody, se n se th e rh ythm b y th e g e n e r a l a p p e a ra n c e o f th e n o t e s , and to l e a r n new s o n g s i n u n i s o n a n d i n p a r t s b y s i n g i n g w i t h o th e rs and by seein g th e n o ta tio n . 4. P u p ils should a c q u ire s u f f i c i e n t a b i l i t y t o u s e m u s i c a l s y m b o l s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h e may s a t i s f y h i s own n e e d s f o r s u c h a u s e . 5. The n o t e s o f t h e s t a f f as tone n o t as th eo ry .

sh o u ld be le a r n e d

6. A t t i t u d e s tow ard s ig h t re a d in g a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d d i s p l a y t h e sa me p l e a s u r e among t h e o l d e r s tu d e n ts as w e ll as th e younger. 7. M usic r e a d i n g s h o u l d s t i m u l a t e a c t i v e t i c i p a t i o n in m u sic a l p erfo rm an ces. 8. S k i l l in perform ance sh o u ld in c r e a s e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m usic in g e n e r a l .

par­ th eir

9. In c re a s e d s k i l l should c r e a te a d e s i r e h ig h e r s ta n d a rd s in p e r f o r m a n c e . 7

^ Alm a M. N o r t o n , A n g e l e s ; C. C. C r a w f o r d ,

T e a c h i n g S c h o o l M usic 1932), pp. 1 -3 6 .

for

(Los

31 One c a n r e a d i l y s e e t h a t t h i s m ig h t a p p ly to any c la s s -r o o m

list

situ atio n .

of o b jectiv es J u s t how m u ch

p r o g r e s s c a n b e made w i l l d e p e n d e n t i r e l y u p o n t h e a b i l i t y o f th e group o r i n d iv id u a ls w ith in D.

th e group.

SUMMARY

As a s u m m ary o f t h e f i n d i n g s

in t h i s c h a p te r,

w r i t e r w ould s u g g e s t t h e fo llo x v in g o b j e c t i v e s read in g in

th e

f o r m usic

th e elem en tary grad es;

1.

A d e s i r e t o ta k e p a r t in m usic

2.

S u ffic ie n t

3.

The b a s i s o f a r e a l a n d a b i d i n g m u s i c a l

s k ill to

s a tis fy th at w ill

a p p re cia tio n . S i n c e a t t i t u d e s a n d i n t e r e s t p l a y su c h an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e g ro w th o f an i n d i v i d u a l , i n m i n d when o u t l i n i n g a l i s t m usic r e a d i n g . su itab le It

th ese

of sp ecific

should be k e p t o b jectiv es

in

T e a c h e r s s h o u l d rem ember t h a t w hat i s

f o r o n e g r o u p m ay n o t b e s u i t a b l e

i s not p o ssib le to accept

fo r an o th er.

s t a n d a r d s w hich hav e b e en

s e t up f o r a n y one g ro u p and a t t e m p t t o a c c o m p lis h t h e sam e w i t h e v e r y g r o u p . d ifferen t w ith in

T his n o t o n ly h o ld s tr u e w ith

classroom groups b u t a ls o w ith th e in d iv id u a ls

one c la s s r o o m .

Some c h i l d r e n m ay r e a d i n d e p e n d e n t l y

w ith o c c a s i o n a l h e lp from th e

teach er;

m ore g u i d a n c e fro m t h e t e a c h e r ;

o t h e r s may r e q u i r e

and s t i l l

o t h e r s may n e e d

32 m uch e a s i e r m a t e r i a l w i t h e v e n m o r e h e l p . It

Is

im p o rta n t to have a d e f i n i t e

f o r each g rade J u s t what t h e s e

s e t of stan d ard s

s o t h a t o n e may m e a s u r e g r o w t h a c c o r d i n g l y . stan d ard s

should be w i l l depend l a r g e ly

upon t h e im m ed iate l e a r n i n g g r o u p .

CHAPTER V A STUDY OP THE METHODS AND PROCEDURES USED IN THE TEACHING OP MUSIC READING A.

EXPERIENCE VERSUS SKILLS

Modern e d u c a t i o n c o n c l u d e s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s c r e a te m eaningful e x p e rie n c e s r e s u l t f a r m ore s i g n i f i c a n t

w iiich

in le a rn in g t h a t i s

than d e f i n i t e l y p r e s c r ib e d

sk ills.

As i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p e r i e n c e , M i s s P e r h a m s a y s t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f an e x p e r i e n c e i s more i m p o r t a n t th an th e m a ste ry o f i t ; m ore i m p o r t a n t t h a n

in

o th e r w ords,

experience i s

th e p re s c rib e d le s s o n .

M ursell says th a t

sk ills

far

•l

sh o u ld n o t be c o n s id e re d

an o b j e c ti v e a lth o u g h th e y a re o f gen u in e im p o rta n c e . S p ecific

a c tiv itie s

sh o u ld be t r e a t e d as

a r e m e r e l y a means t o an end and such.

M ethods a l s o a r e h o t i m p o r t a n t

b u t s h o u ld be em ployed m e r e ly a s a m e a n s.^

D avison, as

e a r l y a s 1926, re c o g n iz e d th e v a lu e o f e x p e rie n c e s p receding n o ta tio n .

ed itio n ;

He c l a i m e d t h a t

such e x p e rie n c e had

B e a t r i c e P e r h a m , M u s i c i n t h e New S c h o o l ( R e v i s e d C h i c a g o : N e i l A . ICjos M u s i c C o . , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 3 0 .

2 J a m e s L. M u r s e l l , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l Con­ f e r e n c e Y e a rb o o k ( C h ic a g o : M usic E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C onference, 1938), p. 70.

two a d v a n t a g e s ; The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d b y r o t e s in g in g q u ic k e n s m u s ic a l p e r c e p t i o n to a m arked d e g re e and l a y s t h e groundw ork o f an a p p r e c i a t i v e m u sic a l se n se ; th e second a p p e a rs in th e f a c t t h a t d u rin g th e l a t e r y e a rs o f r o t e s in g i n g , rhythm a p a r t f r o m i n t e r v a l m ay b e t a u g h t a s a p r i n c i p l e c o n n e c te d w i t h t h e m e l o d i e s su n g , so t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f a c t u a l l y u n d e r t a k i n g t o r e a d m u s i c , many rh y th m ic problem s w i l l have been s o lv e d . 3 In c o n tr a s t to p articu lar

the o ld p r a c tic e

s k ills before n o tatio n

is

o f d ev elo p in g

p resen ted , p resent

d a y m usic e d u c a to r s r e a l i z e t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s c o n t r i b u t e m u ch m o r e t o t h e c h i l d * s m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n t h e m astery of p re s c rib e d may p l a y a p a r t i n

sk ills.

So t h a t t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s

th e grow th o f th e c h i l d ,

t e a c h e r s and

su p e rv iso rs have d isc o v ere d th a t a c t i v i t i e s

w hich c r e a t e

ex p erien c es have a s i g n i f ic a n t p lac e in

t h e n ew s c h o o l ’ s

m usic program . B.

MUSIC ACTIVITIES

Th e w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s

the l i s t

o f m usic a c t i v i t i e s

o u t l i n e d b y Alma M. N o r t o n t o b e q u i t e 1. The f e e l i n g m usic.

in clu siv e.

They a r e

f o r t h e r h y th m ic sw ing o f t h e

2. T h e f e e l i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s a r e so m e ­ how h i g h a n d l o w w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e a c h o t h e r .

3 A r c h i b a l d Thompson D a v i s o n , M u sic E d u c a t i o n i n A m e r i c a (New Y o r k s H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 2 6 ) , p p . 5 3 - 5 4 .

35 3. A s e n s e o f tiie k e y r e l a t i o n s th e s c a le o r th e song. 4.

The a t t i t u d e

to w a rd song s i n g i n g . ^

The f e e l i n g f o r t h e r h y t h m i c from f r e e groups.

sw ing s h o u l d d e v e l o p

ex p ressio n to a co n scio u s a n a ly s is o f the p u lse F re e re s p o n s e to rhythm s in

be fo llo w ed by a d e f i n i t e p a ttern s.

o f th e to n es o f

t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s m ay

in terp retatio n

o f rhythm ic

T h i s may be a c c o m p l i s h e d ' t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f

phonograph r e c o r d s ,

piano,

song m a t e r i a l s ,

and by p la y in g

rhythm band i n s t r u m e n t s . D e fin ite p itc h d iscrim in atio n re la tio n sh ip of d iffe re n t

to n es w ith in

r e a l i z e d b e f o r e m usic r e a d i n g i s done b y r o t e

as w ell as th e the

scale

in tro d u ced .

T h i s m ay b e

sin g in g a n a ly s is and th e use of d e s c a n ts .

R o t e s o n g s m ay b e a n a l y z e d b y m e a n s o f a w r i t t e n m otion g ra p h . p o sitio n

sh o u ld be

The l i n e s u s e d i n

o f each note

p ic tu r e of the

song.

in

the

or hand

such a g raph in d ic a te

the

song and r e p r e s e n t a t o n a l

R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e t o n e s may b e

f u r t h e r r e a l i z e d by th e p la y in g o f m elodic in s tr u m e n ts . M i s s H o r t o n i n c l u d e s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t when she s u g g e s ts t h a t

the a t t i t u d e

a lw ay s rem ain a p l e a s a n t one. th at

the

to w a rd song s i n g i n g If

it

is n o t,

should

she p ro p o s e s

te a c h e r f in d th e rea so n and im m ed iately s e t about

4 Alma M. H o r t o n , T e a c h i n g S c h o o l M u s i c C. C. C r a w f o r d , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 3 8 .

(Los A n g e le s :

36 to rem edy th e T his i s

situ atio n in d ire c t

c o n tr a s t to th e r e p o r t given by

G e h rk e n s t o t h e M usic E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e . recom m ending a c o u r s e o f s t u d y f o r g r a d e s o n e , th ree,

he d is c u s s e s

In

tw o, and

in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s by saying:

The m u s i c a l l y d u l l p u p i l s w i l l b e e n c o u r a g e d t o do a s w e l l a s t h e y can b u t w i l l n o t be t r e a t e d h a r s h l y when t h e y h a v e r e a c h e d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i m i t beyond w hich th e y c a n n o t go. And i f t h e y a r e n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t m usic a s th e o t h e r s , t h e t e a c h e r w i l l rem em ber t h a t a l l o f u s a r e n o r m a l l y m o r e e n t h u s i a s t i c o v e r s o m e t h i n g t h a t we c a n d o w e l l t h a n o v e r s o m e t h i n g i n w h i c h we a r e clum sy and u n c e r t a i n . So h e w i l l t r e a t a l l s u c h p u p ils k in d ly and s y m p a th e tic a lly .6 S u rely th is a ttitu d e the d ire c tio n teach in g .

w i l l accom plish v e ry l i t t l e

o f m usic r e a d in g o r any o t h e r p hase o f

Too o f t e n p o o r t e a c h e r s a r e a n x i o u s t o f i n d a n

e x c u s e f o r t h e i r p o o r t e a c h i n g r a t h e r t h a n t o m ake a n a ttem p t to C.

in

im prove i t . GRADE LEVEL FOR INTRODUCTION OP NOTATION 1.

Ma ny d i v e r s e

P rim a ry G rade L ev el o p in io n s e x i s t re g a rd in g th e grade

l e v e l in w hich m u sic books sh o u ld be p la c e d in

5 N orton,

th e hands

lo c . c l t .

® Karl W. Gehrkens, Music Educators1 National Conference Yearbook (Chicago: Music Educators' National Conference, 1936), p. 169.

37 o f th e p u p i l s f o r t h e p u rp o se o f m usic r e a d i n g . recen tly ,

th is

second g ra d e . th is

U n til

e x p e r i e n c e wa s u n i v e r s a l l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e T o d a y , m u s i c e d u c a t o r s s e e m t o d i s a g r e e on

q u estio n . B asic te x tb o o k s .

p lacin g

The M usic H our S e r i e s a d v o c a t e s

t h e F i r s t Book i n

th e hands of th e

t h e p u rp o s e o f m usic r e a d i n g . fo r th e

ch ild ren

for

The F i r s t Book i s r e c o m m e n d e d

second g ra d e .^ The W o rld o f M u sic S e r i e s l i s t s

few r e a d i n g

songs

u n t i l th e t h i r d grade l e v e l . & A S in g in g School S e rie s in

th e

i n t r o d u c e s m usic r e a d i n g

second g ra d e 9 a lth o u g h th e

series

itse lf

is

so

a r r a n g e d t h a t m u s i c r e a d i n g m ay b e i n t r o d u c e d a t a l a t e r g r a d e l e v e l w i t h t h e book recom mended f o r

th at p a rtic u la r

grade. Q u estio n n aire.

Among t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d ,

th e

w r i t e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t m u s ic r e a d i n g was p r e s e n t e d i n

^ T h e M u s i c H o u r , E l e m e n t a r y T e a c h e r 1 s B oo k (New Y o r k ; S i l v e r B u r d e t t & C o . , 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 4 4 . 8 The W orld o f M u s ic , M usic T e a c h i n g i n K i n d e r ­ g a r t e n a n d P r i m a r y G r a d e s (New Y o r k ; G i n n a n d C o m pany, 1936), p. 97. 9 A S i n g i n g S c h o o l , O ur S o n g s , T e a c h e r 1s M anual ( B o s t o n ; C. G. B i r c h a r d a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 1 7 .

the

38 fo llo w in g g rad es; G rades

Number o f s c h o o l s y s te m s p r e s e n t i n g

2A

3

3

7

3A

3

4

5

W ithin th e l a s t

ten

h a v e made a c h a n g e i n t h e o f m usic r e a d i n g .

years,

it

f o u r te e n o f th e above

grade l e v e l f o r th e p r e s e n ta tio n

They i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e v i o u s l y m usic

re a d in g had been p re s e n te d a t

th e second g rad e l e v e l ,

b u t,

due to th e n eed o f a lo n g e r p e r io d f o r m u s ic a l e x p e r ie n c e s , t h e y d e e m e d i t n e c e s s a r y t o make t h e i n d i c a t e d c h a n g e . Even now, t e n

e x p ressed u n c e r ta in ty in g iv in g a d e f i n i t e

tim e f o r th e b e g in n in g o f m usic r e a d i n g by s a y in g t h a t

its

p r e s e n t a t i o n d ep en d s upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l group. Survey r e p o r t .

In a re c e n t

survey,

ed t h a t m u sic r e a d i n g g e n e r a l l y s t a r t s th ree.

In c i t i e s

i n g r a d e s two a n d

o v e r 40,0 0 0 a b o u t f i f t y

ed m u sic r e a d i n g in

i t was d i s c o v e r ­

per cent p resen t­

th e second g rade w h ile th e o th e r f i f t y

p er cent p resen ted i t

in the

th ird grade.

In c i t i e s

4 0 , 0 0 0 m u s ic r e a d i n g n e a r l y a l w a y s was b e g u n i n t h e

under second

g ra d e •^

3-0 Ann T r i m i n g h a m , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r ­ e n c e Y e a rb o o k ( C h i c a g o ; M usic E d u c a to r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 19 38 ), p. 295.

39 K a r l W. G e h r k e n s . E ducators*

N a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e , G ehrkens s u g g e ste d

th e books be g iven ^ d efin ite

I n a r e p o r t t o t h e M usic

to th e c h ild r e n

in th e

th at

second g r a d e f o r

o r g a n i z e d w o r k i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d n o t a t i o n 11 o r

to fo llo w the t e a c h e r . ^ S ta te of C a lifo rn ia .

The S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f

C a l i f o r n i a a d v o c a te s m usic r e a d in g in t h e

second o r t h i r d

grad e and above. J a m e s L. M u r s e l l .

M u r s e ll s u g g e s ts t h a t m usic

r e a d in g be postponed u n t i l th e p u p il i s

ready fo r i t .

He

w arn s a g a i n s t t h r u s t i n g m usic r e a d i n g upon him to o q u i c k l y by say in g such a p ro ced u re w i l l d i s t o r t individual.-*-3

th e grow th o f th e

A gain he s u g g e s t s t h a t n o t a t i o n be i n t r o ­

duced o n ly a f t e r ad eq u ate and o rg a n iz e d m u sic a l e x p e rie n c e s by sayings h is

tfV£hen a c h i l d

ex perience

is

first

should be th a t

in tro d u c ed to th e

score,

o f s e e in g what he h as

11

K a r l W. G e h r k e n s , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b ook ( C h ic a g o ! M usic E d u c a to r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , "39^36) , p . 1 7 0 , -*-2 C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , M u s i c E d u catio n in th e E lem en tary School (Sacram ento. C a lif o r n ia ? C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 9 ), p . 9. -*-3 James L. Mursell, Music Educators* National Conference Yearbook (Chicago: Music Educators* National Conference, 1938), pp. 72-73.

40 a l r e a d y l e a r n e d t o h e a r . ” -1*4

In o rd e r to p ro v id e s u f f i c i e n t

e x p e rie n c e s , he a d v o ca te s p re s e n tin g n o ta tio n second h a l f o f th e

in D avisons

p erio d of ro te th ree grades,

the

th ir d grade,

A rch ib ald D avison, fin d s

in

llI t

sin g in g or at

In agreem ent w ith M u rs e ll,

w o u ld he much b e t t e r t o

one

extend th e

to in c lu d e th e k in d e r g a r te n and f i r s t

least

the f i r s t h a l f o f th e t h ir d

grade, ^ 2. The o t h e r read in g u n t i l the says th a t

I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade L e v e l ex trem e view i s

s ix th grade or l a t e r .

P ra n c e s W right

t o o m uch h a s b e e n r e q u i r e d o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y

sc h o o l m usic p ro g ram . lite ra tu re

th e p ostp o nem en t o f m usic

S p ellin g ,

o f m usic can n o t a l l

read in g ,

w ritin g ,

and th e

be t a u g h t o r l e a r n e d i n

t h e p e r i o d o f s i x y e a r s when o n l y t w e n t y m i n u t e s o r l e s s allo w ed d a i l y f o r m usic. rich er

sin g in g

It

w ould be b e t t e r

to f u r n i s h a

e x p e rie n c e in t h e s e y e a rs and le a v e

the

1 4 J a m e s L. M u r s e l l , " R e a d i n g M u s i c , " T h i r t y - f i f t h . Y earbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c i e t y f o r th e S tu d y o f E duca­ tio n , P a r t I I (B loom ington, I l l i n o i s : P u b lic S chool P u b l i s h i n g Co m p an y, 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 1 0 2 . ^ A m erica

Loc. c i t . A r c h i b a l d Tho m pson D a v i s o n , M u s i c E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s ” 1 9 2 6 ) , p . 4 7 .

in

is

41 t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y o f m u s i c r e a d i n g ‘u n t i l grade l e v e l . H o w e v e r ,

l a t e r in th e

M iss W rig h t s u g g e s t s p r e s e n t a t i o n

the secondary

same p u b l i c a t i o n

o f m usic r e a d in g

in th e

fo u rth g r a d e .^ M ursell-G lenn g iv e

th e fo llo w in g argum ent a g a i n s t

p o stp o n e m e n t o f m usic r e a d i n g u n t i l a v e r y l a t e

grade:

The p o s tp o n e m e n t o f t h e s c o r e i n o r d e r t o g i v e m ore tim e t o A p p r e c i a t i o n 1 i n v o l v e s a v e r y in a d e q u a te n o t io n o f what a p p r e c i a t i o n r e a l l y i s . A p p r e c ia tio n m ust in c lu d e n o t o n ly l i s t e n i n g p r o j e c t s , b u t a ls o p r o j e c ts in perform ance and c r e a t i o n ; a n d i f we b u i l d u p t h e p u p i l * s m a s t e r y o f th e sco re in and th ro u g h such p r o j e c t s , h i s a p p r e c i a t i v e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f m usic and h i s a b i l i t y to use the n o ta tio n w ill advance hand in hand. S e c o n d l y , we s h o u l d e a s i l y s e e t h a t t h e p o s t p o n e ­ ment o f th e sc o re t i l l v e r y l a t e in th e g ra d e s im p lie s th e id e a t h a t i t s m a ste ry i s in th e n a tu r e o f a m e c h an ica l s t u n t , w h ereas, in o u r view , i t i s an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g m u s i c a l m indedness A report

t o t h e M usic E d u c a to r s *

a n d a d o p te d b y t h e M usic E d u c a to rs * h e l d in Los A n g e le s i n n o tatio n

N a tio n a l C onference

1940 s u g g e s t s

th r o u g h eye t r a i n i n g

R esearch C o u n cil

th a t in tro d u c tio n

sh o u ld be em phasized in

p r im a r y g r a d e s and t h a t m usic r e a d i n g

the

sh o u ld be d e v elo p ed

P r a n c e s W r i g h t , M o n o g r a p h s on S c h o o l M u s i c (Los A n g e le s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Los A n g e le s , 1934), p. 7. ^

to

9 P* ^ 2 .

J a m e s L. M u r s e l l a n d M a b e l l e G l e n n , T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f S c h o o l M u s i c T e a c h i n g (New Y o r k ; S i l v e r B u r d e t t & C o . , 1931)', p p . 2 0 7 - 2 0 8 .

42 in

t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s . 20 3.

C om parative F in d in g s

As i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , m a n y p r a c t i c e s th e g r a d e l e v e l a t w hich m usic r e a d i n g One t r e n d i s

obv io u s and t h a t i s

should be i s

still

u n c e r t a i n t y w o u ld seem t o

should be p re s e n te d .

the r e a l i z a t i o n

im p o rtan ce o f a p r e - n o t a ti o n p e r io d . perio d

e x is t concerning

of th e

J u s t how l o n g t h i s

a m a tte r of c o n tro v ersy .

T h is

in d icate

th is

f i e l d m ight be o f a s s i s t a n c e

th a t re s e a rc h in

in h e lp in g

to

so lv e th e

problem . D.

METHODS USED IN PRESENTING MUSIC READING

I n d u c tiv e m ethod.

U n til recen t years,

th e approach

t o m u s i c r e a d i n g w a s m ad e b y t h e i n d u c t i v e m e t h o d b e t t e r known a s t h e

s c a l e m ethod.

in d e p e n d e n tly of the

H e r e i n t h e s c a l e was t a u g h t

song b y u s e o f d r i l l .

R e a d in g was

done by p ro c e e d in g from a p a r t to th e w hole; w ords, by th e n o te

to n o te p ro c e ss .

D eductiv e m ethod. th at

in o th e r

the p r e s e n ta tio n

Today,

trends

seem t o i n d i c a t e

o f m usic r e a d in g i s

th e d e d u c tiv e o r song m ethod.

b e i n g m ade b y

A ll resp o n ses

to

the

MO u t l i n e o f a P r o g r a m f o r M u s i c E d u c a t i o n , ” A R e p o r t t o t h e M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l (C h ic a g o s M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 9 ) , p p . 1 3 2 -1 3 3 .

43 q u estio n n aire

showed t h e u s e o f t h i s

done b y p r o c e e d i n g fro m t h e w hole t o G ehrkens a d v o c a te s ju stifie s

its

approach. its

R eading i s

p arts.

t h e song m ethod a p p ro a c h and

use by the fo llo w in g

ed u catio n al p rin c ip le s :

I t e n a b l e s t h e t e a c h e r t o m ak e a m u s i c a l a p p r o a c h to n o ta tio n in s te a d o f the te c h n ic a l, i n t e l l e c t u a l o n e t h a t u s e d t o p r e v a i l when m u s i c s t u d y b e g a n w ith n o t e s , r e s t s , s c a l e s , tone g ro u p s, s h a rp s , and f l a t s ; and f i n a l l y , lo n g y e a rs a f t e r , ended w ith th e song. I t com pels th e t e a c h e r to u s e th e m odern m eth o d o f a n a l y s i s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e w hole and p r o c e e d i n g fro m t h e w hole t o i t s p a r t s ; i n s t e a d o f th e m ethod o f s y n t h e s i s w hich i n v o l v e s b e g in n in g w i t h a p a r t com bining i t w ith a n o th e r p a r t , and h o p i n g som e d a y t o g e t t h e w h o l e . 21 M ursell-G lenn a ls o

in d ic a te a p re fe re n c e f o r th e

d e d u c t i v e m e t h o d when t h e y s a y s R e se arc h in language re a d in g i n d i c a t e s t h a t the m a s t e r y in a n y sy m b o lism means a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h i t in la r g e u n i t s . H e n c e we c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l t h i n g to em phasize in d e a l i n g w ith th e score i s i t s re p re s e n ta tio n o f t o t a l phrases r a th e r than n o t e s . ^ The Song M ethod i n c l u d e s t h r e e n am ely,

th e O b serv a tio n Song,

R eading Song.

th e S tudy Song,

The O b s e r v a t i o n S o n g i s

A f t e r th e song h as been le a r n e d , and d is c o v e r p h r a s e s ,

ty p es of songs; and th e

tau g h t by r o te .

the c h ild re n

an alyze i t

sm all groups o f to n a l p a tt e r n s ,

and

on

(B oston:

**• K a r l W. G e h r k e n s , M u s i c i n t h e G r a d e S c h o o l s C. C. B i r c h a r d & C o . , 1 9 3 4 7 , p . 5 8 .

^ J a m e s L . M u r s e l l , a n d M a b e l l e G l e n n , The P s y c h o l o g y o f M u s i c T e a c h i n g (New Y o r k : S i l v e r B u r d e t t a n d C om p an y , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 2 2 7 .

44 th en

th e i n t e r v a l s .

a lre a d y learn ed

The S t u d y Song c o n t a i n s m a t e r i a l

i n t h e O b s e r v a t i o n S o n g a l o n g w i t h new

m aterial.

The H e a d in g Song a t f i r s t

m aterial.

The t o n e g r o u p s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e

le a rn e d in o th e r

songs; b u t,

c o n ta in s o n ly f a m ilia r

a s t h e w o r k a d v a n c e s , new

p a t t e r n s a r e i n t r o d u c e d th r o u g h th e R eading Song. A lth o u g h th e d e d u c t iv e m ethod i s th e

i n d u c t i v e m ethod i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n

far

o f m usic r e a d i n g ,

te a c h e r s m ust g u a rd a g a i n s t u s in g th e S tu d y , O b se rv a tio n Songs in

s u p e r io r to

R eading, and

s u c h a way t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e b e c o m e s

a m ethod an d n o t a p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y . E.

MUSIC READING STANDARDS FOR INTERMEDIATE GRADES Dykema- C u n d i f f .

I n D y k e m a -C u n d iff, one f i n d s t h e

fo llo w in g o u tlin e : G r a d e f o u r - T h e uL a n s c a l e r e c o g n i z e d a s m a t e r i a l fo r songs. B e g in f e e l i n g f o r two p a r t s . C lass b e a t s two c o u n t s f o r s o n g s i n 6 / 8 m e a s u r e . D rill on tw o e q u a l t o n e s t o t h e b e a t . Teach l e t t e r names o f th e s t a f f . Name t h e k e y f r o m t h e p o s i ­ t i o n o f ^do*1. G rade f i v e - D e v e lo p and s tu d y th e h a rm o n ic m inor scale. Sim ple u se o f c h r o m a tic s a r e ta u g h t by r o t e and c h ro m atic s y l l a b l e s a re le a rn e d . Singing o f two p a r t s a t c a d e n c e s . S im ple 6 /8 t r i p l e t groups ta u g h t by r o t e from th e songs and a ls o t w o u n e q u a l n o t e s t o two b e a t s . G rade s i x - c o n t i n u e w ith c h r o m a ti c s . M elodic m inor s c a l e d e v e lo p e d and sung. A c t u a l two p a r t

45 songs le a r n e d from books. t r i p l e t groups and d r i l l . K a r l W. G e h r k e n s .

C o n t i n u e with. 6 / 8 ®

In c o n t r a s t to D ykem a-C undiff,

G ehrkens do es n o t a d v o c a te th o te a c h in g o f th e m in o r s c a l e but ra th e r in d ic ate s m o d e . 24 o u tlin e

He l i s t s

the

the

song a p p ro a c h o n l y t o

fo llo w in g

th e m inor

th eo re tic al facts

a s an

f o r the in te rm e d ia te grades?

1. How t o f i n d ,,d o ,t f r o m t h e r i g h t h a n d s h a r p or fla t. 2. T h e n a m e s o f a l l common m u s i c a l s y m b o l s , in c lu d in g th e n o te and r e s t v a lu e s . 3. T h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e "G*1 c l e f a n d t h e n a m e s o f th e l i n e s and spaces o f th e t r e b l e s t a f f . 4.

The f u n c t i o n

of the

s h a rp s and f l a t s .

5.

The s i g n a t u r e s o f t h e n i n e common m a j o r k e y s .

6.

T h e m e a n i n g o f t h e common m e a s u r e

7.

The f u n d a m e n t a l s o f t r a n s p o s i t i o n .

sig n a tu re s.

8. T h e b a s i c f a c t s a b o u t t h e m i n o r mode b u t p ro b a b ly n o t th e m inor k ey s i g n a t u r e s . 9. 10.

T he b a s i c

f a c t s about the b a ss s t a f f .

T he n a m e s o f t h e k e y s on t h e p i a n o . 2^

23 p e t e r W. D y k e m a , a n d H a n n a h M. C u n d i f f , New S c h o o l M u s i c H a n d b o o k ( B o s t o n ? C. C. B i r c h a r d & C o . , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 214. 2 4 K a r l W. G e h r k e n s , M u s i c i n t h e G r a d e S c h o o l s ( B o s t o n ? C. C. B i r c h a r d & C o . , 1 9 3 4 7 , p . 6 5 . 25 I b i d . , p .

127.

46 F rances W right,

F ra n c e s W right

su g g e sts form al and

i n d i v i d u a l m usic r e a d i n g be done by s i g h t

in th e f o u r t h

grade.

th at

In the f i f t h

c ap a city fo r d r i l l nT h e r e i s a t t h i s d e ta ils

grade,

she i n d i c a t e s

the

i s p r a c t i c a l l y u n lim ite d and sa y s, t i m e a more s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n

o f te c h n iq u e and d r i l l

to th e

in m echanics a s w e ll a s to

th e m u sic a l and e m o tio n al c o n te n t o f the

s o n g s , ,f I n t h e

six th grade,

sh e recom mends t h a t t e c h n i q u e become an

o b je c tiv e in

its

own r i g h t .

0/2

u

C a l i f o r n— i a—r S-----------t a t e D e p a r,*»t- m e---n t- ---of E catio n . ----d u -------program o f m usic e d u c a tio n C a lifo rn ia ,

one f i n d s

In th e

fo r th e elem en tary sch o o ls o f

the fo llo w in g o u tlin e s

G rade f o u r - Key s i g n a t u r e s o f t h e n i n e m ost common m a j o r k e y s a n d t h e r u l e f o r f i n d i n g ttd o w. P i t c h names o f t h e l i n e s and s p a c e s . Learn th e s y l l a b l e names o f t h e s h a r p c h r o m a t i c s and t h e use of th ese sharps. L e a rn t h e m eaning o f t h e n a t u r a l sig n w ith r e f e r e n c e to th e f l a t and a l s o th e f l a t ch ro m atic. Study th e c o n tr a s ts in th e mood b e t w e e n t h e m a j o r a n d m i n o r s o n g m a t e r i a l . D i s c o v e r t h a t m i n o r s o n g s e n d on nl a " i n s t e a d o f ttd o tt. The d o t t e d q u a r t e r n o t e f o l l o w e d b y t h e e ig h th note in tro d u c e d . Sim ple tw o - p a r t s i n g i n g in tro d u ced . G rade f i v e - T w o -p a rt s i n g i n g . S ix p u ls e m easure (6 /8 and 6/4) in tr o d u c e d . Two u n e q u a l t o n e s t o t h e beat p resen ted . Grade s i x

- The t r i p l e t ,

four equal tones

to

F r a n c e s W r i g h t , M o n o g r a p h s on S c h o o l M u s i c (Los A n g e le s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Los A n g e le s , 1934), p . 22.

47 th e b e a t and t h r e e - p a r t M usic H o u r S e r i e s .

s i n g i n g i n t r o d u c e d .27 The a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n t h e

M u s i c H o u r S e r i e s a r e t h e sa m e a s t h o s e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent of E d u c a tio n . W orld o f M usic S e r i e s . g iv e s th e fo llo w in g o u tlin e

pQ

°

The W o r l d o f M u s i c S e r i e s

f o r the in te rm e d ia te g rades:

G rade f o u r - D o t t e d q u a r t e r n o t e f o l lo w e d b y an e i g h t h n o t e , s h a rp and f l a t c h ro m a tic s i n t r o ­ duced. T w o - p a r t s i n g i n g a n d t h e m i n o r mode p re se n te d through th e songs. G r a d e f i v e - Compound t i m e , d o t t e d e i g h t h fo llo w ed by th e s i x t e e n th , and th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e n a t u r a l m inor and th e harm onic m in o r s c a l e s . 30 G rade s i x - I n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e t r i p l e t in a l l i t s fo rm s, f o u r s i x t e e n t h n o t e s and i t s d i v i s i o n s , s y n c o p a t i o n , m e l o d i c m in o r mode, t h r e e - p a r t s i n g ­ i n g , a n d m o d u l a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d . 3 ^P. In

sum m arizing,

ele m e n tary grades i s

SUMMARY

one m ig h t s a y t h a t th e w ork i n th e

d iv id ed in to

two p a r t s .

The f i r s t

is

^

C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , M usic E ducation in E lem en tary S c h o o ls, 1939, pp. 22-26. I b id . , p.

9.

^ The W o r l d o f M u s i c , M u s i c T e a c h i n g i n t h e I n t e r ­ m e d i a t e G r a d e s (New Y o r k ; G i n n a n d C o m pany, 1 9 3 6 ) , p p . 1 2 - 2 4 . 30 I b i d . . p p .

39-55.

31 I b i d . , p p .

70-73.

48 known a s t h e p r e - n o t a t i o n foundation c h ild ren i n m usic*

is

laid

perio d .

In t h i s

f o r m usic r e a d i n g .

perio d ,

th e

As a r e s u l t ,

the

a r e b e t t e r a b le to u n d e rs ta n d th e p r i n t e d page G en erally ,

th is

p e rio d ex ten d s in to

th e

th ird

grade. The s e c o n d d i v i s i o n program .

It

is

at th is

th e a c t u a l m usic re a d in g

tim e t h a t th e re q u ire m e n ts in

m u s ic r e a d i n g become q u i t e list

is

tec h n ic al.

o f accom plishm ents o u tlin e d f o r

g rades of th e

elem en tary sc h o o ls,

in d iv id u a l,

are

the

in term ed iate

the a c t i v i t i e s ,

p la y e d such an im p o r ta n t p a r t in t h e of th e

J u d g in g from t h e

w hich

e a r l i e r developm ent

q u ick ly fo rg o tte n ,

and t h e work

becomes a developm ent o f s k i l l s . The w r i t e r c o n t e n d s t h a t t e c h n i c a l em phasis th e c h il d r e n i n t e r e s t i n m usic in th e ed u cato rs d e c la re

it

is

as a r e s u lt

of th is

show a m a r k e d l a c k o f

in term ed iate g rad es.

M usic

t h e m s e l v e s t o be i n a c c o r d w i t h m odern

e d u catio n al p ra c tic e s .

However,

th e read in g stan d ard s

t h e y s e t up f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l do n o t t a k e i n t o co n sid eratio n

th e n eed s and i n t e r e s t s

o f th e c h ild a t h is

p a r t i c u l a r le v e l as th e e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y o f to d ay w ould s u g g e s t .

CHAPTER VI A DISCUSSION OP THE PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN THE TEACHING OP MUSIC READING I t h a s “b e e n s u g g e s t e d i n t h e s u m m ary t o t h e p rev io u s c h a p te r th a t

the o u tlin e

of stan d ard s fo r

the

i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s i s n o t i n k e e p in g w i t h m odern e d u c a ­ tio n a l p h ilo so p h ies.

C o n tin u ally ,

express d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n

w i t h th e m usic r e a d in g program .

In d icatio n s of th is th e was;

te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs

q u e s t io n n a ir e u sed in

d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n were a p p a r e n t i n th is

study.

One o f t h e

,JrA r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s

q u e stio n s

o f t h e m usic

r e a d i n g b e i n g d o n e i n y o u r s c h o o l a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ? fr In r e p ly to

th is , tw elve p e o p le answ ered n e g a t i v e l y .

O f t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x p e r s o n s who w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d , two e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n

w ith the r e s u l t s

in m usic

r e a d i n g b e c a u s e t h e y were g i v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n m a t e r i a l s th at

were n o t to o d i f f i c u l t .

A pparently,

a tte m p tin g to accom plish th e a cc e p ted l i s t o u tlin e d in th e previous c h a p te r. people c r e d ite d

th eir

t h e y w ere n o t of stan d ard s

The r e m a i n i n g f o u r

s u c c e s s w ith m usic r e a d i n g t o

the

f a c t t h a t r e a d i n g was p o s t p o n e d u n t i l

the

felt

They i n d i c a t e d t h a t ,

t h e c h i l d r e n w ere r e a d y f o r i t .

under c e rta in

w arranted c o n d itio n s ,

t i m e when t h e y

m u s i c r e a d i n g was n o t

50 begun u n t i l th e

fo u rth grade.

H e r e we f i n d

ex p ressed th e

n e e d f o r more m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s b e f o r e i n t r o d u c i n g m usic r e a d i n g . T he f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s w e r e g i v e n b y t h e p e o p l e who expressed d is s a tis f a c tio n

w ith th e r e s u l t s

of th eir

r e a d i n g program ? Reasons 1.

Num ber o f p e o p l e g iv in g reason

I n t e r e s t o f th e p u p ils v ary ; c h i l d r e n s tu d y in g m usic o u t ­ s i d e o f s c h o o l m ore a p t t h a n t h e o t h e r p u p i l s ------------------------

5

T eaching m a t e r i a l s need r e v i ­ s i o n ; more i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r ­ i a l s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e -----------

2

3.

N o t e n o u g h t i m e ---------------------------

2

4.

Need f o r m ore p r e - e x p e r i e n c e s -

1

5.

P o o r t e a c h e r s ----------------------------

4

2.

A.

FACTOR OF INTEREST

T h e f a c t o r o f i n t e r e s t wa s e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e d i s ­ cussion of o b je c tiv e s o th ers,

in o u tlin in g

read in g

in th e

(C h ap ter I I I ) . the l i s t

The a b i l i t i e s

as groups a re n o t taken th is, th at

in to

t e a c h e r s who a t t e m p t

e d u c a to r s and

o f s t a n d a r d s f o r m usic

in te rm e d ia te grades

elem ent o f i n t e r e s t .

Y et,

e n tire ly d isreg ard

the

of in d iv id u a ls as w ell

c o n sid eratio n .

Because of

to d e v e lo p such a program f i n d

th e i n t e r e s t o f e v e ry c h i l d d o es n o t rem ain c o n s t a n t .

51 As a r e s u l t ,

t h e m usic program s u f f e r s .

In a re c e n t a r t i c l e , grow th o f th e c h i l d ch ild ren m usic,

in m usic.

e n te r the f i r s t

m usic n o t a t i o n tin u ed

th is

He s u g g e s t s

at

in te rest

He s a y s t h a t ,

th is

alth o u g h

g r a d e w i t h on i n n a t e

som ething h ap p en s to

and t h i r d g r a d e s .

Herman F . S m i t h d i s c u s s e s t h e

in te re st

i n t e r e s t in t h e

second

th a t th e p re s e n ta tio n

le v e l is d e v astatin g

to

in

of

the con­

o f th e p u p i l hy sa y in g t h a t ;

H is i n t e r e s t i s s o l e l y in e x p r e s s in g h i s em o tio n al re s p o n s e s th ro u g h m u sic, e i t h e r in s in g in g o r r e a c t i n g to th e rhythm . H is m u s ic a l e x p e r ie n c e s have n o t been s u f f i c i e n t to c a u s e him t o w a n t t o know how t o r e p r o d u c e t h e m u s i c f r o m t h e p r i n t e d page.-*S m i t h t h e n g o e s on t o s a y t h a t , d rill

f o r r e a d in g m usic n o t a t i o n

in

the fo u rth grade,

i s begun in

by t h i s tim e , due t o th e a p p ro a c h u se d in th e th ird grades,

T h is

and s i x t h g ra d e s

sam e d r i l l

so t h a t b y t h e

have reach ed the sev en th g rad e , m usic a c t i v i t i e s ag h ast.

But

second and

c h i l d r e n h a v e b u i l t up a com plex d e r o g a t o r y

t o m usic p a r t i c i p a t i o n . the f i f t h

earn est.

few a r e

co n tin u es through tim e t h e c h i l d r e n in te reste d

in

and j u n io r h ig h sc h o o l t e a c h e r s a r e

p

■j

Herman F. Smith, Music Educators1 National Confer­ ence Yearbook (Chicago; Music Educators1 National Conference, 1939), p. 179. ^ Loc.

c it.

52 B.

THE TEACHING OF MUSIC THEORY

In d icatio n s

o f an aim f o r an e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a te d

dev elo p m en t in m usic t h e o r y a r e o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r V.

ev id en t in

Everyone r e c o g n iz e s

th e

stan d ard s

th a t m usical

t h e o r y s h o u l d b e an o u t c o m e o f m u s i c e d u c a t i o n . the fin d in g s o b jec tiv e .

of th e previous c h a p te r,

in

'Z

tech n iq u e

b ecom es an

s h o u l d become an o b j e c t i v e

A lm ost u n l i m i t e d d r i l l

order th a t

th is

in

M i s s W r i g h t s u g g e s t s a s m uch when s h e

recom mends t h a t own r i g h t .

it

Y et,

in i t s

work w o uld b e n e c e s s a r y

su c h an o b j e c t i v e m ig h t be r e a l i z e d .

i s n o t in keeping w ith th e o b je c tiv e s

S u rely

o f m odern

ed u catio n expressed e a r l i e r . Due t o

th e t h e o r e t i c a l c o m p lic a tio n s in v o lv e d in

th e te a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g , thought re g a rd in g is

th e

note

singing

school of ro te

sin g in g .

two s c h o o l s o f

in p r e s e n t day p r a c t i c e s .

sin g in g w hile th e o th e r i s

One

th at of

T h e f o r m e r came i n t o b e i n g b e c a u s e t h e w o r k

in v o lv e d in d e v e lo p in g n o te Under th e r o t e

th ere are

s i n g i n g was t o o

s in g in g plan c h ild re n

are

tec h n ic al.

tau g h t a l l

th eir

songs by i m i t a t i o n . P e r c y Graham s t a t e s

th a t he h as d isc o v e re d both

schools a re te a c h in g te c h n ic a l s k i l l s

3 W right,

c it.,

p.

22.

in th a t th ey a re

53 b o t h t e a c h i n g a w e l l d e f i n e d t h e o r y program even th o u g h th eir

s in g in g i s ta u g h t by c o n tr a s t in g m eth o d s.^

t o overcom e t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e o r y , a p p ro a c h to m usic r e a d i n g , v e ry sm all p a r t i f any.

In o rd e r

Graham s u g g e s t s a new

one in w hich t h e o r y p l a y s a

It

is

a p a t h m idw ay b e tw e e n t h a t

o f t h e o t h e r two s c h o o l s . T h i s a p p r o a c h was i l l u s t r a t e d

in a d e m o n s tra tio n

g iv e n a t a r e c e n t c o n v e n tio n by M iss R uth C u r t i s , G r a h a m 1s t e a c h e r s . been in p arts

The c h i l d r e n

in h e r d em o n stratio n had

s c h o o l s i x and one h a l f y e a r s .

and r e a d m usic w ith s y l l a b l e s .

k now t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e

know t h e p i t c h n a m e s o f t h e l i n e s

w hole an d h a l f or tria d s m easure key,

step s.

stru c tu re .

th ey d id not

or spaces,

th e k ey nam es,

T hey knew v e r y l i t t l e

about

T h ey knew n o t h i n g a b o u t m o d u l a t i o n

Her s t u d e n t s w ere a b le and to

to

sing

about in an y

s in g in m a jo r and m in o r k e y s w ith

o n l y a th o ro u g h know ledge o f t h r e e (l)

th ree

The g r o u p d i d n o t

o r k e y c h o r d s a n d t h e y knew v e r y l i t t l e

to m o d u late,

nam elys

They sang i n

sharps or f l a t s ;

o r th e m ajo r o r m in or k e y s .

one o f

F i n d i n g ud o n ,

(2)

tech n ical

e sse n tia ls;

Rhythm s, and (3)

C h ro m atics.^

4 P e r c y Graham, M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b o o k ( C h ic a g o ! M usic S u p e r v i s o r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1936), p . 143. 5 R u th L. C u r t i s , M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r ­ e n c e Y e a rb o o k (C h ic a g o : M usic S u p e r v i s o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C onference, 1936), p. 140.

54 A p p a r e n t l y , m u s i c r e a d i n g may b e t a u g h t f u l l y w ithout of its

success­

th e c o m p lic a tio n s in v o lv e d in th e te a c h in g

th eo ry .

The w r i t e r q u e s t i o n s

j u s t how m u s i c a l t h i s

k i n d o f a n a p p r o a c h would be w i t h t h e a v e r a g e s c h o o l g r o u p . C.

ALLOTMENT OP GLASS TIME

In in te rv ie w in g used in t h i s referred

stu d y ,

to th e

the

su b jects

fo r the

q u estio n n aire

a l a r g e number o f th e p e o p le e i t h e r

s m a ll amount o f tim e a s s i g n e d to th e m usic

program o r s t a t e d t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e w ith r e g a r d to d istrib u tio n and p la to o n

o f th e m usic p e r i o d s .

Due t o d e p a r t m e n t a l

s y s t e m s , many e x p l a i n e d t h a t

c l a s s e s o n l y two o r t h r e e

tim e s a week.

as in d ic a te d by th e q u e s tio n n a ir e i s Nu m b e r o f m i n u t e s g i v e n t o 12 15 16 15-30 20 25 30

the

The t i m e a l l o t m e n t

as fo llo w s;

m usic d a i l y

m in u tes m inutes m in u tes m in u tes m in u tes m inutes m in u tes

t h e y met t h e i r

Number o f p e o p l e 1 3 2 2 7 1 2

The a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f m i n u t e s a s s i g n e d t o m u s i c i n the grad es o f th e s e

sch o o ls i s

A la rg e r percentage f a l l s above i t . less

alm ost tw en ty m in u tes d a i l y .

below t h i s b r a c k e t th an f a l l s

I n o t h e r w o rd s, a l a r g e r number o f c a s e s had

t h a n t w e n t y m i n u t e s a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h o s e who h a d

more th a n t h e

a v e ra g e amount o f tim e .

55 In a s c e rta in in g

th e tim e g iv e n o v e r t o m usic r e a d ­

in g d u rin g t h e m usic p e r i o d ,

the

q u estio n n aire

showed t h e

fo llo w in g p ra c tic e s : P ercentage

o f p e rio d g iven

to re a d in g

Number o f p e o p l e

50 p e r

cent

6

25 p e r

cent

3

30 p e r

cent

2

L e s s t h a n 20 p e r

cent

1

T h e r e m a i n i n g s i x p e o p l e who w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d c o u l d n o t in d icate but

th e p e rc e n ta g e o f tim e g iv en

said th a t i t

to m usic r e a d in g

was o n e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s

of th e d a ily

program * In c o n s id e ra tio n assig n ed th e

to t h e m usic p ro g ram ,

stan d ard s

chap ter,

o f th e number o f m in u te s g e n e r a l l y th e w r i t e r co n ten d s t h a t

in m usic r e a d i n g ,

can n o t be r e a l i z e d ,

liste d

in

if at a ll,

th e p rev io u s u n l e s s th e m usic

p rogram becom es a r e a d in g program and n o th in g a p r o c e d u r e w ould n e c e s s i t a t e

else*

Such

a w ell-d efin ed o u tlin e

of

m e c h a n ic a l s k i l l s and w ould i n c l u d e none o f t h e o t h e r a c tiv itie s

co n sid ered e s s e n t ia l in

the c h ild c e n te re d

A p r a c t i c e o f t h i s n a t u r e w ould c o n t r a d i c t t h e

school.

p h ilo so p h ies

o u t l i n e d in o u r s t u d y o f m odern e d u c a t i o n . D.

In

recent

USE OF SYLLABLES

years,

d iscu ssio n s

concerning th e

fu n ctio n

56 o f t h e m o v a b le a n d t h e im m ovable “d o ” w ere p r e v a l e n t . a f t e r t h e v a l u e s o f e a c h were w e ig h ed a n d d e t e r m i n e d , m o v a b l e “ d o ” s y s t e m came i n t o u s e i n t h i s co u n try .

th e p u b lic

T o d a y , many c o n t r o v e r s i e s

to th e p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of t h is

so l-fa

th e

e x is t w ith reg a rd

o r s o l m i z a t i o n m ethod.

te a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g .

reason fo r th e ir a ttitu d e tio n s

ex ist

the

sch o o ls of

A d v o c a te s o f t h i s m ethod a rg u e i n t e n s i v e l y f o r t h e system in

But

so l-fa

A good b a s i c

s e e m s t o b e l a c k i n g when c o n d i ­

such a s w i l l be in d ic a te d

in

th e rem ain d er o f

t h i s chapter* C riticism

of the

sy stem .

T h e r e a r e many p s y c h o l o ­

g i c a l problem s in v o lv e d in l e a r n i n g sy llab les.

to r e a d m usic w ith

A c o m p l e x t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e when

s y lla b le s are used. In th e f i r s t p la c e , the

to n e by m e a s u rin g th e

he h a s to rem em ber t h e d e rs of the itse lf

th e c h ild n o t o n ly has

i n t e r v a l in l i n e s and sp a c e s b u t

s y l l a b l e n am e o f t h a t

s o l - f a ’ s m aintain

suggests

to t h in k

th at

the p itc h to th e

the

tone.

D efen­

s y l l a b l e name

sin g er.

T h is dependence

upon names t o

suggest p itc h is a cu rio u s p sy c h o lo g ic al

approach.

is

it

is

given

It

r e a lly “c o n d itio n in g .”

To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s ,

e v i d e n t t h a t an enorm ous am ount o f tim e m ust be over to d r i l l

work w i t h t h i s

o b j e c t i v e in m ind.

S hould th e m usic program in th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l c o n s id e r th is

im p o r ta n t enough to g iv e i t

the

tim e r e q u i r e d In

57 accom plishing In th e

s u c h an o b j e c t i v e ? second p la c e ,

each space and l i n e

s t a f f m ight have tw e lv e d i f f e r e n t do,

d i,

re,

ri,

m i,

fa,

fi,

so l,

sid e rin g th a t th ere are fiv e sta ff,

s y l l a b l e nam es; nam ely, si,

la,

li,

or t i .

Con­

l i n e s a n d f o u r s p a c e s on t h e

t h i s means t h a t t h e r e a r e one h u n d r e d an d e i g h t

p o ssib ilities T his

on t h e

o f s y l l a b l e names w i t h i n

i s a v e ry asto u n d in g

th eless

situ atio n

th e s t a f f a lo n e .

b u t one w hich n e v e r ­

e x ists. In th e th ird

place,

th e te a c h in g o f s y lla b le s

m u s i c r e a d i n g m ay b e c o m p a r e d t o a lp h a b e t in lan g u ag e r e a d in g . m em o rization o f the l e t t e r s

in

the te a c h in g o f the

In the p a s t ,

the r o t e

o f t h e a l p h a b e t was u s e d a s a

p r e lim in a ry to language re a d in g

itse lf.

Now, h o w e v e r ,

the

c h i l d c o n c e n t r a t e s f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g on a c t u a l r e a d i n g w ith p r a c t i c a l l y no a t t e n t i o n such.

The w r i t e r c o n t e n d s t h a t m u s i c r e a d i n g w o u l d b e

m u ch m o r e s u c c e s s f u l i f m usic

to the a lp h a b e t as

th e

c h i l d c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e

i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n on nam es t h a t w e re l e a r n e d b e f o r e

the a c tu a l p re s e n ta tio n In

of s ta ff n o tatio n .

t h e .fo u rth p la c e ,

eye movem ents i n r e a d i n g m u sic

a r e t e c h n i c a l l y m uch m o r e d i f f i c u l t and the te a c h in g o f s y l l a b l e s

than in re a d in g

lan g u ag e,

o n ly c o m p lic a te s m a t t e r s m ore.

T h i s wa s a p p a r e n t i n a n e x p e r i m e n t made b y I r v i n g J a c o b s e n . He a n a l y z e d e y e m o v e m e n t s i n r e a d i n g m u s i c a n d d i s c o v e r e d

58 th at

t h e u s e o f s y l l a b l e s was n o t o n l y o f n o b e n e f i t t o

th e p u p ils o f th e

s ix th grade b u t a c t u a l l y h arm fu l.

There

w e re more r e g r e s s i v e m ovem ents (m ovem ents b a c k to w a rd t h e le ft)

in a d d itio n

t o m o r e p a u s e s when t h e

u s e d a s com pared t o t h e In

th e f i f t h

s y l l a b l e s were

s i n g i n g o f t h e w ords f i r s t . ^

p lace,

m ost t e a c h e r s

suggest th a t

s y l l a b l e s be dropped in th e u p p e r g ra d e s a s soon a s c h ild re n acq u ire w ords. It

th e a b i l i t y

to read r e a d i ly w ith the

T h is w ould i m p l y t h a t

s y l l a b l e s a r e a nc r u t c h . M

i s a f a i r l y w ell e s ta b lis h e d p r in c ip le

of learn in g th a t lea rn in g

in

th e psychology

i s m ore e f f i c i e n t an d c e r t a i n

w here an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s d i r e c t l y t h a t w hich he w ish e s t o know i n s t e a d o f s p e n d i n g h i s

tim e f i r s t

in le a rn in g

some

a r t i f i c i a l a id o r c ru tc h and th en a tte m p tin g to use t h i s a s an a i d In l e a r n i n g h is

learn in g In th e

t h a t w h i c h was t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t o f

in the b eg in n in g . six th p lace,

sy llab les

w h a ts o e v e r to an I n s tr u m e n ta l p l a y e r . In th e

sin g in g p e rio d .

problem s p r e s e n t

Even t h e n ,

th em selv es,

a r e o f no b e n e f i t They a r e

when c e r t a i n

only used th eo re tic al

the use of s y lla b le s

causes

co n fu sio n . In c o n sid e ra tio n

o f th e above arg u m en ts,

th e w r i t e r

^ Irving Jacobsen, Music Supervisors* National Conference Yearbook (Chicago; Music Supervisors* National Conference, 19S87,--p. 289.

59 contends t h a t th e use o f s y l l a b l e s p rin cip le s

is

c o n tra r y to th e

o f l e a r n i n g a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e m odern e d u c a ­

t i o n a l psychology.

F u rtherm ore,

it

would seem t h a t t h e

te a c h in g o f m usic r e a d in g w ith s y l l a b l e s

p r e s e n t s many

t e c h n i c a l p r o b le m s w h ic h w ould r e q u i r e an u n l i m i t e d am ount o f tim e t o m a s te r .

S ince

learn in g

to r e a d m usic i s

one p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l m u sic p ro g ra m , n o t be given to

its

developm ent i f

o f th e m usic program a r e S u rv iv a l v alu e teach in g procedure i s R ecen tly , tio n .

o nly

t o o much t i m e c a n

th e o th er a c t i v i t i e s

to be r e a l i z e d .

of sy lla b le s.

The i m p o r t a n c e o f a

in d ic a te d by i t s

c a rry -o v e r v alu e.

C l e l S i l v e y m ade j u s t t h i s k i n d o f a n i n v e s t i g a ­

He s e n t a n u m b e r o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

m usic in m usic d e p a r tm e n ts , p ro fe s sio n a l m u sician s. covered th a t b o th the b eliev ed th a t

to

teach ers of

i n t e a c h e r 1s c o l l e g e s ,

By t h e s e

and

q u e s tio n n a ire s , he d i s ­

te a c h e r and p r o f e s s io n a l groups

so lm izatio n has a p o s itiv e

s u rv iv a l v alu e as

w e ll a s a te m p o ra ry v a lu e in m usic r e a d i n g .^ He t h e n e x a m i n e d f u r t h e r t h r e e g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s at d ifferen t

lev els

in o rd e r

v alu e in a c tu a l p r a c t i c e . h ig h sch o o l,

co lleg e,

to d i s c o v e r th e c a r r y - o v e r

These th re e

lev e ls

co n sisted of

and a d u l t o r c h u rc h -m u n ic ip a l

C l e l Thurman S i l v e y , A S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n s t o t h e S o l m i z a t i o n M ethod o f T e a c h in g M usic R e a d in g (N a sh v i l T e 7 T e n n e s s e e * G e o r g e P e a b o d y C 'o T lege f o r T e a c h e r s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 39.

60 sin g ers.

He d i s c o v e r e d t h a t

as a c o n trib u to ry fa c to r school group;

and i t

th ree

th in k in g

fo u rth

i n m u sic read5.ng b y t h e h i g h

was r a t e d f i f t h

ch u rch -m u n icip al gro u p s. in a l l

s o l m i z a t i o n was r a t e d

Ho t h e n

by th e c o lle g e and

te s te d the

to fin d a d if f e r e n c e

r e a c t i o n s b u t he found th e r e s u l t s

nb e s t

s i n g e r s 1*

in t h e i r

w ere th e

sa m e a s t h o s e

o f th e u n s e le c te d sin g ers.® C o n t r a d i c t o r y to th e o p in io n o f th e m usic e d u c a to r s as

shown a b o v e ,

rete n tio n in th e

th is

stu d y re v e a le d th a t th e degree of

o f so lm iz atio n

in m usic re a d in g

elem entary sch o o ls i s Yfeaknesses o f th e

s k i l l s as tau g h t

low .

s o l - f a m ethod.

In th e

sa me

q u e s tio n n a ir e , S ilv e y asked th e e d u c a to rs and p r o f e s s io n a l m u sician s to o u tlin e any a p p a re n t w eaknesses o f th e s o l m iz a t i o n m ethod.

They w ere l i s t e d

as fo llo w s:

1.

Its

te n d e n c y to overm echanize m u sic.

2.

The f a u l t y w a y i n w h i c h i t h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d .

3. The n e e d f o r c e r t a i n m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n i t s though I t s b a s ic te c h n iq u e sh o u ld be r e t a i n e d . ^ The w r i t e r w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l i s t given e a r l i e r in t h i s of sy llab les

s e c t i o n w ould a p p l y t o

to over-m echanize m usic.

8 Ib id . . p.

30.

9 I b id . , p.

46.

It

use,

of c ritic ism s th e tendency

w o u ld seem t h a t

61 t h i s a lo n e w ould b e r e a s o n

enough to

elim in ate

sy llab le

read in g . The f a u l t y way i n w h ic h t h e been p re s e n te d in d ic a te s

s y l l a b l e m ethod h a s

th a t any a p p aren t w eaknesses of

the

s y s t e m may b e a c c r e d i t e d t o p o o r t e a c h i n g r a t h e r t h a n

the

system i t s e l f .

E vidence o f t h i s

f o u n d i n G e h r k e n s whe n h e s a y s t h a t

sa me a r g u m e n t i s the use o f s y l l a b l e s

and t h e i r u n p o p u l a r i ty h a s been d e v e lo p e d n o t b e c a u se ch ild ren d is lik e tio n .^

s y lla b le s but because of t h e i r p re s e n ta ­

T h is argum ent in d e fe n s e o f th e

seems t o b e a v e r y w eak o n e . been t r a i n e d in failu re to

th e use of the

s o l m i z a t i o n m ethod

F o r many y e a r s , so l-fa

p eo p le have

s y l l a b l e s and th e

o f t h e s y s te m b e c a u s e o f p o o r t e a c h e r s w ould seem

in d icate th a t

som ewhere i n

th e m ethod i t s e l f

is

a

w eakness• C o n clu sio n s,

In view o f th e f a c t t h a t

com plex t e c h n i c a l p ro b le m s a r e in v o lv e d i n m usic w ith s y l l a b l e s ,

and due to

so many

th e tea ch in g of

th e r e a liz a tio n

t h a t th e

s u r v i v a l v a l u e o f t h e u s e o f s y l l a b l e s a s an a i d t o read in g is

low ,

it

w o u ld seem t h a t

th is

w ould w a r r a n t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . s t r o n g l y co n v in ced t h a t ,

(B oston;

as long a s

teach in g procedure

The w r i t e r i s s y l l a b l e s a re u sed in

K a r l W ils o n G e h r k e n s , M usic i n t h e G ra d e S c h o o l s C. C. B i r c h a r d a n d C o m pany, 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 1 4 0 .

62 the

te a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g ,

a rise. still

Y et,

u n n e c e s s a ry problem s w i l l

in th e face o f a l l

th is,

sy llab le

read in g i s

t h e f a v o r i t e a p p r o a c h w i t h many m u s ic e d u c a t o r s o f

the p re s e n t day.

As a n i n d i c a t i o n

th e q u e s tio n n a ire re v e a le d th a t

of th is,

six teen

out o f the

e i g h t e e n p e o p l e who w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d u s e E.

sch o o ls.

u a ls as w ell as th e

is

a p p a re n t in m usic r e a d in g in

In c o n s id e ra tio n

in th e m u sic a l a b i l i t i e s

of th e d iffe re n c e s

of th e average classro o m i n d iv id ­

t h e o r e t i c a l problem s in v o lv e d in

t e a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g w i t h s y l l a b l e s , wonder t h a t

sy llab les.

SUMMARY

A lack of in te r e s t the p u b lic

answ ers to

such a s i t u a t i o n

e x ists.

it

is

the

little

In o rd e r to accom plish

t h e com plex p ro b lem s i n d i c a t e d in t h e p r e s e n t d a y p ro c e d ­ u re s used in

the p r e s e n ta tio n

o f m usic r e a d i n g ,

a great

d e a l more tim e w ou ld h a v e t o b e a s s i g n e d t o t h e r e a d i n g o f m usic th a n

i s now t h e c a s e .

S ince o th e r m u sical a c t i v i t i e s

as w ell as read in g c o n trib u te grow th,

it

is not p o ssib le

t o t h e c h i l d 1s m u s i c a l

t o g i v e t o o m uch t i m e t o

one ph ase o f t h e m usic program . upon o v e r- e m p h a s iz in g th e p resen tin g perio d i s

it

in

th is

As l o n g a s t e a c h e r s i n s i s t

im p o rta n c e o f m usic r e a d i n g by

s u c h a way t h a t a l a r g e

s p e n t In r e a d in g ,

p a r t o f t h e m usic

th e p la c e o f m usic

school c u rric u lu m w ill nev er be re c o g n iz e d .

in th e

63 I t m ust be rem em bered t h a t r e a d i n g t o o l s k i l l a n d when we a l l o w i t s p ra c tic a lly s ix th grade, b alan ce.

the e n ti r e it

is

is

acq u isitio n

tim e from th e

ch ie fly a to m onopolize

second th ro u g h th e

o b v io u s t h a t ou r program i s

out of

CHAPTER VII SUMMARY DF TRENDS A. 1.

In

SP E C IF IC TRENDS

co n trast

to th e use o f s ig h t re a d in g a s the

u l t i m a t e g o a l i n m u sic e d u c a t i o n , m odern e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y r e c o g n i z e s m u sic r e a d i n g a s m e r e l y one p h a s e in

th e m u s i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f an i n d i v i d u a l . 2.

The t r e n d

is

tow ard th e u se o f a c t i v i t i e s

than th e m astery o f s k i l l s read in g

in

th e p re p a ra tio n

a re a d in g r e a d in e s s program .

t h a t m usic i s

a tte m p tin g to

ju stify its

rath er

f o r m usic

T h is w ould s u g g e s t p lace in

t h e m odern

e d u c a tio n a l program . 3. in

th e

W h e r e a s p r e v i o u s l y m u s ic r e a d i n g was p r e s e n t e d

second g ra d e ,

to d a y th e tim e f o r th e p r e s e n t a t i o n

o f s t a f f n o t a t i o n may v a r y a n y w h e r e f r o m t h e

second to

the

f o u r t h g ra d e d ep en d in g upon th e a b i l i t y o f th e group in v o lv ed . 4.

The r e a l i z a t i o n

im p o rtan t a p lac e in the elem en tary sch o o ls i s a d e fin ite

v alu e in

s p e c ia liz e d group,

th at

sy llab les

do n o t h a v e t o o

t e a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g

in creasin g .

in

the

A dm itted t h a t th e y have

th e t e a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d i n g f o r a th ere

i s an i n c r e a s i n g

t h e i r v a l i d i t y and t h e i r u s e f u ln e s s

tendency to doubt

in th e te a c h in g o f

65 ’ m usic r e a d in g to 5. ro te

every c h ild In

in th e e le m e n ta ry school*

some c a s e s , m u s i c i s

in stea d of by n o te.

tau g h t e n tir e ly - b y

T h is i s done b e c a u s e o f th e

t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r i s e when m u s ic i s

taught by

note* 6* ' T h e d e d u c t i v e m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g m u s i c r e a d i n g h a s proven i t s

w o rth o v e r th e i n d u c t i v e m ethod.

e x p re s s e d in th e d e d u c tiv e m ethod, from th e w hole to i t s

p arts,

fits

The i d e a

t h a t o f proceed in g in to

th e p a tte rn

of

m odern e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y much b e t t e r t h a n t h e i n d u c t i v e m ethod. B. 1. stim u latio n

The t r e n d i s

GENERAL TRENDS tow ard th e p r o v is io n o f g r e a t e r

to p u p il d is c o v e r ie s r a t h e r than fo rm al

teach in g . 2. c h ild

The i d e a

is

f a s t becom ing p o p u l a r t h a t e v e r y

s h a l l a p p r e c ia te and ta k e p le a s u re

in m usic, n o t

f o r a v a g u e f u t u r e , b u t h e r e a n d now— a j o y i n m u s ic a s m usic.

CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. As a r e s u l t

CONCLUSIONS

of th is

study,

i t may b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t

m usic r e a d i n g in t h e o r d i n a r y se n se o f t h e p h r a s e p la y s a part

in

th e c h i l d 's m u sic a l developm ent.

It

should,

h o w ev er, be r e g a r d e d a s m e r e ly one p h a se In th e g e n e r a l m usic c u r r ic u lu m o f th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l. w hich c o n t r i b u t e

to

th e c h i l d ’ s a p p re c ia tio n

should n o t be n e g le c te d in

o f m usic

o r d e r t h a t m usic r e a d i n g

becom es th e m a s t e r y o f one p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g m usic f o r i t s

O ther f a c to r s

s k ill— th at

of

own s a k e .

I n o r d e r t h a t a w e l l b a l a n c e d m u s i c p r o g r a m m ay b e tau g h t su c ce ssfu lly ,

t h e t e a c h e r m u st b e a r i n m ind t h e

l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r g ro u p w ith w hich she i s w orking.

She can n o t a t t e m p t to a c c o m p lis h t h e

sa me

am ount o f w ork w i t h e a c h and e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p . H er o b j e c t i v e s m ust be f l e x i b l e a d a p t them t o a l l m usic r e a d i n g .

groups.

O th erw ise,

l o s t and h i s a t t i t u d e resu lt,

enough so t h a t

T his i s

she can

e s p e c ia lly tru e

of

th e I n t e r e s t o f th e c h ild i s

becomes one o f i n t o l e r a n c e .

th e e n t i r e m usic program s u f f e r s .

As a

67 In g e n e ra l, d iv id ed

t h e w ork o f t h e

i n tw o p a r t s .

p re-n o ta tio n p erio d . laid

The f i r s t In

f o r m usic r e a d i n g .

should in c lu d e i s general ru le ,

it

still

th is

elem en tary g rad es i s

d iv isio n

perio d ,

the fo u n d atio n is

J u s t how m a n y g r a d e s

th is

p erio d

a m a tte r of co n tro v ersy but as a

ex ten d s i n t o

the t h i r d

seem t h a t t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s

grade.

p re-n o tatio n

t o a m u ch l a t e r g r a d e , m i g h t h e l p t o tie s

i s know n a s t h e

I t w ould

perio d ,

even

s o l v e many d i f f i c u l ­

w hich a r e e v i d e n t in t h e t e a c h i n g o f m usic r e a d in g i n

the upper g ra d e s. The s e c o n d d i v i s i o n and i t

is here

th at

d isco v ered th a t program d u rin g c o n sid eratio n

th e w ork becomes t e c h n i c a l .

The w r i t e r

t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s do n o t t a k e th e need s and i n t e r e s t s

in to

of th e c h ild a t

T h es e r e q u i r e m e n t s w ould i n d i c a t e

th is th at

e n t i r e m usic program sh o u ld be c e n te r e d around th e

a b ility m usic its

t h e a c t u a l m usic r e a d i n g ,

th e r e q u ir e m e n ts o f th e m usic r e a d in g

p a rtic u la r lev e l. the

is

to re a d m usic.

S ince a w e ll-b a la n c e d p re s e n t day

c u r r ic u lu m c o n s i d e r s m usic r e a d i n g o n ly a p a r t

o rg an izatio n ,

of

s u c h a p r o c e d u r e would p r o d u c e n e g a t i v e

re su lts. A co rrectio n p re-n o tatio n

o f t h i s may be f o u n d i n

ex ten d in g th e

p e rio d u n t i l a l a t e r g rad e and also l i m i t i n g

th e d i f f i c u l t m a te r ia l used f o r re a d in g T he w r i t e r c o n t e n d s t h a t

th ere

in

is d e fin ite

th e upper g ra d e s. in d ic atio n

th at

68 th e use o f s y lla b le s th e c h ild p resen t,

c a u s e s much o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y t h a t

ex p erien ces

in le a r n in g to re a d m usic.

th e s y lla b le

in d ic ate d

in the

grades re q u ire

r e a d in g and th e t h e o r e t i c a l problem s

sev eral o u tlin e s

for

the in te rm e d ia te

t o o m uch t i m e b e d e v o t e d t o m u s i c r e a d i n g

in com parison w ith th e to

At

l i m i t e d number o f m in u te s a s s i g n e d

th e e n t i r e m usic prog ram .

M usic e d u c a t o r s d e c l a r e

t h e m s e lv e s t o be i n a c c o r d w i t h m odern e d u c a t i o n a l p rac tic es.

However,

the re a d in g

t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l do n o t t a k e needs and i n t e r e s t s as the

of th e

s ta n d a r d s th e y s e t up f o r in to

c o n sid e ra tio n th e

c h ild a t h is p a rtic u la r le v e l

e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t o d a y w ould s u g g e s t . B. In teg ra tio n .

RECOMMENDSTIONS G ra n te d t h a t m usic r e a d i n g

n e c e s s a r y e le m e n t in an a p p r e c i a t i o n p ro g ram , o f s u c h a p r o g r a m c a n o n l y b e m ade p o s s i b l e g ratio n . o th er

A sp irit

su b jects

the

a success

thro u g h i n t e ­

o f c o o p e r a t i o n betw een m usic and th e

o f th e c u rric u lu m has been b ro u g h t ab o u t as

n ev er b e fo re by attem p ts a t in te g rativ e

is

so -called in te g ra tio n .

program sh o u ld n o t

sto p h e re .

It

But th is

sh o u ld be

m ad e t o

fu n c tio n w ith in

th e m usic c u rr ic u lu m i t s e l f .

reading

s h o u l d n o t be t r e a t e d a s an end i n i t s e l f b u t

r a t h e r a s one o f t h e many e x p e r i e n c e s w h ich a i d i n grow th o f th e i n d i v i d u a l .

the

M usic

69 T h i s d o e s n o t m ean t h a t m u s i c r e a d i n g n e e d l o s e i t s c h a ra c te r as a s k ill* but

the v i t a l i t y

apparent i f

it

It

of its

can r e t a i n

its

ch aracteristics

u s e f u l n e s s w i l l become more

i s d e v e lo p e d a s a p a r t o f t h e w hole m u s i c a l

program r a t h e r th a n as

s u b j e c t m a t t e r s e t a p a r t from t h e

o th e r m usical a c t i v i t i e s . A nn a E* P i e r c e

ex p lain s

the fu n c tio n

q u i t e c o m p l e t e l y w he n s h e s a y s * p lan s

each s u b je c t can r e t a i n

c o n trib u te

to the t o t a l

L ilia B elle P i t t s

nI n t h e b e s t c o n c e i v e d i d e n t i t y and e a c h can

ex p erien ce o f th e d efin es

o f o rg a n ic grow th, a l l p a r t s serv ice

its

of in teg ratio n

c h i l d . u^

in te g ra tio n as

trA p r o c e s s

com bining t o r e n d e r f u n c t i o n a l

to th e w hole. He rm a n P . S m i t h s u m m a r i z e s i n t e g r a t i o n

s o w e l l when

he says: T he c h i l d i s a n o r g a n i s m w h i c h r e a c t s a s a w h o l e to h i s env iro n m en t. Through h i s r e a c t i o n s , th ro u g h h is e f f o r t s and a c t i v i t y to g ain s a t i s f a c t i o n s , learn in g ensues. S i t u a t i o n s o r e x p e r ie n c e s w hich a re o f i n t e r e s t to the c h ild s tim u la te s h i s responses. T h e re fo re , th e course of stu d y in th e s c h o o ls m ust be o r g a n iz e d w ith p rim a ry em p h asis on t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l . To b r i n g t o him m a t e r i a l s o r e x p e r i e n c e s in w hich

1 A n na E . P i e r c e , M u s i c E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b o o k ( C h i c a g o ; M usic E d u c a to r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e . 1937), p. 150. ^ Lilia Belle Pitts, Music Educators* National Con­ ference Yearbook (Chicago: Music Educators* National Conference, 1939), p. 129.

70 he i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d d i s c o u r a g e s , r e t a r d s , and b u i l d s up co m p lex es s u b v e r s i v e t o h i s p r o p e r grow th. H is l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s m ust be s e q u e n ­ t i a l a n d c o n t i n u o u s , i n an e v e r - w i d e n i n g c i r c l e reach in g out in to b ro ad er f i e l d s . To s u p p l y s i t u a t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , and e x p e r i e n c e s w hich w ill pro v id e t h i s c o n tin u ity is th e fu n c tio n o f th e t e a c h e r .3 S u rely i t

can n o t be d e n ie d t h a t m usic r e a d i n g

p r e s e n t e d u n d e r su c h c o n d i t i o n s would t e n d n o t o n l y to en rich i t s

own p u r p o s e b u t a l s o

a s a w hole. fin d in g s

th at

o f th e m usic program

The w r i t e r r e c o m m e n d s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e

of th is

study th a t,

in p lanning

th e m usic c u r r i c u ­

lum , m u sic r e a d i n g s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y one e x p e r i e n c e and sh o u ld be c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w ith t h e o t h e r m usic a c tiv itie s

o f th e d a i l y program .

E v alu atio n . ev alu ate

M u sic ian s m ust l e a r n

t h e aim s an d p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e m u sic p ro g ra m i n

o rd e r to d eterm in e i f th e s e have a p la c e e d u c a tio n a l program . p rac tic es,

o l d and new.

the b eg in n in g ,

Perhaps t h i s req u ires

in t h e m odern

E v a l u a t i o n m ust c o n s i d e r a l l aim s and M usic r e a d i n g an d t h e o r y ,

th e y have been in clu d ed in since

to a n a ly z e and

are

the

still

alth o u g h

c u r r ic u lu m o f m usic s t u d i e s in

the

experim ental sta g e .

p h a s e o f m u sic t e a c h i n g more th a n a n y o t h e r

t h e com bined e f f o r t s

of s c ie n tis ts ,

m u sician s,

3 Herman P. Smith, Music Educators1 National Confer­ ence Yearbook (Chicago; Music Educators1 National Conference,

1339)7' p7 175.

71 and e d u c a to r s ,

In o r d e r to

c o r r e c t the f a u l t s .

Problem s In th e o r y sh o u ld n o t be c o n s id e r e d an o b jectiv e

i n m u sic r e a d i n g b u t r a t h e r an outcom e o f su c h

a program .

W hereas in t h e p a s t ,

p ro b le m s w ere o u t l i n e d

p articu lar

for certain

grades,

d o u b ts th e v alu e o f such a p ro ce d u re. f a c t t h a t m usic e d u c a to r s d i s a g r e e to be ta u g h t,

still

r e s e a r c h so t h a t

little

sc ie n tific

th eo re tic al t o d a y one

In s p i t e

of th e

on t h e a m o u n t o f t h e o r y

h a s b e e n d o n e I n t h e way o f c o n c lu s io n s can be draw n.

A n o th e r p h a se o f t h e m usic r e a d i n g program w hich w arran ts

ev alu atio n

is

or w ithout s y lla b le s .

t h a t o f te a c h i n g m usic r e a d i n g w ith The w r i t e r w o u ld l i k e

to

suggest

th e fo llo w in g reasons fo r not u sing s y lla b le s ; 1.

They a r e d i s l i k e d above t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s .

2.

They d e l a y l e a r n i n g b y

p u p il and h i s

s ta n d in g betw een th e

e x p ressio n o f a m u sical Id ea.

3.

They a re

seldom u se d e x c e p t In t h e m usic

4.

T h e y do n o t s e r v e w e l l i n m o d u l a t i o n s .

5.

T h ey do n o t h a v e a s u r v i v a l v a l u e .

6.

T eachers r e p o r t success w ith o u t

song

lesso n .

S ince

sy llab les.

s y l l a b l e s a r e u s e d In t h e t e a c h i n g o f m usic

r e a d in g in p r e s e n t - d a y te x tb o o k s and s in c e t h i s is

fo llo w ed g e n e r a lly th ro u g h o u t

th ese

sug g estio n s,

th e c o u n try ,

procedure w ould n o t

reg ard in g th e ir apparent u se le ssn e ss,

72 prove reaso n

enough to w a rra n t f u r t h e r

New t e a c h i n g general tren d s S ev en ,^ i t

tech n iq u e.

in m usic re a d in g

In c o n sid era tio n in d icated

o f the

in C hapter

w o u l d s e e m t h a t t h i s m o d e r n o u t l o o k w o u l d make

m a n y new d e m a n d s u p o n t h e t e a c h e r . th at

in v estig atio n f

M iss Perham s u g g e s t s

t h e s e demands a r e a s f o l l o w s : F i r s t o f a l l , h i s c o n c e r n i s t o m ak e p o s s i b l e many m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e l i f e o f th e c h il d and th e sc h o o l. These e x p e rie n c e s a r e n o t in te n d e d p r i m a r i l y a s a so u rc e o f pow er. S e c o n d , th e t e a c h e r m ust t h i n k and p la n f o r e x p e r i e n c e s in m u sic w hich w i l l c r e a t e a n e e d f o r m usic r e a d i n g , and w hich w i l l d e v e lo p a r e a d i n e s s for i t . T h ird , he m ust be w i l l i n g to a d j u s t such e x p e r i e n c e s t o t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l o f t h e c h i l d 1s u n d e rsta n d in g and g ra s p , and n o t to o v e rlo a d him w i t h s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n ts and t e c h n i q u e s beyond h is stag e of m atu ratio n . However, t h e t e a c h e r m ust r e c o g n iz e t h e s e a s e v e n tu a l n e e d s to be c a r e d f o r i n due c o u rs e o f tim e . O nly t h u s can he g u a rd a g a in s t n e g a tiv e a t t i t u d e s and s t r a i n . 5 T h e s e new dem ands i n d i c a t e

need a n e c e ssa ry re v is io n .

th a t teach in g

tech n iq u es

As m u s i c t e a c h e r s a n d e d u c a t o r s ,

we s h o u l d s e e k t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e f i e l d

of e d u catio n al r e ­

s e a r c h i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e b e t t e r ways o f b r i n g i n g t o t h e c h i l d t h e b e s t i n m u sic an d o f d e v e l o p i n g i n him g r e a t e r

4

S u p ra , p . 65.

5 B e a t r i c e P e r h a m , M u s i c i n t h e New S c h o o l ( R e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; C h i c a g o : N e i l A. K j o s M u s i c C o m p an y , 1 9 4 1 ) , pp.

115-116.

73 p o t e n t i a l i t i e s b y g i v i n g him a means o f e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f th ro u g h h i s m usic.

BIBLIOGRAPHY"

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , M usic E d u c a t i o n in the E lem en tary S c h o o l. Sacram ento: C a li f o r n ia S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n , 1939. 152 p p . D a v i s o n , A r c h i b a l d Thompson, M usic E d u c a t i o n i n A m e r i c a . W hat i s W rong W i t h I t ? What S h a l l We Do A b o u t I t ? New Y o r k ? H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 2 6 . 73 p p . D y k e m a , P e t e r W . , a n d H a n n a h M. C u n d i f f , New S c h o o l M u s i c H a n d b o o k . B o s t o n ; C. C. B i r c h a r d a n d C o m p an y, 1 9 3 9 . 382 p p . E a r h a r t , W i l l , The M e an in g a n d T e a c h i n g o f M u s i c . W itm ark a n d S o n s , 1 9 3 5 . 25 p p .

New Y o r k

G e h r k e n s , K a r l W ils o n , M usic i n t h e G rade S c h o o l s . C. C. B i r c h a r d a n d C o m pan y, 1 9 3 4 . 233 p p .

B oston;

H u b b a rd , G eorge E . , M usic T e a c h in g i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y G rades. New Y o r k ; A m e r i c a n B oo k C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 4 . 228 p p . M a y n e , Thomas R o b e r t , M u s i c i n t h e M o d e r n S c h o o l . P h i l a d e l p h i a ; D a v i d McKay C o m p an y , 1 9 3 4 . 240 p p . M u r s e l l , J a m e s L o c k h a r t , Human V a l u e s i n M u s i c E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : S i l v e r B u r d e t t a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 4 . 388 p p . _________ , a n d M a b e l l e G l e n n , T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f S c h o o l M usic T e a c h i n g . New Y o r k : S i l v e r B u r d e t t a n d Co m pan y, 1931. 378 p p . N o r t o n , Alm a M . , T e a c h i n g S c h o o l M u s i c . C. C. C r a w f o r d , 1 9 3 2 . 248 p p .

Los A n g e le s :

P e r h a m , B e a t r i c e , M u s i c i n t h e New S c h o o l . R e v i s e d e d i t i o n ; C h i c a g o ; N e i l A. K j o s M u s i c C o m p an y , 1 9 4 1 . 188 p p . P e r k i n s , C l e l l a L e s t e r , How t o T e a c h M u s i c t o C h i l d r e n . C h i c a g o ; H a l l a n d M c C r e a r y C o m p an y, 1 9 3 6 . 216 p p .

76 S i l v e y , C l e l Thurman, A S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l R e a c t i o n s t o t h e S o l m i z a t i o n M ethod o f T e a c h i n g M usic R e a d i n g * N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e ; G eorge P eabody C o lle g e f o r T e a ch e rs, 1937. 82 p p . W r i g h t , P r a n c e s , E l e m e n t a r y M usic E d u c a t i o n . Lymanhouse, 1939. 238 p p .

Los A n g e l e s :

_________ , M o n o g r a p h s on S c h o o l M u s i c . E l e m e n t a r y G r a d e S e r i e s , N um be r O n e . U n iv ersity of C a lifo rn ia a t Los A n g e le s , 1934. 52 p p . Z a n z i g , A u g u s t u s D . , The C o n c o rd T e a c h e r s 1 G u i d e . E . C. S c h i r m e r M u s i c C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 2 . 59 p p . B.

B oston;

MUSIC SERIES

A S i n g i n g S c h o o l M u s i c S e r i e s , M e r r y M u s i c t T e a c h e r 1s M anual. B o s t o n ; C. C. B i r c h a r d a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 4 0 . 62 p p . A S i n g i n g S c h o o l M u s i c S e r i e s , O u r S o n g s , T e a c h e r 1s M a n u a l . B o s t o n s C. C. B i r c h a r d a n d Co m p an y, 1 9 4 0 . 60 p p . T h e M u s i c H o u r , E l e m e n t a r y T e a c h e r 1s B o o k . New Y o r k : S i l v e r , B u r d e t t a n d C o m pany, 1 9 2 9 . 260 p p . The M u sic H o u r , I n t e r m e d i a t e T e a c h e r 1s B o o k . New Y o r k : S i l v e r , B u r d e t t a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 8 . 40 8 p p . The W o rld o f M u s ic , M usic T e a c h i n g i n New Y o r k : G i n n a n d C o m pany, 1 9 3 6 .

In term ed iate G rades. 85 p p .

The W orld o f M u s ic , M u sic T e a c h i n g i n K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d P rim ary G ra d es. New Y o r k ; G i n n a n d C o m pany , 1 9 3 6 . 132 pp. C.

PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

B e a t t i e , J o h n W . , f?A N e e d f o r R e - E v a l u a t i o n o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l M u s i c , Music S u p e r v i s o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C o n fe re n c e Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic S u p e r v i s o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C onference, 1931. Pp. 349-355.

77 B i r g e , E d w a r d B . , "A B a s i c P r o g r a m f o r M u s i c S t u d y i n G r a d e s P o u r , F i v e , an d S i x , ” M usic E d u c a t o r s 1 N a t i o n a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic E d u c a to r s * N a tio n a l C o n fe re n ce , 1938. Pp. 401-404. . "S tan d ard s o f A ttain m en t in S ig h t S in g in g a t th e End o f t h e S i x t h G r a d e , " M usic S u p e r v i s o r s * N a t i o n a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic S u p e r v i s o r s * N a tio n a l C on feren ce, 1928. Pp. 366-381. B r y a n t , L a u r a , "The F u n c t i o n o f R o te S i n g i n g a n d M usic R e a d in g i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , " M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a tio n a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic E d u c a to r s * N a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e , 1936. Pp. 137-139. C r o w e l l , W ilh e lm in a S . , " B e g in n i n g S i g h t R e a d i n g , " M usic E d u c a to r s * N a tio n a l C onference Y earbook. C hicago; M usic E d u c a to rs * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 193 7 . P. 252. C u r t i s , L o u is W . , "M usic T h e o r y ," T h i r t y - f i f t h Y e a rb o o k o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e Study o f E d u c a tio n . P a r t I I , M usic E d u c a t i o n . B loom ington, I l l i n o i s ; P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1 9 3 6 . Pp. 109-120. C u r t i s , R u th L . , " R o te S i n g i n g a n d M usic R e a d in g i n t h e G r a d e s , " M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b o o k . C h ic a g o : M usic E d u c a to r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1936. P. 140. D e n u e s , J o h n , "The C o u r s e o f S t u d y i n M usic i n B a l t i m o r e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , " M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r ­ ence Y earbook. C hicago? M usic E d u c a to r s * N a t i o n a l C o n feren ce, 1937. Pp. 101-104. G e h r k e n s , K a r l W . , "A C o u r s e o f S t u d y f o r G r a d e s O n e , Two, a n d T h r e e , " M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1936. Pp. 164-170. G raham , P e r c y , "The F u n c t i o n o f R o te S i n g i n g a n d M usic R e a d in g i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y G r a d e s , " M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a tio n a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o : M usic E d u c a to r s * N a t i o n a l C o n fe re n c e ', 193 6 . Pp. 141-146. H o p k i n s , L. Thomas, "The P l a c e o f C r e a t i v e M u sic i n t h e C u r r ic u lu m o f t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , " M usic E d u c a t o r s * N a tio n a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o : M usic E d u c a to r s * N a tio n a l C onference, 1936. Pp. 155-157.

78 J a c o b s e n , I r v i n g , "An A n a l y s i s o f E y e - M o v e m e n t s i n R e a d i n g M u s i c a n d B e a r i n g o f t h a t S t u d y Upon M e t h o d s a n d P r o c e d u r e i n S c h o o l T r a i n i n g , " M usic S u p e r v i s o r s T N a tio n a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic S u p e r ­ v i s o r s ’ N a tio n a l C onference, 1928. Pp. 284-289. M i e s s n e r , W. O t t o , "Names f o r T o n e s , " M u s i c S u p e r v i s o r s ’ N a tio n a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic S u p e r v i ­ s o r s ’ N a tio n a l C onference, 1931. Pp. 151-161, M i l l e r , C. H . , " S i g h t R e a d i n g W i t h o u t S y l l a b l e s , " M u s i c S u p e r v i s o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n ce Y e a rb o o k . C hicago; M usic S u p e r v i s o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 1 . Pp. 8 0 -8 6 . M u r s e l l , Jam es L . , "M usic i n t h e C u r r i c u l u m a n d L i f e , " M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b o o k . C hicago; M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 6 . Pp. 39-42. , "R eading M u sic ," T h i r t y - f i f t h Y earbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tudy o f E d u c a tio n , P a r t I I , M usic E d u c a t i o n . B loom ington, I l l i n o i s ; P u b lic School P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1 9 3 6 . Pp. 99-107. _________ , "Some F u n d a m e n t a l P r i n c i p l e s o f M u s i c I n s t r u c t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e M usic S u p e r v i s o r s ’ N a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e « 1930, pp. 99-105. , "The E s s e n t i a l s o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l M u s ic ," M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e Y e a r b o o k . C hicago: M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 8 . Pp. 70-73. " O u t l i n e o f a P ro g ra m f o r M usic E d u c a t i o n , " A R e p o r t t o M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . C h i c a g o ; M usic E d u c a to rs ’ N a tio n a l C onference, 1939. Pp. 132-133.

the

P i e r c e , A n n a E . , "A C h a l l e n g e t o C om m o nly A c c e p t e d P r a c t i c e s i n E l e m e n t a r y M usic E d u c a t i o n , " M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n ­ a l C onference Y earbook. C h ic a g o ; M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a tio n a l C onference, 1937. Pp. 150-154. P i t t s , L i l i a B e l l e , "M usic E d u c a t i o n and I m p o r t a n t C u r r i c u l a r T r e n d s , " M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e re n c e Y e a r b o o k . C h ic a g o ; M usic E d u c a t o r s ’ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 9 1940. Pp. 128-131. R e b m a n n , V i c t o r , L. F . , " E x p e r i m e n t s i n T e a c h i n g S i g h t R e a d in g W ith S y s te m s O t h e r Than t h e M ovable D o , " J o u r n a l o f P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e M usic S u p e r v i s o r s ’ N a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e . 1930, pp. 279-281.