A STUDY OF THE PRESENT PRACTICES IN HEALTH INSTRUCTION FOR BOYS IN THE PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF OHIO

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The Pennsylvania State College The Graduate School Department of Health, Physical Education and Recreation'

A Study of the Present Practices in Health Instruction for Boys in the Public Secondary Schools of Ohio

A dissertation Richard Thomas Mackey

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education September 1950 Approved:

M .f k.

Professor of Physical Education, Chairman

V / / k ~ j j & A __________________________

Associate Professor of Physical Education

Professor of Psychology

Professor of Education

G

a m m s JT (s

zx;/m

yjj-jp-cx harge of'^rofessi of 'Professional Health and Inc’5heirge Physical Education and Research

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The writer wishes to express his sincere graditude to his wife, Marjorie Ann Meckey who was a constant source of help and encouragement throughout the entire undertaking.

To Jeanne Ann Mackey, our daughter

who was horn August 20, 1950, this dissertation is dedicated. In addition, the writer would like to express his appreciation for assistance rendered by Dr. Lloyd Jones, Dr. Edward Van Ormer, and the other members of his committee.

August 25, 1950

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

I.

1

INTRODUCTION Historical development of health education in the United States ................................

2

Historical development of health education in Ohio

6

. .

Credit and time allotment ................. . . . . .

8

Content ...........................................

9

Textbooks

................

10

T e a c h e r s ...................................

10

The problem.........................................

12

Statement of the p r o b l e m ..........................

12

Purpose of the study

...... ■ ....................

13

Importance of the study............................

13

Definitions of terms u s e d ............................

14-

Health, health education, and health instruction

...

14-

A unit and a credit................................

14-

Local school health council

15

...................

Separate health c o u r s e ......................

15

Senior high s c h o o l ................................

16

Junior high s c h o o l ......................

16

Junior-senior high school ..........................

16

Small, medium, and large senior, junior-senior, and junior high s c h o o l s ..........................

16

Methods and procedures

..............................

17

~

ii CHAPTER

PAGE

II.

22

III.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.............................. Studies on the status of health education in the secondary schools of an entire s t a t e .........

22

Studies on health education programs of certain groups of secondary schools within a state .........

26

Studies on secondary schools health education programs in an area including several s t a t e s .......

28

Studies on studies concerned with one phase of the health education programs in secondary schools . . . .

31

Summary

..................................

31

ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH EDUCATION P R O G R A M S ..................................

34-

Health education as a required or elective course

35

. .

The amount of health education required of all s t u d e n t s ........................................

4-0

Methods of teaching health education...............

52

Methods of classifying students for health education................................

56

Segregation of boys and girls in health education classes ......................................

58

Teachers of health education classes ...............

60

Methods used and amount of credit given for health education........................................

63

Places where health education classes are held . . . .

66

S u m m a r y ...........................................

68

Senior high s c h o o l s ..............................

68

Junior-senior high schools ........................

70

Junior high s c h o o l s ..............................

72

CHAPTER

PAGE

IV. THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM..............................

75

..................................

112

Senior high schools................................

112

Junior-senior high s c h o o l s ........................

116

Junior high schools...............

120

Summary

V. PERSONNEL..............................................

124

Summary................................ ; ...........

137

Senior high schools................................

137

Junior-senior high s c h o o l s ........................

140

Junior high schools

142

........................

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.............

144

Summary.........................................

144

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

...........

153

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................

156

APPENDIX

163

iv LIST OF TABLES TABLE

PAGE

I.

Schools Responding to Questionnaire ....................

20

II.

Positions of Respondents..............................

36

III.

Requirement of the Course in Health....................

37

TV.

Grades iriWhich Health Instruction is Required ...........

41

Semesters in Which Health is Required.........

44

VI.

Periods Per Week Health Instruction is G i v e n ...........

45

VII.

Time Allotted to Health as Compared with the State ...................................... Recommendation

47

VIII.

Length of the Health Instruction Class Period ...........

50

IX.

Size of Health Education C l a s s e s ......................

51

Methods of Teaching Health

53

V.

X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVTI. XVIII. XIX.

...................

Classification Used in Assigning Students to Health Education C l a s s e s ......................

57

Segregation in Health Education Classes on the Basis of Sex ........................................

59

Teachers of Boys' Classes ..............................

61

Teachers of Mixed Classes

62

............................

Method of Giving Credit for H e a l t h .....................

64

Credit in Health Required for Graduation

65

...............

Places Where Health Education Classes are Held Courses of Study Used in Teaching Health

......

67

...............

76

Instructional Materials Used in Teaching Health..........

78

XX.

Authors of Text Books Being Used in Teaching Health . . . .

79

XXI.

Publication Dates of Text Books Used in Teaching H e a l t h ......................................

60

V

TABLE

PAGE

XXII.

Equipment used in Health Education C l a s s e s ...........

83

XXIII.

Activities Planned for Incidental Instruction in H e a l t h .........................................

84.

Devices Used to Gear Health Instruction to Needs of S t u d e n t s .......................................

86

Courses in Which Separate Units in Health are Taught

88

XXIV. XXV. XXVI.

Agencies which Aid in the Health Education Program

. . ...

90

XXVII.

Field Trips Taken During One Y e a r ....................

92

XXVIII.

Places Visited on Field Trips ........................

93

XXIX.

Health Achievement Tests Used.........................

95

XXX.

Persons Responsible for Orienting Students Concerning Purpose of Health Examination ...........

97

XXXI.

Organization of a Local School Health Council .........

99

XXXII.

Units Taught in the Health Education P r o g r a m .........

101

XXXIII.

Pupils who Receive Instruction in Sex Education.......

103

XXXIV.

Grades in Which Sex Education is O f f e r e d .............

106

XXXV.

Methods of Teaching Sex Education....................

107

XXXVI.

Titles of Sex Education Courses ......................

109

XXXVII.

Persons who Teach Sex Education......................

110

XXXVIII.

Grades in Which Boys and Girls are Segregated for Sex E d u c a t i o n ......................................

Ill

Supervisors of Health Teachers

125

XXXIX. XL. XLI. XLII. XLIII. XLIV.

.......................

Health Teachers Certified to Teach Health in Ohio . . . .

127

Educational Preparation of Health Teachers

...........

129

Area of Preparation of Health T e a c h e r s ...............

131

Teaching Experience of Health Teachers

...............

133

Per Cent of Health Teachers1 Total Teaching Load Spent in Teaching Health............................

135

vi TABLE XLV. YT.VT.

PAGE Subjects Other Than Health Taught by Health Teachers . . .

136

Duties of Health Teachers Other Than Classroom T e a c h i n g ........................

138

CHAPTER

I

INTRODUCTION Health is an important value in the scale of those things that modern Americans consider worth while. among all classes.

An interest in health is widespread

This interest is to be expected for health has a

practical aspect which makes it of vital concern to all.

Without health

an individual may be restricted in realizing his full potentialities. Such important things as making friends, earning a livelihood, and achieving: status as a member of a community may be difficult where health is lacking. Health in the modern sense does not merely refer to an absence of disease.

It is true that efficient bodily function is an important

aspect of good health but health encompasses other things as well.

There

are mental, social and psychological facets inaidition to the physical aspect.

The development of attitudes which cause an individual to wisely

select his food, to present a wholesome appearance, to be a well-liked member of his social group, and to have a cheerful, confident outlook on life are but a few examples of what is meant by health in this broad sense. Due to the increasing understanding of the role of

healthful

living, there have been continuous efforts made to improve and preserve the health of mankind.

Great strides have been made in combatting

disease and ignorance in the America and in many other parts of the world. Mortality and morbidity rates for diseases such as tuberculosis, diphtheria,

2 and smallpox have steadily decreased.

Fewer infants die at birth and the

average life expectancy has greatly increased.

A further examination of

statistics, however, -will point up two facts.

First, there are still many

unsolved health problems.

Poliomyelitis, rheumatic fever, cancer and heart

disease are still having dreaded effects on American people. health problems are constantly appearing.

Second, new

The increasing complexity of

modern life, the mass movement toward urbanization, and the increased number of aged people are factors in the creation of these new problems. .One needs only to investigate the number of patients in our mental hospitals or observe the prevalence of diseases of old age to obtain proof of their existence.

In view of these facts it can be stated with certainty that

the attainment of good health for everyone is and will continue to be one of the nation*s most urgent and persistent problems. Educators have for a great many years proclaimed that the health 1 of the nation is of prime importance. The leading aim of all systems of physical education has been the maintenance of health.

Not until late

in the nineteen century, however, was there a distinction between health education and physical education.

While health education developed as

a branch of physical education it must be noted that the separation has never been a complete one.

They are still considered in many regions

of the country as constituting one and the same field. Historical development of health education in the United States. One of the first important milestones in the history of school health

1

The Purpose of Education in American Democracy. Education Policies Commission, ^Washington, D. C.: National Education Association of the United States, 1938)> p. 61.

3 education was the first annual congress of the School Hygiene Association of America.

This congress convened in Washington, D. C. during the early

part of this century.

The following resolutions were passed:

"That in every city and town adequate provisions should be made both for sanitary inspection of schools and medical inspection of school children. That all schools having courses for the training of teachers should give instruction in personal and school hygiene, and the principles and practice of physical training and that each of these subjects should be given as much time as the major subjects in the c o u r s e . The actions of this congress were to give great impetus to a growing movement, for health education as a school subject had just been introduced. The subject matter of the early textbooks used in teaching the course in personal hygiene, contained facts concerning the structure and functions of the different parts of the body, and abundant warning against injurious habits of living.

The instruction was seldom regarded as

interesting either by the teacher or the pupils and it seemed scarcely applicable to the child’s life.

When, however, the sciences of the body

and the causes of disease became better known, and methods of instruction improved, health education came to be regarded as the greatest single factor in the prevention of illness. to several problems.

Health education offered a solution

First, it was a means of preventing a great deal

of unnecessary human suffering.

Second, it was a means of preventing

economic problems, due to long periods of illness.

Third, it was the

means of increasing the earning power of the entire nation; statisticians had calculated the great losses sustained through sickness.

2

Fourth, it

Emmett A. Rice, A Brief History of Physical Education (New Yorks Barnes and Company, 1929), p. 24-6.

A.S.

would reduce to a great extent the absence from school which was the cause of retardation of many pupils.-^ It was from these beginnings that health education developed. Outstanding contributions to this growth were made by the American Child Health Association, founded in 1918.

Due to its close cooperation with

the U.S. Office of Education, its recommendations have been given close attention and wide acceptance.

Among the things advocated by this group

were (l) time should be allowed every day for the teaching of health, (2) normal schools should train all teachers to teach health habits, and (3 ) school children should have frequent medical examinations.^ Other organizations which were instrumental in promoting national health through health education ares

the American Association for Health,

Physical Education and Recreation; the American Medical Association; the National Recreation Association; and the American Public Health Association With the passing of time the original concept of health education with its emphasis on physical soundness, gradually expanded. more was read into the meaning of health.

More and

It was found that a psychosis

or neurosis was more detrimental to the health of an individual than flat feet and that emotional breakdowns were as serious as physical breakdowns. This broadened concept of health is expressed in the definition of the World Health Organizations

3

Ibid.. p. 24-7.

health is a state of complete physical, mental,

5 and social ■well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.'* This definition of health is positive; it means more than merely preventing illness.

It implies a healthy organism and a healthy personality.

It also implies that health problems should have practical solutions and thus came the change in the emphasis of health education in public school.s. For years children had been made to memorize such things as the bones of the skeleton and dozens of health rules or axioms.

No thought or regard

was given to their attitudes or health practices but to the number of facts they could accumulate and recite at the proper time.

The new approach

was intended to make health vital and interesting for health principles were put into action as the children actually developed good health attitudes and habits.

Visual aids, field trips, and a variety of ingenious

methods were employed to make health appealing and meaningful.

The latest

theories concerning the psychology of learning were utilized in attempts to make health a significant part of the lives of children. This new thinking with respect to health brought about an accompanying change in the organizational aspect of the school health education program.

"Where formerly the health programs had been but one

facet of the physical education programs, they came to be under the direction of professionally trained health educators. three main divisions: health instruction.

5

The programs were divided into

namely, health service, healthful school living and Health service is a term which is used to designate

Constitution of the World Health Organization. United Nations Documents, (Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office, July 1% 6), p. 105.

6

the various protective measures assumed by the school to conserve «nd improve the health of children.

Healthful school living has been defined

as a term that designates the provision of a wholesome environment, the organization of a healthful school day, and the establishment of teaeherpupil relationships that give a safe and sanitary school favorable to the best development and living of teachers and pupils.^

Health instruction

is concerned with equipping the child with sufficient knowledge about health, favorable attitudes toward health, and desirable health habits. As is to be expected, there was great variation with respect to the manner in which school health programs were administered.

There

were also various schools of thought in regard to the nature and scope of each of the three phases of the health programs.

The fundamental

concept of this whole new approach, however, is basic to an understanding of the development of health education in this country. Historical development of health education in Ohio. What was true in the development of health education on the national level was generally true with respect to the individual states.

Health education

as a field had its beginnings in Ohio in the year 1839 when teachers began the teaching of safety rules to their pupils.

Further signs of growth in

the school curriculum, beyond the three

were manifested in 1881 by

"Rr-s,"

the adoption of sanitary measures of heating and ventilating of all public and private agencies maintained for educational purposes.

6

In that same

"Definition of terms in Health Education," Health Education Committee Report, Journal of Health and Physical Education. 5*16, December 1934*

7 year health teachers were required to be certified in the teaching of •'Physiology and Hygiene,”

as health education was then called. In 1886 and it was required of all school officials, superintendents, /teachers, that they be thoroughly trained in school sanitation.

A few years later, in

1900, ’’Scientific Temperance” replaced ’’Physiology and Hygiene” as the name of the health education course.

To the former course which had

placed great emphasis on the function and structure of the body was added the study of the causes and effects of the use of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics.

Varying conditions were prevalent until 1923, when the

state took over the reins and made compulsory the teaching of health and physical education.

The law, however, had no means of enforcement.

In 1927, the first supervisor of health and-physical education was employed had the picture brightened considerably.

During his term of office,

policies were adopted, standards were established in regard to teacher training, and a teaching outline for the first six grades was placed at the disposal of all teachers of health in Ohio.

The second supervisor

of health and physical education who was appointed in 1932 developed 7 health outline lessons for grades seven to twelve. It was from these beginnings that health education as a field apart from physical education developed to its present place of importance in the curricula of Ohio public schools.

An examination of the present-

day legal provisions for health instruction is interesting in light of the historical development of the field.

7

Health instruction as a phase

Christiana Jones, ’’The Historical Development of Health Education in Ohio.” (unpublished Master's thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1938), pp. 61-71.

8 of health education has been less subject to control by the State Department of Education than has the more obvious aspect, health service.

Certain

standards and requirements have been imposed by the state dealing with such specific problems as building requirements, control of communicable diseases, and fire protection. health instruction.

Such is not the case with many phases of

Teacher qualifications, curricula, and problems

associated with the teaching of exceptional children within the public schools, among others, have been provided for only incidentally or generally.

c>

The following is a synopsis of the Ohio school laws as they 9 pertain to health education: Credit and time allotment. Under Section 7721, Ohio General Code, it is stipulated thus:

"All pupils in the elementary and secondary schools ..

shall receive ... such physical education ... as approved by the Director of Education and the physical education provided shall occupy not less than 100 minutes per school week.M Under Section 7723*

"The nature of alcoholic

and other narcotics and their effects on the human system ... shall be in­ cluded in the branches to be regularly taught in ... schools of the state." Under Section 7724*

”Boards of education ... shall make provisions for

this instruction giving definite time and place therefore in the regular course of study ...."

Under Section 772^-1*

"It shall be the duty of each

8

Esther Blackburn, "The Legal Aspects of Health Education in Ohio," (unpublished Master’s thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1940), p. 3.

9

School Laws of Ohio. (Columbus, Ohio: 19435, pp. 109-122.

State Department of Education,

9 teacher in the public schools ... to devote not less than thirty minutes in each month ... for instructing the pupils as to ways and means of preventing accidents.*1 Whether or not academic credit shall be given for health instruction is not provided in the Code. Content. The determination of course of study in health instruction has been almost entirely left up to the judgment of the local school administrators.

In addition to laws listed above:

Section 7724*-2:

"The

superintendent of public instruction shall distribute, at the expense of the state, a manual ... for the guidance of teachers in carrying out the provisions of this act."

Section 7728:

"Any school official or employee ...

who neglects to ... give ... instruction as to the nature and effect of alcoholic drinks and ... narcotics shall ... pay for each offense the sum of twenty-five dollars."

Section 7688-1:

"The Friday nearest the sixteenth

day of January of each school year shall be set apart as a day on which those in charge of the public schools ... shall spend at least two hour‘s time to carrying out a temperance day program as prepared by the Superin­ tendent of Public Instruction ..."

Section 12901:

"The State Fire Marshall

and the Superintendent of Public Instruction are ... empowered ... to provide a course of study in fire prevention ... each board of education ... shall compel the use of such course of study."

Section 12900:

"Whoever, ...

in charge of a public or private school ... neglects to instruct and train ... children by means of fire drill or rapid dismissals at least once a month while ... school ... is in operation shall be fined not less than five dollars nor more than twenty dollars for each offense."

10 Textbooks. There is no law dealing exclusively with textbooks for health instruction except Section 7739:

"Each board of education nay

furnish, free of charge, school books ... to be paid for out of the ... fund at its disposal ....

Pupils wholly or in part supplied with necessary

... books shall be supplied only as other or new books are needed.” Teachers. No laws dealing specifically with health teachers have been passed.

The teaching of health has usually been delegated to

the physical education teacher if no regular teacher is employed. It would appear from the foregoing that health education is not specifically provided for in the state laws of Ohio.

Perhaps indirectly

related to the Inadequate legal provisions for health education are some of the weaknesses which have been evident in the school programs.

The

result of selective service physical examinations given during World War II provides an excellent example of the failure of the schools to meet their obligations and responsibilities for the health of individuals of a community, state, and nation.

From the time of the first publication of

selective service examination results, late in 191+0, throughout the war, and to the present there has been grave concern over the fact that our supposedly healthiest men were far from being in the physical condition credited to them.

The shrinking death rates and the increasing life

expectancy lulled the public into thinking that, as a nation, they were a healthy lot.

When the results of the selective service examinations "burst

the bubble" everyone pointed the finger of blame at the medical profession and school health and physical education personnel.

That the criticism was

justified, at least in regard to health and physical education might appear

11 to be true.

The results of the examinations shoved that forty per cent

of the twenty-two million men of military age, between eight and nine million men, were unfit for general military service.10

Although the

percentage of rejections in Ohio was twenty-eight and thus below the national average, it was still unreasonably high.

More important than

the mere numbers involved are the types of disabilities for which men were rejected for military service.

The national figures showed that the ten

leading causes for rejection were!

mental disease, mental deficiency,

musculoskeletal defects, cardiovascular defects, hernia, syphilis, neurological defects, eye defects, ear defects, and tuberculosis.

In considering these

leading causes for rejection, it was found that there is not one among them that could not have been greatly influenced either directly or indirectly by school health and physical education.

Eye and ear defects could have

been either prevented or reduced greatly by proper care during school years. Mental diseases and deficiency can be influenced by proper education of children and adults.

Actual remedial work must be done by private practitioners,

private agencies, and public agencies such as clinics and hospitals.

The

stress of every day school life and homework may lead to nervous breakdowns and instability.

Musculoskeletal defects could be influenced both by

remedial and preventive practices in our physical education programs if properly conducted. The cardiovascular defects could not be greatly changed education by school health/except that the students would become aware of the defect and regulate their activities accordingly.

10

Thus more serious damage would

Physical Examinations of Selective Service Registrants During Wartime. (Washington, D. G.s National Headquarters Selective Service System November 1, 1944)> P. 7.

12 be avoided.

Hernia can be corrected by surgery in most cases.

The pupil

should be shown the advantages of having them corrected as soon as possible. Teaching of units concerned with the venereal diseases and their dangers can easily be incorporated in the school health education program.

Tuberculosis

is being vigorously attacked try education in the schools with very good results.^ In view of these findings the need for improved health education in Ohio should be obvious.

All the forces and agencies concerned with

health education in the state must be joined in a coordinated effort if results are to be achieved.

The public schools will have to carry a major

portion of the responsibility.

One vital factor in this program of improve­

ment with respect to the school health education programs is the need for greater uniformity in health instruction practices.

I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem. This study consisted of an investigation of present practices in health instruction for boys in the public secondary schools of Ohio. considered:

The following aspects of the school health programs were

(l) organization and administration; (2) instruction program;

and (3) personnel.

The major emphasis was on the instructional phase of

the school health programs.

11

The other two phases, health services and

Matthew C. Resick, HA Study of the Defects Causing Rejections in Selective Service Examinations in World Wars I and II and Their Implications for Health and Physical Education,11 (unpublished Master*s thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 194-7), pp. 41-62.

13 healthful school living, were dealt with only as they pertained directly to the actual teaching of health. Purpose of the study. It was the purpose of this study to determine what the public secondary schools of Ohio were doing with respect to the teaching of health to boys.

Little attempt was made to evaluate the health

instruction programs but rather the objective was to discover actual practices. Health instruction practices refer to such things ass

length of the class

period, total time allotted to health teaching, methods of teaching, content of the program, teaching aids used, and the preparation and experience of the teachers. Importance of the study.

The available evidence indicates that

this study was the first of its kind conducted in the state of Ohio.

For

the first time the facts concerning health instruction for boys in the public secondary schools were collected and analyzed.

This study should

make a contribution to health education in Ohio in several ways.

First,

the health teachers in the secondary schools should find it possible to compare their use of teaching methods and teaching aids.

It was hoped

that in making this comparison teachers would be stimulated to evaluate their programs and initiate improvements where needed.

Second, it should

enable school administrators to discover how their schools conformed and deviated from others with respect to time allottment, sizes of health classes, credit given for health, and other administrative practices.

A desired out­

come of the administrators' enlightenment regarding these facts would be the initiation of a move toward wider use of the better administrative pro­ cedures.

Third, the Office of the State Supervisor of Health, Physical

u Education, Recreation and Safety should find this study of value in determin­ ing the degree to which schools are complying with state recommendations, and in discovering the range of differences in methods and procedures used in health teaching.

Attempts by state and local professional groups to bring

about greater uniformity in health instruction practices might well be furthered through the use of this information.

Fourth, teacher-education

institutions within the state should find an over view of health instruc­ tion practices in the secondary schools of value in gearing their curricula to the needs of their students.

II.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

Health, health education, and health instruction. These terms were regarded as synonymous.

They were interpreted as meaning the sum of

instruction given within the curriculum which has for its aim the improve­ ment of health conduct of the individual.

Many subjects, departments and

other phases of school life were thought of as contributing to this instruction. Within the curriculum itself the instruction could be given directly as a unit element or it could be offered in integration and correlation with other subjects.

12

A unit and a credit. The term "unit1* had two meanings. of one interpretation follows:

An example

when referring to a unit on mental hygiene

taught in a course in health education, the unit was considered that portion

12

A School Health Policy for Ohio (Columbus, Ohio: Association, October, 194A)> p. 7.

Ohio Public Health

15 of the entire course which was devoted to instruction in the area of mental hygiene.

In the other instances, a unit was construed to mean instruction

in any course (Health education, English, geometry, etc.)

five periods per

week for one full school year (36 weeks) or its e q u i v a l e n t T h e term "credit" referred to the value awarded for the completion of one unit of instruction as defined in the latter interpretation of the term "unit." Local school health council. This term refers to a committee within a school consisting of the school administrator, a physician, a nurse, a dentist, the health educator, teachers of physical education, biology as well as other subjects, and the head janitor. will vary according to the size of the school.

This personnel

The function of the school

health council is to determine and implement wise school health policies in the light of local and immediate needs.

The council members do not

dictate or control the health activities of the school; they act as an advisory board that will assist when requested.^Separate health course.

As defined by the Ohio Public Health

Association this is a special course in health instruction taught by specially trained teachers.

In the teaching of this course full time

would be devoted to subject matter in the health field.

A course in which

health was taught in conjunction with another subject such as biology or home economics was not considered a separate health course. 13

15

Ohio High School Standards in Health. Physical Education. Recreation and Safety (Columbus. Ohio: State Department of Education, 194-6), p. 44.

14- Teachers Guide for an Activity Course in Healthful Living for Ohio High' School Youth (Columbus. Ohio: State Department of Health, 194-6), p. 17. 15

A School Health Policy for Ohio, op. cit., p. 20.

16 Senior high school. This term referred to any school which offers the four years of high school work necessary for graduation or the final three or two years of such a program. Junior high school. The term "junior high school" meant any school which was followed by two, three or four years of high school work. Junior-senior high school.

Schools consisting of a two-year

junior and a four-year senior high school, a three-year junior and a threeyear senior high, or any combination of separately organized junior high school and senior high school units under the administration of one principal were considered to be junior-senior high schools.

The same meaning was

given

to any school which immediately follows the elementary grades and offers more than the last four years of high school necessary for graduation but is organized as a single unit.^ Small, medium and large senior. junior-senior and junior high schools. Small schools for each of the three organizational types mentioned were defined as school having a total pupil enrollment of from 0 to 250 pupils.

Medium schools had enrollments of from 251 to 750 pupils, and large

schools had enrollments of 751 pupils and over.

This classification system

represents an arbitrary standard formulated for this study, since insofar as could be determined,' there is no recognized standard method of classifying schools as to size in Ohio.

16

Directory of Secondary Schools in the United States, United States Office of Education (Washington, D.C.s United States Government Printing Office, January, 194-9), p. 1.

17 III.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES

The primary source of data for this study was questionnaires sent to all of the public secondary schools in Ohio. the Appendix.

The questionnaires were a modification of the ones used in

a similar study in Pennsylvania. reasons:

A copy is shown in

17

The modification was necessary for two

first, this study was limited to the health instruction program

for boys while the Pennsylvania study was a survey of both boys1 and girls* programs; and second, the terminology in health education is not the same in the two states.

With reference to making the terms used consistent with

those commonly employed by Ohio health teachers much assistance was rendered by Mr. Paul Landis, Ohio State Supervisor for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Safety. were also used.

Various Ohio State Department of Education publications

The questionnaire which finally evolved was organized to

include four areas:

general information, organization and administration,

instruction program, and personnel.

This questionnaire was not intended to

be used in evaluating the health instruction programs but rather to provide a means of determining the administrative and educational policies in terms of actual methods and procedures. In an effort to obtain a better return from the questionnaires the approval of the State Supervisor for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Safety was secured and a statement to that effect was included

17

Arthur F. Davis, and John W. Masley, '‘Present Practices in Health Instruction in the Public Secondary Schools of Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania Journal of Health. Physical Education and Recreation. 12: 7-9 October, 194-9.

in the letters of transmittal.

The letters of transmittal were two in

number, one directed to the school administrator and one to the health educator.

(A copy of these letters is in the Appendix.)

The questionnaires

and letters of transmittal were mailed to the 1213 school principals and superintendents the first week of December 194-9.

After three weeks at which

time approximately forty per cent of the schools had responded, follow-up postal cards were sent to the non-respondents. ineffective.

This effort was relatively

Approximately six weeks after the questionnaires were

originally sent out a second questionnaire was mailed which resulted in an additional thirteen per cent return.

Table I. shows the percentages

of returns according to schools which were divided into nine categories. This system of classification would enable school administrators or teachers in Ohio to compare more easily health instruction as practiced in their schools with the practices in schools of a similar size and type.

It should

be noted that this system is not the official method of classification employed by the State of Ohio.

Ohio schools are classified by the State

Department of Education as follows: exempted village schools.

city schools, county schools, and

Within each one of these categories are schools

of great variation with respect to both size and type, and therefore this system did not lend itself to use in this study. An attempt was made to obtain returns from a sufficient number of schools to make the findings representative of health instruction practices in secondary schools in the whole state.

The objective was not achieved,

however, for a chi-square test calculated from the data presented in Table I produced a value of 59.3. (n-l)

-

8 and x^

»

Entering the chi-square probability tables with

59.3 the value of P obtained was .00 which indicates

19 that there is very little chance that the proportions of returns in the various categories would occur in the same way in subsequent trials.

The

returns from schools in this study did not, therefore, represent the schools of Ohio as a whole. The data with respect to each category were considered separately in an attempt to arrive at accurate and valid interpretations and conclusions.

It should be pointed out that while the data obtained do

not represent the health instruction practices in the whole state, the per cent of returns from some types of schools were adequate.

In Table I,

specific reference is being made to the medium senior high schools with 84..9 per cent returns, the medium junior-senior high schools with 76.0 per cent, and the large junior-senior high schools with 90.2 per cent returns. To a lesser degree the responses from the large senior high schools, the medium junior high schools and the large junior high schools can be interpreted as representative of those types of schools.

With less than fifty per cent

returns from the small senior high, the small junior-senior high, and ibe small junior high schools, there can be little confidence that the data from these schools are typical of schools of these types.

In fact, a study

by Reid indicates that the replies from non-respondents would differ *1 C>

significantly from those of early respondents. The responses to the items in the questionnaires were tabulated on master charts, the data for each one of the nine categories of schools being kept separate.

18

The numbers and percentages for each of the various

Seerley Reid, "Respondents and Non-Respondents to Mail Questionnaires," Educational Research Bulletin, 21: 87-96, April 15, 1942.

20

TABLE

I

SCHOOLS RESPONDING TO QUESTIONNAIRE

Type of school

No. of schools

No. of schools responding

Per cent of responses

Small senior high Medium senior high Large senior high

205 73 60

84 62 40

41.0 84.9 66.7

Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high

584 171 42

232 130 38

42.5 76.0 90.2

23 61 30

11 38 16

47.8 62.3 53.3

1213

651

53.7

Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high Total

21 responses were calculated and other statistical methods were employed wherever the data were conductive to such treatment.

It should be noted

that with few exceptions the percentages which appear in the tables per­ taining to actual health instruction practices were based on the numbers of schools' which were reported either to require health or offer it as an elective.

Table III shows the numbers on which these percentages for

each type of school were based.

Another point which should be explained

is the reasons why the percentages in the tables do not in all cases total one hundred.

First, a number of the questions in the questionnaire were of

the type to which multiple responses were to be expected.

One respondent

might, for example, check any or all of five or six possible responses and thus the total percentages would greatly surpass one hundred.

Second,

in some instances in which only one response was indicated, a number of respondents failed to make any answer and thus the total percentages would be less than one hundred per cent.

Where no answers were made in sufficient

numbers to alter the conclusions which might be drawn from the data, that fact is mentioned.

CHAPTER

II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A thorough review of the literature in the field indicates that there have been comparatively few studies made concerning the status of health education in public high schools.

There have been only four studies

made which attempted to determine the status of health education in the secondary schools of an entire state.

Similar studies were conducted in

four other states but were limited to certain groups of secondary schools and did not attempt to survey all or a representative sample of all the schools in the state.

There were, in addition, a number of investigations -

which surveyed health education in secondary schools in areas including several states.

The remaining studies reviewed were concerned with health

education in colleges and universities and, in one instance, social hygiene as taught in the secondary schools of one state.

In the majority of the

surveys reviewed, the problem was limited to health education but in some instances both the health and physical education programs were studied. Health education as approached in all of these studies was considered to include healthful school living, health services, and health instruction. Studies on the status of health education in the secondary schools 1 of an entire state. Glascock's study in 1936 was an attempt to report the

situation in the teaching of health and physical education in the high schools

1

David Albert Glascock, "The Status of Health and Physical Education in the High Schools of Indiana," (unpublished Doctor's dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1936), pp. 80, 157.

23 of Indiana in regard to the following:

organization of program, materials

used, equipment, facilities, finance, and teaching personnel.

The

mai.n

sources of data were two types of questionnaires, one sent to school administrators and the other to the teachers of health and physical education. A return of more than seventy per cent was received from the teachers. principal findings in regard to the health education programs were:

The

(l)

many schools are neglecting health education and are not meeting the state requirements, (2) teachers of academic subjects have been found to take up health teaching when health was added to the curriculum, (3) more than seventy-five per cent of the teachers of health and physical education hold at least a bachelor’s degree, and (4.) about fifty per-cent of the teachers of health education have extracurricular duties. The purpose of the study conducted by Sudduth

in 194-1 was to

determine to what extent do the secondary schools of Alabama conform to the health education program prescribed by the Alabama State Department of Education.

The study consisted of two phases:

first, a survey was made

of the school laws of Alabama and the literature from the Alabama State Department of Education to determine what is prescribed by the State for the health education program in the secondary schools; and second, a survey was made of the public secondary schools to determine to what extent these schools measure up to the prescribed health education program of Alabama. The questionnaires which were used in surveying the secondary schools

2

Solon B. Sudduth, "Study and Appraisal of Health Education in Alabama Secondary Schools," (unpublished Doctor's dissertation, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, 1941), PP. 1, 151.

24 included areas of healthful living, health services and health instruction. A representative sample consisting of 150 or 37.2 per cent of the 452 secondary schools in the state responded to the questionnaires.

The sample

was representative of the schools in the state with respect to being negro or white schools, accredited or unaccredited, and being units in a county or city school system.

This findings in regard to the health instruction

phase of the school health education programs are as follows:

(l) in

many of the state high schools health education is being taught either by teachers who are not specially prepared for this work or by teachers who have their interest divided between health education and other subject matter fields; (2) provisions for equipment and books for health education, and classrooms specially equipped for health education instruction are not adequately made; (3) many pupils attending high schools of the state are not required to take health education as specified by the Alabama State Department of Education; and (4) there is little uniformity in the amount of school credit given for a year’s work in health education. The study conducted by Wyatt^ in Kentucky in 194-6 was concerned primarily with health and physical education as regularly scheduled subjects in the curriculum.

Extracurricular activities such as intramurals and

athletics were recognized as desirable phases of health and physical education but were not considered as the program.

For purposes of com­

parison the secondary schools of the State were divided into three categories,

3

Clarence Hodges Wyatt, The Status of Health and Physical Education in the Secondary Schools of Kentucky "(Education Bulletin, Vol. 14-, No. 5. Frankfort, Kentucky* Department of Education, July, 194-6), 434-44-6, 473.

25 city, county, and private schools.

Returns from the questionnaires

sent to the schools were slightly over seventy per cent.

Some of the

important findings with respect to health education were as follows: (l) some sort of health instruction is offered in over one-half of the schools, (2) approximately seventy per cent of the schools which offer health teach it as a specific subject, (3) about one-third of the schools offering health depend upon integration in other courses, (4) twice as many schools offer health as an elective than require it, (5) over fifty per centof the teachers supplement material in the textbooks with material pertaining to local environmental problems of health, and (6) marked differences in current practices were in evidence with respect to three categories of schools, city, county, and private.

Wyatt concluded, "Health

is being taught for the most part by any instructor who can be conveniently used rather than by teachers who have specialized in the field. Davis and Masle

conducted a study in 1949 which had as its

purpose the survey of present practices in certain areas of health instruction programs in the public secondary schools of Pennsylvania. The areas which were surveyed included: instruction program, and personnel.

organization and administration,

Seventy-one per cent of the schools

replied to the questionnaires which were the chief source of data.

Various

Pennsylvania State Department of Public Instruction bulletins were utilized

4

Ibid.. p. 76.

5

Arthur F. Davis, and John W. Masley, "Present Practices in Health Instruction in the Public Secondary Schools.of Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 12: 7-9, October, 1949

26 in evaluating the health instruction programs. as follows:

The major findings are

(l) Seventy-six per cent of the schools were meeting or

exceeding the State Department requirement with respect to time allotted to health instruction; (2) A separate health course was the most frequently used method of teaching health education; (3) Over one-half the schools were using the course of study published by the Pennsylvania State Department of Education; (4 ) Sixty-seven per cent of the health teachers had some special training in health education; and (5) almost all of the schools used some type of audio visual aids in teaching health.

They

concluded that, in general, the health instruction programs in the public 1 secondary schools were meeting the various criteria set up for their evaluation. Studies on health education programs of certain groups of secondary schools within a state. Ray^ studied the programs of 183 small high schools in Indiana in 1926 by means of a questionnaire to determine their organization relative to health and physical education, the type of work given, length of instruction period, what teachers were responsible for these subjects, and the athletics in which hoys and girls participated. There were at that time no regular, definite and well established classes in health education.

He also reported that few teachers of health and

physical education had degrees from schools giving special preparation in those areas.

6

Finally, the results showed that teachers of health and

Glenn V. Ray, "The Status of Physical Education in the Small High Schools ' in Indiana," (unpublished Master’s thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1926), pp. 30, 99.

27 physical education probably keep as alive professionally as other school groups, 7 Included in Moore’s investigation were the following areas of study:

(1) general information and administrative plan, (2) healthful

school living, (3) health service, and (4) health instruction.

This

study, conducted in 1940, was limited to the girls' health education programs and represented findings from forty-three high schools.

Analysis

of the responses to the questionnaires resulted in these statements:

(l)

a great variety of practices were in evidence with respect to all phases of the school health programs, (2) much of the health instruction was given in physical education classes, and (3) the majority of health teachers had some specialized training for teaching health.

It was recognized that

the small number of schools included in the study was a limiting factor. g Frazier combined the interview method and the questionnaire technique in 1947 in securing data concerning health education in Negro high schools in an Alabama county.

The purposes of the study were: (1)

to discover the facts regarding health status of the negroes in the county; (2) to determine to what extent the negro accredited high schools were meeting the health needs and interests of their students, and (3) to offer recommendations for the improvement of health education program where necessary.

Among the more important findings were the following:

(1)

teachers of health education were not well prepared in health education,

7 Mildred Nelson Moore, "An Evaluation of the Health Education Program in Classes A and AA High Schools of Louisiana," (unpublished Master's thesis, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1940), pp. 6, 70. &

Severne Allen Frazier, "A Study of the Health Education Programs of the Negro Accredited High Schools of Jefferson County, Alabama," (unpublished Master’s thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 7, 69*

28 (2) sex education is being taught in but a few schools, and (3 ) schools are not informing students of proper facts concerning personal and public health, and safety education.

He concluded that if students were made

conscious of their health needs, they were more interested in solving their health problems, and finally, health services, health instruction and the follow-up program are essential cogs in a well-organized health education program. Hackensmith1s^ study in 194-8, had as its purpose the securing of data which would provide the basis for establishing a course of study for health education in the secondary schools of Kentucky. purposes were:

Additional

to develop methods of correlating health instruction with

related areas; to suggest procedures for health protection and guidance in the schools, and suggest health policies for Kentucky schools.

In

surveying the health education programs of the sixty-eight schools selected for study both interviews and questionnaires were employed.

His major

finding with regard to the instructional phase of the health education programs was that there is lack of uniformity in the approach to the solution of health problems in the classroom.

His recommendations include

methods of improving the efficiency of health teaching. Studies on secondary school health education programs in an area including several states. The purposes of Mitchell's

study were three-fold:

9

Charles William Hackensmith, "Health Problems in the Secondary Schools of Kentucky and Suggestions for Implementing Health Services, Instruction and Policies," (unpublished Doctor's dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 194-8), pp. 10, 1$, 987.

10

D. C. Mitchell, "A Survey of Health Instruction in Senior High Schools," Research Quarterly. 5:127-135, October, 1934-.

29 (l) to survey the opinions of leaders in this field regarding various procedures with respect to health instruction, (2) to supplement this with a survey of what is the actual practice in health instruction in the more progressive schools, and (3) to compare these results with the objective being that possible improvements will be indicated.

The

questionnaires, which were the principal source of data, pertained for the most part to an investigation of courses in the curriculum in which units concerned with health were taught.

More specifically, the purpose

was to determine which units were taught in each of the following courses; separate health course, biology, physiology, general science, home economics and physical education.

In surveying the opinions of the leaders in the

field, Mitchell received responses from persons in twenty-two states.

In

responding to the same questionnaire the health teachers in the selected secondary schools represented fourteen states. important conclusions are the following:

.Among Mitchell's more

(l) teaching health as units

throughout the curriculum is not very satisfactory since some aspects are treated superficially, and some are treated several times in different courses in duplicative fashion; and (2) it would seem imperative that a comprehensive balanced, and integrated separate health course should be placed as a requirement in the curriculum of the schools. In 1935 Sullivan^

conducted a survey to determine the status

of health education in thirty representative school systems.

The study

had particular reference to organization, administration, personnel, policies,

11

John P. Sullivan, "Present Status of Health Education in Some Representative School Systems," Research Quarterly, 6:65-74-, May, 1935.

I

30 and procedures of the health education programs.

Questionnaires were sent

to school systems in four geographical areas including the south, west, northeastern and north central states.

The schools were selected with

consideration of size, type, and reputed progress in education.

The principal

conclusion reached was that the variety of practices leads to the necessity for a more uniform program based on a sound philosophy which will meet the needs of the average school system.

He felt that this could be brought

about by better utilization of existing agencies and by a changing of the educational attitude of the staff with respect to the entire school health program. Keeney's12 study in 1942, consisted of a survey of certain aspects of health education through questionnaires sent to schools in the nine states of the Central District of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.

The survey included 509 schools of

which elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges were equally represented.

Approximately thirty-six per cent of the secondary schools

responded to the questionnaires. "She reported that health is taught in biological and physical sciences, social sciences and language and fine arts.

Her conclusion was that these teachers are not adequately prepared

to teach health and thus teacher-education institutions should initiate such preparation as a part of the various curricula.

A second conclusion

was that there is need for standardized courses of study in health.

12

Bessie H. Keeney, "A Study of Health Education in Schools of the Central District," Research Quarterly. 13*75-78, March, 1942.

31 Studies concerned with one phase of the health education programs 13 in secondary schools. The purpose of Griffith’s study was to discover the extent and nature of social hygiene education in the Minnesota public secondary schools, and the attitudes of school superintendents toward sex teaching in the school curriculum.

Of the 500 questionnaries sent to

school superintendents 374 were returned.

The major portion of the questionnaire

pertained to the grade levels and courses in which sex education or social hygiene is taught.

According to his findings, schools with large enrollments

taught social hygiene topics to a greater extent than did schools with middle size or small enrollment.

In addition it was reported that girls

received more social hygiene education than did the boys.

He reported that,

while superintendents of schools were in favor of having social hygiene courses as a part of college curricula for teachers, they did not feel it advisable for the subject to be taught in public schools.

SUMMARY In the review of the literature on health education programs there are indications of many similarities both with respect to general approaches to the problems and to findings and conclusions.

The method of obtaining

the data was for the most part confined to the use of the questionnaire. In a few studies this was supplemented through the use of the interview and personal observation.

13

General purposes of the studies were also similar and

William Griffiths, nAn Investigation of the Present Status of Social Hygiene Education in the Minnesota Public Schools,11 Research Quarterly. 12:189-199, May, 1941.

32 could be limited to either of the following statements:

(l) to determine

the status of health education programs; or (2) to determine the status of health education programs, to evaluate such programs through comparison with various standards, and in addition, to formulate recommendations for improvements.

Some of the studies were concerned with physical education

as well as health and thus the above statements of purpose would be some­ what different in those few cases.

There are similarities in the findings

and conclusions reported in the various studies.

The findings may be

summarized as follows: 1.

Studies conducted prior to 1930 indicated that few health teachers had preparation in health education.

2.

Studies conducted from 1936 to 194-9 indicated progressively greater percentages of health teachers with some special preparation in health education.

3.

In general, health teachers were not adequately prepared to teach health education.

4-. Health education was taught by any teacher who could be conveniently used. 5.

Health teachers as a rule had a number of additional duties other than teaching health.

6.

Schools were not meeting state requirements with respect to health education.

7.

A great variety of practices were in evidence with respect to all phases of the school health programs.

8.

There were no adequate provisions made for a health education section in school libraries nor provisions for special equipment deemed necessary to good teaching in health education.

9.

There was a great amount of duplication and omission of certain areas of subject matter in health education.

10.

There is a trend toward requiring health education of all secondary students, and a trend toward teaching health as a separate course.

33 11.

Location of a school, that is, urban or rural, was a factor making for differences in health education practices.

12.

In planning health education programs the needs and interests of the pupils were not given adequate consideration.

i

3A

CHAPTER

III

ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMS In determining the nature and scope of health education programs the organizational and administrative aspects of the programs are important considerations.

While teachers of health education have a great deal of

freedom in planning how their courses shall be taught and to a large extent what is to be taught the administrative policies of the particular schools will have a direct bearing on whether or not they achieve their objective. In general the objective of health teachers is to Improve the health knowledge, health attitudes and health conduct of every student in the school.

Some

administrative policies or factors in the school organization which are related to the realization of this objective are those which determines (l) which students are to receive health instruction, that is, all or just certain groups; (2) the total time allotted in the school schedule for health instruction; (3) the size of the health education class; (4.) the method of teaching health, that is, as a separate course or as portions of other courses; and (5) the amount of credit given for health education and whether or not such credit is required for graduation.

Information concerning

these administrative policies and procedures cannot be used to evaluate the quality of actual classroom instruction but it can be useful in determining what opportunities are provided for health instruction in the various schools. In comparing the practices of schools representing various sizes and types, an effort was made to note trends; indicate differences and

35 similarities and on the basis of these findings arrive at some conclusions. In addition, each group of schools was compared to various standards advocated by the Ohio State Department of Education. Table II presents data concerning the positions held by the respondents to the questionnaire.

One of the letters of transmittal

accompanying the questionnaires was directed to the school administrators. The administrators were requested to forward the questionnaires to their health educators.

It is interesting to note that in all but the small

senior high schools a greater percentage of principals filled out the questionnaires than any other person.

Furthermore, with respect to the

small junior-senior high, the medium junior-senior high, and the small junior high schools the principals and superintendents together filled out the questionnaries in at least forty per cent of the cases.

The

health teachers were the respondents in less than twenty per cent of the cases in all types of schools but the large junior-senior high schools. It would appear, therefore, that since so many administrators rather than health teachers responded to the questionnaire, the resulting data may not present an accurate picture of actual health instruction practices. Conversely, it is quite likely that some of the administrators, as well as the athletic directors, coaches and teachers of other subjects, in stating their positions indicated their major responsibilities and thus one of their duties-could have been health teaching. Health education as a required or elective course. Table III reports the responses to the questions:

"Is each student in your school

required to take a course in health?", and ,"If health is not required, can

TABLE II POSITION OF RESPONDENTS

Position

Small senior high no, %

Principal 19 Super­ intendent 13 Health teacher 4 Physical education teacher 4 Athletic 2 director 22 Coach Teacher 7 No position indicated 13 Totals

22.6 15.5

Medium senior high no. %

Large Medium Large I Small Small senior junior-senior junior-senior junior-senion junior high high high i high high no. % no. % no. % no. % ino. %

Medium junior high no. %

17 27.4

11 27.5'

99 42.9

29 22.3

13

34.3

12 31.5

34 14.2

26 20.0

2

5.3

1

9.1

0

0.0

0

0.0

5.4

8 21.0

0

0.0

4 10.5

1

6.3

13 10.0

4 10.5

2

18.2

2

5.3

3 18.7

3 0 1

0 0.0 0 0.0 3 27.2

2 5.3 5 13.2 10 26.3

2 12.5 1 6.3 2 12.5

5

8.1

0

0.0

4.8

7 11.3

5 12.5;

1

0.4

9

3.9

7

4.8

12 19.3

5 12.5

2.4 26.1 8.3

5 8.1 9 14.5 5 8.1

2 5.0 0 0.0 4 10.0

8 3.5 27- 11.6 10 4.3

8 10 5

15.5

2

13 32.5;

44 19.2

32 24,6

7 18.4

40 100.0 232 100.0

130 100.0

33 100.0

4 36.4

Large junior high no. % 7 43.7



34 100o0

3.2

62 100,0

6.1 7.8 3.8

7.9 0.0 2.6

1

Q 1

11 100.0

3

7.9

38 100.0

0

0.0

16 100.0

VjJ

ON

37

TABLE

IH

REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE IN HEALTH

Type of school

Require health No, %

Offer health as an elective No. %

Neither required nor elective No. %

Totals No. %

32 37 29

38il 59.7 72.5

20 14 6

23.8 22.6 15.0

32 11 5

33.1 17.7 12.5

84 62 40

100.0 100.0 100.0

Small junior-senior high 152 Medium junior-senior high 97 Large junior-senior high 24

65.5 74..6 63.2

38 12 7

16.4 9.2 18.4

42 21 7

18.1 16.2 18.4

232 130 38

100.0 100.0 100.0

Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high

72.7 78.9 93. a

0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0

3 8 1

27.3 21,1 6.2

11 38 16

100.0 100.0 100.0

Small senior high Medium, senior high Large senior high

Total

8 30 15 4-24-

97

130

651

38 a student elect a course in health, hygiene, physiology, etc.?” A chisquare test was used to determine if the over-all differences in

responses

among the various sizes of senior high schools was due to mere chance or some other factor.

The chi-square value with four degrees of freedom was

18.1 and P equaled .001.

Thus, the differences can be said to be caused

by something other than chance alone.

One factor which may account for

these differences in responser is the size of the schools.

As the size

of the senior high schools increases the number of schools reporting that health is required also increases.

The coefficient of contingency calculated

for the chi-square of 18.1 equalled .30 which indicates there is some degree of association between the size of the schools and the requiring of health. The most prominent difference in percentage of senior high schools which required health is between the small high schools and the large high schools.

In comparing statistically the percentage shown for

the small senior high schools, 38.1 and the percentage of 72.5 for the large senior high the ratio of the standard error of the difference of these proportions equals 2.83.

Referring to the table of normal probability

integral it was found that a ratio of 2.83 is significant at the one per cent level of confidence.

It was concluded, therefore, that the difference

in percentages between small senior high and large senior high schools is a real difference and not due to chance alone. A chi-square test was also used to determine if the horizontal differences in the number of senior high schools regardless of size, indicating health was required, elective or neither required nor elective were merely due to chance alone.

The chi-square value with six degrees of freedom was

39 4-9.3

and. P equalled .000 which indicated that the marked difference in

the responses was due to some other factor rather than chance.

In comparing

the specific difference between the percentage of medium senior high schools which required health, 59.7 and the percentage of these schools having no health either required or elective, 17.7 the ratio; of the standard error of the difference of these proportions was 3.04.

Referring to the table

of normal probability integral it was found that this ratio was significant at the one per cent level of confidence.

The difference between requiring

health and neither requiring nor offering it as an elective was with respect to the medium senior high schools, therefore, a real difference and not due to chance alone.

A comparison of this same difference for

the large senior high schools resulted in a critical ratio

of 3.59.

This ratio was significant at the one per cent level also and thus this difference between requiring health, and neither requiring it nor offering it as an elective was a reliable one also. The general relationship between size and the requiring of health which was in evidence with respect to the senior high schools appears to exist in regard to the junior high schools also.

The small

number of respondents from certain types of these schools, however, made statistical analysis inadvisable.

It is interesting to note that seventy-

two per cent or more of the junior high schools required a course in health. The fact that none of these schools offered health as an elective is also worthy of mention. The size-requirement relationship is not in evidence with respect to the junior-senior high schools but a chi-square test (cf. p. 38) was used

40 to determine if the horizontal differences in responses indicating health ■was required, offered as an elective or neither required nor elective were mere chance distributions.

Chi-square was calculated to be 191.5 and P was

,000 so it was concluded that factors other than chance were operating to account for the differences.

Specific comparison between the percentage

requiring health 65.5, and the percentage neither requiring nor offering it as an elective, 18.1, was made with respect to the small junior—senior high schools.

The ratio of the standard error of the difference of these

proportions was calculated to be 6.62 which was significant at the one per cent level of confidence. and not due to chance alone.

The difference, therefore, was a real one A similar comparison was made between

requiring, and neither requiring nor offering health as an elective in regard to the medium junior-senior high and the large junior-senior high schools.

The ratio of the standard error of the difference in proportions

was 6.48 for the medium junior-senior high schools and 2.46 for the large junior-senior high schools.

Both ratios were significant at the one per

cent level of confidence. With the exception of the small senior high with 38.1 per cent, from fifty-nine to ninty-three per cent of the schools of the nine types required health education.

It appears, therefore, that the majority of

‘schools are including in their curricula a required course in health education. The amount of health education required of all students.

Response

to the question, "In what grade or grades is the student required to take health instruction?"

provided the data presented in Table IV.

It appears

TABLE IV

GRADES IF WHICH HEALTH INSTRUCTION IS REQUIRED

Grade

Small senior high no. $

Medium senior high no. $

Large Small Medium Large Small senior junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior high high high high high no. % no. % no. % no. % no. %

Medium junior high no. %

Large junior high no. ^ %

I

7 8 9 10 11 12

21 22 19 19

40.4 42.3 36.5 36.5

23 19 20 17

4-5.1 37.2 39.2 33.3

117 110 9 25.7 55 56 13 3701 46 14- 40.0 62 9 25.7

61.6 57.9 28.9 29.5 24.2 32.6

78 70 46 43 35 47

71.5 64.2 42.2

39.4 32.1 43.1

.

13 14 11 14 9 12

41.9 45.2 35.5 45.2 29.0 38.7

i 8 100.0 , 5 62.5 , 3 37.5 , , i

22 73.3 21 70.0 9 30.0

14 93.3 11 93.3 9 60.0

42 that with regard to the small and medium senior high schools health is required about equally as much in each of the four grades.

Health is

required in the tenth and the eleventh grade in the greatest percentage of cases for the large senior high schools.

The small junior-senior high

and the medium junior-senior high schools have greater percentages of schools requiring health in the seventh and eighth grades than in any of the other grades.

It is also shown that the seventh grade is the time

that the greatest percentages of the small, medium, and large junior high schools required health instruction. A chi-square test (cf. p. 38) was employed to determine if the differences in the numbers of junior-senior high schools indicating health was required in various grades were reliable differences or due to chance alone.

Chi-square was calculated to be 225.8 and P equalled .000 which

indicated that the differences were caused "by factors other than chance alone.

In comparing specific differences the critical ratios were calculated.

The ratios for the small junior-senior high schools were as follows;

4.13

in comparing the percentages for the eighth and twelfth grades; 5.25 in comparing the eighth and eleventh grades; 5.19 in comparing the seventh and tenth grades; and 5.12 in comparing the seventh and ninth grades.

All

of these critical ratios were found to be significant at the one per cent level of confidence.

The differences in indicating the health requirement

for the various grades can be said, therefore, to be reliable differences. The critical ratios were also calculated for the medium junior-senior high schools with the following results;

2.69 in comparing the percentages for

the seventh and twelfth grades; 1.96 in comparing the eighth and twelfth grades; and 2.84 in comparing the eighth and eleventh grades.

Significant

4-3 differences were indicated at the one per cent level of confidence for seventh and tenth grades, and eighth and eleventh while the difference wais' significant at the five per cent level of confidence for the eighth and twelfth grades0 Similar calculations with respect to the large juniorsenior high schools indicated the differences between the various grades were not significant statistically. The data indicate certain definite tendencies, but also a wide range of practices in regard to the grades in which health instruction is required.

There does not appear to be any wide-spread standard procedure

with respect to this phase of program administration. Table V presents the results of responses to the question, ,rWhat is the total number of semesters that each student is required to take health?"

The senior high schools and the.junior-senior high schools require

two semesters of health in the greatest, percentage of cases.

The figures

for the median number of semesters required tends to emphasize this point, with the exception of the figure for the medium junior-senior high schools which is 3.6.

The small and medium junior high schools require health

one semester in the greatest percentage of cases while the large junior high schools require health in five semesters most frequently.

There is

evidence of a wide range of practices with respect to the number of semesters of health which are required, but in general it appears that senior high schools and junior-senior high schools required two semesters and the junior high schools required one semester. "How many periods per week are students given health instruction?" was the question which is presented in Table VI.

The median number of periods

TABLE V SEMESTERS IN WHICH HEALTH IS REQUIRED

Small senior Number of high semesters no. %

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 . 12

9 4 12 0 6 1 0 0 8

Totals 40

Median no. of 2.1 semesters

17.3 7.7 23.1 0.0 11.5 1.9 0.0 0.0 15.4

Medium Large senior senior high high % no. % no.

2.0 2 1 6 11.8 10 15 29.4 10 1 2.0 0 6 3 5.9 1 2.0 0 3 5.9 2 0 0.0 0 9 17.6 1

39

31

2.3

1.8

5.7 28.6 28.6 0.0 17.1 0.0 5.7 0.0 2.9

Medium Small junior-senior junior-senior high high no. % no. % i 1 2 1 23 ' 51 1 0 1 23 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 10 • 0 1 0 1 0 1 23 i 135

2.3

Small Large junior-senior junior high high no. % no. %

Medium junior high no. %

Large junior high no. %

i 1.0 12.1 26.8 0.0 12.1 0.0 1.6 0.0 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.1

3 11 26 2 26 2 6 0 11 0 0 0 15

102

3.6

2.7 10.1 23.8 1.8 23.8 1.8 5.4 0.0 10.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.8

1 6 7 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 2 0 2

3.2 19.3 22.6 0.0 3.2 0.0 3.2 0.0 16.1 0.0 6.4 0.0 6.4

'1 13 10 10 12 •0 12 i i i i i i i

12.5 37.5 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 25.0

6 11 0 0. 5 0 6

20.0 36.7 0.0 0.0 16.7 0.0 20.0

3 4 0 0 2 0 5

25

8

28

14

1.2

1.5

1.2

1.5

20.0 26.7 0.0 0.0 13.3 0.0 33.3

TABLE VI PERIODS PER WEEK HEALTH INSTRUCTION IS GIVEN

Periods per week

1 2 3 4 5 Totals

Medium Small senior senior high high % no. % no.

Large senior high no. %

14 26.9 14 27.4 12 23.1 17 33.3 5 9.6 5 9.8 1 2.0 1 1.9 16 30.8 14 27.4

11 31.4 11 31.4 1 2.9 0 0.0 12 34.3

48

51

35

2.2

2.1

Median no. 2.3 of periods

Large Medium Small Medium Large Small junior junior junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior high high high high high 'high % no. no, % no. % no. % no. % no. % I i i 43 22.6 24 22.0 7 22.6 ' 4 50.0 10 33.3 7 46.7 8 25.8 ' 3 37.5 3 20.0 35 32.1 ' 56 29.5 4 13.3 i 22 11.6 17 15.6 7 23.3 1 6.7 5 16.1 ' 1 12.5 i 2 1.0 0.0 3.2 ' 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0 1 .9 10 32.3 i 1 12.5 30 27.5 8 26.7 ' 56 29.5 4 26.7 i i 179

2.3

107

2.3 •

31

8

29

15

2,6

1.5

2.5

1.6

46 is approximately two for the senior high schools, and the small and medium junior-senior high schools.

The median is between two and three for the large

junior-senior high schools and the medium junior high schools, and between one and two for the small and large junior high schools.

The percentages

indicate that five, two or one periods per week are more common for the senior high schools and also the junior-senior high schools.

The junior high schools

according to the percentages prefer one, two, three, or five periods per week.

The great range of practices would lead to the conclusion that each

school or school system has adopted its own policy with respect to the number of periods per week health instruction is given. ij..

The data presented in Table VII compared

the time spent in health

instruction as reported by the respondents with the Ohio State Department of Education recommendation.

The recommendation is that health instruction

should be given for five periods per week for one semester (or its equivalent) in the ninth grade or above.^

Thirty-eight and five tenths per cent of the

small senior high schools, 33.3 per cent of the medium senior high schools, and 45.7 per cent of the large senior high schools are not complying with this recommendation.

In an attempt to determine if the horizontal dif­

ferences in the numbers of senior high schools which reported not complying, just complying and exceeding the standard are reliable differences a chisquare test was used.

The value of chi-square was 28.6 and P equalled .000

thus it can be stated that factors other than chance alone were causing these differences.

Fifty-one and six-tenths per cent of the small junior-senior

high, 44.9 per cent of the medium junior-senior high, and 36.7 per cent of the

large junior-senior high schools are not complying with the Ohio State

Department of Education standards. 1

The chi-square test (cf. p. 38) to

Ohio High School Standards in Health, Physical Education, Recreation and and Safety, op. cit., p. 447

TABLE

VII

TIME ALLOTTED TO HEALTH AS COMPARED WITH THE STATE RECOMMENDATION*

Type of school

Not complying no. %

Complying no. %

Exceeding no. %

Small senior high Medium senior high Large senior high

20 17 16

38.5 33.3 45.7

5 4 4

9.6 7.8 11.4

19 22 10

36.5 43.1 28.6

Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high

98 49 11

51.6 44.9 36.7

11 11 4

5.8 10.1 13.3

36 37 10

18.9 33.9 33.3

Totals *

211

39

134

The Ohio State Department ofEducation recommends that health instruction should be given for five periods per week for one semester (or its equivalent) in the ninth grade or above.

A&

determine if there were significant horizontal differences in the responses was also used in regard to these data. was 109.7 and P was equal to .000.

The resulting value of chi-square

It was concluded, therefore, that the

differences in the numbers of junior-senior high schools which reported not complying, complying and exceeding the State Department standard are due to factors other than chance alone.

Specific comparison of the percentage

of small junior-senior high schools which reported not complying with the percentage of these schools just complying was done statistically.

The

critical ratio was 2.26 which was significant at the five per cent level of confidence.

It appears, therefore, this difference is fairly reliable.

These findings indicate that many of the senior high schools and junior-senior high schqols are not complying with the Ohio State Department of Education standards.

It should be noted, however, that there is no

indication of the quality of instruction but merely an indication of compliance with a standard of time spent in classroom health instruction. The Ohio Public Health Association has stated that the Ohio State Department of Education recommendation is but a mathematical standard, for health education should be continuous and should be the responsibility of every 2 member of the school personnel. The fact that about one third of the senior high schools and the medium and large junior-senior high schools are exceeding the standard would indicate the position held by the Ohio Public Health Association is shared by some school administrators.

2

A School Health Policy for Ohio, op. cit. p. 20.

49

The responses to the question, "What is the length of the health instruction period?" appear in Table VIII.

The respondents were requested

to indicate the length of the period in minutes.

The median length of the

health instruction period is approximately forty-five minutes for schools in each of the nine categories.

The forty-five minute period was also indicated

in the greatest percentage of cases for all types of schools.

The forty

minute, the fifty-five minute, and the sixty minute periods were indicated by a few schools but far less frequently than was the forty-five minute period. Thus, despite the fact that the range of length of periods as reported varies from thirty to sixty minutes, there is a rather widely used standard in operation, that being a forty-five minute classroom period.

It

should be noted that thirty per cent of the small senior high schools failed to answer this particular question. Table IX presents the responses to the question, "What are the approximate sizes of the health education classes?"

The respondents were

requested to indicate the number of pupils in their largest class, smallest class, and average class.

The sizes of all three classes, largest, smallest,

and average varies with the size of the schools.

This is true with respect

to all types of schools except the small and average classes of the junior high schools.

The most apparent differences in sizes of classes are between

the small and large schools with respect to both senior and junior-senior high.

These findings indicate what might be logically expected:

the size

of the health classes increases as the size of the school increases.

TABLE VIII

LENGTH OF THE HEALTH INSTRUCTION CLASS PERIOD

Length of period in minutes

30 32 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 47 48 50 53 55 56 57 58 60

Medium Small senior senior high high no. % no. %

Large senior high no. %

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0o0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 1 2.0 5.8 2 3.9 0.0 0 0.0 5.8 1 2.0 1.9 3 5.9 0.0 0.0 0 53.9 28 54.9 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 1 2.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 7.8 4 0.0 0 0.0 1.9 3 5.9 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 7 13.7

Totals

36

50

33

Median lengths of periods

44.9

45.1

45.3

0 0 0 3 0 3 1 0

28

0 0 0 5 2 2 0 0 9 0 1 2 0 6 1 0 0 5

Small Medium Targe Small junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior high high high high no. % no. % no. % no. %

0.0 1 1 .5 0.0 1 1 .5 0.0 1 0 0.0 14.3 1 25 13.1 5.7 1 0 0.0 5.7 1 11 5:s 0.0 1 3 i;6 0.0 1 0 0.0 25.7 '131 68.9 0.0 1 0 0.0 0.0 2.9 1 0 5.7 1 0 0.0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0.0 17.1 1 0 0.0 2.9 ! o 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 ' 1 .5 14.3 ; 4 2.1 177

44.8

0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 8 7.3 0 0.0 7 6,4 1 ;9 0 0.0 66 6o ;5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 0 0.0 2 1.8 0.0 0 14 12.8 103

45.0

0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 1 3.2 0 0.0 2 6.4 3:2 1 0 0.0 13 41.9 3.2 1 0 0.0 9.7 3 0 0.0 6 19.3 0 o;o 0.0 0 0 0.0 9.7 3 ' 30

45.3

,

Large Medium junior junior high high % no. % no. 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 3.3 0.0 3.3 36.7 0.0 0.0 10.0 6.7 13.3 0.0 0.0 3.3 6.7

0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 20.0 0 0.0 1 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 7 46.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 13.3 1 6.7 1 6:7 0 o;o 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 3 37.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 50.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 o;o 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0

0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 11 0 0 3 2 4 0 0 1 2

8

26

15

45.4

45.0

44.7

TABLE IX

SIZE

Type of school

OF HEALTH EDUCATION CLASSES

Means of largest classes

Means of smallest classes

Means of average classes

Small senior high Medium senior high Large senior high

28.7 36.9 37.3

18.5 22.3 25.9

24.2 28.4 31.7

Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high

29,9 38.4 42.8

19.1 23.3 25.0

23.3 29.6 31.8

Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high

33.8 35.7 39.9

22.8 22.4 20.8

29.5 27.9 30.4

52 The average size of the classes for the various types of schools is as follows:

small senior high schools, 24-.2; medium senior high schools,

28.4-j large senior high schools, 31.75 small junior-senior high schools, 23.35 medium junior-senior high schools, 29.65 large junior-senior high schools, 31.85 small junior high schools, 29.5; medium junior high schools, 27.95 large junior high schools, 30.4-.

It must be remembered in regard to these

figures that they represent a central tendency and do not include the range in sizes of classes as reported. Methods of teaching health education.

,fHow is health taught in

your school?11 was the question is reported in Table X. asked to check one or more of the following:

The respondents were

separate health course5 as

units in various courses in the curriculum5 and integrated in the curriculum. Health is taught as a separate health course in the greatest percentage of the cases for all nine types of schools.

Sixty-nine per cent or more of

the senior high schools, sixty-three per cent or more of the junior-senior high schools and sixty-six per cent or more of the junior high schools were reported to have taught health education as a separate course.

Health was

taught as units in other courses and integrated in the curriculum in onefourth to one-half of schools of each type.

The percentages indicate the

use of units and integration in the curriculum was practiced about equally as much in all types of schools but the small senior high schools, and the small and medium junior high schools. In an attempt to determine if the horizontal differences in the numbers of senior high schools which reported health was taught as a separate course, as units in other courses, and integrated in the curriculum were

53

TABLE X METHODS OF TEACHING HEALTH

Type of school

Small senior high Medium, senior high Large senior high Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high

Separate course no. %

Units in other courses no. %

Integrated in curriculum no. %

36 40 29

69.2 78.4 82.9

16 15 15

30.8 29.4 42.9

25 17 12

48.1 33.3 34.3

121 86 26

63.7 78.9 83.9

69 38 8

36.3 34.9 25.8

70 36 8

36.8 33.0 25.8

6 24 10

75.0 80.0 66.7

2 25.0 11 36.7 5 33.3

4 50.0 6 20.0 5 33.3

54 reliable differences, a chi-square test was used.

The chi-square value of

34.6 and the P value of .000 indicated that the differences were caused byfactors other than chance alone.

In comparing the percentage of small senior

high schools which taught health as a separate course with those which taught it as units in other courses, the ratio of the standard error in the difference in proportions was calculated to be 2.35. five per cent level of confidence.

This ratio is significant at the

It was concluded, therefore, that the

difference in percentage between separate course and units in other courses is probably' a reliable difference.

The same statistical comparison was

made with respect to the large senior high schools.

The ratios of the standard

error of the difference in proportions were as follows: 2.81 in comparing separate course and integrated in the curriculum; and 2.22 in comparing separate course and units in other courses.

According to the table of normal

probability integral 2.81 was significant at the one per cent level of confidence and thus the difference is a reliable one.

The value 2.22- was

significant at the five per cent level of confidence; the difference being probably reliable in this case.

Comparisons made with respect to the medium

senior high schools resulted in the following values for the ratios of the standard error of the difference in proportions:

3.11 in comparing separate

course with integrated in the curriculum; and 3.28 in comparing separate course with units in other courses.

Both of these ratios were significant

at the one per cent level of confidence thus it was concluded that the differences shown are reliable ones. were:

The critical ratios for the large senior high schools

2.22 in comparing separate course with units in other courses; and 2.81

in comparing separate course with integrated in the curriculum.

The 2.22

value was significant at the five per cent level of confidence and thus the

55 difference is probably a reliable one while 2.81 was significant at the one per cent, indicating the difference was quite reliable. The chi—square test was also used in regard to the junior—senior high schools.

A value of 63.0 for chi-square and .000 for P indicated the

fact that different numbers of junior-senior high schools were teaching health as a separate course, as units in other courses, and integrated in the curruculum could be accounted for by factors other than chance alone. In comparing specific differences in regard to the small junior-senior high schools, the ratios of the standard error of the difference in proportions were as follows:

3.4-7 in comparing separate course and units in other courses;

and 3.52 in comparing separate course and integrated in the curriculum.

These

figures indicated significant differences at the one per cent level of confidence.

With respect to the medium junior-senior high schools the critical

ratios were as follows:

4.44 in comparing separate course and units; and 4.67

in comparing separate course and integrated in the curriculum.

The differences

were reliable as the critical ratio values were significant at the one per cent level of confidence. high schools were:

The critical ratios for the large junior-senior

3.12 for the separate course and units in other courses;

and 3.12 for the separate course and integrated in the curriculum.

The

differences were significant at the one per cent level of confidence. Chi-square calculated to determine if there were significant horizontal differences with respect to the junior high schools was 16.9 and .009 was the value for P.

The differences with respect to indicating health

was taught as a separate course, as units in other courses or integrated in the curriculum, therefore, were considered to be caused by factors other than chance alone.

In comparing specific differences in regard to the medium

56 junior high schools, the ratios of the standard error of the difference in proportions were as follows:

2.76 in comparing separate course with integrated

in the curriculum; and 2.13 in comparing separate course with units in other courses.

The value of 2.76 was significant at the one per cent level of

confidence and thus the differences can be said to be reliable, while 2.13 was significant at the five per cent level which indicates the differences are probably reliable.

Critical ratios computed for the small and large

junior high schools showed no significant differences. It is interesting to note also what has been stated by the Ohio Public Health Association in formulating a school health policy for Ohio. 3 A synopsis of the statements are as follows: Health instruction may be correlated with other subjects and it may be taught as units in various courses, but such a program is not adequate in itself.

Many of the subjects

having health content are elective, the divided responsibility may result in the omission of many important health problems and inadequately trained teachers may be asked to teach health units.

It is recommended, therefore,

that secondary schools should provide special courses in health instruction taught by specially trained teachers.

It would appear here that an effort

has been made to comply with this recommendation. Methods of classifying students for health education. Table XI resulted from responses to the question, “What type of pupil classification is used in assigning students to health education classes?” Answers which the respondents were asked to check included the followings

3

School Health Policy for Ohio, op. cit.. p. 20.

none; age; grade;

\

TABLE XI CLASSIFICATION USED IN ASSIGNING STUDENTS TO HEALTH EDUCATION CLASSES

Classification

Medium Small senior senior high high no. no. % %

None 8 15.7 15 28.8 Age 1 1.9 5.9 3 Grade 28 53.S 35 68.6 0 0.0 2 Placement test 3.9 Free choice 6 11.8 5 9.6 Free period 1 1.9 2 3.9 0.0 Maturation 1 0 1.9 Achievement test 0 0.0 0 0.0

Large senior high no. %

Small Medium Large Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior junior high high high high high no. no. no. no. no. % % % % %

2 5.7 i 31 16.3 2 1 1.0 2.9 i 26 7U.3 i 139 73.1 0 0.0 i 0 0.0 8.6 i 14- 7.43 2 5.7 i 5 2.6 0.0 i 0 0 0.0 0.0 i 0 0 0.0

19 17.44- 3.7 77 70.6 0 0.0 6 5.5 10 9.2 0 0.0 0 0.0

3 1 26 0 3 1 0 0

9.7 3.2 83.9 0.0 9.7 3.2 0.0 0.0

i i i ' i i i i i

1 12.5 6 20.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 8 100.0 22 73.3 0 0.0 2 6.7 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0

Large junior high no. % 3 20.0, 0 0.0 10 66.7 1 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.7

^3

53

placement test; free choice; free period; and others.

A tabulation and

analysis of responses shows that classification by grade is the method used by the greatest percentage of schools of all types.

Placement tests were

only used by 3.9 per cent of the medium senior high schools, by 6.7 per cent of the medium junior high schools, high schools.

An

and by 6.7 per cent of the large junior

achievement test was used by 6.7 per cent of the large

junior high schools.

There has been little attempt made from an administrative

standpoint to provide for homogeneous grouping in health education classes. This does not, of course, exclude the possibility of individual health teachers gearing their instruction to meet the needs of students at the various levels of achievement and intelligence found in a random class. Segregation of boys and girls in health education classes.

"Are

the students in health education classes segretated on the basis of sex?" was the question which resulted in the formulation of Table XII.

It would

appear that over sixty-five per cent of the respondents in the medium and large senior high schools, the large junior-senior high schools, and the medium and large junior high schools indicated that the boys and girls in their schools were segregated for health instruction.

Approximately fifty-

eight per cent of the medium junior-senior high schools practiced segregation. The small junior high schools and the small junior-senior high schools were the only types of schools which had higher percentages of mixed classes than segregated ones.

The practices of segregating students were indicated in

approximately the

same percentages of cases as was thepractice of not

segregating for the small senior high schools and the small junior-senior high schools.

A few schools indicated that their classes are segregated in

some instances and not in others.

It appears that the smaller schools

59

TABLE XII SEGREGATION IN HEALTH EDUCATION CLASSES ON THE BASIS OP SEX

Type of school

No

Yes no.

%

no.

%

no.

Both %

Small senior high Medium senior high Large senior high

24 38 25

46.1 74.5 71.4

26 13 7

50.0 25.5 20.0

0 0 1

0.0 0.0 2.9

Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high

84 64 25

44.2 58.7 80.6

96 41 6

50.3 37.6 19.4

5 3 0

2.6 2.7 0.0

Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high

3 20 10

37.5 66.7 66.7

5 10 4

62.5 33.3 26.7

0 0 1

0.0 0.0 6.7

Totals

293

208

12

60 segregate to a lesser degree than do the large schools.

Apparently, each

school or school system determines its own procedure in regard to this aspect of the program. Teachers of health education classes. According to Table XIII men teach the boys’ classes in greatest percentage of cases in each of the nine types of schools.

This is true in sixty-two per cent or more of the

cases for all types of schools.

These are the data derived from responses

to the question, "Who teaches the boys’ classes?11 The .respondents were requested to indicate men or women.

Boys’ classes in some schools were

taught by both men and women. The fact that a greater percentage of men teach the boys’ classes than do women might be explained by the tendency for boys’ physical education teachers also to be the health teachers in the schools. Table XIV shows that in the senior highschools, senior high, the medium junior-senior high schools,

the small junior-

andthe small and large

junior high schools the greatest percentage of teachers of mixed classes are men.

These data were formulated from responses to the question, "If

the health classes are made up of mixed groups, who teaches these classes?" In regard to the large junior-senior high schools the greatest percentage have mixed classes taught by both men and women.

With respect to the medium

junior high schools, the percentages for women and

bothmen and women were

reported an equal number of times. There is a tendency for the teachers of mixed classes in the senior high and a majority of the junior-senior high schools to be men.

The

61

TABLE XIII TEACHERS OF BOYS' CLASSES

Type of school

Men no.

Small senior high Medium, senior high Large senior high Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high Totals

%

Women no. %

Both no.

%

38 43 26

73.1 84-.3 74.3

4 1 0

7.7 2.0 0.0

2 4 4

3.9 7.8 11.4

1A3 91 28

75.3 83.5 90.3

7 2 2

3.6 1.8 6.4

11 10 0

5.8 9.2 0.0

5 21 13

62.5 70.0 86.7

1 3 0

12.5 10.0 0.0

0 1 1

0.0 3.3 6.7

20

33

62

TABLE XIV TEACHERS OF MIXED CLASSES

Type of school

Men no.

%

Women no. %

no.

Both %

Small senior high Medium senior high Large senior high

21 11 7

40.4 21.6 20.0

8 2 0

15.4 3.9 0.0

1 3 5

1.9 5.9 14.3

Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high

65 37 2

34-2 33.9 6.4.

147 3

7.3 6.4 9.7

24 7 5

12.6 6.4 16.1

2 3 2

25.0 10.0 13.3

1 5 1

12.5 16.7 6.7

Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high Totals

14-9

4-1

1 12.5 5 16.7 6.7 3 55

63 number of responses from the junior high schools is too small for any definite conclusion to be drawn. Methods used and amount of credit given for health education. The responses to the question, "How is credit given in health classes?” provided the data for Table XV.

The purpose in asking this question was

to determine if credit was given and if so, what methods were used in granting such credit.

The majority of schools of each type grant some credit for

health education.

With the exception of the medium junior high schools

which most frequently grant separate credit for health, the percentages indicate that combining health credit with physical education and giving separate credit for it were used about equally as much for all types of schools.

The divergence in methods of granting credits would indicate that

within the groups of schools representing each of the nine types there is no common policy with regard to this administrative procedure. Table XVT represents data resulting from responses to the question, "How much credit in health education is required for graduation from your senior high school?M four years of work. in

Senior high school in this instance refers to the last This definition does not coincide with the one presented

Chapter I, however, this is a functional definition while the one appear­

ing under "Definition of terms" has organizational implications.

When

graduation credits are referred to in Ohio, the commonly accepted view is that reference is being made to the last four years of work regardless of the organization of the school system. in Chapter I.

The term "credit" has been defined

There is a great variation with respect to the amount of

credit given in each of the various types of schools.

An examination of the

64

TABLE XV METHOD OF GIVING CREDIT FOR HEALTH

Type of school

Small senior high Medium senior high Large senior high Small junior-senior high Medium junior-senior high Large junior-senior high Small junior high Medium junior high Large junior high Totals

No credit no. %

Combined with physical education no. %

As separate credit no. %

6 3 2

11.5 5.9 5.7

22 29 17

A2.3 56.9 48.6

21 23 16

40.4 45.1 45.7

18 9 4

9.5 8.2 12.9

95 60 14

50.0 55.0 45.2

80 44 15

42.1 40.3 48.4

0 3 2

0.0 10.0 13.3

5 62.5 8 26.7 6 40.0

4 16 6

50.0 53.3 40.0

47

256

225

TABLE XVI CREDIT IN HEALTH REQUIRED FOR GRADUATION

Credit in units

Small Medium senior senior high high % no. % no.

Large senior high no. %

.00 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25 1.50 2.00 3.00

12 23.1 11 21.6 0.0 3 0 5.9 10 19.2 12 23.5 0.0 0 2 3.9 13 25.0 21 41.1 0.0 1 0 2.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 5.8 1 2.0 3 0.0 0 0.0 0

7 4 4 2 10 0 0 2 0

Totals

33

51

29

Median no. of credits

.38

.46

.46

20.0 11.4 11.4 5.7 20.6 0.0 0.0 5.7 0.0

Medium Small Medium Large Small junior junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior high high high high high % no. % no. % no. % no. % no.

Large junior high no. %

3 10.0 1 3.3 2 6.7 0.0 0 2 6.7 0 0.0 2 6.7 0 0.0 1 3.3

0 0.0 3 10.0 0 0.0 1 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.3 0 0.0

59 2 17 0 63 0 0 3 0

144

.44

31.0 1.0 8.9 0.0 33.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0

32 29.3 1 .9 3.2 9 0 0.0 46 42.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 1.3 1 .9

13 41.9 0 0.0 4 12.9 1 3.2 5 16.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 9.7 3 1 3.2

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1

91

27

4

.38

.38

.87

12.5 0.0 12.5 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.5

11

.44

5

.37

o

Vl

66 medians indicates that in all types of schools except the medium juniorsenior high schools with .88 and the small junior high schools with .87, less than one half credit was given.

Only slightly over forty per cent

of the senior high schools and junior-senior high schools granted one-half credit or more.

Slightly less than forty per cent of the small junior

high schools, approximately twenty per cent of the medium junior high schools, and about ten per cent of the large junior high schools granted one-half credit or more. One fourth or less credit was granted in approximately twelve per cent of all junior high schools.

It should be noted that quite a

number of the small junior-senior high schools, and the small and medium junior high school respondents failed to respond to this question.

Apparently

the respondents from the junior high schools responded in terms of the practices in the high schools in their school systems.

It was probably

felt by those who did not respond that the question did not apply to them. In view of the fact that the Ohio State Department of Education recommends that one-half credit be required for graduation from high school,^ it would appear that the many schools are not complying with this standard. The schools failing to meet this standard to the greatest extent are the small junior-senior high schools with thirty-one per cent granting onefourth credit or less, and the large junior-senior high schools with fortyone per cent granting no credit. Places where health education classes are held. The data which appear in Table XVII were derived from responses to the question, “Where 4- Ohio High School Standards for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Safety, op. cit.. p. 4A.

TABLE XVII PLACES WHERE HEALTH EDUCATION CLASSES ARE HELD

Place

Small Medium senior senior high high no. no. % %

Special health classroom Other classroom Gymnasium Auditorium Locker room Cafeteria Laboratory Swimming pool

Large senior high no. %

7.7 14 27.4

11

36 69.2 28 54.9 16 30.8 14 27.4 2 1 1.9 3.9 2 1 1.9 3.9 0 0.0 1 1.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

19 9 2 0 0 0 0

4

Large Medium Small Medium Small junior-senior junior-senior junior*-senior junior junior high high high high high no. no. % no. no. no. % % % %

T.... 1 31.4 i 17 8.9 i 54.3 i 138 72.6 25.7 i 68 35.8 5.7 ' 6 3.1 0.0 i 2 1.0 0.0 i 0 0.0 0.0 • 1 .5 0.0 0.0 i 0 j------

21 19.3

13

73 67.0 34 31.2 1 .9 1 .9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

17 54.8 8 25.8 0 0.0 1 3.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 3.2 1

41.9

2 25.0

10 33.3

7 0 0 0 0 0 0

19 2 0 0 0 0 0

87.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

63.3 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Large junior high no. %

9

60.0

7 2 0 0 -0 0 0

46.7 13.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

o ->3

68 are the health education classes held?” The respondents were requested to indicate the following:

special health classroom, other classroom, gymnasium,

auditorium, locker room, and other places.

Other classroom is the place

that the majority of all types of schools except the large junior high schools indicated as being where health education classes are held.

"With

respect to the small senior high schools, the small junior-senior high schools, and the medium junior-senior high schools the gymnasium ranks second to the 11other classroom11 as the place most commonly used.

The special health

classroom ranks second to the ''other classroom" in regard to the large senior high schools, the large junior—senior high schools, and the mnali and medium junior high schools and first for the large junior high schools. The factors of size and type of school seem to be related to the use of a special health classroom.

The larger schools in general and the junior

high schools in particular have relatively high percentages reporting use of special health classrooms. The fact that a number of schools did report the use of special health classrooms would indicate that some school administrators feel health is important enough to warrant the use of special facilities.

It must be

remembered, however, that special health classrooms do not guarantee good instruction but are merely aids to good teaching.

SUMMARY Senior high schools. With regard to the inclusion in the curriculum of a course in health education certain facts are noteworthy:

(l) the large

schools tend to require or offer health as an elective more than do the

69 medium or small schools, and (2) the majority of the medium and large schools require a course in health while only about thirty-eight per cent of the small schools require such a course.

It was found that the small and medium

schools tend to require health equally in all four grades while for the large schools the tenth and eleventh grades were most frequently reported as the ones in which health was required.

The number of semesters that a

student was required to take health tends to be approximately two for the senior high schools.

It was also discovered that with respect to the

number of periods per week students were given health instruction there was much divergence in practices.

The senior high schools, however, tended to

give two periods per week although five periods was also quite common.

In

comparing the time spent in health instruction with the State Department of Education standard, it was discovered that about one third or more of the senior high schools are failing to comply. There was a very definite tendency for the length of the health instruction period to be forty-five minutes.

The average-size health class

in the senior high schools was found to be approximately twenty-five pupils. The range of sizes was quite great and in general the larger schools had the larger classes. The most frequently reported method of teaching health education was found to be as a separate course.

In fact, sixty-nine per cent of the

senior high schools were reported to have taught health in this manner. was also discovered that between one-fourth and one-half of the schools taught health as units in other courses or integrated in the curriculum.

It

70 The findings show that in the senior high schools students were most frequently assigned to health classes by grade.

Placement tests were

used by a small percentage of the medium schools but otherwise little attempt was made to classify the students in health classes by intelligence, achievement or other criteria used in homgeneous grouping.

In regard to

segregating boys and girls in health education classes, it was found that over sixty-five per cent of the medium and large schools practiced segregation. The small senior high schools had mixed classes more frequently than segregated ones.

Sixty-two per cent or more of the teachers of boys1 classes

in health education were found to be men, and the greatest percentage of teachers of mixed classes were also men. It was also found that the majority of these schools granted some credit for health education.

The two methods used equally were to combine

health credit with physical education, and to give separate credit for health.

In comparing the amount of credit given for health education with

the standard of one-half credit recommended by the State Department of Education it was found that only slightly over forty per cent of the senior high schools are meeting the standard. Finally, it was found that the health education classes in these schools are most frequently held in other classrooms.

The gymnasium was

the next most frequently used place with respect to the small schools, while the special health classroom ranked second to other classroom in regard to the large schools. Junior-senior high schools.

It is significant that well over half

of these schools required a course in health education.

Apparently the sizes

71 of these schools -was not related to the requiring of health.

There was a

definite tendency for the small and medium junior-senior high schools to require the health course in the seventh and eighth grades rather than in the other grades.

The large

schools exhibited no such tendencies.

In

general, the junior-senior high schools required two semester of health. There was, however, a wide range of practices in evidence, with no one proceudre being very predominant over the others.

The findings also

indicated that the small and medium schools tended to give two periods of health instruction per week while the large schools gave two or three periods. In comparing the time spent in health instruction with the Ohio State Department of Education standard, it was found that approximately one-half of the small and medium schools, and approximately one-third of the large schools are not meeting the standard.

It was also found that

the forty-five minute health instruction period was by far the most frequently reported.

The average size of health classes in the junior-senior high

schools was twenty-three pupils for the small schools, thirty for the medium schools, and thirty-two for the large schools. Health was found to be taught most frequently as a separate course. Sixty-three per cent or more of the junior-senior high schools were reported to use this method.

One-fourth to one-half of these schools taught health

as units in other courses and integrated in the curriculum.

Students were

most frequently classified by grade in assigning them to health education classes.

There was little evidence to indicate that any other means were

72 employed by junior-senior high schools in order to have homogeneous grouping in health classes. Boys and girls were segregated for health education classes in over sixty-five per cent of the large schools and in approximately fiftyeight per cent of the medium schools.

The small juniors-senior high schools

had a higher percentage of mixed classes than they had segregated ones. The teachers of boys* health classes were most frequently men.

Men were

also most frequently the teachers of mixed classes in the small schools. Men and women were the teachers of mixed classes in about an equal number of schools with respect to the medium and large junior-senior high schools. The majority of these schools granted some credit for health education.

The methods of granting credit were to combine health credit

with physical education or give separate credit for health.

These methods

were used about equally as much by the junior-senior high schools.

In

view of the fact that only slightly over forty per cent of these schools of Education granted one-half credit or more, the Ohio State Department/ standard of one-half credit is not being met by very many of these schools. Health education classes in junior-senior high schools were most frequently held in other classrooms.

The gymnasium ranked second to other

classroom for the small and medium schools while the special health class­ room ranked second for the large schools. Junior high schools. Seventy-two per cent or more of these schools required a course in health. offered health as an elective.

More of the junior high schools

The size of the schools appeared to be

73 \

related to the requiring of health for as the size increased, the number of schools requiring health also increased. Health was required in the seventh grade by the greatest percentage of junior high schools.

It was also found that one semester of health was

required most frequently.

In regard to the number of periods per week

health instruction was given, a wide range of practices was in evidence. There were tendencies, however, for the small and large schools to give instruction one period per week, and the medium schools two periods per week. The most frequently reported length of the instruction period was forty-five minutes. The average sizes of health classes was fovnd to be twenty-nine for the small schools, twenty-eight for the medium schools, and thirty for the large junior high schools. Health was taught in sixty-three per cent or more of the schools as a separate course.

It was also found that in one-fourth to one-half of

the junior high schools health was taught as units in other courses and integrated in the curriculum.

The predominance of the medium schools

teaching health as a separate course rather than as ■units or integrated was found be a reliable fact statistically.

This tendency with respect

to the small and large schools was not proven to be reliable and probably because of the small numbers involved. Pupils were classified by grade most frequently in assigning them to health education classes.

A few medium and large schools employed place­

ment and achievement tests but otherwise there were no attempts at homogeneous grouping.

74 Over sixty-five per cent of the medium and large schools segregated boys and girls in health classes.

The tendency in the small

schools was toward non-segregation rather than segregation.

With respect

to the teachers of the boys' health classes, there was a very definite tendency for them to be men.

Men are most frequently the teachers of mixed

classes in the small and large junior high schools, while women or both men and women were reported to be the teachers about equally as much for the medium schools. The small and large junior high schools used two methods of granting credit for health which included combining health credit with physical education credit, and granting separate credit for health. majority of the medium schools granted separate credit for health.

The Few

schools granted no credit for health. "Other classrooms" were the places in which health education classes were held most frequently, with respect to the small and medium schools.

The special health classroom was the most frequent place for

classes in the large junior high schools.

It was also found that the

special health classroom ranked second to the other classroom for the small and *medium junior high schools.

CHAPTER IV THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM The investigation of practices relative to the instructional program was concerned primarily with methods and materials used by the health teacher and with the scope of the instruction*

3h addition to a consi-

deration of factors in actual classroom teaching, elements in the school or community environment which are directly related to the instruction program were studied* An attempt was also made to determine the contributions of various school and out-of-school personnel to the program® No attempt was made at a comprehensive evaluation o Deviations from existing State Department of Education standards war©, however, noted* Whaye great differences in practices ware found in comparing the various types of schools, possible factors causing these differences were indi­ cated®

It should be emphasized that the findings relative to the in­

structional program can only be used in gaining a concept of the mechanics of health instruction as practiced in the various types of schools®

The

actual outcome of health instruction programs can only be determined by measuring the changes in the health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the pupils who receive the instruction®

This study does not propose

to measure those changes0 nWhat type course of study is used in conducting the health instruc­ tion program?,} was the question which is reported in Table Z?III®

Possible

raspcsises were as follows $ nano $ other statoj localj and ,}prepared by

75

TABLE m i l COURSES OF STUDY USED IN TEACHING HEALTH

Small Medium Type of course senior senior of study high high no. % no. % None Other state Local Prepared by teacher

4 7.7 3 5.9 0.0 0 0 0.0 8 15.4 13 25.5 35

67.3

31 60.8

Large senior high no. %

Small Medium Large Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior junior high high high high high no. % no. % no. % no. % no. %

0 0.0 i 16 8.4 0.0 i 4 2.1 0 15 42.9 i 39 20.5

7 6.4 0 0.0 25 22.9

21

68 62.4

60.0 i 116

61.0

i 0 0.0 i 0 0.0 I 10 32.3i i 24 77.4i ---- u

0 0.0 0 0.0 3 37.5 4

50.0

Large junior high no. %

2 6.7 0 0.0 46.7 14

0 0.0 0.0 0 6 4Q.Q

50.0

7 46.7

15

77

teacher0n

Courses of study prepared by teachers were the ones used most

frequently by all types of schools0

Sixty per cent or more of the seniorj>

and junior-senior high schools, fifty per cent of the small and medium junior high schools, and forty-six per cent of the large junior high schools so indic&tedo

The most frequent use of a local course of study

was reported with respect to the large senior high, large junior-senior high, and medium and large junior high schools®

In th© largo schools

there are more attempts mad® at standardizing the subject matter content of the health education courses within a school or school systemo

The

relatively high percentage of schools using the teacher-prepared courses of study indicates a great deal of freedom on the part of individual teachers with respect to tbs subject matter content of the health education courses* The responses to the question, nWhat type of instructional material is used in conducting th© health instruction program?” are presented in Tables XIX, XX, and XXI*

Table XIX shows that text books were used by

more than forty-three per cent of the senior high schools, with about sixty-three per cent of the large senior high schools reporting their use © Hor© than fifty-seven per cent of the junior-senior high schools use textbooks while approximately sixty-six per cent of th© large junior high schools, eighty-seven per cent of the small junior high schools, and ninety per cent of the medium junior high schools also indicated their usea

The use of textbooks far outranked th© use of any other type of

instructional equipment with respect to all types of schools0 Workbooks or guidebooks ranked second with respect to small senior high, medium senior high, small junior-senior high schools, medium junior-senior high schools, and small junior high schools®

Units sheets ranked second to

TABLE XIX INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS USED IN TEACHING HEALTH

Type of material

Text books Workbooks or guidebooks Unit sheets Charts

Small Medium senior senior high high no. % no. % 23

44.2 25

13 25.0 7 13.5 0 0.0

4-9.0

12 23.5 10 19.6 0 0.0

Large senior 'high no. % 22

62.9

8 22.9 9 25.7 0.0 0

Small Medium Large Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior junior high high 'high high high no. % no. % no. % no. % no. % 115

60.5

56 29.5 22 11.6 0 0.0

64

58.7

28 25.7 13 11.9 0 0.0

i 71.0 r 7 87.5 27 90.0 i 1 7 22.6 i 2 25.0 3.3 5 16.7 9 29.0 i 1 12.5 2 0 0.0 i 1 12.5 6.7 — — -■-»

22

Large junior high no. % 10 66.7 1 6.7 3 20.0 0 0.0

OD

TABLE XX AUTHORS OF TEXT BOOKS BEING USED IN TEACHING HEALTH

Authors

Small Medium senior senior high high no. no. % %

Andress, Goldberger and Hallock 0 Burkhard, Chambers and Maroney 2 0 Crisp Charters, Smiley and Strang 0 Williams and Brownell 0 Wilson, Bracken and Almack 2

Large senior high no. %

0.0

2

8.0

0

8.7 0.0

0 0.0 6 24.0

1 5

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

3

12.0

1

8.7

4 16.0

1

Small Large Large Medium Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior junior junior high high high high high high no. no. no. no. no. no. % % % % % % ■|— '_ i i i 0.0 i 4 6.2 2 1 10.0 3.5 9.1 ; 0 0.0 9 33.3 4 i 0.0 1 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 4.7 4.5 , 5 4.3 3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 22.7 , 1 1 1 10.0 4.5 ; .9 i 0.0 i 12 11.4 2 4.7 1 10.0 3 9.1.; 2 28.6 3 11.1 '■ i 6.2 1 1 0 0.0 4.5 . 4 3.5 3.7 4 4.5 j 1 14.3 i 2 0 0.0 ( 1 14.3 1 3.7 0 0.0 4.5 i 4 3.5 3.1 i

TABLE XXI PUBLICATION DATES OF TEXT BOOKS USED IN TEACHING HEALTH

Dates

1933 1935 1936 1938 1939 194-0 1941 1942 194-3 19441945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Median dates

Small Medium senior senior high high no. % no. % 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 2 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.7 0.0 8.7 4.3 0.0 0.0 8.7 0.0 8.7 0.0

0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 4.0 1 4.0 1 1 4.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 12.0 6 24.0 1 4.0 1 4.0 0.0 0

1943

1945

Large senior high no. %

Small Medium Large Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior junior high high high high high no. % no. % no. % no. % no. %

0 0.0 , 0.0 , 0 0.0 , 0 0.0 , 0 0 0.0 , 0 0.0 , 0 0.0 , 1 4.5 1 0 0.0 , 2 9.0 , 3 13.5 . 2 9.0 i 0 0.0 i 0 0.0 i 0 0.0 1 1945

1 1 1 1 0 2 3 0 0 2 3 6 8 7 1

.9 .9 .9 .9 0.0 1.7 2.6 0.0 0.0 1.7 2.6 5.2 6.9 6.1 .9 1946

■0 1 1 0 0 0 5 2 3 1 2 6 2 1 0

0.0 1.6 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.8 3.1 4.7 1.6 3.1 9.4 3.1 1.6 0.0 1944

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 2 0 2 1 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 0.0 4.5 4.5 0.0 9.0 0.0 9.0 4.5 0.0 0.0 1944

i , , 1 1 , i i i i i i i I I

Large junior high no. %

0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 2 28.6 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0

0 0.0 1 3.7 0 0.0 0.0 0 1 3.7 1 3.7 9 33.3 4 14.8 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.7 1 3.7

0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 10.0 0.0 0 1 10.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

1941

1941

1940

oo o

81

textbooks in regard to large senior high schools, large junior-senior high schools, medium junior high schools, and large junior high schools© The textbook is a more basic tool for health teaching than are other types of instructional materials0

This is especially true with respect

to the junior high schools© The percentages which appear in Table XX ware computed in terms of the numbers of schools which used textbooks shown in Table XIX» A great range of different authors or groups of authors were reported, but only tbs six more frequently are mentioned©

The respeons© to this phase of

the question concerning instructional materials was very poor©

Any at­

tempt to compare the various types of schools would seem pointless in terms of the small numbers involved©

All of the authors whose namas ap­

pear have written books which are recommended for us© of teachers in th© Ohio State Department of Education publication, ^Teachers Guide for an Activity Course in Healthful Living for Ohio High School Y o u t h © I t would appear, therefore, that some of the textbooks in use are ones which are considered to be good texts in the field of health education© The percentages which appear in Table XXI were calculated in terms of the numbers of schools reporting the use of textbooks©

Very few of

the respondents indicated the dates in which the textbooks were published© The median dates for the textbooks used in all nine types of schools ranges from 1941 for the junior high schools to 1944 for the junior-senior

^Teachers Gui.de for an Activity Course in Healthful Living for Ohio High School Youth, op© cit., pp© 142 - 152*

82

high schools®

The percentages show that the senior high schools use no

textbooks which are orcr ten years oldD Th© findings which, because of the few responses, are quite inconclusive, would indicate that, in general, schools of each type ar© using texts which were published fairly recently® There is some effort on the part of a few school administrators and health teachers to keep abreast of the most current information as pro®* sented in textbook form© The responses to the statement, nChsclc the following equipment which is used in health education classes,,} appear in Table XXII®

The list the

respondents were requested to check included? motion picture projector; slide projector; wall charts; opaque projectors} anatomical manikins} skeleton; models} microscope} blackboard} and others©

According to the

table, motion picture projectors, blackboards and wall charts are used in greater percentages of the cases than are any of the other types of equip*, mento

This is true with respect to all of the nine types of schools©

With the exception of the small senior high school schools with about sixty-nine par cant, eighty-five per cent or more of all type3 of schools used motion picture projectors©

Seventy-three per cent or more of all

schools U3Q wall charts, seventy-six per cent of all schools used black­ boards, and thirty-six per cent of all schools used slide projectors© These findings indicate that some type of visual aid or other equip­ ment is used by a majority of senior high schools, junior-senior high schools, and junior high schools0

It is especially noteworthy that so

many of the schools of all types are employing the motion picture projector in health education classes© The data which appear in Table XXIII were derived from the question,

TABLE XXII

EQUIPMENT USED IN HEALTH EDUCATION CLASSES

Type of equipment used

Motion picture projector Slide projector Wall charts Opaque projectors Anatomical manikins Skeleton Models Microscope Blackboard Bioscope

Small Medium senior senior high high no. % % no.

36 69.2 4-5 88.2 19 36.5 23 45.1 38 73.1 41 80.4 2

3.8

5

9.8

7 6 6 16 40 0

13.5 11.5 11.5 30.8 76.9 0.0

9 15 1418 4-5 0

17.6 29.4 27.4 35.3 88.2 0.0

Large Large Small Small Medium Medium junior senior junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior high high high high high high no. no. no. no. % no. % no. /° % % %

31 88.6 1 163 85.8 16 45.7 1 70 36.8 28 80.0 ' 149 78.4 7 20.0 1 10 14 15 13 12 31 0

40.0 42.9 37.1 34.3 88.6 0.0

' ' ' 1 1 '

30 30 31 74 159 2

100 91.7 50 45.9 88 80.7

30 96.8 17 54.8 28 90.3

5.3

9

8.3

2

9.7

15.8 15.8 16.3 38.9 83.7 1.0

16 17 21 36 96 0

14.7 15.6 19.3 33.0 88.7 0.0

10 10 14 11 28 1

32.3 32.3 45.2 35.5 90.3 3.2

I i , , , i , i i . , i , ,

7 87.5 29 96.7 3 37.5 14 46.7 7 87.5 29 96.7 3

10.0

0.0 0 9 1 12.5 3 0 0.0 8 2 25.0 10 6 75.0 25 0 0.0 0

30.0 10.0 26.7 33.3 83.3 0.0

1 12.5

Large junior high no. %

13 9 13

86.7 60.0 86.7

4 26.7 7 4 8 10 15 0

46.7 26.7 53.3 66.7 100.0 0.0

TABLE XXIII

ACTIVITIES PLANNED FOR INCIDENTAL INSTRUCTION IN HEALTH

Activities

Small Medium senior senior high high no. no. %

School health examination Visits byschool nurse Selection of food in cafeteria Safety in shops, playfields Sanitation in lavatories Athletics Intramurals

24 46.1 31

60.8

Large Small Medium Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior junior high high High high high no. no. no. % no. no. % % % % i i 120 63.1 22 71.0 i 4 50.0 22 73.3 24 68.6 65 59.6

Large senior high no. %

31 60.8

21

60.0

154 81.0

79

72.5

22

71.0 i 7 87.5 23

21 40.4 16 31.4

16

45.7

101

53.1

51 46.7

32

38.7 i 2 25.0

65.7

135

71.0

79

72.5

21 67.7 i 4

113 59.5 158 83.1 220 63.1

68 90 80

62.4 82.6 73.4

21 26 21

38 73.1

55.8 36

70.6

23

27 51.9 33 38 73.1 43 21 40,4 • 35

64.7 84.3 68.6

■25 71.4 24 68.6 18 51.4

29



Large junior high no. %

13

86.7

76.7

10 66.7

40.0 ' 50.0 19 63.3

9 60.0

32

67.7 ' 2 25.0 19 63.3 83.9 ' 5 65.2 23 76.7 67.7 ' 4 50.0 18 60.0

11 73.3 12 33 13

80.0 86.7 86.7

85

*H!hat school activities, facilities, and situations ar© specifically planned and used for incidental instruction and training in health?*4 Respondents wars requested to indicate the following* school health examination} visits by school nurse} select ion of food in the school cafeteria; safety as applied in shops, playfields, etcD; sanitation as applied to buildings, lavatories, grounds, etc0; athletics; intramurals; and others*

Athletics and visits by school nurse were reported

in the greatest percentage of cases in regard to each type of schoolo Schools, with the exception of the medium senior high schools, the large junior-senior high schools, and the small junior high schools, were em=> ploying each one of the six activities in at least forty per cent of the cases®

The medium senior high schools, the large junior-senior high

schools, and the small junior high schools have percentages below forty for selection of food in cafeteria©

The small junior high schools used

sanitation in lavatories, etc® in less than forty psr cent of the cases® Schools in the various categories are talcing advantage of a number of opportunities in the school environment to provide incidental instruc­ tion in healtho

Due to the variety of activities reported, it would ap­

pear that various school personnel in addition to the health and physical education teachers are being active in th© program of incidental health teaching® The responses to the question, n-Hhat means are used to gear the health instruction to the needs and interests of the students?” are presented in Table XXIV o The following answers were to be indicated by the respondents* none; tabulation of students* health questions; student-teacher planning committeaj parent-teaehor planning committee; and others©

Students® health questions was the means used by forty par

TABLE XXIV DEVICES USED TO GEAR HEALTH INSTRUCTION TO NEEDS OF STUDENTS

Device

None Tabulation of students® questions Studsnt-teacher planning com0 Farent-teacher planning com® Teachers® judgment County supervisor State supervisor Nurse

Small senior high no* %

18

34®6

Medium senior high no® %

9

17®6

22 42*5 21 41®2 22 23®1 13 25®5 1 0 0 0 0

lo9 0e0 O oO O oO O oO

4 5 0 1 0

7®8 908 O oO

2*0 0*0

large senior high no® %

large Small Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior high high high high no® % no® % no® % no® %

5 14*3 » i i 18 51*4 * i 12 34*3 ‘ i 5 14*5 * 4 11*4 ‘ 0 0*0 1 O oO 1 0 1 2.9 1

Medium junior high no® %

56*7

2

15®3

14

46*7

6

40*0

25*0

3

10*0

2

13*2

1 12*5 1 12*5 0*0 0 0 O oO 0 0*0

1 2 0 0 0

o®3 6*7 0*0 0*0 0*0

2 1 0 0 0

13*2 6*7 0*0 0*0 0*0

74

58®9

28

25*7

7

22*6

3 o705 n

45

23*7

33

30*3

15

48*4

1 12*5

45

23*7

25

21*1

14

45*2

2

8 10 1 0 0

402 5*3 o5 0*0

12 9 1 0 0

11*0 8*2 ®9 0*0 0*0

3 1 1 0 0

9*7 3*2 3*2 0*0 0*0

O oO

large junior high no® %

i

oo 03

87

cent or more of the small and medium senior high schools, and the large junior high schools, large junior-senior high schools, and medium junior high schools were reported to use students* health questions©

Student-

teacher planning committees Tiara used by approximately on© fourth of the small and medium senior high schools, the small junior-senior high schools, and tha small junior high schools©

Approximately one-third of the largo

senior high schools, one-fifth of tha medium junior-senior high schools, and one-half of the largo junior-senior high schools used student-teachar planning committees©

Any other msants m s used less than fifteen per

cent of any group of schools©

At least ona-third of the small senior high

schools, the small junior-senior high schools, and the small and medium junior high schools used no maans whatsoever to gear instruction to students* needs0 Approximately one-fourth of ths medium junior-senior high schools w r e reported to have made no attempts to plan the health courso in terms of students* needs and interests©

Approximately half or

more of the senior, junior-senior and junior high schools are doing little to teach health education in terms of students* needs© Table XXV was formulated from responses to the question, E*In what courses or subjects are separate units in health taught?**

Possible

answers were as follows* biological sciencej industrial education} social studies; and others©

Biological science was the course in which

health units were taught in the greatest percentage of cases for all types of schools except the small junior high schools©

Biological

science was reported for over sixty-seven per cent of ths senior high schools and in over seventy*=four per cent of the junior-senior high schools©

Ths greatest percentage for small junior high schools was

TABLE XXV COURSES IN WHICH SEPARATE UNITS IN HEALTH ARE TAUGHT

Courses

Small Medium senior senior high high no. no. % %

Biological science Industrial education Social studies Physicaleducation General science Home economics Civics Physics Commercial Orientation English Vocational agriculture

Large senior high no. %

82.3

24

4 7.7 4- 7.8 16 30.8 22 43.1 1 1.9 4 7.8 9.6 5 3 5.9 7.7 2 4 3.9 0 0.0 1 2.0 2 0 0.0 3.8 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

7 8 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0

36 69.2

1

1.9

42

0

0.0

.

0

Medium Large Small Small Medium junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior junior high high high high high no. no. no. % no. no. % % % %

1---i 68.6 1 170 i 20.0 1 22 22.9 1 71 2.9 i 17 5.7 1 23 0.0 ' 14 0.0 1 0 2.9 1 0 2.9 1 0 2.9 1 0 0.0 1 0 i 0.0 1 I

1

Large junior high no. %

----- r 89.5

82 75.2

26

14 46.7

10 66.7

11.6 37.4 8.9 12.1 7.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

3 2.7 36 33.0 2 1.8 16 14.7 11 10.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

5 16.1 1 1 12.5 0 0.0 18 58.1 ' 3 33.3 10 33.3 2 0.0 0 0.0 6.4 ' 0 1 3.2 1 2 25.0 4 13.3 2 0.0 2 6.7 6.4 1 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 * 1

5 33.3 7 46.7 1 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.7

.5

0 : 0.0

1

83.9 1 2 25.0

3.2 1 0 ,1

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

co

CO

89

reported in connection with social studios©

Social studies ranked

second to biological sciences with respect to every type of school except, of course, the small junior high schools©

Biological science

and physical education both ranked second for the small junior high schools©

With respect to the other courses in which health units were

taught, there appears to be a wide divergence of practices in regard to all types of schools®

Biological science 13 probably more closely

associated with health than any other subject and thus units of health education could be inserted in the course of study rather easily© The responses to the question, °What State, County or local agencies aid in ths health education program?15 appear in Table XXVI©

The respon­

dents were requested to chock one or more of a list of fourteen agencies© The fourteen agencies which were listed were selected because they ar© the ones commonly used in Ohio®

Provision was made for adding the names

of agencies not included In this listo

The board of health and ths

American Bed Cros3 aided the health education programs in over fifty per cent of the cases for each of the nine types of schools©

The

Tuberculosis Association was an aid in over forty per cent of all types of schools except the small senior high school which was helped in twentyeight per cent of the cases©

Aid was rendered to a number of schools of

each type by the Cancer Society, the Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, the Heart Association, the Dental Association, ths Medical Association, service clubs and social organisations®

These findings indicate a

rather extensive us© of agencies as a means of securing materials and probably also as a means of augmenting the health education programs In various other ways©

Apparently, information concerning local health

TABLE XXVI

AGENCIES WHICH AID IN THE HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAM

Agencies

Small Medium senior senior high high no. no. % %

Board of Health 31 Cancer Society 14 Churches 4 Dental Association 8 Heart Association 5 Hospitals 5 Foundation for Infantile Paralysis 10 Medical Association 7 Red Cross 28 Service Clubs 4 2 Social organization Tuberculosis Association 15 Veterans1 organizations 1 State Department of Education 1 Farm Bureau 1 Highway Patrol 0 Parent-Teachers Association 0 Automobile Association 0 Insurance companies 0 Council of social 0 agencies

59.6 39 76.4 26.9 12 23.5 7.7 4 7.8 15.4 9 17.6 9.6 6 11.7 9.6 3 5.8 39.2 13.5 53.9 7.7 3.8

12 18 27 13 4

23.5 35.2 52.9 25.4 7.8

28.8 26 1.9 2

50.9 3.9

1.9 1.9 0.0

0 0 1

0.0 0.0 2.0

0.0 0.0 0.0

1 0 0

2.0 0.0 0.0

0.0

0

0.0

Small Large Small Medium Large senior junior-senior junior-senior junior-senior junior high high high high high no. no. no. no. no. % % % % % 11---75 67.5 5 62.5 23 74.2 23 65.7 i 134 70.5 21 19.3 11 31.4 i 46 24.2 13 41.9 1 12.5 2 5.7 i 14 7.4 7 6.4 4 12.9 0 0.0 12 38.7 0 0.0 12 34.3 i 22 11.6 18 16.5 1 12.5 12 10.8 9 29.0 9 25.7 i 16 8.4 8.2 10 28.6 i 14 7.4 0 0.0 6 9 19.3 i 36 32.4 15 42.9 i 62 32.6 15 48.4 1 12.5 21 1 12.5 12 34.3 i 19 10.0 19.3 14 45.2 60 54.0 26 83.9 27 77.1 i 92 50.4 5 62.5 0 0.0 20 29.0 i 36 5 14.3 18.9 18.4 9 1 12.5 7 22.6 5 14.3 i 7 3.7 5 4.5 i 61 54.9 20 64.5 3 37.5 19 54.3 i 90 47.4 1 2.9 i 10 8 7.3 5.3 5 16.1 0 0.0 i 0 0.0 i 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 .5 .9 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 I 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 1 3 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 i 1 0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 .5 0 0.0 i 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.2 .5 i 0 0.0 0 0.0 • 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 3.2

Medium junior high no. %

Large junior high no. %

17 7 0 10 2 3

56.7 23.3 0.0 33.3 6.7 10.0

7 5 0 4 5 4

46.7 33.3 0.0 26.7 33.3 26.7

9 3 18 4 1

30.0 10.0 60.0 13.3 3.3

5 3 10 3 2

33.3 20.0 66.7 20.0 13.3

17 56.7 1 3.3

6 40.0 0 0.0

1 0 0

3.3 0.0 0.0

0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0

0 0 1

0.0 0.0 3.3

0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

J-------

0.0 3 0 3 37.5 14 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 0 0 OoO 0 1 12.5 0 0 0.0 1 4 50.0 24 0 0.0 0

large junior high no© %

7 10.0 10.0 3 8 46.7 305 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 0 0 3.3 80.0 10 0.0 0

46.7 20.0 53.3 0.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 66.7 0.0

0 0 0 0 0

OoO OoO OoO OoO OoO

3 1 0 0 0

5o9 2o0 OoO OoO 0.0

1 1 2 0 1

2.9 2©9 5©7 OoO 2©9

0 3 2 3 2

OoO 1©6 loO 1.6 loO

0 1 0 0 0

OoO ©9 OoO 0.0 OoO

0 0 0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0 0 0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1 0 0 0 0

3.3 OoO 0.0 0.0 0.0

0 0 0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0 0

OoO OoO

0 0

OoO OoO

0 0

OoO OoO

0 0

0.0 0.0

0 0

0.0 OoO

1 0

3.2 0.0

0 0

OoO OoO

0 0

0.0 0.0

0 1

0.0 6.7

(D •O

all types of schools* types of schools*

The school nurse ranked second -with respect to all

Ranking third behind the health teachsr for all types

of schools except the small junior high schools ■was the school physician* The state nurse ranked third for th© small junior high schools * With r©«> spact to th© various othsr persons who ware indicated as being responsible for orienting students concerning the purpose of the school health examination, there was little agreement within the groups of schools representing th© nine types© It must be noted that only those schools which have a school health examination would logically respond to this question©

No indication of

the numbers of schools not having the benefits of a school health examination is given©

The health teachers have assumed responsibility

for orienting tha students with respect to the health examination©

The

fact that the data did not show that physicians were very active in this regard may be duo to tha fact that the physicians are on part-time duty in many of the schools of the state© to the county schools0

This is especially true with respect

A physician who visits a school one© or twice a

week would hardly have adequate time for providing th© students with th© much needed information© The responses to the question, 15Do©3 your school have a local school health council which coordinates the various opportunities for health in­ struction within th© entire school curriculum?” resulted in the data which appear in Table XXXI r, High School____________ U-Year High School _____ 5-Year Jr,«-Sr. High School____________ 2-Year Jr. High School ____ _ 6-Year Jr,-Sr. High School____________ 3-Year Jr0 High School _____ Vocational High School__________ _____ Other Types II,

Organization and Administration

1. Is each student in your school required to take a course in health? Yes ; No ________

Indicate by (X)

2. If health is not required, can a student elect a course in health, hygiene, physiology, etc,? Indicate by (X) Yes ____ j No._____ 3. In -which grade or grades is the student required to take health instruction? . Indicate by (X) Seventh_____ j Eighth_____ j Ninth \Tenth____ _j Eleventh______ Twelveth___ ll, What is the total number of semesters that each student is required to take health? Write number: 5, How many periods per week are students given health instruction? Indicate by (X) None _____ •; One j Two Three j Four % FiVe ____ _ 6. What is the length of the health instruction period? (Write number of minutes)_____ ,7« What are the approximate sizes of the health education classes? (Write numbers) | Largest class % Smallest class j Average class _____ . 8, How is health taught in your school? .Indicate one or more by (X) Separate health course ; As units in various courses in the curriculum Integrated in the curriculum" i

-

|9. What type of pupil classification is used in assigning students to health education classes? Indicate by (X) None j Age j Grade j Placement test Free choice ? ____________ Free period s Others (PleaSe' list)u_________ ’ |10. Are the students in health education classes segregated on the basis of sex? Indicate by (X) Yes ; No ^ 11. Who teaches the boys’ classes^

Indicate by (X)

Men_____ \ Women

12. If health classes are made up of mixed groups, who teaches these classes? Indicate by (X) Men Women_____ .

.

i

-

2

-

13*

How is credit given in health classes? Indicate by (X) No credit given_____ j Combined with physical education credit _____ j As a separate credit

Ik,

How much credit in health education is required for graduation from your senior high school? Write number of credits:_____ .

15>.

Where are the health education classes held? Indicate by (X) Special health classroom______j Other classroom ; Gymnasium_____ ; Auditorium j Locker room______ j Other places (Please list) ____________ III.

1.

Instruction Program

What type of course of study is used in conducting the health instruction program? Indicate by (X) None j Other stater ; Local j Prepared by teacher ___ • If a course of study of an other state is used, name state______

2, What type of instructional material is used in the health classes? Indicate by (X) Text books j Name of Author ; Publication Date______ «_ Workbooks or guidebooks j Unit sheets ; Others 3- Check the following equipment which is used in health education classes. Indicate by (X). Motion picture projector ; Slide projector ;Wall charts ; Opaque projectors ; Anatomical manikins 5Skeleton j Models ; Microscope ; Blackboard ; Others (Please list)_______________________ U, What school activities, facilities, and situations are specifically planned and used for incidental instruction and training in health? Indicate by (X) School health examination ;Visits by school nurse ; Selection of food in the school cafeteria _____ : Safety, as applied in shops, playfields, etc. j Sanitation, as applied to buildings, lavatories, grounds, etc* j Athletics____ Intramurals _____ $ Others (Pleaselist)________________________________________ What means are used to gear the health instruction to the needs and interests of the students. Indicate by (X) None ; Tabulation of students' health questions _____ j Student-teacher planning committee_____ j Parent-teacher planning committee 5 Others (Please list) .___________________________________ ________ 6. In what courses or subjects are separate units in health taught? Indicate by (X) Biological Science _____ j Industrial Education ; Social Studies j Others (Please list)" ____ ____________________________________________ 7* What State, County, or local agencies aid in Indicate by (X) Board of Health _____________ _ Cancer Society ____________ ____ Churches ___________________ Dental Association _____________ ___ Heart Association _________________ _ Hospitals Foundation for Infantile Paralysis Others (Please list)

the health education program? Medical Association Red Cross Service Clubs Social Organization Tuberculosis Assoc. Veteran's Organizations

8. How many field trips, on the average, does each health class take during the period of one year? (Write number) ___

166

-3 9. What places are v is ite d in these f ie ld trip s? Indicate by (X) Water works ; 8ewage d isp osal plant ; Local food processing plants State health institutions

j Local health institutions

;

Others (Please l i s t ) ......................

"_____

10. What type of achievement t e s t s are used in the health education classes?

Indicate by (X) None ; Standardised Health Knowledge Test ; Teacher constructed health t e s t ; A ttitude T est ; Others (Please l i s t ) 11. Who i s responsible fo r orienting the students concerning the purpose and value

of the school health examination? Indicate by (X) School physician ; School d en tist ; School nurse__ Local physician

Health teacher

j Local nurse

; State Nurse

j Others (Please l i s t )

Local d en tist

; Dental hyglenist

'



12. Does your school have a looal school health council which coordinates the various opportunities for health instruction within the entire school curriculum? Indicate by (X) Yes J, No____ 13. What units are taught in the health education program?

Communicable Diseases Mental Health Community Health Services Home Nursing Sex Education Driving and Traffic Safety

____ ____ ___ ____ ____

Indicate by (X) Personal Appearance Exercise, Rest and Sleep Special Senses Nutrition Accident Pacts and Prevention Others (Please list)_

“ ~ ~

111. What pupils within your school receive Instruction in sex education (family relations, family health, etc.)? Indicate by (x) None ; Girls only ; Boys only ; All students 15. If sex education is offered in your school, in which grade or grades is it taught? Indicate by (x) Seventh ; Eighth j Ninth } Tenth ; Eleventh ; Twelfth s None____ 16. How is sex education taught in your school? Indicate by (X) As units in separate health course____ j As units in other courses As a separate course ; Special Lectures ; Other meetings (Please list) 17. If sex education is taught as a separate course, what is the title of that course? (Indicate title) ______ ______'. ..... 18. Who teaches the course or units in sex education? Indicate by (x) Health teacher ; Home Economics teacher Physical Education teacher } Biology teacher ; Science teacher ; Others. (Please list)_____ ______ 19. In which grades, if any, are boys and girls segregated for sex education instruction? Indicate by (X) Seventh j Eighth ; Ninth j Tenth ; Eleventh ; Twelfth ; None____ IV. 1.

Personnel

Who supervises the health teachers in your school system? Indicate by (X) No supervision ; Supervisor of Health Education ; Supervisor of Physical Education ; Supervisor of Health and Physical Education ; Head 0£ chairman of the Department of Health and Physical Education j Principal ; Others Please list

2.

How many of your health teachers are certified to teach health education in Ohio? (Please write number)

3.

What is the preparation, experience, and teaching load of those teachers who teach separate health courses? (Space is allowed for six teachers and you are requested to submit information for as many teachers of boys1 health education as you have in your schoolo For example, if you have two teachers, answer for teachers 1 and 2 in the first two columns). 2

1 Educational Preparation.

3

k

$

6

Indicate by (X)

Two years college Three years college Bachelor's Degree Master's Degree Doctor's Degree Area of College Preparation.

Indicate by (X)

Health Education Ma.ior Physical Education Ma.ior Health and Physical Education Maior Health Education Minor Physical Education Minor Health and Physical Education Minor Without Ma.ior or Minor in anv of the above Years of Public School Teaching Experience (Write Number) Teaching Load Health Education weekly teaching load. Total weekly teaching load in periods. Subjects Taught, Other than Health.

(Write Number) (Write Number)

Indicate by (X)

Biological Science Home Economics Physical Education Science Others ("Please list) Duties Other Than Classroom Teaching, Administrat ion Coaching Intramurals School Clubs School Recreation Supervision Others (Please list)

»

"

Indicate by (X)

**

--