A study of the personalities of stuttering children and their parents as revealed through projection tests

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A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

by Donald Murray Wilson June 1950

UMI Number: DP31985

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Pk.o. Sp ‘s-/ tumn T h is dissertation, w ritte n by

..PQMLD..MURSAY. WILSON..................... under the guidance of h.XS... F a c u lty Co m m ittee on Studies, and app ro ved by a l l its members, has been presented to and accepted by the C o u n c il on G ra duate Study and Research, in p a r t ia l f u l ­ fillm en t of requirements f o r the degree of DOCTOR




C om m ittee on Studies







The p r o b l e m ..................................


Statement of the p r o b l e m ...................


Importance of the s t u d y ...................


Definitions of terms u s e d ...................




Introjection ................................


Identification ..............................



Frustrating environmental influences . . . .


R e j e c t i o n ..................................





P u n i s h m e n t ..................................


Reactions to frustrating influences

. . . .


• A g g r e s s i o n ..................................


. . . . .

H o s t i l i t y ...............


Inverted hostility .........................


G u i l t ......................................


W i t h d r a w a l ..................................


I n a d e q u a c y ..................................


P r o j e c t i o n .................


Organization of the remainder of the thesis II.



REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E .......................


Literature on s t u t t e r i n g ...................



PAGE Literature on parent-child relationship




• •

24 30

. . ..........


Selection of the s a m p l e ...................


Composition of the s a m p l e .................


Experimental materials u s e d .................


Travis-Johns ton T e s t .......................


Thematic Apperception Test .................


Rorschach T e s t ..............................


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE . . . Test administration



39 40

Travis-Johnston T e s t ............


Thematic Apperception T e s t ................


Rorschach Test



Scoring of tests



Travis-Johnston T e s t .......................


Sample No..1 ..............................


Sample No.2 . . . .



Thematic Apperception T e s t .................


Sample No. 1.................


Sample No.


2 .............................. c

Sample No. 3 ..............................


Rorschach T e s t ..............................


Objectivity in scoring tests ...............






Results of the Travis-Johns ton T e s t .........





Punishment - Dominance - R e j e c t i o n .........


P u n i s h m e n t ..................................


Aggression - H o s t i l i t y .............. .

. .



W i t h d r a w a l ............................. . .



I n a d e q u a c y ..................................





Hostility in specific areas of the TravisJohnston T e s t .............................


Hostility in

the area of e a t i n g ..........


Hostility in

the area of s l e e p i n g ........


Hostility in

the area of sex development • *


Hostility In

the area of toilet training . .


Hostility in

the area of security


. . . . •

Projection in specific areas of the TravisJohnston T e s t ..............................


Projection in the area of e a t i n g ..........


Projection in the area of s l e e p i n g .........


Projection in the areas of sex development and toilet t r a i n i n g ..................... Projection in the area of security • • • • • Results of the Thematic Apperception Test

• •

73 75 75



PAGE Identification with same s e x ...............


Identification with the opposite sex . . . .


Satisfaction of identification * • * * * . .


Punishment and d o m i n a n c e ...................


A g g r e s s i o n ..................................


H o s t i l i t y .............


Inverted hostility ..........................


S u b m i s s i o n ..................................


Inadequacy (guilt and fear)



O u t c o m e ....................................


Results of Rorschach T e s t ...................


Parents: Manner of approach ...............



Experience balance



Emotional maturity ...............



Insecurity and anxiety ...........


Children: Children: Children:

Manner of approach . . . . . . . Experience balance


Emotional ties with outer


Parent-child r e l a t ionships............... . .

88 90 91 91

Results of occurrences of non-compliance or evasive "mechanisms" •



M o r a l i z i n g ..................................


Self-reference ..............................


"Dreams," "movies," "paintings"

. .



PAGE Perceptual distortions .....................


D e n i a l ......................................



. w .............


Sex c o n f u s i o n .............................. VI.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS




S u m m a r y ......................................


F a t h e r s ....................................




Stutterers Siblings

100 101

......................... ..



Parent-stutterer relationships .............


C o n c l u s i o n s ..................................


B I B L I O G R A P H Y ...........................................


Appendix A.

Raw data for family members on the TravisJohnston T e s t ............................

Appendix B.


Raw data for family members on hostility in areas of socialization on the TravisJohnston T e s t ............................

Appendix C.

Raw data for family members on projection on the Travis-Johnston T e s t ..............

Appendix D.

Appendix F.


Raw data for family members on the Thematic Apperception T e s t ..............

Appendix E.



Raw data for family members on the Rorschach T e s t ..........................


Case history data for family members


. .


PAGE Illustration of Scoring of Protocols of Thematic Apperception Test ...................


. . . . ♦

Relationships between Family Members on the Characteristic, Acceptability




• • • • • • • • • •


Hostility in Areas of Socialization .............


Relationship of Family Members on Projection in Areas of S o c i a l i z a t i o n ..........


Projection in Areas of Socialization


Chi^ for Family Members on Variables



Relationship between Family Members on the Characteristic, Punishment



72 . . . . . .


of the TAT • 77

Relationship between Family Members on ”Identifi­ cation with Opposite Sex"



Relationship between Family Members on Punishment



Mean Rorschach Scores for P a r e n t s ...............





Mean Rorschach Scores for C h i l d r e n ............ 89 Percentage of Occurrences of Non-Compliance or Evasive "Mechanisms"



CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The development of speech in the email child may be viewed as a process which is patterned rather closely to his individual style of behavior.

Endowed with a unique consti­

tutional make-up, the child early in life is subject to modifications as dictated by an adult environment.


frequently, his own urges are challenged by the unyielding standards, of adults.

Through the necessity of conforming to

the wishes of others as well as for the need to satisfy him­ self he develops a pattern of behavior which, though it bears the stamp of individuality, may be a compromise with his original intent. Speech may be considered an expression of this person­ ality, a verbal, communicative level of expression which offers an overt manifestation of the personality at -the moment of speaking. When speech develops normally the complications in­ herently involved in its conception need not incite action toward investigation or arouse undue interest in its functioning.

It is enough that speech is fluent and serves

the individual well in his communicative activities.


however, speech ceases to function as a serviceable vehicle of communication but, rather, ’’calls attention to itself,

2 interferes with, communication, or causes its possessor to be maladjusted,”*1' the existent need of investigation directed toward the source of such malfunctioning is readily apparent. Of the many speech deviations which have undergone past investigative scrutiny perhaps none has proved more challenging than stuttering.

The fact that this atypical

speech functioning has generally resisted therapeutic attempts to effect a “cure,” at least to the satisfaction of the stutterer, has stimulated investigations of various kinds in efforts to determine the outstanding etiological factors operant in the stuttering act.

These efforts have for the

most part proved unsuccessful in advancing conclusive infor­ mation on the causation of stuttering. The fact that causal factors have remained somewhat shrouded in mystery has not, however, reduced active search for significant contributing elements in stuttering, and in this connection the environment has assumed a place of con­ siderable importance as a fruitful avenue for investigation. It is by now axiomatic that environmental factors have contributed toward and continue to bear significantly on the process of stuttering.

The problem becomes one of learning

more precisely just how the environment has exerted this influence.

In this respect it is only natural that the

1 C. Van Riper, Speech Correction Principles and Methods (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1947), p. 15.

3 parents of the stutterers should receive important consider­ ation as persons who have played key roles in this early socialization.

That the parents merit such attention is sub­

stantiated by statements from such authorities as Symonds. f,Early in life the child is sensitive to the watchful eyes of his parents, who observe him in what he does and notice p him when he does things which please or displease them.” Travis and Baruch have referred to the behavior of children as an outgrowth of introjected parental attitudes. They state, MWe have seen how the person introjects attitudes and feelings, how he pulls cultural ideas into himself and makes them an integral part of him.11 Parents have been recognized as an influential force in shaping personality.

What has not been appreciably

clarified through research, however, is to what extent this influence has affected the personality of specific individuals. I.


Statement of the problem.

It was the purpose of this

study to learn more precisely the extent of the parent-child relationship as a possible related factor in stuttering. 2 Percival M. Symonds, The Dynamics of Human Adjustment (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1946T, p. 276. 3 Lee ISdward Travis and Dorothy W. Baruch, Personal Problems of Everyday Life (New York: Appleton, 1941}, pi 99.

4 Advancing on the hypothetical assumption that similarities of personality characteristics exist between parents and their children, the problem became one of determining the extent of the similarity between parents and stutterers in comparison with parents and non-stuttering siblings. Specifically, it may be asked what degree of parent-child relationship exists in regard to each of the following as measured by the instruments indicated: A*

As shown by the Travis-Johnston Projection Test: 1.

Identification with family figures


Acceptability of social implications in relation to various areas of socialization


Experiencing of environmental frustrations of punishment, dominance, rejection


Types and extent of feelings expressed In relation to environmental frustrations


Feelings of inadequacy


Freedom of expression within the various areas of socialization


Evasive or protective mechanisms employed in the various areas


As shown by the Thematic Apperception Test: 1.

Identification with family figures


Satisfaction of role with which identified


Experiencing environmental influences as

5 helpful or as frustrating 4.

The reaction to and extent of feelings associ­ ated with the frustrating influences, aggression, withdrawal, guilt, fear


Expression of hostility a.

Toward members of the environment


Toward self (inverted)


Pavorability of solutions to stories


Evasive or protective mechanisms employed in verbalization, e.g., expression in fantasy, dreams and movies, moralizing


Freedom of expression of imaginative thought in response to picture presentation

9. C.

Non-compliances in story productions

As shown by the Rorschach Test: 1.

Manner of approach to life situations


Introversion versus extroversion


Oppositional tendencies


Emotional ties with outer reality


Insecurity and anxiety

Importance of the study.

Significance may be attached

to this study in that it investigated an indirect, related factor in stuttering, namely, the personality of the parents of stutterers.

A somewhat deeper connotation may be presented,

6 however.

Employing the theoretical concept of introjection,

whereby the child takes into himself the attitudes which he believes his parents take toward him, the postulation may be extended to suggest that the child utilizes introjection as a means of resolving environmental stresses, i.e., he conforms to the wishes and demands of parents, oftentimes reluctantly, in order to maintain a status of well-being.

More specifically,

the child who accedes to parental wishes under protest may do so at considerable expense to his own personality. It is this underlying- contention which has,motivated the present study.

The stuttering child may be one who has

employed introjection at a "high price.”

The importance of-

this investigation, then, is not so much that parents have specific feelings and attitudes which may be transmitted to their offspring but, rather, that the impact of this trans­ action may have significantly different implications for different individuals, and in this respect may relate stuttering.


Any light that can be focused on such aproblem

should add to the understanding of stuttering. II.


The terms defined in this study relate to the scoring categories used in the Travis-Johnston Test and the Thematic Apperception Test.

A description of these terms is intended

to clarify the scoring scheme and to provide the reader with

a more substantial basis for understanding the projective procedures employed.

Actually, each term, with the exception

of the concepts of introjection and identification, represents a feeling or a reaction of individuals in response to the pictures presented.

The pictures will be described in greater

detail in connection with the individual tests used. Personality.

The concept of personality advanced by

Mowrer and Kluckhohn describes the individual as an organized, adjusting, behaving entity whose action is guided by four criteria: (1) The meaning, or function, which an individual’s actions have for him, (2) the conflicts which exist between his various habit systems, (3) the environment, or field, to which he is accustomed, and (4) the more or less unique way in which he is held together or integrated.4 The present study has observed the above criteria in selecting for investigation important elements of personality such as identification, punishment, aggression, guilt, etc. These elements appear in the hypothesis as specific points upon which parent-child relationships are to be determined. The sequence presented tends to describe a unified, function­ ing personality; however, any reference to personality will be confined to those specific segments of behavior--reactions and feelings--which are being studied. 4 0. H. Mowrer and Clyde Kluckhohn, "The Dynamics of Personality,” Personality and the Behavior Disorders (New York Ronald Press Company, 1 9 4 4 ) , Vol. I, p. 77.

8 Introjection.

Th.ou.gh the term, introjection, has

already been somewhat clarified, the implications it presents for this report are such that further definition seems justif iable. In a general sense introjection refers to the tendency to incorporate the environment, to widen one »s interest and to expand o n e ’s personality.

Here introjection implies the

adoption of positive ideals of kindness and helpfulness as well as the incorporation of negative characteristics.


primary purpose of introjection is, however, avoidance.


apparently serves as a means of neutralizing a threatening or prohibiting environment, or as insurance against the with­ drawal of love, good will and approbation.

This point is

stressed by Symonds. The child fears the loss of the person he has loved, and who is so necessary for providing the satisfaction of his basic needs. As personality develops, this fear of separation and loss of love is shown in fear of belittlement, criticism, censure. Perhaps the strongest driving force toward conformity is the fear of ostracism and humiliation and the need for ’’saving face.”5 As Kardiner has pointed out, ”In some societies, customs are acquired by children not so much from a fear of punishment as from a sense of shame if they depart from established practice.” 5 Symonds, o p . cit., p. 273. 6 Abram Kardiner, The Individual and His Society (New Yorkt Columbia University Press, 1939), p. 74.

9 Thus it follows that a child may take a portion of the parent within himself where he can exert greater control, in fantasy if not in reality.

To the degree that he conforms

to his environment in this manner he has employed introjection. The problem of this present investigation was founded pri­ marily on this concept as outlined by the principles described above• Identification.

Identification refers to a concept

which is closely allied with introjection but which may be distinguished from the latter by Knight*s



According to him, introjection is a process and a mechanism, whereas identification describes an accepted fact, that is, a relationship or condition that depends to a large extent on introjection. Identification is present in all persons, and may begin with the small child through simple imitation.

It has

been said to be a primary basis of character formation. Apparently one may identify with many persons, inasmuch as this is thought of as a method whereby one can satisfy his needs.

In adjusting to the environment a person may need to

take on the characteristics of many persons*

That this is a

continuing process which may be readily observed in fantasy

? R. P. Knight, “Introjection, Projection and Identi fication,“ Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 9i336, 1940.

10 was demonstrated by Masserman and Balken who studied fifty adults,

"The patient invents sets of dramatis personae and

identifies with the various characters in his fantasy so that each represents a different aspect or force in his own q

personality# n That identification is a most necessary process and yet may be difficult to achieve has been recognized by Mead


who contends that identification of the son with the father is frequently the more difficult. Identification as used in this study has referred to the "role" taken by the individual in response to the pictorally presented stimuli of the several tests.


establishment of identification was based on the following principles 1,

as obtained from two sources The subject is likely to identify with a figure of the same sex and age as the subject or

with a

figure who represents a previous age. 2.

The central character in the story is the

one with

whom the subject has identified. 8 J. H. Masserman and E. R. Balken, "The Psychoanalyti­ cal and Psychiatric Significance of Phantasy," Psychoanalytical Review, 26:540, 1939. 9 M. Mead, Growing Up in New Guinea (New York: Morrow), pp. 236-37. 10 Henry H. Murray, Manual for the Thematic Apperception Test (Cambridge: Harvard University Press'^ 1943"), p. 7. 11 John Elderkin Bell, Projective Techniques (New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1948), p. 216.

11 3.

The identified figure is one who does not have behavior unacceptable in the subject’s eyes*


The subject is identifying when he is emotionally involved*


The identified figure has a history similar to the subject’s own.

Frustrating environmental influences*


dominance, and punishment were used to describe the major frustrating influences attributed to the environment by the subjects of the investigation*

These characteristics, which

have figured prominantly in other studies reported, give evidence of the manner in which the group members may perceive of their environment* Rejection*

A person may feel that others like him or

that they dislike him, and in the latter instance he feels rejected.

The usage was reserved for conditions where an

individual is scorned, or not wanted or where feelings of consideration are entirely lacking* Dominance *

Dominance has indicated restraint or

coercion, or the feeling that forces are operating to influence the principal character.

It is listed by Murray^2 as one of

the more significant press (kinds of environmental forces or 12 Murray, oj>. cit*, p. 7.

12 situations) in his list of more than thirty. Punishment.


Acts of physical force directed against

the identified figure, or instances where such acts were threatened or anticipated as threatening were described in this study as punishment.

Less demonstrative acts of

"retaliation” against the individual were also scored as punishment. Reactions to frustrating influences.

Individuals have

varied ways of responding to situations in which their desires may be partially or completely blocked*

One person may react

with anger or aggression, while another may willingly acquiesce in favor of the circumstance. from the situation.

A third individual may withdraw

Some of these various reaction patterns

are given more detailed description. Aggression.

A general description of this reaction

points to the activity and vigor which an individual may display in contrast to passivity and quiescence.


tendencies are considered normal, not pathological, and are believed to be constitutional and inherited.

Aggression as

it occurs in specific acts, however, may be related to the need of the individual to behave in this manner.


to Symonds, ". . • it may be related to the need of the organism to maintain itself in an environment where nourishment

13 requires effort and where protection is needed against 13 potential dangers or enemies.” The use of aggression in this paper has been restricted to

acts directed toward persons or objects for the purpose of

gaining possession or controlling persons by force, or to acts which are intended to injure other persons, either directly or indirectly.

A most common interpretation of aggression in

this study would be the act of "striking someone,” while a less obvious though significant occurrence of aggression would be "causing someone to fall down.” When acts projections they

of aggression are carried out through fantasy are believed to represent actual strivings

of an individual which may or may not occur in reality situ­ ations • Hostility.

Hostility is a less inclusive term than

aggression and actually may be embraced within the definition of aggression as it is commonly used.

Hostility was, however,

given separate consideration in this study and accordingly has been defined as a state of emnity and ill will, referring to the attitude, meaning, or intent of a person which when expressed in action becomes aggression.^ Although these feelings generally are rather closely related it should be pointed out that one who is hostile may not necessarily be 13 Symonds,

0 £.

cit., pp. 83-84.

14 aggressive and, contrariwise, much aggression is expressed without hostility.

Expressions such as "someone is going to

get hurt” or !,somebody is sick,f shall in this study be con­ sidered descriptive of hostility. Inverted hostility.

Where the hostile act is directed

toward oneself, in the form of hurt or punishment or malicious intent the process may be termed inverted hostility.


distinguishes between feelings which might have been projected out onto other persons in the environment but which instead, have been assigned to the self.

Instances of this type of

feeling may be the occurrence of the identified 11getting sick,11 or "bumping his head,” the implication being that he himself receives the brunt of any ill feeling he may have. Guilt.

What is popularly referred to as "conscience”

has been defined in this report as guilt.

The term has

deeper significance, however; much of it is unconsciously motivated and as such may be far removed from its source. Guilt is a variety of anxiety and a form of fear which takes roots after the process of introjection.

In this

connection guilt feelings seem to occur as a violation of parental standards, prohibitions, or demands.

Generally, it

is thought to arise from fear of loss of self-regard and also from the dread of punishment.^ 14 Ibid., p. 363.

15 In this study guilt has been reserved to describe expressions such as, "shame,” or "sorry,” or "punished on account of being bad," where feelings of guilt in relation to a specific situation will have been verbally expressed. Withdrawal.

Withdrawal has been used to indicate a

retreat from or an avoidance of environmental situations, where these situations may have been too unpleasant to face. In those situations where the individual may in fantasy en­ counter a frustrating experience and react by retreating, or by adroitly avoiding the implication, withdrawal shall be used to indicate this. Inadequacy.

Inadequacy has been used to represent the

feelings of inferiority or lack of self respect, which a person may have for himself.

Inadequacy may be expressed in

"gloomy moods," or a feeling of abjection or meanness of spirit prevailing.

Apparently much* of this feeling stems

from parental restriction, prohibition, punishment, etc. which eventually show up in the child in the form of a dwarfed sense of self-regard.

It is believed that inadequacy frequently

cloaks feelings of anxiety. Projection.

This term has been selected to describe

the impulses, thoughts, feelings, and wishes which originate in the person himself but which are assigned to persons or

16 objects in the outside world.

Where this outer world (repre­

sented by pictures in this study) is sufficiently provocative, inner feelings may be projected outward, depending upon the imagination of the individual and his ability to verbalize his thoughts. As described here, projection will embrace the meaning of fantasy.

Where fantasy refers to the wish or to the

thought, generally referred to as imagination, projection is the attributing of these thoughts and feelings in fantasy to other persons.

Projection operates on the principles of

introjection and identification; that is, the feelings which early in life have been taken into the self will later seek release through a projection outward. In this study, projection will be considered f1goodM or "poor” depending upon the extent and meaning of feelings verbalized. Other terms which may appear in this report will be described where clarification is in order. III.


Literature pertinent'to the study will be slectively presented in Chapter II, with emphasis directed first toward the stutterer, and, secondly, toward the parent-child relationship.

Chapter III will describe the composition of

the sample and the various materials employed in the study,

17 Including a rather thorough description of each of the tests used. The administration of the tests and the scoring systems devised may be found in Chapter IV under Experimental Procedure, while Chapter V will describe the results of the investigation as revealed by analysis of scores on the TravisJohnston Test, the Thematic Apperception Test, and the Rorschach Test.

The summary remarks and concluding statements

will be found in Chapter VI, the final chapter of the study.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Investigation of the literature pertaining to parentchild relationships in the area of stuttering necessitated drawing from a variety of sources#

As a consequence, the

problem has been given more of a horizontal coverage than a vertical one#

Material has been presented which, first,

clarifies the position of stuttering as it is viewed in this study and, secondly, offers information relating to early personality development, which also is in accord with the problem. One investigator"*" after making a careful analysis of the biochemical and physiological literature in the field of stuttering has offered in conclusion an opinion on the status of stuttering which points up rather nicely the need for the present study. An agent in the form of an inner condition, either physiological or psychological, is still as distant from discovery as it was four thousand years ago* Advances in theory have only been attained through recognition of situational influences on behavior. Given an intact organism, and reasonably healthful physiological conditions, no other than situational influences are available for treatment.^ 1 H. Hill, "Stuttering: I. A Critical Review and Evalu­ ation of Biochemical Investigations," Journal of Speech Dis­ orders, 9:245-61, 1944# _______ , "Stuttering: II* A Review and Integration of Physiological Data," Journal of Speech Disorders, 9:289-324, 1944. 2 Ibid., p. 318.

19 Literature on stuttering*

One of the several studies

on stuttering where projection tests were employed with a reasonably large sample has been reported by Meltzer*


administered the Rorschach Test to fifty stutterers, ages eight to seventeen years, comparing them with non-stutterers of similar ages.

The stutterers were found to have higher Z

scores (organization), in the direction of W, while the control group showed greater F+ (capacity and association).


findings revealed the occurrence of considerable individual variations in scores, with zero scores frequently appearing in records.

These inconsistencies reported did not, however,

exclude a finding of emotional instability as characteristic of the stuttering group.

The study clearly indicated the need

for more precise procedures for describing the personality of stut terers• Another investigator^ employed the Rorschach Test in a psychosomatically oriented study of fifty stuttering children. Here, rather definite trends toward obsessive-compulsive traits appeared.

This was revealed by the stutterers 1 need

to organize into compact wholes.

"The general trend of this

group," the writer has contended,

"seems to be one of precision

3 H* Meltzer, "Personality Differences Between Stutterers and Non-stuttering Children As Indicated by the Rorschach Test," Journal of Psychology, 17:39-50, 1944. 4 M. Krugman, "Psychosomatic Study of Fifty Stuttering Children," Round Table IV Rorschach Study, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 16:127-33, 1946.

20 in performance, punctured every so often by impulsive irregu5


These stutterers were characterized by a limited

functioning which the writer has attributed to emotional blocking*

The importance attached to emotional factors may

be inferred from a concluding statement by the author* "Stuttering is closely associated with emotional and person­ ality maladjustment, frequently manifested by obsessive, compulsive traits or obsessional neurosis.”


Consideration for the "limited functioning” of stutterers referred to above seems in order, in view of the emphasis placed upon this behavior manifestation by another investigator.

Ingebretsen found that


per cent of his

sample of' forty

stuttering children displayed

what he terms

"obstinate restriction,” where responses to cards failed to materialize or where the thought processes were abruptly and indiscreetly terminated without explanation.

"This phenomenon,” Q

the writer states,

"almost never occurs in normal people.”

These observations focus rather sharply in the direction of a characteristic behavior reaction existing for stutterers; the need for further investigation of factors bearing on this phenomenon is implied. 5 Ibid.,

p. 128.

6 Ibid.,

p. 132.

7 Eyling Ingebretsen, "Some Experimental Contributions to the Psychology and Psychopathology of Stutterers,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6:630-50, 1936. 8 Ibid., p. 648.

21 A test which is somewhat more structured than the Rorschach, in that emphasis is shifted from the way of handling situations to the imaginative content, is the Thematic Apperception Test#



combined the two in

her exploration of the personality of adult stutterers.


the Thematic Apperception Test the sample of thirty stutterers was found to be not significantly different from the normal control group.

The experimental group did, however, exper­

ience the environment as relatively more thwarting, more punishing, and more dominating than did the normals.


significant difference was obtained on the Rorschach, the instance where no movement (m) or color (C) responses occurred. In regard to this the writer says, The stutterers 1 failure to see movement in the indicates that they tended not to recognize their promptings. Their not responding to the color in blots implies a failure to respond impulsively to side environment.10

blots inner the out­

Because projection tests have developed out of a need to substantiate clinical observation with more objective criteria, they are usually considered superior to any merely subjective evaluation of another personality.

In most

instances this is true, but in either case the skill of the 9 LaVange Hunt Richardson, "Personality Study of Stutterers and Non-Stutterers," Journal of Speech Disorders, 9:152-60, 1944. 10 Ibid., p. 159.

22 experimenter becomes the determining factor.



is an

investigator who is well qualified to study children by observation and by case history methods.

In reporting on

fifty stuttering children between six and on© half and fifteen years old who were the subjects of such analysis, this writer found 50 per cent to have compulsive or neurotic traits, such as sleep disturbances or fears.

Although stuttering was

generally reported as having occurred in relation to a traumatic event, findings of this study indicated that this was not so.

Such events merely served to .bring the stuttering

symptoms into the open. The possibility of a carry-over into adult life of early feelings toward and attachment to parents was given some credence according to the study of Schultz.


In a non­

directive counseling situation adult stutterers verbalized their feelings in relation to a variety of environmental problems, including their reactions toward parents.


revealed that stutterers tend to love one parent and fear the other, and that accompanying this inconsistency they display feelings of anxiety. 11 J. Louise Despert, "Stuttering: A Clinical Study,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 12:517-24, July, 1945. 12 Donald A* Schultz, ”A Study of Non-Directive Counseling As Applied to Adult Stutterers,” Speech Monographs, Vol. XII, 1947.

25 In this connection one writer


has stressed the

importance of understanding that, although feelings may not be readily apparent, they may, nevertheless, be present; further, that these feelings may need to be invited out by appropriate stimuli, such as was provided in the above study. "The fact that emotions are forgotten does not mean that they are dead.

Their force is still operative.

They lie at the

base of a good many of our actions."^4 In one of a series of studies on the psychology of stuttering, an attempt has been made by Ammons and Johnson


to clarify thinking on the importance of "attitude” in stuttering. studies,

They hypothesized that, on the basis of previous

"attitude toward or reaction to stuttering is at

least an important maintaining factor and quite possibly an etiological factor in stuttering." 16

They constructed an

attitude scale of 150 items, statistically reliable, which was administered to forty freshmen, forty townspeople, seventy-two stutterers, sixty-seven clinicians, eleven both stutterers and clinicians.

Their findings demonstrated that

13 Lee Edward Travis and Dorothy W. Baruch, Personal Problems of Everyday Life (New York: Appleton, 1941), p. 86. 14 Ibid., p. 87. 13 Robert Ammons and Wendell Johnson, "Studies in the Psychology of Stuttering: XVIII. The Construction of a Test of Attitude Toward Stuttering," Journal of Speech Disorders, 9:39-49, 1944. 16 Ibid., p. 48.

24 clinicians have the least unfavorable reaction toward stutter­ ing, freshmen and stutterers have a moderate reaction, while townspeople have the most unfavorable reaction to stuttering. No relationship was found between the "attitude toward stuttering, and either the self-estimated severity of stuttering or the number of years of remedial speech work."


The fact that stutterers felt only moderately un­ favorable toward stuttering while townspeople were disposed toward a more unfavorable reaction merits comment. Just as it is apparently difficult for persons to' "see" themselves as others do, it may be equally as difficult for individuals to "feel" unfavorably about a characteristic which is attributed to themselves.

It may be that attitudes

follow a cognitive pattern based on what should be felt (social expectance) rather than on a true condition. Literature on parent-child relationship.

The relation­

ship of parent to child in the development of behavior and in the establishment of attitudes and feelings has been approached through various avenues of research.

Investigators generally

have employed interview and observation methods, with children or with parents or with both, 4-n studying this problem. An estimate of the type and extent of parental attitudes

17 L o c . cit.


prevailing in families was determined by Martin

through an

interview of over three thousand children under age thirteen. The study was essentially a psychiatric survey of six metro­ politan boys 1 clubs operated by the Childrens * Aid Society of New York City.

Through informal interview the reaction of

children to parents and to family problems was revealed.


favorable parental attitudes, though occurring with consider­ able overlapping, were,

(1) rejection,

(2) deprivation,

(3) overprotection, and (4) exploitation.

The investigator

has discreetly pointed out, however, that in a healthy family life there was a relative absence of harmful parental trends . such as the above.

Also mentioned was the uniformity of

reporting by family members.

Where one child in a family

revealed predominant positive attitudes, interviews with his siblings disclosed a similar picture. The results of this study seem to indicate that a childfs behavior is related more directly to the intensity of his problem than to its nature. * ”Much of his behavior,11 the writer says, ”is the result of his strategies and maneuvers, developed in the course of conscious and unconscious experimenting to bring the greatest relief or best solution.”


18 A. R. Martin, ”A Study of Parental Attitudes and Their Influence Upon Personality Development,” Education, Boston, 63:596-608, 1943. 19 Ifria*. P. 606.

26 More intensive study of behavior, involving case studies of children and their parents, has been published by 20 Watson. From two thousand cases admitted to the neuro­ psychiatric clinic at Harper Hospital, Detroit, a'sample of nineteen was selected, in which were included four cases of stuttering.

The cases selected for study were those in.which

physical findings were essentially negative, thus placing' the y /..-

determination of behavior rather directly upon the child’s experiences and reactions.

Beferring to one case, the report

read, ”He had come to the clinic because of

’night terrors,1

walking in his sleep, a slurring of speech, stuttering and ’nervousness. *n


The importance that may be attached to

this type of investigation as a means of understanding symptomatic behavior problems is tersely summarized by the author: These case studies thoroughly demonstrate, that, until the cause and effect relationships in the indi­ vidual parents* lives and the child’s life are -under­ stood, treatment on the symptomatic level is of no avail. It is true that for the time being, the super­ ficial behavior may clear up; only to be followed by behavior of a different type, and it is only by a thorough understanding of the broader trends and underneath processes with treatment accordingly that the problem is eventually solved.22 ■20 Maude E. Watson, Children and Their Parents (Hew York: F. S. Crofts and Company, 1932), 362 pp. 21 Ibid., p. 123. 22 Ibid.» pp. 34&-49.

27 Interesting findings have been reported from one authoritative source


fathers were analyzed*

in which children^ attitudes toward Enumerated below are some of the

major conclusions based on attitudes expressed by fifth and sixth grade children: 1. There

was a tendency for the parent to

often 2.

punish more

the child of like-sex.

Children did not express special affection for the parent of the opposite sex; when it occurred, mother was given double preference to the father.


For requesting services, children showed extreme preferences for the parent of like-sex.


Generally, each sex gave more ways in which they would liketo resemble

the parent of the same sex, but they rated

the parent of the opposite sex somewhat and character.

higher in


Where a child liked a parent better,


tended to feel that this parent also liked him better, and the percentage was substantially in favor of child and parent of like sex.ft^ This last study points up features surrounding identi­ fication of children with parents.

The indication that such

23 L. Pearl Gardner, ”An Analysis of Childrenfs Atti­ tudes Toward Fathers,” Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 70, March, 1947. 24 Ibid., p. 28. 25 Loc. cit.

28 a process is an occurrence based on sex has been given additional weight by an investigator who has made continued observations and study of families.

Young^^ recognized that

parents project onto their children ambitions which may be prompted by a desire for social attainments they themselves did not fulfill.

In this process there occurs a patterning

of the child according to one or the other parent wishes. In my own experience, the majority of the cases have involved the projection from mother to daughter or from father to son. The projections tend to follow the same sex rather than to cut across from one sex to another.27 With regard to this process, the writer has explained that projection well handled may be a natural occurrence in a parent-child relationship. That the above investigations indicate there is a strong parental influence acting upon child behavior is clear; how the ninfluence" operates to modify the child's personality is not so readily apparent.

A word of caution

against overgeneralizing on such a relationship is suggested by this statement from a reliable source.

,fThe correlation

between parent's contribution to children's attitudes is a


variable role, depending upon the type of attitude studied. "

26 Kimball Young, "Parent-Child Relationship: Projection of Ambition," The Family, 8:67-73, 1927. 27 Ibid., p. 70. 28 Grace Herschberg and A. R# Gillilan, "A Study of Parent-Child Relationships in Attitudes," Psychological Bulletin, 38:710, 1941.

29 The several related investigations presented in this review give some notion of the research avenues utilized in efforts to further the understanding of the personality of stutterers.

Too, the key position of parents as influential

agents in any "normal” child*s personality development has been reasonably verified.

The problem of the present study

is directed toward a further clarification of the parent-child relationship with a view to understanding its affect on stuttering.

CHAPTER III SOURCES OP DATA AND EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS USED With the formulation of the problem the immediate question became one of obtaining an adequate sample for in­ vestigation*

That the problem implied a study of ’’young”

stutterers reduced the sampling field considerably;


parents figured prominently in the research plan added com­ plexity to the purpose*

Because personality was the theme

of the investigation and in view of the discrepancy of age between parents and children, consideration was given to tests which would tend to embrace these issues. Questions such as the above have prompted the selection of data and materials as presented in this chapter. I.


Selection of the sample *

The sample used in this

study consisted of thirty families, each of which included a stuttering child, his parents, and a non-stuttering sibling* Initial contacts in arranging the stuttering group were made in cooperation with the Los Angeles Public School system, Los Angeles, California*

A screening process was initiated where­

by stutterers were selected for study on the basis of the following criteria:

31 1.

The stutterer must be between four and twelve years of age,


The stutterer must have a non-stuttering sibling between the ages of four and fourteen*


The stutterer’s parents must be living together and must express a willingness to comply with the investigation program.

The thirty families selected for study satisfied these criteria, as judged by preliminary observation and interview. Composition of the sample.

Composition of the sample

showed stutterers to have an age range of from four years, 7 months to twelve years, 10 months, with a mean age of eight years and 10 months.

Siblings averaged slightly older, having

a mean age of nine years, 1 month, with ages extending from five years, 3 months to fourteen years.

There were twenty-six

boys and four girls in the stuttering group, whereas siblings were evenly matched with fifteen boys and fifteen girls. With respect to parents, the fathers ranged in age from thirty-one years, 9 months to fifty-three years, 6 months, with a mean age of thirty-eight years, 5 months.


mean age of the mother group was computed as thirty-five years, 8 months, the youngest mother being thirty years, 6 months of age and the oldest member forty-two years, 8 months old.

32 That the families studied represented a fairly normal group with respect to education and income is seen from the averaged figures on these points.

Thirty-three per cent of

the fathers and 30 per cent of the mothers have had one or more years of college.

The remaining percentages have had

one or more years of high school instruction.

The average

family income, based on reports from twenty-seven families was $5,446,

Estimated home values, as received from sixteen

home owners, gave an average figure of $12,363 per home. These facts have been offered to give the reader a clearer picture of the type of family represented in the present study. II.


Three projection tests were employed as instruments for obtaining data; they were: Test,


the Travis-Johnston Projection

the Thematic Apperception Test,


and the Rorschach Test.

Selection of these tests was planned for the purpose of gaining several related slants on the personalities of the individuals 1 Lee Edward Travis and Joseph J. Johnston, The TravisJohnston Projection Test (Glendale, California: GriffinPatterson Company, 1949)• ^ Henry Murray, Explorations in Personality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1938), Chap. 3. 3 Bruno Klopfer and Douglas M. Kelley, The Rorschach Technique (New York: The World Book Company, 1945),. Chap. 1, p. 475.


33 tested, **A description of each, test and the specific function it has served is presented in this chapter, Travis-Johnston Test,

This test proposes to evaluate

the child's management of his basic strivings in the face of cultural demands.

It is based upon the assumption that

certain wants and wishes from the earliest days of life will run counter to the socialization process set by the family constellation.

As such, the test offers an evaluation of the

child's success in meeting this socialization challenge, and serves as a gauge of parent and child feelings and reactions in relation to the specific areas depicted by the test. Primarily designed for children between the ages of four and fifteen, the test consists of two sets of forty-four free hand drawings, one set for females (girls) and one for males (boys).

The pictures portray adults and children in

various situations and relationships centering in the important and potentially troublesome areas In the socialization of the child.

The directions state:

The pictures are so drawn that they can be inter­ preted the same for any culture or socioeconomic status. The areas selected for exploration are sibling rivalry, child-parent rivalry, discipline, eating, sleeping,cleanliness, toilet training, and sexual development. The value of and range of uses for this instrument may be inferred from the author's statement: 4 Travis and Johnston, op. cit., (instruction folder).

34 In interpreting the stories obtained, the examiner may see indications and proof of the nature and extent of the childfs emotional development. In more detail the examiner may discover the child's acceptance or rejection of his hostility, of his guilt, of his fear, of his unacceptable strivings,5 Because of its structuralization pattern,

the Travis-

Johnston Test induces rather sharp reactions to the stimuli presented, which allows for a determination of direct sources of environmental frustrations.

It is this feature which

distinguishes the test as a projection instrument and gives it a special place in the present study. The Thematic Apperception Test.

The Thematic Apper­

ception Test is a method for the stimulation, recording, and analysis of fantasy.

It may be considered as less structured

than the Travis-Johnston Test in respect to the situations it depicts, and as such offers an opportunity for feelings and strivings to find relatively unimpeded expression.

The test

is based on the theory that in the constructing of stories around ambiguous picture stimuli the storyteller projects his own strivings and attitudes into the characters of the story. The forces which apparently act upon the hero, who is assumed to be the storyteller, may be reflections of the way the subject perceives of and imagines his environment.


manner in which the hero solves his conflicts Is purported to reveal the subject's desires or attitudes toward resolving 5 Travis and Johnston, loc. cit.

35 his own problems.

Bell says:

In achieving these fantasies the conscious and unconscious impulses, the defenses, and the conflicts of the individual are expressed, permitting the skilled interpreter to discover the content of such character­ istics of the personality and to mako certain assump­ tions about the development and the structure of the personality.6 The TAT has proven especially useful as a clinical instrument for determining personality trends.

When com­

pared with case history material, test records have generally produced a creditably high validity index.

Used in this

study, the TAT has served to bring out and present in clear relief the general personality dynamics of individuals, offering a necessary slant on personality which is not easily obtainable from the other tests. Pictures used in the Thematic Apperception Test have been taken mostly from magazine illustrations but include also paintings and drawings from other art sources.


standard set contains thirty pictures, ten of which are intended for both men and women, ten to be used with men alone, ten with women alone. For practical administrative purposes, the present study used a shortened test of fifteen pictures.

A similar

procedure has been successfully employed by one experimenter 6 John Elderkin Bell, Projective Techniques (New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1948), pT 207. 7 H. Harrison, "Studies in the Use and Validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with Mentally Disordered d Patients Patients: II. A Quantitative Validity Study," Character and P Personality, 9:122-23, 1940.

who found fifteen pictures to be as valid as the whole set. 0 Described by Murray, the pictures Used in this study in order of their presentation are nos. 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 8BM, 9GF, 11, 13MF, 15, 16, 17BM, 18BM, 18GP, 12M, 14. The Borschach Test.

One of the most widely used pro­

jective methods for personality diagnosis is the Borschach technique.

This method differs from other projective tech­

niques chiefly in the degree of structuralization of the stimulus material.

In the Borschach, the material has very

little objective meaning for a subject, and in this respect is relatively unstructured.

This allows a freedom of inter­

play of various personality factors which may not be possible in a more structured test. The test is composed of a standard series of ten ink­ blot pictures which have been reproduced on cards, seven by nine and one half inches, numbering from one to ten.

In five

of the blots colored ink is used in addition to black ink. The purpose of the Borschach has been clearly expressed The Borschach method offers a procedure through which the individual is induced to reveal his "private world" by telling what he "sees" in the several cards upon which he may project his meanings, significance, and feelings, just because they are not socially standardized objects or situations to which he must give culturally prescribed responses. The Borschach method is essentially a procedure for revealing the 8 Henry H. Murray, Manual for the Thematic Apperception Test (Cambridge! Harvard University Press”! 1943), pp. 18-20.

37 personality of the individual as an individual, as contrasted with rating or assessing him in terms of his likeness or conformity to social norms of action and speech. It is just because a subject is not aware of what he is telling and has no cultural norms behind which to hide himself, that the Borschach and other projective methods are so revealing.9 A prominent s o u r c e ^ has introduced a general rationale for the psychological processes underlying the Rorschach responses.

In discussing the perceptual and

associative processes, the former is recognized as an action of the total psyche, including all past experiences, the manner in which they were perceived and the reaction induced by them.

According to this view, "the perceptual process

only becomes more extensive and conspicuous in its organizing aspect when dealing with so-called

’unstructured* material.11

"Further," the writer has cogently stated,

"these consider­

ations may prompt the examiner to see in the subject's re­ action to the Rorschach ink blots a perceptual organizing process which has a fundamental continuity with perception in everyday l i f e . " ^ An understanding of the evolving of a Rorschach response may be gained through a consideration of the subject’s 9 Klopfer and Kelley, op. cit., p. 12. 10 David Rapaport, Merton Gill, and Roy Schafer, Diagnostic Psychological Testing (Chicago £ Year Book Pub­ lishers, Inc., 1946), Vol. II, p. 516. 11 Ibid.. p. 90. 12 Loc. cit.

38 association processes.

The 11unstructured" nature of the

pictures forces the subject, in responding, to draw on internal ideas, images, and relationships, which necessitates association.

"These considerations may prompt the examiner

to see in the subject's reaction to the ink blots an association process initiated by the ink blots as stimuli."


It is primarily because of its unstructured nature that the Borschach was selected as a third test in this study. Here, the subject must perforce construct his environment in some fashion while viewing the cards, and in so doing he tends to reveal his personality structure.

Used jointly, the Travis-

Johnston Test, the Thematic Apperception Test, and the Rorschach Test form projection media which offer a rather complete description of personality, the tests ranging from relatively structured and meaningful social situations to situations which are relatively unmeaningful and without social significance.

13 Ibid., p. 91.

CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The administration of projection tests usually follows a general plan whereby certain conditions need to be satisfied. The subject to be tested must be set at ease, his initial questions may need to be answered, and any instructions as to test procedure must be brief and reassuring.

Within the

framework of this broad procedure, individual tests demand special instructions for administration, with emphasis always directed toward eliciting subjective responses in relation to the test stimuli presented. While all projection tests are designed to explore the personality, of the test.

scoring systems differ according to the structure In this respect, the Rorschach scores tend to

indicate an organizational picture, while the usual Thematic Apperception Test scoring presents a more fluid interaction of feelings.

Of the two tests, there has generally been more

variation in scoring allowable on the Thematic Apperception Test than on the Rorschach.

The variation has appeared not

in the manner of interpreting a score, but in the types of scores computed and in the- degree of refinement employed in scoring, i.e., large concepts or specific instances. The Travis-Johnston Test is so constructed that feelings and reactions tend to occur in relation to the situations of

40 the areas of socialization rather

than in relation to the

persons concerned.

on a structured situation

This emphasis

is a feature which has been considered

in devising the

scoring plan for this tost. With regard to each of the three tests used, the scoring arrangement has been patterned after established research practices, and where slight variations have occurred these have been bounded by the definitions of terms presented in Chapter I. I.


In planning the administration of the three tests used in this study, it was apparent that a tactful method must be employed, to allay parent and child anxiety and to gain their consistent cooperation.

It was found that the best approach,

following the initial contact, was to make an appointment for an h o u r 1s interview, without disclosing the specific purpose of the session other than that the subjects of the study were assisting in an investigation of stuttering in children. During this first meeting, parents were told that the entire procedure would involve three meetings or a total of about three hours time.

Very minor objections, if any, were ex­

pressed in relation to this plan. The sessions were arranged at a time mutually con­ venient for the subject and examiner.

Most of the testing of

41 children was managed at their schools, where rooms were set aside for this purpose.

Parents generally were tested at

their homes with some testing of parents and children accom­ plished at the Speech Clinic, University of Southern California. Once the initial acceptance had been granted by a subject, it was relatively easy to proceed with the tests in the conventional manner after a brief explanation of the procedure. Preliminary explanations seemed best expressed in positive terms, following a procedure which adhered to; (1) brevity,

(2) a positive attitude,


A description of individual test administration


(3) reassurance,

may further clarify this procedure. Travis-Johnston Test.

Instructions for parents and

children on the Travis-Johnston Test varied only in respect to grammatical construction.

The subject was seated in a

chair located to the left of the examiner in a position where he could not readily observe what the examiner was writing. For children, the establishment of an atmosphere of permis­ siveness prior to testing, was considered paramount. Instructions,to the child were, pictures.

nI am going to show you some

Will you tell me a story about each picture?11

pictures were then presented in their numerical order as


42 printed on the back of the picture.

There was no limit

established on time; generally when a subject handed the picture back his responses were concluded.

For the first

two pictures, the child’s fantasy was encouraged by such a statement as ’’And what happened next?”

This is in accordance

with the test directions. All reactions to cards, such as refusals, as well as exclamations and aside remarks were noted.

Record was made

of the initial reaction times to card presentation, of long pauses, and of total testing time.

In most instances, the

test was completed in slightly less than an hour. Thematic Apperception Test.

Directions for the

Thematic Apperception Test were similar to those employed in the Travis-Johnston Test.

Precautions were taken to insure

a psychological climate of freedom, so that the flow of fantasy might be unimpeded.

Specific instructions for all

subjects, allowing slight modifications for age differences, were, ’’Here are some pictures about which you are to tell a story.

Imagine what has happened to lead to the situation

shown in the picture.

Then tell what is happening now, how

the people feel, and how the story will end.

Use your

imagination as much as possible.” Following the first story, it was occasionally neces­ sary to point out a subject’s deviation from instructions.

43 This was especially true with children.

Where the story was

too brief or where endings had been omitted, subjects were encouraged to give more complete descriptions.

Other than

this Initial prompting, there was no further urging during the test. Subjects were allowed five minutes for the individual pictures.

Each story was timed, including reaction time and

long pauses.

Total time for this test was rarely more than

sixty minutes. The Rorschach Test.

Several variations in technique

have been employed in administering the Rorschach Test, none of which affect the scores obtained.

The instructions of

Klopfer*^ have served as the standard for this study.

For the

most part, subjects were introduced to the test with a minimum of explanation*

The following was usually adequate;

’’These cards are called ink blot pictures.

People see

various things in these pictures; now tell me what you see (picture #1 presented at this moment), what it might be for you, what it makes you think of.”

Questions by the subject,

such as, ’’Shall I say the first thing that comes to my mind or shall I say what it reminds me of?” was answered with, ’’Whatever you like.”

Additional instruction was frequently

1 Bruno Klopfer and Douglas M. Kelley, The Rorschach Technique, (New York: World Book Company, 1946"J^ Chap. 3.

44 given subjects on the first card, with, "You may turn the card any way you like."

No additional guidance was offered

other than a casual remark where this served to make the subject feel at ease. For the performance proper, the cards were presented in numbered order and the responses to each card recorded and written out in full.

Reaction times and response times on

each card were also recorded.

The inquiry followed the

traditional procedure whereby a determination was made of where on the blot the subject saw ". . • ." A slight modification in conducting the performance was demanded in testing the children.

To offset their

"forgetting" the location in the inquiry, the location area was established to the satisfaction of the examiner in the performance proper.

A check on location was then made as a

routine procedure in the inquiry. II.


The difficulty in maintaining objectivity in the scoring of projection tests has a rather obvious explanation in that the scores represent measures of individual person­ ality.

What may be a rather accurate measure of a segment of

one individual’s personality may be invalid for a different person. Of the three tests used in this study, the Rorschach

45 is the most objective.

Standard criteria for administration,

for scoring, and for interpretation make this instrument a fairly stable one in the hands of capable personnel.


objective than the Rorschach, by virtue of what it intends to measure, is the Thematic Apperception Test.

This test is

best scored in terms of dynamic expressions of personality, which may be fleeting and variable, and as such lend themselves to a more flexible scoring system. With these varying factors of the testing instruments in mind, a scoring scheme was devised for the Thematic Apper­ ception Test and the Travis-Johnston Test, which seemed to incorporate practicality with dynamic underlying principles. The scores were set up to coincide with the questions posed in the hypothesis of the study; they have been determined on the bases of the definitions of terms in Chapter I. Following was the scoring procedure for individual tests. The Travis-Johnston Test.

There were seven large

categories established for determining the scores ultimately used in the Travis-Johnston Test. divided into more definite points.

Each category was sub­ A description of this

sequence is as follows: 1.

Identification with family figures:

What was the

role chosen by the subject in each picture responded to











f . parental or marital g*

ambivalent? One of the above was scored for each story of

the test. Acceptability of the social implication presented by each pictures

What was the reaction of the

subject to a picture relating to an area of sociali zation?

Was the scene acceptable to him, to the

extent that he gave free expression of his inter­ pretation, with feelings in line with the picture stimulus; or was it evident that the scene was a "sore spot” for him, as evidenced by excessive feeling, by hostility, by moralizing, or by other expressions of personal dissatisfaction?


were scored for this category on the basis of a*

acceptable, 3 points


neutral, 2 points





A total point score was thus obtained for each subject on, acceptability.

47 3.

Experiencing of environmental frustrations of punishment, dominance, rejection:

Did individuals

perceive the environment as punishing, dominating or rejecting?

Where one of these three frustrations

was expressed it was tabulated.

Only one of either

of the above feelings was allowable per picture.


total count for each of these frustrating influences was recorded in this manner. 4.

Types and extent of feelings expressed in relation to environmental frustrations:

What was the pre­

dominant feeling expressed; what was the specific reaction?

These reactions or feelings were tabu­

lated, a.











dejection, and non-specific feelings indicated by, bad, sad, unhappy. In this category, one reaction and one type of

feeling were allowed scored for each picture.


either aggression, hostility or withdrawal could be scored if a reaction indicated such a score, and in addition, either of the feelings, could be scored if present.

(d), (e), or (f)

Feeling of inadequacy:

What indications does the

subject give as to how he feels?

Inadequacy, as

explained under definition of terms, refers to a lack of self-regard which may also indicate un­ expressed anxiety*

The feelings of fear, guilt,

dejection, and "non-specific” feelings were assigned to this category.

One tabulation, only, was allow­

able for each picture.

Thus, guilt and fear might

have occurred on the same picture, but just one score was recorded.

This section is actually a

subdivision of ho. 4 above, but was more conveniently handled as an individual score. Freedom of expression within the various areas of socialization:

How free is the subject in verbal­

izing familiar scenes of his present or past en­ vironment?

This score was designated, Projection,

and has been defined under terms.

A point score

was made here determined as follows: a.

story has length and meaning, identification has been established and a striving is indi­ cated - 4 points


story less complete than above,-but with affect and meaning - 3 points


story is slightly ambiguous, affect is missing and meaning is questionable - 2 points

49 d.

story is incoherent or about "other” details, or purely a card description -



card is rejected or verbalization almost nil 0




Evasive or protective mechanisms employed in the various areas:

Does the subject employ what seem

to be techniques for avoiding the situation or for circumventing the implication presented by the picture, or for lessening the impact upon himself? These occurrences were scored as they appeared: a.

moralizing, e.g., ”It doesn't pay to be bad.”


fantasy which is bizarre or incongruous


dreams, movies, paintings (in reference to pictures)


distortion of figures in size and sex


denying implication of picture.

With the above criteria as a standard, two stories from the Travis-Johnston Test have been scored and are presented below as samples.

One sample is a child's story, the other

that of an adult. Sample No. 1,

This is a child's reaction to picture

No. 13, which shows a small child in squat position reaching for or touching something on the ground. watches from an open doorway nearby.

A female figure

50 The little boy here had a match. H e Ts lighting it to wood. Mother is watching. The mother here went outside and took the baby inside. He d i d n Tt want to go. She finally got him inside. After that the little boy feels very sad. He wanted to go outside and play. Scoring of sample. 1.

Identification - with little boy; the environment is acting upon him and the feeling is in relation to the boy.


Acceptability - situation not acceptable to subject; the conflict and feelings indicate that the impli­ cation is unacceptable.


Environmental Influence - dominance by mother.


Reaction - no score; the identified (boy) does not indicate any reaction toward the environment which might be scoreable.


Inadequacy - ’’feels very sad” is scored as dejection within this category.




Projection - scored as 5 points. Evasive Mechanisms - none.

Sample N o . 2.

The reaction of an adult to picture No. 11,

in which an older child is in the act of striking an older person who is seated. Same thing happened with daddy, I guess. H e ’s trying patiently to let her work it out or explain it to her while s h e ’s having her temper. H e ’d approach it same as I would. Most children need spanking. They must pay for mistakes like older folks do; must pay a fine or other payment. Scoring of sample. 1.

Identification - not clear; ambivalent.


Acceptability - not acceptable; the attitude, ’’they must pay for mistakes,'* and ’’most children need spanking,” determines this score.

51 3.

Environmental Influence - no score; no frustrating influence operating on subject.


Reaction - hostile; feelings implied are hostile.


Inadequacy - no score; there is nothing here to indicate inadequacy.




Projection - 2 points; no identification and story is not well developed. Evasive Mechanism - moralizing; this seems to be a re-assurance against subject!s own feelings. The statement, "most children need spanking” is an observation not necessarily implied by the picture, and is typical of moralizing instances.

Scoring as indicated above was effected for each subject of the investigation.

Test protocols were first arranged into

groups of fathers, mothers, stutterers, and siblings. cols were then scored for all members of a group.


The separate

stories were evaluated individually, and the scores, arranged in categories, gave a statistical picture of each subject on this test. It should be reported that only thirty of the fortyfour stories in each protocol were scored on the TravisJohnston Test.

This modified procedure was initiated to

reduce the scoring problem, which, with sented an enormous task.


individuals, pre­

Shortening the test did not exclude

any of the areas of socialization, but merely reduced the pictures.in several areas. The Thematic Apperception Test.

The Thematic Apper­

ception Test was selected to produce a range of feelings which

52 might be freely expressed through fantasy,

A scoring scheme

was arranged to permit recording of these feelings according to an orderly plan.


The following is based on conventional

Thematic Apperception Test scoring principless Hole;

With whom does the subject identify in the

story, father, mother, boy, girl, parents or marital, ambivalent? 2,

Satisfaction of role:

How satisfied is the subject

with the role selected, satisfied - 3 points, ambivalent 3*

Strivings ;


points, dissatisfied -



Do the subject’s strivings indicate,

achievement, dominance, escape, etc.?


category was used only to follow the sequence of the story; it was not a part of the problem.) 4.

Environmental frustration;

What frustrations are

encountered in relation to the subject’s strivings; punishment, dominance, rejection?

No more than

one of the above was allowable per story. 5.

Heaction to environmental frustration;

Does the

subject react with aggression, expressed hostility, or does he withdraw?

One, only, of the above was

scored upon its occurrence. Inverted hostility: toward the self? ^*

When were hostile acts directed

Each occurrence was recorded.

Heelings of guilt and fear;

Does the subject indicate

53 guilt or fear in relation to an aggressive or hostile act? 8


This was scored as it occurred.

Feelings of de jectiont jection present?


Are feelings implying de­

This was tabulated on occurrence.

Solution to storys

Did the story end favorably -

3 points; indefinitely - 2 points; unfavorably 1



Freedom of projection:

How well was fantasy employed

in relation to meaning, feeling and identification? Very free projection - 4 points; relatively free 3 points; questionable meaning and feeling - 2 points; no feeling with purely card description, or dwelling on ’’other details jection 11.



point; card re­



Was there non-compliance indicated,

by perceptual distortions of figures or objects? These were tabulated. Evasive or protective mechanisms:

Were expressions

such as, ”he imagines,” or, ’’i t ’s a dream,” or ”a movie” used?

These were recorded.

As with the Travis-Johnston Test, scores on the Thematic Apperception Test were recorded for each individual, then were arranged into groups of fathers, mothers, stutterers, and siblings.

Thus, frequency distributions were provided for

each score for the several groups.

54 To illustrate the scoring of Thematic Apperception Test protocols, three sample stories from one individuals record are presented below, with the scores for each story appearing in Table I, Sample N o . 1 (picture n o . 1). His interest in and admiration for the violin has led up to this. H e fs interested in the violin, probably plans to be a violinist when he grows up. He's thinking of other violinists. H e fd like to attain their heights. As he grows up, he *11 start with that particular pro­ fession. This particular picture represents (name of an artist) as I remember as a child. No question but that the future will be bright, encouraging to him. No disappointments• Sample N o . 2 (picture n o . 4) • Well, what's he doing? Probably (pause) • . . maybe he has lost interest in his wife, and he's not strong enough to tell her the truth, so she's persuading him to tell her what's wrong. Probably he leaves without giving much explanation, and when he returns he'll probably tell her he's learned his lesson. On the other hand, the picture may mean that she's asked forgiveness and he has no interest in showing forgiveness . . . h e ' s cold . . . they'll probably separate as time goes on. Sample N o . 3 (picture no. 11). That picture appears to be taken in pre-historic days. Animals that I can't name. Can't name the period or time. A picture that I wouldn't feel competent even to criticize. I can't even estimate its value. The Rorschach Test.

In interpreting data obtained

from the Rorschach, consideration was given to the differences in age between parents and children.

Norms that have been


Scoring Category_________ Picture #1

Scores Recorded Picture #4 Picture #11


. Identification (Role)




. Satisfaction of role

Satisfied (3 points)

Dissatis­ fied ( 1 point)


4. Environmental influence

No score


5&6. Reaction toward environment




7&8. Feelings gener­ ated

No score



Favorable (3 points)

Unfavorable (1 point)


. Projection

Very free (4)

Free (3)

Picture re­ jected (0 )

. Me chani sms - dream - perceptual distortion - moralizing - personal reference

Personal ref.

No score

No score

9. Solution 10

1 1 &1 2

* Subject an adult, -x#

No s c o r e ^