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University Microfilms 300 North Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 A Xerox Education Company
LZ53907 |.E3 Plunkett, lleoscoleta. 1942 A study of the induction of recent ,?6 graduates of Pew York state teacher pre paring institutions into the ptiblic schools of Pew York state, exclusive of « ■ ITcw York city... hew York, 1941. |' 4p.l.,113 typewritten leaves, tables, forms. 29cm. Final document (Sd.D.) - Hew York university, School of education, 1942. Bibliography: p.92-96. ! A7824S i j v.u»l ----------- — — ---------------------------- ------ — — i
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
^ Pinal Oo'eamen€ Accepted, 0„t a S E P l - 6^
A STUDY OF THE INDUCTION OF RECENT GRADUATES OF NEW YORK STATE TEACHER PREPARING INSTITUTIONS INTO THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NEW YORK STATE, EXCLUSIVE OF NEW YORK CITY
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5* We carefully select cooperating 37 schools and school systems for offcampus experience of our students... ..fifo., 6. We expect the head of the cooperating system or school to assign our stu dent teachers to definite places for their experience......................
9. Reports from the administrators of the cooperating schools or systems are received and checked regularly..., 10. All members of our faculty are re quired to spend some time each year visiting "type" schools......... ...,
7. Representatives from our school per sonally select the master or super vising teachers to whom our appren 14tices or student teachers are to be assigned in each school or system.... . A h i . 8. Experts on our staff visit students doing off-campus observation and teaching regularly....................
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11. Subject matter courses in our school are taught by specialists in those fields. .... ......... 12. The class work in our professional courses for upper-classmen grows out of problems confronted by stu dents in their practice. 13. We specifically include in our prep aration of teachers information con cerning community relationships......
14* Several leaders in the educational field speak to our students annually on professional problems which they will encounter. .... .
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17. We offer a placement service to our graduates. 18. Placement of on the basis fications in ments of the
our graduates is made of their personal quali relation to the require position to be filled....
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ing position, provision is made for him to visit the community and school of whi o he will be a part the following term.*.. ZA’j?. 20. A representative of our school visits each graduate at least twice during his first year of teaching...............
21. We keep in touch with all graduates of our school for at least one year by personal correspondence ........
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31.1 was told of the daily x z ¥-Z g> m time schedule for teachers in that building........... ?e-2. f i t 32 .My teaching assignment 23 4o 73 program was given to me and explained ........ .. faii
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teaching plans was made known ......... . to me**.*.
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35.The mafcking system employed and the make-up procedure used by the school staff was explained to me .
36.1 was given information about class record books, report /4 3o cards and the promotion system •W 93 7 9 / 9 4 used in the school.....*.*.*.. to ipjUk ?M 'M d-i 37.Kinds of textbooks, methods of requisitioning, their use, issuance and storage were de scribed to me.
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38.Standard tests used in the school and my duties in connec 2) x¥ SS 78 g / 93 tion with them were explained to me..................... . W J f a i m .fitL fa ' n fa s % 3S JTJ // /// 39.1 was informed about library regulations and procedures.....J*'i< yf*6, 5‘ fa.
41.Fire drill procedures in the building were explained....
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40.The school health service, regulation prodedures for an ill child, health inspection, and related information I was made familiar with...... .
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42.Discipline procedure in the school was explained..
43*1 told about teachers* bulletins',cand Jhebdlle>9 tin board procedure used in the school.......... . U * l
48.1 was told of the standard demanded of the teacher by the community in regard to . religious activities
52.Community attitudes about teachers smoking were ex plained............. .
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53*Standards demanded by the community in regard to ID dancing as a recreation were explained to me...... •3-0 •#ee-i 54.The policy of the school administration in regard to professional organi zations was made known to
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#V. 55.1 was assigned to a member of the faculty who was to act as a "Big Sister" or counselor to me......... 56.This school system pro vides a health service for all teachers Including a physical examination at regular intervals..... 57.A period of sick leave with pay is granted to all teach ..............
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60. Soon after the opening of the school year, an "open house" was held by the £ >T 37 Si superintendent of schools for all new teachers....... m m s 61.An opportunity was given to new teachers early In the school year to meet members of the Board of Education socially.......
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58,An arrangement is made in this school organization whereby the teacher who is absent from school for legal reasons receives the difference between h ie ft ax 31 own and has substitute's salary. ....... , HP 59.1 was given aid in apply ing for membership in the New York State Retirement Systj '•eeeeee««e**
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The local teachers’ asso ciation held a social Ho 31 * gathering to welcome new teachers to the system..,
63. Frequent visits to my classes and activities wek*e made by the subject super visors and my principal t assist me early in the te and each visit was follow si by a conference with me.
66. New teachers are encourag3d to return frequently to t tie teacher training institu /(, tion from which they were graduated...........
oy 2-V has visited my classes ... m e * ■flips' several times 65. New teachers all have one person in this school or ganization to whom they mpy go for counsel and guidanjc % about all problems other than curricular ones... r » r
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Please add below any methods or devices which you feel have aided you to adjust to your teaching assignment which have not been included in the preceding list*
Space was provided at the end of the check list for the listing of additional orientation devices and procedures which in the opinion of the beginning teacher had helped in his adjustment.
Thirty-three teachers gave
the benefit of their experience. The following were mentioned by one or more teachers as helpful to them in making satisfactory adjustment to their first jobs:
1. Opportunityto talk over problems in faculty meetings - by five. 2. Visitations
to other teachers doing the same or similar
work - bytwo.
3. Use of a "Buddy System" or "New teacher committee plan" - by two. (These plans parallel the "Big Sister" or counselor device included in the check list.) 4. The assigning of a substitute teacher who is well acquainted with the school's classroom procedure to aid the beginning teacher for the first two weeks of work - by one. 5. Participation in social gatherings of the faculty - by one. 6. Practice of positive rather than negative supervision - by one. 7. Opportunity for individual conferences with the principal - by one. 8. Invitations
to participate in sports with his principal
- by one.
of new procedures in the building by mimeographed sheet-
by one, 10. A cooperative spirit between the administration and the teacher - by one. 11. Helpfulness of the school secretaries until little details become routing matters - by one. 12. Use of plans and class record books of the preceding teacher - by one. 13* Inspection of lesson plans by the chairman of the department one week in advance - by one. 14. Serving of an interneship - by one. 15. Complete uniformity among faculty members as to discipline methods by one. 16. The listing
of one's problems by himself - by one.
17. Freedom to use
one's own initiative - by one.
18. Assignment of faculty advisors to assist with future appropriate graduate work - by one. 19. An adequate supply of professional books and periodicals - by one.
The data secured from beginning teachers indicate that while a large percentage of the students in New York State teacher training institu tions do receive opportunity to observe and do practice teaching, this number could well be increased.
More pre-practice assignments to test the
trainee's ability to adjust to professional situations could be made to advantage.
If a student must adjust to a school and community situation,
it would be wise to give that student an opportunity to visit the various types of schools and communities that he might make a wise choice in his selection of the type in which he prefers to do practice teaching and to locate as a full-fledged member of the profession.
The discussion in
class of community relationships is the method used in greatest frequency by training institutions to aid students in community adjustment.
difficult to understand why training institutions send students to offcampus schools for practice teaching and then to a larger degree do not visit them to see how they do that practicing.
However, the opportunity to
discuss in class upon their return to campus the problems which they had confronted in their practice teaching was given to a few more - though by no means to all of them.
A counseling, guidance, and placement serv
ice seems to be available to students and alumni in the majority of schools. While a number of beginning teachers said that a visit to the community and school in which they secured their first positions was not necessary since their homes were in those places, of the others, but a few over half were given that opportunity. Little is done by the teacher preparing institutions to assist in the adjustment of their graduates after they leave the training centers.
method used most frequently to keep in contact with them is personal correspondence.
Library services and group conferences at the institutions
for the purpose of discussing mutual problems are used by some.
small percentage send members of the staff to visit their graduates in their first teaching positions. A personal interview with the superintendent of schools is the general procedure necessary in securing a teaching position.
devices mentioned on the check^as "preliminary orientation" were preferred to the majority of the beginning teachers.
The two exceptions were the re
ceiving of descriptive folders and pamphlets and letters of welcome from leaders of representative organizations in the communities where teaching appointments had been secured. Assistance is usually given beginners in applying for their membership in the New York State Retirement System and, to a majority, information is given about the policy of the administration in regard to professional organizations.
Many of the new teachers are introduced to their colleagues
by the superintendents of schools.
That so small a percentage of beginning
teachers receive aid from subject supervisors concerning courses of study and plans for the year must cause them to start their careers under a handicap.
While a period of sick leave with pay or some salary adjustment
is provided to many, few of the beginning teachers indicated that a health service including a physical examination at regular intervals is offered them by their school systems.
This is another feature of business and
industrial procedure that school systems might find it advantageous to adopt. It is difficult to believe that beginning teachers are supervised as little by superintendents, supervisors and principals as the answers of the beginning teachers indicate.
The novice in any field of endeavor cannot
help but feel the need of definite instructions and assistance.
novice who is dealing with other humans must feel this need even more
keenly than the one who works with objects or things.
At best, pre
service education and training can be orientation into only a few of the many activities that enter into the problem of stimulating the growth and development of children.
It would seem, therefore, that supervision and
resulting aid is essential to the success of the novitiate.
one-half of the group of beginning teachers disclosed that there was one person in the school system or district to whom they might go for counsel and guidance in their problems.
Likewise, less than one-half of them
said that they had been encouraged to return to the institution at which they had received their training. Items on the check list dealing with individual building orientation met with varying responses.
Of the twenty devices listed, nine were used
to assist one-half or more of the beginning teachers.
More attention might
well be given to this phase of a beginning teacher's adjustment. A teacher is first of all a person, one who should live a normal life as a member of a community, one who should give and take in the exchange of social living; yet little seems to be done by public school administrators to help to bring this about.
In fact, less was done for
beginning teachers in the w;y of community orientation than in any other phase of adjustment services about which they were asked. Of the adjustment devices suggested by beginning teachers, three were recommended by a sufficient number to make them worthy of attention. from more experienced teachers was suggested most frequently.
That this is
effective cannot be doubted, but that it might not be left to chance or pro cured in a haphazard way, the designation of definite ones to give that help would be desirable.
An opportunity to talk over problems in faculty meetings
and visitations to see other teachers doing comparable work were also recom mended as valuable aids in adjustment.
The latter was a device also
recommended by superintendents of schools.
COMPARISON OF REPLIES RECEIVED IN THIS STUDY
The check list for beginning teachers was set up to serve as a means of comparison with some items on each of the other two check lists used in the study.
Replies of administrators of teacher train
ing institutions and beginning teachers, and of public school adminis trators and beginning teachers are made on the basis of the percentage marking each of the items listed as "true".
"True" Replies of Teacher Training School Administrators and Beginning Teachers in Percentage Form Teacher training administrator
Practice Teaching in a campus laboratory school provided
Off campus practice teaching required
Pre-practice assignment given
Students visit "type" schools
Trainee visited by faculty member during off-campus experience
Problems met in practice teaching discussed in classes
Community relationships discussed
Counseling and guidance service available
Placement service available
Visit to community where position is secured
22.7 / 9.0 if requested
55.5 / U . 6 who secured jobs in home town
Teacher training administrator
Visited by training school representative during first year of teaching
Personal letters a contact between school and graduate
Library service provided
Group conferences for discussion of problems held at training school
Demonstrations and teaching clinics at training school on Saturdays
Several discrepancies are evident in the answers of the administrators of the teacher training institutions and the beginning teachers.
One of the
greatest of these deals with the problem of practice teaching in a campus laboratory school.
More than twice as many beginning teachers indicated that
such practice had been included in their training, as administrators indicated that such facilities were available for trainees.
This could be
interpreted to mean that the distribution of training experience of the beginning teachers who marked the check list was not so great as the investigator anticipated. What effect this distribution has had on other answers is undeterminable. However, another item which seems to indicate the same trend is the one dealing with the visitation to the novitiate by a member of the training school staff.
The opportunity to discuss problems met in practice teaching
and to visit the community and school where a job was secured may be similar evidence.
If it be true that, in spite of the attempt to get a
cross-section of Hew York State teacher training institution products, such a distribution was not secured, then one Item on the check list offers a challenge.
If the schools represented in answers by their graduates offer
laboratory facilities, supervision of practice teaching, training in
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community relationships, guidance, counseling and placement services to the extent that they do, why do they not provide visitation to rural, centralized village and city schools previous to off-campus practice experience? Another inconsistency is the offering of demonstration and teaching clinics at the training schools.
A small percentage of beginning teachers
said that they had returned to the institutions where they had received their professional training for such demonstrations and clinics, yet no school seemingly offers such services. The remainder of the items dealing with adjustment services offered to beginners in the teaching profession by their training schools are suffi ciently alike to give no ground for discussion here. Preliminary orientation
Public School administrators
Personal interview for job
Notified of teaching assignment and load
Courses of study, texts and materials provided
Told of extra-curricular duties
Aided in securing living quarters
Sent folders etc. describing community
Given dates of year's salary payments
Given calendar for school year
Introduced to staff members
Given courses of study and objectives by subject supervisors
Told of policy of administration about pro fessional organizations
Sent letters of welcome General orientation
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Public School administrators
Health services for teachers provided
Sick leave with pay provided
Financial adjustment during absence arranged
Aided in joining State Retirement System
Visited by subject supervisors and principal
Visited by superintendent
One person in system or district assigned as counselor to beginners
1 3 .8
Encouraged to return to training school
Given copy of school handbook
School records and reports explained
Care of building and equipment described
Given daily time schedule
Given teaching assignment program
Bell system explained
Told of requirements for teaching plans
Marking system and makeup procedure explained
Told of class record books, reports etc.
Textbooks, issuance, use and storage described
Told of standard tests
Informed of library procedures
6 5 .0
School health service described
Fire drill procedures explained
Discipline procedure explained
Building orientation Familiarized with school plant and administrative organization
Public school administrators
Told of bulletins and bulletin board
Use of duplicating machines, telephones and other equipment explained
Told of relationship between teachers and custodians
P. T. A. relationships expected
Assigned to a member of facility who would act as "Big Sister"
Told of civic activities expected of teachers
Standard demanded of the teacher in regard to religious activities
Approved recreational activities explained
Told of attitude about spending weekends out of town
Told of community standards in regard to "dating"
Community attitudes about smoking explained
Community attitude about dancing described
Superintendent holds an "open house" for new teachers
3 1 .4
New teachers meet Board of Education socially
Local teachers' association welcomes newcomers socially
By asking each superintendent of schools to have a beginning teacher on his staff mark a check list, a cross-section of reaction to adjustment services offered by public school administrators was automatically secured. Regardless of relative frequency of replies, those of the administrators were higher than those of the beginning teachers in 47 of the 51 cases.
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The differences ranged from 3$ to 44$ • This variation is difficult to explain.
Perhaps the public school administrators have practiced some
orientation devices some years and have marked the check list on the basis of what has been done sometimes.
There is a possibility, too, that after
one has had a position for a period of time, problems of seemingly greater importance crowd out those details which to the one in charge of all is of minor importance but to the individual affected thereby of decidedly major consequence.
Much can come to be taken for granted too.
When duties are
delegated to others, some supervision or checking-up is usually desirable. This might be true of building orientation procedures which are certainly not carried out to the extent indicated by superintendents of schools if answers of beginning teachers are the criteria.
Since the beginning teach
ers are now doing only their first or second year of teaching, their memories would have to be poor indeed not to recall being given a copy of the school handbook.
Of the 210 superintendents who marked the check lists
77$ said that the principals of his schools give to the new teacher a copy of the school handbook.
While replies were received from fewer be
ginning teachers, 180, the difference is not sufficiently great to affect the percentage of replies to any appreciable extent.
Of the 180, 33% said
that they received copies of these same handbooks. Something still more difficult to understand is the discrepancy in replies concerning visitations by the school superintendent, subject su pervisors and principal.
If 94$ of the superintendents visit teachers
during their first year of teaching, it is peculiar that only 59$ of those teachers know they have been visited.
Likewise only 48$ of the novices
indicated that subject supervisors and principals had visited them, yet 82$ of the superintendents said that such help is given.
One might think
that this variation could be accounted for through the desire of the
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administrators and supervisors to allow the beginner to become acclimated before being visited.
Check lists were marked in January so that this
would not be a reasonable explanation. The four orientation devices indicated by teachers as being used more commonly than by administrators were:
the receiving of letters of
welcome to the community from leaders of representative organizations, the encouragement to return frequently to the teacher training institution from which they were graduated, the assignment to a "Big Sister" in the individual school, and the appointment of some one person to whom to go for guidance and counsel. Since a glance at the preceding table will give that information, it seems unnecessary to enumerate the items, of which there are so many, which superintendents of schools evidently believe are practiced to a greater degree than is actually the case.
CHAPTER I X CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions In the light of the foregoing data it is evident that: 1. The adjustment of the beginner in the teaching profession is a problem of concern to administrators of teacher training insti tutions and administrators of public school systems in New York State.
This is indicated by the response to the request for help
in this study. 2. The amount and kinds of adjustment aid offered to beginning teach ers by teacher training institutions in New York State, on the basis of replies from their own administrators, might well be aug mented in several respects. A. Campus laboratory facilities for observation and practice teaching by students preparing for the teaching profession are inadequate.
Such facilities are provided by 36$ of the training
institutions. B. Opportunity for pre-practice assignments to test professional adjustability and insight into types of schools by which trainees might be enabled to select more wisely their fields of specialization offered now by one-half of the training schools, should be valuable guidance tools for the remainder of the schools.
Pre-practice assignments are given to trainees by 52$
of the professional schools.
Visits by students to various
types of schools are arranged by 50$ of them.
C. Greater care should be exercised by the teacher preparing institutions in the selection of master or supervising teachers under whom trainees gain off-campus or extra-mural teaching experience. by 91$ of them.
A period of such experience is required
For it, 84$ of the training schools carefully
select the cooperating schools or school systems.
of the students to definite places and teachers is left to the +he-
head of^cooperating school or system by 75$ of the training schools. The progress of the student teacher should be followed more closely than is done at present.
Members of 77$ of the
training school staffs visit the students regularly while they are doing off-campus observation and teaching.
Reports from the
administrators of the cooperating schools or systems about the student teachers are received and checked regularly by 82$ of the professional schools. D.-Programs of teacher education should more closely integrate the theoretical and the practical.
Administrators of 14$ of the
professional schools indicated that members of their staffs are required to spend some time each year visiting "type" schools, into which their products must adjust.
Class work in
courses for upper-classmen grows out of problems confronted by students in their practice teaching in 52$ of the training schools. E. At present, the counseling and placement services terminate the responsibility assumed by the majority of the training institu tions.
Follow-up services for their graduates are meagre.
Personal visitations, conferences and servicing with profes-
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slonal materials are provided by few of them. F. One-half of the teacher training school administrators confer with the administrators of the public schools or school systems about the success or failure of their graduates. 3. Administrators of public school systems do, in the main, personally interview and select candidates for teaching in their organizations. This is done by 90$ of them. 4. There is no uniform practice in the hiring of experienced teachers or teachers whose homes are in the community. 5. Following the hiring of the applicant, the adjustment services /
offered him may be divided into four kinds:
individual building, and community orientation. A. All but three of the devices on the check list for preliminary orientation are offered by a majority of the public school administrators. B. Answers to general orientation procedures indicated definite efforts by the majority of the school superintendents to use all but three of the adjustment devices suggested. C. Individual building orientation is effected to a much greater extent than any other phase of orientation covered in this study. D. Orientation to the community, as distinct from the school, receives much less attention.
On the basis of replies received
from administrators of public school systems, only two devices included in the check list for community orientation are used by the majority.
The two are the arranging of a social affair
by the local teachers' association to welcome new teachers to the school system or district, and the giving of information to
dc*vv,«c}e-J H +Viethe new teacher concerning the standardsAin regard to civic activities. In community orientation only, did any one of the school units stand out.
Superintendents of village schools or school
systems do more in community orientation than do either city or supervisory district superintendents. In less than one-third of the cases is there evidence of close cooperation between public school administrators and teacher training school administrators: A. Novitiates in the teaching profession are encouraged by 28$ of their superintendents to return frequently for conferences to the teacher training institution from which they were graduated, according to the replies of the superintendents themselves. B. Reports about the adjustment of the beginning teacher, to the head of the teacher training institution from which she was graduated, are made by 11$ of the superintendents. There is a definite lag between what the public school adminis trators think is being done and what is actually beihg done to aid beginning teachers in their adjustment.
Of the sixty-six items on
the check list for beginning teachers, fifty-one paralleled items on the check list for public school administrators.
In all but
four of the fifty-one items, superintendents indicated the use of the adjustment device to a greater degree than did beginning teachers to idiom the service had supposedly been offered. differences ranged from 3$ to 44$*
Such a situation should be a
challenge to every superintendent of schools in this statel One orientation device was added to the original check list by a
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number of beginning teachers and school superintendents.
suggested device was the provision of an opportunity to the beginner to visit teachers who were doing the same type of work. Help from more experienced teachers was suggested more fre quently than any other device by those beginning teachers who added suggestions. Two other suggestions were made by a goodly number of beginning teachers.
Opportunities for discussion of problems in
faculty meetings and for social contacts with other members of the faculty were felt to be highly desirable. Recommendations On the basis of the data secured in this study, the investigator offers the following recommendations to aid in the orientation of beginning teachers in the public schools of New York State, exclusive of New York City. 1. Provision of more adequate and effective practice teaching facilities in order to develop the experience background of students for the interpretation of the educational theory learned. A. More campus laboratory schools. B. Selection by staff members of the training school of master or supervising teachers under whom students do off-campus or extra-mural teaching as well as the schools or school systems where it is done.
By this means they could make sure that each
student was gaining experience under a teacher with an accept able philosophy of education, a mastery of the techniques of teaching and of the subject matter taught; as well as a knowledge of the theoretical and technical courses which the student had been carrying on.
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C. Visitation to every student doing off-campus observation and teaching by a faculty member of the professional school.
actual knowledge regarding the development of the student as he works in an actual teaching situation as well as changes which occur during his training, the training school can be of maximum service to the student and also to itself by judging the effectiveness of its curricula. D. Requiring and analyzing regular reports on standard forms from the teacher, principal, subject supervisor and superintendent under whom off-campus experience is gained.
If each report
were to deal with factors which each of these school people could rate discerningly, it would be of great value to the training school staff in counseling and working with the individual student. E. A period of interneship provided in the year added to the train ing period for teachers, thereby setting up an integrated pro gram of study and practice. 2. Provision of try-out experience prior to assignment to practice teaching. A. Desirable traits can be developed and fixed, and personality weaknesses and the adjustability of the student brought to light to serve as valuable guidance tools. B. Familiarity with types of schools and patterns by which children are conditioned should aid in developing an understanding on the part of the trainee.
This should result in the poise that
comes from knowledge and therefore be of inestimable value in the training process. 3. Integration of the theoretical and the practical in the training
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program for teachers. A. Develop functional classroom procedure by preparing students to teach children; by using the facilities of the laboratory school at every advantageous point; by an awareness of and a constant study of the actual conditions into which student teachers must adjust; and by providing an opportunity for students to secure help about problems which they meet in practice teaching. 4. Provision of a follow-up service by teacher training institutions to bridge the gap between teacher education and actual teaching and to assist graduates in achieving success by giving to them stimula tion and help to live up to their full potentialities.
service could: A. Provide a liaison officer to visit graduates in their first teaching positions and secure tangible, objective data about their problems.
This data would be the basis for individual
aid to the teacher and therefore, to the school or system employing him and also for revision of curricula of the training institution. B. Make available to graduates, the materials which they had been trained to use, viz., visual aids, library materials, service circulars and bulletins and other professional materials such as those on sale at the college bookstore.
By this means, the
training school would not only be aiding its graduates, but also be making a distinct contribution to education by pro viding for the distribution of these materials to public schools in general. C. Arrange conferences, demonstrations and teaching clinics at such
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times and places that graduates could take advantage of them. 5. Cooperative effort on the part of administrators of teacher training institutions and administrators of public school systems in working out a system of mutual aid to the beginning teacher. Benefits from such cooperative efforts would be derived by both administrations also. A. If the training school arranges conferences of graduates, demonstrations, and teaching clinics, the public school administrator could encourage attendance at them as well as use of other aids offered. B. Reports on standard forms to the training school concerning the degree of success or failure of graduates during their first year of teaching should prove helpful to all concerned.
liaison officer would go over such reports with those public school people responsible for making them out and would build up desirable attitudes toward them. 6. The inclusion in the list of recommended orientation devices of those suggested by persons marking the check lists. A. Provision of an opportunity to the beginning teacher to visit teachers who are doing the same type of work. B. Aid to beginners by more experienced teachers. C. Arrangements for discussion of problems in faculty meetings. D. Plans for social affairs for the faculty to help the beginning teacher become acquainted with the school personnel. 7. The use by public school administrators of a handbook of orienta tion devices such as that offered at the end of this study.
should be particularly valuable as a safeguard against overlooking
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important induction details in the rush of duties at the beginning of a school year.
It should also help to correct the lag which
now exists between what the public school administrator thinks is being done and what is actually being done to aid beginning teachers in their adjustment. 8. Further investigation of two related questions, viz.:
public school administrators not hiring inexperienced teachers from among those who have served an apprenticeship, a cadetship or an interneship in schools under their supervision? extent are orientation devices and guidance effective?
A Proposed Handbook of Orientation Devices for Public School Administrators To Aid in the Adjustment of the Beginning Teacher
A. Preliminary orientation 1. I* personally interview applicants for positions in my system or district. 2. Notify the new teacher of his grade or subject assignment and anticipated teaching load as early as possible before his first day of teaching in our system. 3. Give to the new employee as long as possible prior to his first day of teaching, courses of study, lists of texts and supple mentary material available. 4. Designate to him the extra-curricular activities which the new teacher will be expected to supervise as soon as possible after his appointment to our system. 5. Arrange for satisfactory living conditions for the newcomer to the community by providing a list of places that meet schoolcommunity standards. 6. Give to the local newspapers publicity concerning teachers new to the community. 7. Send to the new teacher formal notification of the date of the opening of the school year and information concerning the time and place of reporting and plans for the first day. 8. Inform the novitiate of the salary payment dates for the year. 9. Give to the beginner a calendar for the school year. B. General Orientation 1. I welcome all to the work of the new school year at a pre-opening conference of all teachers in the system or district. 2. Introduce newcomers. 3. Attempt to build up a feeling of friendliness and unity among members of the entire staff. 4« State the general aims and objectives of the system or district and special objectives of the year. *To avoid repetition, the pronoun is omitted in the remaining statements but remains the subject of each sentence.
5. Arrange for meetings of teachers of subjects with the directors ol* supervisors of those subjects who will present courses of study, plans and objectives for the year in their particular fields. 6. Arrange for meetings of beginning teachers with the principals of their individual buildings to orient these nev/comers to their new school homes. 7. Explain what is expected of the staff in connection with pro fessional organizations. 8. Arrange for aid for the beginning teacher in applying for his Retirement System membership. 9. Provide a period of sick leave with pay in order to promote a feeling of security and mental health. 10. Arrange for the payment to the teacher who is absent from school for legal reasons, the difference between his salary and that of the substitute who is taking his place. 11. Personally visit each teacher new to my system or district several times during his first year with us. 12. Expect each subject supervisor and principal to visit classes and activities conducted by the beginning teacher frequently and follow up each visit by a conference with him. 13. Provide opportunity for frequent meetings of subject supervisors with beginning teachers. 14. Provide opportunity for the beginning teacher to visit experienced teachers who are doing the same type of work as that assigned him. 15. Encourage novitiates in the system to return frequently no the teacher training institution from which they were graduated for conferences. 16. Make reports regularly about the adjustment of the beginner to the head of the teacher training institution from which he was graduated. 17. Make a change in the teaching assignment (grade or subject) of the beginning teacher if he has difficulty in adjusting to the work in which he was originally placed. C. Individual building orientation 1. The principal* of the school familiarizes the newcomer with the school plant. *The "principal" is omitted from the succeeding statements, but remains the subject of each sentence.
2. Describes the administrative organization of the school. 3. Gives the new teacher a copy of the school handbook. if. Explains about school records and reports for which he will be responsible. 5. Explains his responsibility in the care of the building and equipment. 6. Explains the daily time schedule for teachers. 7. Gives to the teacher his daily teaching assignment program. 8. Explains the bell system in the building. 9. Describes the system of teaching plans and plan sheets or plan books. 10. Explains the marking system employed and make-up procedure used by the staff. 11. Describes the class record books, report cards and the promotion system. 12. Explains the kinds, methods of requisitioning, use, issuance and storage of school textbooks and supplies. 13. Names the standard tests used and the duty of the teacher in connection with them. 14. Explains the library regulations and procedures. 15. Describes the health services: regulation procedures for an ill child, health inspection, and related information. 16. Explains fire drill procedure. 17. Explains discipline procedure. 18. Gives an explanation of teachers' bulletins and bulletin board procedure used. 19. Explains the use of school duplicating machines, telephones and similar equipment. 20. Explains the relationship between teachers and custodians in the building. 21. Describes Parent-Teacher relationships expected. * '5,-n
22. Assigns the new teacher to a "Big Sister",^counselor or special member of the school staff to whom he is.to go for help and guidance.
23* Provides opportunity for discussion of problems in faculty meetings* 24. Plans social affairs for the faculty to help the beginning teacher to become acquainted with the school personnel. D. Community orientation 1. I encourage the local teachers' association to hold some form of social affair to welcome new teachers soon after their affiliation with our system or district. 2. Inform the teacher as to standards demanded by the community in re gard to civic activities.
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Association of Colleges and Universities of the State of New York: Report of the Committee on the Preparation of Teachers. New York State Education. XXIV (December, 1936), pp. 234-9* Discussion of the five-year plan for teacher education, giving arguments both pro and con. Baker, F. E., Program of Guidance for Teacher-educating Institutions. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXI (December, 1935), pp. 657-71. The experience method of professional education in operation in the Divisions of Elementary and Kindergarten-Primary Education at the Milwaukee State Teachers1 College is described. Barnes, R. A., Institutional Teacher Placement andService. Elementary School Journal. XXXVIII (March, 1938), PP« 528-38. The report of a survey in Michigan made to help solvethe placement problem of teacher training institutions and the recruitment problem of superintendents of schools. Benner, T. E. and Sanford, C. W., Recent Changes in the Program of Teacher Education. Illinois Teacher. XXV (March, 1937)* p. 203/. A summary of the three changes effected in the program of teacher education in the College of Education of the University of Illinois. Brink, V. G., Interneship Teaching in the Professional Education of Teachers. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXIII (Feb ruary, 1937), pp. 89-100. A proposed solution to the problem confronting those interested in teacher preparation as to how a closer integration of the theoreti cal and the practical aspects of a teacher-training program can be effected. Brown, Francis James, College and University Education for Teachers In Service (A Survey and Evaluation) • New York University, 1932. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis. A study, analysis and evaluation of practices in the field of inservice education for teachers in colleges and universities (exclusive of teachers' colleges) and recommendations based upon the findings* Brownell, S. M., On What Basis Shall Teachers Be Selected? New York State Education. XXIV (October, 1936), pp. 31-2/* Discussion of three suggestions which the author believes should materially aid anyone who is responsible for selecting teachers.
Cuber, J. F., Community Training In the Preparation of Teachers. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXIV (May, 1938) P P » 382-6. A plea for inclusion in the education of prospective teachers the rudimentary essentials of "Local community life" and a proposed out line for such a course of study. DeYoung, C. A., Trends and Possibilities in Supervision. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXIV (April, 1938), pp. 265-76. A discussion of modern trends in effective teacher supervision and the plans of interneship teaching at Northwestern University and the University of Illinois. Frazier, Benjamin W., Trends in Certification of Teachers. School Life, (January, 1939), pp. 123-124* Changes in certification requirements and practices during the past decade, and the lengthening and enrichment of the courses of study for prospective teachers are briefly reviewed. Fuda, Anna M., Teacher Judgments of In-Service Education. New York University, 1932, Doctor of Philosophy Thesis. A study to ascertain the value which teachers, principals, super visors and administrators place upon the various kinds of in-service education in order to make available a more objective basis for the formulating of policies and programs for such work. Fuller, Henry H., Directed Student Teaching at the State College of Washington. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXIII (February, 1937), pp. 133-142. A detailed report of a program inaugurated Feb. 1, 1930 which pro vides a half-semester of intensive practice-teaching in the high schools of Spokane, Washington under the immediate supervision of a Director of Student-Teaching. Graves, Frank Pierrepont, The Administration of American Education with Especial Reference to Personnel Factors. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1932. The provision of the personnel, courses of study, teaching methods and units of administration necessary for the instruction of pupils and the conduct of related activities are dealt with in this book. Hart, J. K., Personality.Problems of Teachers. Progressive Education Magazine, 1932, pp. 219-20. The gist of the author1s thought can be summed up in this sentence from the article: ttNothing a child can learn intellectually in a schoolroom where there is a nervous tension between teacher and pupils can ever compensate him for the mental, moral and probably physical disintegration that goes on under such - - - - conditions**. Hildreth, G. W., Cooperative Project in Teacher-Training Supervision. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXIV (May, 1938, pp. 389-91* Report of a project to bring together the efforts of studentteachers, supervisors of student-teaching and other members of the faculty.
Hobstetter, Florence, Problems of the First Year Teacher. Journal of Health and Physical Education. VIII (September, 1937), pp. 412-13/* Resume of problems confronting a beginning physical education teacher as related to the writer by a number of teachers and suggestions to the beginner on how to prepare for and thus avoid those problems. Hurwitz, R., Another Aspect of Mental Hygiene in the Class-room. Mental Hygiene. Vol. XV, 1931, pp. 17-33* The author points out that the well-adjusted teacher is necessary today since the specific duties of the school include the develop ment of the whole personality of the child, that is, his emotional life as well as his intellectual and physical growth. In-Service Teacher Exchange. National Education Association Journal. XXVI (April, 1937), p. 120. Description of the plan worked out by the Eastern State Normal School of Castine, Maine whereby students of the school exchange places with teachers in service for six week periods. The plan provides the op portunity for professional study by the teachers and practical ex perience for the students. Judd, Charles H., Preparation of School Personnel - Report of the Regents1 Inquiry. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1938. A critical survey of the present teacher training institutions in New York State their physical equipment, staffs, character of training and cost of maintenance. Recommendations for improved service are also included. Lewis, Ervin Eugene, Personnel Problems of the Teaching Staff. New York: The Century Company, 1925* A treatise on material and personnel management in education. From the angle of the supervision of the personnel, it deals with the selection, placement and promotion of teachers and thereby the im provement of instruction. Mead, A. R., Concepts and Principles Involved in the Individual Conference in Supervision of Student-teaching: A Jury Judgment. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXIV (February, 1938), pp. 94-104* A report of a study of a group of conceptions implied in and necessary to the effective use of the individual conference in furthering the education of the student-teacher. Mort, Paul R., The State's Obligation. New York State Education. XXIV (February, 1937), pp. 366-7* A plea for state support of teacher education on a scale to insure adequate returns for the millions spent for public education. Northway, Ruth M., A Professional Adjustment Service for Beginning Teachers. New York State Education. XXVI (Mardh, 1939), pp. 424-25/* Reasons are given for the setting-up of a guidance service for begin ning teachers and the values of such a service are pointed out.
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Northway, Ruth M., A Program of Professional Adjustment for First Year Graduates of Geneaeo State Normal School* New York University, 19AO* Doctor of Education Thesis* An actual program for a specific school* The author shows its need and its practicability. Qrr, M. L. and Anderson, A. G., An Experiment in Integrating a Teacher Training Curriculum. Educational Administration and Supervision. H I V (February, 1938), pp. 105-112. The Education Department at Alabama College is experimenting with a curriculum which they hope will overcome the weaknesses of the traditional college curriculum which tends to isolate one subject from another and each subject from the social setting in which it is supposed to function. The experiment is described in this article. Pickett, Lalla H., An Analysis of the In-Service Training Programs of Twenty-five Selected Normal Schools and Teachers1 Colleges* New York University, 1932, Doctor of Philosophy Thesis. A survey of in-service training of teachers in representative sections of the United States and an evaluation of it from the point of view of the "consumers". Preparation of School Personnel. New York State Education. XXVI (March, 1939), pp. 457-59. A critical review of the part of the New York State Regents' Inquiry Report of November, 1938 submitted by Dr. Charles H. Judd on "Prepar ation of School Personnel". Pulliam, R., What Sort of Person Should a Beginning Teacher Be? Elemen tary School Journal. XXXVIII (June, 1938), pp. 747-50. Opinions about desirable qualities and abilities in teachers. Rogasin, H., Recent Criticisms of Teacher Training. School and Society. XLVIII, (September 24, 1938), pp. 399-401. A rfesumfe of criticisms of teacher training made (1) At the annual meeting of the American Council of Education May 7, 1938 (2) By Pres ident Roosevelt's Advisory Committee on Education, February, 1938 (3) At the December, 1938 meeting of the American Historical Associa tion (4) At the Progressive Education Association meeting held in February, 1938 and (5) In the report of the ten-year survey of the secondary schools and colleges in Pennsylvania made by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Rhodes, Earl N., Improving the Product of the State Teachers' College. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXIV (February, 1938), pp. 147-53. The Teacher Tenure Acts recently enacted in Pennsylvania would seem to place a definite responsibility upon Teachers' Colleges in that state to improve their products. How that can be done is discussed by the author.
Ryan, Heber Hinds, The Practice-Teaching Load in Laboratory Schools. Educational Administration and Supervision, xytv (February, 1938), pp. 143-467 The report of a survey of sixty-five universities and teachers' colleges in the North Central Territory showed over-crowded labora tory schools and many off-campus schools used to supplement facili ties of laboratory schools in that area and, therefore, effective practice-teaching opportunity limited in its effectiveness. Saylor, Galen, et.al., Inducting New Teachers into Service. (Mimeo graphed) Lincoln, Nebraska: Department of Research, Nebraska State Teachers' Association, 1937. A handbook of suggested methods, plans and procedures for inducting new teachers in an effort to eliminate waste and inefficiency due to turn-over among public school teachers in Nebraska. Smith, Payson, Current Issues in Teacher Education. National Education Association Proceedings. Washington, D. C.: National Education Association, 1937, p. o7. A brief discussion of the needs in teacher-education, including ad justment of new teachers; selection of students to be educated for service as teachers and the trend toward an increase of specialized teaching. Stump, N. F., liberal Arts College Follow-up Service for Teachers. Educational Administration and Supervision. XXII (December, 1936), pp. 485-92. Keuka College's plan for follow-up is believed by the author to be valuable to the student placed and to the College. He cites the three factors which he believes necessary in any adequate follow-up service. Trainor, A. W., Growth in Service Through Supervision. New York State Education. X H V (February, 1937), pp. 356-7/. Since pre-service education and training can only be orientation into a few of the many activities that enter into the problem of teaching children, it is the function of supervision to supply the guidance and leadership necessary to stimulate the essential growth of teachers in service and see that such growth takes the right direction. The author shows why and how this can be done. Washburne, Carleton, I Have Hired Many Teachers: What Qualifications Have I Considered Most Important? Instructor. 2LVII (January, 1938), p. 8/. The author writes that selection of the kind of men and women for a faculty who can contribute to the whole development of the children must be followed up by the orientation of those selected in order that they may live up to their full potentialities. He raises questions of how this can be done.
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PROFESSIONAL ADJUSTMENT SERVICES Offered by TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS j
To the Administrator of the Teacher Training Institute ;ionIt is not anticipated that any one administrator or institution makes use of Eli of the adjustment methods listed below.
This is an effort to
determine which devices and procedures ere most commonly used. Please indicate by placing a check mark (V/) in the column labeled "true" those methods which you use.
A check nark (^) in the column labeled
"false" indicates those which you do not commonly use. True 1. Wo provide end require a specific period of observation and practice teaching in our campus laboratory school................................. 2. Pre-practice assignments, such as assisting with remedial work, help ing with e noon recreation period, working with a group of Scouts or some similar assignment, are given each student to test h or special member of the school staff to whom .^he i3 to go for help and guidance................
D. Community orientation 1. I* hold an "open house" for nev; teach ers 3oon after the opening of the
school y e a r............................... 2. Arrange for teachers new to the system or district to meet members of the Board of Education socially early in the school year............................... 3. Encourage the local teachers’ association to hold some form of social affair to wel come new teachers soon after their affil iation with our system or district....... 4. Inform the teacher as to standards demand ed by the community in regard to civic activities................................ 5. Acquaint the newcomer v/ith community standards in connection with religious activities................................
* 1 re m a in s t h e
s u b je c t o f each s u c c e e d in g s e n te n c e .
F a ls e
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F a ls e
6. Tell the new teacher of the recrea tional facilities of the community which meet with pooulsr approval............ 7. Make the newcomer cognizant of the community attitude toward teachers snending weekends out of town. .............. 8. Inform the teacher of the attitude of the community in regard to smoking by teachers....... .......... ............ ...... 9. Tell the new recruit of the community attitude in respect to 11dating” ...... . 10. Give information to the new teacher concerning the attitude of the people of the community f|bont d a n c i n g . .... 11. Acquaint the newcomer with the com munity’s expectation in regard to patronizing local merchants, bonks and professional men........................
Please odd any orientation devices effectively used in your school system or district which have not been included in the preceding list.
PRO FESSION AL ADJUSTMENT SERVICES Offered to Beginning Teachers in New York State
To the Beginning Teacher: It is not anticipated that to any one teacher is offered all of the adjustment services listed below.
Some of the services listed might
have been offered to you by the institution where you received your training.
Some others might have been aids extended to you by the ad
ministrators of the school organization in which you began your teaching. This is an effort to determine which devices and procedures are most commonly used. Place a check mark (
in the column labeled "tru^" after each of
the following methods which were used to aid you in your adjustment to your first teaching assignment.
Place a check (v/) mark in the column
labeled "false" after each method which was not used to aid you. True 1. I was required to observe end do practice teaching in a laboratory school on the campus of the teacher training institution from which I was graduated...... 2. Preceding my practice teaching I had been assigned to do remedial work, assisting with a noon recrea tion period, work with a group of Scouts or similar assignment............................................. 3. My training included some off-campus practice teaching........ ..................................... J 4. Previous to my off-campus practice teaching, it had been arranged for me to visit a rural, a centx-alized and a city school................................. 5. I was visited by a member of the teacher training school staff while I was doing off-campus practice teaching...............................................
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F a ls e
6. Problems which I had met in my practice teaching were discussed in one of my classes upon my return to campus training.................................... 7. The discussion of community relationships was a part of my teacher training course................... 8. The counseling and guidance service at my alma meter is available to alumni as well as present students... 9. A placement service is available to graduates of the teacher training institution which 1 attended........ 10. After I had secured a teeching position, provision was made for me to visit the school and community with which I was to become affiliated..... .......... 11. During my first year of teaching I was visited by a member of the 3taff of my alma mater...... ........ 12. Another means of contact with my alma mater has been personal letters from a member of the staff....... . 13. I have returned to the institution where I received my professional training for demonstration and teaching clinics held there on Saturdays............. 14. A library service including books, movie films, slides, stereoscopic views and projection machines is offered to teachers by the teacher ti’aining in stitution I attended. ............................ . 15. The group conferences held by my alma mater for dis cussion by teachers of mutual problems are very valuable................. .............................. 16. I secured my position after a personal interview with the superintendent of schools............... . 17. I was notified of my specific teaching assignment and anticipated teaching load 30on after I was hired.. 18. Courses of study, lists of texts end supplement ary materials which I might use were given me soon after my assignment to a teaching position.................. 19. My extra-curricular duties were made known to me shortly after my aopointment to my first job......... 20. I was assisted by the school administration in securing satisfactory living conditions in the community whore X was to teach........................ 21. Folders and pamphlets describing the community in which I was to teach were sent m e .................. 22. At the beginning of the school year, I was given the dates of the salary payments for the year........
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23. The school calendar for the year was given me at the opening of school in September .................... . . 24. As a new member of the community I received letters of welcome from representative organizations........ 25. The superintendent of schools introduced his new teachers at a pre-opening conference in the fall.... 26. Meetings of beginning teachers with subject super visors familiarized us with courses of study, plans and ob iectives for the vear.... ................ . 27. The principal of the school to which I was assigned acquainted me with the school plant ana. the admin istrative organization of that school before I met ony classes. ......••••••••••*•••••••••••••••••*••••••< 28. •k copy of the school handbook was given me before the time that I actually began teaching............... 29. School records and reports for which I would be re sponsible were exnlainoG. to me....................... 30. My part in the care ol' the building and equipment w&s wade t>isiu *to r i g ..................... • • • • • • • • # • • • • • • • • 31. 1 was told of the daily time schedule for teachers in that building. ................... ........................ 32. My teaching assignment program was given to me and expl ained ................ .............. .............. . 33. The bell system in the building was described to me prior to the time I met my students in classes ..... 34. The school requirements about teaching plan3 was made known to m e .............. ................................ 35. The marking system employed and the make-up procedure used by the school staff was explained to m e ......... 36. I was given information about class record books, report earns and the promotion system used in the school................ ........................... . 37. Kinds of textbooks, methods of requisitioning, their use, issuance and storage were described to me.. 38. Standard tests used in the school and my duties in connection with them were exoJ' ined to m e ......... 39. I was informed about library regulations and nroeedures............................................. ...... j 40. The school health service, regulation procedures 1 for an ill child, health inspection, and related j information I was made familiar with.................. .........
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41. Fire drill procedures in the building were explained. 42. Discipline procedure in the school was explained.... 43. I was told about teachers' bulletins, and the
44. Procedure in the use of the school duplicating ma chines, telephones and similar equipment by teachfifa vips tnprlfi Ifnown to me. .............. -...... -.....* 45. The relationship between teachers and custodians in thp buildinfi was made known "to m e ..... . 46. Perent-Teacher relationships expected of faculty members were explained to m e ..... ....... 47. Civic activities expected of teachers by citizens of the Gomiminitv were explained........ • •• •........ . 48. I was told of the standard demanded of the teacher by the community in regard to religious activities..., 49. Participation in social activities which would meet
50. Community attitudes in regard to teachers spending weekends out of town were explained to me......... . 51. The school administration informed me of community • standards in regard to "dating"....................... 52. Community attitudes about teachers smoking were exolained......... .................................... 53. Standards demanded by the community in regard to dancing as a recreation wore explained to m e ......... 54. The policy of the school administration in regard to professional organizations was made known to me.... 55. I was assigned to a member of the faculty who was to act as a "Big Sister" or counselor to m e .......... 56. This school system provides a health service for ell teachers including a physical examination at regular intervals.............................................. 57. A period of sick leave with pay is granted to all teachers............................................... 58. An arrangement is made in this school organization whereby the teocher who is absent from school for legal reasons receives the difference between h$6 own and hi® Riibstitut.fi'a snlerv.......................
i 59. I was given aid in applying for membership in the ! N e w York State Retirement System...............................
60. Soon after the opening of the school year, an "open house” was held by the superintendent of schools for ell new teachers...................................... 61. An opportunity was given to new teachers early in the school year to meet members of the Bocrd of Education socially.................................... 62. The local teachers’ association held a social gather ing to welcome now teachers to the system............ 63. Frequent visits to my classes and activities were made by the subject supervisors and my principal to assist me early in the term and each vi3it was fol lowed by a conference v-ith m e ........................ 64. M y superintendent of schools has visited my classes sever ail t ime s ......................................... 65. New teachers all have one person in this school or ganization to whom they may go for counsel and gui dance about all problems other than curricular ones.. 66. New teachers are encouraged to return frequently to the teacher training institution from which they were graduat e d ..................... ........................ Please add below any methods or devices which you feel have aided you to adjust to your teaching assignment which have not been included in the preceding list.
Letter Sent to Administrators of Teacher Training Institutions
North High School Binghamton, N. Y« January 6, 1941 Dr. Celsus Wheeler, Dean St. Bonaventure*s College, St. Bonaventure, N. Y. My dear Dean Wheeler: Educators today seem to agree that orientation to his first job is one of the most important factors in the success of the beginning teacher. In an effort to determine the adjustment services offered most commonly to beginners in the teaching profession, this survey of such services offered them by the teacher preparing institutions and by the public school systems is being made. Will you cooperate in this study by indicating on the enclosed check list those services which your institution offers its graduates and return the check list to me in the enclosed stamped envelope? In no -way will individual schools or persons be mentioned in the report of the study, a copy of which will be sent to you. I shall be grateful for your help in this project. Very truly yours,
Letter Sent to Public School Administrators
North High School Binghamton, N. Y. January 6, 1941 Mr. S. Taylor Johnson, Superintendent of Schools, Oceanside, N. Y. My dear Mr. Johnson: Educators today seem to agree that orientation to his first job is one of the most important factors in the success of the beginning teacher. In an effort to determine the adjustment services offered most commonly to beginners in the teaching profession, this survey of such services offered them by the teacher preparing institutions and by the public school systems is being made. Will you cooperate in this study by indicating on the enclosed check list for school superintendents those services which you offer beginning teachers? Will you please give the other check list which is addressed to the beginning teacher to one of your staff who is a recent graduate of a teacher train ing institution in New York State and who is now doing his first or second year of actual teaching? A stamped envelope is enclosed for each of you to use in returning your check list to me. In no way will individual schools, school systems or persons be mentioned in the report of the study, a copy of which will be sent to you. I shall be grateful for your help in this project. Very truly yours,
Neoscoleta Plunkett NP:BL Inclosure