A study of the efficacy of vocational counseling

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A STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF VOCATIONAL COUNSELIN0

by D a v id B u r r e l l P e a rs o n

A d i s s e r t a t i o n s u b m itte d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e r e q u i r e m e n ts f o r th e d e g re e o f D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y , In th e D e p a rtm e n t o f P s y c h o lo g y In th e G ra d u a te C o lle g e o f th e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a J u n e , 1950

ProQuest Number: 10598599

All rights re s e rv e d INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this re p ro d u c tio n is d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e q u ality o f th e c o p y su b m itte d . In th e unlikely e v e n t t h a t t h e a u th o r did n o t s e n d a c o m p le te m an u sc rip t a n d th e r e a re missing p a g e s , t h e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m a te ria l h a d to b e re m o v e d , a n o te will in d ic a te th e d e le tio n .

uest P ro Q u est 10598599 P ublished by P ro Q u e st LLC (2017). C o p y rig h t o f th e D issertation is h e ld by t h e A uthor. All rights re se rv e d . This work is p r o te c te d a g a in s t u n a u th o riz e d c o p y in g u n d e r Title 17, U nited S ta te s C o d e M icroform Edition © P ro Q u e st LLC. P ro Q u e st LLC. 789 East E isenhow er P arkw ay P.O. Box 1346 A nn Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

AOKNOWLEDCWIMTS Tli© w r i t e r w is h e s to e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e g r a t i ­ tu d e to p r o f e s s o r Edw ard J* S h o b e n , J r . , w hose d i r e c t i o n and g u id a n c e w ere s i n g u l a r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n tio n o f th is

s tu d y .

th e c o m p le ­

H© a l s o w is h e s to th a n k P r o f e s s o r s

P a u l Jo Blom m ers and G. d fA* G erken f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s , and R e g i s t r a r Ted H. M c C a rre l f o r h i s s p l e n ­ d id c o o p e ra tio n #

F i n a l l y h e d e s i r e s to e x p r e s s h i s a p ­

p r e c i a t i o n to h i s w i f e , J e a n e t t e A* P e a r s o n , f o r h e r h e l p i n th© p r e p a r a t i o n o f th© m a n u s c r i p t ,

TABUS OF O O I M T S C h a p te r I II

page in tro d u c tio n p ro ce d u re

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1

• « • • < » • • • • * • » * • •

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S t a te m e n t o f t h e P ro b le m • « » • « » D e s ig n o f t h e S tu d y • . « • • • • * • S e l e c t i o n o f C ro u p s S e l e c t i o n o f th© C o u n s e le d ........................................... * . C roup S e l e c t i o n o f th e H o n c o u n s e le d M a tc h e s • * . • ' * » » * « » The C r i t e r i a • • • • • • • • • • « « S e l e c t i o n o f th© C r i t e r i a * * * C o l l e c t i o n o f th e C r i t e r i o n D a ta » • • « » • • • » « • • * D e s c r i p t i o n o f C o u n s e lin g a t th© S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e • » * » « X II

r e s u l t s and

8 8 9 9 11 15 15 19 22

D i s c u s s io n » » * ' « * < > » « *

25

Be t we en - Group C h an g es , . .................... The C o m p a ra tiv e A cadem ic P e r ­ fo rm a n c e o f Cs an d M atched HCa W ith in -G ro u p C h an g es « • • • • * • • C h an g es i n G r a d e - P o in t A v e ra g e A f t e r C o u n s e lin g • » • • * » # Th© A cadem ic P e rfo rm a n c e o f Cs Who C hanged T h e i r M a jo rs A f t e r C o u n s e lin g » • « « * « • • » » A n a l y s i s o f R e sp o n se s on th e Q ues­ tio n n a ire • • • • » * * « • • * * • G e n era l » » . « « » * . * * * * D is c u s s io n o f Q u e s tio n s In R e l a t i o n to F o u r C o n s id e r ­ a tio n s . I n t e r - r e s p o n s e C o m p a riso n s * . . C o m p ariso n o f V e te r a n and Monv e t e r a n R e sp o n se s on Q ues­ tio n n a ire

25

in

25 38 38 43 44 44 45 63 72

C hapter

page C o m p a riso n o f R e sp o n se s t o C e r­ t a i n I t e m s o f th e Q u e s tio n ­ n a i r e By M a les an d F e m a le s I n c l u d e d i n t h e S am ple » , , , C o m p ariso n o f th e R e s p o n s e s on th e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e an d Academ­ i c P e rfo rm a n c e o f T hose W ith S a t i s f a c t o r y and T hose W ith U n s a tis f a c to r y S c h o la rs h ip , » C o m p ariso n o f th e B e s p o u s e s on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and th® A ca­ d em ic p e rfo r m a n c e o f T hose Who p e r s i s t e d and T hose Who D id H ot p e r s i s t In S chool , » • *

IV

74

75

80

Summary • • « * ' » * * « * • • » • * # •

85

A p p e n d ix e s « « » « « « • , » * * * » » « *

91

A*

Counsel®® O p in io n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e * Hot® C o n c e rn in g A p p e n d ix A «

92 96

B#

F i r s t L e t t e r to C o u n s e le e s

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F i r s t F o llo w - u p L e t t e r to Coun­ sel©© s « » • » * « * o o • » «

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S econd F o llo w -u p L e t t e r to Coun­ sel©©©

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The .F o u r-C a te g o ry C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f M a jo rs ' « • » * , • * • • •

101

V e r b a tim R e sp o n se s Made to th e wAny O th e r* D © sc rib e ** p a r t o f Q u e s tio n 7

102

iv

Chapter

page H.

V e r b a tim B esp on eee Made t o t h e * Q th e r e , D o s c r i b ©H p a r t o f Q u e s tio n 12 • • < » » • » » • • • .

B i b li o g r a p h y

103 105

TABLE OF TABLES T a b le I IX III I? V VI V II

V III IX

X

XI

D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Cs a n d HGs a t a n d Above t h e SO th GKD P e r c e n t i l e . . . . . . . . . . . .

SI

D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Cs a n d HCa f o r T o t a l S am ple Below th® 5 0 t h GED P e r c e n t i l e . . . .

.

51

D i f f e r e n c e s B e tw ee n Cs a n d IC s l a t c h e d o n B n t r a n c e D a te A t a n d A bove 5 0 th GRD P e r c e n t i l e

.

55

D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Cs a n d MCs H a tc h e d o n E n tr a n c e D a te B elow t h e 5 0 th GED P e r c e n t 11© *

.

55

Chang©a i n Q u a l i t y o f Work A f t e r C o u n s e lin g F o r Cs a t T h re e L e v e ls o f I n i t i a l P e r fo rm a n c e

.

39

C h a n g es i n Q u a l i t y o f W ork f o r IfCs a t T h r e e .................... L e v e ls o f I n i t i a l P e r f o r m a n c e . . •

40

D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een l e a n D i f f e r e n c e s i n C h an g es I n Q u a l i t y o f Work f o r Cs a n d MCs a t T h r e e L e v e ls o f I n i t i a l P e rfo r m a n c e . . . . . . . . .

42

C h an g es i n Q u a l i t y o f Work f o r Cs C h a n g in g M ajor C o n s i s t e n t w i t h C o u n s e lin g P l a n s * . »

* 44

D if f e r e n c e s In H asp o u ses to C e r ta in Q u e s tio n s B e tw ee n Cs w i t h F a v o r a b l e a n d U n fa v o ra b le A t­ titu d e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

D if f e r e n c e s In R esp o n ses to C e r ta in Q u e s tio n s B etw een Cs Who W ould R e p e a t a n d T h o se Who W ould H ot R e p e a t T h e i r M a jo rs ( Q u e s t i o n 1 0) . . . . » 63 D i f f e r e n c e s i n R e s p o n s e s t o C e r t a i n Q u e s tio n s B etw een Cs Whose A t t i t u d e T ow ard C o u n s e lin g Had S h i f t e d ..................................

vl

70

Table X II X III XIV

XV

page D i f f e r e n c e s I n R e sp o n se s on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e B etw een V e te r a n and H on veteran C o u n s e le e s • » » •

74

D i f f e r e n c e a i n R e sp o n se s on th e Q u e s tio n * n a l r e B etw een M ales and F e m a le s

75

D i f f e r e n c e s I n R e sp o n se s on th e Q u e s tio n * n a l r e B etw een S u c c e s s f u l and U n s u c c e s s f u l C o u n s e le e s • « » • « » « « « » * • « • » ' * » «

76

D i f f e r e n c e s I n R e sp o n se s on th e Q u e s tio n * n a i r e B etw een Os Who D id and who D id H o t p e r s i s t in S chool » * « « * • « « - • * « « * • • •

80

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C h a p te r X INTHODTOTXOH A lth o u g h th e n e e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d f o r a t l e a s t tw e n ty y e a r s , t h e r e h a v e b e e n r e m a r k a b ly few I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f th e e f f i ­ c a c y o f th e c o u n s e l i n g p r o c e s s *

T h is i s

tru e in

s p ite of

th© f a c t t h a t t h e r e h a v e b e e n r e p e a t e d c a l l s f o r s u c h s t u d ­ ie s * Wrenn (1 8 ) w r i t i n g i n

1940 s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e r s o n ­

n e l w o rk e rs c o u ld e x p e c t to b e c a l l e d u p o n to j u s t i f y a c tiv itie s *

th e ir

F r o e h lic h (? ) s u g g e s ts t h a t ^ e v a lu a tio n i s a

p r e r e q u i s i t e to p r o g r e s s * w W renn (1 9 ) i n t h e same v e i n s u g ­ g e s t s g u id a n c e n e e d s Im p ro v em en t and t h a t a f u n d a m e n ta l s t e p in

th e p r o c e s s o f im p ro v in g i t i s

s e rv ic e s *

th e e v a lu a tio n o f e x is tin g

S uch com m ents p o i n t to th© I m p o r ta n c e o f e v a l u a ­

t i o n , and th© o b v io u s q u e s t i o n l a why h a v e n ’ t t h e r e b e e n more o f su c h s t u d i e s ? Hie r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h ic h h a v e co m b in ed t o make f o r w h a t B a l e r (2 ) d e s c r i b e s a s ttTh© a n o m aly o f a p r o ­ f e s s i o n a l g ro u p w hose m em bers h a v e m o re , o b j e c t i v e , v e r i ­ f i e d I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e n a t u r e and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f many o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s th a n t h e y do a b o u t t h e i r o w n * ,* ”

O b v io u s­

l y on© o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e s fro m th e f a c t t h a t t h e p e o ­ p l e d o in g t h e g u id a n c e a r e

th e o n e s who m u st a l s o do t h e

2 e v a lu a tin g *

Many p e o p le i n a s e r v i c e

s e t t i n g s u c h a s a co u n ­

s e l i n g o f f i c e a r e u n a b le t o f i n d tim e to do th e r e s e a r c h f o r w h ic h t h e y s e e t h e n e ed *

A ls o , i t i s q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e to

s u s p e c t t h a t many o f th© m o st e x c e l l e n t c o u n s e l o r s a r e s e ­ v e r e l y h a n d ic a p p e d b y a l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l c o m p e te n c e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g an d u n d e r t a k i n g r e s e a r c h p ro b le m s *

F i n a l l y th©

d i f f i c u l t y o f f i n d i n g a d e q u a te c r i t e r i a b y w h ic h c o u n s e l i n g may b e e v a l u a t e d h a s p o s e d a p ro b lem * D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s some w o rk h a s b e e n don© i n th© a re a *

W illia m s o n

(1 4 ) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e e a r l i e s t e v a l ­

u a t i o n s t u d i e s w e re made i n

G r e a t B r i t a i n on yo u n g b o y s a b o u t

f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , who e n t e r e d em ploym ent s u b s e q u e n t t o t e s t i n g and c o u n s e lin g * *

He r e p o r t s t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s

* ty p e by S t o t t who fo u n d t h a t t h o s e c o u n s e le d i n d i v i d u a l s who f o llo w e d th e a d v i c e o f t h e i r c o u n s e l o r made a b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e a d ju s tm e n t* On© o f t h e l e a d e r s o f th© e v a l u a t i o n m ovem ent i n t h i s c o u n tr y h a s b e e n E# G* W illia m s o n *

In a p a p e r rea d a t

th© A m erican C o lle g e P e r s o n n e l A s s o c i a t i o n M e e tin g s i n 1 9 5 8 , W illia m s o n (IB ) r e p o r t e d s e v e r a l s t u d i e s w h ic h h a d b e e n c a r ­ r i e d o u t b y th© U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o ta 'f a s t i n g B u re au on th© e v a l u a t i o n o f g u id a n c e *

Among them was a s t u d y by

W illia m s o n and B a r le y i n w h ic h th e y w e re a b l e to r e p o r t t h a t among c o u n s e l e e s , th o s e s t u d e n t s who f o l lo w e d c o u n s e l i n g r e ­ commend a t i o n s e a r n e d h i g h e r a v e r a g e g r a d e s t h a n d i d a g ro u p

5 o f s t u d e n t s o f th© same a b i l i t y l e v e l who f a i l e d t h e c o u n s e l i n g reooBHMiadftfclona*

to c a r r y o u t

So r e p o r te d a n o t h e r s t u d y i n

w h ic h th e c o u n s e le d an d non c o u n s e le d g r o u p s w ere m a tc h e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s on th e b a s i s o f c o l l e g e , c l a s s , s e x , sis© a n d ty p e o f h i g h s c h o o l , s c o r e s on th© M in n e s o ta C o lle g e A p t i ­ tu d e T e s t and on th e C o o p e r a tiv e S n g l i s h T e s t (Seri© © I X ) , and h ig h s c h o o l s c h o l a r s h i p p e rc e n tile ra n k ). a v a ila b le

(a v e ra g e g rad e t r a n s la te d in to

He c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e

w. . .c o u n s e l i n g made

to c o l l e g e f re s h m e n by th e U n i v e r s i t y T e s t i n g Bu­

re a u a s s i s t e d th e s e s tu d e n ts to a c h ie v e s c h o l a s t i c a l l y a t a 'l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a b o v e t h a t o f s t u d e n t s n o t s u b j e c t e d to su ch c o u n s e lin g ,”

The s t u d e n t s I n v o l v e d I n t h i s s tu d y

w ere e q u a l I n a v e r a g e s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e

to th e a v e r a g e A r ts

C o lle g e fre s h m e n a t th e U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n e s o ta ,

T h e re fo r© ,

W illia m s o n s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e s u l t o f c o u n s e l i n g on s t u d e n t s w i t h lo w a p t i t u d e s i s unknown* I n a n o t h e r s t u d y W illia m s o n a n d B o rd in (1 6 ) a d a p t ­ e d th e B r i t i s h ty p e o f e x p e r im e n t f o r Jo b a d ju s tm e n t t o p e r ­ m it them to u s e i t on s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M irm e®ota*

They a d d e d th© f e a t u r e o f a c o n t r o l g ro u p o f n o n ­

c o u n s e le d s t u d e n t s and fo u n d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y

s ig n ific a n t d i f ­

f e r e n c e f a v o r i n g th e c o u n s e le d g ro u p b e tw e e n th e p e r c e n t a g e o f e a c h g ro u p a c h i e v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t a s ju d g e d b y in d e p e n d e n t e v a l u a t o r s ,

W illia m s o n

f o r a d d itio n a l s tu d ie s o f t h is ty p e .

(1 4 ) I n d i c a t e s th e n e e d

*.

4 B la c k w e ll (5 ) r e p o r t e d th e r e s u l t s o f a m a tc h e d g ro u p s t u d y In w h ic h th© c o u n s e le d g ro u p made s i g n i f i c a n t I n c r e a s e s i n grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e when com pared w i t h t h e n o n c o u n s e le d g ro u p * so s e l e c t e d

The c o u n s e l e d and n o n c o u n s e le d g ro u p s w e re

t h a t b o t h g ro u p s h a d t h e sam e n u m b e r who w ere i n

th e u p p e r an d m id d le o n e - t h i r d o f s c o r e s on th e ACE, sam© n u m b er o f s e m e s t e r s i n s c h o o l a n d same I n t e r v a l o f tim e b e ­ tw een two s e m e s te r s i n w h ic h g r a d e s u s e d w ere m ade.

They

w ere n o t m a tc h e d by i n d i v i d u a l ® and n e i t h e r g ro u p c o n t a i n e d an y i n d i v i d u a l s i n

th e lo w e r o n e - t h i r d on th e ACE.

A s tu d y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a w as r e c e n t ­ l y r e p o r t e d b y K ir o h h e im e r , A x e lro d and H ic k e r s o n

(9 ) *

T hese

a u t h o r s d e fe n d e d th© u t i l i s a t i o n o f g r a d e p o i n t a s th© c r i ­ t e r i o n w i t h t ^ e f o l l o w i n g a rg u m e n tt I n m o st a c a d e m ic s e t t i n g s , g r a d e s a lo n e a r e an o b j e c t i v e i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s o r a d j u s t ­ m ent* i n v ie w o f th e f a c t t h a t g r a d e s a r e th e o n ­ l y s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n o f w h ic h we a r e i n p o s s e s s i o n , t h a t th e y l e n d th e m s e lv e s to o b j e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t , and t h a t , w ith a l l t h e i r w e a k n e s s e s , th e y a r e th© a c c e p t e d g au g e o f a c a d e m ic s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e , th© p r e s e n t a u t h o r s h a v e a d o p te d t h i s c r i t e r i o n a s th e m o st w o rk a b le m e a su re so f a r a v a i l a b l e w h e reb y t o e v a l u a t e th e s u c c e s s o f a c o u n s e l i n g p ro g ra m , Th©y d i v i d e d t h e i r sa m p le i n t o f o u r g r o u p s: C o u n s e le d Change* N o -ch an g e*

(2 ) N o n c o u n s e le d Chang©«

(4 ) N o n c o u n s e le d N o -c h a n g e .

(!)

(3 ) C o u n s e le d

Th©se f o u r d iv is io n ©

w ere n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e th e a u t h o r s w is h e d t o s t u d y th© e f f e c t on g r a d e a v e r a g e o f c o u n s e l i n g , and o f c h a n g e o f m a j o r , w ith

5

an d w i t h o u t c o u n s e lin g *

Hi© o n ly g r o u p sh o w in g s i g n i f i c a n t

im p ro v e m e n t w as t h e G o u n seled -O h an g © g ro u p s

'Ih® H o n c o u n s e le d -

Chang© g ro u p a l s o a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a p o s i t i v e d i ­ re c tio n *

B o rd in (4 ) c r i t i c i z e s t h i s s tu d y b e c a u s e c o n tr o l ©

w ere n o t u s e d on th e l e v e l o f a b i l i t y

and h i g h s c h o o l a c h ie v e ­

m ent* A n d e rso n (1 ) r e c e n t l y r e p o r t e d on th© e f f i c a c y o f two i n d e p e n d e n t an d r e l a t e d c o u n s e l i n g p r o j e c t s w h ic h she i n ­ v e s tig a te d *

One p a r t o f t h e r e p o r t i n c l u d e d

th e r e s u l t s o f

a q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g h e d t o e l i c i t an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r c o u n s e l i n g b y a g ro u p o f i n d u s t r i a l employe®© f o r whom v o c a ­ t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g h a d b e e n p r o v i d e d a t com pany e x p e n s e *

lh®

o th e r p a r t o f th e r e p o r t c o n s is te d o f th e r e s u l t s o f a p e ­ r i o d i c c h e c k -u p on th e p la c e m e n t o f a g ro u p o f c o u n s e le d v e ­ te ra n s *

Hie r e s u l t s o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e re I n t e r p r e t e d

a s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o o u n s e lin g h ad s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e v a ­ l u e s f o r th e p a r t i c i p a n t s *

Hies© r e s u l t s w e re , h o w e v e r,

b a s e d on a r e t u r n o f 65*1 p e r c e n t o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h ic h m akes th e r e s u l t s o f d o u b t f u l v a lu e *

In th e seco n d

p a r t o f th e a r t i c l e i t w as r e p o r t e d t h a t o f th© v e t e r a n s who w e re p l a c e d , 8 £ * 4 p e r c e n t w ere s a t i s f a c t o r i l y p l a c e d i n r e ­ commended jo b s *

2he em ploye© s t a b i l i t y

(3 p e r c e n t c h a n g e d

j o b s i n 19 m o n th s ) was p o i n t e d o u t a s b e in g s u p e r i o r , a© com­ p a re d w ith n a ti o n a l s t a t i s t i c s *

H o w ev er, 516 v e t e r a n s h a d

c o m p le te d c o u n s e l i n g and o n ly 444 w ere a v a i l a b l e f o r f o l l o w -

6 u p , w h ic h may Im p ly s o m o u t o f th® co m m u n ity ,

o f t h e s e had c h a n g e d j o b s a n d moved

A ls o t h e s t a t i s t i c s l a c k m ea n in g

s i n c e no c o n t r o l g ro u p i n t h i s com m unity w as a v a i l a b l e f o r c o m p a riso n * I n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o l l o w - u p o f 503 v e t e r a n s who w ere a d v i s e d i n th© s p r i n g o f 1 9 4 5 , Brown (5 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t o n ly 53 p e r c e n t re s p o n d e d *

Of th o s e who r e p l i e d 48 p e r c e n t

h ad e i t h e r c o m p le te d t h e i r t r a i n i n g o r w e re s t i l l t r a i n i n g in

th© o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e two y e a r s a f t e r a d v is e m e n t ,

t h e low p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t u r n s c a l l s

A g ain

th e r e s u l t s i n t o q u e s ­

t io n * L l p s e t t , h & u re n o e , a n d S m ith (1 1 ) s e l e c t e d th e r e ­ c o r d s o f EDO v e t e r a n c o u n s e l e e s fro m t h e i r f i l e s *

S ix

m o n th s a f t e r a d v is e m e n t 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e v e t e r a n s w ere s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g to w a rd th e o b j e c t i v e s s e l e c t e d i n g u id a n c e * B o r d in , (4 ) i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s s t u d y a n d th e o n e made toy Brown ( 5 ) , p o i n t s o u t t h a t c o n t i n u i t y I n th e t r a i n i n g o b j e c ­ t i v e s was u s e d to i n d i c a t e e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e lin g *

He c r i t i ­

c i z e s b o t h s t u d i e s b e c a u s e % © l t h e r u t i l i z e e x p e c te d p e r c e n t ­ a g e o f c o n t i n u i t y f o r a c o m p a ra b le n o n c o u n s e le d g r o u p * w From t h e d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e , i t

seem s t h a t

th e n e e d

f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f c o u n s e l i n g i s n o t b e in g m et b y m o st o f th e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s a p p e a r i n g i n th© l i t e r a t u r e ,

A lm o st w i t h o u t

e x c e p t i o n th© r e c e n t s t u d i e s p u r p o r t i n g to e v a l u a t e g u id a n c e can be c r i t i c i z e d f o r la c k o f c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , in a d e q u a te

7 m a tc h in g o f c o n t r o l s , l i m i t e d c r i t e r i a , o r p o o r p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t u r n s i n th e c a s e o f q u e s tio n n a ir e s tu d ie s * Ire n n

(1 8 ) p o i n t s o u t r,***thafc th© b e h a v i o r o f

s t u d e n t s d u r i n g and a f t e r th e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , i s

th e o n l y

f u n d a m e n ta l c r i t e r i o n f o r th© © v a lu a tio n o f g u id a n c e o r o t h ­ e r e d u c a tio n a l p ro c e d u re s , an d , i f

tills be a c c e p te d ,

th e

f o l lo w - u p s tu d y beco m es a v e r y i m p o r t a n t m eth o d I n d e e d * n W illia m s o n and B o rd in (1 7 ) s u g g e s t t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s w h ic h e v a l u a t e c o u n s e l i n g by m eans o f a c o n t r o l - g r o u p e x ­ p e r im e n t a r e n e e d e d *

F r o e h l i c h (7 ) c o n c lu d e s t h a t f,i t i s

im p o rta n t t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be d i r e c te d

to w a rd th e d i s ­

c o v e ry o f e v a l u a t i v e m e th o d s w h ic h m ee t a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s , tout w h ic h a r e n o t b ey o n d th e r e a c h o f t h e p r a c t i c i n g co u n ­ s e lo r* n I n v iew o f t h e s e com m ents i t i s o b v io u s t h a t many s e r i o u s w o rk e rs i n th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g f i e l d

re c o g n is e

th© n e e d f o r c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d © v a lu a tio n o f t h e i r work* A s tu d y w h ic h w ould a t t e m p t t o e l i m i n a t e some o f th e w e a k n e s s e s n o t e d i n p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s a t e v a l u a t i o n w ould seem to toe a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n

to v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g *

Chapter IX pw o m a n s S t a te m e n t o f th e P ro b le m The p ro b le m o f t h i s s tu d y was t o m e a su re th e e f f i ­ c a c y o f th® v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g p r o c e s s a® i t lia s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t a t th© S tu d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e o f th e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a*

T h is c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e

th© s tu d y p r e s e n t i n g th e c r i t e r i a

th© d e s i g n o f

s e le c te d a s In d ic e s o f

c o u n s e l i n g e f f i c a c y and th© p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d . D e sig n o f th e S tu d y fmwwiiM ^ m£ mmSEX *25552252I5S w

Th© s tu d y was b a s e d on a c o m p a ris o n o f th© academ ­ i c p e rfo rm a n c e o f two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s m a tc h e d by i n d i v i d ­ u a ls ,-

Th© p a i r s c o n s i s t e d o f one s t u d e n t who h a d p a r t i c i ­

p a te d I n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g a t th e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a S tu d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e and a n o t h e r s t u d e n t who h a d n o t p a r t i c i p a te d in v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g . s t u d e n t s w ere m a tc h e d on a g e i n y e a r s ,

T hese p a i r s o f

sex , ra c e , d e c ile o f

c o m p o s ite s c o r e on th e GED e x a m in a t io n s ta k e n a t t h e tim e o f e n t r a n c e a t S U I, v e t e r a n o r n o n - v e t e r a n s t a t u s , a c a d e m ic m a jo r , a n d s o o i o - c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . u tiliz e d

The c r i t e r i a

f o r c o m p a rin g th e c o u n s e le d and n o n * c o u n s e le d s t u ­

d e n t s I n c l u d e d g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e , t o t a l h o u r s a c c u m u la te d , t o t a l g ra d e d h o u r s e a r n e d , s e m e s t e r s o f p e r s i s t e n c e ,

to ta l

0 g ra d e p o in ts e a rn e d , and d ro p o u ts .

An a t t e m p t w as a l s o made

t o © l i c i t some r e s p o n s e fro m th e c o u n s e l e e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f i c a c y o f c o u n s e l i n g b y m eans o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S e l e c t i o n o f G ro u p s S e l e c t i o n o f t h e C o u n s e le d G roup The c o u n s e l e d g ro u p w as s e l e c t e d fro m t h e v o c a ­ t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g c a s e s i n t h e f i l e s o f t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e l­ in g O f f i c e o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a .

The s e l e c t i o n

o f c a s e s w as a c c o m p lis h e d b y t h e w r i t e r a f t e r r e v i e w i n g a l l t h e c a s e s i n t h e v e t e r a n a n d n o n v e te r a n f i l e s . The c r i t e r i a u s e d f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e c a s e s w e re a s f o l l o w s % (1 )

The coun.se l e e m u st h a v e c o m p le te d co u n ­

s e l i n g p r i o r t o F e b r u a r y 7 , 1948 ( t h e e n d o f th© f a l l sem es­ t e r ) , th u s p r o v i d i n g a la p s© o f tim e d u r i n g w h ic h d e c i s i o n s r e a c h e d i n c o u n s e l i n g c o u ld b e e f f e c t e d a n d t h e i r r e s u l t s e v a lu a te d .

( 2) The counsel© © m u st n o t h a v e r e a c h e d m ore t h a n

f i r s t s e m e s te r j u n i o r s t a n d i n g a t th e tim e o f c o u n s e l i n g a n d h a v e b e e n e n r o l l e d a s a s t u d e n t a t th© tim e o f c o u n s e l i n g . T h is s e c o n d c r i t e r i o n seem ed d e s i r a b l e b e c a u s e i t w o u ld make a r e c o r d a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l 1© a c a d e m ic p r o g r e s s and d i r e c ti o n b e fo re and a f t e r c o u n s e lin g .

{S} The P e r s o n a l

D a ta B la n k u s e d b y t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e m u s t b e a p a r t o f th e c a s e r e c o r d .

T h is b l a n k w as u t i l i s e d

In e v a lu ­

a t i n g th© ty p o o f p ro b le m w h ic h t h e c o u n s e ls © f a c e d , h i s s t a t u s i n s c h o o l a n d h i s m a jo r p r i o r t o c o u n s e l i n g .

(4 ) The

10 c o u n s e l e d ® ago m u st h a v e . ’b e e n id t h i n th© rang© o f 17 to- 25 y e a r s i n c l u s i v e a t th e tim e o f c o u n s e lin g *

T h is r e q u ir e m e n t

e l i m i n a t e d some o f t h e m ore a t y p i c a l c a s e s s e e n i n t h e S t u ­ d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e v e t e r a n p ro g ram *

tra in in g

(0 ) Th© counsel© © s h o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n a t r a n s f e r

s t u d e n t a lt h o u g h i n - s e r v i c e c o l l e g e

tr a in in g f o r v e te ra n s

w as n o t c o n s i d e r e d d i s q u a l i f y i n g b e c a u s e o f th© n a t u r e o f many o f su c h p ro g ra m s*

T h is c r i t e r i o n h a d two p u r p o s e s }

F i r s t , i t w ould make th® g r a d e s t o b e s t u d i e d m ore c o m p a rab le s i n c e t h e y w ere a l l e a r n e d a t t b s same i n s t i t u t i o n *

second,

i t w ould i n s u r e th© a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e c o r d s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s * (6 ) The counsel© © m u st h a v e ta k e n t h r e e o r m ore p s y c h o l o g i ­ c a l t e s t s , n o t I n c l u d i n g th e O c c u p a t io n a l C heck l i s t * b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s w ould a i d i n

I t w as

th e e l i m i n a t i o n o f some o f

th© r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o a s e s w h ic h w ere se e n f o r th e Ve­ t e r a n s A d m i n is tr a t io n *

(7 ) I n d i c a t i o n s w ere s o u g h t i n th©

c o u n s e l o r ’ s com m ents t h a t th© co u n sel© © * 3 p ro b le m was p r i ­ m a r i l y on© o f a v o c a t i o n a l n a t u r e and was b a s i c a l l y n e i t h e r an e m o tio n a l p ro b le m n o r p u r e l y an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e on©*

The

e l i m i n a t i o n o f th© © m o tio n a l p ro b le m s s h o u ld M a s th© r e s u l t s I n a c o n s e r v a t i v e d i r e c t i o n , b e c a u s e i t m ig h t b e e x p e c te d t h a t t h o s e I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h e m o tio n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w ould show m ore im p ro v e m e n t a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l c o u n s e l i n g th a n i n d i v i d u a l s n o t h a v in g a n © m o tio n a l p ro b le m ,

Th© w r i t e r f o u n d 254 v e t e r ­

an c a s e s and 121 n o n - v e t e r a n c a s e s w h ic h m et t h e s e c r i t e r i a

XX o f s e le c tio n * S e l e c t i o n o f th e Hon co mis© l e d M a tc h e s A f t e r th e s e l e c t i o n o f th© c o u n s e le d sa m p le w as c o m p le te d t h e a t t e m p t to f i n d s u i t a b l e n o n c o u n s e le d m a tc h e s f o r e a c h o f them b eg an *

Hie f i r s t s t e p i n th e m a tc h in g p r o ­

c e d u r e was a c c o m p lis h e d b y m eans o f t h e B e g i a t r a r 's s t u d e n t M a s te r C ard s*

The c a r d s o f t h e c o u n s e le d c a s e s w ere s o r t e d

an d m a tc h e d b y I* B* M* e q u ip m e n t w ith o t h e r S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a s t u d e n t s on th e b a s i s o f (1 ) y e a r o f b i r t h ,

{2} s e x ,

(3 ) r a c e , an d (4 ) d e c i l e o f c o m p o s ite s c o r e on GBD e x a m in a ­ tio n s *

An e f f o r t was mad© to m a tc h th em a l s o on m a jo r , b u t

I t was fo u n d t h a t t h i s p r o v id e d to o few n o n - c o u n s e le d m a tc h ­ e s f o r e ac h in d iv id u a l* s ira b le

H ow ever, sin e © i t

s till

seem ed d e ­

to c o n s i d e r t h e a c a d e m ic p ro g ra m i n th e m a tc h in g

p r o c e s s , a l l c a r d s w h ic h d i d n o t h a v e a m a jo r co d ed upon them w ere d is c a r d e d *

ML a re d u c e d th e n u m b er o f c a r d s

a v a i l a b l e f o r m a tc h in g a b o u t o n e - f o u r t h , fro m n e a r 1 2 ,0 0 0 t o a p p r o x im a te ly 9 ,0 0 0 * T h is p r o c e d u r e may a l s o h a v e h a d m

e f f e c t on th©

ty p e o f I n d i v i d u a l u s e d f o r n o n c o u n s e le d m a tc h e s* l « e « , he w as a t l e a s t one who h a d a t some tim e d e c l a r e d a m a jo r a t th e U n i v e r s i t y ,

Among m em bers o f th© c o u n s e l e d g ro u p on th©

o t h e r h a n d , th© i n a b i l i t y

to c h o o s e a m a jo r w as o f t e n

th e mo­

t i v a t i n g f a c t o r f o r v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g and a c c o rd in g to

12

t h e R e g i s t r a r * a r e c o r d s , f o u r o f th e c o u n s e l e d g ro u p h a d n o t d e c l a r e d a m a jo r b y S e p te m b e r* 1949*

T h is w u i d seem t o b i - .

a s th e r e s u l t ® i n a c o n s e r v a t i v e d i r e c t i o n *

s i n c e i t m ig h t

be h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a d e f i n i t e

goal

i n m ind w ould be b e t t e r a d j u s t e d a c a d e m i c a l l y and w ould* c o n s e q u e n tly * do b e t t e r s c h o l a s t i c w o rk th a n th o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who w ere f o r c e d to s e e k h e l p w i t h t h i s p ro b lem *

T h is

h y p o t h e s i s seem ed to h a v e b e e n c o n fir m e d i n an u n p u b l i s h e d s tu d y b y M a r s h a ll a n d S im pson (1 2 )* M achine m a tc h in g on age* s e x , r a c e , a n d OED compo­ s i t e d e c i l e r e s u l t e d I n a g ro u p o f n o n c o u n s e le d m a tc h e s f o r e a c h o f th e c o u n s e le e s *

Th© sis© o f t h e g ro u p ra n g e d fro m

one t o a p p r o x im a te ly f o r t y f o r e a c h o f 2 0 2 o f th e c o u n s e le d in d iv id u a ls * N e x t th e v e t e r a n s t a t u s f o r e a c h o f th e m a tc h e s was d e te r m i n e d .

A l i s t o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who h ad u s e d

F* 1* 16 o r 346 to p a y t u i t i o n a t th e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a was c h e c k e d f o r t h e nam es o f t h e m a tc h e s* whoa© name was fo u n d i n

Any m a tc h

t h i s l i s t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d a s a

v e te r a n * w h e re a s o n e w hose name was n o t I n c l u d e d was c o n ­ s i d e r e d a s a n o n v e te r a n f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n * T h is i n f o r m a t i o n mad© i t p o s s i b l e

to e l i m i n a t e t h o s e m a tc h e s

Vthos© v e t e r a n s t a t u s d i f f e r e d fro m t h a t o f th© c o u n s e le d i n ­ d i v i d u a l w i t h whom t h e y w ere m atch ed * The r e m a in in g m a tc h e s w ere t h e n c h e c k e d a g a i n s t

13

t h e f i l e s o f t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e , a n d a n y t h a t h a d b e e n s e e n b y a c o u n s e l o r w e re d i s q u a l i f i e d f o r u se * The m a j o r s o f t h e c o u n s e le d c a s e s a n d o f t h e n o n c o u n s e le d m a tc h e s r e m a in in g w e re g r o u p e d u n d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g fo u r h e a d in g s :

(1 ) P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e , ( 2 ) B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e ,

{3} S o c i a l S c i e n c e , a n d (4 ) H u m a n itie s (S e e A p p e n d ix F ) . l y t h o s e n o n c o u n s e le d s t u d e n t s who w e re c l a s s i f i e d

On­

i n t h e same

m a jo r g ro u p as. t h e i r c o u n s e l e d m a tc h w e re r e t a i n e d f o r c o n s i ­ d e r a t i o n a s f i n a l m a tc h e s .

T h o se m a tc h e s i n th e o t h e r t h r e e

c a t e g o r i e s w e re d i s c a r d e d .

C o u n s e le e s w i t h o u t a d e c l a r e d

m a jo r w e re m a tc h e d o n th e b a s i s o f p re d o m in a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l c o u r s e s i n common w i t h t h e i r m o st p o s s i b l e m a tc h e s i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i s e , i n s o f a r a s p o s s i b l e , a c a d e m ic e x p e r i e n c e .

T h is

a g a i n m akes f o r c o n s e r v a t is m i n r e s u l t s . The f a t h e r f s o c c u p a tio n ,, o f t h o s e m a tc h e s s t i l l r e ­ m a in in g w as t h e n d e te r m in e d a n d w as u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r a t h r e e - c a t e g o r y fE o c i o - C u l t u r a l 17 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n *

T h is r o u g h

m e a su re w as f o r c e d up o n t h e w r i t e r b y t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i ­ d e ra tio n s :

{1} T he d a t a a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g f a t h e r * s o c c u ­

p a t i o n i n t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa f i l e s w e re in a d e q u a te * The a p p l i c a t i o n fo rm a s k s o n l y f o r o c c u p a t i o n o f f a t h e r a n d i n many i n s t a n c e s a v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m , s u c h a s ” b u s i n e s s ­ m an ” o r f! e x e c u ti v e * 1 w as u s e d .

A f in e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w as,

t h e r e f o r e , n o t j u s t i f i e d a n d w o u ld h a v e i m p l i e d g r e a t e r a c c u ra c y

14 th a n th e d a t a w a r r a n t e d , in g s ,

( 2 ) The m a tc h in g on m a jo r g r o u p ­

c h e c k in g o f v e t e r a n s t a t u e , an d s t u d e n t c o u n s e l i n g

c o n t a c t s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d th e n u m b er o f n o n c o u n s e le d m a tc h e s a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h c o u n s e le d c a s e *

T h is s m a ll n u m b er o f

a v a i l a b l e m a tc h e s made th e u s e o f a f i n e r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n I m p r a c t i c a l b e c a u s e th e n u m b er o f m a tc h e d c a s e s w ould h a v e b e e n to o s m a ll f o r a n a d e q u a te s t u d y . The c o u n s e le d an d n o n - c o u n s e l e d m a tc h e s w ere th e n p a ir e d a c c o rd in g to t h e i r f a th e r s *

o c c u p a t i o n s i n th© t h r e e ­

f o l d so c i o - c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n

c o n s i s t i n g o f (1 ) B u s i­

n e s s and P r o f e s s i o n a l ,

(2 ) A g r i c u l t u r e a n d ( 3 ) T r a d e s , i n ­

c lu d i n g b o t h s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d .

I f t h e w r i t e r c o u ld n o t

f i n d an a g r i c u l t u r a l m a tc h f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , a tra d © c l a s s i ­ f i c a t i o n , I f a v a i l a b l e , was u s e d .

I n c a s e s i n w h ic h t h e f a ­

t h e r was d e c e a s e d o r t h e r e h a d b e e n a d i v o r c e , o c c u p a ti o n w as e m p lo y e d , n o t a v a ila b le ,

th e f a t h e r 1®

$ h an th© f a t h e r * s o c c u p a ti o n w as

t h e s t e p - f a t h e r 1® o c c u p a t i o n w as u s e d , an d

when t h i s was n o t a v a i l a b l e ,

c h o ic e o f " m o th e r w o rk in g " o r

" m o th e r n o t w o rk in g " was th e b a s i s f o r m a tc h in g .

The " n o t

w o rk in g " m o th e r w as u s e d f o r m a tc h e s I n e i t h e r t h e a g r i c u l ­ t u r e o r b u s i n e s s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , w h e re a s th e " w o rk in g " m o th e r was m a tc h e d a s h e r j o b w ould be c l a s s i f i e d on t h e t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e , Th© f i n a l m a tc h in g was th e n a c c o m p lis h e d an d th e b e s t m a tc h w i t h i n th© d e c i l e on GED c o m p o s ite s c o r e fro m

among th© r e m a in in g a l t e r n a t i v e s was s e l e c t e d .

A p p ro x im a te ­

l y 185 c a s e s re m a in e d f o r w h ic h n o n c o u n s e le d i n d i v i d u a l s o f th© same (1 ) a g e i n y e a r s ,

(2 ) s e x ,

(3 ) r a c e ,

c o m p o s ite s c o r e on th© GOT e x a m i n a t i o n s , v e te ra n s t a t u s ,

(4 ) d e c i l e o f

(6 ) v e t e r a n o r n o n ­

(6 ) m a jo r g r o u p i n g , and. (7 ) s o c i o - c u l t u r a l

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o u ld b© fo u n d *

On s o c i © - c u l t u r a l s t a t u s ,

s i n c e I n d i v i d u a l m a tc h in g s w ere o f n e c e s s i t y i n e x a c t , a f u r ­ t h e r t e s t o f h o m o g e n e ity was made b y a p p l y i n g th e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t to th e d i a t t r i b u t i o n on th© t h r e e - c a t © g o r y , s o c i o ­ c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n th e c o u n s e l e d and n o n c o u n s e le d g ro u p s *

The r e s u l t i n g o h i-s q u a r© was *0819 w h ic h I s n o t s i g ­

n i f i c a n t (P o f * 9 8 ), w h ic h m eans t h a t i n s o f a r a s th e I n e x a c t d a t a a l l o w , t h e r e a r e no d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n th© g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t to s o c i o - c u l t u r a l b ack g ro u n d . ffihe S e le c tio n o f th e C r i t e r i a On© o f th e m a jo r p ro b le m s c o n f r o n t i n g t h o s e who d e s ir© t o s t u d y th© e f f i c a c y o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g i s s e l e c t i o n o f an a d e q u a te c r i t e r i o n th© r e s u l t s o f c o u n s e l i n g .

th©

a g a i n s t w h ic h to e v a l u a t e

A l l o f th e c o u n s e l e e s i n th©

sam p le f o r t h i s s tu d y had b e e n s t u d e n t s a t t h e S t a t e U n iv e r ­ s i t y o f Io w a .

I t seem ed r e a s o n a b l e , t h e r e f o r e ,

m e a s u re s o f a c a d e m ic p e rf o rm a n c e a s c r i t e r i a

to u t i l i s e

to d e te r m in e

w h e th e r o r n o t c o u n s e l i n g was a f f e c t i n g t h e s c h o l a s t i c

16 a ch iev e m e n ts o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s *

D e s p ite th e w eak n esses

o f s u c h m e a s u re s t h e y a r e a m e n a b le t o s t a t i s t i c a l

tr e a t- *

m e n t, o b j e c t i v e , m d r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e * p r o b a b l y th e m o st com m only em p lo y ed i n d i c a t i o n o f su ccess in sch o o l I s

th e g r a d e - p o l n t a v e r a g e e a rn e d *

T h is

c r i t e r i o n p e r m i t t e d a c o m p a ris o n o f th® s u c c e s s o f c o u n s e le e s w i t h n o n counsel©©® an d a l s o p e r m i t t e d th© m ak in g o f a p r e c o u n s e l i n g and p o s fe o o u n s e lin g c o m p a ris o n o f th© s u c c e s s o f th e c l i e n t s * P e r s i s t e n c e i n s c h o o l o f f e r s a n o t h e r m ethod f o r th© © v a lu a tio n o f a c a d e m ic s u c c e s s * f a c t o r w ere a v a i l a b l e *

The m o st g r o s s o f t h e s e was t h e num­

b e r o f s e m e s te rs o f p e r s is te n c e * was a v a i l a b l e i n

T h ree m e a s u re s o f t h i s

4 m ore r e f i n e d m e a s u re

th e fo rm o f t o t a l h o u r s o f c r e d i t *

The

S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a p e r m i t t e d v e t e r a n s to o b t a i n fro m e i g h t to tw e n ty hour® o f a c a d e m ic c r e d i t f o r s e r v i c e I n th e arm ed f o r c e s *

These h o u r s w ere n o t g r a d e d , b u t d i d a p p ly

to w a rd g r a d u a t io n *

A ls o a t t h e tim e many o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s

w ere i n s c h o o l , t h e r e w ere s e v e r a l r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s common to a l l c u r r i c u l a f o r w h ic h no l e t t e r g r a d e s w ere g i v e n .

In

th e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h o u r s a s a m e a su re o f p e r s i s t e n c e two a p p ro a c h e s w e re ,

th e re fo re , u t i l i s e d .

F i r s t , o n ly th© h o u r s

e a r n e d end g ra d e d a t th® S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Xowa w e re c o n ­ s i d e r e d .,

Th© o t h e r a p p r o a c h to o k i n t o a c c o u n t a l l h o u r s

g r a d e d and u n g ra d e d w h ic h had b e e n c r e d i t e d

to th e s t u d e n t

17

to w a r d g r a d u a t i o n .

I t w as p o s s i b l e

t o co m p are t h e c o u n s e l e d

a n d n o n c o u n s e le d g r o u p s on e a c h o f t h e s e t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f p e rs is te n c e * The c r i t e r i o n o f t o t a l g r a d e p o i n t s w as a l s o u t i l ­ i s e d a s a m e a s u re o f a c a d e m ic p e rfo rm a n c e *

T o ta l g ra d e

p o i n t s a r e co m p u ted b y m u l t i p l y i n g t h e num ber o f h o u r s o f c r e d i t f o r e a c h c o u r s e tim e s th e g r a d e p o i n t s (A — 4* B - 5 , 0 — 2 , D — 1 , a n d F — 0} e a r n e d i n i t a n d sum m ing t h e s e p r o ­ d u c ts f o r a l l c o u rs e s u n d e rta k e n .

T h is c r i t e r i o n w as u t i l i s e d

b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e d one m e a s u re w h ic h c o m b in ed th e e le m e n ts o f q u a n tity and q u a li t y .

A s t u d y o f h o u r s e a r n e d w o u ld i n ­

d i c a t e o n l y th© num ber o f h o u r s a c c u m u la te d b y t h e s t u d e n t* A c o m p a ris o n o f g r a d e - p o l n t a v e r a g e s w o u ld p r o v i d e o n l y a s t u d y o f th© q u a l i t y o f w o rk r e g a r d l e s s o f how m any h o u r s w e re I n c l u d e d ,

The t o t a l g r a d e —p o i n t f i g u r e seem ed t o p r o ­

v i d e a u s e f u l c o m b in a tio n o f t h e s e two e le m e n t s an d w a s , t h e r e ­ f o r e , i n c l u d e d a s a m ean s o f e v a l u a t i n g a c a d e m ic p e r f o r m a n c e . T he p e o p le i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o e v a l u a t e c o u n ­ s e l i n g a r e th o se, who h a v e b e e n c o u n s e l e e s .

I t se e m e d ,

t h e r e f o r e , t h a t th© o p i n i o n o f th© c o u n s e l e e s o f t h e s a m p le a s t o t h e e f f i c a c y o f c o u n s e l i n g w o u ld b e a n i m p o r t a n t c r i ­ te rio n .

Sine© t h e s e c o u n s e l e e s w e re w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d , th©

q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h seem ed t h e o n l y f e a s i b l e m e th o d o f o b t a i n i n g t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f th e c o u n s e l i n g t h e y h a d r e ­ c e iv e d .

A q u e s t i o n n a i r e w as d e v e l o p e d , t h e i te m s o f w h ic h

18 w ere d e s ig n e d to e l i c i t

t h e counsel© © ® 1 a n s w e r s t o f o u r g e n ­

e r a l c o n s id e r a tio n s c o n c e rn in g c o u n s e lin g s titu d e

to w a rd v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g ;

t io n a l c o u n s e lin g in

(1 ) g e n e r a l a t ­

(2 ) r e s u l t s o f v o c a ­

te rm s o f s e l e c t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l

g o a l s o r o t h e r o u tc o m e s j

( 3 ) w h e th e r p l a n s f o r m u la te d I n

c o u n s e l i n g h a d b een f o l l o w e d ;

(4 ) d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n

w i t h a c a d e m ic m a jo r a n d / o r v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d * The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i te m s i n c l u d e d i n th e q u e s t io n n a ir e * A p p e n d ix A* was a s f o l l o w s s

I te m s 1 and

9 w ere to p r o v i d e an I n d i c a t i o n o f w h e th e r o r n o t th e c o u n s e ­ ls© was f o l l o w i n g th e p l a n s f o r m u la te d d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g . I t e m s 2 , 5 and 8 w ere d e s ig n e d t o p r o v id e an i n d i r e c t m eas­ u r e o f th e counsel© © *s a t t i t u d e s e l i n g he r e c e i v e d *

to w a rd th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n ­

I terns 8 , 4 and 12 w ere d e s ig n e d a s

m ore d i r e c t m e a s u re s o f th e counsel© © *s a t t i t u d e r e s u l t s o f c o u n s e lin g . it

to w a rd th e

I t e m s 6 and 7 w ere p la n n ed to e l i c ­

th e co u n sel© © * s o p i n io n o f t h e a c t u a l outcom e o f v o c a ­

tio n a l c o u n s e lin g .

I t e m s 10 and 11 w ere a t t e m p t s to d i s ­

c o v e r th e co u n sel© © * s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s t r a i n i n g a n d v o c a tio n a l f ie ld *

Item © 1 8 , 14 and 15 w ere f r e e

resp o n se

I te m s d e s i g n e d t o u n c o v e r a r e a s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n an d d i s ­ s a t i s f a c t i o n w it h c o u n s e l i n g n o t r e v e a l e d b y th e mor© s t r u c t u r e d Item s*

19 C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e C r i t e r i o n D a ta th e r e c o r d s o f th e R e g i s t r a r w ere mad© a v a i l a b l e to

th e w r i t e r to e n a b le him to g a t h e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on th e

a c a d e m ic p e rf o r m a n c e o f t h e c o u n s e l e d and n o n c o u n s e le d m a tc h e d s t u d e n t s .

The f o l l o w i n g d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s e

s t u d e n t s wer© o b t a i n e d fro m t h e s e r e c o r d s s g r a d e ^ p o i n t a v e ra g e *

(1 ) C u m u la tiv e

( 2 ) T o ta l num ber o f h o u r s a c c u m u la te d .

( 3 ) T o ta l h o u r s on w h ic h th e s t u d e n t s w ere g ra d e d * m e s te rs o f p e r s i s t e n c e ,

(4 ) S e­

(5 ) T o ta l q u a l i t y p o i n t s e a r n e d

w h ile I n s c h o o l* An e s q p e rim e n ta l fo rm o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a il­ ed t o f i f t y

o f th e counsel©© ® o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d b u t f o r

whom no a d e q u a te m a tc h e s w ere found#.

One f o l lo w - u p l e t t e r

was m a ile d to th o s e who d i d n o t r e t u r n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h i n two w eeks#

T h i r t y - f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s o r 70 p e r c e n t

o f t h e g ro u p r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s * T h ese e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s seem ed to be c o m p le te d c o r r e c t l y and no a m b ig u o u s i te m s w ere d is c o v e r e d * T h e r e f o r e , th e f i n a l fo r m o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was e s s e n ­ tia lly

th e sam e a s th e e x p e r i m e n t a l form *

T h is f i n a l fo rm

w i t h th e c o v e r l e t t e r , A p p e n d ix B, was m a ile d to th e mem­ b e r s o f th e c o u n s e le d g ro u p on D ecem ber 12*

A t t h e tim e th e

q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere m a i l e d , t h e c o u n s e le d g ro u p c o n s i s t e d o f 125 c a s e s *

T h is was l a t e r r e d u c e d t o 115 c a s e s b e c a u s e o f

im p r o p e r m a tc h in g , b u t th e e n t i r e 125 w ere f o llo w e d up and

r e t u r n s © ought fro m a l l o f them* Two f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r s , A p p e n d ix 0 and D, w ere m a i l ­ e d on D ecem ber 51 and J a n u a r y 10* w i t h t h e J a n u a r y 10 l e t t e r *

A p o s t c a r d was e n c lo s e d

I f t h e counsel©-© s ig n e d and

m a ile d t h i s c a r d , a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was fo rw a rd e d to him Im m e d ia te ly *

T h ree o f t h e s e c a r d s w ere r e t u r n e d *

The c o v e r l e t t e r and th e f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r s w ere c a r e f u l l y w o rd ed I n th e h o p e s t h a t a p e r m i s s i v e a t t i t u d e w ould b e c r e a t e d w h ic h w ould make th e counsel©© © f e e l f r e e t o b e a s c r i t i c a l a s t h e y w is h e d o f th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l ­ i n g t h e y had r e c e i v e d *

T h a t a t l e a s t a m odicum o f s u c c e s s

was a w a rd e d t h i s e f f o r t i s se e n i n some o f th e e x tre m e c h o ic e s s e l e c t e d on c e r t a i n i t e m s an d i n som e o f t h e com­ m e n ts s u p p l i e d on t h e ^ o p e n - e n d 1* q u e s t i o n s , B e fo re th e f i r s t f o l lo w - u p l e t t e r was m a i l e d , 58 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h ad b e e n r e t u r n e d .

The f i r s t f o l l o w -

u p l e t t e r r e s u l t e d i n 21 m ore r e t u r n s , b r i n g i n g th e t o t a l r e t u r n s to 7 9 , re sp o n se s.

T he se c o n d f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r ©11 c i t e d 18 m ore

T hose i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e d i n o r n e a r Io w a C i ty

w ere t h e n c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e , an d t h i s r e s u l t e d I n t h e r e t u r n o f 7 m ore q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .

T h ere re m a in e d 5 c o u n s a ­

le© s i n Io w a C i t y who h a d n o t r e t u r n e d th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T hese i n d i v i d u a l s w ere i n t e r v i e w e d and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere o b ta in e d .

T h is b r o u g h t t h e t o t a l to 107 r e t u r n s ,

21 On J a n u a r y 24 a d o u b l e p o s t c a r d was m a i l e d w h ic h a sk e d f o u r d i r e c t q u e stio n ® p e r t a i n i n g to th e f o u r c o n s i d ­ e r a t i o n s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d to s t u d y *

The f o u r

q u e s t i o n s w ere*

to w a rd

(1 ) w h a t I s y o u r p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e

v o c a tio n a l c o u n se lin g ?

(S ) D id v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g r e s u l t

In th e c h o ic e o f a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a tio n a l f i e l d ?

( 5 ) D id you

f o llo w th e p la n s fo rm u la te d d u rin g c o u n s e lin g ?

(4 ) Have y ou

been s a t i s f i e d w ith y o u r m ajo r o r v o c a t io n a l f i e l d ?

T h ree

o f t h e s e d o u b l e p o s t c a r d s w ere r e t u r n e d c o m p l e t e d b u t w e re n o t in c lu d e d In th e in v e s ti g a t i o n . As a f i n a l m e a s u r e , a r e g i s t e r e d l e t t e r , A p p e n d ix E , was m a ile d on F e b r u a r y

6

to th o s e who h ad n o t r e s p o n d e d .

F o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere r e t u r n e d f o l l o w i n g t h i s l e t t e r . F i v e o f t h e r e g i s t e r e d l e t t e r s w ere r e t u r n e d u n d e l i v e r e d i n ­ d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e f o r m e r counsel© #® h a d p r o b a b l y n o t r e ­ c e iv e d th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r th e fo llo w -u p l e t t e r s # l e f t 6 o u t o f t h e 125 who a p p a r e n t l y m m c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b u t who f a i l e d o th e r m a ile d -q u e stlo n n a lr©

to respond#

stu d ie s,

T h is

r e c e i v i n g th e i n c o n t r a s t to

th is re p re se n ts a re ­

m a r k a b ly h i g h r e t u r n o f 93 p e r c e n t# When th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h ad b e e n a c c o u n te d f o r a n d a ll

th e d a t a had b e e n o b t a i n e d fro m th e R e g i s t r a r * s O f f i c e ,

th e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a w as a c c o m p lis h e d *

3i D e s c r ip t i o n o f C o u n se lin g a t th e S tu d e n t C o u n se lin g Q f f ic # ^SSS*ISSi2Si5SS*!S&!^MiSSS8SS8Si&SMSS!*

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fh e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be a p p l i c a b l e

to

o t h e r c o u n s e l i n g a g e n c i e s , o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h t h e i r c o u n s e l i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e c o m p a r a b le t o t h o s e u s e d a t t h e S t a t e u n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a s t u d e n t C o u n s e l i n g O f f i c e

(SCO)*

I f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e t o be u s e f u l , i t i s n e c e s ­ s a r y t h a t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e c o u n s e lin g p ro c e d u re a t th e SCO b e p r o v i d e d * th e n fee s tu d e n t f i r s t p re s e n te d h im s e lf a t th e o f ­ f i c e w i t h a r e q u e s t f o r v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g , h e was a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e a P e r s o n a l D a t a B la n k w h ic h I n c l u d e d b i o g r a p h i ­ c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , w o rk e x p e r i e n c e , a n d s e r v i c e e x p e r i e n c e d a ta .

A f t e r c o m p le tio n o f t h e d a t a b l a n k , an a p p o in tm e n t

was a r r a n g e d w i t h one o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l o r s on t h e s t a f f o f t h e SCO f o r t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w * I h e f i r s t I n t e r v i e w was a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y an h o u r I n l e n g t h d u r i n g w h ic h tim e

t h e s t u d e n t 1 s p r o b le m

was d i s c u s s e d and p l a n s w e re made f o r a t t a c k i n g , i t *

th is

p h a s e I n c l u d e d a n e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o u n s e l o r t o s t r u c t u r e th e c o u n s e lin g s i t u a t i o n ,

an e x p l a n a t i o n o f th e

r o le o f t e s t r e s u l t s in c o u n s e lin g , a d i s c u s s i o n o f th e v a r ­ i o u s t y p e s o f t e s t s and t h e i r p u r p o s e s , s e l e c t i o n o f t e s t s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c o u n s e l s © * © p r o b l e m , and r e f e r r a l t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l I n f o m a t ! on f i l e © o f the- S0O*

A t th e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f i r s t I n t e r v i e w , assu m ­ i n g a l l t h e a b o v e h a d b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d , t h e c o u n s e l* # w as I n t r o d u c e d t o th e p s y e h o m e t r ls t a n d a p p o i n t m e n t s mads f o r th e t e s t i n g .

O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e t e s t i n g was c o m p le te d i n o ne

d a y , b u t m ore f r e q u e n t l y I t was d o n e d u r in g h o u r s w h ic h th e c o u n s e ls * h a d open i n h i s s c h e d u l e end was d i s p e r s e d o v e r on e o r two weeks* when th e t e s t s w e re c o m p l e t e d and s c o r e d and a p r o f i l e o f r e s u l t s d ra w n ,

t h e c o u n s e l* * was g iv e n a n o t h e r

ap p o in tm e n t w ith h i s c o u n s e lo r .

D u rin g t h i s s e c o n d s e s s i o n

t h e v o c a t i o n s i n w h ic h th e c o u n s e l© * was I n t e r e s t e d w ere d i s ­ c u s s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t e s t r e s u l t s , o c c u p a t io n a l i n f o r ­ m a t i o n , and t h e c o u n s e l* * v* f e e l i n g s .

B etw een s e s s i o n s t h e

c o u n se l* © w as f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to f a c u l t y Members o f o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y t o e n a b l e him t o o b ­ t a i n more s p e c i f i c In fo r m a tio n on th e r e q u i r e m e n t© and o p ­ p o r t u n i t i e s in p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s of c o n c e n tra tio n *

As many

s e s s i o n s a s w ere n e e d e d b y t h e c o u n se l* © t o r e a c h a d e c i s i o n wore made a v a i l a b l e b y t h e c o u n s e l o r ,

A g e n u i n e e f f o r t was

mad® b y t h e c o u n s e l o r , t o a i d t h e c o u r ts* le e i n r e a c h i n g a d e c i s i o n on h i s v o c a t i o n a l f u t u r e b e f o r e t h e s e s s io n © w e re t e r m in a te d , She c o u n s e lo r © o f t h e SCO s t a f f w©r© a l l g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t© I n e i t h e r c l i n i c a l o r p e r s o n n e l p s y c h o l o g y ,

fh e ir

t e c h n i q u e s w ere e c l e c t i c , b u t t h e y h a d i n common t h e b e l i e f

24 t h a t I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c o u n s e ls © to do h i s own t h i n k s l a g and a r r i v e a t t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n h im s e lf *

!*hey b e l i e v e d

t h a t t h e c o u n s e l o r a i d e d t h e counsel© © by p r o v i d i n g a d d ic ­ t i o n s ! in fo rm a tio n a b o u t h im s e lf , jo b re q u ire m e n ts , oppor­ tu n itie s ,

and b y h e l p i n g t o c l a r i f y

th e c o u nsels© *® own

f e e l i n g ® as. t h e y b o r e on h i s e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l p lan n in g *

25

& m p te r I I I RESULTS AMD DISCUSSION

The a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a p r o c e e d e d a l o n g f o u r lin e ® a s f o l l o w s :

( ! ) C o m p a riso n o f th e a c a d e m ic r e c o r d s

o f th e 001m s e l e e s (C) a n d t h e i r noneow x& eled m a tc h e s (IIC ), {B etw e a n -G r o u p C h a n g e s ) .

( 2 ) A s t u d y o f a c a d e m ic r e c o r d s

made b y Cs b e f o r e a n d a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g , (W lth in K J ro u p C h a n g e s)* n a ire *

( 5 ) A n a l y s i s o f Cs r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n ­

(4 ) A c o m p a ris o n o f t h e a c a d e m ic r e c o r d s o f t h o s e

r e s p o n d i n g I n v a r i o u s w ays t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .

The C o m p a r a ti v e A cadem ic P e r f o r m a n c e o f C® a n d H a tc h e d HOs G r a d e —p o i n t a v e r a g e . s u r e s o f a c a d e m ic p e r f o r m a n c e l a

On© o f t h e m ore common mea­ t h e grad© —p o i n t a v e r a g e

( GPA) e a r n e d b y t h e s t u d e n t d u r i n g h i s r e s i d e n c e I n s c h o o l * The g r a d e —p o i n t a v e r a g e s o f Os a n d ifCs w e re c o m p a red a s a m eth o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e s e two g r o u p s on t h i s v a r i a b l e .

An I n i t i a l a n d f i n a l g r a d e —p o i n t a v e r a g e

w as a v a i l a b l e f o r b o t h g r o u p s .

The I n i t i a l g r a d e —p o i n t

a v e r a g e f o r Cs w as th© c u m u l a t i v e g r a d e —p o i n t a v e r a g e . f o r th e se m e s te rs p r i o r to c o u n s e lin g , and th e i n i t i a l g rad e— p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r BGs w as b a s e d o n t h e c u m u l a t i v e g r a d e — p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r a num ber o f s e m e s t e r s e q u a l t o t h a t u p o n

26

w h ic h

th® m a tc h e d Os i n i t i a l grad© p o i n t was b a s e d ,

The

fin a l

grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r t h e counsel©©® was t h e

cumu-

l a t i v e g r a d o - p o i n f c a v e r a g e f o r t h e w ork c o m p l e t e d a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g ,

Th© f i n a l grad©

p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r t h e n o n c o u n s e l o d s t u d e n t s was b a s e d on t h e work c o m p l e t e d a f t e r t h a t on w h ic h t h e i n i t i a l grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e was b a s e d * lb© a n a l y s i s o f e o v a r ia n o © t e c h n i q u e was em ployed in

t h i s c o m p a r is o n m ak in g i t p o s s i b l e to a d j u s t t h e d i f f e r ­

e n c e s i n f i n a l grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e so a s to e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n i t i a l g rad e p o in t av erag e be­ tw een

Os a n d I C s .

ib is

te c h n iq u e a ls o

ta k e s in to account

t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h ic h m i g h t h a v e r e s u l t e d f ro m t h e m a tc h ­ in g p ro c e ss . The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e r e s u l t e d I n a n F o f v/

1 . 3 0 ^ g > f o r on© and 80 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m .

An F o f 3 . 9 6 would

be r e q u i r e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t th e 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n ­ fid e n c e .

Hence we c a n n o t r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r

d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r t h i s c o m p a r is o n o f th e Cs* and HCs* a c a d e m ic p e r f o r m a n c e • T h ese n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s w ere n o t u n e x p e c t e d .

In

t h e f i r s t p l a c e , o n l y 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e counsel©©© mad© s h i f t s i n t h e i r m a j o r s w h ic h w ere d r a s t i c e n o u g h to c a l l u p ­ on d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s a s we a r e a b l e ch o lo g y to d a y .

These d r a s t i c

to d e f i n e them I n p s y ­

s h i f t s i n c l u d e d t h o s e who

27 ©hanged t h e i r m a j o r s fr o m " 'u n d e c id e d " ( p r o b a b l y i n t h e Col* leg© o f l i b e r a l A rt® ) t o S c i e n c e , L i b e r a l Art® t o E n g i n e e r * i n g , E n g i n e e r i n g t o Comm©roe, S o l a n o * to Commerce, o r s c i e n c e t o L i b e r a l A rt® ,

The o t h e r 70 p e r c e n t I n c l u d e d t h o s e who

made no c h an g e ® , m&de c h a n g e s wi t h i n L i b e r a l A r t s , o r ©hang** b e tw e e n L i b e r a l A r t s a n d Commerce*

The s m a l l n u m b e r o f im­

p o r t a n t c h a n g e s , t h e r e f o r e , m akes I t I m p r o b a b l e t h a t s i g n i * f l e a n t I m p ro v e m e n t i n g rad e® w ould be n o t e d f o r t h e e n t i r e c o u n sele d g ro u p , A® was -m entioned i n C h a p t e r IX , i t w o u ld n o t seem re a lis tic

to e x p e c t a b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t i n term® o f grade®

f o r i n d i v i d u a l ® who w ere p r o b a b l y i n i t i a l l y l e s s w e l l ad* ju s te d a c a d e m ic a lly .

T h is n o t i o n i s g i v e n c r e d e n c e n o t on*

l y b y t h e Cs h a v i n g s o l i c i t e d

v o c a tio n a l c o u n se lin g b u t a ls o

by t h e i r o f t e n b e in g w ith o u t a d e c la r e d m a jo r, w h ereas a l l th e HC® h a d c h o s e n m a j o r f i e l d s * The cor© c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t® common t o m o st major® a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a m u st n o t be o v e r l o o k e d *

W ith

a t l e a s t t h i r t y * t w o h o u r s common to a l l m a j o r s , e x c e p t I n g i n * ©©ring and P h a r m a c y , t h e c h a n c e s o f l a r g e s h i f t s i n grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e a f t e r a c h a n g e I n m a j o r a r e f u r t h e r re d u c e d * S i n c e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e s seem n o t t o p l a y a m a j o r r o l e , o w ing t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f c u r r i c u l a , v a r i a b l e o f m o t i v a t i o n m u s t b© c o n s i d e r e d .

th©

I t may b© t h a t

s t u d e n t ® t e n d t o f u n c t i o n a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same l e v e l o f

a c h ie v e m e n t ( t h e i r accu sto m ed l e v e l ) w h e th e r o r n o t th e y a r e h a p p y w i t h t h e i r c o u r s e s and m a j o r a n d , t h e r e f o r e , l i t t l e change i n g ra d e p o i n t a v e ra g e can be e x p ec te d * F i n a l l y and p r o b a b l y m o st e x p la n a tio n i s

im p o rta n t

of a l l in th is

t h e f a c t t h a t an e f f o r t was mad® t o e l i m i n a t e

t h o s e counsel©®® w i t h a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s f r o m t h i s s a m p le . A® was p o i n t e d o u t I n C h a p t e r XX, i t m i g h t toe e x p e c t e d t h a t t h o s e c l i e n t s w i t h e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w o u ld show m ore im­ provem ent a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l c o u n s e lin g th a n i n d i v i d u a l s n o t h a v in g an e m o tio n a l p ro b le m .

S i n c e t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w ere

n o t I n c l u d e d , we w ould e x p e c t t h e c o u n s e l e d g r o u p i n t h i s s t u d y t o show l e s s im p ro v e m e n t t h a n c o u n s e l e e a I n g e n e r a l . I n v ie w o f t h e s m a l l p e r c e n t o f " d r a s t i c " c h a n g e s i n m a j o r mad® toy th e counsel©®® o f t h e s a m p l e , t h e common c o u r s e r e ­ q u i r e m e n t s o f m o st m a j o r s ,

th e p o s s i b i l i t y

t h a t m o st s t u ­

d e n t s w ork a t " t h e i r l e v e l " w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y a r e h a p p y , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e sa m p le d i d n o t I n c l u d e t h o s e w i t h © m o tio n a l p r o b l e m s ,

th e n e g a tiv e f i n d i n g s w ith

r e s p e c t to

grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e seem, q u it© u n d e r s t a n d a b l e * I t is in te re s tin g

t h a t t h e mean i n i t i a l grad© p o i n t

a v e r a g e f o r th© 83 Os I n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f

00

v a ria n ce

was 2 * 1 9 7 , w h e r e a s a s i m i l a r mean v a l u e f o r t h e n o n o o u n s e l e d g r o u p was 2 .1 9 4 *

T h is seem s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t th e m a t c h i n g

had b e e n e f f e c t i v e and t h a t t h e two g r o u p s w ere w o l l m atched on i n i t i a l grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e *

29 O t h e r m easure® o f a c a d e m ic p e r f o r m a n c e .

S in c e

g r a d e s i n c l u d e a c o n s i d e r a b l e am o u n t o f t e a c h e r j u d g m e n t , I t seem ed t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n o f Os a n d WO® on o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f a c a d e m ic p e r f o r m a n c e , w h ic h c o n t a i n e d . l e s s o f t h i s ^ t e a c h e r ju d g m e n t v a r i a b l e m i g h t be u s e f u l ,

tftio o t h e r m e a s u r e s

w h ic h w e re s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y I n c l u d e d s

( 1 ) 'T o tal h o u r s a c ­

c u m u la te d i n c l u d i n g s e r v i c e c r e d i t a n d u n g r a d e d r e q u i r e d co u rses.

(3 ) T o ta l g rad e d h o u rs e a rn e d *

p e rsiste n c e ,

T o t a l grad© p o i n t s

(5 ) S e m e s t e r s o f

(th© sum o f th® p r o d u c t o f

h o u r s o f c r e d i t f o r .a c o u r s e time© th® g r a d e e a r n e d i n th e c o u r s e ) w ere a l s o r e t a i n e d a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f a c a d e m ic p e r ­ form ance. On t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c o u n s e l i n g m ig h t a f f e c t th o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w ith d i s s i m i l a r le v e l® o f a b i l i t y i n d i f ­ f e r e n t w a y s, t h e s a m p le was d i v i d e d i n t o

two g r o u p s ,

th o se

0® and I o s w hose GED c o m p o s it e s c o r e was a t o r a b o v e t h e 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e and th o s© C© and no© whose GED c o m p o s it e s c o r e s w ere b e low t h e 3 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e , was c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y b e c a u s e i t d u a ls a t and above i t

Th© 3 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e

seem ed t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i ­

p o sse sse d a t l e a s t m arg in al a b i l i t y

f o r c o ll e g e l e v e l w ork.

T hose b e lo w t h i s p o i n t who g r a d u a t ­

ed o r p e r s i s t e d i n s c h o o l f o r a n y l e n g t h o f tim e would b© f o r c e d to o v e r a c h ie v © t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t .

Such a con­

c l u s i o n seem s t o b e b o r n o u t by W A S tu d y o f S t u d e n t P e r ­ siste n c e in

t h e C o l l e g e o f l i b e r a l A r t s a t th© S t a t e

30 U n i v e r s i t y o f I© w sw (1 2 )*

t h i s s t u d y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t 84

p e r c e n t o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s o f 1937 who w ere a t and b e lo w t h e 9 t h p e r c e n t i l e

r a n k on t h e Io w a Q u a l i f y i n g

E x a m in a tio n d ro p p ed o u t b e f o r e c o m p le tin g e i g h t s e m e s te r s ; o f th o se w ith p e r c e n t i l e

r a n k s o f 1 0 * 1 9 , 83 p e r c e n t d r o p p e d

o u t b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g e i g h t s e m e s t e r s ; ; and among s t u d e n t s I n t h i s c l a s s w i t h p e r c e n t i l e r a n k o f 2 0 * 2 9 , s h o r e w ere 66 p e r c e n t who d r o p p e d o u t b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g e i g h t s e m e s t e r s * fih@s© p e r c e n t a g e s may b® c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e 35 p e r c e n t who d r o p p e d o u t b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g e i g h t s e m e s t e r s fr o m among t h o s e w i t h a p e r c e n t i l e r a n k o f 90*99 on t h e Iow a Q u a l i f y * I n g E x a m in a tio n * •Hi© t * f c e a t f o r r e l a t e d m e a s u r e s was u t i l i z e d I n m ak in g t h e s e c o m p a r is o n s * r a n g e d so t h a t a p o s i t i v e

®ie t a b l e s f o r th© t e s t s w ere &r* t>*v a l u e w ould I n d i c a t e

t h a t th e

Cs h a d b e e n m ore s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e i r MG m a tc h e s* S t u d y o f t h e t o t a l sa m p le *

$h© c o m p a r is o n f o r th©

t o t a l sa m p le o f Os and HO© ©t end a b o v e t h e t h i r t i e t h p e r * e e n tlle i s p re se n te d in

$&ble I*

51

Table I D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Ca and NCs At an d Above t h e 5 0 t h GED P e r c e n t i l e

V a ria b le

T o ta l h o u rs a cc u m u late d T o ta l grad ed h o u rs e arn ed S e m e ste rs o f p e r s i s t e n c e T o t a l g r a d e p o i n t s e arn ed .

df

t,-valu©

84 84 84 84

2*884 5 *044 2*827 3*512

P

*01 *01 *01 • 01

The c o m p a r i s o n f o r th© t o t a l s a m p le o f Cs and 1 0 a . b e lo w th© t h i r t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e

is

p r e s e n t e d I n T a b le I I ,

T a b le XI. D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Os and 1 0 s f o r T o t a l Sam ple Below t h e 5 0 t h OED P e r c e n t i l e

V a ria b le

T o ta l h o u rs a c c u m u late d T o ta l g rad ed h o u rs e a rn e d S e m e ste rs o f p e r s i s t e n c e T o t a l grad© p o i n t s e a r n e d

df

29 29 29 29

t-v a lu e

2 ,1 0 7 1 ,5 0 4 2*214 1*582

p

,0 5 ,2 0 *05 *20

I t I s o b v io u s t h a t m ost o f th e s e r e s u l t s a r e s i g n i ­ f i c a n t and f a v o r t h e Os* b u t s i n c e th© Os and HGs w ore n o t m a tc h e d on d a t e o f e n t r a n c e ,

t h e s e r e s u l t s m u st be c o n s i d e r e d

32 In

fee l i g h t o f t h i s fa c t*

I t was b e l i e v e d f e a t m a t c h i n g

them o n a g e , v e t e r a n s t a t u s and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s t a t u s w ould c o n tr o l e n tra n c e d a te a d e q u a te ly f o r th e p u rp o se s o f t h i s stu d y ,

S u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o l o o t e d and m a tc h e d

p a i r s , ho w ev er, i n d i c a t e d

t h a t t h e r e was ' c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s ­

c r e p a n c y b e tw e e n them w i t h re s p e n t t o th e d a t e a t w h ic h th e y e n te re d sc h o o l,

I t w as fo u n d t h a t 89 o f th© HCs e n t e r e d

l a t e r t h a n t h e i r m a tc h e d Cs , 28 o f t h e Os e n t e r e d l a t e r t h a n t h e i r m a tc h e d 1 0 b , a n d 28 Os and u c s e n t e r e d a t e x a c t l y t h e same t i m e ,

&i±s m eans t h a t t h e I Os a s a g r o u p e n t e r e d a t a

l a t e r d a t e , a f a c t w h ic h b i a s e s t h e f i n d i n g i n t h e f a v o r a b l e d ire c tio n . I t I s o b v io u s t h a t i f c u m u lated ,

t h e c o m p a r is o n s o f h o u r s a c ­

t o t a l grad© p o i n t s e a r n e d , and s e m e s t e r s o f p e r ­

s i s t e n c e a r e to b e M e a n i n g f u l , t h e y m u st b e b a s e d on Cs and HCs who had an o p p o r t u n i t y to a t t e n d s c h o o l an e q u a l num ber o f s e m e s t e r s a t t h e t i m e th© d a t a w ere g a t h e r e d ,

it

seemed

t h a t th© m o st s a t i s f a c t o r y m eth o d o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s v a r i ­ a b l e would bo t o s t u d y p a i r s o f Cs and MCs i n th e sa m p le who e n t e r e d s c h o o l a t t h e same t i m e .

F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s com­

p a r i s o n i f a C and t h e WC m a tc h h a d e n t e r e d s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e same s c h o o l y e a r , o r w i t h i n one s e m e s t e r o f t h e same tim e b u t i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l y e a r s , t h e y w e re u se d *

53 S t u d y o f Ca and 1 0 a m a tc h e d on e n t r a n c e d a t e •

Th©

c o m p a riso n s f o r th o s e a t and above th e t h i r t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e are p re se n te d in

T a b le I I I * T a b le I I I

D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Cs and I C s M atched on En­ t r a n c e D a te A t and Above 3 0 t h GED P e r c e n t i l e

V a ria b le

'T o ta l h o u r s a c c u m u l a t e d T o ta l graded h o u rs earn ed S e m e ste rs o f p e r s i s t e n c e I b t a l grade p o in ts earn ed

df

t- v a lu ©

m 37 37 37

♦545 1*568 1*367 .5 8 3

P

*60 .2 0 *80 *60

T hose p a i r s o f I n d i v i d u a l s who e n t e r e d a t a p p r o x i ­ m a t e l y t h e same tim e w e re a l s o s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l g ro u p t h a t was b e lo w t h e t h i r t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e .

®ie c o m p a r is o n s

f o r t h i s s e l e c t e d g r o u p a r e p r e s e n t e d I n T a b le IV . T a b le XV D i f f e r e n c e s B etw een Os and I Q s l a t c h e d on E n t r a n c e D a te Below t h e 5 0 t h GED P e r c e n t i l e

V a ria b le

T o ta l h o u rs acc u m u late d T o ta l grad ed h o u rs e a rn e d S e m e ste rs o f p e r s i s t e n c e T o t a l grad© p o i n t s e a r n e d

df

t-v a lu ©

19 19 19 19

1 .6 5 0 2®594 2 .1 5 3 1 .9 2 0

.2 0 .0 2 .0 5

.10

54 The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d I n T a b l e s 111 and i v f o r t h o s e a t and ab o v e t h e t h i r t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e a r e m ore ‘m e a n i n g f u l t h a n

p ro b a b ly -

t h o s e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le s X and x x .

in

T a b le 111 t h e P * s o f .2 0 f o r t o t a l g r a d e d h o u r s e a r n e d and s e m e s te r s o f p e r s i s t e n c e * w h ile n o t s i g n i f i c a n t * t e r p r e t e d a s I n d i c a t i n g a tre n d *

may b e I n ­

T h is seem s p a r t i c u l a r l y d e ­

f e n s i b l e s i n c e t h e same t r e n d a p p e a r s i n T a b le IV ( t h o s e b e ­ low t h e 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e ) a t a n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i ­ cance. The l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t P * s I n b o t h T a b l e s IX and IV f o r t o t a l h o u r s a c c u m u l a t e d a r e p r o b a b l y d u e t o an a d d i t i o n ­ a l u n c o n tr o lle d v a r i a b le v h ic h each c o n ta in s*

Hi© t o t a l

h o u rs a c c u m u la te d i n c l u d e s ungraded h o u rs o f c r e d i t g ra n te d f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e and u n g ra d e d c o u r s e s p a s s e d a t th e S t a t e tFnl v a r s i t y o f I o w a , i n a d d i t i o n to t h e hour© w h ic h th© I n d i ­ v i d u a l e a r n e d a n d on w h ic h M s w ork was g r a d e d .

Hi© am ount

o f c r e d i t f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e v a r i e d t o an unknown d e g r e e I n t h e two g r o u p s mad may* c o n s e q u e n t l y * a c c o u n t f o r t h i s fin d in g . I n a s i m i l a r m anner th e l e s s a c c e p ta b le F ’ s In b o th T a b l e s IX a n d XV f o r t o t a l grad© p o i n t s e a r n e d c o u l d b e e x ­ p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s m e a s u re in c l u d e © t h e e l e m e n t s o f q u a l i t y of w ork c o m p l e t e d a s w e l l a s q u a n t i t y ,

The q u a l ­

i t y o f w o rk i s b a s e d on t e a c h e r ju d g m e n t s which, may be l e s s re lia b le

t h a n th© q u a n t l t y - o f - w o r k f i g u r e w h ic h i s b a s e d m

35 th e am ou nt o f w ork c o m p le te d *

!lhe c o m b i n a t i o n o f th© two

may b e l e a s r e l i a b l e t h a n e i t h e r one t a k e n s i n g l y * Th© p o s s i b i l i t y g r o u p who p e r s i s t e d

t h a t t h e Os I n th© l o w e r a b i l i t y

s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n g e r m i g h t hav® b e e n

c a r r y i n g a l o w e r a v e r a g e nu m b er o f h o u r s p e r s e m e s t e r was i n ­ v e stig a te d *

4 jt-fcesfc f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a v e r a g e h o u r s c a r ­

r i e d e a c h s e m e s t e r f o r t h e t o t a l g r o u p b e lo w th© t h i r t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e r e s u l t e d i n a v a l u e o f ,9 2 3 *

S u c h a v a l u e w ith

29 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m would, o n l y b e s i g n i f i c a n t a t th© 40 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n fid en ce*

T h is f i n d i n g seem s t o r u l e

o u t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e Cs p e r s i s t e d l o n g e r a n d a c c u m u l a t e d m ore q u a l i t y p o i n t s o n l y b e c a u se t h e y c a r r i e d l i g h t e r a c a ­ d e m ic l o a d s * The i m p o r t a n c e | ) l a c e d on t h e f i n d i n g t h a t th© C*s e a r n e d more g r a d e d h o u r s and p e r s i s t e d f o r Bsore s e m e s t e r s I s , o f co u rse, r e la te d s titu tio n ,

t o th© p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n ­

S i n c e t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a i s a s t a t e

s u p p o r t e d s c h o o l a n d h e n c e i s d e v o t e d to t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n f o r a l l ,

th is

seem s t o b e a v e r y I m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g ,

Th© w ii t e r i s q u it© a w a re t h a t s u c h f i n d i n g s do n o t n e c e s ­ s a r i l y p r o v e th© e x i s t e n c e o f an y c a u s e - a n d - a f f e o f e r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p vb e tw e e n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r ; a n d th© q u a n t i t y end l e n g t h o f c o lle g e t r a i n i n g o b ta in e d by th e s e s tu d e n ts * I t m ig h t b e a r g u e d t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who s e e k v o c a tio n a l c o u n se lin g a r e

th e ty p e t h a t a r e more a n x i o u s t o

p e r s i s t s and t o s u c c e e d an d t h a t t h e i r com ing f o r c o u n s e l i n g m e re ly e x e m p li f i e s t h i s p a tte r n .,

A l a r g e p o r t i o n , h o w e v e r,

o f th© s t u d e n t s s e e n a t t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e l i n g O f f i c e come a s th© r e s u l t o f a r e f e r r a l "by some s t a f f o r f a c u l t y member on t h e b a s i s o f a n e x p r e s s e d I n d e c i s i o n o v e r v o c a t i o n a l o b ­ j e c t i v e o r o t h e r p r o b l e m s o f a p e r s o n a l o r a c a d e m ic n a t u r e . I t i s d o u b tfu l,

t h e n , t h a t t h e p e o p l e who s e e k v o c a t i o n a l

c o u n s e l i n g do so s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f an i n o r d i n a t e d e s i r e p e r s i s t and su c ce ed I n c o l l e g e .

to.

C lin ic a l o b se rv a tio n of

s e v e r a l h u n d r e d c l i e n t s o f th # v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e make® t h e w r i t e r q u it© c e r t a i n t h a t t h e y a r e n o t a g ro u p f i r e d w ith m

e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e a l to p e r s i s t o r e a r n hour® i n

c o l l e g e o r t h a t t h e y a r e a n y more d i s t u r b e d o v e r t h e i r v o ­ c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h a n many s t u d e n t s who n e v e r s e e k v o c a ­ t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g .. A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y a l o n e c o u ld n o t be s a i d t o p o i n t to a n y o a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n c o u n s e l ­ i n g and e a r n i n g more h o u r s a n d p e r s i s t i n g more s e m e s t e r s i n s c h o o l, I t sh o u ld be p o in te d o u t t h a t I t c e r t a i n l y d o es n o t d i s p r o v e th© e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p . c a r e f u l l y c o n tin l i e d

I f o th e r

s t u d i e s f i n d t h e s e same t e n d e n c i e s ,

th en

more c r e d i t m ig h t be c la im e d , by c o u n s e l i n g f o r t h e r e s u l t s t h a n th© w r i t e r i s w i l l i n g t o c l a i m on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s i n ­ v e stig a tio n .

37 The p e r s i s t e n c e o r t h o s e I n d i v i d u a l s who change*! t h e i r m a jo rs i n o r d e r t o fo llo w p la n s fo rm u la te d d u r in g c o u n s e l i n g was co m p ared w i t h t h e i r n o n o o u n s e l e d m a tc h e s * F o r t h o s e p a i r s who w ere a t a n d a b o v e t h e 3 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e , th© jt v a l u e f o r ' d i f f e r e n c e s I n s e m e s t e r s o f p e r s i s t e n c e f a v o r e d t h e Os (2*6 78 f o r 28 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m ) a t t h e 2 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n fid e n ce *

F o r t h o s e p a i r s .who f e l l b e *

low th© t h i r t i e t h p e r c e n t i l e on c o m p o s it e s c o r e on OTD t e a t s , th© d i f f e r e n c e s I n s e m e s t e r s o f p e r s i s t e n c e a g a i n f a v o r e d t h e Os*

i h e t v a l u e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e was 6*628 f o r 9 d@*

g r e e s o f fre e d o m , w h ich I s s i g n i f i c a n t a t th e 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n fid e n ce * ®i© b i a s due to d i f f e r e n t d a t e s o f e n t r a n c e i n t o s c h o o l w as a l s o o p e r a t i n g i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n *

T herefor® ,

t h e same a n a l y s i s was perform ed -on d a t a t a k e n from t h o s e p a i r s who e n t e r e d t h e same y e a r o r w i t h i n one s e m e s t e r o f t h e same t im e b u t i n d i f f e r e n t a c a d e m ic y e a r s *

A c o m p a rl*

son o f s e m e s t e r s o f p e r s i s t e n c e f o r Cs and KCo I n t h i s g ro u p r e s u l t e d i n a t v a lu e f o r th e d i f f e r e n c e s f a v o r in g th e c s (1 * 6 6 4 w i t h 9 d e g r e e s o f fr e e d o m ) a t o n l y th® 20 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f co n fid en ce*

T h is *tmw» v a l u e i s o f lim i t e d i m p o r t a n c e

f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b e c a u s e i t was b a s e d on o n l y t e n p a i r s . H ow ever, t h e Cs who mad© c h a n g e s I n t h e i r m a j o r s seem to be f o l l o w i n g th© p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d t r e n d o f p e r s i s t i n g l o n g e r t h a n t h e i r 130 m a t c h e s , a l t h o u g h i n

t h i s c o m p a r is o n i t i s

m b e lo w tiie d e s i r e d le v © ! o f c o n f id e n c e *

C h an g es i n p r a d e P o i n t A v e ra g e A f t e r C o u n s e lin g The w ib h in -g r o u p m ethod seemed to o f f e r a m eans o f c o m p a rin g th e q u a l i t y o f a c a d e m ic w ork a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g ' vd t h th e q u a l i t y o f w ork b e f o r e c o u n s e lin g * u s e d to e v a l u a t e t h e s e c h a n g e s*

Sine© th e d i f f e r e n c e s to b e

s t u d i e d w e re two m e a su re a on th e same p a r s o n , r e l a t e d m ea su res was em ployed*

The j r - t e s t was

th e b*tJ©sfc f o r

The t a b l e s f o r th© t e s t w ere

a rra n g e d , so t h a t a p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e would I n d i c a t e m

in**

c r e a s e i n grad.e-potnfc a v e r a g e on w ork c o m p le te d a f t e r coun­ s e lin g * A J b - t e a t f o r s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h a l l Ca g ro u p e d t o g e t h e r an d 103 d e g r e e s o f freed om r e s u l t e d i n a t - v a l u e o f 1*746 w h ic h w o u ld b e s i g n i f i c a n t a t th© 10 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f co n fid en ce*

I n o r d e r to make s u c h a s t u d y o f Os m e a n in g ­

f u l , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o make a s i m i l a r s t u d y o f HCa* th© I n d i v i d u a l s i n

Sine©

th e IC group had n o t r e c e iv e d c o u n s e lin g ,

i t was d e c i d e d to b a s e t h e i r i n i t i a l g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e on a n um ber o f s e m e s t e r s o r h o u r s 'c o m p a rab le t o t h a t on w h ic h t h e ‘i n i t i a l g r a d © - p o i n t a v e r a g e o f t h e i r c o u n s e l e d m a tc h was b a s e d *

Th© t e s t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y o f w ork f o r

MCs r e s u l t e d I n a t - v a l u © o f ,8 6 3 f o r 0S d e g r e e s o f fr e e d o m w h ic h w ould be s i g n i f i c a n t a t th® 40 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f

39 co n fid en ce*

U&© d i f f e r e n c e s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 10 p e r c e n t

l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e f o r Ca m ig h t be i n t e r p r e t e d a a i n d i c a t ­ i n g a t r e n d to w a rd Im p ro v e m e n t b y 't h i s g ro u p *

T h is i s b e­

low t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e and more d a t a w o u ld be n e c e ssa ry f o r c o n c lu siv e re s u lts * An a t t e m p t a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n was. mad® b y i n v e s t i ­ g a tin g th e p o s s i b i l i t y

t h a t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s e c h a n g e s w ould

b© n o t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a b i l i t y * d a t a f o r th e C group d iv id e d I n t o

T a b le ¥ p r e s e n t s

th re e le v e ls of i n i t i a l

p erfo rm an ce? l « e « t g rad e p o i n t a v e ra g e p r i o r to c o u n s e lin g e q u a l t o (1 ) 3 . 0 o r b e t t e r , , b e lo w 2*0*

(2 ) b e tw e e n 2 . 0 a n d 2*99* (» )

Such a p ro c e d u re a ls o p e r m its a c l e a r e r r e c o g n i­

t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f s t a t i s t i c a l r e g r e s s i o n i n th® e x tr e m e s * T a b le V C h a n g es I n Q u a l i t y o f Work A f t e r C o u n s e l i n g F o r Cs a t Hire© b e v e l s o f I n i t i a l P e r f o r m a n c e

V a ria b le

Above 3 * 0 0 a v e r a g e B etw een 2 * 0 0 and 2 * 9 9 a v e r a g e Below 2 *00 a v e r a g e

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A s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d on t h e ¥ 0

g r o u p w i t h t h e i n i t i a l g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r th® members

40 o f t h i s g r o u p a g a i n b e i n g b a s e d on a n u m b er o f s e m e s t e r s o r h o u r s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t on w h ic h t h e I n i t i a l g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e o f t h e i r c o u n s e l e d m a t c h was b a s e d *

The r e s u l t s o f

t h e j b - t e s t f o r t h e s e wi t h i n - g r o u p c h a n g e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e VX# T a b le VI C h an g es i n Q u a l i t y o f Work f o r M0& a t T h re e L e v e l s o f I n i t i a l P e r f o r m a n c e

V a ria b le Above 3 , 0 0 a v e r a g e Betw een 2 , 0 0 and 2*99 a v e r a g e Below 2 , 0 0 a v e r a g e

df

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10 51 22

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.5 0 ,9 0 .0 1

When t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d i n Table© V and VI a r e con* s l d e r e d , t h e c h a n g e s f o r b o t h Cs and HCs ab o v e a 3*00 a v e r ­ age a re n o t s i g n l f l e a n t *

T h is m ig h t have been e x p e c te d in

t h i s e x t r e m e g r o u p b e c a u s e o f t h e p h e n o m e n cn o f s t a t i s t i c a l r e g r e s s i o n and b e c a u s e t h e y w e re a l r e a d y so h i g h t h a t im­ p r o v e m e n t w o u ld h a v e b e e n e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . t e r e s t i n g , how ever,

th a t d e s p ite th e se f a c t s ,

I t is in ­ t h e Cs te n d e d

t o h o l d t h e i r 3 , 0 0 o r im p ro v e I t s l i g h t l y , w h e r e a s th® HCs t e n d e d to l o s e g ro u n d * When t h e Cs and tfCa b e lo w a 2*00 a v e r a g e a r e c o n ­ sid e re d ,

th e f i n d i n g ® f o r c h a n g e s I n a v e r a g e g r a d e p o i n t a r e

41 h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h gro up® .

Such a r e s u l t i s a ls o

n o t u n e x p e c t e d b e c a u s e ' t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s w ere so low t h a t I f th ey v ere

to b e p e r m i t t e d to c o n t i n u e I n s c h o o l , t h e y m u st

show an im p ro v e m e n t i n g r a d e p o i n t *

As i n t h e g r o u p a b o v e

S.*00* th© phenom enon o f s t a t i s t i c a l r e g r e s s i o n to w a rd t h e mean w ould b e o p e r a t i n g . d ire c tio n

%n o t h e r w o r d s , a b o u t t h e o n l y

t h e y c o u l d go was u p . Th© m o s t u s e f u l a n d i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s o f T a b l e s V

and VI a r e t h e r e s u l t s n o t e d f o r t h e g r o u p s b e tw e e n 2*.00 and 2*99 o f Os a n d WCs,

f o r t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l © w i t h an i n i t i a l

g rad e p o i n t a v e ra g e w ith in t h i s ran g e* th e p r o b a b i l i t y o f an I n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e I n g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e w ould b© le a © a f f e c t e d b y s t a t i s t i c a l r e g r e s s i o n an d b y t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f m ak in g e i t h e r a h i g h e r o r l o w e r g ra d e - t h a n w ere th© o t h e r g r o u p s d i s c u s s e d above*

The n e g a t i v e Jb -v alu e f o r t h e Cs

w l t h i n t h i s r a n g e w h ic h i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 10 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e may be co m p ared w i t h th© n e g a t i v e R v a l u e f o r th e IG s .

I h e r e seem s t o b e more o f a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e

Cs i n t h i s g r o u p to e a r n p o o r e r g r a d e s a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g t h a n f o r t h o s e m em bers o f th© WC g ro u p v& th s i m i l a r i n i t i a l grad© p o in t a v erag es, D iffe re n c e sc o re s p re s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s in a n a ly sis* b u t f u r t h e r c l a r i t y may b e g i v e n t h e s e f i n d i n g s b y a com** p a r i ©on o f th© am oun t o f c h a n g e i n g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e b e * tw e e n t h e c© and fo® o f t h e

t h r e e g ro u p s*

Th© t ' s

c a lc u la te d

42 f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le V II* T a b le V I I D i f f e r e n c e a B etw een Mean D i f f e r e n c e s i n C h a n g e s i n Q u a l i t y o f Work f o r Os a n d NGs a t T hroe L e v e l s o f I n i t i a l P e r f o r m a n c e

v a ria b le

Above 3* 00 a v e r a g e B etw een 2 *00 a n d 2 . 9 9 a v e r a g e Below 2* 0 0

df

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f

25 100 59

6*698 —1*044 *151

*001 *30 .9 0

The r e s u l t s I n d i c a t e t h a t th® o n l y g r o u p s f o r whom th© a m o u n t o f c h a n g e was s i g n i f i c a n t wore t h o s e Cs a n d I C s w i t h an i n i t i a l grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e o f $.*0 o r b e t t e r *

T h is

f i n d i n g e m p h a s i s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f th© f a c t t h a t t h e 0 a in

t h i s g r o u p a c t u a l l y Im p ro v e © l i g h t l y c o n t r a r y t o t h e e x ­

p e c t a t i o n s , w h e r e a s th© MGs f o l l o w t h e e x p e c t e d tr e n d * As w as t r u e i n th© c o m p a r is o n o f O s’ arid i c s * g rad es, th is fin d in g i s y ie ld in g l i t t l e

© s a e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e i n th© s e n s e o f

e v i d e n c e t h a t c o u n s e l i n g t e n d s t o a f f e c t th©

grad© p o i n t a v e r a g e o f s t u d e n t s * e x p l a n a t o r y I d e a s may b© in v o k e d *

I t w ould seem t h a t s i m i l a r I t seem s q u it® p o s s i b l e

t h a t s t u d e n t s t e n d to w ork a t a c o n s t a n t l e v e l r e g a r d l e s s o f th© d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r c u r r i c u l a *

M o r e o v e r,

t h o s e s t u d e n t s s u f f e r i n g fr o m e m o t i o n a l d i s o r d e r s w h ic h

43 c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d h a v e I m p a i r e d a c a d e m ic e f f i c i e n c y w ere d e ­ l i b e r a t e l y e x c l u d e d b y t h e s a m p l i n g m ethod used*

T h u s, i t

c a n be h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t g i v e n f r e e d o m fro m © m o tio n a l d i e * t u r b a n e © , s t u d e n t s t e n d t o a c h i e v e a t a c o n s t a n t l e v e l and t h a t c o u n s e l i n g may c o n t r i b u t e

to an i n c r e a s e i n r e p o r t e d

s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith o u t a c o n c o m ita n t i n c r e a s e in p erfo rm an ce as in d ic a te d by g rad es, The A cadem ic P e r f o r m a n c e o f Qs Who Changed T h e i r M a jo r s A f t e r C o u n a ® lin g The w r i t e r i n v e s t i g a t e d

th e p o s s i b i l i t y

t h a t th o se

i n d i v i d u a l s who made c h a n g e s i n t h e i r m a j o r s a f t e r c o u n s e l ­ in g ,

c o n s i s t e n t w ith th e p la n s fo rm u la te d d u r in g c o u n s e lin g ,

m ig h t make s i g n i f i c a n t im p ro v e m e n t I n s c h o l a r s h i p *

T h is was

a c c o m p l i s h e d b y m eans o f a. w l t h i n - g r o u p c o m p a r is o n o f c h a n g e s b e tw e e n p r o - an d p o s t c o u n s e l i n g g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e f o r Os who c h a n g e d m a j o r s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d d u r ­ in g co u n selin g *

A g a in t h e t a b l e s a r e a r r a n g e d so t h a t a

p o s i t i v e t i n d i c a t e s Im p ro v e m e n t a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g was com­ p le te d *

The g r o u p was a g a i n d i v i d e d a t t h e t h i r t i e t h p e r ­

c e n t i l e , and s e p a r a t e low t h i s p o i n t * se n te d in

t e s t s w ere made f o r t h o s e above and b e ­

oh© r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e p r e ­

T a b le VIXX*

44

Table VIXX C h a n g e s i n Q u a l i t y o f l a r k f o r Cs C h a n g in g M a jo r C o n s i s t e n t w ith C o u n se lin g F la n s

at

V a ria b le

T o t a l g ro u p At and above 3 0 th p e r c e n t i l e Below t h e 3 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e

38 28 9

t -v a lu e

P

#2619 *431 -*370

• 90 .7 0 •8 0

«wM

The p t a o f T a b le VXXX m u st b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n d i e a t i n g t h a t n o s i g n i f i c a n t im p r o v e m e n t I n g r a & e - p o i n t a v e r ­ a g e r e s u l t e d a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g f o r t h o s e Cs who made c h a n g e s i n t h e i r m a j o r w h ic h e n a b l e d them to f o l l o w t h e p l a n s f o r ­ m u la te d d u r in g c o u n s e lin g #

H ere a g a i n t h e m o s t p l a u s i b l e

e x p l a n a t i o n seem s to b e on© a l o n g t h e l i n e s s u g g e s t e d b e ­ f o r e i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f c h a n g e s I n g r a d e - p o i n t a v erag e ® a s a fu n c tio n o f co u n selin g * A n a l y s i s o f H e sp o u s e s on th e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e G eneral ©i© two p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e b e en d e v o t e d t o a s t u d y o f t h e a c a d e m ic p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e m a tc h e d g r o u p s *

T h is s e c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h th e r e s u l t s

o f t h e a n a l y s t s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e q u e s t io n n a ir e * n u m b er a n d p e r c e n t a g e p l a c e d above e a c h r e s p o n s e on t h e

The

45 q u e stio n n a ire

(A p p e n d ix A) r e p r e s e n t s t h e n u m b e r and p e r ­

c e n t a g e o f t i m e s t h e r e s p o n s e was s e l e c t e d b y t h o s e i n d i ­ v i d u a l s who r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e * th© d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f th e q u e s t i o n * n a ir e w ill he d iv id e d in to

th re e se c tio n s *

g&e f i r s t s e c t i o n

w i l l c o n s id e r th e in d iv i d u a l ite m s in r e l a t i o n

t o th e f o u r

g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c o u n s e l i n g w h ic h t h e q u e s ­ t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y *

The s e c o n d s e c t i o n w i l l

I n c lu d e a d i s c u s s i o n o f i n t e r * r e s p o n s e c o m p a riso n s o f c e r ­ t a i n q u e stio n s *

The t h i r d

s e c t i o n w i l l he com posed o f t h e

r e s u l t s o f t h e c o m p a r is o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o c e r t a i n q u e s ­ t i o n s b y v e t e r a n s an d non v e t e r a n s * m a le s a n d f e m a l e s , Cs w hose s c h o l a r s h i p was s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d 0 s whose s c h o l a r s h i p w as n o t , a n d Cs who d i d a n d who d i d n o t p e r s i s t a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa* D is c u s s io n o f Q u e stio n s in R e la tio n to Four C o n s id e ra tio n s m m tm v

w mhih *

i i m »i I

qii i iiihkmihi

As t h e r e a d e r w i l l rem em ber t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o © l i c i t t h e f o r m e r counsel©©*® r e s p o n s e to f o u r g e n e ra l c o n sid e ra tio n s* G eneral a t t i t u d e

I h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were*

to w ard v o c a t io n a l c o u n s e lin g ;

(1 )

(2 ) R e s u l t s

o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g i n te r m s o f s e l e c t i o n o f o c c u p a ­ t i o n a l g o a l s o r o t h e r o u tco m es; ed i n

(5 ) W h e th e r p l a n s f o r m u l a t ­

c o u n s e l i n g h a d b e e n f o l l o w e d ; and (4 ) D e g re e o f s a t i s ­

f a c t i o n w i t h a c a d e m ic m a j o r a n d / o r v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d .

46 ^be d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be o r g a n i s e d u n d e r t h e s p e c i f i c c o n s i d e r * a t l o n s w h ic h t h e y w ere d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y *

F o r th e sake o f

r e a d a b i l i t y , each q u e s tio n w i l l be rep ro d u c ed in th e t e x t of t h i s s e c tio n a s I t I s b e in g d is c u s s e d ,

®ie r e p r o d u c t i o n o f

t h e q u e s t i o n w i l l b e f o l l o w e d b y t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s w h ic h w ere o f f e r e d in. t h e same o r d e r a s t h e y a p p e a r e d on th e l i n e a r s c a le I n th e q u e s t io n n a ir e ,

She p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h e f r e ­

q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h e a c h o f t h e s e r e s p o n s e s was s e l e c t e d b y th e c o u n s e le e s w i l l im m e d ia te ly p re c e d e e a c h o f th e s e a l t e r * n a tiv e s , O eneral a t t i t u d e

to w a rd v o c a t i o n a l ooun

Q u e s t i o n s 2 , 3* 4 , 5 , 8 , and 12 w ere d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y t h i s c o n sid e ra tio n * Q u e s t i o n 2s

i t h a s been s u g g e s te d t h a t b e fo re th e y g ra d u a te a l l h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s h o u l d h a v e th e o p p o r * t u n l t y f o r v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e , How w ould you f e e l ab o u t t h i s su g g e stio n ?

P e rc e n ta g e s 46 54 0 0

H esponaeg

- ! & is i s on© o f t h e m o st I m p o r t a n t t h i n g s a h i g h s c h o o l can do* - E ven t h o u g h n o t a l l s t u d e n t s ax*© h e l p e d I t w ould s t i l l be a r e a l a i d , - L i t t l e w ould b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g f o r H 5 stu d e n ts* - V o c a tio n a l g u id an c e i s n o t one o f th e p u r­ poses o f H 3 tra in in g .

47

She r e s p o n s e to Q u e s tio n 2 i n d i c a t e d unanim ous *

ag reem en t w ith th e t h e s i s t h a t a l l h ig h sc h o o l s tu d e n ts sh o u ld have th e o p p o r tu n ity f o r v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e .

S u ch

a g r e e m e n t on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e who r e c e i v e d v o c a t i o n a l corn-* s e l i n g a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l s h o u l d he e n c o u r a g i n g t o g u i d a n c e w o rk ers f u n c tio n in g in se c o n d a ry sch o o ls*

The w r i t e r be**

l i e v e s t h e u n a n i m i t y may a l s o r e p r e s e n t a n e x p r e s s i o n o f r©~ g r e t on t h e p a r t o f many o f t h e c o n n s © l e e s t h a t t h e y d i d n o t r e c e iv e v o c a tio n a l c o u n se lin g a t an e a r l i e r d a te and th e ex­ p r e s s i o n o f a g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e to w a rd v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g a s th e y ,h a v e e x p e rie n c e d i t .

T h i s f e e l i n g w as

f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e o p en -en d q u e s t io n s a t th e end o f th e q u e s t io n n a ir e by th e c o u n s e le e s . it

However*

i s i n t e r p r e t e d t h a t t h i s u n a n im o u s a g r e e m e n t seem s t o r e ­

p r e s e n t a w h o l e h e a r t e d e n d o r s e m e n t o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f mak­ i n g v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g a v a i l a b l e a t some tim e d u r i n g tb® s t u d e n t * s t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , a n d seem s t o h a v e i n i t t h e c o n ­ n o ta tio n o f th e e a r l i e r th e b e tte r * Q u e s t i o n 3s

How w o u ld y o u d e s c r i b e y o u r g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g yo u r e c e i v e d a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa S t u d e n t Coun­ s e l i n g O f f i c e o r t h e SHI V e t e r a n s A d m i n i s t r a ­ t i o n G u id a n c e C e n t e r ?

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Of l i t t l e o f b o v a l u e to me i n m a k in g p r e ­ s e n t p lan s# Was o f some h e l p t o -me b u t d i d n ’ t o f f e r much o f i m p o r t a n c e t o me now# Oave me a ra th e r * c l e a r p i c t u r e o f my b e s t chances in v a rio u s v o c a tio n a l f i e l d s , A r e a l s o u r c e o f h e l p to me I n m ak in g my v o c a tio n a l p la n s ,

T ills more d i r e c t a p p r o a c h t o t h e c o u n s e ls © * a a t t t t u d e r e s u l t e d i n 51 p e r c e n t e x p r e s s i n g m tu d e tow ard th e c o u n s e l i n g ,

u n fa v o ra b le a t t i ­

T h i s f i n d i n g c o n t r a s t s m a r k e d ly

w i t h th e. a n s w e r s t o Q u e s t i o n s 2 and 8 ( t o b e d i s c u s s e d ) #

It

seem s to l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t w h e r e a s some cou n sels© ® d i d n o t f i n d c o u n s e l i n g h e l p f u l , many o f th em f e e l I t would b© h e l p f u l t o o t h e r s o r w o u ld h a v e b e e n b e n e f i c i a l had i t been u n d e rta k e n e a r l i e r .

S u c h a n o t i o n was e x p r e s s e d

w i t h some f r e q u e n c y i n t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e o p e n - e n d q u e s ­ tio n ® -on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,

T h is seem s t o t h e w r i t e r t o b e

an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e f e e l i n g on th© p a r t o f t h e counsel©© t h a t c o u n s e l i n g m u s t b e g o o d , 80 i f i t d i d n *t h e l p , i t was n o t th© f a u l t o f c o u n s e l i n g b u t th© u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e p r o b ­ le m ,

T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y n o t a r e a s s u r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n fro m

th e s t a n d p o i n t o f v o c a t io n a l c o u n s e lin g .

The 51 p e r c e n t o f

u n f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s to t h i s q u e s t i o n i s

th© l a r g e s t n e g a t i v e

r e s u l t in th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .

I t may be t h a t a p a r t i a l e x p la n ­

a t i o n o r r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f th© f i n d i n g l i e s i n

th© u s e o f the

49 w o rd s "now" a n d "p resen t* * i n th® n e g a t i v e d e s c r i p t i v e p h rases*

A ll o f th ese s tu d e n ts p a r t i c i p a t e d in c o u n s e lin g

b e f o r e F e b r u a r y o f 1948*

Ifcey m ig h t h a v e a n s w e r e d th© q u e s ­

tio n d i f f e r e n t l y a t t h a t tim e . p la n a tio n ,

th e f i n d i n g i s

D e s p i t e t h i s p o s s i b l e ex *

som ew hat d i s c o n c e r t i n g a n d c e r -

t a i n l y p o i n t s t o t h e n e e d f o r c o n t i n u e d e f f o r t s to w a rd t h e im p ro v e m e n t o f o o u n s o l i n g t o o l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s * Q u e stio n 4

1

S o m e tim es a s p e o p l e t h i n k b a c k on t h e v a l u e o f v o c a t io n a l c o u n s e lin g th ey n o t ic e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g h a v e c h an g e d * How do y o u r p r e ­ s e n t r e a c t i o n s d i f f e r f r o m th e a t t i t u d e s you h a d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r y o u r t e s t s and i n t e r v i e w s ?

P e rce n tag e s 5

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R esponses Th© l o n g e r X l i v e th© more h e l p f u l cou nsel-* i n g se em s t o h a v e b e e n * I t now seem s more v a l u a b l e t h a n i t d i d when c o u n s e l i n g was c o m p l e t e d . I s t i l l f e e l th© same a s X d i d when c o u n sel-* i n g was c o m p le te d * I t now seem s l e s s h e l p f u l t h a n i t d i d when c o u n s e l i n g was c o m p le te d * 111© l o n g e r I l i v e t h e t l e s s h e l p f u l ooun s o l ­ i n g seem s t o h a v e been*

The l a r g e ps r o e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s who s e l e c t e d th # no-ohange p h ra s e i s i n t e r e s t i n g *

Th© w r i t e r c a n n o t h e l p won­

d e r i n g w h e th e r t h i s r e p r e s e n t s th e tr u e s i t u a t i o n o r w h eth er it

r e p r e s e n ts a sp u rio u s fin d in g *

I t may b e t h a t 53 p e r c e n t

o f t h e counsel©©® a c t u a l l y h a v e n o t c h a n g e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g *

It

seem s more r e a s o n a b l e to t h e w r i t e r t o

s u s p e c t t h a t t h i s h i g h p e r c e n t a g e r e p r e s e n t s an e x a m p le o f

th© d i f f i c u l t y o f t e n e n c o u n t e r e d " w h e n s u c h eompromis© r e ­ s p o n s e s ar© p r o v i d e d *

I t i s e a s i e r to- s a y t h a t no c h a n g e

h a s o c c u r r e d t h a n to d e c id e w h at r e a l l y h a s o c c u r r e d * There / seem s to b e m ore o f a t e n d e n c y f o r c o u n s e l i n g t o a p p e a r I n ­ c r e a s i n g l y h e l p f u l t h a n f o r I t t o a p p e a r l e s s h e l p f u l a s blra® passes* Q u e s t i o n 5s

24 74 2 0

i f y o u .w e r e to make recom m endations' c o n c e r n i n g th© b u d g e t f o r f a c i l i t i e s t o p i o - v l d © - v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g s u c h a s t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g Of­ f i c e a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa* w h a t c h a n g e s w ould you recommend?

-

The p r o g r a m The p ro g ra m Th© p r o g r a m Th© p ro g r a m ta ile d *

s h o u ld sh o u ld sh o u ld sh o u ld

be g r e a t l y In creased * b© expended# be som ewhat r e d u c e d # be v e r y s e v e r e l y c u r ­

& re c o m m e n d a tio n f o r e x p a n d in g t h e p ro g ra m was made b y 98 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .

T h is r e s p o n s e m ig h t a g a i n

b© c o n s t r u e d to r e p r e s e n t an e x t r e m e l y f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e ward t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g r e c e i v e d .

to -

On th e b a s i s o f

commont s w r i t t e n I n on q u e s t i o n n a i r e s # i t seem s t h a t t h i s r e c o m m e n d a tio n was mad® b y som a, a t l e a s t # w i t h th© p r o v i ­ s io n t h a t dem ands c o u ld b e l e v i e d on t h e c o u n s e l i n g o f f i c e f o r more i n t e n s i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f I n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s *

In

t h e s e c a s e s t h e recom m endation f o r I n c r e a s i n g t h e f a c i l i t i e s seem s to h a v e b e e n an e x p r e s s i o n o f some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h

51 c o u n s e l i n g r e e e l 1v©d

c o u p l e d w i t h an a o e e p t e n c e o f t h e im­

p o r t a n c e o f and n e e d f o r c o u n s e l i n g * Q u e s t i o n 8s

Assume f o r t h e moment t h a t you h a v e a y o u n g e r b r o th e r o r s l a t e r a tte n d in g th e S ta te U n iv e r s ity o f Io w a who h a s n o t made a v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n * What w o u la be y o u r a t t i t u d e to w a r d h i s p a r t i o l p a tio n in v o c a tio n a l c o u n se lin g ?

p e rc e n ta g e s 425

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R esponses Bo a l l i n my p o w e r t o p e r s u a d e him t o t a k e a d v an tag e o f I t , E x p la in th e Im p o rta n c e and f u n c t i o n s o f c o u n selin g , Warn h im a b o u t th© d e f i c i e n c i e s and i n a d e ­ q u a c ie s of c o u n se lin g , Do w h a t I can t o p r e v e n t h im fro m p a r t l c l p a tin g In i t .

Q u e stio n s o f t h i s

ty p e a r e u s u a l l y c o n s id e re d t o

b e a g ood a p p r o a c h to th© m e a s u r e m e n t o f a t t i t u d e . ,

if

th©

q u e s t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l w© c an c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e preponder** a n t (91 p e r c e n t ) a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d w as q u it© f a v o r a b l e and m i r r o r s a r a t h e r h i g h d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f co u n sele d s t u d e n ts . Q u e s t i o n 12*

A ssum in g th© t o t a l r e s u l t o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n ­ s e l i n g to b e 1 0 0 $ , w h a t p e r c e n t o f th e r e ­ s u l t w ould y ou a s c r i b e to e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w ­ in g ?

52

le a n P e rc e n ta g e s ' 56*5 16*0 40*5 20*2

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3 0 .8

-

d i s c u s s i o n w i t h th e c o u n s e lo r r e fe rr a l© su g g e ste d te s t re s u lts i n f o r m a t i o n on j o b s r e a d a t t h e c o u n se l* in g o f f ic e o th e rs

The p e r c e n t a g e v a l u e o f th® r e s u l t o f . c o u n s e l i n g a s c r i b e d to v a r i o u s c o u n s e l i n g a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d some i n ­ t e r e s t i n g d a ta *

The a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e a s s i g n e d b j 107 r e -

s p o n d e n t s to t e s t r e s u l t s was 40*5 p e r c e n t* d e v i a t i o n o f t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s w as 2 3 .0 *

The s t a n d a r d

As m ig h t h a v e b e e n

e x p e c t e d t h i s was th© h i g h e s t a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a s s i g n e d b y Os t o r e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s t i o n 12* h o w e v e r,

I t i s e n c o u ra g in g to n o te*

t h a t a mean o f 5 6 . 5 p e r c e n t o f th e c o u n s e l i n g r e ­

s u l t was c r e d i t e d b y 107 r e s p o n d e n t s to t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i t h th e c o u n s e lo r . t i o n o f 20*6*

T h is mean p e r c e n t a g e h a d a s t a n d a r d d e v i a ­ Whil© many w ould h o p e t h a t t h e c o u n s e l o r

m ig h t b e g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l y more c r e d i t ,

th e w r i t e r f e e l s

t h a t 3 6 * 5 p e r c e n t r e p r e s e n t s a n I m p o r t a n t s h i f t fro m t h e r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d r e q u e s t b y th© new counsel©© wto t a k e t h e a p t i t u d e

t e s t «M

Th© v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n mad© a v a i l a b l e was 1 . T hese p e r c e n t a g e s a r e m eans o f th® p e r c e n t a g e s a s s i g n e d a n d n o t f r e q u e n c i e s c o n v e r t e d to p e r c e n t a g e s a s i n o t h e r q u e stio n s . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t i l l s i s i n c l u d e d I n N o te C o n c e r n i n g A p p e n d ix A, on p a g e 96*

55 g i v e n a n a v e r a g e o f 20 p e r c e n t; o f t h e c r e d i t f o r c o u n s e l i n g r e s u l t s b y 57 r e s p o n d e n t s *

t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f th e

p e r c e n t a g e ® f o r t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n w as 17*5 p e r c e n t,

T h is n u m b e r o f Qs an d t h e a v e r a g e w e i g h t t h e y a s -

s i g n e d c e r t a i n l y seem s t o l e n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t to f e e c o n ­ tin u e d e x p an sio n o f t h i s phase o f fee c o u n s e lin g o f f i c e s e r ­ v ice * The n u m b e r o f I n d i v i d u a l s it

(7 3 ) who g a v e some c r e d ­

t o r e f e r r a l s s u g g e s t e d seem s t o Im p ly t h a t t h i s i s a r a ­

t h e r common t e c h n i q u e em p lo y ed b y c o u n s e l o r ® and seem s to h a v e b e e n u s e f u l i n many c a s e s .

The mean p e r c e n t a g e a s ­

s i g n e d b y t h e 7 3 Cs was 16 p e r c e n t w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a ­ t i o n o f 1 0 ,1 * Twenty r e s p o n d e n t s a s c r i b e d a n a v e r a g e o f 2 7 . 8 p e r c e n t t o t h e tto p e n - e n d M p o r t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n .

The s t a n d ­

a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s was 2 7 . 0 , $ o a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o code t h e s e 20 r e ­ s p o n s e s , b u t e a c h o f them i s p r e s e n t e d a s w r i t t e n b y f e e c o u n s e l e e i n A p p e n d ix H*

T h ree j u d g e s w ere a s k e d t o s e l e c t

t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s w h ic h seem ed to r e p r e s e n t an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g ,

Two o f f e e t h r e e j u d g e s a g r e e d

t h a t i t e m s 4 , 10,. 1 2 , 1 4 , and 15 r e p r e s e n t e d an e x p r e s s i o n o f an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g , sig n e d a p e rc e n ta g e w eig h t to t h i s

f e r e e Cs a s ­

tto t h e r e w p o r t i o n o f t h e

54 q u e s t i o n and t h e n f a i l e d

t o make a n y comment#

a s I t e m s 2 , 8 , a n d 18 i n A p p e n d ix H#

T hese a p p e a l

Two Cs ( i t e m s 9 a n d 10

o f A p p e n d ix H) com m ented, b u t a s s i g n e d n o p e r c e n t a g e t o t h e i r comments#

Th© r e m a i n i n g t e n r e s p o n d e n t s seem ed t o b e g i v i n g

v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g c r e d i t f o r some b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t * The s is © o f t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s s h o u l d be n o t e d *

I t I s o b v io u s t h a t

t h e r e was w ide v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e a s s i g n e d by t h e Cs t o th© v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s *

T h is was p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d

b y d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l o r t e c h n i q u e s m d d i f f e r e n c e s I n the p r o b l e m s o f t h e counsel©©®* Prom t h e r e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s t i o n s 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 8 a n d 12, t h e r e f o r e , I t

seem s r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t th© e o u n -

s e i s e s ’ a t t i t u d e ® , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , seem s t o b e f a v o r a b l e to w a rd v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g #

The u n f a v o r a b l e

r e s p o n s e s s h o u l d s e r v e a s a c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d Im­ p ro v em en t o f c o u n s e lin g t o o l s and te c h n iq u e s* R e su lts o f v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g in ni'nmwm

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(6 and 7 ) w e re I n c l u d e d i n th© q u e s t i o n n a i r e - w h i c h w e re

d e s ig n e d to © l i c i t th© c o u n sel© ® ’ a f e e l i n g c o n c e r n i n g t h i s con a i d e r a t i on#

Q u e s t i o n 6?

Some i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l ­ in g r e s u l t s In th e c h o ic e o f a p a r t i c u l a r vo­ c a tio n a l fie ld # I f y o u w ere on© o f t h e s e I n ­ d i v i d u a l s - how would you d e s c r i b e y o u r p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e tow ard t h i s c h o ic e ?

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R esp o n ses X am c o n v i n c e d t h a t I t was an e x t r e m e l y p o o r c h o ic e * I n some ways i t a p p e a r s t h a t my d e c i s i o n was u n w lse # I c a n now s e e t h a t i t was a s e n s i b l e c h o ic e * I t was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y th© b e s t c h o i c e X could h a v e made*

O n ly 4 6 o f t h e 111 r e s p o n d e n t s oh© a© t o a n s w e r t h i s q u e stio n *

The r e s p o n d e n t s w ere a s k e d I n th© d i r e c t i o n s (S ee

A p p e n d ix A) t o c o m p l e t e o n l y on© o f q u e s t i o n s 6 and 7* was a ssu m e d t h a t i f

It

c o u n s e lin g had r e s u l t e d In a v o c a tio n a l

c h o i c e t h e r e s p o n d e n t w o u ld a n s w e r Q u e s t i o n 6*

If

t h i s as­

s u m p tio n was c o r r e c t , I t m u s t b© c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y 41 p e r c e n t o f t h i s s a m p le o f c o u n sel© © s f e l t t h a t v o c a t i o n a l co u n ­ s e l in g r e s u l t e d in th e s e l e c ti o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a tio n a l fie ld .

S i n c e 10 o f t h e 46 a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n f e l t t h a t

a p o o r c h o i c e h a d b e e n mad©, th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s ©f c o u n s e l i n g a s a m eans o f s e l e c t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d to h a v e b e e n l i m i t e d

seem s

t o 36 I n d i v i d u a l s o r 32 p e r c e n t o f th©

e o u n s e l e e s o f t h e t o t a l sa m p le *

56 'Q u e s t i o n

i f c o u n s e l i n g d i d n o t r e s u l t I n th® c h o i c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d , . w h ic h o f th© f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e ben©* f i t s you r e c e i v e d f r o m c o u n s e l i n g ? (C heck a l l w h ic h seem a p p l i c a b l e * )

F re q u e n c ie s^ 42 0 52 53 5 15 14

- I h a v e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m y s e lf * * C o u n s e l i n g s h a t t e r e d my s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e « - I h a v e a b e t t e r k n o w le d g e o f my p o i n t s o f s t r e n g t h and w eak n ess* - 1 am more c a p a b l e o f d o i n g my own v o c a ­ t i o n a l p la n n in g * - I r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g b e n e f i c i a l fro m c o u n ­ se lin g * - 1 am more s e c u r e o r c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h r e ­ f e r e n c e t o my v o c a t i o n a l f u t u r e * - Any o t h e r ? D e s c r ib e * The c h o i c e s o f r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w e re

l a r g e l y t h o s e w h ic h i m p l i e d t h a t a t l e a s t s o m e th i n g b e n e f i ­ c i a l h a d r e s u l t e d fro m c o u n s e l i n g . i n g seem ed t o f e e l

O nly 5 o f t h o s e r e s p o n d ­

t h a t th e y had re c e iv e d n o th in g b e n e f i c i a l

from c o u n s e l i n g , and none i n d i c a t e d sh a tte re d

t h e ir se lf-c o n fid e n c e *

t h a t c o u n se lin g had

The r e s p o n s e s t o th e "open-

e n d ” p a r t o f t h i s q u e s t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d I n A p p e n d ix $•

Ho

a t t e m p t was made to code t h e few r e s p o n s e s w h ic h w ere e l i ­ c i t e d b y th© "a n y o t h e r ” p o r t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n *

The

2* T hese a r e f r e q u e n c y v a l u e s and n o t p e r c e n t a g e s a s I n th© o th e r q u e stio n s* F o r a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s se© Hot© C o n c e r n i n g A p p e n d ix A, p a g e 96*

57 v e r b a t i m r e s p o n s e ® o f th© 14 Cs who r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s p a r t o f Q u e s tio n . 7 w ore t r a n s c r i b e d

(A p p e n d ix 0 , p a g e 102.) a n d

t h r e e J u d g e s w e re a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e w hich' i t e r n s seem ed u n ­ f a v o r a b le to co u n selin g *

Two o u t o f t h e t h r e e J u d g e s a g r e e d

t h a t item ® 8 , 3 , 1 0 , and 14 i m p l i e d u n f a v o r a b l e c o u n s e l i n g re s u lts *

The r e m a i n i n g answer® seem t o b e c r e d i t i n g v o c a ­

t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g w i t h some b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t o r I n f l u e n c e . The r e s p o n s e t o Q u e stio n ® 6 and 7 s u g g e s t s t h a t c o u n s e lin g r e s u l t e d i n th e c h o ic e o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y v o c a tio n ­ a l f i e l d f o r o n l y 38 p e r c e n t o f t h e e o u n s e l e e a *

The g r e a t

m a j o r i t y , , h o w e v e r , c r e d i t e d c o u n s e l i n g w i t h one o r more b e n e ­ f ic ia l re s u lts . W h e th e r p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d i n c o u n s e l i n g had b e e n fo llo w e d ,

Q u e s t i o n s 1 and 9 w e re d e s l© a e d fcp s u p p l y I n f o r ­

m atio n f o r t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Q u e stio n Is

What i s t h e t i t l e o f y o u r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n ? I f you a r e n o l o n g e r a c o l l e g e s t u d e n t l i s t some o f t h e d u t i e s o f y o u r p r e s e n t j o b .

T h i s Q u e s t i o n , a® I t was c o n s t r u c t e d , p r o v i d e d o n ­ l y g e n e r a l izifo rm & ticm i n term® o f w h e t h e r o r n o t th© r e ­ s p o n d e n t was s t i l l a s t u d e n t and i f he was no l o n g e r a s t u d ­ e n t , i n w h a t t y p e o f w ork he was c u r r e n t l y e n g ag e d *

When

t h e re s p o n s e ® to t h i s I t e m w e re com pared w i t h t h e c o u n s e l o r 1® summary o f t h e c a s e , I t was f o u n d t h a t 88 p e r c e n t o f th e

m counsel© © © s m m & t o b© e n g a g e d I n ®om© a c t i v i t y n o t con* s i d e r e d t o b e c o m p a tib le w i t h th© c o u n s e lo r* ® o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o g n o s i s an d t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p l a n s t h a t to o k p l a c e I n c o u n s e lin g *

S e v e n ty -e ig h t p e r c e n t in d ic a te d

c u r r e n t l y e n g a g e d i n an a c t i v i t y

t h a t th e y w ere

s u c h a s s c h o o l w ork o r n o n ­

s c h o o l w ork w h ic h w as s i m i l a r to t h e p l a n s an d recom m enda­ t i o n s a r i s i n g fro m c o u n s e l i n g a s s u g g e s te d b y th© c o u n s e l o r ’ s summary o f th© c a s e *

The u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n w ould

h a v e b e e n im p ro v e d b y r e q u e s t i n g th© r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r m a jo rs *

T h is w as b e l i e v e d to b© u n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h i s

i n f o r m a t i o n was i n c l u d e d i n th© o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s o f th e u n i ­ v e rs ity * I n a n s w e r i n g Q u e s t i o n 1* 85 Os s t a t e d

t h a t th e y

w ere s t u d e n t s * w h e r e a s 86- i n d i c a t e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n t o b e o th e r th an stu d e n t*

When t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s a r e co m p ared w i t h

t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa* c o n s i d e r a b l e d is c r e p a n c y can be n o ted * c o rd s , 69 a re s t i l l have g ra d u a te d *

A c c o r d i n g t o th© U n i v e r s i t y ’ s r e ­

s t u d e n t s , SO h a v e d ro p p e d o u t , and 12

T h is d i s c r e p a n c y m eans t h a t o f t h e 42 who

g r a d u a t e d o r d r o p p e d o u t , 16 s t i l l c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s t o b e stu d e n ts*

F iv e o f th e s e a r e g r a d u a te s o f th e $ tat© u n i v e r ­

s i t y o f lo w a who a r e c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n *

The 11 r e ­

m a i n i n g a r e counsel©©© who a r e a p p a r e n t l y c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a t some o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n *

59 Q u e s tio n 9 s

U n f o r e s e e n c irc u m s ta n c e ® an d © v e n ts w h ic h a r i s e a t a l a t e r d a t e ©an o f t e n f o r c e a l t e r a t i o n s I n o r i g i n a l p la n s * u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s a s you*v© fo u n d th em , to w h a t e x t e n t h a v e you b e e n a b le t o f o l l o w th e p l a n f o r m u l a t e d d u r i n g v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g ?

15

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10

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I t h a s b e e n a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o f o l * low t h r o u g h on my p l a n s * I. h a v e h a d t o m o d if y my plan® to some e x t e n t . W ith m i n o r e x c e p t i o n s my p r o g r a m h a s p r o v e d fe a sib le . n o t h i n g h a s a r i s e n to f o r c e me t o d e v i a t e from th e p la n .

I t I t I n t e r e s t i n g t o not© t h a t 105 o f t h e r e s p o n d * e n t s a n s w e r e d t h i s q u e s t i o n , i m p l y i n g t h a t some p l a n h a d b e e n fo rm u la te d d u rin g co u n selin g *

I b i s may b e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h

o n l y 4 6 who f e l t t h a t c o u n s e l i n g h a d r e s u l t e d i n o f a p a r t i c u l a r fie ld .*

T h is c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d

th e c h o i c e to I n d i c a t e

t h a t w h i l e t h e c l i e n t s do n o t f e e l t h a t c o u n s e l i n g p r o d u c e d a s p e c i f i c c h o ic e ,

t h e y do i m p l y I n a n s w e r i n g Q u e s t i o n 9 t h a t

some p l a n n i n g r e s u l t e d d u r i n g t h e i r c o u n s e l i n g *

T h is I s n o t

so r e a s o n a b l e a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a® I t a p p ea r® a t f i r s t g l a n c e , o w in g to t h e f a c t t h a t th© counsel©©® w ere a l l a s k e d t o r e * sp ond t o Q u e s t i o n 9 a n d w ere p e r m i t t e d t o o m it Q u e s t i o n 6 I f I t w as n o t a p p l i c a b l e *

'fhe am ount o f p l a n n i n g i m p l i e d m ay,

th e r e f o re , be sp u rio u sly h ig h .

T h is n o t i o n l a s t r e n g t h e n e d

b y t h e f a c t t h a t 5 o f th© re s p o n d e n t® d i d n o t c h e e k m y o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p h r a s e s , b u t ' mad© a comment t o th© e f f e c t

00 t h a t no p l a n h a d b o o n f o r m u l a t e d *

It

seem s r e a s o n a b l e t o

assu m e t h a t t h e a c t u a l am oun t o f p l a n n i n g d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g I® p r o b a b l y som ew hat l e s s th a n t h e b a r e r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s Ite m In d ic a te * When Q u e s t i o n 9 i s c o n s i d e r e d I n r e l a t i o n t o th® p r o b l e m o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e c o u n s e ls ® f e l t p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g h a d b e e n f o l l o w e d , I t c a n b e s e e n t h a t 55 p e r c e n t f e e l t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n u n a b l e to f o l l o w

them com**

p l e t e l y , w h e r e a s 47 p e r c e n t seem t o f e e l t h e p l a n s h a v e b e e n fo llo w e d to a c o n s id e ra b le e x te n t* 4 c o m p a r is o n o f t h e c o u n s e l o r ’ s summary o f e a c h c a s e w i t h t h e l e g l s t r a r 1® r e c o r d s l e d t o th© c o n c l u s i o n t h a t 7 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e counsel© © s w e re I n a c u r r i c u l u m c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p l a n s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e c o u n s e l o r * s summary* Two o f th© t h r e e a n s w e r s f o r t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e th e r o r n o t t h e counsel©©© f o l l o w e d th© p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g a r e I n r e l a t i v e l y good a g r e e m e n t*

The a n a l y s i s O f

t h e r e s p o n s e t o Q u e s t i o n 1 I n d i c a t e d t h a t 7 8 p e r c e n t seem ed t o b e f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l i n g p l a n s , and s t u d y o f t h e E ® g i s t r a p ’s r e c o r d s r e v e a l e d t h a t 7 5 p e r c e n t w ere f o l l o w i n g s u c h plan ® w h ile i n sch o o l*

Th© c o u n s e l© © s ’ o p i n i o n s on th© m a t t e r

( Q u e s t i o n 9) i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y 47 p e r c e n t f e e l t h e y a r e f o l l o w i n g th© p l a n s *

T h is d i s c r e p a n c y c a n p r o b a b l y b e e x ­

p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f c h a n g e s mad© sin e © l e a v i n g s c h o o l ,

p o o r memory o f c o u n s e l i n g , an d f a i l u r e o f th© c o u n s e l o r and t h e counsel© ® t o a r r i v e a t t h e ammo f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s b e f o r e te rm in a tin g c o u n se lin g . .peg;roe o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w l t h a c a d e m ic m a j o r a n d / o r v o c a tio n a lf i e l d . (1 0 a n d

The q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n c l u d e d two q u e s t i o n s

1 1 ) w h ic h w ere e x p e c t e d t o a i d i n th® s t u d y o f t h i s

p ro b le m # Q u e stio n 10 1

Assume f o r t h e moment t h a t y o u a r e e n t e r i n g SUI a g a i n a s a freshm an#. How w ould y o u r p r o ­ b a b l e c h o i c e o f a m a j o r c om pare w i t h th® m a j o r you have o r had w h ile a t t e n d i n g th e S t a t e H n lv a r s i t y o f Io w a ?

14 24

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48

-

14

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An- a l m o s t c o m p le t e ly d i f f e r e n t s e t o f c o u rses* B a th e r d i f f e r e n t m ajo r f i e l d w ith c o n s id e r ­ a b ly d i f f e r e n t e le c tiv e s * E s s e n t i a l l y t h e same m a j o r f i e l d w i t h some­ w hat d i f f e r e n t e le c tiv e s # 8am® m a j o r c o u rse® and same e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s .

The r e s u l t ® ab o v e i n d i c a t e

t h a t 62 p e r c e n t o f th©.

c o u n s e l e e s w ould r e p e a t t h e i r p r e s e n t m a jo r s *

T h is seam s t o

I n d i c a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n , b u t would be more mean­ in g fu l I f i t

c o u l d b e co m p ared w i t h a g ro u p o f n o n c o u n s e l e d

s tu d e n ts . A w i t h i n - g r o u p © v a l u a t i o n o f some M e a n i n g f u l n e s s * h o w e v e r* c a n b e mad® by t e s t i n g th® h y p o t h e s i s t h a t couns©3e@« a r e m ore f r e q u e n t l y s a t i s f i e d b y t h o s e m a j o r s c h o s e n a s a r e s u l t o f -co u n selin g o r c o n firm e d by c o u n s e lin g th a n b y th o s e

62 ©hoeen w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o in g *

th e p l a n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o u n s e l*

aSoie hy p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d b y m ean s o f t h e o b i * s q u a r e

t e s t w i t h th© Y a t e s * c o r r e c t i o n a p p l i e d *

fh© c h i - s q u a r e

v a l u e o f 1 2 * 6 6 $ b a s e d on 05 counsel©©© w i t h 1. d e g r e e o f f r e e ­ dom, i s

s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e *1 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e *

Dhe g r o u p s d i f f e r e d a s f o l l o w s 2

n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f th© s a t i s *

f l e d g r o u p se em e d to h a v e s e l e c t e d a m a j o r w h ic h h a d b e e n s u g g e s te d o r co n firm ed by c o u n se lin g *

Among t h o s e d l s s a t l s -

f l e d w i t h t h e i r m a jo r s * o n l y 66 p e r c e n t seem ed t o h a v e s e ­ l e c t e d a m a j o r c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f v o c a t i o n a l coun­ s e lin g .

-Thea© r e s u l t s seem t o i n d i c a t e

t h a t th e cou nsel© © a

are- m ore f r e q u e n t l y s a t i s f i e d when t h e i r m a j o r s a r e c o n s i s t ­ e n t w ith p l a n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g th an when m a j o r s a r e c h o s e n w h ic h w e re n e i t h e r c o n f i r m e d n o r s u g ­ g e s te d by c o u n selin g * Q u e stio n H i

Work e x p e r i e n c e o r f u r t h e r t h o u g h t s o m e tim e s l e a d s to a d e s i r e t o c h a n g e n o t o n l y a s p e c i ­ f i c j o b b u t an e n t i r e j o b a r e a * C o n sid e rin g th e e n t i r e f i e l d (aco o u n taB cy , jo u rn a lis m * c l e r i c a l work* © to *)* how w ould y o u d e s c r i b e y o u r a t t i t u d e toward, r e m a i n i n g i n y o u r p r e ­ s e n t g e n e r a l a r e a o f w o rk ?

63

29

- My p r e s e n t a r e a h a s a g r e a t f u t u r e a n d I

BB

- A lth o u g h th e a r e a ' h a s c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s # X do n o t e x p e c t to c h a n g e * - T h i s a r e a h a s many l i m i t a t i o n s a n d X w i l l p r o b a b ly make a change* - The a r e a seem® u n p r o m i s i n g and I d e f i n i t e * 1y p la n to c h a n g e ,

would n o t leave It*

12 7

Th© r e s p o n s e to t h i s q u e s t i o n seem s t o i m p l y t h a t o n l y 19 p e r c e n t o f t h e e o u n a e le .e s e x p e c t t o c h a n g e t h e i r a r e a s o f w ork,

if

t h i s c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s an i n d i c a t i o n

o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s # i t w ould ap­ p e a r t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t a r a t h e r w e l l s a t i s f i e d g ro up* T h i s c o m p a r i s o n a g a i n s u f f e r s f r o m th e l a c k o f a c o n t r o l g ro u p # b u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

seem s r e a s o n a b l e ,

sin c e th e

g r o u p o f cou n sels© © i s com posed o f r e l a t i v e l y y o u n g p e o p l e who c o u l d make c h a n g e s i n

t h e i r v o c a tio n s w ith l i t t l e

sa c ri­

f i c e a n d y e t seem t o p r e f e r t h e i r p r e s e n t c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n * X n t e r - p e s p o n &e C o m p a r is o n s The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e m i g h t b e a d i f f e r * e n c e i n r e s p o n s e t o c e r t a i n o f t h e i t e m s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e p e n d i n g u pon w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e counsel© ® had a f a v o r a b l e a ttitu d e

to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g # w h e t h e r o r n o t c o u n s e l i n g r e ­

s u l t e d i n th e c h o ic e o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y f i e l d , d e c id e d , t h e r e f o r e , p a riso n s*

e tc .

I t was

to c a r r y o u t c e r t a i n i n t e r - r e s p o n s e com­

Xhe c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f h o m o g e n e ity w as u t i l i s e d

64 to a id in

th® © ■ v aluation o f d i f f e r e n c e s * Y a te s *

c a lc u la te d *

c o r r e c t i o n w as a p p l i e d t o e a c h c h i - s q u a r e

l a a few c a s e s F I s h e r * s e x a c t t e s t f o r tw o -b y -

two t a b l e s w as u s e d I n p l a c e o f th e o h l - s q u a r e t e s t b e c a u s e one o f th e c e l l s i n

th e t a b l e c o n t a i n e d f e w e r t h a n th e r e ­

q u i s i t e n u m b e r o f c a s e s f o r p r o p e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e c h i sq u a re te s t*

lh© P * s b a s e d on F i s h e r 1* e x a c t t e a t w i l l b e

so d e s i g n a t e d when t h e y C o m p a riso n o f

H iB W M m w i*

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» iW » M

andu n f a v o r a b le a t t l t u d e a *

a p p e a r i n th© t a b l e s to fo llo w * re s p o n s e s by th o s e w ith f a v o r a b le I

n .m np u m i ■ > ■ ■■

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J — K n iw w w W iM

The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d

I n d iv id u a ls w ith a f a v o ra b le a t t i t u d e

t h a t th o se

to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g a s

i n d i c a t e d b y t h e i r r e s p o n s e s on Q u e s t i o n 3 m ig h t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h o s e who e x p r e s s e d an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i ­ tu d e i n

t h e i r r e s p o n s e s to' o t h e r I t e m s on th© q u e s t i o n n a i r e #

The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e s e two g r o u p s { f a v o r a b l e and u n f a v o r ­ a b l e ) w e re ho m o g en eo u s i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o Q u e s t i o n s 6 , 7* 9* a n d 10 was t e s t e d b y th© c h i - s q u a r e t e a t * s e n t s th© r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s *

T a b le IX p r e ­

Table XX D i f f e r e n c e s I n R esponse© Iso C e r t a i n Q u e s t i o n s B e tw ee n Cs w i t h F a v o r a b l e a n d U n f a v o r a b l e A t t i t u d e s

Ques*

6 Se 7 6 9 10

V a ria b le

N

S e le c s a t i s f i e ld - n o f i e l d 95 S e le O s a t i s f i e l d - u n s a t i a fie ld 43 F o llo w p l a n s - n o t f o llo w 98 R ep eat m & jo r-n o t r e p e a t 104

df

G h l- S q

P

1

2 *7 9 6 9

♦10

F i s h e r 1© T e s t 1* 118 9 1 7 .8 2 0 9 1

Th© g r o u p w i t h th© f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e

.0 2 *50 .0 1

to w a rd c o u n ­

s e l i n g d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from th e gro u p w ith th e un­ f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e i n t h e r e s p o n s e t o Q u e s t i o n 6* f e r e n c e s w e re i n

The d i f ­

t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n w i t h 92 p e r c e n t o f

th o s e w ith a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e h a v in g s e l e c t e d a s a t i s f a c t ­ o ry f i e l d

a s a g a i n s t o n l y 61 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h an u n ­

fa v o ra b le a ttitu d e *

S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w ere n o t e d ' b e ­

tw e en t h e f a v o r a b l e and u n f a v o r a b l e g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y w o u ld r e p e a t t h e i r m a j o r s ( Q u e s t i o n 1 0 )*

5« Th© c o u n s e l s © was r e q u e s t e d t o a n s w e r o n l y one o f Q ues­ t i o n s 6 and 7 , See t h e d i r e c t i o ne o f A p p e n d ix A . I f Q u e s t i o n 6 was a n s w e r e d , i t was assu m ed t h a t a v o c a t i o n ­ a l f i e l d ( s a t i s f a c t o r y o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ) was c h o se n * Xf t h e counsel© © a n s w e r e d Q u e s t i o n 7 , I t was a ssum ed t h a t no v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d had been s e le c te d * The c o m p a r i ­ s o n o f th© a t t i t u d e to w a rd o b u n s © li n g o f t h o s e who s e ­ l e c t e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y f i e l d w i t h t h o s e who s e l e c t e d n o f i e l d n e c e s s i t a t e d u s in g re s p o n s e s to b o th Q u e s tio n s 6 and 7* 'B its same c o m b i n a t i o n w i l l a p p e a r i n s e v e r a l o f t h e t a b l e s w h ic h f o l l o w .

S e v e n ty -se v e n p e r c e n t o f th o se w ith a f a v o r a b le a t t i t u d e w e re s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r m a j o r s # w h e r e a s o n l y 4 9 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e w e re s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r m a jo rs. Th© n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g f o r t h e c o m p a ris o n o f a t t i t u d e o f t h o s e who s e l e c t e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y f i e l d w i t h t h o s e who s e l e c t e d no f i e l d

( th e co m b in atio n o f Q u e s tio n s 6

an d 7 ) may b© e x p l a i n e d b y th© f a c t t h a t e v en th o u g h 65 o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t f e e l c o u n s e l i n g had r e s u l t e d i n

th e

s e l e c t i o n o f a f i e l d , o n l y 5 o f them f e l t t h e y h a d r e c e i v e d n o t h i n g b e n e f i c i a l f ro m c o u n s e l i n g ( Q u e s t i o n 7 , A p p e n d ix 0 ) . The c h i - s q u a r e f o r Q u e s t i o n s 6 and 7 , w h ic h i s l a r g e e n o u g h t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t a t th© 10 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , s h o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t b e o v e r l o o k e d , h o w e v e r , and m ig h t be i n ­ t e r p r e t e d a s I n d i c a t i n g a tre n d *

Among t h o s e Cs w i t h f a v o r ­

a b l e a t t i t u d e , 44 p e r c e n t f e l t t h e y s e l e c t e d a s a t i s f a c t o i y fie ld ,

w h e r e a s 2 6 p e r c e n t w i t h an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e made

such a s e le c tio n *

A l t h o u g h more c o n o l u e i v e e v i d e n c e l a n e e d ­

e d I t seem s r e a s o n a b l e to s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r t h o s e counsel© © a f o r whom v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g d o e s n o t r e s u l t i n th© s e l e c t i o n o f a v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d fa v o ra b le a tt itu d e

th an th o se

to h a v e a l e s s

th a t le a v e c o u n se lin g a f t e r

h a v in g s e le c te d a v o c a tio n a l f i e l d .





‘The P o f *30 f o r Q u e s t i o n 9 a p p e a r s to make i t s a f e bo c o n c lu d e t h a t t h e r e I s l i t t l e

d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e two

67 a t t i t u d e g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t to . w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y h a v e been a b l e t o f o l l o w th© p la n ® f o r m u l a t e d i n c o u n s e l i n g *

Such a

f i n d i n g r u n s c o n t r a r y t o t h e w r i t e r * s e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d seene to i n d i c a t e

t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g was n o t b la m e d when

th e p l a n a r r i v e d a t i n c o u n s e lin g had to be abandoned* C o m p a ris o n o f r e s p o n s e s f o r t h o s e who w ould o r would n o t r e p e a t t h e i r m a j o r s .* m ean s o f e l i c i t i n g It

Q u e s t i o n 10 was f o r m u l a t e d a s a

t h e c o u n sel© © * e a t t i t u d e

to w a rd b&a m a jo r*

seem ed t h a t t h o s e c o u n s e l e e s who w ere s a t i s f i e d m i g h t d i f ­

f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h o s e who w ere d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r m ajo rs i n n a ire *

t h e i r r e s p o n s e s to o t h e r ite m s on th e q u e s t i o n ­

® ilo was i n v e s t i g a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y

th a t

v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g w o u ld be f e l a m e d - f o r t h i s d i s s a t i s f a c ­ tio n *

I h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e s e two g r o u p s ( s a t i s f i e d and

d i s s a t i s f i e d ) w e re hom og en eous i n t i o n s 6 , 7 , a n d 9 was t e s t e d * a r e p r e s e n t e d I n T a b le X*

t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o Q u es­

Hie r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s

60 Table X B l f f e r e n e e s i n Be s p o u s e s t o C e r t a i n Q u e s t i o n s B etw een 0 s Who Would R e p e a t and $ 1 0 ee Who Would H o t R e p e a t T h e i r B a j o r a ( Q u e s t i o n 10)

Quo s .

V a ria b le

H

df

O h i- S q

6 3s 7 6

S e le c t s a tis fle ld -n o f ie ld S e le c t s a tis f ie ld - u n s a tis fie ld F o llo w p lan s-n o fc fo llo w

95

X

.6 2 5 9

9

T here

45 95

P

*00

p i s h o r t s T e s t .0 1 3 1 3*0X90 . 1 0

was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e two

groups w ith r e s p e c t

to w h e t h e r c o u n s e l i n g r e s u l t e d i n

th e s e -

l e c t i o n o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y f i e l d o r w h e t h e r no c h o i c e o f f i e l d was made ( Q u e s t i o n s 6 and 7 )»

H ow ever, t h e two g r o u p s d i d

seem t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t I n t e r m s o f t h o s e who f e l t th e f i e l d

s e l e c t e d was s a t i s f a c t o r y a s a g a i n s t t h o s e who b e ­

l i e v e d c o u n s e l i n g r e s u l t e d i n t h e c h o i c e o f an u n s a t i s f a c t ­ o ry m ajo r (Q u e stio n 6 ) , was a s f o l l o w s s

The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s

n i n e t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s who

f e l t t h e y w ould r e p e a t t h e i r m a j o r s s t a t e d a sa tis fa c to ry fie ld

th e y had s e l e c t e d

a n d o n l y 59 p e r c e n t who w ou ld n o t r e ­

p e a t t h e i r m a jo r i n d i c a t e d c o u n s e lin g had r e s u l t e d In a s a ­ tis f a c to r y se le c tio n . I t i s p o s s ib le t h a t th o se s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e i r m a j o r s may h a v e

had i t lin k e d w ith a v o c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e

69 w h ic h w as s i m p l y c o n f i r m e d b y c o u n s e l i n g , w h e r e a s thos© d i a s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r m a j o r s f o u n d t h a t c o u n s e l i n g p o i n t e d to** w ard a d i f f e r e n t m a j o r .

On t h e b a s i s o f a v e r y a l g n i f l e a n t

o h i-sq u & re v a lu e

( 1 2 . 3 6 3 w i t h 1 d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m ) , i t was

s u g g e s te d (p ag e

62) t h a t o o u n s e l e e s a r e m ore f r e q u e n t l y s a ­

t i s f i e d by th o se m ajo rs chosen a s a r e s u l t o f c o u n s e lin g o r c o n firm ed by c o u n s e lin g th a n b y th o s e ch osen w ith o u t r e g a r d to p la n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o u n s e l i n g . je c tiv e

T h erefo re, i f

th e ob­

s e l e c t e d was l i n k e d t o t h e c o u n se l® © * s m a j o r b y t h e

r e s u l t s o f c o u n s e l i n g , m ore s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s m a j o r w ould b e e x p e c t e d t h a n i f

th e c o u n s e lin g r e s u l t s p o in te d t o ­

w ard a d i f f e r e n t m a j o r . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a t t i t u d e

to w a rd t h e i r ma­

j o r s b e tw e e n t h o s e who f e l t t h e y had b e e n a b l e t o f o l l o w t h e p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d and t h o s e who h a d b e e n f o r c e d t o make c h a n g e s i n t h e i r p l a n s w e re n o t l a r g e e n o u g h t o be s i g n i f i ­ cant a t th e d e s ir e d l e v e l o f c o n fid e n c e .

The f o f *10 m i g h t

be i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n d i c a t i n g a t r e n d , and i n s p e c t i o n o f th e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t o f t h o s e who w ere s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r m a j o r , 55 p e r c e n t h a d f o l l o w e d p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d i n c o u n s e l i n g , w h e r e a s o n l y 34 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e d i s s a t i s ­ f i e d w i t h t h e i r m a j o r b e l i e v e d t h e y had f o l l o w e d t h e p l a n s * The e v i d e n c e i s n o t c l e a r a n d more r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d b e f o r e t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e tw e e n t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s c an b© a n s w e r e d

70 w ith any c e r t a i n t y ,

x t w o u ld seem t h a t t h e r e t e n d s to h e

m ore s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e m a j o r among t h o s e who f o l l o w e d t h e p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d t h a n among t h o s e who d i d n o t * C om part,son o f r e s p o n s e s f o r p a whose a t t i t u d e s t o * c o u n s e lin g had s h i f t e d *

Q u e stio n 4 p ro v id e d

th e eoun-

a e l e e w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s c h a n g e s w h ic h h i s a t t i ­ t u d e t o w a rd c o u n s e l i n g h a d u n d e r g o n e *

Ihe w r i t e r b e lie v e d

t h a t t h o s e who now f e l t c o u n s e l i n g m ore v a l u a b l e m i g h t d i f ­ f e r f r o m t h o s e who now f e l t c o u n s e l i n g was l e s s v a l u a b l e i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s tio n © 6* 7# an d 9*

T h is b e l i e f w as

b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n t h a t s u c h s h i f t s m i g h t b e r e l a t e d e f f i c a c y o f c o u n s e l i n g a s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e counsel© © *

to th e The

h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e s e two group© (m ore h e l p f u l a n d l e s s h e l p ­ f u l ) w ere h o m o g en e o u s i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e ® t o Q u e stio n ® 6 # l t and 9 w as t e s t e d *

The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s a r e p r e s e n t e d

i n T a b le X I . T a b le XX D i f f e r e n c e s i n R e s p o n s e s t o C e r t a i n Q u e s tio n ® B etw een Cs fih o m A t t i t u d e Toward C o u n s e l i n g Had S h i f t e d

Q u e s.

V a ria b le

H

df

5 6 & 7 9

Favor A ttitu d e -u n fa v o ra b le S e le c t s a tis fie ld -n o f ie ld F o llo w p l a n s - n o t f o llo w

51 43 48

1 1 6 .3 5 5 6 .0 0 1 F is h e r * ® T e s t .0 5 3 1 8 .1 3 3 0 *01

C h i-S q

F

I n t h e d a t a o f f a b l e XI t h e r e se em s t o b e s i g n i ­ f ic a n t d iffe re n c e s In g e n eral a ttitu d e

to w ard c o u n s e l i n g b e ­

tw e e n t h o s e who now f e e l c o u n s e l i n g m ore h e l p f u l and t h o s e who f e e l i t l e s s h e l p f u l t h a n when c o u n s e l i n g was c o m p l e t e d * S e v e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who f e e l I t m ore h e l p f u l now e x p r e s s a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e , w h e r e a s o n l y 17 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who now b e l i e v e c o u n s e l i n g was l e s s h e l p f u l t h a n a t th e c o m p le tio n o f c o u n s e lin g i n d i c a t e v o ra b le g e n e ra l a t t i t u d e

t h a t th ey h o ld a f a ­

t o w a rd c o u n s e l i n g *

T h is r e s u l t

m ig h t h a v e b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d s i n c e t h o s e who f e e l i t m ore h e l p f u l now m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t o h a v e a f a v o r a b l e g e n e r a l a t ­ titu d e

to w a rd a o u n s o l i n g * The m ore h e l p f u l a n d l e s s h e l p f u l g r o u p s d i f f e r e d

s i g n i f i c a n t l y when t h e y w e re s t u d i e d f o r s e l e c t i o n o f a s a ­ t i s f a c t o r y f i e l d v e r s u s s e l e c t i o n o f no f i e l d *

A p p r o x im a te ­

l y 6 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e Os who now f e e l c o u n s e l i n g m ore h e l p ­ f u l th o u g h t c o u n s e lin g had a id e d I n th e s e l e c t i o n o f a s a t i s ­ f a c t o r y v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d , w h e r e a s o n l y S3 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who b e l i e v e c o u n s e l i n g t o b e l e s s h e l p f u l I n d i c a t e d t h a t c o u n s e lin g had r e s u l t e d I n th e s e l e c t i o n o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y fie ld *

T h i s seem s t o I n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e I s more o f a t e n ­

dency f o r a f a v o r a b le

s h if t in a ttitu d e

t o b e f o u n d among Os

when a v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d I s s e l e c t e d d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g t h a n among Cb who s e l e c t n o f i e l d d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g *

The f i n a l c o m p a r is o n was made o f t h e m ore h e l p f u l and l e s s h e l p f u l g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y h a d b e e n a b l e to f o l l o w t h e p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d i n c o u n s e l i n g » The g r o u p s w e re s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n

t h i s re s p e c t w ith

71 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who now f e l t c o u n s e l i n g m ore h e l p f u l s t a t i n g t h a t th e y had b een a b le to f o llo w th e p l a n s fo rm u l a t e d i n c o u n s e l i n g w h i l e o n l y 24 p e r c e n t o f th© Os who f e l t c o u n s e l i n g was l e s s h e l p f u l now h a d b e e n a b l e t o f o l low t h e p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d * It

seem s p o s s i b l e

e v id e n c e t h a t s h i f t s

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to w a rd a more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e

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c o u n s e l i n g may b e e x p e c t e d among t h o s e whoa© g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g i s f a v o r a b l e # who f e e l t h a t c o u n s e l i n g r e ­ su lte d in

th e s e l e c t i o n o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y f i e l d *

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t h a t th e y have been a b le to f o llo w th e p la n s fo rm u la te d d u r­ in g c o u n selin g * C o m p a riso n o f V e t e r a n a n d f f o n v e t e r a n R e s p o n s e s on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c o u n s e l i n g c a s e s f o r t h e sa m p le to b e u s e d I n t h i s s t u d y , who h a d b e e n r e f e r r e d

t h e w r i t e r s o u g h t to a v o i d v e te r a n ®

to t h e C o u n s e l i n g O f f i c e f o r a d m i n i s ­

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t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e i t e m s o f t h e q u e stio n * *

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o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h o s e made b y t h e non* v e t e r a n g r o u p f o r whom n o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s e x i s t e d *

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Table XXX D i f f e r e n c e s I n B@sponges on Q u e s t i o n n a i r e B etw een V e t e r a n a n d N o n v e t e r a n Counsel©©©

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tionn& ire between th ose in d iv id u a ls who were s u c c e s s f u l and th o s e who were u n su c c e s s fu l I n SGhool* P r i o r to m ak in g s u c h a c o m p a riso n * i t w as n e c e s s a t y t o d e f i n e s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s *

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in a sim ila r mm*

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c e n t o f th o s e w ith s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o la r s h ip f e l t t h a t th e y w o u ld r e p e a t t h e i r m a j o r s , w h e re a s o n l y 47 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w ith u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o la r s h ip e x p re s s e d a w illin g n e s s to r e p e a t t h e i r p r e s e n t m a jo rs *

T h is r e s u l t seem s to i n d i c a t e

t h a t s u c c e s s i n f l u e n c e s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h th© m a jo r , T h e re seem ed to b e a te n d e n c y f o r th e " s u c c e s s f u l * an d " u n s u c c e s s f u l " g r o u p s to d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o ­ w ard c o u n s e l i n g

( Q u e s tio n 3 ) ,

I t was i n t e r e s t i n g

to f i n d

t h a t w h e re a s 48 p e r c e n t o f th e Os who w ere s u c c e s s f u l I n sc h o o l e x p re sse d a fa v o ra b le a t t i t u d e

to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g , 63

p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who w ere u n s u c c e s s f u l seem ed to h a v e a fa v o ra b le a tt i t u d e

to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g ,

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t i o n o f th e f e e l i n g b y some o f th e u n s u c c e s s f u l t h a t a t l e a s t t h e c o u n s e l o r was i n t e r e s t e d i n h im , w h ic h w as d i f f e r * e n t fro m th© u s u a l r e a c t i o n o f th e c o l l e g e f a c u l t y .

H ence

h i s a t t i t u d e w as f a v o r a b l e s im p ly b e c a u s e h e fo u n d som eone who w as s y m p a th e ti c and I n t e r e s t e d I n h i s p ro b le m w h e th e r o r n o t a n y r e a l h e l p o f a t a n g i b l e n a t u r e was p r o v i d e d , Th© f a i l u r e

to f i n d an y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I n

th© g r o u p s w h e th e r o r n o t t h e y f o llo w e d th© p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d w as c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n .

I t had b e e n h o p ed t h a t th o s e

78 f o l l o w i n g p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d w ould b© m ore s u c c e s s f u l i n s c h o o l th a n t h o s e ?>!h o f a i l e d

to c a n n y o u t th© p l a n s *

fh ls

e x p e c t a t i o n w as b& sed on t h e a s s u m p tio n t h a t c o u n s e l i n g m ig h t r e s u l t I n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a m a jo r m ore s u i t a b l e I n d i v id u a l* ® i n t e r e s t s an d a p t i t u d e s *

to th e

I t w as p o i n t e d o u t i n

th e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o m p a ris o n o f 0 s and M0s on g r a d e s ©am* ed,

t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s common c o u r s e s *

m o t i v a t i o n , e t c * , w h ic h m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d a n d w h ic h may a c * c o u n t f o r t h e h o m o g e n e ity o f th e two g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l* I n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r th e n o n - * s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s when th e

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fo r s a tis fa c tio n

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t h a t fa©**

t o r s o t h e r t h a n a c a d e m ic s u c c e s s s u c h a® o p p o r t u n i t y f o r ad** v a n o e m e n t, s a l a r y , e t c * , a r e I m p o r t a n t i n c r e a t i n g th e d e s i r e to c h a n g e f i e l d s * F o r t h o s e counsel©©® who re m a in e d I n s c h o o l o n e o r more s e m e s t e r s a f t e r th® s e m e s t e r i n w h ic h c o u n s e l i n g w as com* p i © t e d , i t w as p o s s i b l e f o r th© w r i t e r to s t u d y p ars!® ten © © I n a n o t h e r m anner*

By m oans o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a

r e c o r d s , th© m a jo r w h ic h w as a p p a r e n t l y s e l e c t e d i n c o u n s e l* i n g c o u ld b e co m p ared w i t h th© m a jo r w h ic h t h e c o u n s e l* * a c t u a l l y f o l lo w e d a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g *

I n t h i s m a n n e r t h e co u n *

s o l e © 3 who seem ed t o b© f o l l o w i n g th e p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d c o u ld

70 V*

b© o b j e c t i v e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d fr o m t h o s e who d i d n o t &©@m t o A c o m p a ri­

b© f o l l o w i n g th© p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d I n c o u n s e lin g *

so n w as mad© o f th e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n s u c c e s s f u l and u n ­ s u c c e s s f u l e o u n s e l e e s w i t h r e s p e c t to w h e th e r o r n o t , a c c o r d - 1 i n g t o th e r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e *

t h e y w e re f o l l o w i n g th e p l a n s

d raw n up d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e c o u n s e lo r *

Th© c h i - s q u a r e

v a l u e b a s e d on an If o f 106 w i t h 1 d e g r e e o f fre e d o m w as *7725 w h ic h i s dence*

s i g n i f i c a n t a t o n l y t h e 30 p e r c a n t l e v e l o f c o n f i ­ T hus w h e th e r o r n o t t h e p l a n s f o r m u la te d d u r i n g c o u n ­

s e l i n g w e re f o llo w e d d i d n o t seem to b e c o n n e c te d w i t h th e success o r f a ilu r e

o f th© c o u n s e ls © a «

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m o n is e s w i t h th e r e s u l t on c o m p a ris o n o f g r a d e s m e n tio n e d above * A c o m p a ris o n was a l s o c a r r i e d o u t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l co u n sels© © and th e c o u n ­ s e l o r ’ s p ro g n o s is f o r su c c e ss in c o u n s e lin g *

t h e m a jo r s e l e c t e d d u r i n g

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w i t h 1 d e g r e e o f fre e d o m w as co m p u ted a s 34* 10(97,1 s q u a r e o f t h i s sis© w i t h 1 d e g r e e o f fre e d o m i s

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t h a t th©

to p r e d i c t s u c c e s s w i t h some d e g r e e o f a c ­

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s u c c e s s f o r 95

p e r c e n t o f th© s u c c e s s f u l g ro u p an d t h a t t h e c o u n s e l o r g a v e a good p r o g n o s i s f o r 40 p e r o© nt o f t h o s e who w ere u n s u c c e s s ­

80 f u l shouX d b e n o te d *

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seem ed l o g i c a l t h a t t h e r e m ig h t b e d i f f e r e n c e s

I n r e s p o n s e s on c e r t a i n i t e m s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e tw e e n t h o s e counsel©© © who

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T a b le XV D i f f e r e n c e s I n R e sp o n se s on th© Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Be­ tw e e n Gs Who D id an d Who D id l o t p e r s i s t i n S c h o o l

Qua s . 3 9 1G 11

V a ria b le F a v o r a t titu d © ~ u n f a v o r a b l© F o llo w p l a n s - n o t f o l l o w R epeat m a jo r-n o t r e p e a t S a t i s w ith f l e l d - d i s s & t l s w ith f i e l d

8

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%n e a c h o f th© f o u r c o m p a ris o n s p r e s e n t e d I n T able© XIV a n d XV th© t e n d e n c i e s f o r g ro u p d i f f e r e n c e s w ere s i m i l a r * w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e p e r s i s t e n t and n o n p e r s i s t e n t g r o u p s sh o w in g m ore s t r e n g t h o r s i g n i f i c a n c e *

I t m u st b e

p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a l t h o u g h th© ^ n o n - p e r s i s t e n t ® g ro u p c o n s i s t s o f 6 3 p e r c e n t u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s an d 37 p e r c e n t s u c c e s s ­ f u l s tu d e n ts *

t h e r e s u l t s seem m ore p o s i t i v e i n e a c h o f t h e

c o m p a r is o n s th a n when th e Cs a r e g ro u p e d a s s u c c e s s f u l o r u n s u c c e s s fu l.

Hi© m ere f a c t o f r e m a in in g i n c o l l e g e seem s

to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among t h e s e I te m s som ew hat m ore c l e a r l y t h a n d o e s th© f a c t o r o f a c a d e m ic s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e a s d e te r m in e d by g r a d e s . As c a n b© s e e n fro m T&bl© XIV* th e p e r s i s t e n t an d n o n - p e r s i s t e n t g ro u p s d i f f e r e d tu d e to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g

s ig n if ic a n tly in

th e ir a t t i ­

( Q u e s tio n 3 ) a n d I n t h e i r f e e l i n g c o n ­

c e r n i n g w h e th e r o r n o t t h e y w ould r e p e a t t h e i r m a jo r I f g iv e n a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y { Q u e s tio n 1 0 ) .

W ith in th e p e r s i s t e n t

g ro u p 46 p e r c e n t e x p r e s s e d a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e

to w a rd c o u n ­

s e l i n g an d among th© n o n - p e r s i s t e n t g ro u p 7 8 p e r c e n t r e ­ sponded w ith a f a v o r a b le g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e

to w a rd c o u n s e lin g *

T h is r e s u l t may a g a i n Im p ly a f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n b a s e d on t h e i n t e r e s t shown b y th e c o u n s e l o r I n c o n t r a s t to o t h e r tf n l v a r s i t y p e r s o n n e l*

I t may a l s o I n d i c a t e

t h a t t h o s e who

l e a v e th e u n i v e r s i t y f i n d c o u n s e l i n g b e n e f i c i a l I n m ak in g

B2 th© new a d j u s t m e n t w h e th e r t h i s a d j u s t m e n t i n v o l v e s t a k i n g a j o b o r e n t e r i n g a d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l* c e rta in ly

T h is i s a p o i n t w h ic h

r e q u i r e s an d i s w o rth y o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h * The g r o u p s d i f f e r i n

th e e x p e c te d d i r e c t i o n w i t h

r e s p e c t t o w h e th e r o r n o t th e y w o u ld r e p e a t t h e i r m a jo r* S e v e n ty - o n e p e r c e n t o f th e p e r s i s t e n t g ro u p i n d i c a t e d d e s ire

th e

t o r e p e a t t h e i r m a jo r s a n d o n ly 39 p e r c e n t o f th o s e

who d i d n o t p e r s i s t e x p r e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to r e p e a t t h e i r m a jo rs .

T h is f i n d i n g m ig h t b e a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t d i s s a t i s ­

f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r m a jo r s was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n

th is

g r o u p *s n o n p e r s i s t e n c e * The a t t i t u d e o f th e two g r o u p s to w a rd w h e th e r o r n o t th e y h a d f o llo w e d t h e p l a n s f o r m u la te d an d w h e th e r o r n o t t h e y w o u ld l i k e

to c h a n g e t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d d i d n o t d i f ­

f e r s ig n ific a n tly *

I t was i n t e r e s t i n g

to not© t h a t 8 3 p e r

c e n t o f t h e p e r s i s t e n t g ro u p a n d 74 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o n p e r s i s t e n t g ro u p i n d i c a t e d

t h a t th e y p r o b a b l y w ould n o t

change t h e i r v o c a tio n a l f ie ld s *

T h is a g a i n r e p r e s e n t s a

r a t h e r h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f Ob who seem r e a s o n a b l y w e l l s a t i s ­ f ie d w ith t h e i r p r e s e n t v o c a tio n a l f ie ld * As a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h t o th e s tu d y o f p e r s i s t e n c e , th e C and MG g r o u p s w ere co m p ared on p r o p o r t i o n o f d r o p - o u t s * I t w as fo u n d t h a t 36 p e r c e n t o f t h e C g ro u p d ro p p e d o u t o f s c h o o l b e f o r e g r a d u a t i o n , w h e re a s 43 p e r c e n t o f th e MC g ro u p d r o p p e d o u t*

A j : - t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n

83 p r o p o r t i o n s w as a p p l i e d »

A J .- v a l u e o f 1*71 w as fo u n d w h ic h ,

w i t h 114 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m , i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 10 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f id e n c e * I n o r d e r to c o n t r o l th e b i a s d u e to d i f f e r e n t d a t e s o f e n t r a n c e , a s i m i l a r c o m p a ris o n on p r o p o r t i o n o f d r o p - o u t s w as a c c o m p lis h e d on t h o s e p a i r s who w e re m a tc h e d o r n e a r l y s o on d a t e o f e n t r a n c e *

F o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s e Cs d ro p p e d o u t

o f s c h o o l b e f o r e g r a d u a t i o n an d 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e HQs d i d n o t p e r s i s t to g r a d u a t i o n *

The j t - v a l u e i n t h e t e s t f o r s i g ­

n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n ^ p r o p o r t i o n s w as c o m p u ted a s 4 * 7 6 2 w i t h 57 d e g r e e s o f free d o m *

T h is d i f f e r e n c e f a v o r s

th e c o u n s e l e e s a n d i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t th e 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f id e n c e *

W h ile c o n c l u d i n g t h a t c o u n s e l i n g m ak es f o r g r e a t ­

e r p e rs is te n c e I s

ris k y , i t

enfcs seem to b e m ore l i k e l y

seem s c l e a r t h a t c o u n s e l e d atud^* to r e m a in i n s c h o o l a n d w in d e ­

g r e e s th a n n o n c o u n s e le d s t u d e n t s o f e q u a l a c a d e m ic a b i l i t y * I t may b e t h a t t h e Os o f b o r d e r l i n e a b i l i t y

te n d

to p e r s i s t

and g e t a d e g r e e , w h e r e a s I C s o f s i m i l a r a b i l i t y may t e n d t o d r o p o u t*

I f t h i s w ere t r u e , I t w o u ld b© r e a s o n a b l e t o p r e ­

d i c t h i g h e r g r a d © - p o in t a v e r a g e s a t t h e tim e o f l e a v i n g s c h o o l f o r HCo th a n f o r Cs who d ro p p e d o u t* T h is h y p o t h e s i s w as i n v e s t i g a t e d b y m ea n s o f a J jte s to

Th© mean g r a d e - p o l n t a v e r a g e f o r th© Cs w as 1 * 7 6 said

t h a t o f th e HC g ro u p w as 1*87*

IT sln g th e Jb f o r u n r e l a t e d

m e a s u r e s , a j#~valu© o f * 8142 was c a l c u l a t e d *

T h is v a l u e o f

m t w i t h 85 d e g r e e s o f f re e d o m I s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t *

It

s h o u ld

h e m ade c l e a r t h a t th e u s e o f th e J*-fcest f o r u n r e l a t e d m e a s­ u r e s w as a c o n s e r v a t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a f o r t h i s t e s t * T h is a r i s e s fro m th© f a c t t h a t th© ¥ 0 g ro u p i n c l u d e d th e o r i g ­ i n a l m a tc h e s f o r 51 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s i n g ro u p ,

th e 0

Thus t h e e r r o r te rm u s e d i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e t was

l a r g e r th a n n e c e s s a ry *

T hese r e s u l t s do n o t i n d i c a t e

t h e r e w as a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n

th a t

th e two g r o u p s , h u t

th e re i s a need f o r f u r th e r re s e a rc h I f

th is p o in t I s

to he

c la rifie d , Mb a f i n a l comm ent th e w r i t e r w is h e s to p o i n t o u t t h a t 95 p e r c e n t o f t h e F a n d j r - v a l u a s c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y f a v o r th© c o u n s e le e s *

D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t many t e s t s

a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , In a c a r e f u l l y c o n tr o l le d s tu d y su c h con­ s i s t e n c y c o u ld c e r t a i n l y b e c a u t i o u s l y I n t e r p r e t e d a s f a v o r ­ a b l e t o t h e e f f i c a c y o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g *

85

Chapter I? SUISMA3BT T h is s t u d y w as d e s i g n e d to m e a su re th e e f f i c a c y o f th e v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g p r o c e s s a s i t h a s been c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e o f th e S t a t e U n iv e r ­ s i t y o f Iow a* fh© s t u d y w as a m a tc h e d g ro u p s t u d y o f 115 p a i r s o f s tu d e n ts *

I h e p a i r s c o n s i s t e d o f one s t u d e n t who h a d

p a r t i c i p a t e d I n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g a t th e S t a t e U n i v e r ­ s i t y o f Io w a S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e an d a n o t h e r s t u d e n t who h a d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g * p a i r s o f s t u d e n t s w ere m a tc h e d on a g e i n y e a r s *

fh ese

sex* r a c e *

d e c i l e o f c o m p o s ite s c o r e on th e 0ED e x a m in a t io n s ta k e n a t th e tim e o f e n t r a n c e a t S U I, v e t e r a n o r n o n v e t e r a n s t a t u s , g e n e r a l a r e a o f c o n c e n tr a tio n , and s o c i o - c u l tu r a l c l a s s i f i ­ c a tio n *

Ih e c r i t e r i a u t i l i s e d f o r c o m p a rin g th e c o u n s e le d

a n d n o n c o u n s e le d s t u d e n t s I n c l u d e d g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e , t o ­ t a l h o u r s a c c u m u la te d , t o t a l g ra d e d h o u r s s a i l e d , of p e rs is te n c e ,

to ta l,

s e m e s te r s

p o i n t s e a r n e d , and d r o p o u t s .

An a t ­

te m p t was a l s o made to e l i c i t some r e s p o n s e fro m th e c o u n s e l e e s c o n c e i v i n g th e e f f i c a c y o f c o u n s e l i n g b y m eans o f a quo s t i onn a i r e . Hie s tu d y r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s t 1*

An a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e b e tw e e n p r e a n d

86 p o e t c o u n s e l i n g ' g r a c e s f o r t h e p a i r s o f Cs and HCs r e s u l t e d i n an p w h ic h w as n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .

H ence t h e n u l l hypo th e *

s i s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e b e tw e e n Cs an d HCs c o u ld n o t b e r e j e c t e d . 2*

H ie Cs e a r n e d m ore g r a d e d h o u r s an d p e r s i s t e d

f o r m ore s e m e s t e r s th a n d id t h e i r HC m a tc h e s* 3* ity

W ith in - g r o u p c o m p a ris o n s w ere made o f th© q u a l ­

o f a c a d e m ic w ork b e f o r e and a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g f o r Cs and

f o r c o m p a ra b le tim e p e r i o d s f o r HC»*

The o n ly s i g n i f i c a n t

d i f f e r e n c e w as f o r Cs w i t h an i n i t i a l g r a d e - p o i n t a t o r a b o v e a 3.00- a v e r a g e .

I t was f o u n d t h a t t h i s g ro u p o f Os te n d e d t o

im p ro v e w h ile th© I C s o f s i m i l a r a b i l i t y d i d l e s s w e l l . 4.

Ho s i g n i f i c a n t im p ro v e m e n t i n g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r ­

a g e r e s u l t e d a f t e r c o u n s e l i n g f o r th o s e Cs who made c h a n g e s in

t h e i r m a jo r w h ic h e n a b le d them to f o l l o w th© p l a n s f o r ­

m u la te d d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g . 5.

Hi© c o u n s e l© * a 1 a t t i t u d e s

to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g ,

a s m e a s u re d b y c e r t a i n i t e m s on th© q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w ere f a ­ v o ra b le . 6.

C o u n s e lin g seem ed to h a v e r e s u l t e d i n

th e

c h o i c e o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d f o r o n ly 32 p e r c e n t o f th e c o u n s e l e e s . ite d

H ie g r e a t m a j o r i t y , h o w e v e r, c r e d ­

c o u n s e l i n g w ith on© o r m ore b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s . 7.

H ie o b j e c t i v e e v id e n c e i n d i c a t e s

t h a t fro m

7 3 - 7 8 p e r c e n t o f th e c o u n s e l e e s w ere f o l l o w i n g p l a n s w h ic h

87 w e re f o r m u la feed I n c o u n s e l i n g , d ic a te

Hi© counsels© © * o p i n i o n s i n ­

t h a t o n l y 47 p e r c e n t f e e l th e y a r e f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l ­

in g p la n s * 8*

H ie co u n sel© © s r e p o r t th e m s e lv e s a s b e in g w e l l

s a t i s f i e d fro m th e s t a n d p o i n t o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . 9.

S e v e r a l i n t e r - r e s p o n s e c o m p a r is o n s w ere c o n ­

d u c te d on th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e *

Thee© r e s u l t s w ere d i s c u s s e d

an d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l i n g p o i n t e d o u t* 10*

V e te r a n an d n o n v e te r a n r e s p o n s e s to th e q u e s ­

t i o n n a i r e w ere com pared*

i t was c o n c lu d e d t h a t th e re - w ere

n o s i g p n l f l e a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n t h e s e two g r o u p s i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e to t h e i te m s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e * 11*.

Ho s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s we-re n o t e d i n a com -

p a r l s o n o f r e s p o n s e s b y m a le s an d f e m a le s on c e r t a i n i terns i n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 12.

A c a d e m ic a lly s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l c o u n ­

sel© e s d i f f e r e d

s ig n if ic a n tly in

t h e i r r e s p o n s e s to th e q u e s ­

t i o n n a i r e o n ly w ith r e f e r e n c e t o w i l l i n g n e s s to r e p e a t t h e i r m a jo r*

S i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l counsel©©© i n ­

d ic a te d

t h a t th e y w ould r e p e a t t h e i r m a jo r s th a n was t r u e o f

th e u n s u c c e s s f u l c o u n s e l e e s . 13*

A c o m p a ris o n o f th e c o u n se lo r* ® c a s e summary

w i t h th e r e c o r d s o f th e R e g i s t r a r r e v e a l e d t h a t th e f o l l o w i n g o r n o t f o l l o w i n g o f t h e p l a n s f o r m u la te d d u r i n g c o u n s e l i n g d i d n o t seem to b e c o n n e c te d w i t h t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f

83 th© c o im & e le e s* 14-*

*Ih© c o u n s e lo r * s p r e d i c t i o n s w e re com pared w ith

th e a c t u a l s u c c e s s o f t h e c o u n s e le e s *

I t was fo u n d t h a t th e

c o u n s e l o r p r e d i c t e d s u c c e s s f o r 93 p e r c e n t o f th e success-*' f u l g ro u p and 40 p e r c e n t o f th e u n s u c c e s s f u l gro u p * 15*

I n a s t u d y o f r e s p o n s e s to th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e

b y p e r s i s t e n t a n d n o n p a r s i s t e n t g r o u p s , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore fa v o ra b le a tt i tu d e

to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g was e x p r e s s e d b y th e n o n -

p e r s i s t e n t g ro u p ,

Ih© p e r s i s t e n t g ro u p was s i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore

w illin g

to r e p e a t p r e s e n t m a jo rs * G e n e ra lly , I t

seem s l e g i t i m a t e to c o n c lu d e fro m t h i s

s t u d y t h a t counsel©©© do n o t seem t o do s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a c a d e m ic w ork a s m e a su re d b y g r a d e s th a n n o n c o u n s e le d m a tc h e s , b u t th e y te n d to p e r s i s t i n s c h o o l f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t im e . A ls o ,

t h o s e s t u d e n t s who h av e u n d e rg o n e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g

seem t o h a v e a h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e

to w a rd th© c o u n s e l i n g

s e r v i c e an d r e g a r d th e m s e lv e s a s h a v in g r e c e i v e d v a r i o u s b e n e ­ fits

fro m I t e v e n th o u g h th© s e l e c t i o n o f a s a t i s f a c t o r y o c ­

c u p a t i o n a l g o a l o c c u r r e d f o r o n ly o n e - t h i r d o f th e c a s e s . S e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h p ro b le m s h a v e b e e n su g ­ g e s te d by t h i s s tu d y , 1,

ib is

s tu d y made a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t to e x c lu d e

© o u n s e le e s w hose p r i n c i p a l p ro b le m was e m o tio n a l I n n a t u r e * I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s te d t h a t m ore Im p ro v em en t I n s c h o l a r s h i p m ig h t b e e x p e c te d a s a r e s u l t o f th e s u c c e s s f u l c o u n s e l i n g

89

o f i n d i v i d u a l sin w i t h a n e m o t i o n a l p ro b le m th a n o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a n o n - e m o t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l - c h o i c e p ro b le m *

A s tu d y

s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n to t h e p r e s e n t o n e , u s i n g & s i m i l a r m a tc h ­ i n g p r o c e d u r e , i n w h i c h w as i n c l u d e d a t h i r d g ro u p o f c o u rts e l e e s w hose p rim e p ro b le m was on© o f a p e r s o n a l a d ju s tm e n t n a t u r e an d who w e re b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y c o u n ­ s e l e d , w ould b e u s e f u l *

S u c h a s t u d y w ould p e r m i t a t h r e e -

way c o m p a ris o n b e tw e e n th o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an a d ju s tm e n t p r o b le m , th o s e w i t h a v o c a t i o n a l c h o ic e p r o b le m , and t h o s e who r e c e i v e d n o c o u n s e lin g * 2*

I n t h i s s tu d y th e Cs w e re fo u n d to h av e e a r n e d

s i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore h o u r s a n d to h a v e p e r s i s t e d i n s c h o o l f o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y m ore s e m e s te r s *

F u r t h e r s tu d y o f o t h e r v a r i ­

a b le s su c h a s m o tiv a tio n , o b je c tiv e s s e le c te d , a t t i t u d e s to ­ w ard c o l l e g e , e t c . , w h ic h m ig h t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d

to t h i s r e ­

s u l t , w o u ld b e n e c e s s a r y a s a m eans o f e v a l u a t i n g th e e f f i c a ­ cy o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g i n 3*

t h i s f i n d in g *

The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w ere I n c o n c l u s i v e w i t h

r e s p e c t to th© h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c o u n s e l i n g seem s to b e r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e o f Cs o f low a b i l i t y *

F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h m ig h t

b e u s e d f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f th e q u e s t i o n a s to w h e th e r Cs o f lo w e r a b i l i t y p a ra b le a b i l i t y 4*

te n d to p e r s i s t I n s c h o o l an d MCs o f com­ te n d to d ro p o u t o f s c h o o l .

As a r e s u l t o f t h i s s t u d y I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d

90 t h a t th # Cs who do n o t p e r s i s t i n fa v o ra b le a tt i tu d e p e r s i s t i n s c h o o l*

to w a rd c o u n s e l i n g th a n do th o s e Cs who do B © sea rch d i r e c t e d

th is d iffe re n c e In a ttitu d e 5#

s c h o o l seam to h a v e a m ore

to w a rd u n d e r s t a n d i n g

s h o u ld h e u n d e rta k e n *

2h© d a t a o f t h i s s t u d y was i n s u f f i c i e n t to p e r -

s i t an a d e q u a te c o m p a ris o n b e tw e e n th e s e x e s on t h e i r re** s p o n s e s to t h e c l i e n t o p i n i o n q u e s t io n n a ir e *

s i n c e voca**

t l o n a l c o u n s e l i n g I s p r o v i d e d b o t h s e x e s I n m o st c o u n s e l i n g fa c ilitie s * 6*

s u c h a c o m p a ris o n w ould seem w o rth w h ile * F in a lly ,

s t u d i e s o f a s i m i l a r d e s i g n to th e p r o *

s e n t on© w ould b e u s e f u l a s a m eans o f c o m p a rin g th© e f f i c a c y o f v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g in v a rio u s s e ttin g s *

When th e r e ­

s u l t s o f s e v e r a l c o m p a ra b le s t u d i e s becom e a v a i l a b l e *

I t w ill

b© p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n a b e t t e r © v a lu a tio n o f th e e f f i c a c y o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g th a n i s now p o s s i b l e *

91

APFSHDIXES

Appendix A Name_______

*

COUNSELEE OPINION D i r e c t i o n s : Answer every q u e s tio n w ith th e e x c e p tio n of q u e s tio n s s i x (6) and seven TT77 o nly one of which should be answered. The q u e s tio n s which c o n ta in a l i n e a r scale should be answered by p la c in g a check somewhere on each l i n e to i n d i c a t e your a t t i t u d e w ith r e f e r e n c e to each q u e s ti o n . I t i s n o t n e c e s sa ry to put a check d i r e c t l y above any of th e d e s c r i p t i v e p h r a s e s \ th e y are provided sim ply as guide posts to help c l a r i f y your f e e l i n g s about th e q u e s tio n s , 1,

What i s th e t i t l e of your p r e s e n t occupation?_____________________________________ I f you are no lo n g er a c o lle g e s tu d e n t l i s t some of th e d u t i e s of your p r e s e n t jo b ,

2,

I t has been su g g ested t h a t b e fo re th e y g raduate a l l high school s tu d e n ts should have th e o p p o r tu n ity f o r v o c a tio n a l guidance. How would you f e e l about t h i s sug gestio n?

I _

si This i s one of the most im po rtan t things a h ig h school can do.

Even though not a l l s tu d e n ts are h elp ed i t would s t i l l be a r e a l a id .

L i t t l e would be accomplished by v o c a tio n a l coun­ s e li n g f o r H S stu d e n ts•

V ocational guidance i s not one of th e purposes of H S tra in in g .

3* How would you d e s c r ib e your g en eral a t t i t u d e toward th e v o c a tio n a l co un selin g you re c e iv e d a t th e S t a t e U n iv e r s ity of Iowa Student Counseling O ffice or th e SUI Veterans A d m in is tra tio n Guidance Center?-

_ Of l i t t l e or no value to me in making p r e s e n t p la n s »

In

1 6 * | 3 9 ___________3 5 * j4 8 ___________ 4 3 1 | A Eas of some help to me but d i d n ' t o f f e r much of importance t o me now.

Gave me a r a t h e r c l e a r p i c t u r e of my b e s t chances in v ario u s voca­ tio n a l f ie ld s .

------------------ f i * | A r e a l source of help t o me i n making my v o c a tio n a l p la n s.

Sometimes as people th in k back on th e value of v o c a tio n a l cou nselin g th e y n o tic e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward counseling have changed. How do your p r e s e n t r e a c t io n s d i f f e r from the a t t i t u d e s you had immediately a f t e r your t e s t s and in te rv ie w s?

J5_______ 6* | 2B______ 25* j J 9 _______ 55*| 1 6 _______15* ]8 ________ 8* The lo n g e r I liv e the more h e lp f u l coun­ s e lin g seems to have been.

I t now seens more v alu ab le th a n i t d id when cou nselin g was completed.

I s t i l l feel the same as I did vrtien coun­ s e li n g was completed.

I t now seems l e s s h e lp f u l th an i t d id when counseling was completed

The lo n g e r I l i v e th e l e s s h e l p f u l coun­ s e l i n g seems t o have been.

33

- 2 -

5*

I f you v/ere t o make recommendations concerning t h e budget f o r f a c i l i t i e s to p ro v id e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n selin g such as th e S tudent Counseling O ffic e a t the S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, what changes v/ould you recommend? (

The program should be g reatly in creased.

6,

_

MB The program should be expanded.

*1 (

The program should be somewhat reduced.

_ The program should be very s e v e re ly c u rta ile d .

Some in d i v i d u a l s f i n d t h a t v o c a tio n a l coun seling r e s u l t s in th e choice of a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a t i o n a l f i e l d . I f you were one of th e s e in d iv id u a ls hovf would you d e s c rib e your p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e tovmrd t h i s choice?

i _____________1 1 ________________ m \ I an convinced t h a t i t was an ex trem ely poor c h o ic e .

7*

i?

In some v/ays i t appears t h a t my d e c is io n was unwise.

631 I can now see t h a t i t vms a s e n s i b l e ch oice.

I* # I t was u n q u estio n ­ ably th e b e s t choice I could have made.

I f co u n selin g d id no t r e s u l t in th e choice of a p a r t i c u l a r v o c a tio n a l f i e l d , which of th e fo llo v d n g s ta te m e n ts b e s t d e s c rib e s the b e n e f i t s you re c e iv e d from counseling? (Check a l l which seem a p p l i c a b l e . ) w _ fw'd *^0 f10 j

I have a b e t t e r u n d erstan d in g o f m y self. Counseling s h a t t e r e d my s e lf - c o n f i d e n c e . I have a b e t t e r knowledge of my p o in ts of s tr e n g th and weakness. I am more capable of doing my ov/n v o c a tio n a l p la n n in g . 1 re c e iv e d n o th in g b e n e f i c i a l from co u n selin g . I ara more s ecu re or com fortable w ith r e fe r e n c e t o my v o c a tio n a l f u t u r e , Any other? D e s c rib e .____________________

8,

42 0 m ' 33 8 15 14

Assume f o r t h e moment t h a t you have a younger b r o th e r o r s i s t e r a tte n d in g the S t a t e U n i v e r s it y o f Iowa who has not made a v o c a tio n a l d e c is io n . What would be your a t t i t u d e toward h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in v o c a tio n a l counseling?

A9 Do a l l i n my power to persuad e him to ta k e ad­ vantage of i t .

! A Explain th e im portance and f u n c tio n s of c o u n se lin g .

Warn him about the d e f i c i e n c i e s and inadequ acies of co u n selin g .

Do what I can t o p rev en t him from p a r t i c i p a t i n g in i t .

n

- 3 9.

Unforeseen circu m stan ces and ev en ts which a r i s e a t a l a t e r date can o f te n f o rc e a l t e r a t i o n s i n o r i g i n a l p l a n s , Under circu m stances as you’ve found them, t o what e x te n t have you been a b le t o fo llo w th e p la n form ulated during v o c a tio n a l co un selin g?

15

ie

I t has been almost im po ssible fo r me t o fo llo w through on my p la n s

I have had to modify my p la n s t o some e x te n t.

‘J i t h minor ex­ c e p tio n s my program has proved f e a s i b l e .

Nothing has a r i s e n to f o rc e me t o d e v ia te from th e p la n .

10, Assume f o r t h e moment t h a t you are e n te r in g SUI again as a freshman. How would your p ro b ab le choice of a m ajor compare w ith the major you have or had w hile a tte n d in g t h e S t a t e U n iv e r s ity of Iowa? *1

An almost com­ p letely d iffe re n t s e t of c o u r s e s .

1 ) 4 I 64 R ath er d i f f e r e n t major f i e l d w ith c o n s id e ra b ly d i f ­ fe re n t e le c tiv e s.

m i I 16

E s s e n t i a l l y th e same major f i e l d w ith somewhat d i f f e r e n t e le c tiv e s.

Same major courses and same e l e c t i v e courses.

11, Tfork ex perien ce o r f u r t h e r thought sometimes le a d s to a d e s i r e to change not only a s p e c i f i c job but an e n t i r e job area* Considering th e e n t i r e f i e l d (accountancy, jo u rn a lis m , c l e r i c a l work, e t c * ) , how would you d e s c rib e your a t t i t u d e toward remaining in your p r e s e n t g e n e ra l area of work?

OQ-"' lay p r e s e n t a r e a has a g r e a t f u tu r e and I would not leave i t .

15 Although th e area has c e r t a i n l i m i ­ t a t i o n s , I do not expect to change.

1

This a re a has many l i m i t a t i o n s and I w i l l proba­ b ly make a change.

The area seems unpromising and I d e fin ite ly p la n t o change,

12. Assuming t h e t o t a l r e s u l t of v o c a tio n a l counseling to be 100%, what p e r the r e s u l t yrould you a s c rib e t o each of the follow ing? u -gj&i.10*? 5 0 .5 % d is c u s s io n w ith the counselor I b .O 75 "% r e f e r r a l s suggested 4 0 .5 107 % te s t re su lts 2 0 .2 ; 57 % in fo rm a tio n on jobs read a t th e counseling o f f i c e 20 2 7 .8 o t h e r s . D e s c rib e .__________________________ 100% t o t a l

cen t o f

2 0 .0 1 0 .1 2 3 .8 1 7 .6 2 7 .0

13. D escrib e th e manner in which v o c a t io n a l c o u n selin g was most b e n e f i c i a l to you.

lb* In what r e s p e c t was th e v o c a tio n a l co un selin g you re c e iv e d th e l e a s t adequate or in the g r e a t e s t need of improvement?

15. P lea se make any o th e r comments you have concerning v o c a tio n a l c o u n se lin g .

THANK YOU

The r e a d e r w i l l n o t i c e t h a t t h e r e a r e two n u m b e rs on th e l i n e a r s c a l e a b o v e many o f th e d e s c r i p t i v e p h r a s e s i n A p p e n d ix A*

The f i r s t o f t h e s e f i g u r e s l a

th e n u m b er o f

Cs who p l a c e d a c h e c k a b o v e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p h r a s e . cond f i g u r e i s

The s e ­

t h i s f r e q u e n c y c o n v e r t e d to p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e

t o t a l n u m b e r o f Os r e s p o n d i n g to th e q u e s t io n * The Os w ere i n s t r u c t e d

to c h e c k a s many o f th e

p h r a s e s i n Q u e s tio n 7 a s seem ed a p p l i c a b l e . fo re , n o t fe a s ib le

I t w a s, t h e r e ­

to com pute p e r c e n t a g e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n

an d o n l y th e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h ic h e a c h p h r a s e w as c h e c k e d I s p re s e n te d * I n I te m 1 2 , th e num ber o f Cs a s s i g n i n g a p e r c e n t a g e 1® p r e s e n t e d a lo n g w i t h th e mean p e r c e n t a g e and th e s t a n d a r d d e v ia tio n f o r e ach d i s t r ib u t i o n o f p e rc e n ta g e s ,

A p p e n d ix B (F irs t le tte r

to C o u n a e le e s )

STATE UNIVERSITY O F IOWA

97

IO W A C ITY s t u d e n t

C

o u n s e l in g

O

f f ic e

D ece m b er 1 2 , 1949 p e a r Mr# D o e t I am a s k i n g f o r y o u r h e lp # Some tim e ag o a s a s t u d e n t a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a y o u to o k t e s t s and h a d I n t e r v i e w s w i t h on© o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l o r s i n E a s t H a ll# T h e s e o f u s i n t e r e s t e d I n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g a r e a lw a y s s e e k i n g to im p ro v e o u r w ork# E v a l u a t i o n I s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o g r e s s * Y.e w a n t t o f i n d o u t w h a t t h o s e who know — you i n p a r t i c u l a r — now t h i n k a b o u t SO I1s V o c a t i o n a l C o u h a e lin g s e r v i c e s # That*© why th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s an d th e e n v e lo p © a r e e n c lo s e d # we*& l i k e y o u r f r a n k a p p r a i s a l a n d y o u r com* m ents* Hone o f t h e q u e s t i o n s h a s a n y r i g h t o r w rong a n s w e r s . An a n s w e r i s r i g h t i f I t e x p r e s s e s y o u r o p i n i o n ; an a n s w e r i s c o r r e c t I f y o u h a v e g i v ­ en an h o n e s t a n s w e r , w h e th e r f a v o r a b l e o r u n f a v o r a b l e # On e a c h q u e s t i o n y o u r o p i n i o n c a n b© I n d i c a t e d b y m ak in g a c h e c k ( t h u s ^ ) a l o n g th e l i n e a t a p o i n t w h ic h com es c l o s e s t to d e s c r i b i n g y o u r a t t i t u d e # P o s s ib ly an exam ple w i l l c l a r i f y th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e # Assume f o r th e moment t h a t y o u a re a b o u t to b u y a new c a r an d t h a t th e p r i c e I s o f l i t t l e c o n s e q u e n c e to you# The p r i m a r y e m p h a s is i n th e c h o ic e i s to s e l e c t a c a r w h ic h b e s t s u i t s y o u r n e e d s . One o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u n d e r t h e s e c irc u m ­ s t a n c e s w o u ld b© t h e s is ® o f t h e c a r , a n d th e q u e s t i o n i s * C o n s id e r in g t h e e f f e c t s o f s i z e upon s u c h t h i n g s a s r o a d s t a b i l i t y , m a n e u v e ra b ility in p a r k in g , g a ra g e s p a c e , e tc # , w hat s iz e c a r b e s t s u i t s my n e e d s t * ______________^ E x tr e m e ly l a r g e w ith e x c e l l e n t ro ad s t a b i l i t y #

*___________w____ _____ j ___________________ »_______ ._____________ * Medium l a r g e w ith c o n s id e r a b le ro a d s t a b i l i t y #

Medium s m a ll w i t h some ro a d s t a b i l i t y *

E x tr e m e ly s m a ll w ith p o o r ro a d s t a b i l i t y .

The l i n e w i t h th e d e s c r i p t i v e p h r a s e s b e lo w i t i n d i c a t e s th e ty p e o f c o n ti n u o u s s c a l e a lo n g w hich, s u c h a c h o ic e w ould b e m ade. I h a v e p la c e d a c h e c k on th e l i n e # T h is c h e c k , h a d you mad© i t , w o u ld I n d i c a t e t h a t you b e l i e v e d t h a t a c a r som ew here b e tw e e n e x tr e m e l y l a r g e a n d m e d i­ um l a r ;e I n s i z e w o u ld b e b e s t s u i t e d to y o u r n e e d s # The few m in u t e s r e q u i r e d to f i l l o u t t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l b e o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e i n im p r o v in g th e w ork o f t h i s o f f i c e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , Of g r e a t h e l p to f u t u r e SUI s t u d e n t s . Y o u r f r a n k o p i n io n i s s i n c e r e l y d e s i r e d an d m i l l b e k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l . The num ber a p p e a r i n g i n th e a p ac e d e s i g n a t e d f o r y o u r name I s y o u r c o d e nu m b er an d i s known o n l y t o me# You n e e d n o t s i g n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u n l e s s y o u w ish * I am e n c l o s ­ i n g two c o p i e s o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , one to b e r e t u r n e d i n th e e n c l o s e d en v elo p © a n d t h e o t h e r f o r y o u r p e r s o n a l f i l e i f y o u w ould l i k e to h a v e it. T hank y o u f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n . Y o u rs v e r y t r u l y , D a v id B. P e a r s o n

Appendix C ( F i r s t F o llo w - u p L e t t e r to C ounsel© © a) S tate

U n iv e r s it y

o f

Io w a

IO W A CITY S

t u d e n t

C

o u n s e l in g

O

f f ic e

D ecem ber 5 1 , 1949

D e a r Mr# Doe* A s h o r t tim e ag o you s h o u ld h a v e r e c e i v e d a q u e s ­ t i o n n a i r e w h ic h s o u g h t y o u r o p in io n on th e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e a t th e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa# The r e s u l t s o f t h i s q u e s tio n n a ir e w i l l be p a r t o f a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d e s i g n e d to a i d u s i n o u r e f f o r t s to im p ro v e an d e v a l u a t e BUI1® c o u n s e l i n g s e r v i c e # S in c e o n ly a l i m i t e d n u m b er o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h a s b e e n m a i l e d , y o u r o p i n i o n i s v e r y I m p o r t a n t t o th e s u c c e s s o f t h i s p r o j e c t # Y o u r r e p l y h a s n o t b e e n r e c e i v e d to d a te # I f th is I s s im p ly a n o v e r s i g h t , may X u r g e you t o c o m p le te and r e t u r n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s so o n a s p o s s i b l e # I t may be t h a t you h a v e n o t c o m p le te d th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e c a u s e you w ere d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h c o u n s e l i n g and w is h to s p a r e o u r fe e lin g s , One o f th e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p r o j e c t i s t o s e ­ c u r e j u s t s u c h I n f o r m a t i o n , h e n c e you w i l l do u s a r e a l s e r v i c e b y e x p r e s s i n g y o u r o p in io n o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l ­ i n g on th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e # May I r e p e a t t h a t we a r e s i n c e r e l y I n t e r e s t e d I n y o u r o p i n i o n , w h e th e r I t be i n b o u q u e t o r b r i c k b a t form # O n ly b y c a p i t a l i z i n g on o u r s t r o n g p o i n t s an d c o r r e c t i n g o u r e r r o r s can we im p ro v e# L e t me a g a in a s s u r e you t h a t y o u r r e p l y w i l l b e c o m p le te ly c o n f i d e n t i a l , and t h a t I t w i l l b e e x tr e m e l y h e l p f u l I n g u i d in g th e im p ro v e m e n t o f t h e SUX V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e lin g S e r v ic e # S in c e re ly ,

D a v id B# P e a rs o n

Appendix D (S e co n d F o llo w - u p L e t t e r to C o u n s e le e s ) STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA IO W A S

t u d e n t

C

C IT Y

o u n s e l in g

O

f f ic e

J a n u a r y 1 0 , 1950

D e a r Mr# Does The S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s h a v e b e e n d e v e lo p e d on th e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a Campus t o h e l p p r o v i d e some o f th e i m p o r t a n t n o n -a c a d e m ic f u n c t i o n s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t o o u r s t u d e n t s . We a r e a n x io u s t o im p ro v e t h e s e s e r v i c e s and we n e e d y o u r h e lp * A few w eeks ag o you r e c e i v e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e fro m t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e w h ic h , i n e f f e c t a s k e d you t o e v a l u a t e one o f th e S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s ( V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e lin g ) h e r e on th e Campus Y o u r name w as s e l e c t e d fro m th e s e v e r a l th o u s a n d c a s e s I n th e S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e a s one o f a s m a ll sa m p le th r o u g h w h ic h we hope to o b t a i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s s e r v i c e b y s t u d e n t s and f o r m e r s tu d e n ts . B e c a u se th e sam p le I s s m a ll e v e r y I n d i v i d u a l 's r e p l y i s v i t a l to th e s u c c e s s o f t h i s a t t e m p t a t e v a l u a t i o n . May I , on b e h a l f o f S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s a t S B I, u rg e you to c o m p le te and r e t u r n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e to th e S t u d e n t C o u n s e lin g O f f i c e a t y o u r e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e c o n v e n ie n c e , V ery t r u l y y o u r s ,

W a lte r H. G o e ta c h Dean o f S t u d e n t s

Appendix E ( T h ir d F o llo w - u p L e t t e r to C o u n s e le e s ) S tate

U n iv e r s it y

o f

Io w

a

IO W A CITY S

t u d e n t

C

o u n s e l in g

O

f f ic e

F e b r u a r y 6 , 1950

Mr# Jo h n Do© 5 2 5 S m ith S t r e e t C e d a r R a p id a , Io w a D e a r Mr* Does T h e re a r e a t i l l a few who h a v e n o t r e t u r n e d th e counsel© © O p in io n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e * I h a v e a s k e d th e p o s t o f f i c e to o b t a i n a s i g ­ n a t u r e f o r me i n an e f f o r t t o b e a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t you h a v e b e e n r e c e i v i n g my l e t t e r s # T h is w i l l b e my l a s t a t t e m p t t o o b ­ t a i n y o u r o p in io n * 'Ihe r e s p o n s e h a s b e e n e x ­ c e p t i o n a l and q u it© g r a t i f y i n g , b u t I am s t i l l h o p in g to h e a r fro m you# I f I don * t r e c e i v e y o u r r e p l y w i t h i n a fe w d a y s , I s h a l l b e f o r c e d to c o n t i n u e th e s t u d y w i t h o u t y o u r o p in io n * V e ry t r u l y y o u r s ,

D a v id B. P e a r s o n

^00

Appendix P 101

THE FOUR-CATEGORT CLASSIFICATION OF MAJORS

I

Physical S c i e n c e Chemistry E n g in eerin g Gen, S c l . fieology l&th o r A a t r o n , physics E n g in eerin g A e ro n a u t. Chem. C iv il E le c tric , G en eral Mee h , o r I n d u s , M echanics & H y d r a u lic s

II B i o l , S c ie n c e A natom y M e s th e s i o l o g y B a c te rio lo g y B io - C h e m is tr y B o ta n y o r B i o l , D e n tis try Home E e o n , H y g ie n e M e d ic in e H n r s ln g M u trltlo n O ra l P a th o l, P e d o & o n tlc s P h a rm a c o lo g y p h a rm a cy P h y , Educ* f o r M P h y . Eduo, f o r W P h y s i c a l T h e ra p y P h y s i o lo g y Z o o lo g y

III

IV

S o c i a l S c ie n c e

H u m a n itie s

C h ild w e l f a r e A m er. C i v i l , A rt Commerce B a s ic S k i l l s E c o n o m ic s C l a s s i c a l Lang* E d u c a tio n Law C ore c o u r s e s L i b r a r y M a th , E n g lis h E u ro p , L i t , & T h o u g h t M ilit* S o l, F re n c h G c c u p , T h e ra p y p o llt, s c l. German S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Wk. G re e k S o c ia l s c ie n c e I t a lia n J o u rn a lis m S o c io lo g y L a tin P s y c h o lo g y Museum M eth o d s H is to ry G eo g rap h y M u sic P h ilo s o p h y P o r tu g u e s e R e li g i o n Romance L a n g u a g e s R u s s ia n S a n s k rit S p a n is h S p e e c h k D r a m a tic A rt® k S p e e c h P a th o lo g y

Appendix 0 100

VERBATIM HRSFOHSBS MADE 20 THE WA¥Y DOTH* DESCRIBE* PART OF QUESTION 7

1#

As I d i d n o t go I n t o th e f i e l d my t e s t s i n d i a a t e d I s h o u ld , I c a n n o t an sw er t h i s q u e s tio n f a i r l y . O b v io u s ­ l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n , c o u n s e l i n g d i d n o t h e l p m e, b u t t h a t w as p e r h a p s my f a u l t *

2.

P I d n ! t h e l p m© d e c i d e on a v o c a t i o n .

5.

C o u n s e lo r e m p h a s is e d one v o c a t i o n w i t h v e r y l i t t l e a s to a s e c o n d c h o i c e ,

4,

I t c o n f ir m e d my own I d e a s a b o u t w h ic h l i n e b e s t s u ite d * I t b ro u g h t o u t l i t t l e th a t I know*

5.

A lo n g w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m y s e lf I h a v e m ore c o n f i d e n c e I n m y s e lf know ing t h a t t h e r e i s / o r a r e f i e l d / f i e l d s i n w h ic h I can do w e l l ,

6*

I am g o in g b a c k to c o l l e g e and X s h a l l u s e th e r e s u l t s o f th e v o c a t i o n a l t e s t s w h ic h 1 to o k to c h o o se many o f my s u b j e c t s *

7*

I t mad© me make a s e l f - l n s p e c t l o n and h e lp e d me t o know my a b i l i t i e s and i n a b i l i t i e s b e t t e r ,

8.

A s c e rta in e d l© ft,

9.

I t s u g g e s t e d com m erce—How I am g o in g to t e a c h commerce in h ig h s c h o o l,

th o u g h t

o f w ork I w as a l r e a d y d i d n 5t

t h a t my p o l i t i c a l p h i lo s o p h y w as s l i g h t l y

10.

I seem ed m ore c o n fu s e d th a n e v e r i n r e g a l ’d to c h o o s in g a v o c a tio n .

11.

S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n c r e a s e d i n know ing t h a t I h a v e h i g h a p ­ titu d e s In s e v e ra l f i e l d s ,

12.

I t s t e e r e d me away fro m th e c o u rs e I w as u n h a p p il y p u r ­ s u in g *

13.

S a tis fie d c u rio s ity .

14#

P e o p le m u st t a k e jo b th e y e n jo y n o t b e i n g p l a c e d I n t o a f i e l d w h ic h th e y d i s l i k e . How ever some a r e p l a c e d a d e ­ q u a t e l y I p re s u m e .

Appendix H im

TOHBAfXM RESPONSES MADE TO THE .DESCHXBE!, PART OF Q0BSHOI IS 1*

O th e r t y p e s o f w ork a lo n g th e g e n e r a l f i e l d I w ould h e e f f i c i e n t in * *•***• 20 p e r c e n t

2*

B la n k .

3.

A c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f my c a p a b i l i t i e s an d d e t e r m i n a t i o n to c o m p le te my o b j e c t i v e . — - 60 p e r c e n t

4*

Have no s u g g e s t i o n a s to w here th e o t h e r 5 0 $ s h o u ld g o . - 50 p e r c e n t

5.

On th e j o b o b s e r v a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f i e l d s n o t j u s t th e v a r i o u s j o b s b u t d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s so t h a t th e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n them i s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . — - 00 p e r c e n t

6.

C o n f ir m a tio n o f my own p r e f e r e n c e .

7.

P re c e d in g e x p e rie n c e b e fo re v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lin g . ***— 5 p e r c e n t

8.

B la n k .

9.

S e lf assu ra n ce *

-*-*• 10 p e r c e n t

* 80 p e r c e n t

■*•**- 5 p e r c e n t 0 per cent

10.

X*m a f r a i d c o u n s e l i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e f f e c t i v e I n my case* — 0 per cent

11*

Jo b in te r v ie w e r s .

12*

I j u s t don *t t h i n k i t was v e r y w o r th w h ile a s i t was s e t up. «*-■*• 10 p e r c e n t

13.

A lw ays th o u g h t I w ould l i k e to e n t e r j o u r n a l i s m , b u t was n o t s u r e I was o u t o u t f o r i t o r w ould l i k e i t . **— 40 p e r c e n t.

14.

P r e v i o u s d e c i s i o n b u t was and s t i l l am u n c e r t a i n . per cent

15.

F a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among t h i n g s w h ic h I c o u ld d o . —— 50 p e r c e n t

16.

By k e e p in g t r a c k o f c o u n s e l i n g r e s u l t s w i t h i n c u rric u lu m . 10 p e r c e n t

****** 10 p e r c e n t

65

th e s t u d e n t

104

17*

An a t t e m p t a t t h o u g h t f u l r e f l e c t i o n on th e p ro b le m b y m y s e lf a f t e r t h e c o u n s e l i n g was f i n i s h e d * 10 p e r c e n t

18*

B lan k *

19*

C ir c u m s ta n c e s b e y o n d my c o n t r o l h a s p u t me w here I am# b u t t h e r e was s t i l l v a lu e i n th e g u id a n c e * 45 p e r c e n t

SO*

P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and c o n t a c t w ith p e o p le o f d i f f e r e n t v o c a t i o n s o r o c c u p a ti o n s * 25 p e r c e n t

* 10 p e r c e n t

105

HI BLIO GRAPH* 1*

A n d e rs o n , Hose G ,, “ R e p o rte d and D e m o n s tra te d v a l u e s o f V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l i n g , ” J o u r n a l o f A p p lie d P s y c h o lo g y , V o l. 3 3 , 1 9 4 9 , p p . 4 6 0 - 4 7 3 7 ------------ ------------------- ........ — »

£•

B a l e r , D o n a ld c . , “The rol© o f R e s e a rc h i n im p r o v in g S t a n d a r d s f o r C o u n s e lin g and G u id an ce S e r v i c e s , ” E d u c a t i o n a l an d P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a su re m e n t. V o l. 9 , 1 9 4 9 , p p . 3 1 3 -3 1 9 *

3.

B l a c k w e l l , E r n e s t i n e B*, *An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e im m e d ia te E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e T e s t i n g an d G u id a n ce B u re a u o f th e U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s ,” J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , V o l. 4 0 , 1 9 4 6 , p p . SOfi^SOBT* "" !

4.

B o r d in , E . $ %, “C o u n s e lin g M ethodsg T h e r a p y ,” A n n u a l R eview o f P s y c h o lo g y , V o l. I , 1 9 4 9 , p p . 2 7 4 -2 7 5 *

5.

B row n, M ilto n T , , “ The V e t e r a n s R e p o rt Two Y e a r s L a t e r , ” O c c u p a t i o n s , V o l.. 2 6 , 1 9 4 7 -4 8 , p p . 3 6 4 -3 6 6 .

6.

F i s h e r , R o n ald A *, ■S t a t i s t i c a l M ethods f o r R e s e a r c h W o rk e rs , O l i v e r and~^K ySV *"K S^on, l" IM 'S .

7.

F r o e h l i c h , C l i f f o r d p . , E v a l u a t i n g G uid an ce p r o c e d u r e s g A R eview o f th e L i t e r a t u r e ^ F e d e r a l se c u riT tv A gency, I i i c 'e l I ^ e o u F T o r 3 3 T O T 1 ^ 4 9 *

8.

G l a a e r , S t a n f o r d H ., and E n g la n d , A r t h u r 0 . , “How V e t e r a n s F e e l A b o u t V o c a t i o n a l A d v is e m e n t,” E d u c a t i o n a l an d P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a su re m e n t, V o l. 9 , 1 9 4 9 , p p . 7 1 7 725 *

9.

K i r c h h e im e r , B a r b a r a A ., A x e lro d , D a v id w ,, an d B i c k e r s o n , G eorge X ., J r . , “An O b j e c t i v e E v a l u a t i o n o f C o u n s e l i n g , “ J o u r n a l o f A p p lie d P s y c h o lo g y , V o l. 3 3 , 1 9 4 9 , p p . 2 4 9 -2 5 7 ”.

10.

L in d q u is t, E . P . , S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly s is in E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a r c h , Bo ugh to n M i f f l i n ”C om pany,' SKI c agoV ’T l W T

11.

L I p s e t t , L aw ren ce and S m ith , Leo p .., “The R o c h e s te r V e t e r a n s ’ G u id a n c e C e n te r T akes S t o c k , ” The A m e ric an P s y c h o l o g i s t , V o l. 3 , 1 9 4 8 , p p . 1 2 -19*

106

12s

M a r s h a l l , M* V *, and S im p so n , E* W„, " V o c a tio n a l C h o ic e a n d C o lle g e G r a d e s ," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , V o l. 5 7 , 1 9 4 3 ,

15.

"A S tu d y o f S t u d e n t p e r s i s t e n c e i n th e C o lle g e o f L i b e r a l A r t s a t t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a ,” s t u d e n t p e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e P u b l i c a t i o n , O f f i c e o f th e R e g i s t r a r , t e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n N o. 2 , J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 4 8 .

14.

W illia m s o n , £ , 0 . , C o u n s e lin g A d o l e s c e n t s , M cG raw -H ill Book C o ., I n c . , New“y 6 r k , '8f. T r,''"T 9S’5 ",’

15.

W illia m s o n , E , G»*. WA Summary o f S t u d i e s I n th e E v a lu a t l o n o f G u id a n c e , ** R e p o rt o f th e F i f t e e n t h A n n u al M eet­ i n g o f th e Am ©rlcan’’ C o lle g e p e r a o n n e l "" X i s o c l a ^ l d n ,T W S , p p . T O -777 ~~ : '

16.

W illia m s o n , E . G ., and B o r d ln , E . S . , " E v a l u a t i n g Coun­ s e l i n g by M eans o f a C o n t r o l Group E x p e rim e n t, " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , V o l. I l l , 1 9 4 0 , p p . 4 3 4 -4 4 0 .

17.

W illia m s o n , E . G ., an d B o r d in , E , S , , "A S t a t i s t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n o f C l i n i c a l C o u n s e l i n g ,* E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a su re m e n t, V o l. 1 , 1 9 4 1 , p p , 1 1 7 -1 5 2 »

18.

w re n n , 0 . G i l b e r t , "A C r i t i q u e o f M ethods U sed i n F o llo w - u p S t u d i e s o f S t u d e n t s , " H a rv a rd E d u c a ti o n a l R ev iew , V o l. 1 0 , 1 9 4 0 , p p . 5 S 7 -5 T C '

19.

W renn, 0 , G i l b e r t , "The E v a l u a t i o n o f S t u d e n t P e r s o n n e l W orkj A C r i t i q u e o f th e G u id an ce M ovem ent," S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , V o l. L I I , 1 9 4 0 , p p . 4 0 9 -4 1 4 ,