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A study of the educational program of the church school of the Japanese Christian Church and Institute of Los Angeles

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A STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM OF THE CHURCH SCHOOL OF THE JAPANESE CHRISTIAN CHURCH AND INSTITUTE OF LOS ANGELES

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Religion The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree ✓

Master of Theology

by Donald H. Fujiyoshi February 1942

^

UMI Number: EP65121

AH rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissw tatLn F\,buMr>§

UMI EP65121 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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T his thesis, w ritten by

........ D n M L D . H A...rUJIIOSEI........... u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f hX&. F a c u l t y C o m m it te e , a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has been presented to an d accepted by the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f R e l i g i o n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the req ui re me n ts f o r the degree o f

MASTER OF THEOLOGY

Date..F.Q.hv\mr.y...l.942.

F a c u lty Com m ittee

C h a ir \

PREFACE The Japanese churches in America are in a transitional period.

For a long time the churches placed the emphasis upon

the first generation, called f,Issei,n who came from Japan. But with the increase and the maturity of their children, called the second generation or "Nisei,” a greater religious need arose.

Due to the lack of knowledge of the English

language and a lack of proper religious education, the Issei were not able to teach the Nisei.

Consequently the religious

education of the children.has been greatly neglected; in fact, the older people have been more interested in teaching the Japanese language than in teaching religion.

It is,

therefore, common to find weak, inefficient church schools among the Japanese Protestant churches. The Japanese churches place an undue emphasis upon adult religious education and not enough upon religious educa­ tion in the church school.

The fact that religious leaders

are lacking in all of the Japanese churches is not because the Nisei lack leadership but because they are not given the opportunity to be leaders. Doctor Kagawa said, If we should try to teach a child the religion experi­ enced by an adult in the prime of his life, the child would never understand it. Give the child the religion of a child. If unintelligible teachings and rites that

are difficult even for adults to understand are forced upon children, they will turn away from religion.1 It is tragic to see so many children grow up misguided after parents have made great sacrifices for them.

Another

outstanding problem which the churches face is that after finishing high school the Nisei drift away from the church. If proper religious education were given in the church school much grief could be avoided for parents, communities, and churches. born.

It was truly said that leaders are made and not

A church which is fortified with a strong church school

will have no fear of the future. The fourfold religious educational program is worship, study or instruction, service, and fellowship or recreation. In this thesis, emphasis is placed upon worship, study, and recreation, since they are the major elements of religious education carried on within the church school.

It must also

be noted that these elements overlap each other; for example, worship may be present in study, recreation, and service.

But

for the purpose of this study they are segregated so that each may be clearly visualized.

1 Toyohiko Kagawa, Today, No. 3, Vol. 10, June 20, 1941.

TABLE OF CONTENTS,

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMSUSED . . . . . 1 ' .................. The problem

1

Statement of the p r o b l e m ............... ....

1

The problems of the Japanesechurch

2

Bi-lingual problem Neighborhood problem

1

.....

.....................

2

.............

5

. .

7

Americanization....................... Christian leadership ..................... Beneficiary

8

...............

10

The worth of this s t u d y ...............

11

Definitions and terms u s e d .................

11

N i s e i .............

11

Issei

12

.

.................................

Church school

.............................

Religious education

12

.......................

12

W o r s h i p ................................. S t u d y ................................. ....

13

Recreation

13

...........................

The method of getting materials forthis study The treatment of the material II.

13

.

...........

BRIEF H I S T O R Y ............................... Japanese in the United States. . . . . . . . .

14 14

16 16

V

CHAPTER

PAGE Japanese in Los Angeles G i t y ...................... 21 Japanese Protestant churches in Los Angeles City .

23

Interchurch and interdenominational organisations.

23

Japanese Christian Church and Institute

27

Historical background

........

.......................

The present administration............ Organizations III.

.• • .

...............................

27 28 33

W O R S H I P ........................................... 35 Religious education

...........................

35

General introduction ...........................

38

Graded w o r s h i p .........

38

Beginners1 d e p a r t m e n t ......... Introduction

38

...............................

38

. . . . . . . .

40

Characteristics

H e e d s ...................................

41

Beginners’ worship

42

.........................

Atmosphere................................... 43 Offering Rhythm

....................................43 .........

44

S t o r y .........

44

One hour session...................

46

Observation

46

Analysis and suggestions.............

49

Conference

....................................50

vi

CHAPTER

PAGE Evaluation of the score s h e e t .............. Primary department . Introduction

.......................

52 55

..................

55

Characteristics.........

56

...........

57

Needs

O b s e r v a t i o n ...............................

57

.........................

61

Evaluation of the score s h e e t .............

62

Illustration

65

Conference

. .

Junior department

........, , ................. . . . . . . . . .

Characteristics, and needs Junior worship

..........

66

.....

66

.....................

68

O b s e r v a t i o n ...............

71

S u g g e s t i o n s .........

72

*

i

Evaluation of the score s h e e t .............. Intermediate d e p a r t m e n t ..................... Characteristics

75

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

N e e d s ...................................

72

75 .

76

Effective ways of getting to know Intermediates

76

Intermediate worship

77

.....................

Objectives of Intermediate w o r s h i p ..........

77

O b s e r v a t i o n ...........

78

Conference................................

80

Evaluation of the score s h e e t .........

80

v ii

CHAPTER

PAGE High school forum or the Senior department . . .

S3

Introduction.....................

S3

Characteristics

84

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

N e e d s .................................

£5

Worship objectives...............

S3

Observation

.............................

S6

S u g g e s t i o n s ...............................

SS

Proposed worship program for a High School worship service

.........................

Evaluation of the score s h e e t .............. Conclusion IV.

STUDY

.....................

SS 89 92

...........

94

Curriculum m a t e r i a l ......................... The ungraded or the uniform lessons

.....

94 94

The loosely graded lessons

................

95

The closely graded lessons

. ..............

96

Beginners’ and Primary departments...........

96

Introduction...............................

96

Handwork .

99

.............

P r e p a r a t i o n .................

100

Objectives of Beginners’ and Primary study . .

100

Form of lesson plan

.................. 101

Illustrative lesson plan ...................

102

O b s e r v a t i o n ...............

102

v iii

CHAPTER

PAGE Conference...................................103 Evaluation of the scoresheet

, . , .......... 103

, Junior department

105

Introduction

..............................

105

Leadership

.................... ...........107

Objectives

..................

108

Observation

........................

109

Illustrations of classsessions

............. Ill

Evaluation of the scores h e e t ................112 Intermediate d e p a r t m e n t ...........

112

Introduction ...............................

112

M e t h o d s .....................................114 Objectives

. .

Observation

........................... 115 ........................... 116

Class observation

..........

118

Conference.....................

119

Evaluation of the scores h e e t ................121 High School forum Introduction Methods

.

...........

121

............................... 121 .................................122

Objectives ....................... O b s e r v a t i o n .........

123

. .* .................124

Class l e s s o n .................................124 /

Evaluation of the scores h e e t ................ 126

CHAPTER

PAGE Conference................................. 128 Conclusion............. • . . •. .........

V,

RECREATION........ ■................

. . ♦ .

Introduction..................... Beginners’ department.

Ages 4 and 5

Essential characteristics

128 130 130

• . •

. . . ........

134 134

Objectives.............................

134

O b s e r v a t i o n ...........................

135

Conference.....................

135

Primary department....................... .

136

Introduction...............

136

Essential characteristics

..............

137

......................

138

Objectives Observation Conference .

.............. ..........................

Junior d e p a r t m e n t .......................

139 139 .140

Introduction...............

140

Essential characteristics

141

..............

Objectives .

...............

142

Observation

..........................

142

Conference..................... Intermediate d e p a r t m e n t ..................

143 144

Introduction ...........................

144

Essential characteristics

145



X

CHAPTER

PAGE Objectives...............................

145

O b s e r v a t i o n .............

146

Conference ..........

. . . . . . . . .

. .

147

High School department.....................

148

Introduction .............................

148

Essential characteristics

148

................

.......................

149

...........

149

Conference.........................

149

Objectives Observation

Conclusion . . . VI.SUMMARY, CONCLUSION

................... ANDRECOMMENDATIONS

....

150 152

S u m m a r y ...................................

152

Conclusion . .

153

...............

Recommendations....................... BIBLIOGRAPHY...................

156 158

L IS T OF TABLES

TABLE

I.

PAGE Distribution of Population, Temples, Shrines,.

Churches, Priests and Ministers......... . . .

20

Japanese Protestant Churches in Los Angeles City.

24

WorshipScore Sheet— Beginner’s Department

53

i

II. III.

...

IT.

Worship Score Sheet— Primary Department.......... 63

V.

WorshipScore Sheet— Junior D e p a r t m e n t .......... 73

VI. VII.

WorshipScore Sheet— Intermediate Department

. .

81

Worship Score Sheet— High School Forum Department

90

VIII.

Class

Score Sheet— Primary Department . . . . . .

104

IX.

Class

Score Sheet— Junior Department *... . . . ♦ 113

X.

Class

Score Sheet— Intermediate Department

. .

. 120

XI*

Class

Score Sheet— High School Forum Department

. 127

L IS T OF CHARTS

CHART I.

PAGE Home M i s s i o n .................................

34

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem.

The Japanese Christian

churches are now in a transitional period.

The first genera­

tion, or Issei, are gradually being replaced by the everincreasing second generation, or Nisei, who were born in this country.

Consequently, the Japanese language is being re­

placed by English and emphasis is shifting from the religious education of adults to the church school.

In every church

English-speaking ministers are in demand to meet the need of Nisei Christians* Unfortunately, there is at present very few Nisei ministers in this country, chiefly because the need was not realized until recently.

To meet the demand some Nisei

ministers were obtained from Hawaii, where the need was seen earlier. Heretofore, the importance of religious education has not been realized very strongly by Japanese churches in general and their church schools are much retarded, largely due to lack of leaders well trained in religious education. Therefore, it is the purpose of this study, first to recognize the problems that all of the Japanese Christian

2 churches in this country face today and which need to be understood clearly before they can be solved*

Secondly,, the

writer wishes to emphasize the great importance of the worship, study, and recreation programs that are being carried on in the church school, for the future of Christianity depends on the success of the church school of today.

Sufficient em­

phasis is not placed on them in most of the Japanese churches# Instead many church schools are poorly equipped in material, method, and leadership.

It is hoped that this great need

will not only be realized but met by pastors, and church members and that every effort will be made toward the building of better church schools among the Japanese Christian churches. It is also realized that not all other racial churches meet the requirements of an up-to-date church school.

There­

fore, there should be a general awakening in all Christian churches in America so that greater

emphasis shall be placed

upon the salvation of youth rather than that of adults. The problems of the Japanese church: 1. Bi-lingual problem. The people of the Japanese race who live in the United states are divided into two groups, called Issei and Nisei.

By virtue of the difference that existsbetween these

two groups in language and culture, there is the grave problem of maintaining an understanding that is vital for a harmonious

and happy home, community, and church life,

In order to help

solve this problem, a language school is maintained within the Institute of the Japanese Christian Church so that children may learn their parents* language enough to understand them. This need is successfully met to a certain degree, but as the children grow up, through neglect and forgetfulness, it be­ comes more and more difficult and awkward for them to use the Japanese language.

The inevitable result is the avoidance of

conversation in Japanese on the part of the children chiefly because of the language handicap.

It is safe to say that in

most homes serious conversations are never carried out between parents and their children, hence the result is the widening of the gap of misunderstanding between parents and their children » In order to meet this need of thinking together on some serious life-problems, joint bi-lingual worship services are being carried out for the benefit of the adult Nisei who no longer attend the language school nor are familiar with the Japanese language.

At this morning worship, both groups

are given the opportunity to hear both languages; sermons are usually given by two speakers; scripture is read in both languages; a prayer and a hymn may be given in Japanese; and announcements are interpreted.

However, two thirds of the

service is done in English, since the congregation is usually dominated by the Nisei.

4 This type of service was adopted primarily to meet the language deficiency both of the Issei and the Nisei* Another purpose is to train the Nisei in proper behavior in the presence of their parents and other Issei* Many of the Issei lack confidence in their children and in Nisei in general, and they believe that the Nisei would learn to worship better with the Issei than if left to themselves.

The fact is that many worship services and con­

ferences conducted by the Young People’s Christian Federation and other Nisei Christian organizations prove that the Nisei are capable and well qualified to conduct their own worship services.

In fact, it has brought about some added problems.

In the first place, the order of worship is disrupted, mainly because in most cases the two speakers speak on two different topics, making it impossible to plan a coherent, progressive worship program.

There is discord and disharmony

among various elements of worship and thoughts are given out in disconnected bits, without continuity of growth from the beginning to the end. In spite of the fact that the purpose of the bi-lingual service is worthy, there are many Nisei who do not understand nor care to listen to the Japanese language.

Consequently,

their minds are diverted to things that are far removed from worship.

In such cases, this type of worship becomes a handi­

cap, destroying the primary purpose of worship itself.

5 It also handicaps the Issei because 75 per cent of the worship is conducted in English.

Only those who understand

English or those who are loyal and faithful attend the service regularly.

The general attitude of those who attend is not

with the spirit of worship but with the spirit of helping the Nisei.

That is not conducive to worship.

This problem

will not be solved until the retirement of the Issei from active service. 2.

Neighborhood problem. The church is situated in a

neighborhood of mixed nationalities, including a large number of Japanese families.

It conjoins with a busy business

district— the wholesale market section of the city— and many of the people whom it serves are employed in the vegetable and fruit produce business.

Many of the fathers must work

during the night or early morning hours, obtaining their sleep during the day, which tends toward a disorganized family life.

There is an increasing problem of juvenile

delinquency in the neighborhood. The present Japanese Christian Church and Institute was first built in the midst of a Japanese community, but during the past ten to fifteen years many people have moved away to some distant sections of the city due to business, purchasing of homes, and other reasons. filled mostly by Chinese and Mexicans.

Their vacancies were Unfortunately, the

church has not been able to serve these families of different

6 races, due to racial prejudice in the case of the Chinese, while Mexicans are Catholic in the main.

On the other hand,

the church property has suffered greatly from robberies, broken windows, et cetera, chiefly because the church has failed to Christianize the community, which should be one of its main tasks. Families among the Japanese race are constantly moving, because most of them do not own their homes but rent them in­ stead.

This makes them transient.

However, churches once

built cannot move to a better location, thus creating many problems.

One of them is that although there are many

Japanese churches throughout the city, they are all different in denomination; which means that members of one church do not attend their hew neighborhood church when they have moved away from their own church.

This barrier of denominational ism

is very unfortunate, because otherwise these transient fami­ lies could be transferred from one church to another, and the churches could cooperate in increasing their membership. Furthermore, all the children who come to the church school are not from Christian homes; many come from Buddhist homes.

The reasons for their coming are many: some come

mainly because their friends come; some because there are no Buddhist temples close by to attend; some because they belong to some Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., and other organizations that are affiliated with the church; some because they are brought up

in a Christian environment and they are more familiar with Christianity than Buddhism*

Their parents no longer insist

on their adherence to Buddhism, since they no longer live in a Buddhist community, and their religion has become of less importance to their livelihood.

Those who are Americanized

in culture have come to look with favor upon Christianity, and have recognized the need of freedom of religion for their children,

nevertheless, their relation with the Christian

church which their children attend is very slight and their attitude is that of indifference.

As a result there is a

lack of cooperation between such parents and the church. The church endeavors to convert these parents through family prayer circles and special evangelism, but greater emphasis is needed so that there may be one vital religion motivating and energizing the family.

3* Americanization. By virture of being bora in this country as American citizens, the Nisei are pioneers in this country, and much of their effort and emphasis have been laid upon Americanization.

To most people Americanization has

meant the speaking of the English language without any foreign accent, adoption of American customs and habits* and chiefly, the losing of their racial identity.

The Nisei have made

rapid progress in all but the last, which is well-nigh' im­ possible.

If the losing of racial identity is Americanization,

8 §s many people erroneously think, there would be no salvation for this minority group# Unfortunately, many Nisei in their thoughtless hurry to be Americanized have looked upon Hollywood as the standard of Americanization and have misinterpreted the true meaning of democracy— freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of opportunity, and equality of mankind#

Freedom of speech

does not mpan the free usage of abusive language; freedom of religion does not mean atheism and materialism; freedom of opportunity does not mean selfish individualism; equality of mankind does not mean disrespect for their elders or "I have just as much right as others" attitude.

This misinterpreta­

tion of Americanization is a grave problem, especially for those who have the difficulty of losing their physical iden­ tity.

The church, therefore, has the great task of rightly

Americanizing this group of Nisei and other generations to follow. Christian leadership.

The more specific problem

which the church faces is the lack of trained Christian leaders.

Most of the Nisei ministers in this city have come

from Hawaii and it was only a year or two ago that local Nisei ministers became available.

In this particular church,

a Nisei minister from Hawaii who came to study at The Univer­ sity of Southern California School of Religion for two years, was hired as the Young People1s Director in 1939#

Very few

9 Nisei in tiiis country have been encouraged to enter the minis­ try as a profession.

This indicates how the inculcation of

American culture and background have been neglected. The Issei came into this country with just one purpose, that of accumulating wealth and of returning to the old coun­ try.

Many have succeeded and have returned to Japan, but they

have usually come back for more money.

Most of them have

never realized their aim and have prolonged their stay in this country, not from their own desire but from uncontrollable circumstances.

They have been all the more persistent in

their efforts to amass a fortune on seeing the Americans of other races more successful in their attempts.

This spirit

was, unfortunately, also instilled in the minds of the Nisei, and most of them have gone into business, for business* sake and nothing else.

Consequently, even with those who were

brought up in the church, when once they venture into the business worid, their effort and interest are.so centered in materialistic things that they forget to give their leader­ ship in the church and the church school.

This has been true

not only in this church but in all other Japanese churches. It means that new leaders must be found every time that a church school teacher is married or that a boy is established in a job.

Leadership, therefore, has been transient, and

many unqualified, inexperienced individuals utilized to fill the vacancies chiefly because they are available.

10 There is no definite, systematized, leadership train­ ing course within the church.

Many attempts have been made

to organize teacher’s training classes but have never been successful.

Yet, unless such a class can be made to materi­

alize within the church, where else can Christian leadership be developed?

Schools and homes have never made a noticeable

contribution toward this end.

In fact, many have been taken

away from the church because of the atheistic influence of some philosophical professors in colleges and high schools. 5* Beneficiary.

Like most other Japanese churches,

this church is also a beneficiary church and receives finan­ cial and administrative support from the Home Mission Department of the denominational headquarters.

This indicates

that the church is still unable to be independent and stand on its own feet.

It is like a grown-up son who is out of

school working, but lives with his parents, depending on them for room or board as the case may be.

He is still not ready

for marriage or rather does not possess the courage to venture into life without financial security as long as his parents are willing and are able to give him financial help.

He is

content to stay at home rather than to venture out and face the storm of life singlehanded.

Consequently, he enjoys a

life of comfort and ease at the expense of his parents.

11 The financial aid that the Nisei give to the church is so small that in comparison to what the Issei give and to what the Nisei spend on their pleasures it is not worth mentioning. Most of the independent churches may have fewer members and more limited equipment, yet they have more potentiality for growth and development. a community.

A spoiled child is a handicap to

So is a spoiled church.

Unless a church strives

to become financially independent and is willing to face life with all its dangers, there is little chance of spiritual growth • 6 . The worth of this study.

These problems that are

pertinent in this particular church are worth studying because they are the common problems of all churches of the Japanese race. If Christian leaders are transient and are not available in the church, the future of Christianity is not very promising among the local Japanese populace.

The task of the Christian

church is immense, yet we are unable to meet it unless the problems that have been discussed are solved.

Then the

church can be a contributor to this great American civiliza­ tion. II.

DEFINITIONS AND TERMS USED

Nisei. The term "Nisei" means second generation,

12 referring to those of the Japanese race, horn, raised, and educated in the United States. Issei.

Issei are citizens of Japan, b o m there but

have come to the United States, where they have established homes and raised "Nisei."

However, this term may be applied

to Japanese who live in this country without any family tie or any family of their own. Church School.

This is a term used in place of

Sunday School, which is commonly used. Religious education. Many definitions are given for religious education. Religious education in the Christian sense includes all efforts and processes which help to bring children and adults into a vital and saving experience of God revealed in Christ; to quicken the sense of God as a living reality, so that communion with Him in prayer and worship becomes a natural habit and principle of life; to enable them to interpret the meaning of their growing experience of life in the light of ultimate values; to establish attitudes and habits of Christlike living in common life and in all human relations; and to enlarge and deepen the understanding of the historic facts on which Christianity rests and of the rich content of Christian experience, belief, and doctrine.1 "Religious education is a continuous' and purposeful 2 reconstruction of religious experiences*" -.-Coe.

^ Definition accepted by the meeting of the Inter­ national Missionary Council at Jerusalem in the spring of 1928. 2 R. J. Taylor, Religion 250.

"Religious education is an «actual experience under guidance in living the Christian life."3 — William C. Bower. Worship.

"Worship is the cry of the human soul for

companionship with Cod."^ — Cynthia Maus. "Worship is an exercise through which man feels that he comes into special relation with his d i v i n i t y . — Hickman. "YYorship is a rich and wholesome fellowship with Cod * z and one’s fellowmen."u— McKibben. Study. Here, study means strictly class study at which time children are taught the Christian religion through the use of the Bible, quarterlies, and through sharing of ex­ periences with one another. Recreation. Recreation means play or fellowship, under the leadership of the church school.

It, therefore, implies

organized and guided recreation such as those experienced in athletic games, socials, parties, drama, handcraft, et cetera. The progressive church school will aim to coordinate with the recreational activities of the home and community of its pupils.

14 The writer feels that the solution to the problem lies in the earlier stage of life.

The success or failure

of a church depends upon its youth and not so much on the adults who are the products of the unfortunate past.

As we

look forward into the future of the Christian church, we must place our emphasis upon children who have the making of future Christian leaders.

If a church is successful in its

church school, there should be no fear for its future. For this reason, the writer had made the attempt to study the worship, study, and recreation, the three funda­ mental elements of personality building, of this particular church, so that some basic errors might:be removed and improve­ ments might be made, since the problems of this church are similar to that of the Japanese churches in general. III.

THE METHOD OF GETTING MATERIALS FOR THIS STUDY The materials upon which this thesis is based are:

(1 ) the writer’s personal observation of the church school at the Japanese Christian Institute, (2) printed materials, such as articles found in books, periodicals articles, and unpublished materials, and (3) information obtained through interviews with pastors, teachers, and leaders of the community. IV.

THE TREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL

In the second chapter, there is given a general

15 ■background of the Japanese population and of the Protestant churches of this city.

Then, a more detailed historical

background of the Japanese Christian Institute is given so that readers may obtain a clear vision of the subject dealt with in this study* The main thesis of the third chapter is worship.

The

worship services of various departments are critically analyzed from the standpoint of material, method, program, and leadership.

Score sheets and charts were used in ob­

servations made, conferences were held, new programs revised and applied. The fourth chapter on study and the fifth chapter on play are similarly treated. In the sixth chapter, a summarization and conclusion of this study are made.

CHAPTER I I

BRIEP HISTORY I.

JAPANESE IN THE UNITED STATES

In 1853 an American fleet under tiie command of Commodore Perry reached Japan*

It resulted in the signing of a treaty

of peace and amity on March 31, 1854, between the United States and Japan, and thus the Japanese seclusion policy was brought to an end*

In 1868 the Shogun resigned from office, and the

Emperor was restored to power.

The Imperial government then

adopted a liberal foreign policy, which encouraged the people to study abroad.

In I87I even girls were permitted to go

abroad to study.

However, it was not until 1884 that labor

emigration was legalized*

Nevertheless, from the beginning

of the nineteenth century a few Japanese found their way by accident into the United States.

Professor Millis says,

But while emigration was still forbidden, a few Japanese sailors and students reached our shores. More­ over, in the Sacramento Union and other California papers for I869 we read of a colony of a few score of Japanese settled as prospective silk growers at God Hill, California, where they were received with great favor. The promoter of this colony expected more to follow, but evidently this expectation was not realized because of the failure of the project.1 1 H. States, p. 2*

A. Millis, The Japanese Problem in the United

17 "An American official report states that, between 1861 and I87O, Japanese to the number of 218 arrived in the United States,"2 although the census for I87O enumerated only fifty-five Japanese i*esidents -in the country*

According to

Professor Ichiyasu, American official statistics on Japanese immigration are available from 1861 on,3 and Japanese official statistics are available from 1868 on.^

"A careful comparison

of the American and Japanese statistics make it manifest that Japanese immigration to this country before the year 1891 was very small, never exceeding 1,000 in any one year."^ According to Magner ?/hite, the first immigrants to Hawaii, consisting of 148 contract laborers, arrived in 1868.6 Robert H. Ross states that the: 1 Japanese immigration to the United States began in 1885* Prior to that date Japanese were practically unknown in the United States. In fact they were

2 Report of the United States Treasury Department, 1893, p. 12. 3

Doc* cit.; Annual Report of the United States Superintendent; And later Annual Report of the United States Superintendent and C'ommissioner-General of Immigration. ^ Data from the Imperial Statistical Annuals of Japan. ^ Yamato Ichih&shi, Japanese in the United States* p. 52. z

Magner White, "Between Two Flags," The Saturday Evening Post, September 30, 1939*

18 forbidden to leave Japan on pain of death, and only an occasional run-away stadent succeeded in getting to America.7 In 1882, a Chinese immigration law was passed which excluded Chinese laborers from the United States.

The

Japanese government legalized emigration in 1884, and large numbers of Japanese came into the United States.

In the

following years the increase was steady* and emigration con­ tinued until 1907, when by the Gentleman’s Agreement, emigra­ tion was prohibited, with the exception of picture-brides. The latter continued to come until 1920, at which time the Japanese government ceased giving out passports.

In 1910,

the Japanese population in California was estimated to be approximately 55,000, while in 1930, according to the fifteenth United States census, there were in the State of California, 46,000 alien Japanese and an equal number of American-born Japanese called "Nisei." In 1924, with the passing of the Exclusion Bill, Japanese were prohibited from entering the United States ex­ cept on a temporary basis, as students, official governmental representatives, and tourists. Magner White writes:

7 Robert H. Ross, "Social Distance as It Exists between the First and Second Generation Japanese in the City of Los Angeles and Vicinity," (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939), p* 19*

19 Since December 1, 1925, Japan has not claimed as subjects children born here of Japanese parents unless the children have declared within fourteen days of birth through a legal representative their intention of re­ taining Japanese nationality. In 1925, the Isseis were much perturbed; they did not know whether they were going or staying. So they claimed Japanese citizenship for their children and that is how thousands of Niseis happen to have the dual citizenship.® Various figures in reference to the Japanese population in this country have been given.

(See Table I.)

Robert H. Ross gives the following table.^ JAPANESE POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, IN CALIFORNIA, AND IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY AND CITY, BY DECADES, 1870-1930. (United States Census, 1930) Date I87 O 1880

Continental United States 55

California 86

2,039

1,147 10,151 41,356 71,952 97,456

1 1 1 ,0 1 0

1930

238,834

2 4 ,3 2 6

72,157

City of Los Angeles

204 8,461

4,238

1 9 ,9 1 1

1 1 ,6 1 8

35,390

21,081

33

148

1890 1900 1910 1920

Los Angeles County

150

According to the census of 1936 taken by the Japanese Consulate of Los Angeles, there was at that time a total of 41,362 population of Japanese origin living in Southern California. Of this total 58 per cent was of the first generation Japanese, while the rest, 42 per cent, was of the second generation Japanese, American Citizens of Japanese ancestry."10 ^ White, op. cit., p. 73* 9 Ross, op. cit., p. 27* 10 Fumiko Fukuoka, "Mutual Life and Aid Among the Japanese in Southern California with Special Reference to Los Angeles," (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California* Los Angeles* 1937), P* 4*

TABLE I DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, TEMPLES, SHRINES, CHURCHES, PRIESTS AND MINISTERS61

Number of

Los Angeles City

(Metropoli- Ten southern tan area) counties Southern Los Angeles California County

California

United States

Japanese Population

39,210

51,000

62,350

97,800

156,000

Nisei^

27,100

36,500

43,000

66,000

110,000

Issei

11,000

13,200

16,000

29,000

41,000

Buddhist Temples

13

20

30

Buddhist Priests

16

Shinto Shrines

15

25

28

Shinto Priests

15

Protestant Churches

16

34

46

Protestant Ministers

25

Average age

a Conference with Togo Tanaka, English editor of Rafu Shimpo, Japanese Daily Newspaper, June 25, 1941* k The Nisei population increases yearly.

JO

o

21 Magner White gives the following figures: 150,000 in the United States. 50.000 in Los Angeles County. 20.000 in Los Angeles City. II.

JAPANESE IN LOS ANGELES CITY

In general the Japanese are tenants, paying their rents punctually and keeping the houses clean. However, because of the unwillingness of the owners and the an­ tagonistic attitude of American neighbors, as well as the more or less unconscious inferiority complex of the Japanese, the Japanese feel uncomfortable in new neighbor­ hoods where Japanese are not found. They, therefore, usually move into districts where other Japanese have already settled.!! Thus, the Japanese population of this city is found mostly in the following districts or communities. The largest is the "Downtown District" with a popula­ tion of 4,370.

It is located one block east of the City Hall,

bounded on the north by Jackson Street and on the south by Tenth Street. River.

It extends from Main Street to the Los Angeles

The center of this community is called "Little Toyko,"

and comprises one block in each direction from the corner of East First Street and San Pedro Street. The next largest community is the "Hollenbeck Heights District," with a population of 2,550.

It extends from

Brooklyn Avenue to East Eighth Street, and from Boyle Avenue to Downey Road.

11

Within this district are found other racial

Fukuoka, op. cit., p. 7 .

22 groups, such as Negroes, Russians, and Mexicans* The third largest district is the "West Thirty-fifth Street District,” with a population of 2,240. of two adjoining districts.

It is made up

The first is bounded by Vermont

and Western Avenue on the east and west, and by Jefferson Boulevard and Thirty-seventh Street on the north and south. . The adjoining area is enclosed by West Twenty-eighth Street, Jefferson Boulevard, Western Avenue, and Arlington Avenue. Some Americans still reside here, especially in the latter . district, but they are rapidly being replaced by both the Negroes and Japanese. The fourth district is the "West Tenth Street District," with an approximate Japanese population of 1,590.

It is

bounded by Western Avenue, San Marino Street, Vermont Avenue, and Pico Street. The fifth is the "Virgil Street District," with a population of a little less than 1,430.

It is bounded by

Beverly Boulevard, Vermont Avenue, Melrose Avenue, and Hoover Street♦ The Hollywood District covers a large area, extending from Hollywood Boulevard to Melrose Avenue and from Van Ness to Highland Avenue, an area of near ten blocks square.

Yet

the Japanese in this district are comparatively few, number­ ing 720.

23 The Christian Church District includes about 390 people of the Japanese race, extending from San Pedro Street to Central Avenue, and from Washington Boulevard to Twentyfifth Street* Other smaller districts are Belvedere and Vernon, with a total number of less than five hundred Japanese* III.

JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCHES IN LOS ANGELES CITY

The Japanese Protestant Churches located in the city of Los Angeles are listed in Table II* IV.

INTERCHURCH AND INTERDENOMINATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Most of the local churches belong to two major organiza­

tions.

One is known by the name of the Southern California

Church Federation, which is a federation of the Issei divi­ sions of thirty Japanese churches of various denominations of Southern California.

Previous to 1931> this Federation

was called "Den-do Dan” (Band of Evangelism'), and it was first organized in 1913A similar organization, known as the Southern California Japanese Christian Young People’s Church Federation, was organized in 1927-

It is composed of thirty-two churches and

organizations; that is, most of the Japanese interdenomina­ tional churches and Christian organizations of Southern California.

Its membership is two churches in excess of the

TABLE II JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCHES IN LOS ANGELES CITY

Name of church

_ ^eaJf , Organized

^Methodist Church

-Baptist Church Christian Church

Assistant pastor

Averages attendance Church Nisei Issei School adults adults

Total Membership Church Nisei Issei School adults adults

191B

S. Watanabe

D. Toriumi

120

120

45

160

150

140

1896

Y. Yamaka

L. Suzuki T. Kamaye

135

65

75

180

100

20a

1925

K. Yamamoto

J. Morikawa

147

45

42

180

50

65-

1904

K. Unoura

K. Kubota

125

50

15

140

115

75-

M. Yamazaki

J. Yamazaki

200

50

40

0 0 o~\

Union Church

Pastor’s name

140

120-

17

0

20

25

0

36

90

20

20

120

35

46

j3t. Mary’s Episcopal 1907 'Reformed Church

1920

K. Suzuki

^Presbyterian Church

1923

T. Horikoshi

1917

None

56

17

35

76

22

45 -

1923

H. Ishiguro 1

80

7

20

130

10

60

1934

I. Okamoto

58

25

15

76

15

17 -

.^Hollywood Ind. Church of Christ ‘-'"Free Methodist Indepdent Baptist

D. Toriumi

Y. Watanabe

^Holiness Church

1921

S. Kuzuhara

Salvation Army

1919

Adjutant T. Iwanaga

Seventh Day Adventists

T. Okohira

IN *

Issei or Senior Federation.

The reason is that some young

people’s organizations are found within some American churches. This Young People’s Federation was first organized as a federation of young people’s societies within various churches.

Later it became the Young People’s Church Federa­

tion and a division of the Senior Church Federation.

Ad­

visors from the Senior or Issei Federation are represented in the Young People’s Federation Board, and every possible help is given the Young People’s Federation by the Senior Federation, especially in the matter of finance. For various reasons all the churches are not members of these federations.

However, most of the Japanese churches

and denominations are represented in them.

The names of

these churches and organizations are mentioned in the report of the Young People’s Federation. The activities of these two federations are similar, and they jointly participate in various activities, such as a summer conference, special conferences, and evangelistic work: with the coming of special guests, such as

Doctor T.

Kagawa and others. Another interchurch and interdenominational organiza­ tion is the ’’Friends of Jesus” started by Doctor Toyohiko Kagawa in the year 1926*

It has an average attendance of

forty to fifty members, and holds a sunrise prayer worship

26 every Sunday morning at six.

The place of worship is rotated

each month from one church to another within the city.

The

members of the following churches are represented at present in this organization, which is open to all people:

Union

Church, Baptist Church, Christian Church, Methodist Episcopal Church, Holiness Church, The Church of Christ, Hollywood Independent Church, and Hollywood Presbyterian Church.

This

organization keeps a close contact with Doctor Kagawa and other "Friends of Jesus" groups in Japan and in this country and contributes financial aid to Kagawa* s work among the lepers in Japan.

It exercises a definite influence over the

churches of Southern California through the power of prayer. In 1940, a similar organization was organized among the Nisei.

It has an average attendance of twenty and meets

two Sundays a month, at the same location as the Issei.

The

Issei and Nisei meetings are held separately, but mutual fellowship is enjoyed at the common breakfast table.

Until

April, 1941f the Nisei "Friends of Jesus" group met only once a month, but with the coming of Doctor Kagawa in May, 1941, another Sunday was added.

This group now makes finan­

cial contribution toward Doctor Kagawa* s work among the tubercular patients in Japan. Another "Friends.of Jesus" group, composed of both Issei and Nisei, was organized in the Japanese Methodist Episcopal Church of West Los Angeles with the coming of

27 Doctor Kagawa.

It meets twice a month, also, and collaborates

with the senior organization. Still another influential organization is the Christian Women’s Federation, which is a federation of womon among the Japanese Protestant Christian Churches in Southern California. It was founded in the year 1929 and all the women belonging to the thirty churches of the Senior Federation are its members.

It collaborates with both the Senior Church Federa­

tion and the Young People’s Federation in activities such as the summer conference called ”Kaki-Gakko,” special confer­ ences, and meetings’.

It is often called upon to manage and

prepare banquets and meals.

It also contributes generously

toward many philanthropic endeavors. Y.

JAPANESE CHRISTIAN CHURCH AND INSTITUTE

Historical background. In 1904 B. F. Coulter opened a home for Japanese young men, who were coming to Los Angeles in large numbers. Along with this home he operated a night school which taught two subjects— English and the Bible. This pro­ ject proved a success, and larger quarters were secured. A similar work was smarted by the Christian Women’s Board of Missions (the women’s missionary group among the churches) and a center was opened in 190? at 128 N. Main Street, with Dr. H. H. Guy as superintendent. The First Christian Church provided several teachers, and assisted in establishing the work in a new location at 445 South Olive Street.12 12

Francis M. Arant, ”A Study of the History and Develop­ ment of the Disciples of Christ in Southern California,” (un­ published Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936), p. 35•

28 The Japanese Christian Church dates from 1908, when it was organized with the nucleus of nine Japanese young men. The following year a Japanese pastor, Teizo Kawai, was called from Japan. In 1911 there was a general merger of all the Japanese work into one group, and by 1914 the work was housed in a three-story brick building at 926 Wall Street.13 Reverend T. Kawai served until 1923, when he was succeeded by Reverend K. XJnoura. The present administration. The present building, which is called the Japanese Christian Institute, was dedi­ cated in 1931 at 822 East Twentieth Street to meet the needs of the increasing Nisei.

This institute now comprises the

church, the church school, the nursery-kindergarten, and the language school.

In 1929, a full-time American young

peoplets director was engaged for the first time to super­ vise the ever-growing Nisei activities of the church, church school, and Young Men’s Christian Association and Young Women’s Christian Association clubs, which had increased to sixteen— eight boys’ and eight girls’ clubs.

He served

until 1938, and his vacancy was partially filled by a young woman, who had been brought up in the Institute since kinder­ garten age.

In September, 1939, a student-minister from

Hawaii, who came to study in the Sehool of Religion of The University of Southern California, was engaged as a part-time

Arant, loc. cit.

29 worker to supervise the young people’s work for two years* He, like the former American young people’s director, super­ vised and taught in the church school, preached the English sermon and looked after young people’s work in general.

Be­

sides the pastor and young people’s director, there is an Issei assistant pastor, who has been with the church since 1923The church is composed of Issei and Nisei.

Conse­

quently, it necessitates two directing boards, namely, the Senior Board and the Young People’s Board, and the adminis­ tration of the church is divided between them.

The assistant

pastor acts as the secretary of the Issei, while a part-time secretary is hired for the Nisei work.

The Issei secretary

deals with all Japanese activities, while the Nisei secretary deals with all English activities. The total number of baptized members since the beginning of this church (1904-1941) is 421. Of this number 193 are Issei men, 81 Issei women, 49 Nisei boys, and 98 Nisei girls. The total membership today is 167, of which 121 are. active members. Forty-four of these are Isseis and 77 are Niseis. It must also be remembered that many of the Niseis who attend Sunday worship services regularly are not baptised. Consequently they are officially non-members. The regular attendance at the Sunday morning worship service is between 70 and 80. The 167 members come from 154 families of which 15 families have non-Christian fathers, while in 24 families both parents are non-Christian.14

^ Conference with Reverend K. Kubota, assistant pastor of the Japanese Christian Church and Institute, June, 1941.

30 The Church School at present is composed of five departments: the Beginners:, the Primary, the Junior, the Intermediate, and the High School Porum.

In addition, there

is a small Adult (Issei) Bible Glass conducted by the assist­ ant pastor, but the writer does not include this class in his study.

In years past, an out-of-high-school or college-

age class was organized, but it has never succeeded because of lack of leadership. At present the enrollment of the Church School is: Departments

Girls

Boys

Total

Teachers

Beginners Primary J unior Intermediate High School

9 6 14 30 26

5 9 10 19 12

14 15 24 49 38

2 3 4 4 1

Total

85

55

140

14

Age 4- 5 6- 8 9-11 12-14 15-17

Each department is well equipped, with ample space for worship and study.

There is a dirt playground within the

property, fenced off from the adjoining properties by a high wired fence.

The ground has indoor baseball and basketball

courts, and is equipped with mechanical swings, a horizontal bar, and two huge roof lights to make night games possible. Although it is limited in space and equipment, this play­ ground, being the only available one in the neighborhood, is utilized to its fullest capacity by the clubs and by the neighboring children both day and night. The Church School meets every Sunday morning from 9:45

31 to 10:45, during which time worship and classes are held# Children who are very young or who live in some remote distances are transported by the church bus, which also serves the kindergarten and the language school during the week days# Worship and study are taken care of on Sundays, while di­ rected or guided recreation is taken care of in clubs to which most of-the boys and girls belong, and in socials or parties that are held at various times# A teachers* supper-meeting is held on the last Wednesday of each month at the church.

The Beginners-

Primary teachers, the Junior teachers, and the Intermediate teachers alternate in preparing the supper, and the expense is subsidized by the church.

The purpose of this meeting

is for fellowship, for inspiration, and for discussion on religious educational problems.

Out of the fourteen

teachers only three are men teachers.

This is an indication

of the lack of leadership for boys in the Church School. The Nursery-kindergarten of this institute is one of the best in the Japanese community.

It has its separate

unit fully provided with rooms, equipment, and a separate playground well equipped with slides, swings, jungle-gym, horizontal bars, a place to paddle during the hot summer, et cetera. The total enrollment is about forty Japanese children of the second and third generation.

They range in age from

three to five and are taken care of by a trained American teacher and a Nisei teacher from 9:00 A.M. to 3:00 P.M.

The

children are carried back and forth by the bus. Many of these children come from hotels where they are shut off from the sunlight or from homes where mothers are working.

This Nursery-kindergarten provides a wholesome

environment for these handicapped children at a minimum charge. Parents are often entertained and educated through special speakers and special events.

Medical care is also given to

these children from time to time so that they might be pro­ tected from the danger of epidemics. The Language School has its own unit with a total en­ rollment of 150, taught by three regular teachers.

The

assistant pastor teaches night school and a special class on Saturday.

During the week days, children are taught one hour

a day after public school hours.

The ages of the pupils

range from seven to twenty-two years and many of them are transported by the school bus, which is also used for the Nursery-kindergarten and the Church School.

Unlike other

departments of. the Institute, this school is self-supporting. The purpose of this school is to teach the Japanese language and culture so as to diminish the misunderstandings that arise between parents and children.

The textbooks used

in this school are those prepared and printed in this country with emphasis upon American loyalty rather than that to Japan.

33 Therefore, the school is serving a real need in the present period of transition.

After the first generation has gone,

there will not be any need for the language school. Organizations. There are at present sixteen clubs (eight for boys and eight for girls) under the church sponsor­ ship, although directly connected with the Y.M.O.A. and Y.W.C.A.

The leaders for these clubs are either former church

members and club members or outstanding personalities in their communities.

The groups range from nine years of age to a

matrons’ club for young married women.

The activities are

varied; athletics, socials, discussions, speakers, worship, service, et cetera.

The aim of these clubs is to develop

leaders with Christ-like personalities.

HOME MISSION

CHURCH

STAFF

KINDERGARTEN

LANGUAGE SCHOOL

YOUNG PEOPLE1S BOARD. .

Y.M.C.A.

Y.W.C.A.

FIRST GENERATION SENIOR BOARD

S.S. TEACHER’S BOARD

BEGINNER S.S.CLASS

PRIMARY S.S.CLASS .

JUNIOR S. S.CLASS APPALACHIAN MOHAWKFriendly Indian

INTERMEDIATE S.S.GLASS (MOHAWK) GOLDEN EAGLE LOHA TOHELA LEWA

HIGH SCHOOL S.S.CLASS S.O.N. KNIGHT (LOHA TOHELA) SUB DEB JR. CHOIR

NISEI ADULTS

CHUCKATEER KALIFAN RHO SIGMA RHO ANCHOVIE KAYAN JR. MATRON SR. CHOIR

ISSEI ADULTS S.S.CLASS PRAYER CIRCLE FAMILY WORSHIPCIRCLE MOTHER’S CLUB

CHART I 'oJ

-p-

CHAPTER I I I

WORSHIP I.

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION

What is religious education? been given*

Many definitions have

The following one wan accepted by the meeting of

the International Missionary Council at Jerusalem in the spring of 1928: Religious education in the Christian sense includes ail efforts and processes which help to bring children and adults into a vital and saving experience of God revealed in Christ; to quicken the sense of God as a living reality, so that communion with Him in prayer and worship becomes a national habit and principle of life; to enable them to interpret the meaning of their growing experience of life in the light of ultimate values; to establish attitudes and habits of Christ-like living in common life and in all human relations; and to enlarge and deepen the understanding of the historic facts on which Christianity rests and of the rich content of Christian experience, belief, and doctrine.L The aim of religious education, according to George H. Betts, is to attain fruitful knowledge, right attitudes, and skill in living.

The task of the church school is to change

the life of pupils from where they are to where they ought to be in character and conduct.

This cannot be done unless we

know where the pupils now are and where they are to be taken. Religious education must be child centered.

It must begin

A

^ Paul H. Vieth, Teaching for Christian Living, p. 28.

36 from the learner and must set up objectives in terms of what the learner is to become.

It is one thing to know religion

and another thing to teach. The church and the church school has eight tasks to perform.

Worship, study, recreation, and service are the

four major tasks of the church, while membership, community relationship, and property are its four minor tasks. The chief task of the church and the church school is worship, for it is the only place where systematic worship is offered; the church is the only place where people go primarily to worship.

Worship, therefore, is the most significant

feature of religious education. is to be child-centered.

It needs to be graded if it

It needs to be supervised in order

to enable the pupils to experience Christian fellowship with the Divine and with their fellowmen. In the past instruction was emphasized in religious education but today, study, meaning study under guidance, is stressed.

Teachers no longer instruct their pupils but study

together with them. Rcereation or fellowship is recognized today as the chief means of developing character, since it is the only approach for little children.

It is, therefore, the most

effective method of teaching religious education in the church school.

Doctor Taylor of The University of Southern California

37 says, "A church that cannot play together, cannot pray to­ gether.”2 Service is putting religion into practice. by-product of religious education. school is of no value.

It is the

Without it the church

It, therefore, should be the task of

the church and the church school to bend every effort toward the realization of Christian service not only within the church but in every day life at work or at play. The church is the only institution whose membership ranges from the young to the old.

It is interested in people

of all ages and in a man’s entire life from birth to death. There is no other institution that deals with one’s complete life so intimately as the church.

It is, therefore, the most

worthy institution to which every one should belong. The interest of the church is not confined within its walls but extends wherever people are found. relation with the community.

It has a vital

The task of the church is to

Christianize its community. The church or the church school can never perform its tasks efficiently without sufficient property or equipment. It is important that the church possesses not only the proper method of teaching religious education but the proper material. For the purpose of this thesis, worship, study and recreation are studied.

2 R. I. Taylor, Religion 250.

II.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Graded worship.

The heart of worship consists in the

awareness of God or a vital spiritual union with Him, which comes not through instruction hut through the experience of worship.

This experience of the awareness of God is made

possible through the channel of various elements of worship, such as meditation, prayer, music, reading of the Scriptures, observance of the sacraments, the offering, and the story or sermon. It is the purpose of the writer to discover the strong and weak points of the worship services carried on in each church school department of the Japanese Christian Church and Institute, from the Beginners to the High School Forum. Ob­ servations were made in person, and the findings were critically analyzed in conferences with teachers and worship committees. From these conferences, needs were discovered, and revised worship programs were derived.

The revised programs adapted

to the needs of the pupils were put in use, and improvements measured.

Such procedure needs to be repeated often before

definite progress can be obtained.

For the purpose of this

study it suffices to say that the method applied led toward a noticeable improvement in the departments mentioned. III. Introduction.

BEGINNERS’ DEPARTMENT

In the Beginners* Department it is not

39 possible, as it is in older departments, to segregate worship from study and play or recreation, since the teachers must deal with children between the ages of four and six who are instinctive and spontaneous in their reactions.

Therefore,

it is not possible to hold them in the spirit of worship for any length of time, but it must be introduced informally and spontaneously at every opportunity. Paulsen says, The skilled leader is so sensitive to the children’s reactions, noting their expressions and words, that she will be prepared for such moments or contributions as may be directed into channels of devotion. But she will not be content with that. She will so set the stage that situations will be created wherein experience can become, religiously significant.3 Consequently, worship, study, play, and service must be integrated and harmonized through intelligent guidance of the teacher so that the pupils’ experience of worship may be natural and spontaneous.

This calls for an unhurried pro­

cedure on the part of the teacher. The task of the teacher is not an easy one.

In order

to guide the Beginners intelligently, the teacher must first understand the child; lack of understanding brings loss of opportunity, thus obstructing the child’s spiritual growth. ’’The child of four or five is so different from the adult, not only in bodily structure and size but in ways of behaving,

2 Irwin G. Paulsen, The Church School and Worshi£,

40 that he -is a source of constant amusement, bewilderment, and irritation to the average grownup. Characteristics. A child of this age is imaginative and lives in a make-believe-world the greater part of the time.

Therefore, in order to understand him, the teacher,

too, must see life through imaginative eyes.

In such a light

God must be introduced into the child’s life. The God who will appeal to the Beginner must be a God of love, a giving God, a God who protects and cares for this fearful, dependent, curious and acquisitive little being; a great Father-Mother God translated into terns of his experience. A God who resides in a distant heaven and from that vantage point spies on weak humanity and takes the wrong-doer unaware, arouses in this child only terror, distrust, and intense dislike.5 Once a child was going over to a neighboring house to play, when he spied his cat following him.

He remarked,

"It’s bad enough to have God watching me everywhere I go without you following me around."^

This illustration shows

how children are often stamped by religion that hinders their natural spiritual development.

It Is no wonder that such

children keep away from church and God.

Young people often

say that the kind of religion they were taught in their childhood was either not permanent or so contradictory to

^ Edna Dean Baker, Kindergarten Method in the Church School, p. 15* IMi*. p * 186

R. I. Taylor, Religion 251.

41 that which they hear today that they do not know what to believe.

Consequently, in many instances, their belief in

God is completely destroyed.

This tragedy must be avoided,

and it is the great task of teachers in the Beginners* and Primary Departments to plant in the children the right idea of God, as a living force within their lives. Following are some of the main characteristics of children between the age of three and six taken from Edna D. Baker* s Kindergarten Method in the Church School: Imaginative make-believe. Individualistic. Wide awake senses. Rapid mental growth. Suggestibility and credulity. Fear of strangers. Frankness in speech. Desire for approval. Rapid development of muscular coordinations. Awkward and clumsy bodily movements. Spontaneous motor reaction. Unable to sit still long. Interest in nurturing and mothering. Lack of prejudice. Lack of memory. Rapid growth of the bones. Rhythmic. Susceptible to colds, indigestion, and contagions. Needs. Understanding is the primary need. Constant exercise for the big muscles. Eyes need to be guarded from direct sunlight. Sufficient sleep— 12 hours each night and rest and nap in the afternoon. In bed at 7:00 o ’clock, absence of fear and excitement, sufficient covering, correct sleeping position, and light evening meal are necessary. Plenty of direct sunlight in the room every day.

42 Avoid dust, dirt, dampness, and change of temperature. Room temperature to be between 65 and 70 degree F. Good diet necessary— milk, cereals, wholewheat breads, vegetables, fruits, meat juices, cod-liver oil and simple deserts. Avoid eating between meals and rich pasteries and candies. The child should enjoy his food and companionship at the dinner table. A cold should be given special attention. It can easily lead to whooping cough, measles, and scarlet fever. Formation of good health habits important. Selection of suitable chair. Physical deformity is common during this age. Usage of "don’t" as little as possible and "do" only when necessary. Sufficient out-of-door life.7 Beginners1 worship.

In the Beginners1 Department

it is not possible to hold planned services of worship, since worship will be entirely spontaneous.

Ideally, the program

of this department should be under the direction of one teacher, the group never breaking up into classes.

This

enables the teacher to plan the procedure and materials for the entire session in anticipation of opportune moments for worship.

The primary function of a teacher is "to lead the

child, within the limitations of his experience, to an awareness of God and to a sense of security in His love and care. In the Beginners’ Department children usually arrive

7 Class of Religion 265* 8 Paulsen, ojd cit.» p. 43*

.

43 ten or fifteen minutes early*

This time should be utilized

for acquainting the children with the teacher and other children, for looking at pictures and books, for arranging flowers and folding story papers, et cetera. 1.

Atmosphere.

It is important that the atmosphere

be made happy, for little children need happiness for physical, mental, and spiritual growth, as much as plants need sunshine. Of greater importance is the creation of reverence for God and for that which is beautiful and good in their surround­ ings, including the personality of each one.

This can be

done by the help of flower pots, pictures of nature, children and religious pictures, such as "Jesus Blessing Little Children," "The Good Shepherd," and "The Christ-child." Offering.

Often the true meaning of the offering

is misconceived by little children, as well as by the older children.

Every child should know why he is bringing his

money; it may be for the China Mission, for the purchase of new hymnals, et cetera.

He must also understand to whom he

is giving the offering.

Neglect in giving a proper under­

standing can lead to future misunderstanding of Christian service. Furthermore, opportunity should be given from time to time for the children to give toys, books, clothings, and food, rather than money, for the objects mean more to little

44 children than pennies, nickles, and dimes• A three and half year old child asked his father to buy him a scotter, like those of his friends, and he insisted that his father get it.

They went to the Five and Ten Cent

Store, and there the child’s eyes fell upon a toy horn. immediately wanted it instead of the scooter.

He

To him there

was no difference in value between a scooter and a horn. Likewise a doll to a little girl may represent more value than a piece of gold. It is, therefore, important to teach the children to offer that which they consider valuable instead of offering objects which they consider valueless.

In addition, the

habit of cheerful giving and a charitable and sympathetic attitude toward all who are In need must be cultivated. 3* Rhythm.

RJiythm plays an important part in the

worship of Beginners, since they are so active and their power of concentration is spontaneous and limited.

Children

of this age will engage in this activity without urging on the part of a teacher.

It helps them to get acquainted with

new friends and prepares a setting for worship. 4* Story.

Telling of stories to little children is

one of the great tasks of the teacher.

Every Beginners’

teacher should read Kindergarten Method in the Church School by Edna Dean Baker.

In it she gives the following advice

q

concerning story telling:7 It is better not to memorize word for word. It may be best however to memorize the introductory and the concluding sentences. Practice telling the story by heart after reading the story several times aloud. This will improve enunciation, pronunciation, expression, gesture, etc. Rehearse before an imaginary audience, thinking of the probable reactions of your group. Unconsciously, you will adapt the story in advance to meet their needs. It is better for the teacher to be seated as she tells the story thus bringing her face into better range for the children’s eyes. All distractions should be avoided* It is important that the children are rested when the story begins. If they were seated for five or ten minutes, it is well to introduce a', brief game or a few rhythmic movements. The story must be selected according to the interests, characteristics and needs of the children. It must be short, full of action, possess a good plot, positive ending, and child interest. Finally does the story appeal to the one who tells it? It is not possible to tell a story which does not appeal to him. Other elements of worship may be studied in E. D. Baker’s book mentioned. Following is the illustrative Sunday morning session 10 for the Beginners’ Department.

9 Baker, o£. cit., pp. 164-174* 10 Ibid.. pp. 257-262.

V6 Qne Hour Session. Rhythm period--5 minutes. Stamping of feet, tapping with toes and heels, sliding feet, clapping hands, etc. with the music. Greeting period-— 10 minutes. Formal greeting song and some handshaking. There should always be a recognition of each in­ dividual child with joy that he is there. Some may want to contribute songs or relate some experiences of the week. Offering. In order to take care of troublesome coins which are beginning to escape pockets and handkerchiefs. Birthday recognition— 5 minutes. Story period— 15 minutes. Picture story— 5 minutes. Singing. Dramatization and worship. Handwork period. Good-bye greeting. Closing song. Story paper given at the door. Observation.

In the Beginner^1 Department there are

two woman-teachers— one an Issei, who teaches in Japanese; the other is a Nisei, who has a high school background and speaks English exclusively although she understands Japanese just as the other understands English. The morning period is roughly divided into two parts, the worship hour, and the handwork hour.

The first half of the

period is in charge of the Issei teacher, who conducts a wor­ ship of songs and stories told from pictures.

The second half

is in charge of the Nisei teacher who supervises handwork and out-of-door play. This department utilizes the daily nursery unit of the

47 Institute.

Consequently, it is well equipped with a large,

well-lighted and ventilated room, a piano, tables'and chairs suitable to little children, and a playground provided with swings, slide, bars, et cetera. Following is an observation made-on July 7 i 1941* There were five girls present.

The children sat in

chairs in a semicircle around the teacher with a piano behind her.

The informal worship service was opened with a song.

The teacher now held up a picture from the lesson of the day and asked questions concerning the picture.

While she was

explaining the picture, one child said, ”We want to sing.” Evidently she had had enough of the picture. Teacher— ”A11 right. song.”

Then let us sing the flower

[Since flowers were a part of the picture story.] Song— ”Who Can Make the Flower” was sung in English. Teacher— ”How did the birds sing?” [in Japanese]. Child— ”Praise Him, Praise Him.” That song was sung next.

Before each verse was sung,

a child was called in front to lead the singing. Song--”Jesus Loves Me This I Know,” was next sung. Teacher suggested that they pray. put their hands together and close the prayer song.

She asked all to

their eyes as theysang

Two prayer songs were sung.

Another song was sung, this

time in Japanese.

^ The teacher now showed a series of pictures from a

48

story book and asked questions.

The children answered and

also asked questions in both languages.

Then she showed music

from the picture book but the children displayed no interest in it until she played it on the piano.

They were not in­

terested in things that were beyond their understanding. They soon got tired of sitting, and the teacher suggested that they sing another song while standing, before they went and sat around the tables to do some handwork.

The Nisei

teacher did not arrive, and the work was carried on by the Issei teacher. First, the offering was taken at the table by a girl who collected the money on a p liens© of paper.

Before.it was all

collected, the makeshift plate capsized, and the coins went sprawling on the floor.

However, they were picked up without

any commotion on the part of the other children.

Perhaps they

were used to such happenings, or they were too intent on the project pf the day. A child cried, "I want to pass the book." A few others volunteered to pass enthusiastically. Then the teacher assigned several of them to pass and bring various objects before they began coloring the pictures. In each picture to be colored the teacher pointed out the figure of lesus to remind them of what they were coloring. Child--"What color shall I use?" The teacher made sure that each child knew what color

she was using. One child was not interested in the picture.

She

turned it over and began drawing a picture of a house.

An­

other imitated her. Two of the children got tired of drawing and walked out to play on the swing. One child finished her drawing and asked for another but was refused, since the time was almost up. An older sister and a brother of a girl came to take her home.

The little girl came back to give her offering and

said, ”1 forgot to give my offering.”

This was the girl who

collected the offering. Each child went home as soon as the bell for dismissal was heard.

Some finished the drawings while others didn’t.

Some colored them neatly while others merely imitated and showed, lack of interest. Analysis and suggestions. was well handled by the teacher.

The Beginners* Department Whenever the children were

distracted and made irrelevant comments, she ignored them and reminded them of the day*s subject, which is not harmful at this early age, since the children’s interest is changeable. This, however, is not so with Primary children and up.

The

teacher was also very attentive to the children’s spontaneous interests and she adapted her program accordingly.

50 There should have been, however, a closing exercise to tie the thoughts of the day to a conclusion, instead of dis­ missing the children immediately after handwork.

There is no

excuse for not providing the class with an offering basket, which will prevent the disaster previously mentioned.

It

seems better that instead of the two teachers teaching alter­ natively, they teach together throughout the entire period. The reason that there is no closing exercise is that the Nisei teacher does not play the piano and the Issei teacher usually leaves before the handwork.

It may also be true that

one teacher knows the songs while the other does not. should not be the case.

This

Greater improvement can be attained

if the teachers would cooperate and help each other wherein each is la eking.For example, when the song "Praise Him, Praise Him” was sung, the Issei teacher pronounced the word; "thank" as "sank” and the children sang ”Sank Him, Sank Him” instead of "Thank Him, Thank Him.”

That could have been easily avoided if the

Nisei teacher had led in the singing, while the Issei teacher played the piano.

Probably other examples could be found of

points that need to be corrected. Conference.

Each Sunday the teacher tells the children

a lesson from the Bethany Graded Lesson, and each child is given a leaflet to place in a folder, to which are added the

51 children’s drawings.

These are kept by the teacher until the

end of each quarter,

at which time the children are allowed

to take them home.

The

reason thepupils are not allowed to

take their lessons home each Sunday is that they often forget to bring them back the next Sunday or are apt to lose or ruin them before the book The complaint

is completed. of the teacher is that the lesson stories

and pictures are practically the same every year.

It means

that a child who remains in the Beginners’ Department between the years of four and six will receive the same set of pictures and stories each year.

There is, therefore, the danger of losing

the children’s interest as well as that of the teacher. This must be an error, for the Bethany Graded Lessons have first and second year series, thus preventing duplication. Another handicap is the limitation of time, the entire period lasting only an hour, from 9:45 to 10:45-

There is a

great desire on the part of the teachers, as well as the children, to have a longer period for handwork and a period for recreation.

This is not possible, since most of the little

children must go home on the,church bus.

If their parents

could furnish transportation or accompany them home, it would be possible to have a longer period, but the parents are mostly non-Christians and do not come to church. There is also a great need for cooperation between the church school and the parents.

The only occasion that the

52 parents visit the church is on Christmas, when their children take part in the program.

The task of the teachers is to

acquaint themselves with the parents and homes of their children so that the parents may realize the importance of religious education, not only in the church school but also at home.

The teachers must take religious education into the

homes and seek the parents* cooperation. Evaluation of the score sheet.

This score sheet

(Table III) used as a measuring instrument reveals the follow­ ing facts: The Beginners’ Department is well equipped— large, clean, well lighted and ventilated room, well decorated; chairs, tables, and equipment fitted to the children.

It is separated

from that of the older children and, therefore, not subject to outside distractions. It is proper for this department to have both an Issei and a Nisei teacher, since some of the children are handicapped in language usage.

However, there is a danger for either

teacher to mispronounce words in the more unfamiliar language, thus misleading the children. There is need for the teachers to make a definite effort in order to improve their methods of teaching and to make the best use of the material provided. The teachers must try to contact the parents of the

53 TABLE III WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— BEGINNER1S DEPARTMENT VP

P

F

G

VG

1- Physical conditions .1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Arrangement of seating Punctuality, teacher, and pupils Room suited to age Walls, windows, furniture, decorations Light, temperature, ventilation Arrangement of symbols, pictures Lessons, piano, et cetera, ready

X X X X X X X

2- Leader 1. Attitude, dignified, reverent, joyous

X X

2, Voice and manner pleasing and effective 3* 4. 5. 6.

Skill in securing group response Personal appeal Skill and manner of pianist Evidence of God-consciousness

3- Praise 1, Hymns suited to group needs, capacities 2. Hymns suited to theme 3. Quality of hymns, words, time, music 4. Theological content and social meaning 5* Music suited to worship aims 6. Response by the group

X X X X

X X X X X X

4- Scripture 1. Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Manner, one person, unison, response 4. Length 5. Attention and interest of group 5- Story, Talk, or Drama 1. Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Quality of message 4. Proper length 5. Manner of presentation 6. Response of the group

X X X X X X

54 TABLE III (continued) WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— -BEGINNER*S DEPARTMENT VP

P

F

G

6- Prayer, Song 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Suited to group needs Suited to theme Spiritual stimulation Manner, one person, unison, sung, read Delivery and composition Response of the group

7- Offering 1. Ritual suited to group needs 2 . Ritual dignified, worshipful 3. Music, quality 4. Quality of scripture or other quotations 5. Attitude of the group

X X X. X X X

X X

X

VG

55 children so that church and home might work together in the growth and guidance of the little children. There is a lack of the use of the Bible.

The children

need to become familiarized with God as their heavenly Father. All activities should be God-centered. Stories are well selected in the closely graded lessons. The problem is for the teacher to adapt them to meet the needs and interests of this particular racial group. The offering is not sufficiently emphasized.

As it is

a very important element of worship, its importance must be clearly imprinted in the minds of the children'. IV. Introduction.

PRIMARY DEPARTMENT

The Primary Department is made up of

children six, seven, and eight years of age.

In this depart­

ment, the worship period is definitely set apart from instruc­ tion or study. In the Primary Department, spontaneous worship con­ tinues, but a planned worship service is necessary, since the children are less spontaneous.

They need simple material

that will convey, in their language of worship, how they feel. In order to realize this, the worship program must be planned with the children, either as a whole group or class or through a committee.

"Very often, if given half a chance, children

will create their own material, thereby adding to the rich

56 11

significance of their worship.”

The organization of the program rests on the judgment of the teacher.

It needs some psychological progression and

some natural culmination in order that the children may ex­ perience the awareness of God. Characteristics.

It is important that worship be;

treated in the light of some of the pertinent characteristics of the primary children.

Following are some of them taken 12

from Alberta Munkrest Primary Method in the Church School.

Growing sense of individuality. Rapid physical growth. Increased physical activities. Unable to sit still long. Wide-awake senses. Hunger for new experiences. Transition from physical to mental takes place. He still lives in a world of make-believe. There is little difference between inanimate and animate objects. Learning to play with other children. Recognition of the importance of others. The beginning of his reasoning power. He begins to question, ”Is it really true?” Developing of the ability to remember. An age of imitation. Tendency toward and capacity for religious experiences. Interest in collections. Pockets are often full of everything imaginable. Quick response to weakness, hunger or suffering from cold. Symbolism is not understood. Little knowledge of time and space. Emotional immaturity due to lack of experience.

^ I. G. Paulsen, The Worship of the Little Child, p. U3 • 12 Alberta Munkres, Primary Method in the Church Schoolf 2J+2 pp.

57 Lack of prejudice. Friendly attitude. Ability to read opens up a new world. Needs* Dramatization. Teaching through tlie senses. Development of large muscles instead of small muscles. Skill is not to be expected. To be safe-guarded from contagious diseases, because of his susceptibility. •Presenting God as the Father of all; God who cares and forgives. Fellowship with God needs to be made real. Observation.

There are three teachers in the Primary

Department, which is supervised by an American woman, who is also in charge of the daily Kindergarten School.

She takes

charge of the worship service before the pupils go to their classes.

She conducts the service expertly and is wide

awake to the spontaneous reactions of the pupils.

Often her

worship program has to be changed according to the moods of the children.

She is especially good in story-telling and, though

she speaks rapidly, the children follow her easily.

Although

they often take her off into by-ways, she leads them back with little difficulty. The Primary Department uses the well-equipped kinder­ garten unit, with comfortable chairs and tables fitted to the size of the pupils.

The atmosphere is ideal, with worshipful

decorations, and room is well lighted and ventilated. The worship service was in charge of the superintendent,

58 assisted by a teaoher-pianist. It was expertly handled, and the children responded eagerly with great interest.

In spite

of the fact that the leader spoke rapidly, for she was an American, the children did not seem to have any language difficulty.

In contrast to the Beginners* Department, the.

Japanese language is completely abandoned, which fact shows that English is the common language of these children as soon as they attend public school, and they do not use Japanese unless forced to do so.

None of the teachers in this depart­

ment is Issei, and the entire program seemed to progress rapidly and smoothly.

It was observed that this is the best

department of the entire church school. Piano prelude. Opening song— ”Father We Thank Thee.** Talking to God— by the Headers. Offering. Song— ”Fraise Him, Priase Him.” Marching to the front to make the offering. Prayer of thanksgiving. Song— **Jesus Loves Me This I Know.” Picture story. Large picture of Jesus and children of different races. Story on being a good American. Song— ”God*s Children Live in Many Lands.” Dismissal for handwork. There were four girls and three boys present in the Primary Department.

The worship was led by the superintendent

who was assisted by a pianist. While the music was being played, the children sat down in chairs arranged facing the blackboard, which was decorated with some drawings made previously by the children.

However,

59 there was no central point of worship interest.

The boys

were rather noisy and they were asked to sit in front.

The

teacher broughtout a set of rules, evidently made by the children which were written on some sheets of paper, and she reminded them of the noise, wasting of time, et cetera.

The

children were then asked to stand and sing father We Thank Thee."

A prayer was offered while standing, after the song

was sung. Next was the offering and they sang "Praise Him, Praise Him" seated.

At the end of this song, while the music con­

tinued to play, they marched to the front to deposit their offering.

A boy began whistling*

have you there?"

Another asked, "How Much

A third child asked, "May I count them?"

Another said, "Let me count them after." After the responsive prayer for offering, a child re­ marked, "That was a short one." Teacher— "Yes, do you know why?

So that you could pray

together." Another familiar song, "Jesus Loves Me" was sung. Child— "Now the story" (voicing the interest they have for stories). The teacher brought out a large picture of Jesus with children of different races, each dressed in his native cos­ tume.

Different children Y/ere pointed out, representing

different countries.

The children were asked how those

60 children could be good children of their respective countries# Teacher— "Does a good Chinese boy steal?’1 Class— "No." Teacher— ’’How about the Japanese boy?” Child--”A11 Japanese’boys are good#” Another— ’’Some are bad#” Teacher— ”Do they obey their parents?” Some' of the children’s answers indicate their influ­ ence of the environment— home and community#

It was noted

that only boys were responding to the questions#

It does not

mean that the boys are more wide-awake than the girls, but they are more aggressive or boisterous than the girls. A story was told about ”Ben,” who was a good American# As soon as the name Ben was mentioned, a child spoke, ’’June’s brother is Ben.”

The teacher asked a girl, ”June, do you

have a brother named Ben?” June— ”Yes, he works in a restaurant.” As the teacher continued with her story, it was appar­ ent that the imagination of most of them ran a step ahead of the storyteller, although she spoke rather rapidly.

Some of

them continually asked, ”If Ben did something or other,” without waiting for the story.

There seemed to be no language

difficulty in understanding the story.

That may not be true

with the girls since they spend more time at home with their mothers who, if they are Issei, speak Japanese exclusively.

61 The teacher concluded the story by pointing out the fact that to be a good .American does not merely mean hanging out the biggest American flag, but it means keeping the city clean by picking up papers and broken glasses from the streets and yards. When the teacher asked for suggestions for a closing song, a child asked for another story. As the pianist began to play, some started humming. It was a new song for some of them who had been recently pro­ moted to the department.

The name of the song was "God’s

Children Live in Many Lands.” The teacher pointed out June and asked, "You were in Alaska, weren’t you?” June— ”Bob was born in Alaska.”

(Meaning her brother.)

The pupils were then dismissed to gather around the tables for handwork. Gonference.

Reminding the children or the behavior

rules made by themselves may be good procedure, but would it not be better to make them behave spontaneously by the intro­ duction of a rhythm period?

The worship program was well

prepared with the exception of the last hymn, "God’s Children Live in Many Lands,” which was more closely connected with the picture story rather than with the story on being a good American.

62

The superintendent complained that there is a lack of continuation between worship and classes, since the three classes are graded and are taught different lessons.

She sug­

gested that it might be better to have just, one class instead of three.

This may be true, but the needs and desires of a

six-year-old child and eight-year-old child are different, and in order to meet their interests and needs, closely graded lessons are most suited. the group.

Of course, they must be adapted to

Furthermore, the first, second, and third year

lessons are so selected as to have some relation to the wor­ ship service of the day.

It is, therefore, best that the

leader of the worship service does not change the worship theme selected in the teacher’s quarterly, even when the story must be altered and adapted from time to time. Often music is overemphasized in this department. Alberta Munkres says: The best should always be used, and selections made according to the purpose in mind for the day. Do not ask children to sing merely because it is the customary thing to do; do not allow them to use material simply because they have it at their command; but let them use on different occasions, as a means of worship, cer­ tain hymns and songs which they have mastered.13 Evaluation of the score sheet. Table IV, reveals the following facts:

Ibid., p. 207.

This score sheet,

63 TABLE IV 'WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— PRIMARY DEPARTMENT VP

P

F

G

VG

1- Physical conditions

1, 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Arrangement of seating Punctuality, teachers and pupils Room suited to age Walls, windows, furniture, decorations Light, temperature, ventilation Arrangement of symbols, pictures Bibles, hymn books, piano, et cetera, ready

X X X X X X X

2- Leader 1* 2. 3. 4* 5. 6.

Attitude, dignified, reverent, joyous Voice and manner pleasing and effective Skill in securing group response Personal appeal Skill and manner of pianist Evidence of God-consciousness

3- Praise 1, Hymns suited to group needs, capacities 2. Hymns suited to theme 3. Quality of hymns, words, time, music 4* Theological content and social meaning 3. Music suited to worship aims 6, Response by, the group

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

4- Scripture 1. Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Manner, one person, unison, response 4* Length 5. Attention and interest of group 5- Story, Talk, or Drama 1. Suited to group needs 2, Suited to theme 3. Quality of message 4. Proper length 5. Manner of presentation 6 . Response of the group

X X X X X X

64table

IV (continued)

WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— PRIMARY DEPARTMENT VP

P

F

G

VG

6- Prayer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Suited to group needs Suited to theme Spiritual stimulation Manner, one person, unison, sung, read Delivery and composition Response of the group

7- Offering 1, Ritual suited to group needs 2, Ritual dignified, worshipful 3* Music, quality 4. Quality of scripture or other quotations 5. Attitude of the group

X X X X X X

X X X X

65 This department is well equipped, like the Beginners’ Department.

Perhaps the only thing lacking is a sand table.

The leader is well qualified in every way, and the program is handled expertly. There is a lack of the use of the Scriptures.

The

children need to become familiarized with some simple Bible verses. Hymns are limited.

There should be a sufficient sup­

ply of hymns to make the worship purposeful. Hymns are often sung just for the sake of singing. Storytelling is the high point of this department. This is the best conducted department of the entire church school. Illustration. Theme— Love for Country. Call to Worship— music "G-od of Our Bathers, Whose Almighty Hand” (Hymnal for American Youth, H. Augustine Smith. ) Response: Psalm 100. Leader: ’’Serve Jehovah with gladness: Come before his presence with singing.” Children: "Enter into his gates with thanksgiving And into his courts with praise: Give thanks unto him, and bless his name Bor Jehovah is good.” .Offering: (sung) ’’Bather, we thank thee, Father, we thank thee, Bather in heaven We thank thee.”

14 Ibid., pp. 215-216.

66

(Songs and games for Little Ones, 'Walker and Jenks) Hymn: ftAmerica.Tt Prayer (by leader): Our Father, we are thankful for this great land of ours, America. Help us to love the flag of our country and to be true to it always. Amen. Flag salute; Story: nThe Flag-bearer," Carolyn Sherwin Bailey. (The- story of a poor boy who by deeds of helpfulness proved his loyalty to the stars and stripes.) Song: f,Our Flag." (Songs of the Child World, Biley and G-ayhor.) Y.

JUNIOR DEPARTMENT

Characteristics and needs.

It is important for every

teacher and leader of little children to know their outstand­ ing characteristics.

In the Junior age, we often find them

taking music lessons and practising from a half hour to an hour a day.

Most of them will pick up a book for five or ten

minutes at least, and on Saturdays and Sundays do more read­ ing.

It is a common thing for them to read two books a week. Play absorbs all the rest of their time.

On the aver­

age, they spend from four to five hours a day in play.

At

this age practically all of the games played by boys are also played by the girls.

They enjoy competitive games and play

best at them, but this spirit of competition gives rise to some of the most critical problems of their play life.

To

win, they are tempted to use unfair means. They absorb attitudes and values that are often quite opposite to those which their parents and teachers try to instill.

In the motion picture show anything is right if the

67 hero can get away with it, and a glamour is put on many in­ dividualistic tendencies and antisocial actions, which edu­ cation is doing its best to change. "After a careful investigation into 94*8 cases, M. J. Exner concluded that nine and a half years was the average age at which boys received their permanent sex impressions.” Most children are undoubtedly pure-minded, but one or two bad cases in a group can soon do a great deal of harm. One of the most common faults of this age is lack of concentration. stimuli present.

Juniors are keenly sensitive to the many Another difficult problem of adjustment is

the control of their natural desire for new experiences.

They

want to test out their environment and discover the meaning of things for themselves. Juniors are vigorous, spontaneous, and thoroughgoing. They love wrestling and fighting, foraging, ex­ ploring, hunting, trading and bartering, making collections of everything. They flock together in groups. Competitive, imitative, and curious. The gregarious impulse. Croup approval is sought. Always seeking for new experiences. They are mentally alert. Interest in reading, with tremendous faculty for ab­ sorbing ideas. Interest in heroic characters. Interest in dramatization. Everything they, do is real and not play. Desire for the truth. Self-assertive, responsive to authority, and secretive about thought-life.

^

Ernest J. Chave, The Junior, p. A2.

68

Puzzles, tricks, and all sort of mental quizzes are enjoyed. They are instinctively religious. Limited reasoning faculties. At home there is little distinction found between boys and girls of this age in. the matter of household duties. boy is as handy around the house as a girl.

A

In addition to

duties, they are busily engaged with projects.

They will be­

gin a thing with very little stimulus if provision is made for them.

Some of them are making scrapbooks on such sub­

jects as heroes, athletes, aiid statesmen, building a toy boat, aeroplane, collecting fossils, rocks, bugs, shells, stamps, et cetera. Junior worship. Worship in the Junior Department must be well planned, meeting the needs of this age.

The worship

program should be planned together with the pupils, more so than with the primary pupils.

Since the juniors are continu­

ously active and wide awake, it is exceedingly difficult to catch them in the mood of worship.

However, it is well for

the teacher to realize that they may be worshiping in a crude and violent form and we may fail to recognize their mood as one of worship. The easiest and most practical method of holding the juniors* attention is through actual participation by the juniors in worship.

Ritualistic worship services with proces­

sion, cloistered leaders, lighted candles, open-Bible,

69 et cetera, help to make the worship service meaningful and worshipful.

Their participation in worship should be en­

couraged so that leadership may be developed gradually. There must be variety in their worship for they easily become bored with one thing.

As was stated previously, they

are interested in things that are new. In worship there is a need of concreteness and direct­ ness, since their attention is constantly shifting and is directed toward a multitude of things.

In order to make wor­

ship successful in the Junior Department, the pupils’ minds must be carefully prepared for each part of the service. ’’Services of worship should be aimed to arouse very directly the specific attitudes which a Junior should have toward God

16

and his work.”

In the Junior Department, music is often overemphasized, but it is at this age that they love to sing.

Therefore, they

should have the best leadership in music with a pianist who possesses a fine sense of time, rhythm, and feeling. Prayer in the Junior worship is often found to be too long and seldom voiced in the children’s thoughts and language. Following is the example of an opening prayer by a superin­ tendent :

^ Marie Cole Powell, Junior Method in the Church School, p. 179*

70

"We thank Thee that the feeble thread of our existence 17

has been strengthened to see another Sabbath." ' Juniors like to pray together but when an adult leader prays, it should be short and simple but dignified. Furthermore, since Juniors are in the hero-worshiping stage, there is a great responsibility on the part of leaders to. set such living examples not only at church but everywhere that they may not betray the children’s affections and atti­ tudes. The aims of religious education in the Junior Depart­ ment are: 1. Fruitful knowledge. 2. Right attitudes. 3. Skill in living.18 It is during this age that information Is accumulated rapidly and the knowledge stored makes a great effect upon the remainder of life.

It is the task of the church school

to supply the necessary religious needs for the development of a Christ-like personality. The Junior age is an attitude-forming age, and right attitudes need to be supplied.

Some of them are the attitude

of trust in God, of happiness, of gratitude, of honor, of obedience, of courage, of sympathy, of friendliness, and of loyalty.

Edna M. Crandall, A Curriculum of Worship for the Jr. Church School, p. 12. IS Geo. H. Betts, How to Teach Religion, Chapter 3.

71 Fruitful knowledge and right attitudes would be of no value unless actually put into practice.

Therefore, it is

vitally important to help Juniors develop life-skills such as self-control, chivalry, generosity, helpfulness, responsible­ ness, cooperativeness and world citizenship.

However, "skill

in Christian living means not sporadic attempts at being a Christian but the habitual attitudes of Jesus expressed day 19 after day." These aims should continue to be fulfilled in the Intermediate, High School, and Young Peoples* Departments. In fact, the purpose of religious education must be a continu ous growth of these aims in the lives of adults. Observation.

The Juniorworship is carried on in its

own assembly hall on the second floor of the main building. The worship is in charge of the superintendent of the depart­ ment who is a college student.

He is assisted by a capable

pianist. The assembly room is well lighted and provided with a piano and an elevated platform.

It is, however, like a

school room, with unnecessary blackboards on both sides of the room, and it is rather difficult to make the room wor­ shipful.

^

Nevertheless, the superintendent uses various means

Powell, op. cit., p. 51*

to create a more worshipful atmosphere, such as appropriate window curtains, flower pots, et cetera. Suggestions.

Since Juniors love to sing, it.is neces­

sary to have a good song leader, if the superintendent is not capable of leading songs, as is the case in this instance. It was noted that old hymnals are in use.

A project should

be launched so that new, up-to-date hymnals could be purchased through the efforts of the Juniors themselves. The assembly hall needs to be made more worshipful and arranged so that pupils do not have to face the windows with the light shining directly into their faces.

With the addi­

tion of a cross, candles, and a Bible, the room could be greatly changed. Evaluation of the score sheet.

This score sheet,

Table Y, as a measuring instrument reveals the following facts The physical conditions of the place of worship could be improved.

The room is overlighted and not worshipful.

There is a need for a song leader who can sing well, since Juniors enjoy singing. The present hymn books are good but they are worn out and only a few are in good shape.

New and durable hymnals

should be provided. The importance of the offering is minimized. The leader is excellent, except for his singing.

73 TABLE V WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— JUNIOR DEPARTMENT VP

P

1- Physical conditions 1. Arrangement of seating 2. Punctuality, teachers and pupils 3. Room suited to age , 4. Walls, windows, furniture, decorations 3. Light, temperature, ventilation 6, Arrangement of symbols, pictures 7. Bibles, hymn books, piano, et cetera, ready

F

VG

x x x x x x x

2- Leader 1. Attitude, dignified, reverent, joyous 2. Voice and manner pleasing and effective 3. Skill in securing group response 4. Personal appeal 3. Skill and manner of pianist 6. Evidence of God-consciousness

x x x x x x

3- Praise 1. Hymns suited to group needs, capacities 2. Hymns suited to theme 3. Quality of hymns, words, time,music 4. Theological content and social meaning 3. Music suited to worship aims 6 . Response by the group 4- Scripture 1. Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Manner, one person, unison, response 4. Length 3. Attention and interest of group

G

x x x x x x

x x x x x

5- Story, Talk, or Drama 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. 6.

Suited to group needs Suited to theme Quality of message Proper length Manner of presentation Response of the group

x x x x x x

74 TABLE V (continued) WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— JUNIOR DEPARTMENT VP

P

F

G

VG

6- Prayer 1. 2. 3. 4* 5. 6.

Suited to group needs Suited to theme Spiritual stimulation Manner, one person, unison, sung, read Delivery and composition Response of the group

7- Offering 1, Ritual suited to group needs 2, Ritual dignified, worshipful 3, Music, quality 4. Quality of scripture or other quotations 5. Attitude of the group

X X X X X X

X X X X X

75 V I.

INTEBMEDIATE DEPARTMENT

The crucial period of human life, the pivot upon which the rest of life turns, is the period of adolescence, the transition from childhood to maturity. It has been well said that childhood is the time of acquisition, adolescence the time of adjustment, and maturity the time of achievement.20 This certainly is the age when the best of guidance is 21 in demand. Following are the characteristics of Intermediates or early adolescence ranging from the age of twelve to fourteen and from grade seven to nine. Characteristics. It is marked with great bodily development. The sex organs begin to function; voiceschange; awkwardness and clumsiness are commonamong boys. There is an intense interest in social life, especially in the life of a group; a gang, instinct and cliquish­ ness develop. The quest for information is a dominant characteristic. Most books are read at this age. There is a wide range of interest. It is a period of making collections and ofhobbies. Their interest in religion is in its practicality. Punishment is a perfectly natural consequence of offense. Group disapproval most dreaded. It is a practical age; to know a thing is to do it. God Is looked upon as a Comrade and a Friend. Life is interpreted largely through the material and physical aspects. They worship men and women of strength and courage. The ideal is to be big and do great things. They like to do things well. Dignity and general approval are sought.

20

Leon C. Palmer, Youth and the Church, p. 1.

^

Class of Religion 265.

76

They are bashful and shun conspicuousness. They are self-conscious. Boys and girls avoid each other. Silliness,'giggling among girls common. They are often listless and lazy. They are self-assertive, thoughtless, sensitive to opinions of others, and have a strong sense of guilt. .Heeds.

The following are some of the needs of the age

group: Proper interpretation of social life. Wholesome group life; wholesome intimate friendships. Knowledge of good and proper books to read. Formation of beneficial hobbies. Intelligent usage of money and leisure time. Intelligent selection of movies and dates. Practical knowledge of the Christian religion. Proper knowledge of G-od, Jesus, the Bible, prayer, et cetera. Proper interpretation of Christianity in relation to science, business, and other religions. More time to devote to church program. More of a place in the life of the church. A decision to follow Christ. Help in solving personal problems. Greater respect for sacred things. Wholesome community recreational life. Cooperation between home, church, and school. Introduction of ideal heroes and heroines. All activities should be done in group. They need to know their place in relation to community and the world. Help in making social adjustments. Need of a sympathetic understanding and guidance. Sufficient control or discipline in the home. Release from parental domination. Guidance in making choices. 22

Effective ways of getting to know Intermediates. Personal conversations on informal occasions.

Lucile Desjardins, Building an Intermediate Program, p. t•

77

Yisits to homes; talks with parents. Observing boys and girls on playground or at parties. A visit to the public school that they are attending. Informal discussion in class on every day problems and matters of interest in the group. The use of objective tests (for attitudes, information, concepts, interests, etc.) Sharing a hiking or camping experience with a group. Heading books on adolescent psychology. Recalling one’s own days of adolescence. Intermediate worship.

In the Primary and Junior De­

partments, worship programs are planned together with the pupils.

However, the leader must do most of the suggesting

and must put them into final form.

That is not so with the

Intermediates, but, on the contrary, greater opportunity for participation and responsibility is given to them.

The

teacher or the advisor helps in preparing the program, but outside of the preworship period, he participates as one of the family.

The entire worship program is conducted by the

worship committee or by a selected group of Intermediates. There are some difficulties to be met, such as lack of cooper­ ation between boys and girls due to their shyness, but they could be trained gradually to make their worship practical and meaningful under experienced guidance. Objectives of Intermediate worship. To teach them the meaning of worship. To teach them the meaning of G-od, Jesus, the Bible, church, mission and their relation to them. To help them know the value of prayer. To create an appreciation of beauty, which they find in worship.

78

To guide them in the building worship program. To train them to appreciate corporate worship. To teach them the value of human relationship. Observation.

This department is taught by four Nisei

teachers, three young women and one young man.

It is super­

vised by one of the xvomen teachers. The worship service is held in the huge social hall located in the basement of the church, equipped with a stage and seven classrooms that are partitioned off by movable walls and curtains.

In spite of its spaciousness, it is very poorly

lighted and electric lights must be in constant use.

Further­

more, it has no decorations, and the high stage with its dark curtain makes it exceedingly difficult to create a worshipful atmosphere.

Folding chairs are used, and the Intermediates

with their natural clumsiness make havoc with them at every occasion. Worship program. Leader— a girl. Theme— Faith. Piano Prelude. Gall to Worship. Opening Hymn— "Are Ye Able, Said the Master." Invocation— read by the leader. Hymn-— "Stand Up, Stand Up for Jesus." Poem— read by a girl. Message--by a visiting speaker. Offering. Closing Hymn— "G-ive of Your Best to the Master." Closing Prayer— read by the leader. The opening hymn, "Are Ye Able," is the department’s favorite hymn but it is not fitted to be an opening hymn.

79 When the second hymn, "Stand Up, Stand Up for Jesus," was sung, the group remained seated.

Poem and prayers were read,

and had little meaning since they were read rapidly and were not in language suited to Intermediates. The visiting speaker was a young lady who had had the experience of working with Miss Helen Topping, who is well known in connection with Dr. Kagawa.

She gave a dignified

and meaningful message on faith and its value in life.

However,

it was not spoken in the simple language of the Hisei Inter­ mediates.

She used notes and she often had to pause for

references, which caused some distraction on the part of the pupils.

In her talk she read from the Reader *s Digest a

portion of an article entitled "Prayer is power." what lengthy for the Intermediates.

It was some­

Furthermore, reading is

not as effective for this group as it is for young people. She also had the habit of blinking conspicuously and gazed into space rather than fixing her gaze on the pupils, which also distracted the pupils* attention away from the message, which otherwise could have been of great worth. During the talk someone dropped a coin.

Two girls

were busy looking at the comic, section of the Sunday morning paper. The offertory was read by a girl but it was hardly audible to be of any worth.

The worship service ended with a

closing prayer read by the leader.

80 This is an example of the usual worship service lacking in preparation and spirit, rendering little spiritual aid to those present. Conference. A conference was held by the writer with three teachers and four or five girls, and, after comments were made on the worship service of the day, the following program was adopted for the following Sunday, which was Father1s Bay. Theme— Father’s Bay. Call to Worship. The Lord is in His holy temple; Let all the earth keep silence before Him. Doxology. (Standing until the completion of invocation.) Invocation— by a boy in his own words. Poem--by a girl on Father* s Day from memory if possible. (To be selected by a teacher.) Hymn— f1This is My Father’s World.11 Message on Father’s Day by the assistant pastor of the church. Offering— (accompanied by music). Prayer of thanksgiving— by a girl. (Standing.) Response with song— "We G-ive Thee But Thy Own.” (Standing.) Announc eme nt s . Closing Hymn— "Faith of Our Fathers." Closing Prayer and Benediction by the assistant pastor. Evaluation of the score sheet.

This score sheet,

Table 171, reveals the following facts on worship; This department has the poorest equipment.

The social

hall which the Intermediates use is dark and lacks decoration, and there is not a worshipful atmosphere. The folding chairs should be replaced by firm straight

81 TABLE VI WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— INTERMEDIATE DEPARTMENT VP

1

-

Physical conditions 1. Arrangementsof'seating 2. Punctuality, teachers and pupils 3* Room suited to age 4. Walls, windows, furniture, decorations 5. Light, temperature, ventilation 6, Arrangement of symbols, pictures 7. Bibles, hymn books, piano, et cetera, ready

P

F

G

VG

X X X X X X

2- Leader 1. 2, 3. 4. 5. 6,

Attitude, dignified, reverent, joyous Voice and manner pleasing and effective Skill in securing group response Personal appeal Skill and manner of pianist Evidence of God-consciousness

3- Praise 1, Hymns suited to group needs, capacities 2, Hymns suited to theme 3. Quality of hymns, words, time, music 4. Theological content and social meaning 3. Music suited to worship aims 6. Response by the group

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

4- Scripture 1. Suited to group needs 2, Suited to theme 3. Manner, one person, unison, response 4. Length 5, Attention and interest of group 5- Story, Talk, or Drama 1, Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Quality of message 4. Proper length 5. Manner of presentation 6. Response of the group

X X X X X X

82 TABLE VI (continued) WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— INTERMEDIATE DEPARTMENT . VP

P

F

G

6- Prayer 1. 2. 3. A. 5. 6.

Suited to group needs Suited to theme Spiritual stimulation Manner, one person, unison, sung, read Delivery and composition Response of the group

7- Offering 1. Ritual suited to group needs 2, Ritual dignified, worshipful 3. Music, quality 4. Quality of scripture or other quotations 5. Attitude of the group

X X X X X X

X X X X

VG

S3 chairs to avoid commotion. The response of the pupils is very poor. The Scripture should be used more often. Leadership is poor, since the Intermediates themselves take charge of the worship; yet it -is promising.

There is a

danger of placing the responsibility on only one individual. Prayer can be made more meaningful if it is expressed in the pupils* own words rather than read. Poems used are always read.

If they were memorized,

they would be more effective. The offering needs to be made more worshipful. VII.

HIGH SCHOOL FORUM O R .THE SENIOR DEPARTMENT

Introduction. We often find prevalent among high school students, as well as college students, very inadequate . and often childish and hopelessly confused opinions of re­ ligion.

False and disturbing ideas of religion lead to

intellectual difficulties and harmful doubts.' It is, there­ fore, very important that religion be presented at this age in a practical.and understandable manner. It needs to have practical values, qualities‘.that awaken vital interest. It must be intelligible in the terms used in understanding other subjects, both scientific and historical. Religion must function in the life of individual and result in the development of right attitudes, interests,

84 and appreciations. It must develop within him abilities to live the Christian life under all circumstances.23 Characteristics.

This is the age of middle adoles­

cence between the ages of fifteen and seventeen.

Following

are some of the outstanding characteristics: It is an age of idealism. Their imagination is almost without limit. Day-dreams and air-castles are common. Ideas, interests, and conduct are influenced by ambitions, hopes, and ideals. Increasing interest in the other sex. They are analytic, objective, and subjective. Their appreciation of beauty is deepened. They have keen powers of sensation. The whole emotional nature seems to be tuned up to such a pitch that it sometimes becomes a danger. Suicides and running away from home are common. The older boys and girls have the first.flush of physi­ cal attractiveness. Combined social time is appreciated. They are critical of motives of others and self. They are very responsive. There is a danger of over-exercise, causing breakdown of health. Often there is lack of recognition of inner control. There is also a danger of self-pity. This is a period of dance craze, movie mania, literary or dramatic interest. Religion is idealistic. Imagination throws new light on religion. This is the peak of religious idealism. The demands of religion are more keenly felt and more willingly answered. This is a time of conversion and choice of life work. They have the tendency of going to the extremes. Danger of juvenile crime. It is a period of intensity. State of high nervous tension. They are thoroughly independent. There is a danger of lack of self-control and adjustment. 23

Mary Arme Moore, Senior Method in the Church School,

p. 15*

24

Class of Religion. 2o5.

85 Rapid unfolding and development of personality. Demand for new and untried experiences, for something to do and to dare. 25

Needs.

The real demand of this period is for a beautifying of emotion and a rational control of it. They need proper social activities under guidance. Reason must be the base of emotional guidance. Rational control is needed. We need to introduce the idealism that is found in the personality.of Jesus and in his teachings. They need to form a practical philosophy of life. A definite and clear line between right and wrong need to be drawn. All doubts and- questions should be cleared as much as possible. Proper evaluation of self and vocation is needed. Knowledge of correct boy and girl relationship is needed. Scientific sex knowledge is necessary. Appreciation of religious values needs to be culti­ vated. Good environment and activities which will strengthen the power to make right decisions and to make good conduct habitual. Forming of good habits and friendship. Worship objectives. To help them to know the meaning ofworship. To help them to be God conscious intime of worship. To increase their appreciation of music, beauty, hymns, and corporate worship. To encourage and develop private and public devotion. To help them to know and appreciatethe value of prayer, communion, and baptism. To help create a proper attitude toward the church, choir, minister, and the people as a whole. To help them build their own worship program and to conduct it•

^ 26

Class of Religion 265. Loc. cit.

86

To help develop religious tolerance. To stimulate character development through inspira­ tion and aspiration. Observation. equipped.

The High School Department is very poorly

It meets in the dining room of the church, which

is not large enough nor worshipful.

However, it can be im­

proved if efforts are made. The department also lacks good hymnals suitable to meet their needs.

Instead, it uses the same hymnals used by

the Intermediates, called the "Living Hymns." In years past, it had many good advisers, but for a long time it had to get along without proper leadership.

For

this reason, this department has been depleting rapidly in interest and attendance. Its usual custom is to hold a devotional service, followed by a discussion usually led by the same chairman. Topics and chairmen are selected two or three months ahead of time so that the leader would have ample time for prepara­ tion.

But the observation indicates that in many cases pre­

paration is not made at all.. It shows that there is a great need for expert guidance, not only in the preparation of the worship program but in the entire departmental program. Date--February 24, 1941 Place— Japanese Christian Church Leader— A boy Topic— Brotherhood The room was nearly filled.

There were probably forty

87 .

High School students, with the girls in the majority.

Chairs

were arranged to face the fireplace, in front of which was a small chair uncovered and undecorated.

It was not large enough

to hide the fireplace although it was placed there for that purpose. A bashful boy was the chairman of the day, and there . were many giggles and much commotion.

There was no adviser

present and when the Y.P. Director entered to visit., he was promptly asked to give the opening prayer. sung in succession.

Two hymns were

The pianist did not get the correct number

once, and there was correction followed by commotion.

The re­

sponsive reading was led by a girl, who read it rather rapidly, but it was acceptable.

The offering was taken next.

The

leader could not find any basket; a girl in the back row had the envelope which was attached to the class book.

As it was ■

passed to the front, it was held up by a thoughtless boy, who evidently thought that he was the last person and those across the aisle were neglected. hymn book.

Someone passed a hat and another a

The owner of the hat did not want to display his

hat, and the coins were emptied on the floor.

The coins that

were collected on the hymn book were taken.to the front, and in the attempt to empty them into the envelope, most of them fell on the floor. laughter.

Each error was accompanied by giggles and

An announcement was made by a girl, and the visitors

were introduced.

A closing hymn was sung, and a benediction

£8

was given by the director. Suggestions.

The dining room is not worshipful, es­

pecially in the present position facing the fireplace.

’It

can be improved by changing-the seating arrangement and creat­ ing a focal point of worship by means of decoration.

The lack

of reverence on the part of the pupils is due very much to the atmosphere of the room.

Since most of the high school students

do not attend the morning worship service, it may be advisable to use the main chapel for worship and to return to their own room for discussion.

This will help to get rid of most of the

unnecessary commotion and create a more worshipful atmosphere. There is a great need for a capable leader for this group.

The adviser must get together with the worship chair­

man and the selected leader and work out the program in de­ tail at least one week ahead of time.

These students who lack

the ability should be given a minor part in the program, for the entire worship service is often ruined by some unqualified chairman. Hymnal's in use are limited.

The American Hvmnal for

Youth is recommended for the High School Department.

A proj­

ect should be launched for the purchase of this hymnal. Proposed worship program for a High School Worship Service. Theme— Human Brotherhood. Prelude.

89

Gall to worship. This is God’s house and we are in His presence* He who worship must worship in spirit and in truth. Opening prayer— by a selected member prepared by himself. Opening Hymn— ”In Christ there is no East nor West.” Scripture reading— on the Good JSamaritan. Special music— by a Negro quartet of a neighboring Negro church. Talk— by a Negro leader as a visiting speaker. Sentence prayers— a few selected beforehand. Offertory sentence. Love thy neighbor as thyself, It is more blessed to give than to receive. Offering— accompanied by the offertory music. Closing hymn— Blest be the tie that binds. Benediction. Evaluation of the score sheet.

This worship score

sheet, Table VII, used by the observer as an instrument of measurement reveals the following facts: The room for worship of the High School Forum lacks the necessary equipment and decoration to give it a worshipful atmosphere.

It could be greatly improved through efforts made

by the seniors* The leader of the day was very inadequate.

He should

take a minor part in worship so that he might get practice and chances for improvement before he is given the leader’s role. Hymns were selected and sung without consideration of their content.

They were good hymns but used without any aim

on the part of the users. The responsive reading was conducted quite well, but the observer did not think that the reading conveyed its

90 TABLE VII WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— HIGH SCHOOL FORUM DEPARTMENT -

VP

P

F

G

1~ Physical conditions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Arrangement of seating Punctuality, teachers and pupils Room suited to age Walls, windows, furniture., decorations Light, temperaturey ventilation Arrangement of symbols, pictures Bibles, hymn books, piano, et cetera, ready

X X X X X X X

2— Leader

1. 2. 3. 4. 3. 6.

Attitude, dignified, reverent, joyous Voice and manner pleasing and effective Skill in securing group response Personal appeal Skill and manner of pianist Evidence of God-consciousness

3- Praise 1. Hymns suited to group needs, capacities 2. Quality of hymns, words, time, music 3. Theological content and social meaning 4. Music suited to worship aims 5. Response by the group 4- Scripture or Responsive Reading 1. Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Manner, one person, unison, response 4. Length 3. Attention and interest of group 5- Story, Talk, or Drama 1. Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Quality of message 4. Proper length 5. Manner of presentation 6. Response of the group

X X X X X X

X X X X

'x

X X X X X

VG

91 TABLE VII (continued) WORSHIP SCORE SHEET— HIGH SCHOOL FORUM DEPARTMENT VP

P

F

G

6- Prayer 1. Suited to group needs 2. Suited to theme 3. Spiritual stimulation 4. Manner* one person, unison, sung, read 5. Delivery and composition 6. Response of the group 7- Offering 1. Ritual suited to group needs 2 , Ritual dignified* worshipful 3. Music* quality 4. Quality of scripture or other quotations 5. Attitude of the group

X X X X X

X X

X

VG

92

meaning fully. The offering was conducted very poorly without ritual, music, or worshipful attitude on the part of the seniors. The leader was not prepared, and no effort was made to make this worship worth while.

It shows that the high

school students are not capable of conducting worship by them selves but need a capable adviser. VIII.

CONCLUSION

With the use of score sheets and conferences held with leaders in charge of various worship services, two main ob­ jectives were realised.

First, the students and the teachers

saw definitely by the use of the score sheet, weaknesses and strengths in their respective worship programs.

They came to

realize that in order to have an effective worship service, the weaknesses removed.

that were discovered must be minimized if not

Heretofore, little attention was given to those

errors and they were continued Sunday after Sunday.

Because

of.the scores taken and conferences held, the persons in charge came to realize the importance of every element of worship.

For example, many did not think that it made much

difference whether a hymn was sung seated or standing up. Heretofore, the hymn, "Stand Up, Stand Up for Jesus,” was frequently sung seated.

The leaders in charge became more

critical in the selection of elements of worship, as well as

93 of the personnel who participated in it.

Greater emphasis

was placed upon the creation of a worshipful atmosphere bymeans of decoration. Secondly, as a result of the scores and conferences held, the worship programs were revised, not by individuals but by groups of pupils and teachers, keeping in mind .the weaknesses that were witnessed at the foregoing service. While the memory of the worship was fresh in their minds, they were able to detect weaknesses and errors and improve them with the aid of many suggestions given by those present. Thus, they became worship conscious in the light of the dis­ covered needs of each department. There are two important contributions that resulted from the method of keeping a score and holding a conference after the worship service.

There is a need for further scor­

ing and conferences and follow-up scoring and conferences, but the results to date suffice to show that this method ren­ ders positive aid in the improvement of worship in the church school.

CHAPTER I W

STUDY I*

CURRICULUM MATERIAL

In the teaching of religious education, great considera­ tion must be given to what we teach, as well as on how we teach. There are three groups of curriculum material for church schools in use today: the ungraded or the uniform lessons, the loosely graded lessons, and the closely graded lessons. The ungraded or the uniform lessons.

The ungraded

lessons are represented by the International Uniform Lessons, the contents of which are wholly biblical and are used uni­ formly throughout the church school by all members of the school, regardless of age, interests, and needs.

The whole

emphasis of this method is placed upon the amount of material to be assimilated in a given time, rather than upon the prob­ lem of helping the child to grow and develop.

Thus, it com­

pletely neglects the child’s interests, his understanding, and his development. Today, in the light of discoveries made in the field of psychology and in the science of education, the uniform lessons are considered of little value.

Yet it is not sur­

prising to find many church schools still using them under the

95

false impression that they are easier to teach and that there is an advantage in having every member of the home and school doing the same thing at the same time, whether that thing is ' helpful or not. For many years the ungraded lessons were uniform not only in material but also in method; that is, the quarterly for the primary teacher was practically the same as the one used by the teacher of adult classes.

In order to solve this

problem, the International Uniform Lessons Adapted was intro­ duced.

Though the material remained the same, a new method

was adapted to meet the needs of the children.

Simpler words

were chosen, the scheme of presentation was made more attrac­ tive by the use of pictures, and the story was printed in large type to suit the needs of a different age group.

But

because the material did not change, it could not truly meet the needs of the child. The loosely graded lessons.

The second group, the

loosely graded lessons, is represented by the International Department Graded Lessons.

As stated prveiously, they are

lessons graded according to departments.

This method was

created to meet the need of the small church schools that do not have enough children to fill out every grade.

This is a

tremendous improvement over the uniform method, but only a stepping stone to the closely graded material.

96 The closely graded lessons*

The third group is the

closely graded lessons, called the International Graded Les­ sons*

These lessons are graded according to age; that is, the

Beginners1 Department has two one-year courses, the Primary, i

three one-year courses, et cetera.

Each course contains

fifty-two lessons designed to meet the needs and interests of a particular age. nature lessons.

The contents are biblical, missionary, and The biblical lessons are not presented chrono­

logically but are selected for their teaching value to meet certain particular needs of the age group. Following are the lists of closely graded lessons pub­ lished for different denominational church schools: Berean Series. . . Pilgrim Series . . Westminster Series Bethany Series . . Keystone Series •

.Methodist .Congregational .Presbyterian .Christian Church .Baptist

In addition there are special graded courses such as: B e & c n n C o u r s e ................ Unitarian Chicago Constructive Series . . Undenominational Charles Scribner* s Sons . . . . Undenominational The Abdington Press • . . . . . Undenominational (These are Week Day Series.) Christian Nurture Series . . . Episcopalian The problem is to select the curricula that most, closely meet the needs* and interests of the learners.

Denominational

publications are not forbidden to other denominations.

On the

contrary they are widely publicized in order to obtain the patronage of other denominational church schools. In the selection of a curriculum, Mary Anne Moore gives

97 the following principles: 1. The curriculum should be selected directly from life experiences and should be expressed in terms of both individual and group activities and environments. 2. The curriculum should be broad in scope and flexible in adjustment in order to provide for individ­ ual differences in interests, needs, and capacities. 3. The curriculum should contribute primarily to the present life experiences of the boys and girls in­ dividually* and only secondarily to preparing them for being efficient later on. The curriculum should be so selected and organized as to make possible an easy and ready adjustment to the needs of the group. 5* The curriculum should lead the pupils to a full understanding and appreciation of the values of the major objectives set up in the aims of education. 6. The principles and objectives agreed upon by the group should serve as guides in the course and should not be set aside because they may chance to violate the traditional plan of work.1 In the Beginners1 and Primary Departments, the children are not expected to help select the curriculum, but this is not so from the Junior Department up. It is not sufficient that the teacher alone select the curriculum; we must get the children to choose it and to plunge into the study with the desire to find out what it contains for them. Too often in the past has a curriculum been superimposed upon children with no thought of its motivation.2 The purpose of seeking the pupils* participation in the

^ Mary Anne Moore, Senior-Method in the Church School, pp. 193-197•

2 Marie Cole Powell, Junior Method in the Church School, p* 59*

98 selection of* curriculum is to discover the range of their in­ terest and experience, so that, in the first place, they have the desire to study it, and, in the second place, so that they understand and appropriate it# The success of the church school depends very much upon how these departmental curricula are selected* II.

BEGINNERS * AND PRIMARY DEPARTMENTS

Introduction*

As has been previously stated, it is

difficult to draw a definite line of demarcation between wor­ ship and study, especially in the Beginners* Department.

The

handwork period should be so closely related to worship that there would not be any break between them at all.

Handwork

should be a spontaneous outcome of the worship itself.

This

continuity of worship and study based on the theme of the day is exceedingly important.

There must be a unified plan with

related activities rather than jumping from one plan to an­ other.

Often the order may have to be altered, but the ob­

jectives must not be lost from sight. Smither says, "Purposeful activity causes the children to grow religiously by engaging them in plans which stimulate them to think, feel, and act in more Christian ways."^ Under study we may classify activities,that call for

^ E. L. Smither, Teaching Primaries in the Church School, p. 105*

99 more vigorous physical participation, such as rhythm, conver­ sation, handwork, dramatization, et cetera, while under wor­ ship we may classify such elements as music, prayer, offer­ ing, picture study, and storytelling. Handwork#

There are some children who will not skip,

sing, or talk, hut rare is a child who will not touch blocks or sand or crayon with which he can do creative work. dren learn best by doing.

Chil­

To tell a child about carpentry,

weaving, modeling, or painting never helps him as much as doing those activities with his own hands, even though the results may be crude.

By finding the difficulty of hammer­

ing a nail straight after a struggle of fifteen minutes or so, he learns to respect carpenters and adults who are cap­ able of hammering nails clean and straight.

Thus, through

his own efforts he is taught to respect the efforts of others, and in time to appreciate the marvelous work of God, the great Creator. Some of the facts that need to be remembered by teachers of both Beginners* and Primary Departments are to keep in mind that activities using the large muscles are to be preferred to those which require the use of small muscles, since fine, intricate work is too complicated for young children.

The

best kind of activities are those which are so real to life that other problems and plans naturally grow out of them. They should never seem forced or artificial.

The most

100 important fact is that . • • getting the activity done is not so important as being sure that the attitude and conduct stimulated thereby are Christian. Activity is religious when it helps a child to practice Christian conduct toward others and to grow in Christian attitudes toward them. Activities have religious value when they help them to express the sense of beauty, wonder or reyerence aroused by some experience.^ Preparation.

In teaching little children, the teacher

needs to be so well prepared that she can change, adapt, or even abandon her tentative plan, whenever necessary.

She

needs plenty of material at her command in order to meet un­ expected teaching opportunities.

A teacher with only a story

and a Bible verse ready is not adequately prepared. As in worship, it is necessary for the teacher to make a written plan for her study.

Although even a good plan is

apt to undergo many changes, depending on the reactions and responses of the children, a written plan is, nevertheless, valuable for it

leads to thoroughness of preparation and

definiteness of thought on the. part of the teacher.

It clearly

points out a goal to be reached and a possible method of reach­ ing that goal. Objectives of Beginners * and Primary study. To work and study with children of their own age in a friendly way. To gain an appreciation of the church and a knowledge of their responsibility toward the church. Development of interest and care in others. 4 Ibid., pp. 107-108.

101 Development of a sense of racial and social equality. Forming of the truth-telling habit. Teaching of respect for property rights. Forming of the habit of obedience* Knowledge of God as the Creator and a loving Father* Knowledge of how to pray. Reasonable understanding of Christ. Desire to come to church school. Understanding of religious truths• $ To provide self-expression. Following is the form of lesson plan recommended and an illustration of the plan given by Munkres.

6

Form of Lesson Plan. Name of lesson. Purpose of the lesson. Decide on one main purpose. Memory material. Lesson helps. List sources of supplemental material. Illustrative material. Pictures and models. Approach to lesson. Decide upon how the material may be used effectively in preparing the child for the lesson story. Lesson presentation. Lesson in story form. Expression of lesson. From the various forms of expressional activities select the one most appropriate for the lesson.

^ rblct*• PP* 36-58. /L

Alberta Munkres, Primary Method in the Church School, pp. 183-184.

102 Indicate different ways in which the child may ex­ press the religious truths in actual living. Illustrative Lesson Plan. Lesson: A Shepherd Boy and a Giant. Aim: To create in the child a desire to do right and to help him to know that God cares for him and protects him. Memory material: "I will fear no evil; for thou art with me." Psa. 23* Lesson helps: 1 Samuel 17* Biblical Geography and History, Kent-Saul and David. On Holy Ground, Worcester-David and Goliath. Handbook of Bible Manners and Customs, FreemanThe Sling. Illustrative material: Pictures of sheep and shepherd life. w " David the shepherd lad. Models to be used in sand: tents, chariots, trees and pegs to represent people. Approach to Lesson: Use pictures suggested above as a basis for re­ viewing earlier lessons in the life of David. Talk briefly of King Saul and the condition of the country. Lesson Presentation: Tell lesson story. Expression of Lesson: Retelling the story in the sand table. Repeat in concert Psalm 23* Closing prayer. Observation.

On the Sunday observed, two teachers

were absent from the Primary Department and the children were few in number.

Classes were combined to do the same handwork

at the table. Two children were appointed to count the offering. the same time the day*s lesson paper, cover, blank drawing paper, crayons, pencils, et cetera,were distributed.

The

At

103

teacher promised to give a tiny American flag to everyone who finished his drawing to paste on it*

Most of the pupils drew

houses, trees, fences, and the like*

On the blackfobard was

written the date and the following statement, tfMy Country’s flag takes care of me, A good American I will be,” which was copied by the children on their drawings*

Names were written

on the covers and holes punched in the papers to make booklets* As the class was dismissed with the sound of the bell, leaf- • lets called ’’Storyland" were handed out to each child by one of the boys* Conference*

The superintendent stated that dramatiza­

tion is not being used.

The reason given was that the Nisei

children are poor in dramatization as compared to American children.

This may be due to lack of experience.

Another

reason given was that the period was short, and since most of the children have to go home on the awaiting bus, there is not sufficient time for preparation*

Children of this age are by

nature interested in dramatization.

Therefore, it ought to

be encouraged. This department uses the daily kindergarten unit, which is well equipped, but it lacks a sand box in which biblical and other stories can be illustrated.

Such visual education

is the best method of education. Evaluation of the score sheet*

The score sheet used by

104 TABLE VIII CLASS SCORE SHEET— PRIMARY DEPARTMENT Church _____ Class

Department

-

Age

Day1s topic

Primary___________ Date__

Boys

3

Girls

£

A Good American____________________________ _____

!♦ Personal qualification of the teacher (Mark good, very good, fair, poor, or very poor) Cheerfulness Dignity Patience Appearance Originality

VG VG VG VG G

Alertness Enthusiasm Poise Understanding Initiativeness

G G VG VG G

2. Religious qualities

Voice Vocabulary Confidence Skill in speech VP P F G VG E

Christian philosophy of life Positive religious conviction Tolerance toward others1 beliefs Interest in church activities Knowledge and appreciation of the Bible Reverence

x x x x x x

3. Professional qualities Mastery of subject matters Skili in use of methods Skill in use of pupils psychology Skill in problem solving Skill in class management Skill in securing pupil participation Punctuality, regularity, et cetera Skill in choice of words suited to age

x x x x x x x x

4. Pupils1 response Growing interest in religion Growing appreciation of the Bible . Growing interest in the church Readiness to participate Improvement in conduct and attendance Growing skill in solving personal problem Comments

x x x x x x

VG VG VG VG

105 the observer as an instrument of measurement reveals that the teacher in charge is well qualified and that pupils partici­ pated in their study freely and joyously.

Due to limited

time it is not possible to plan a more desirable program. However, it is advisable to have different types of program from Sunday to Sunday in order that the pupils may not lose interest in what they do. The score shows that the Primary Department, like the Beginners’ Department, is very small.

Most of these children

are recruited from the daily nursery and kindergarten of the Institute, but in comparison to the daily nursery and kinder­ garten, the attendance is very limited.

It seems that more

could be encouraged to come if greater effort was made.

There

is a great need for the church and its members to cooperate in recruiting new members in both Beginners’ and Primary Departments in order to make the church school successful. Ill.

JUNIOR DEPARTMENT

Introduction. There are four ways in which the class room period can be made more effective. One is by seeing that the physical conditions are such as to promote good teach­ ing; another is by the supervision of the Junior’s study; the third, the socializing of the teaching proc­ ess as far as possible; and fourth, the careful plan­ ning of the class room procedure.7 7

Powell, op. cit., p. 15.

106 M. G. Powell gives the following points concerning classroom study, that are very pertinent not only to the 2 Junior Department hut to all departments• One of the most desirable conditions for Juniors is a classroom which insures privacy*

Juniors are naturally noisy

when they are not interested. The removal of all distractions, such as the interrup­ tions of secretaries and superintendents, will do much to promote sustained attention and seriousness of attitude* Far better results will be secured if the Junior class is turned into a study group where the teacher studies the lesson with (not for) the pupils and where the sharp distinc­ tion between study and recitation is done away with*

Under

this method of supervised study, the Junior will get farther in less time than by having a lesson assigned which he is supposed to work out.himself* If the classroom activity can be carried out in the spirit of play, the child will devote all his energy to it, and better results will be accomplished.

The entire class­

room session should be a fusion of work and play. Socializing the classroom is receiving a new emphasis today.

It may be accomplished by means of free discussion

and group preparation and recitation*

8

Ibid., p. 123

There is always a

107 problem of the responsive child who wants to do all the talk­ ing.

In order to have a socialized class, every child must

be encouraged to participate* Leadership*

The teacher plays an important role in

making religious education effective.

Some of the chief char­

acteristics of a good teacher, not only in the Junior Depart9 ment but in all departments are: 1. Ability to get the adolescent*s viewpoint and to sympathize with it even if not in agreement with it. 2. Genuine interest in every member of the group. 3* A knowledge of the subject. 4* Interesting presentation of subject matter. 3* Genuineness of Christian life and purpose. 6 . Sense of humor. 7. Good personality. 8 . Conduct of sessions on a basis of general participa­ tion between members of the group. 9* Regularity in attendance. 10. Patienfce. The person who assumes the leadership should expect to put time and thought into it.

He should be willing to give up

personal pleasures and certain other social responsibilities

^ Harry T. Stock, Church Work with Young People, p. 72.

108 if necessary.

Leadership should become a major interest.

Materials and methods are important, but without good leader­ ship they will lose their effectiveness and value.

The per­

sonality and interest of the leader are the greatest- factor of all. Objectives. The awareness of God. Appreciation of the reality of God and of his rela­ tion to life, to the universe, and to one’s own life. Growing experience of God which is the essence of religion. Impartation of knowledge to help develop the pupil’s religious life. The help of the Bible. Right ideas of God, of man as a child of God, of Christ, of salvation, aim, Kingdom of God, etc. Right ideas of the Bible, Church, human society, the purpose of life, and one’s relation to his fellowmen. Creation of Christian ideals. Truth, loyalty, honesty, justice, purity, and service. One’s ideals make him what he is and deteimine what he is to become. Creation of right attitudes on the part of the pupil. Attitude toward God, Christ, life, the Bible, the world. Skill in living and in serving. Directed recreation, community service, participation in world-wide enterprises in behalf of the kingdom.-1-0 The objectives of the Junior study are three— fruitful knowledge, right attitudes, and skillful living.

These three

aims must grow continuously as the juniors grow ups but it is here in this age that they begin to fulfill these aims.

Dr. R. J. Taylor, Religion 251

In

109 the classroom the first two aims are more fully met than the third aim.

Nevertheless, they are all interwoven as the

juniors study, worship, serve, and play together in Christian fellowship.

The final objective is to make the threefold aim

habitual so that God comes to dwell in the lives of pupils or, in other words, so that they become God-conscious. Observation.

The Junior Department of this church has

two girl classes taught by two young Nisei women, one of whom is a graduate of Junior College and the other a high school graduate; both are working.

There is one boy*s class which

is taught by a Nisei-man teacher, the superintendent.

These

three classes are taught to separate rooms that ensure free­ dom from distracting noises.

The rooms are not well equipped,

lacking blackboards, tables, pictures, et cetera. classes are not handicapped in socialization.

But the

The relation­

ship between teacher and pupils is exceedingly friendly and harmonious.

There is one boy who is considered a smart aleck

and tends toward mischief, but under understanding guidance he could be made an asset to the class.

As a whole the pupils

are very responsive, full of energy and interest, and there is little difficulty on the part of the teacher in keeping them interested and doing something. The attendance was marked by the teacher who placed special emphasis on tardiness and on promptness. were discussed briefly.

The absentees

As the leader marked the attendance,

110

he called each pupil by his first name to give recognition of his presence.

This is an important factor, although it may

seem trivial.

Every teacher should know his pupils by their

first names, and in addition he must know their characteris­ tics and needs well, before the class can realize any progress. The study was opened by a prayer, which was short and understandable.

Yet the use of such a term as the "guidance

of the Holy Spirit," may be meaningless unless previously studied. The topic of study was "Alcoholic Drinks."

The class

was asked to turn to Titus 2 : 1 ^ 8 in the Bible. One child asked, "Is it in the Old Testament?" The class was told that it is in the New Testament be­ tween Timothy and Philemon. others did not.

Some found the place, while

It took some time before all finally located

Titus.

There was one who did not find the right book and gave

it up.

One pupil was asked to read the first verse.

As he

finished his reading, the class was interrupted by the en­ trance of the superintendent bringing in a new teacher’s quar­ terly for the teacher, and this interruption disrupted the class for a few minutes.

The study was resumed by the teacher

by asking the meaning of doctrine, which occurred in the passage just read. A child answered, "Sound." (It is the common habit of the Nisei children to answer

Ill with a single word instead of stating a complete sentence.) Teacher— "What does it mean by sound?" Pupil— "Good." The study continued with each pupil reading a verse from Titus.

Whenever some words or phrases that were un­

familiar to juniors or that were related to alcoholism such as sober, temperate, and charity appeared, their meanings were discussed and made clear. The class was interrupted once more by the superin­ tendent who brought in a visiting junior.

The leader immedi­

ately introduced the visitor to the class and the study was continued. Some of the pupils were very attentive, while others played with their Bibles. locate Titus.

There was one who still could not

This should have been noticed and rectified

by the teacher before the study began. Illustrations of class sessions. A. One-period Glass Session. Class business— (Pupil officers presiding.) Recitation on lesson studied by class the previous Sunday. New lesson. Approach— by teacher or pupil teacher. Supervised study. Discussion. Assignment. Class worship. B. Two-period Session. First period. Class business. Supervised study.

112

Interval for department worship* Second period. Recitation. Class worship. Expressional activity. 2.1 Discussion of service activities. Evaluation of the score sheet.

This class score sheet

reveals the following facts: The class was conducted by an experienced leader. only a few took active part in discussion.

Yet,

It was a class of

instruction rather than that of Christian fellowship.

Special

attention should be given to the more backward pupils. The interruption of the class by the superintendent or anyone else should be avoided. BlackbbardD and pictures should be provided, because Juniors learn best through vision. The method of teaching was Bible-centered rather than pupil or life-centered.

It would be more effective if the

Bible were used as a book of reference to life experience. It was a class of instruction rather than that of fellowship in study.

Perhaps this was due to too great a

difference in age between the teacher and the pupils* IV. Introduction.

INTERMEDIATE DEPARTMENT ' Teaching the Intermediate requires a

Powell, op. cit.» pp. 136-137.

113 TABLE IX CLASS SCORE SHEET— JUNIOR DEPARTMENT Church

__________ Department____Junior______ Date

Class*

__ Age _____________ Boys

Day's topic

July 20, 1941

7________ Girls___________

Alcoholic Drinks

1* Personal qualifications of the teacher (Mark good., very good, fair, poor, or very poor) Cheerfulness Dignity Patience Appearance Originality

G VG G VG G

Alertness Enthusiasm Poise Understanding Initiativeness

VG VG VG VG VG

2 . Religious qualities Christian philosophy of life Positive religious conviction Tolerance toward others’ beliefs Interest in church activities Knowledge and appreciation of the Bible Reverence

Voice Vocabulary Confidence Skill in speech

VP P

F

G

VG

X

x X X

3. Professional qualities Mastery of subject matters Skill in use of methods , Skill in use of pupils psychology Skill in problem solving Skill in class management Skill in securing pupil participation Punctuality, regularity, et cetera Skill in choice of words suited to age

X X X X X X X

x

4. Pupils’ response Growing interest in religion Growing appreciation of the Bible Growing interest in the church Readiness to participate Improvement in conduct and attendance Growing skill in solving personal problem Comments

X X X X X X

E

1U

special modified method, for he is no longer a child and re­ sents being treated like one*

Neither is he an adult*

Hence

the teaching method must be adapted to the needs and interests of this age group*

Sheridan says:

An intermediate pupil cannot help growing impatient when he is required to sit still and listen to some one else talk* He wants to be doing something and he does not hesitate to show that he is dissatisfied when he is not given an opportunity for activity* He cannot help becoming resentful if some one else attempts to do his thinking for him. He is able now to think things out for himself and he intends to be allowed to do so.12 Methods*

Although the lecture method is the common

teaching method, it is not recommended unless adapted to the pupils.

It may be used to convey some facts, to help solve

some of their problems, and to interpret some material which they need to have interpreted to them.

The Inte mediate is

interested in concreteness and not in abstract generalization, which is a common tendency in the lecture method* is often little to arouse their curiosity.

Then, there

This is not a

fault of the method but of the teacher, who misuses it.

Lastly,

the topic is usually too broad and covers too many points, bringing confusion to the minds of the pupils. Another method is the storytelling method, which is commonly used in children*s departments, and which was the 12

A. S. Sheridan, Teaching Intermediates in the Church School, pp. 169-170*

115 method Jesus used*

If it is properly employed by the teacher

to meet the needs of the Intermediates and to help solve their problems, and if the stories are true to life and understand­ able, it is a good method* The third method is that of discussion, which is gen­ erally accepted as the most satisfactory method for Inter­ mediate pupils, because of the following reasons: 1. Boys and girls usually enjoy a discussion* 2. They welcome opportunity for self-expression. 3* They enjoy the stimulation, which the method gives, to think for themselves. 4* They are more interested in hearing what other boys and girls think about various topics which are discussed than they are in their teacher’s ideas on these subjects.13 The discussion method, however, has its problems.

It

often creates disorder and degenerates into mere arguments. These difficulties could be avoided if the teacher has a wellprepared plan. In connection with methods, the use of pictures, ex­ hibits, and motion pictures is profitable when used with les­ sons, for they help to imprint vivid impressions upon the minds of pupils. Objectives.

To give them the proper interpretation

13 Ibid.. p. 181

116

of the Bible. To help them to know God more intimately. To help them to know the meaning of religions, Christianity, God, Jesus, the church, the teachings of Jesus, et cetera. To study Christianity in relation to other religions, science, business, home, school, community, and the world. To study social problems, sex education, usage of money, leisure time, health, war and peace, home and parents, citi14 zenship, vocation, recreation, et cetera. The present curriculum for Intermediates is knowledgecentered. This is necessary because when senior high schools are sending out graduates with a seventeen-yearold understanding of literature, sociology, history, and science, the same young people are going out from the Church School with only a ten^year-old understanding of * religion and the Bible.15 Observation.

The Intermediate Department utilizes the

church social hall, which is provided with a stage and class­ rooms on both sides.

The classrooms are partitioned off by

folding walls and curtains.

Being located in the basement,

the hall and the rooms must be lighted artifically throughout the day.

Weak electric lights are used, which, with the dark

curtains and walls, create a dismal effect. 14

There are no

Class of Religion 251, Dr* R. J. Taylor.

^5 Prank M. McKibben, Intermediate Method in the Church School, p. 124*

117 blackbtoards

nor tables.

Folding chairs are used, which, in

the hands of awkward Intermediates, create much disruption. There are four classes in all, three girls’ and one boys’ classes.

The girls’ classes are divided into first,

second, and third year, while the boys are not classified. The girls’ classes are taught by Nisei women teachers, two with a high school education and the other a Junior College graduate. student.

The boys’ class is taught by a Junior College The teachers are all Nisei members of the church

and teach in English exclusively. As has been stated previously, the teachers are provided with teacher’s and pupil’s quarterlies, but it was noticed dur­ ing several observations that the quarterlies were completely ignored.

Some taught only from the Bible, using the interpre­

tive method.

Others used the topical discussion method.

An Intermediate teacher made the following report on her class work: For my Sunday School class I first see what the students are interested in. My first class wanted to study great women and how they became great. We studied such great women as Barton, Adamms, Nightingale, Arc, Lester, etc. We also touched upon great men like Pasteur, Kagawa, etc. When I thought they had enough of this, I started them on Bible stories from The Story of the Bible by Charles Foster. They were.very much interested in this. The reason I was able to tell was by seeing their response, which was following up by reading the Bible and telling me the stories before I was able to come to them. The semester ended before we got very far. Sentence prayers did not work too well with this group, so I assigned girls to come prepared for a closing prayer for the closing. This worked much better.

118 It seems that the teachers are usually not prepared, that the lessons require too much time and effort, or that they are too difficult for the group.

The criticism of the

interpretive method is that unless the teacher has a good biblical background, it is not wise to make biblical inter­ pretations at random, for without careful preparation there is the danger of misleading the pupils.

The topical dis­

cussion method is popular, but unless guided by a well-trained leader or developed according to a well-prepared plan, it re­ sults in little accomplishment.

It is, therefore, recommended

that the closely graded quarterlies be used and adapted to the classes.

Quarterlies should be selected not only by the

teachers but together with the pupils so that they would be provided with books which they want to study.

Without such

incentive and interest, no class work can be made successful. Class observation.

Atmosphere— the annual Japanese

language schools’ track meet was to be held at the Los Angeles Coliseum and most of the pupils were anxious to go as soon as the class was over. The topic of the day was "Racial Prejudice."

This

topic is often discussed among the Nisei, and some of the boys had already heard and discussed it at a Y.M.C.A. club meeting held recently.

The teacher opened the discussion by

commenting on the attitudes of the Americans toward Niseis. Teacher— "What do the Americans think of opening the

119 track meet by singing the Japanese national anthem?" Pupil— "It is just a custom, and we are compelled to do it even if we don’t want to.” Teacher— "V/hy do many Nisei go to Japan to get jobs?” Pupil— "Parents send them and make them unfit to find jobs in America." Teacher— "How can Hisei get acquainted with people of other races?" Pupil— "Invite them to parties.” Teacher— "Mix together." Pupil— "Get into sports.” Teacher— "What other ways Mas?" (Mas was not partici­ pating in the discussion.) Mas— "Talk to them." Teacher— "Why do we have Japanese friends and not American friends?” Pupil— "It is difficult to go with the American fellows." So the discussion continued with much contribution on the part of pupils and in good fellowship.

In conclusion, the

leader emphasized the fact that they are constantly judged by their acts, which reflect upon the Nisei as a whole.

There­

fore, the manner of dressing, speaking, and acting in public must be carefully watched.

The session was closed by sentence

prayers given by most of the boys present. Conference.

The Intermediate teacher’s quarterly was

120 TABLE X CLASS SCORE SHEET— INTERMEDIATE DEPARTMENT Church

___________ Department . Intermediate

Class _____________ Age Day1s ,topic

__________

Boys

8_____

Date Girls __

Racial Prejudice________________________________

Cheerfulness Dignity Patience Appearance Originality

G G G VG VG

Alertness Enthusiasm Poise Understanding Initiativeness

VG VG G VG G

2. Religious qualities Christian philosophy of life Positive religious conviction Tolerance toward others1 beliefs Interest in church activities Knowledge and appreciation of the Bible Reverence

Voice Vocabulary Confidence Skill in speech

P O O P

1. Personal qualifications of the teacher (Mark good, very good, fair, poor, or very poor)

VP

E

P

F

G

VG

x x x x x x

3. Professional qualities Mastery of subject matters Skill in use of methods Skill in use of pupils psychology Skill in problem solving Skill in class management Skill in securing pupil participation Punctuality, regularity, et cetera Skill in choice of words suited to age

x x x x x x x x

4. Pupils' response Growing interest in religion Growing appreciation of the Bible Growing interest in the church Readiness to participate Improvement in conduct and attendance Growing skill in solving personal problem Comments

x x x x x

x

121

not used because the teacher was not provided with one, and he selected a topic which had been discussed previously in their club meeting.

The topic, "Racial Brejudice," was tied

in with the track meet, which was scheduled for that after­ noon and in which some of the pupils were to participate. Evaluation of the score sheet.

This score sheet

measured by the observer reveals the following facts: There was splendid class participation and a fine fel­ lowship between the leader and the boys.

This was due to the

fact that most of the boys are members of the leader’s club. The discussion was wholly life-centered, but the leader did hot make it clear that God and Christ have a vital part in their activities. The Bible was totally neglected.

This may have been

due to the leader’s lack of Bible knowledge. V*

HIGH SCHOOL FORUM

Introduction. High school boys and girls today are sensitive to the lack of appreciation and understanding on the part of their elders, and they require the guidance of a wise counselor with sympathy and understanding. Formerly, teaching was understood to include three very distinct steps— imparting ideas; developing and enriching old ideas and causing jthe formation of new ones; and training, causing the establishment of habits and skills through the development of understanding and ap­ preciation of this knowledge together with the ease,

122

accuracy, and skill in expression of the lesson truths taught*1° Teaching is now understood to be the process of guiding the learner in the acquisition of useful infor­ mation or knowledge; the development of habits and skills, and the acquiring of attitudes, ideals, inhibi­ tions, and appreciations*1? Methods*

The methods of teaching are determined by

the nature of the subject matter to be taught and by the capa­ bilities, interests, and needs of the pupils* There are two distinct means of approach in teaching; one is authoritative and the other is developmental*

The

authoritative includes the textbook method, the story method, the lecture and the object lesson, all of which give out in­ formation based upon accepted authority.

The advantage of

these methods is that there is less digression from the theme, and less waste of time and effort. The most familiar of the developmental methods are the discussion method, the problem-solving method, and the social or individual-project method. discussion method.

The most popular of these is the

If this method is well planned,

it quickens thinking, clarifies concepts, and cultivates respect and appreciation for the judgment and opinions of others. It teaches tolerance, trains in initiative and originality and stimulates appreciation of facts.IS

Moore, op. cit., p. 161. 17

loc* cit* Ibid., p. 166.

123 However, it has its disadvantages.

Often a few members of the

group monopolize the entire discussion.

There is also a dan­

ger of wandering from the subject into irrelevant matters. In addition, there are the problem-solving method and the project method, both of which are excellent methods when skillfully handled. Objectives.

To help the pupils to a proper interpreta­

tion of the Bible. To help them to secure a clearer vision of God and His plan. To help them to have an intimate knowledge of Jesus, his teachings, prayer, mission, church, service, community, home, and the world. To help them to realize that truths found in the Bible are universal. To help them in the study of sex education, vocation, parents and home, social problems, leisure time, money, movies, usage of father’s car, et cetera. To help them build a Christian leadership. To help them in the growing of right attitudes toward the problems of liquor, gambling, smoking, card playing, dancing, and so forth. To help them to create good health habits, to realize the danger of overexercise, et cetera. To teach them the value of stewardship, service,

124 sacrifice, and the like* Observation*

19

The High School Forum formerly used the

dining room of the church for its worship and discussion* Due to lack of proper decorations and equipment, the room is more fitted for class study than for worship*

Both the wor­

ship and discussion are usually prepared and conducted by the same chairman in charge. Recently, with the influx of a large number of new members, the Forum has been using the main chapel for its worship.

The suggestion was made that the pupils return to

their original room downstairs for the study period, but fear­ ing that some might leave after the worship period, the Forum continues its study in the chapel. No quarterly nor any sort of material is provided for this senior department.

It has a committee for study to plan

the study program, but observation shows that the chairman of the worship committee plans and conducts both the worship and discussion. Class lesson.

The High School Forum was well attended

with thirty girls and thirteen boys present.

However, half

of them came late, including the advisor. The study period on this particular day was devoted to IQ

Dr. R. J. Taylor, Religion 265

125

reports given by two girls who bad returned from a higb school conference held at Idyllwild.

Tbeir reports indicated that

they were greatly inspired by the conference.

Some of the

bigb lights of their reports are as follows: Although they were the only Japanese girls in attend­ ance, they felt very much at home because of the fine Christian fellowship displayed by the American conference students. The atmosphere of quiet and the beauty of nature, away from the noisy world of radio and newspaper, helped them to feel that God was very close to them. They were inspired by their leaders, and by the eager participation displayed by American friends. They were made to realize the importance of biblical knowledge, which they lacked in comparison with the Americans. They gained knowledge in the meaning of worship and how to make worship programs, the meaning of prayer, baptism, communion, and the meaning of being a good Christian. They learned that every church has similar problems and were helped to know the ways and means of solving those problems. Questions were asked after their reports such as: Q.

"What do you mean when you said you were inspired?"

A.

"Well, we felt like starting the church all over

Q.

"How can we put some of those things into practice?"

again.

126 A.

"We need everyone1s cooperation."

Announcements were made. The hymn, "Dear Lord and Father of Mankind," was sung, and the Forum was dismissed. The cabinet retired into the room downstairs at the request of the advisor to discuss and plan for subsequent worship and study sessions of the High School Forum. Evaluation of the score sheet.

The score sheet used

as a measuring instrument by the observer reveals the follow­ ing facts: The leader, who was one of the delegates to a high school conference, has returned with marked improvement over her former procedure.

She reported with an attitude of

humbleness for her lack of the knowledge of the Bible.

Her

report, as well as that of the second delegate, made a defi­ nite appeal and challenge to those present.

They helped to

create in the group the attitude of humility, the desire to learn and to improve the Forum in every possible way. It is important that the advisor, the leader, the pianist, and those in charge be on time so that no time and effort be wasted. The program should not be planned and conducted by the chairman alone but by a committee, thus giving opportunity to several people to develop leadership.

127 TABLE XI GLASS SCORE SHEET— HIGH SCHOOL FORUM DEPARTMENT Church

_________________

Class ________ Day’s topic

Age

Department

High School Forum

Boys

13

Date_____

Girls_____30_____

Conference— Reports given by two girl-delegates, one of

whom was the leader

.

1. Personal qualification of the leader (Mark good, very good, fair, poor, or very poor) Cheerfulness Dignity Patience Appearance Originality

VG G G G G

Alertness Enthusiasm Poise Understanding Initiativeness

F G G F F

2. Religious qualities Christian philosophy of life Positive religious conviction Tolerance toward others’ beliefs Interest in' church activities Knowledge and appreciation of the Bible Reverence

Voice Vocabulary Confidence Skill in speech

VP

P

F

G

VG

X X X X X X

3. Professional qualities Mastery of subject matters Skill in use of methods Skill in use of pupils psychology Skill in problem solving Skill in class management Skill in securing pupil participation Punctuality, regularity, et cetera Skill in choice of words suited to age

x x X

X X X X X

4. Pupils’ response Growing interest in religion Growing appreciation of the BibleGrowing interest in the church Readiness to participate Improvement in conduct and attendance Growing skill in solving personal problem Comments.

x x x x x x.

G G F F E

128 Conference*

Plans were made for the High School Forum

to meet together for worship but to divide into two graded groups for study*

This calls for another advisor*

The need

for Bible study was expressed, which means that an advisor must be secured who can interpret the scriptures to meet the needs of high school students.

The proposal was made that a

trained discussion leader be asked to demonstrate and to teach them how to lead a discussion in the near future.

It

was suggested that every member of the Forum belong to some committee, in order that his interest in the Forum might be increased by bearing even a small responsibility within the organization. VI.

CONCLUSION

By means of the class score sheets and conferences held with teachers, definite progress was made in the religious educational work of the church school. In the first place the teachers came to see some weak­ nesses, which had not been regarded seriously enough.

Now

they have a greater sense of importance and responsibility. The visitations made helped those teachers, whose classes were visited, to do their best in the sight of the observer, and that alone made a marked impression upon them. The conferences, which were held immediately after the class sessions, enabled the teachers to review their methocls

129 and procedure as regards their strong and weak points, which would otherwise have been forgotten.

The conferences cor­

rected some of their weak spots and stimulated them toward greater improvement. Furthermore, the encouragement given to the teachers has helped to create a new interest and joy in the teaching of religious education, which is often considered merely as a matter of service rather than as the development of future , Christian leaders and the building of the kingdom of God. If this method of scoring and conference could be ex­ tended to every teacher in the school, a more definite prog­ ress is sure to be realized.

This should be done at least

once a year in order to make it a success.

CHAPTER V

RECREATION I . INTRODUCTI ON The value of recreation is gradually becoming recog­ nized but there are still .many pastors, churches, and parents, who fail to give it serious consideration. toyed with it or

They have either

completely ignored it.

Too often recreation is thought of as something which keeps the boy out of mischief and failed to provide recreational facilities and leadership for something positively constructive, educational, and develop­ mental. There are some churches that still take the attitude that recreation, like

education, is well taken care of by

tions other than

the church and that the business of the

church is purely worship.

But the

institu­

church is interested in

the development of an individual’s personality in its totality; its concern is in a well-rounded personal development.

Then,

it must include his play life for today the use of leisure time has become a real problem. Powell states, Never before in the history of men has there been as much leisure time as there is today. This is largely accounted for by the improvement in industrial machinery and methods.2

^ W. T. Powell, Recreation in Church and Community, p . 22.

2 Ibicl*, p. 12.

131 Neumeyer

3

writes in his book on Leisure and

Recreation, "Leisure is more wide spread at the present time than during any previous period in the history of man­ kind," and gives the following evidences of the increase of leisure time in modern society: 1. The reduction of the working period.

Modern

machinery, increasing man’s efficiency of production and relieving him of the heavy burden of labor, has made it pos­ sible to reduce the daily working hours and the number of working days per week. 2. Unemployment means for many enforced idleness. 3* Modern conveniences are great time savers. .House­ wives, in particular, have experienced the effects of the mechanical appliances in the home such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines, ironing, machines, et cetera.

Then, too,

many prepared foods, ready or near ready to serve, can be had at all of the markets. 4* Transportation and communication devices not only have resulted in greater speed and mobility but have created time surplus. 5* Vacations and holidays are further occasions for leisure. ago.

Vacations were practically unknown a few decades

Nov/ it is becoming common for industrial and business 3

M. H. Neumeyer and E. S. Neumeyer, Leisure and Recreation, pp. 19-23*

132 enterprises to grant at least two weeks, sometimes a month, for rest and relaxation daring the year.

Extended vacations

are common in certain professions. 6. Early retirement is another source of excess time without work. 7 . Children and young people have more time than they formerly had.

The growth of enrollments in secondary schools

and the institutions of higher learning is evidence of the fact that people as a rule start working later in life. This increase of leisure time has given rise to the problem of how to use it most advantageously especially when it has become commercialized by businessmen, whose sole inter­ est is profit making, irrespective of the harm rendered by the forms of recreation provided.

The church, therefore, has a

definite task in providing the kind of recreation that is truly re-creating or rebuilding one’s personality.

This does

not mean t.hat all commercialized recreation is harmful.

Un­

doubtedly, some of it is both educational and beneficial.

The

church has the great responsibility of guiding children and young people in the right use of leisure time. R. Stanley Kendig says, Leave the average American group alone, that is with­ out leadership for recreational activity, and it will soon degenerate into a gambling, marauding, loafing gang•4 Zf

R. S. Kendig, Facing Youth Problems Through United Community Action, p. 8.

133 Many pastors and churches have come to look at recrea­ tion or play as a positive contributor to the physical, moral, spiritual and social development of children and youth as well as adults.

It is, therefore, not only a task hut an op­

portunity to provide play that is educational and re-creational in the personality growth of a child. Furthermore, according to Dr. Taylor of University of Southern California, a child playing "Bing Around the Roses" is worshiping God when directed under wise guidance. Psychologically, children and adults at play are not handicapped by the emotional barriers that are present in the transaction of business or other activities.

Man is most

natural or is in his true self at play since there is a high degree of spontaneity with freedom from inhibition and sus­ tained emotional attitudes.

Thus play furnishes both the

ideal conditions for learning; it serves as an important educative agency because at play one is most receptive to learning. The church school, therefore, has a great opportunity to capitalize on recreation for the purpose of education and character development.

At the same time, an interesting

recreational program will serve to attract many youngsters who otherwise will not come to the church school. The characteristics of each age group were given in a previous chapter but here some of their essential character­ istics are mentioned in connection with their play activities

134

as given by Dr. George E. Johnson with alterations so that play may be visualized in close conjunction with the char­ acteristics of the respective groups. ■II.

BEGINNERS' DEPARTMENT.

AGES 4 AND 5

. . 5 Essential characteristics *

Physical Rapid growth of the body and brain continues. Great physical activity marks this period. Mental Memory is strengthening; but reason and judgment are almost absent, and the child jumps to ludi­ crous conclusions. The imagination is very active. After his fourth year the child begins to play with children rather than with adults, though he is selfish and quarrels frequently. Play The use of play rooms is effective. The following play types are seen: Free active plays such as running, climbing, jumping, and throwing. Imitative and dramatic. Constructive plays with sand and blocks. Collecting and hoarding plays. Nature plays. Drawing plays. Music plays. Story interests. Formal games like "Hide and Seek" and "Drop the Handkerchief." Objectives. To encourage friendliness. To develop traits of courtesy, sharing, cooperation, etc • To assist the child in his growing muscular control. 5

Powell, o£. cit., pp. 61-64*

^ Dr. R. J. Taylor, Religion 251*

135 To stimulate creative play. To cooperate with thehome in guiding the child in constructive play. To establish in the mind of the childa consciousness of the church as a place where he goes to meet God. To do this through play activity as well as in worship, study, and service. Observation.

The most commoh form of recreation in

the Beginners’ Department is handwork, such as drawing, color­ ing, cutting and pasting of pictures, and folding papers. Occasionally parties are given on birthdays and holidays, such as Halloween, Easter, Thanksgiving, and Christmas, which the children enjoy most.

This department, as has been pre­

viously stated, is provided with the nursery-kindergarten playground, which it shares with the Primary Department.

It

is well equipped with a slide, see-saw, horizontal bar, jungleJim, swings, et cetera, and most early comers spend their time there. The nursery-kindergarten is also, provided with educa­ tional picture and story books, that are available to those children who come early. Conference. As there is only one hour for the church school session, worship and study are emphasized, and recrea­ tion has a very limited place.

But in early childhood every­

thing is done in the spirit of play, hence it is not necessary to encourage it.

Unlike adolescents and adults, beginners

enter into every activity wholeheartedly and completely without

136 any reservation#

Play is emphasized among older children so

that they might preserve the spirit of play which was theirs when they were young. There is, however, need of more directed play, for the beginners such as rhythmic play, organized games, parties, et cetera, for the purpose of socialization.

A teacher re­

marked that one hour is too short to prepare any recreational program.

The suggestion was made that a purely recreational

program be followed on some Sundays, not only to bring varia­ tion, but to enable the children worship and study through recreation. III. Introduction.

PRIMARY DEPARTMENT Recreation or play is the one absorbing

activity of a primary child, as it is for the beginner, and it provides a natural setting in which the life problems of a child can be easily solved.

In this respect dramatization

of daily happenings is more beneficial than the mere dramati­ zation of biblical stories. Recreation should beoclosely related to study and worship, as well as to service, and should not be used merely to give bodily activity.

There should be a definite objective

involved in every form of play.

The common forms of recrea­

tion in the church school are dramatization, parties, hand­ work, and trips or excursions.

137 The value of dramatization is that it helps to solve life problems; it helps to develop the social give-and-take, which is so essential to primary children; and it helps them to interpret life to understand God and His purpose in rela­ tion to their lives.

Parties afford opportunities to practice

many desirable forms of Christian conduct. They offer opportunities to share, being hosts and guests, to work for others, to play fairly, to take 4 turns, to put the common good before one’s own wishes, to be honest, to take part in the fellowship of the church. Thus the party affords a very delightful way of providing practice for many of the essential Christian conduct controls.7 Handwork provides opportunities for free expression to develop creative mind and skill.

"Trips and excursions in­

crease the child’s sense of the worth-whileness of what they are doing since they supply a delightful accompanying experi8 ence." They furnish the first-hand contacts with God in His work in nature and among people.

Such first-hand contacts are

always to be sought for the children. Essential characteristics.

9

Physical This period is marked by cessation of rapid brain and physical development and by a change in the circulatory system with a tendency toward heart weakness and fatigue. 7

Ethel L. Smither, Teaching Primaries in the Church School, p. 118.

8 9

Ibid., p. 119* Powell, op. cit., pp. 61-64*

138

Mental Imagination is active and is beginning to be the more definitely creative type. Interests awaken in competition, and the child begins to play games with other children according to form and rule. Play The plays and games of this period must develop motor activity of infinite variety but with definite purpose and interest in the outcome. Hence, the value of simple competitive games, games of chance, and constructive and dramatic play. Types of play include: Free active plays, such as climbing, running, swimming, and skating. Dramatic and imitative plays. Constructive plays— tents, kites, paper dolls and dresses, baskets, and similar articles. Games of chasing, hunting, throwing, and shooting such as Cat and Mouse, Follow the Leader, and others. Games of experimentation involving trial, of bodily strength and of intellectual powers such as jumping rope and button. Singing games, such as Farmer in the Dell, etc. Recurrent and seasonal games. Arithmetic games. Nature plays, such as collecting of flowers, gardening, and the care of pets~. Geography plays and games. Language, reading, and spelling games. Music and drawing games. Objectives. To encourage purposeful activity. To assist the child in his growing ability to coordinate. To provide opportunities for the development of social skills. To stimulate friendly, informal fellowship. To develop traits of sharing-,- fai-r-play, etc. , in group activities. To cooperate with the home in guiding the child in constructive play.

10 Dr. R. J. Taylor, Religion 251.

139 To engage in such activities as would call the atten­ tion of the child to the church as his helper in the quest of finding G-od. Observation.

Recreation in the Primary Department is

very similar to that of the Beginners1 Department.

Perhaps

the only difference is found in its intricacy due to knowledge acquired in writing and reading.

This department is well

provided with equipment since it also utilizes the equipment belonging to the daily kindergarten school. Handwork is its main form of church school recreation due chiefly to a limited class period. dramatization is not used.

For the same reason,

Another reason is that the Nisei

children do not have enough interest in dramatization. Conference.

The teacher stated that birthday parties

had been discontinued in the Primary Department, due to lack of cooperation from the parents, most of whom are nonChristian.

The children, too, forget to bring their birthday

offerings.

These difficulties may be overcome by notifying

the children and their parents on the Sunday previous to the birthday.

It is important that the parents, as well as the

children should know clearly the real purpose of the birthday offering.

• To many children of this age, the offering means

merely the transporting of money from home to church school and the spirit of sacrifice and love is lacking.

It was sug­

gested that offerings of dolls, boats, and personal belongings

140 be made now and then to create in the children the real spirit of giving. It was learned that in the past a "hobby party11 was successfully given.

It was the culmination of a summer ses­

sion, during which time many objects were made by the chil­ dren.

There was a display of their handwork and each child

made some sort of contribution to the program.

Songs were

sung, games were played, and refreshment of punch, sandwiches, and cookies served.

The refreshment was prepared by the three

classes of the department.

The entire program was prepared

by the children themselves guided by the teachers.

The recrea­

tional activity in the church school is very much limited as in the Beginners* Department but much of the life of this age is a play life.

Therefore, play should be utilized mainly

for the purpose of teaching them to overcome self-centeredness and to get along with their fellows. III. Introduction.

JUNIOR DEPARTMENT The Junior age is a period in which boys

and girls are most active physically as well as mentally. Practically all the games played at this age by boys are played by the girls also, such as playing ball, shooting marbles, flying kites, and spinning tops.

They enjoy and play best in

competitive games for they are urged by the desire to surpass someone^ else.

There is the temptation to use unfair means

141

to attain the victory and therefore, they require tactful handling while at play.

They are also interested in club,

dramatics, and pageantry. One of the primary problems of juniors at play is to learn to play happily together and to make the necessary ad­ justments one toward another.

They are apt to fight or bully

the weaker ones. As they grow older, the boys begin to imitate older boys and will try any game or test of skill to win the letters* approval.

This is similarly true of girls.

Essential characteristics. Physical This period is marked by lessened physical growth, (particularly for boys), by rapid structural de­ velopment, by the greatest degree of immunity to disease, by culmination of specific intensity of life— at 11 to 12 in girls and 12 to 13 in boys. This is the period of greatest physical activity. Mental This is the golden period of memory and drill and for the development of facility and skill. . Co­ operation in games and social interests are strengthening although the child is still in­ dividualistic rather than cooperative. Play Formal games of great physical activity, particularly running games, are characteristic. The following types are seen: Dramatic and imitative play such as minstrel and wild-west shows. Constructive plays, such as the making of kites, stilts, and other articles.

^

Powell, op. cit., pp. 61-64.

142

G-ames of chasing, hunting, throwing, and shooting, such as Prisoner's Base, Bull in the King, and Dodge Ball. Schoolroom games, such as Tag and Bean Bag. Miscellaneous games for physical development, such as wrestling, leapfrog, and tumbling. Arithmetic, geography, history, language, reading, and spelling games. ■ Nature play, including gardening and camping. Objectives. To provide wholesome ways to spend leisure time under competent leadership. To provide necessary equipment for development of particular skills, whether physical or mental. To afford opportunities for developing initiative and imaginative capacities. To afford opportunities for leadership experience. To foster‘interest in the work of Junior clubs. To provide contest opportunities for the development of sportsmanship. To build up a proper attitude toward defeat and victory. To help discover unsuspected talents through hobbies and crafts. To provide opportunities in recreation for the develop­ ment of character traits that can later be applied to work. To develop an understanding and appreciation of other races through play. To provide opportunities for recreational reading. To develop Christian character. Observation.

In the church school there is very little

recreation for Juniors, except for occasional picnics and par­ ties,

bn Halloween, Christmas, Easter, and Thanksgiving.

.’

Dramatization is again neglected here, as it is in other de­ partments.

^

However, much of their recreational life is found

Dr. E. J. Taylor, Religion 251

U 3

in clubs to which most of them belong. sored by the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A.

These clubs are spon­

Some of their recrea­

tional activities are competitive athletic games, parties, picnics, et cetera.

Each summer they are encouraged to at­

tend summer conference for a weak or ten days where they spend much of their time in organized recreation, handcraft, riding, swimming, and campfire-singing, and stunt making. The church school and the clubs can render great ser­ vice to Juniors by introducing them to good reading, hand­ crafts, good movies and hobbies in order that their leisure time may be made creative and productive. Conference.

This is a most active age.

often so busy at play that they forget to eat.

Juniors are They are

busy reading books of adventure, of heroes and heroines; they are busy with their hobbies, collecting stamps, insects, and various objects.

They are also greatly interested -in

clubs where they acquire fellowship, skill and knowledge from leaders and older boys. The church school not only has little time to offer any form of recreation but is not equipped with adequate material and leadership. On one occasion, the Junior boys were taken up to the mountains to see the snow.

Many of them saw if for the

first time, and although the hike involved difficult climb­ ing and cold weather, it was educational according to the

teacher who took them. Even though much of the recreational life of a Junior may he taken care of by some outside agencies, it is neces­ sary to have some forms of recreation in the church school in order that the teachers may come to understand their children better as to their needs and characters and to experience worship and study in recreation* IV.

INTERMEDIATE DEPARTMENT

Introduction. The Intermediate age is one of the most important as well as most difficult to handle.

It is a

period of rapid growth physically and mentally.

The Inter­

mediates often indulge in vigorous exercises and games with not enough relaxation.

They resent authority and tend to make

their own conclusions, which are oftentimes shortsighted.

It

is a period when the sexes shy from each other for no good reason.

They incline to group themselves into cliques and

gangs, and unless carefully guided they run the danger of going to extremes.

They are often obsessed by the wrong

emphasis which modern society makes— that the having of a good time is one of the major interests of life. This is the age when there is the greatest need of careful guidance with sympathy and understanding.

Best ser­

vice that a leader can render to this group is to stimulate them to face the problems and to draw their own conclusions

145 rather than by telling them what to think or how to act. Essential characteristics.1^ Physical This is the period of most rapid body growth. There is an increase in the size of the heart, lungs, and other organs and in the control of accessory muscles. It is the period of greatest tendency to nervous disorders. Mental This is the period of awkwardness, laziness, and emotional instability. Interest in reading culminates, and there is great interest in nature and adventure. Imagination, sympathy, memory, and reasoning are growing. The play interest centers in competitive games, and the circle of favorite games constantly narrows. Play ‘Types include the following: Competitive games and contests. These involve great physical activity and are particularly necessary to further the development of the large muscle groups. Miscellaneous games for physical development, such as running, swimming, bicycling, and winter sports. Miscellaneous intellectual games, such as checkers, chess, card games, and sleight of hand. Objectives.1^ To develop a spirit of cooperation through play ex­ periences. To work out life situations through play. This would include muscular coordination, putting oneself into the game, to play a losing game well and with grace, and to abide by the rules. To form the habit of mastering techniques, a principle as important in life as in play.

1^ Powell, o]D. cit., pp. 61-64 . ^

R. J. Taylor, Religion 251.

146 To bring about proper health attitudes through an understanding of the physiological functions of the body. To develop a sense of the sacredness of values in life particularly those set forth by the church. To increase a reverence for the church because it represents values 'in life. Observation.

The recreational activities of the

Intermediates in the church school is very similar to that of the Juniors but parties and outings or picnics occur more frequently.

The most popular forms are house parties and

weenie-bake parties at the beach. Following is the report made by an Intermediate teacher .at whose house a party ,was given on a Sunday afternoon. Before everyone arrived, I had prepared a spaghetti dinner. The afternoon consisted of mixed teams of volleyball and also doubles in badminton. Games of hop-ching and cards were also being played. Food was served in an informal manner after which we had group singing. The department is provided with a stage and a large social hall, but they are not utilized for dramatization nor for organized games.

This may be due to lack of proper

leadership or perhaps the hall lacks attraction that is neces­ sary. Like Juniors, most Intermediates belong to Y clubs which provide the major part of their recreational life. With them, competitive games such as basketball, outdoor baseball, and volleyball games are most popular.

Summer

camps sponsored by the Y are open to them every year but due

147 to financial difficulties on the part of many parents, very few attend them.

In order to meet this difficulty, the church

has access to a cheaper camp so that more hoys will have the opportunity of experiencing summer camp.

The church provides

its own bus, a leader or two, and a well-rounded camp program though handicapped by the limited equipment at the camp.

The

Y.M.C.A. camp on the other hand is well provided with equip­ ment and leaders.

Both the church and the Y camps are not

graded, since the number of campers is not large. Conference.

The teachers were asked whether they

built their recreational programs around some specific ob­ jectives or not.

Many admitted that parties were given and

games were played just for fun and fellowship.

One teacher

reported that a certain girl, who was considered shy and inactive, was given the responsibility of planning a program. The group was surprised by the interest that was displayed by that girl.

So they decided to give another girl a similar

opportunity to.overcome her inferior complex.

However, the

teacher recognized the danger involved in placing the entire burden of responsibility on a single person inexperienced. It was suggested that several pupils be given the opportunity to plan and work together in order that there might be a sharing of experience and of responsibility.

148 V.

HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT t

Introduction.

During the Intermediate age, the boys

and girls shy from each other but in the senior or middle adolescent age they are much- attracted to each other, which gives rise to social problems.

Dancing is the most popular

form of recreation and no party is considered complete or a suecess without it.

This is a period of high emotional

tension with danger of running to extremes.

Seniors have

blind courage and dare to follow their convictions.

They are

idealistic and when properly guided, they are easily led to accept the Christian principles as their ideals. age, mixed recreation is most preferred.

At this

Athletic games are

played not merely for sport’s sake but to gain the approval and admiration of the other sex.

Therefore, in dealing with

this age group, it is necessary for the leader to understand this basic social urge and to utilize it in the development of a Ghrist-like personality through recreation. 15 Essential characteristics. x

In this period, team

play is perfected and the interest in a selfish, individual supremacy is merged into a desire to achieve success for the team.

15 Powell, op. cit.. pp. 61-64.

149 Objectives To develop a community-wide growing spirit of Christian fellowship, brotherhood and good-will. To develop a growing spirit of cooperation and sports­ manship . To develop wholesome, healthful, and joyous living of body, mind, and spirit. To guide in the wholesome, constructive use of leisure­ time. To develop skills and abilities through natural creative self-expression of body, mind and spirit. To provide opportunities for the development of leader­ ship in recreational activities. Observation.

Recreation is very popular in the senior

department and is an important means of attracting young people to the church, especially among Nisei, among whom the girls outnumber boys by the ratio of three to one.

The most popular

forms of recreations are dance parties and weenie-bake outings at the beach in the. summer. Most of the seniors belong to Y clubs which provide athletic programs throughout the year.

They also sponsor

frequent dances, parties, and picnics.

Hence the life of an

active senior is crowded with social functions, and complaints are often made by parents on this account. Conference.

Following is one recreational program

that was successfully carried out by a Y.W.C.A. club of high school age.

^

It is called "Stunt Night” and has become an

R. J. Taylor, Religion 2$1.

150 annual affair.

It is opened by some popular group songs.

Stunts, which are prepared beforehand, are given by all the clubs invited and awards are given to the club that presents the best stunt.

Vocal solos and group singing follow the

stunts, after which games are played that are mixers as well as competitive.

Folk dancing is participated in by all be­

fore refreshments are served. A party of this nature is not common and should be encouraged.

However, according to this program stunt-making

is supposed to be its main feature.

In that case perhaps

stunts should be given later in the program to attain a cer­ tain desired climax.

Stunts also should be based on a

definite theme so that the program could be unified. Organised games and folk dancing could be popularized *9 among the Nisei if proper leaders could be obtained. There is always the danger of planning a program requiring the least work and effort.

Consequently, sing songs, social

dancing* and refreshments are the usual order of high school recreation. VI.

CONCLUSION

In the treatment of recreation, direct observation and scoring were not possible in this study.

It was treated

indirectly by interviewing various teachers and club leaders of five age groups from beginners to seniors.

In many eases

151

it was discovered that recreation was utilized merely for its own sake with little or no conscious relationship to God. However, interviews and conferences have led the leaders to realize that recreation can he used to better advantage. Too often a good time is overemphasized, thus misleading youth in their attitudes toward life.

It is the task of the

Christian leaders to reinterpret recreation to the children so that God may become a reality in every moment of their lives.

CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSION- AM),. HECOMMENDATIONS I.

SUMMARY

This thesis presents the results of an investigation of the church school of the Japanese Christian Church and Institute of Los Angeles, as illustrative of the Christian church schools of the Japanese race.

To discover the exist­

ing conditions of the church school as to its materials, methods, and leadership, observations were made with the aid of scoring sheets and conferences held with leaders and com­ mittees in charge.

Furthermore, with the findings made by the

observer, it is shown that this method of observation, scoring and conference brings about definite improvements within the church school. The first chapter cites some outstanding problems that confront the Japanese Christian Church in general. The second chapter deals with the general historical background of the Japanese race in America and the history of the local Japanese Christian Church in particular. The fourfold religious educational program is composed of worship, study, service, and recreation.

Service is omitted

in this thesis for its major activity is not in the. church school.

The church school includes five departments: Begin­

ners1, Primary, Junior, Intermediate, and Senior.

Each

153

department is closely studied in relation to worship, study, and recreation. With, the aid of the score sheet used for observation,

weaknesses and strengths in method, material, and leadership of each department are critically analyzed at various confer­ ences. The purpose of this study is to help bring about a conviction among pastors, religious workers, leaders, and Christians in general as to the prime importance of the church school in the building of future leaders, the future Christian church, and, finally, the Kingdom of G-od on earth. II.

CONCLUSION

A study of the educational program of the church school of the Japanese Christian Church and Institute of Los Angeles by means of observation, scoring, and conference has led to the following conclusions: 1.

This method applied to worship, study, and recrea­

tion has brought definite results that are progressive and beneficial.

The leaders and those in charge of worship, study,

and recreation were enabled to analyze their procedure im­ partially and critically and to realize some of the strong points and defects in their work.

Furthermore, this method

has given them the incentive to improve their programs and methods of teaching.

This is very encouraging, for it is only

154

then that religious education in any church school can be pre­ sented most effectively. 2. The leaders realize that the application of this method, needs to be continued periodically every year in order that improvements may be made continuously and in order that stagnation and deterioration may be avoided within the church school*

By a single application of this method only a limited

number of leaders have been helped.

In order to raise the

standard of the entire church school, all leaders must have the same opportunity of improvement.

This can be realised

only when the method is applied often and continuously. 3. It was also realized that this method of observation, scoring, and conference alone is not sufficient to make the church school efficient and effective.

There must be an up- .

to-date and efficient teacher’s training class connected with every church school which will automatically eliminate the necessity of the application of this method.

It implies that

the need for this method is found only when teachers are not trained, as is the case in most of the Japanese Christian churches. 4. The entire study hasled to the realization of the tremendous importance of the church school which has hereto­ fore been considered lightly in the Japanese churches.

The

church school teachers in this particular church have come to feel the seriousness of the service that they are rendering

155

and the realization that teaching church school is not only a sacrifice on their part of time and effort but a great task and responsibility in the molding of personalities toward God. Hence, it has helped the teachers to put more effort in their task as builders of Christian personalities. 5. The study has helped to show the importance of the church school in comparison with adult religious education. It shows the necessity of greater sacrifice and effort in the church school in the religious education of little children, who will constitute the future church rather than in the adult church.

The lack of Christian leaders within the churches is

due to deficiencies and ineffectiveness of the church school. This realization has placed the importance of the church school above the church w o rk itself. on tiie youth of today.

The church of tomorrow depends

If this is true, the youth of today

need the best of guidance and leadership* 6. The study has also brought to light the value of recreation.

Inmost of the Japanese church schools recreation

is not given the rightful place in religious education.

It is

the most natural and easiest means for worship and study and thus of knowing God.

Too often recreation is misused and its

great contributing power to Christian personality is not re­ alized.

It is the duty of Christian leaders to utilize recrea­

tion to better advantage in the furthering of the Kingdom of God.

7.

Finally, the study leads to the realization that

all the problems that confront the Japanese churches can be met and solved in the church school when Christianity is taught effectively to children in a positive and constructive way while they are still in the formative period of growth and development. III.

RECQMMEMDATIQNB

The purpose of the church school or religious educa­ tion in its finality is to develop Christ-like personalities or Christian leaders so that the Kingdom of G-od may be real­ ized on' earth.

Such leaders must be developed from childhood

and every department from the Beginners’ to the High School Forum has the great opportunity and responsibility of accom­ plishing this great task. out good leadership.

However, this is not possible with­

Unfortunately this leadership is lack­

ing in most of the Japanese churches.

Though there may be

one or two excellent leaders they are not sufficient in number to be effective.

For example, one of the greatest difficulties

found among both Issei and Nisei is that they are never on time.

The Sunday morning worship service never starts on

time.

The choir is always late, and the church school teachers

are the last to come in. half an hour late.

It is customary to begin any meeting

This tardiness is not merely a habit but

a sign of lack of responsibility and leadership.

Other ex­

amples can be cited, but it suffices to say that there is a

157 great need for a leaders1 training class. Unfortunately, there is no special school for church school teachers.

Therefore, the churches themselves must

provide leadership training classes or schools of their own under efficient leadership.

Without good leadership, leaders

cannot be developed; without good church school teachers, Christ-like personalities can never be realized.

The writer

recommends that every church be provided, apart from the Young Peoples’ Class, with a religious educational training class that meets every Sunday under a capable leader.

Fur­

thermore, every teacher should, be required to take one or two years’ training before he or she is allowed to teach.

Under

such a system, there is bound to be a marked improvement not only in the church school but throughout the church. It is the hope of the writer that pastors and church members will realize the great opportunity and importance' that are found in the religious educational program of the church school.

It is here that the greatest emphasis should

be placed and the greatest sacrifice made.

The future of the

church depends entirely upon the youth of tomorrow.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A.

BOOKS

Baker, Edna Dean, Kindergarten Method in the Church School. New York: The Abingdon Press, 1925* 353 pp. Betts, George H . , How to Teach Religion. Abingdon Press, 1919. 223 pp.

New York: The

Chave, Ernest J., The Junior. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1925. 17 U pp. Crandall, Edna M . , A Curriculum of Worship for the Junior Church School. New York: The Century Company, 1925* 364 pp. Desjardins, Lucile, Building an Intermediate Program. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1939* 212 pp. Hartshorne, Hugh, Stories for Worship and How to Follow Them U£- New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1921. 127 pp. Ichihashi, Yamato, Japanese in the United States. Stanford University, California: Stanford University Press, 1932. 425 pp. Johnson, G. E . , Education by Plays and Games. Ginn and Company, 1907. 234 pp.

Boston, New York:

Jones, Mary Alice, Training Juniors in Worship. South Nashville Dallas, Richmond, San Francisco: M. E. Church, 1925. 200 pp Millis, H. A . , The Japanese Problem in the United States. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1915. 334 pp. Moore, Mary Anne, Senior Method in the Church School. The Abingdon Press, 1929* 3*^0 pp.

New York:

Munkres, Alberta, Primary Method in the Church School. New York: The Abingdon Press, 1921. 242 pp. McKibben, Frank M . , Intermediate Method in the Church School. New York, Cincinnati: The Abingdon Press, 1926. 324 pp. Neumeyer, Martin H. , and Esther S. Neumeyer, Leisure and Recreation. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., 1936. 405 pp.

160 Palmer, Leon C., Youth and the Church. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Morehouse Publishing Company, 1933* 217 pp. Paulsen, Irwin G-. , The Church School and Worship. The Macmillan Company, 1940. 199 pp.

New York:

Perkins, Jeanette E . , Children1s Worship in the Church School. New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1939. 233 pp. Powell, Marie Cole, Junior New York: The Abingdon

Method in the Church School. Press, 1923* 320 pp.

, Methods in the Church School. Press, 1923. 320 pp.

New York: The Abingdon

Powell, V/arren T . , Recreation in Church and Community. New York: The Abingdon Press, 1938. 136 pp. Richardson, Norman E . , The Church at Play. The Abingdon Press, 1922. 317 pp.

New York, Cincinnati:

Sheridan, A. S . , Teaching Intermediates in the Church School. New York: The Methodist Book Concern, 192$. 215 pp. Bmither, Ethel L., Teaching Primaries in the Church School. New York: The Methodist Book Concern, 1930. 251 pp. Stock, Harry T. , Church Work with Young People. Pilgrim Press, 1929. 236 pp. Vieth, Paul H . , Teaching for Christian Living. The Bethany Press, 1929. 272 pp. B.

Chicago: The St. Louis:

PERIODICALS

Kendig, R. Stanley, "Facing Youth Problems Through United Community Action," International Journal of Religious Education, No. 10, June, 1941, Vol. 17* White, Magner, "Between Two Flags," The Saturday Evening Post, September 30, 1939* C.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

Arant, Francis M . , "A Study of the History and Development of the Disciples of Christ in Southern California." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936. 83 pp.

161 Brown, Claude Arthur, tfA Survey of the Recreational Curricu­ lum of Selected Churches.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles., 1939* 144 pp. Fukuoka, Fumiko, "Mutual Life and Aid Among the Japanese in Southern California with Special Reference to Los Angeles." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937. 94 pp. Ross, Robert Howard, "Social Distance as It Exists Between the First and Second Generation Japanese in the City of Los Angeles and Vicinity." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939* 194 pp. Sacon, Y. H . , "A Study of the Religious Organizations in Japanese Communities in America." Unpublished report presented to the Department of Religious Education of The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932. 231 pp. D.

EBRSQNAL I N T E R V I E W S

Kubota, K . , assistant pastor of the Japanese Christian Church and Institute, 822 E. 20th Street, Los Angeles, California. Tanake, Togo, English editor of Rafu Shimpo, Los Angeles Japanese Daily News. 104 North Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles, California. Unoura, K . , pastor of the Japanese Christian Church and Institute, 822 E. 20th Street, Los Angeles, California.