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A study of the attitudes of the father and mother in one hundred selected families toward the giving of courses on marriage and family life in secondary schools

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A STUDY OP THE ATTITUDES OF THE FATHER AND MOTHER IN ONE HUNDRED SELECTED FAMILIES TOWARD THE GIVING OF COURSES ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Sociology University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts

*>y George Henry Ziegler January 1950

UMI Number: EP65689

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation: Publishing

UMI EP65689 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest* ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

T h is thesis, w r it t e n by

George Henry Ziegler u n d e r the g u id a n c e o f h and approved

by a l l

is

F a c u l t y C o m m itte e ,

its

m em bers,

has

been

presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c il on G r a d u a t e S tu d y a n d R e s e a rc h in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­ m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f

Master of

M r ts

>> Dean n„„

January

1960

Faculty Committee

Chairman rh*d^s9B«..

£ U < *a .

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OP TERMS USED

• .

The p r o b l e m ................................

2

Statement of the p r o b l e m .................

2

Importance of the s t u d y .................

2

Definitions of terms used

.................

6

Family l i f e ..............................

6

Secondary schools

7

...........

THE MATERIALS USED AND GROUPS

STUDIED . . . .

Construction of the questionnaires •

8

9

Methodology and materials u s e d ............. • • •

9 9

Testing of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ...........

12

The families s e l e c t e d ...................

13

Questionnaire r e t u r n s ...................

lip

The personal interview

.

Additional source of d a t a ............... Limitations of the study

15 l6 17

............

"Treatment of the f i n d i n g s ............ ..



S u m m a r y .................................... III.

6

M a r r i a g e ..........

Preview of succeeding chapters ............. II.

1

REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E ............

19 19 22

The Terman S t u d y ............................

22

The Burgess-Cottrell Study .................

26

iv

CHAPTER

PAGE The Venereal Disease Control Council

IV.

Study . • • ..............................

30

Previous thesis studies ...................

33

Special emphasis of this study

50

. . . . . .

THE QUESTIONNAIRE R E S U L T S ...................

53

Age, occupation, education, children, income, and religion of the one hundred families studied

........... • •

S u m m a r y .....................................

V.

VII.

VIII.

6i|_

CONTENT OP COURSE ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY L I F E .......................

69

Family l i f e ................................

69

Sex e d u c a t i o n .............................

76

S u m m a r y .............. VI.

53

.

80

WEERE AND WHEN A COURSE ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE SHOULD BE G I V E N ...............

87

S u m m a r y .....................................

93

THE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OF ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED M O T H E R S ...........

96

Sex information of p a r e n t s ..............

9&

Sex instruction of sons anddaughters . . .

101

Summary . . . . ............................

10 I4.

PERSONAL ATTITUDES OF FATHERS AND MOTHERS TOWARDS MARRIAGE AND FAMILY L I F E .........

106

V

CHAPTER

PACE Case quotations ..................

• • • • •

Summary . . . . . . .................... IX.

. .

SUMMARY AMD C O N C L U S I O N S .....................

10b 112 113

S u m m a r y ..................

113

C o n c l u s i o n s ................................

123

B I B L I O G R A P H Y ...........................................

126

A P P E N D I X E S ......................................... APPENDIX A:

Supplementary t a b l e s .................

APPENDIX B:

Questionnaire f o r m s ......................

135 13 6 152

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I*

PAGE Classification of One Hundred Fathers and One Hundred Mothers As to Age, Occupation, Education, Children, Income, and Religion .............

II.

• • • • •

53

Attitudes and Instruction of One Hundred Fathers and One Hundred Mothers Towards Topics on Family Life for High School Pupils

III*

............

73

Attitudes and Instruction of One Hundred Fathers and One Hundred Mothers Towards Topics on Sex Education for High School P u p i l s ......................................

IV.

79

Attitudes of One Hundred Fathers and One Hundred Mothers As to Where and When a Course on Family and Marriage Life Should be

V*

G i v e n ......................

Personal Experience of One Hundred Fathers and One Hundred M o t h e r s ........ ..

87

LIST OP SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES TABLE I*

PAGE Ninety-Seven Occupations Listed by the F a t h e r s .......... . . . . . .............. •

II.

Twenty-Nine Occupations of Mothers Working Outside the Home

III. IV.

137

............

138

Total Years Married Reported by Fathers . . .

139

Age at First Marriage As Reported by Eighty-One F a t h e r s .................

V. VI.

Total Years Married Reported by Mothers • • •

llj.1

Age at First Marriage As Reported by Seventy-Eight M o t h e r s .................

VII*

llj.0

ll|.2

Other Schools Children Are Attending and Number of Times the School Was Indicated by the Fathers

VIII.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

llj-3

Other Schools Children Are Attending and. Number of Times the School Was Indicated by the M o t h e r s ..........

IX*

li^-3

Occupations of Mothers Employed Outside the Home As Listed by the Fathers • • • • *

X.

Occupations of Ninety-Six Fathers As Listed by the M o t h e r s ........................

XI.

li+JLj.

1

Membership in Churches As Listed by FiftySeven F a t h e r s .........................

llp7

v iii

TABLE XII*

PAGE Membership in Churches As Listed by SixtyFive Mothers

XIII*

...........................

Ages at Which Fathers Received Sex I n f o r m a t i o n ............................ .

XIV.

lij.3

.

1I4.9

Ages at Which Mothers Received Sex II4.9

I n f o r m a t i o n ................................ XV.

,rOtherfl Sources of Sex Information Received in Youth by theFathers and Mothers • • •

XVI.



1$0

w0therM Sources of Sex Instruction for the Sons and Daughters As Given by the Fathers and Mothers

..................

1$1

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED One method of assisting young members of society in the formation of individual life organizations is by formal education.

General schemes of situations may be presented

in abstract form or through concrete examples, and thereupon the persons may apply the erudition to circumstances which they fortuitously meet or which have been especially de­ veloped for them.l A second method of social technique in the construc­ tion of life organizations by young persons Is that of spon­ taneous development.^

The persons concerned,

separately

work out definitions of situations, which may be in agreement or non-agreement with the social schemes prevailing in the social m i l i e u . 3

& schematism is finally constructed;

it is

intrinsically the result of a trial and error procedure. For many years sociologists have been interested in the attitudes and values relevant to the offering of courses on Marriage and Family Life to college students.

Scientific

W. I. Thomas and F. Znaniecki, The Polish Peasant in Europe a n d ,America, (Boston: Gorham Press" 1919), III, ^ L£ c - cit. ^ Ibid., pp.

2

advancement and greater interest in the synthesis of human personalities, have challenged educational institutions to consider seriously the presenting of a similar course to pupils in the secondary schools.

Some sociologists have the

attitude that such a course should be offered as a support to young persons who are in the process of the formation of individual life organizations. I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem.

It was the purpose of this

study (1 ) to find out the attitudes of the father and mother in one hundred selected American families toward the giving of courses on Marriage and Family Life in secondary schools; (2 ) to learn whether the parents had received any formal or informal Instructions In Marriage and Family Life;

(3) to

learn the attitudes of the parents towards selected topics which may comprise a course on Marriage and Family Life for high school pupils; and (4 ) to determine where and when parents recommended a course in Marriage and Family Life for their children. Importance of the study.

Since the beginning of the

present century there has been an increasing interest in the institutions of marriage and family.

The high rates of

divorce and juvenile delinquency and the large number of unhappy and maladjusted families have stimulated the thinking

3 not only of the judges of the courts and educators of the nation but also of many persons in large and small communi­ ties as well. The Bureau of the Census revealed in l9ij-0 that there were Ij.,828,2lj.9 persons in the United States, who were four­ teen and fifteen years of age.^-

Of this number, ninety per

cent or l± , 3^ 7 ,6 6 5 were in attendance in a regular school system. ^

In the same year there were 4,892,170 persons in

the sixteen and seventeen years age group in the United States, and of this number 3, 3 6 1 ,2 0 6 or sixty-eight and seven-tenths per cent were in attendance in a regular school system.^

Again, in the same year, there were 7*385,876

persons in the eighteen, nineteen, and twenty years age group, and of this number only twenty-three and six-tenths per cent or l, 7y 4->Wl7 persons were in attendance in a regular school system.? The marital status of the population in 19 ^1-0 was not tabulated by the Bureau of the Census for persons under

’’Characteristics of the Population,” Sixteenth Census of the United States: 19lj-0 (Washington D.C. : United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United States Government Printing Office, 19 I4.3 )* Part 1, II, 11. ^ Loc. cit. ^ Loc. cit. ? Loc. cit.

4 fourteen years of age as practically all such persons are single, however, it was tabulated for the males and females from fifteen to seventy-five years of age. The total number of males in the United States in 19 I4O from fifteen to and including nineteen years of age was 6,180,153*^

Of this number lOi+,935 were married; 1,031 were

widowed; and 1,022 were already divorced.9 The total number of females in the United States in 19 i4.0 from fifteen to and including nineteen years of age was 6 ,153,370.^

Of this number 713*9lj-0 were married; 6,1|.23 were

widowed; and 8,981|- were divorced,-^ Of the total number of 1,222,337 males fifteen years of age in the United States in 19l|-0, 1,799 were m a r r i e d . ^ In the same year and age group there were 1,200,182 females of which 13*589 were married . ^

® "Population: Characteristics by Age," Sixteenth of the United States: I9 I4O (Washington .D. C.: United Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United Government Printing Office, 19^4-3) > Part 1: United Summary, IV, 5*

Census States States States

^ Loc. cit. IjO £ .

cit.

^

Lo£. cit.

^

Ibid., p. 22

■**3 Loc. cit.

5 There was a total of 1 *214.9 ,1 6 6 males in the United States in I 9 I4.O in the sixteen years of age category, and of this number 3>7llf were married*lV

There were in the same

year 1 ,2 3 9 *9 3 0 females sixteen years of age of which 1^6,770 were married*l5 There were 1,213,277 males in the United States in 1914-0 who were seventeen years of age, and the number married

at* this age was 8 ,14.8 9 *1 6

in the same year and in the same

age category 10 l4.,772 females were married out of a total of 1,189,797.17 It may be noted from the statistics as have already been mentioned that a large number of high school pupils do not continue their formal education beyond high school*

It

appears plausible that a course in Marriage and Family Life would be beneficial to the pupils in the secondary schools on the following bases:

(1 ) that a large number of high

school pupils do not go on to college;

(2 ) that the family

is the most important in many ways of the human groups;

Ik

Sixteenth Census of the United States, loc* cit*

1^ Loc* cit* 1^> hoc* cit, 17 Loc* cit* Emory S. Bogardus, Sociology (New York: Macmillan Company, I 9 I4.6 ), p. 115*

6

and (3 ) that guidance in personal evolution would assist in removing many obstacles encountered by young persons in the succession of social processes* II* Marriage*

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED Many authors have given admirable defi-

nitions of marriage, and it is generally understood to be a group- 3 anctioned bond establishing the family relations, especially in reference to the progeny*

The definition of

marriage by Burgess and Locke has been selected for this thesis, which is as follows:

"Marriage as human behavior

may be defined as the union, sanctioned by society, of man and woman as husband and wife*Ml19 Family life*

"The family {italics in the original]

is a small social group , 11 states Bogardus, "composed of a father, a mother, and one or more children, in which affection is mutually shared and the children a re reared to become self-controlled and socially motivated persons * " 2 0 Burgess and Locke specifically define the family as follows:: i

19 Ernest W* Burgess and Harvey J. Locke, The Family (New York: American Book Company, 19^-5)* P* 7* 2 0 Bogardus,

o£* cit*, p. 115*

7 • . • a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood, or adoption; constituting a single household; interacting and communicating with each other in their respective social roles of husband and wife, mother and father, son and daughter, brother and sister; and. creating and maintaining a common culture *21 Nimkoff has defined the family as M # • • a more or less durable association of husband and wife, with or without children, or of a man or a woman alone, with children. Family life for this study was interpreted as the small social group, composed of one or both parents,^3 and one or more progeny, in which the latter are indoctrinated with the traditional eulture of the particular family and society# Secondary schools#

A secondary school may be con­

strued to mean a senior high school, i#e# one which enrolls freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior high school pupils# The organization of the secondary schools vary in Los Angeles and elsewhere, however, the desideration is to in~ elude particularly ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade pupils, whose ages generally range from fourteen to

21

Burgess and Locke, o£. cit., p# 8 #

OOj

Meyer F. Nimkoff, Marriage and the Family (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 19 I4J), pT 6 # Some of the returns of questionnaires for this study indicated the decease of one member of the family or in a few cases a separated family#

seventeen inclusive.

Some of the junior high schools may

consist of seventh, eighth, and ninth grades; the pupils* ages ranging from twelve to fourteen inclusive.

The study

was especially concerned and emphasized the grades from the ninth to and including the twelfth, whose pupils are par­ ticularly in the adolescent stage. III.

PREVIEW OP SUCCEEDING CHAPTERS

The statement of the problem, the purposes of the study, and the interpretation of indecisive title terms have been considered in this chapter. Chapter II pertains to the methodology and materials utilized in the study.

It presents also the treatment of

the findings and the limitations of the investigation. A brief review of the Terman research, of the Los Angeles Venereal Disease Council, and of certain previous theses are given in Chapter III.

It gives also the relation

of previous studies to this investigation. Chapter IV reveals the results of the questionnaires used in the study. The compendium and conclusions are made in Chapter V.

CHAPTER I I

THE MATERIALS USED AND GROUPS STUDIED The contents of this chapter will pertain principally to the methodology and materials utilized in the study*

The

construction of the questionnaires as the chief instruments used to secure the attitudes of the father and the mother, the personal interview as an assistant source of data, the choosing of the families for the study, and the limitations of the investigation will constitute the topics to be covered# I.

METHODOLOGY AND MATERIALS USED

Construction of the questionnaires*

The objective

of the questionnaires was to secure the attitudes of both the head of the family, the father, and the mother towards the giving of courses on Marriage and Family Life in senior high schools, therefore, it was considered necessary to develop one for eaeh parent in order to secure his or her reactions to the interrogations* A study was made of questionnaires which had been used in similar inquiries by writers of theses and authors of textbooks in sociology*

A tentative questionnaire was

then construed and designed for the father; it was sub­ mitted to the thesis chairman and members of the thesis

class for consideration* Several improvements were made in the original questionnaire, and the ultimate form emerged with four divisions*

Five months was used in its construction*

The questionnaire for the mother is virtually the same as for the father; the exceptions being four questions* Two queries asked for the occupations of the father and of the mother if other than housewife,

and the father was asked

whether the mother was employed outside the home*

The

remaining two dissimilar questions were composed for the purpose of having the mother give certain data about the girls, if any, in the family, and similarly of having the father give certain information pertaining to his boys, if any, in the family* The first division*

The first division of the

questionnaires contains eleven questions*

The age of the

parent, the occupation, the number of years married,

the

educational attainment, the number of boys and girls in the family, the name of the high school the children attend, the approximate level of family income, the mother 1s employment outside the home, the religious preference, and the church membership constitute the general information which was desired*

The recipients were able to answer two full

questions and part of another by a check mark, one question

11 by circling, and eight questions by writing a word or two in the provided blank spaces* The second division*

The second section of the

questionnaire was called the ”Content of Course on Marriage and Family Life * 11

It was subdivided into two parts:

(1)

”Family Life,1* and (2) ”Sex Education*” There were twenty-four topics listed under the ^Family Life” heading*

The parent was requested in the

directions to make a check in the ”Yes^No” column if he would approve including the topic in a course on Marriage and Family Life for high school pupils* A second ”Yes«*No” column asked the parent to check whether he had received instruction in the topic during his high school days* There were ten subjects listed under the heading ftSex Education*”

Marking instructions were the same as for

the ”Family Life” topics* The third division*

The third partition was design

nated ”Where and When a Course on Family and Marriage Life Should be Given*”

There were eight questions; the parent

was asked to use a check mark to indicate his attitude toward the queries*

The grade in school in which instruction

in Family Life should be offered, the grade in which sex instruction should be given, the manner of presentation of

12 instruction in separate or mixed classes, and the institution, which has the major responsibility Education composed the inquiry The fourth division#

for

for the

Family Lifeand Sex division#

The fourth section was en­

titled MYour Personal Experience#ft

There were seven ques­

tions; six questions were to be answered by check marks and one asked for an Arabic number in a provided blank space# The parent was asked the age at which he first received sex information, the source of the sex information, the adequacy of the information, the reaction to the informa­ tion, and the circumstances regarding the receiving of sex information by the children in

the family#

Thisconstituted

the inquiry of the division# Testing of the questionnaires#

The thesis class and

several persons read the final questionnaires for clarity of expression#

This procedure, while it did not signify

similar understanding on the part of all people contacted,, assured reasonably similar comprehension on the part of those who were asked to answer the schedules# A few persons were of the opinion that the question­ naires were too long, however, more than 10 per cent of the families contacted by mail filled out and returned the inquiries#

This may be considered a satisfactory percentage,

although some investigators have received as high as

13 20 per cent in returns*

Several follow-ups may of course

secure 50 per cent and more* The families selected*

The desideratum was to mail

five hundred questionnaires to families who had boys and girls in two senior high schools*

Furthermore, families

were wanted of a moderately high income level and families of the average or low income bracket for possible purposes of comparison.

Two high schools in Los Angeles were select­

ed for the purpose* A high school principal can not give the names of parents to investigators unless the approval of his superior is first obtained* The questionnaires for the father and mother were read by the curriculum supervisor of the Los Angeles city schools* schedules*

It was necessary to delete two topics from the The investigator was advised to be as circum­

spect as possible,

and it was deemed advisable to omit the

interrogations relevant to the two sensitive subjects of Mvenereal diseases” and ”birth control*”

This was necessary

to minimize potential parental contention* The superintendent of the Los Angeles city schools approved the questionnaires upon the recommendation of the curriculum supervisor* It was not possible to use the directory for parental

x i(-

addresses of one of the Los Angeles schools selected for the study#

The vice-principal of this large high school stated

that he believed the survey would be beneficial, however, the principal was opposed to the study because of possible parental complication# The two schools selected for the survey were the Susan Miller Dorsey High School and the Manual Arts High School#

The principals approved the questionnaires,

and the

schools were considered most satisfactory for the study# Two hundred and fifty names and addresses of parents who had boys and girls in grades A-eleven and B-twelve were secured from the former high school, and three hundred and three names and addresses of parents who had children in grades ten, eleven, and twelve were secured from the latter high school* Questionnaire returns*

A questionnaire for the

father and one for the mother was sent to two hundred and fifty families who had children attending the Susan Miller Dorsey High School, and the same number of questionnaires was sent to the parents of children attending the Manual Arts High School*

A letter of transmittal and a stamped

reply envelope were included with the questionnaires# Replies were received from 12 per cent or sixty families to whom questionnaires had been sent#

Both the

15

father and the mother of a family filled out and returned a total of 7 * 2 per cent (thirty***six questionnaires) of the number of schedules mailedr

2 * 1 per cent (fifteen question­

naires) were filled out and returned by only the mother of a family; and 1 * 8 per cent (nine questionnaires) were filled out and returned by only the father of a family#

A reply

by one of the fathers stated that the mother deserted the family in 193 ^4-5 other replies by the father or mother only, indicated disorganization due to divorce or a separation# The personal interview#

A record of the house

numbers of the families interviewed was kept by the inter­ viewer*

It was explained to the interviewees that there

would not be any attempt in any manner whatsoever to ident­ ify their questionnaires with the particular home#

It was

necessary to make appointments (which were made in person) and call back (in person), occasionally three or four times, therefore, the A total

record was maintained# of forty-five families was

interviewed; the

data secured from thirty-nine of the families was used for this study#

A

period of seven months was used for the

personal investigations#

Because the father was usually

working during the day, the interview with him was usually in the late afternoon or in the evening#

Saturday afternoon

was a satisfactory time to find the father at home#

Many

16

families had a place to go every evening or left the city for the week end; this made it impossible, in some cases, to interview the father*

Some of the housewives asked to retain

the questionnaires for the purpose of filling them out at a convenient time*

This was considered satisfactory*

When

the investigator returned at a later time, the comment often received was that the questionnaires were interesting and easy to fill out* Each questionnaire was usually completed in fifteen to twenty minutes at an interview, however, many of the families had children who wanted to talk about high school or a university or small college to attend*

Many times the

father or the mother desired to bring in other topics of conversation, which in the entirety made the majority of interviews most interesting and pleasant*

Less than five

families refused to grant time for an interview* The majority of the families contacted had children attending the Susan Miller Dorsey High School or the Manual Arts High School. Additional source of data*

In cooperation with a

social studies teacher, who was interested in the survey, sixteen pupils attending summer school at the Manual Arts High School had their parents answer the questionnaires* The summer school pupils selected regularly attend either

17 the Susan Miller Dorsey High School or the Manual Arts High School* II.

LIMITATIONS OP THE STUDY

The problem of size and representativeness of the sample was of practical concern in the study*

Lundbergl

states as follows t Perhaps the simplest and most practical empirical method of testing the adequacy of a sample is to take several other samples of about the same size, by the same or a variety of methods, and compare them with the sample selected for investigation* If the results are . not sufficiently alike or stable to accord with the standard of accuracy previously determined, it indicates that the size of the sample should be increased until the successive samples show substantial similarity, that is, until most of the variations in each sample are small and occur as frequently in one direction as in the other* The sample for this study consisted of one hundred families*

It is the opinion of the investigator that the

families were representative, which would establish and is necessary for a high degree of reliability*

The questionnaire

was a main instrument in securing data, however, the ex­ perience of competent and large-scale users of question­ naires summarize the selectivity of returns as follows: 1* Non-readers and non-writers seldom, if ever, answer a questionnaire*

-*• George A* Lundberg, Social Research (New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 19^6), p* 11$'*

18 2# Interest in the subject is a major factor in determining the return of a questionnaire* 3« The better educated are more likely to return a questionnaire than the less educated.^ A further limitation of the study is that the ambi­ guity of words, misunderstandings, and misinterpretations on the part of the recipients of the questionnaires may have invalidated some of the replies as expressions of attitudes* It is established from the theoretical point of view, how­ ever, that no measurement of any phenomenon necessarily describes it completely.3 The fathers and mothers who cooperated in the study were not asked for their names on the schedules.

Many of

the topics of the questionnaire called for attitudes governed by strong mores*

Lundberg has stated that the subject*s

expressed attitude will tend to be the conventional attitude, especially if his name is required on the schedule* A record of this study indicates that sixteen reply envelopes with the questionnaires enclosed were returned unanswered.

There were not any statements accompanying the

letters telling why the questionnaires were returned un­ answered*

^ Ibid*# p*.206* 3 Ibid., p. 2 I4.9 .

19 Ill*

TREATMENT OP THE FINDINGS

Th© information derived from each interrogation or statement of the questionnaire was tabulated,

Th© charts

were formulated to disclose the attitudes of both the father and the mother.

Questions of general information, such as

age or religious preference, were also classified according to the sex, A questionnaire returned by one of the parents only of a family was not disqualified.

The reasons were usually

given for the return of one questionnaire only; death, divorce, or desertion were reasons received.

In addition,

it was not always possible to secure both parents of a par­ ticular family for an interview.

It was then necessary to

utilize only the results of the one parent. An explicit procedure was used In computing per cents in the tables.

The third decimal figure was neither raised

if the figure was five or above nor was it dropped if the figure was less than five, IV,

SUMMARY

The purpose of the study was to learn the attitudes of the father and mother in one hundred selected families toward the giving of courses on Marriage and Family Life in secondary schools.

There were two high schools in Los Angeles selected for the study (1) the Susan Miller (2) the Manual Arts High School#

Dorsey High School, and Questionnaires were mailed

to two hundred and fifty families who had children attending the former high school, and the same number of questionnaires was sent to parents who had children attending the latter high school•

The number of families that replied to the

schedules was 12 per cent. The parents of sixteen pupils, who were attending summer school at the Manual Arts High School, completed thirty-two questionnaires (one for each parent).

The pupils

regularly attend either the Susan Miller Dorsey High School or the Manual Arts High School. The survey utilized also the personal investigation. The personal interviews were made from December, 19^-8 to July, 19I4.9.

A total of forty-five families was interviewed,

however, the information secured from six of the families was not made use of because of the desirability of tabulat­ ing the results of an even number of one hundred fathers and one hundred mothers. The limitations of the study may include the following 1.

The sampling is relatively small.

One hundred

families participated in the study. 2*

The attitudes checked on some of the schedules

may or may not be biased because of the extreme difficulty

21 of measuring attitudes. 3*

The schedules returned by mail were perhaps

answered only by the persons particularly interested in the study, therefore, the representativeness of part of the sample may not be as reliable as desired.

CHAPTER I I I

REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Surveys have been made in the homes, the schools, and the churches to learn what had been accomplished, if anything, towards the education of boys and girls in marriage and family life.

Investigators have been inter­

ested also in learning what parents thought of their own preparation for family life.

This chapter presents and is

limited to a review of the Terraan study, the Burgess-Cottrell study, of the unpublished theses pertaining to Marriage and Family Life of the University of Southern California, and of the study made by the Venereal Disease Control Los Angeles in 19lj-6.

Council of

The information extracted from the

several analyses pertain to the following questions:

(1 )

Are certain background factors significant in happy marriages? (2:) Do parents want their children to receive family life and sex education in secondary schools?

and (3) Do parents

feel their preparation, if any, for family life was adequate or inadequate? I.

THE TERMAN STUDY

Termanl made a study of 792 married couples who had 1 Louis M. Terman, Psychological Factors in Marital ss (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 193^)# j

23 been married from less than one year to twenty-seven years and over#

The average age of the husbands was thirty-eight

and eight-tenths; the wives* average age was thirty-five and eight-tenths#

The couples were mainly from Los Angeles and

San Francisco, and they were to a large extent from the mid­ dle and upper-middle levels of education, culture, and income# The investigation*was to ascertain, if possible, the psychological factors associated with what might be termed ^marital happiness , 11 or successful marriage*

The relation­

ship of over four hundred variables to the marital happiness scores of the married couples is the essence of the report# The variables studied fall into three main groups:

person­

ality factors, background factors, and specific sexual adjustments# The correlation found in the background factors applies particularly to this thesis and is of significance# The factors sufficiently correlated with marital happiness to be included in the Terman prediction scale were the following: (1 ) age at marriage, (2 ) amount of schooling, (3 ) circumstances under which couples first met, (Ij.) length of premarital acquaintance, (5 ) length of engagement, (6 ) number of siblings, (7 ) adequacy of sex instruction, and (8 ) principal sources of sex i n f o r m a t i o n . 2

^ Ibid#, p. 261j.. Cf # Burgess and Locke, The Family (New York: American Book Company, 19^4-5)> P« lj-6 l#

2k

Three questions in the marriage blank of the Terman investigation required answers relating to sex enlighten** ment*

The first requested a rating of the adequacy of sex

instruction, the second the main sources of sex information, and the third the age when the origin of babies was learned*3 Five degrees of adequacy for the first question were given, as follows: adequate,

(1) Entirely adequate,

(3) Rather inadequate,

(2) Reasonably

(Ij.) Very inadequate, and

(5) None whatsoever *^4The results of the rating of the adequacy of sex in­ struction and the sources of sex information are particularly Important to the thesis* Terman found that there is a tendency for happier husbands to be more numerous than the less happy in the first three categories of rated sex i n s t r u c t i o n * ^

Less happy

husbands were found more numerous in the categories pertain­ ing to **very inadequate** or **none whatsoever *1 sex instruction* The study revealed in regard to the wives* rating In the adequacy of sex instruction two critical ratios as high as one and six-tenths * 6

Some sex instruction is valuable,

therefore, even if quite inadequate*

3 Terman, o£* cit., p* 237* ^ k°c • cit* 5 hoc* cit* 6 Ibid., p. 239*

Til© second question, which pertained to the main sources of sex information, listed five categories, as followss

(1) Parents,

(2) Physicians,

(3) Teachers,

(l\.)

Other adults, and (j?) Other children. The results of the second question revealed that husbands whose chief source of sex information was parents or teachers had higher marital happiness scores.

Husbands

whose chief source of information was other children tended to have lower happiness scores.7

Wives had higher scores

when their chief source of sex instruction was a teacher. Parents ranked second, while **other children,** wother adults and physician came last as sources of sex instruction . 8

The

poor showing of Mother adults** and **other children** was con­ sidered a particularly reliable finding by Terman. A paramount finding by Terman deserves emphasis and is as followst . . . attention should be called to the rather de­ plorable state of sex education when these subjects were children. One-third of the men and 27#2 per cent of women say they had no sex instruction whatever from . responsible adults before the age of eighteen; only 2 3 * 6 per cent of men and 2 7 .il per cent of women rate it as reasonably or entirely adequate. In the 792 couples, I4I1O men and 323 women designated **other children** as a

7 Ibid*, p. 24 .O. 8 Ibid., 224.X.

26

chief source for 3 0 2 of the women but for only 150 of the men, which suggests that parents are much more likely to neglect the sex education of sons than of daughters or that boys have somewhat freer access to extracurric** ular sources of sex lore* There was little evidence that the amount and quality of sex education improved very materially between 1 8 8 5 and 1915*9 The value of the Terman study to the thesis study may be summarized as follows: (1) There is a positive correlation between sex in­ struction and marital happiness* (2) There is a negative correlation between a lack of sex instruction and marital happiness* (3) There is a positive correlation between certain factors of family life and marital happiness* (5)

There is a positive correlation between sources

of sex information and marital happiness* The inclusion of topics which show a positive correla** tion with marital happiness in a Marriage and Family Life course in secondary schools may be of great benefit* II.

THE BURGE SS**COTTRELL STUDY

Burgess and Cottrell^® utilized the questionnaire method supplemented by intensive case studies in collecting

9 Ibid*, p . 2lj.3• ^ Ernest W* Burgess and Leonard S. Cottrell, Predicting Success or Failure in Marriage (New York:: Prentice -Hall, Inc., 1939). 572 pp. —

2? data for predicting success or failure in marriage*

The

authors used marital wadjustment 11 as the criterion of successful marriage*

A well-adjusted marriage was considered

as one in which the patterns of behavior of the two persons were mutually satisfying* The schedule developed by Burgess and Cottrell con­ tained items of a somewhat impersonal nature, and they were arranged into the following sections: husband1s premarital background, premarital background,

(1 ) items on the

(2 ) items on the wifefs

(3 ) items on the postmarital attitudes

and experiences of the couple, and (lj.) an inventory on person­ ality which was designed to indicate, if possible,

the

presence or absence of neurotic tendencies in the person filling out the questionnaire* The case studies of the authors secured information of a more intimate nature than the questionnaires*

The

interrogations of the studies pertained to family inter­ relationships and sex, and it was believed that the inter­ views would result in information which would be more re­ liable on such intimately personal items than could be obtained b y utilizing questionnaires* Burgess and Cottrell distributed about 7»000 question­ naires to students, other persons interested in the study, and a few social agencies that had certain nonrelief clients*

28 In addition, questionnaires were sent to lj.00 divorced couples by utilizing a mailing list made up from newspaper reports* The total return w a s about 1,300 questionnaires, cent*

or 10 per

The questionnaire form was so constructed that one

member of a couple could readily fill out the items without the assistance of the other*

The authors used 526 of the

total number (1,300)*'of questionnaires returned, and of the schedules used, 153 were filled out by the husband alone,

31? by the wife alone, 30 by both together, and 15 by one or b o t h spouses with the assistance of an interviewer*

A

total of eleven schedules did not disclose whether the husband, wife, or b o t h filled them out* The sampling was not controlled, authors chose from the

therefore,

the

1,300 returns those which represented

a fairly homogeneous group of marriages*

The sample was

mainly urban, and from the professional, white-collar, middle socio-economic class*

It was relatively young; the

average age of the husbands was 2 3 *i|. years*

26*1 years and the wives

The persons studied were highly educated*

Less

than 10 per cent had stopped at grade school level and 55*7 per cent of the wives and

60*5 P©r cent of the husbands had

some undergraduate or graduate work in a college*

The problem

of unemployment had not been serious for this group*

About

one third of the couples had one child, 10*5 P©r cent had two or more children,

and 56*3 P©r cent had no children*

The major findings of Burgess and Cottrell were the following: 1* Contrary to prevailing opinion, American wives make the major adjustment in marriage. 2* Affectional relationships in childhood, typically of the son for the mother and the daughter for the father condition the love-object choice of the adult* 3* The socialization of the person, as indicated by his participation in social life and social institutions, is significant for adjustment in marriage. i}.. The economic factor in itself is not significant for adjustment in marriage, since it is fully accounted for by the other factors (impress of cultural background, psychogenetic characteristics, social type, and response patterns)• 5* With the majority of couples, problems of sexual adjustment in marriage appear to be a resultant not so much of biological factors as of psychological character­ istics and of cultural conditioning of attitudes toward sex* 6 * Prediction before marriage of marital adjustment is feasible, and should and can be further developed through statistical and case-study m e t h o d s * H

The Burgess-Cottrell study is important to the thesis study in its basic methodology of the prediction of success or failure in marriage*

The most significant contribution

of the study was not in any one finding, but in the degree to which new research has opened in predicting marriage adjustment.

The construction and utilization of a marital

adjustment scale has been a contribution to the basic

Ernest W. Burgess, and Leonard S. Cottrell, op. cit P* 3b9>

30 methodology of the prediction of human behavior III*

THE VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL COUNCIL STUDY

Los Angeles experienced considerable disorganization %

during the war years from 19^-2 to 19 ^ 6 ; juvenile police bureaus handled 8 ij. per cent more cases, divorce filings increased 66 per cent, and new cases of primary syphilis swelled to 99 Per cent*12

The facts indicated that education

in sex and family life as well as venereal diseases had been inadequate* Angeles,

The Venereal Disease Control Council of Los

after a study of the statistics, composed a care­

fully worded questionnaire to find out the attitudes of parents in this city towards sex education in schools* The three thousand parents who received the question­ naires had been carefully chosen*

Parent-teacher associa­

tions, a union auxiliary, a working mother*s club, church clubs, Latin-American club, special study groups, and boards of such organizations as the Junior League were some of the participants in the sampling*

The parents were above average

in education in the majority of cases; least a high school education* 13

per cent had at

They were also average or

12 venereal Disease Council and Health Section, com­ piler, ’’What Parents Think About Sex Education,” Mimeo­ graphed report (Los Angeles:; Venereal Disease Council, October, 1 9 I4 .6 ) , n*p*

^

Ibid*, n*p.

above in economic status, according to the replies, seventy** eight per cent earned over $3*000 yearly and of this per** centage 39 P©** cent earned $5*000 and over.l^The majority of parents in the survey had children of school age or younger; 86*5 per cent had sons under eighteen and 88•if per cent had daughters under eighteen. More than 50 per cent of the parents had been married be­ tween the ages of twenty and twenty-four.^6 The questions of the survey may be summarized as follows:;

(1) Where did you receive the most help on sex

matters?

(2) Were the information and guidance you received

adequate for success in family life? your own children sex education?

(3) Are you giving

(If) Do you believe your

children should be given sex and family life education in school? The Venereal Disease Control Council tabulated the results of 1 ,1 1 3 questionnaires which had been answered by October 19lf-6# The first question pertained to the source of the parent*s own information and guidance on sex matters. parents replied, as follows:

Ibid., n.p#

The

(1) Companions gave the most help to 28.2 per cent. (2) Parents as sources of information was indicated by 27 per cent. (3) Books ranked third as a source and was checked by 20.8 per cent. (1^.) The schools were given credit as sources of information by 8 per cent. (5)

The churches were referred to by 2 per cent.

Physicians, relatives, magazines, and movies were miscel­ laneous sources of information and guidance with low weight in the tabulation.^7 The second question, which asked whether the informa­ tion and guidance received was adequate for success in family life, had replies of which 68 per cent stated that they were not adequate.1® The third question asked the parents whether they were giving their own children sex education.

The tabula**

tion of the answers disclosed a figure much higher than may have been ordinarily expected.

The parents to the extent

of 89 per cent replied that they were giving their boys and girls instructions.^9

Ibid., n.p. ^

Ibid., n.p.

x9 Ibid., n.p.

33 The fourth question was formulated to find out if the parents wanted their children to receive sex and family life education in school#

Over 97 per cent wanted high schools

to give integrated sex education; 95 per cent preferred the instruction in junior high schools; and more than 75 per cent wanted it taught in the elementary grades*20

The

replies to the question indicate a large endorsement of public school sex education* Parents, who answered the questionnaires, occasionally expressed an objection to teaching sex education in the schools*

The objections were seemingly based on the con­

viction that teachers were not properly trained to teach it* The survey showed two important facts (1) the parents realized the inadequacy of their own sex and family life education, and (2) the parents believed sex and family life education was a school responsibility* III*

PREVIOUS THESIS STUDIES

An examination was made of thirty available theses; sixteen of the previous studies contained information par­ ticularly valuable ,for this report*

The record indicates

that one of the studies was made in the year of 1 9 3 2 ; four

Ibid*, n.p*

i

of th© studies in 1 9 3 ^# one study in each of th© years 1 937 and 1938; two of the studies in 1 9 3 9 # one study in each of the years of 1 9 ^-0 , I9 I4-I* and 19 ^ #

two of the studies in

1 9 ^3 # and one study in each of the years of 1 9 ^ 6 and 19 ^-7 *

A review of the research in 19^7 of Karl Wallace was made, and a brief summary of this dissertation has been made at the conclusion of the thesis studies. The examined studies are arranged chronologically in this investigation* The Mathes study*

An investigation of courses in

home problems and family relationships was made by Pay M* Mathes*21

Mathes studied all available professional literal

ture and periodicals, courses of study, monographs, and bulletins*

course-of-study

The investigation revealed that

high school boys were getting very little training in home problems and family relationships, although plans were being made to include a course in the curriculum of many high schools in the United States* The Bankston study*

Bankston22 made a study of the

21 pay Mathan Mathes, '’Courses in Home Problems and Family Relationships for Secondary School Boys,”1 (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932), 126 pp# 22: Gene Bankston, f,A Survey of the Present Status and Proposed Content of Courses in Family Relationships,11 (un­ published Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 193^)# 86 pp#

35 status and proposed content of family relationship courses in 1 9 3 k *

A questionnaire was prepared and sent to sixty~

three home economics teachers in representative high schools of Southern California.

It was learned from forty replies

that 11 of the schools were including some material on family relationships in their home economics courses. teachers made a significant suggestion to Bankston.

The It was

11. • . a separate course in family relationships covering an entire semester should be offered to the s tudents in their schools .,,!23 The Brown study.

Mary R. Brown stated in an investi­

gation of family relationship problems in secondary schools as follows: Although some form of education for personal and family life is included in almost all home economics departments, the work is still in the experimental stage and courses as now given are generally regarded as inadequate, in spite of a few instances in which very successful results have been reported.^HBrown stated further that the school officials were cognizant of the problems confronting the pupils, but the sanction of the parents had not been given.

There was an

Ibid., p. 68. * k Mary R. Brown, "Personal and Family Problems of Secondary School Pupils," (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 193^-)> p. 56.

36 apparent trend at tlie time of Brown1a study to organize family relationship courses as a separate subject in the senior high school*

The title selected for the course was

"Family Relationships" or "Family Adjustments."

Brown

revealed that the problem of sex education was being neg­ lected, although public opinion was stressing its importance. The Green study.

Della J. Earhart Green^S learned

through an interview with a member of the Board of Education of Los Angeles that there were no definite courses of educa­ tion for marriage in any of the schools.

It was agreed that

there was a place for it in the physiology and hygiene courses, but it was believed that there were few high school teachers competent to give any information on sex education. Lecturers were brought in some of the schools to talk in the hygiene classes or in an assembly on sex education, but this was met with widespread objection from the parents*

Green*s

conclusion was that the public school was not answering the need of its students for education for marriage*^6 The Willard study.

WIllard2 7 made a e omprehensive

^ Della J. Earhart Green, "Education for Marriage in Los Angeles and Vicinity," (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 193^4-)» pp. I4.5 -I47 . 2 6 Ibid., p. vr* 27 Dorothy R. Willard, "An Experimental Determination of the Desirable Content of Courses in Secondary-School Preparental Education," (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 193^4-)• lij-1 PP*

37 study in 1 9 3 ^ in which she desired to learn the attitudes of persons intimately responsible for the formation of courses of study for high school students towards specific subjects of preparental education#

Questionnaires were sent to 1,250

persons in two hundred and fifty different school systems in the United States; elementary school principals, high school principals, high school teachers, members of boards of education, and superintendents of schools were the recipients of the questionnaires#

Twenty-four per cent replied to the in­

vestigation in unequal number to the groups represented. The findings of Willard were as follows:: ”Family relationships” study was recommended for both boys and girls by eighty-nine per cent. This included a study of the ideals and meaning of the home, the effects of modern life on the family, use of family leisure, and social life of the family* ”Problems of the family” to include responsibilities of the various members of the household, divorce, eugenics, problems of ”in-laws,” choice of husband or wife, and size of family was recommended by seventy-five per cent for both boys and girls* f,Financial problems” was almost unanimously recom­ mended for study by both sexes* ”Child training” was favored by seventy-eight per cent for both boys and girls* ”Food,” to include preparation, selection and cost, was recommended by only forty-nine per cent for study by both boys and girls. ”Physiology in relation to nutrition” was favored by eighty-four per cent for all. ”Clothing” was recommended by eighty-three per cent for study by both groups*

Tli© principles of “interior decoration11 were recom­ mended particularly for girls, but only recommended by fifty~seven per cent for boys. “Social usages“ were highly recommended for study by all.28 The Griffin study.

A comprehensive study of educa­

tion for marriage and family life in thirty-two high schools of Southern California was made by Griffin.29

Personal

interviews and classroom visitations were made by the in­ vestigator.

Griffin reported that in all but three of the

schools included in the study very definite steps had been taken to give high school students information pertaining to marriage and family life or singular courses in family relationships.30

The Jobe study.

Jobe31 made an investigation of

courses of study in high schools of the United States to determine the amount of training, if any, pupils were re­ ceiving for marriage.

The analysis of the course of study

28 Ibid.. pp. 120-21. 29 Vera A. Griffin, ''Education for Marriage and Family Life in the Secondary Schools of Southern California,“ (un­ published Master’s thesis, The University of Southern. California, Los Angeles, 1937)* 1k b PP* 30 I b i d ., p. 101.

31 Claire W. Jobe, “Education for Marriage in Secondary Schools,“ (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938)# P* 15#

included home economics courses, social science, biology, and health and physical education departments#

Jobe1s

study revealed that many home economics courses are going beyond the teaching of just foods and clothing; many courses now include the topics of planning for marriage, child care, personal and social guidance and budgeting# Home economics was offered to boys in a limited number of schools#

Topics pertaining to marriage and family

life were not offered in the course# Jobe found that teachers of biology included the study of plant and animal reproduction and heredity, but only a small number made any references to these phases of human life* An analysis of the health and physical education courses showed most schools teaching such topics as, care of the body, digestion, respiration, and related topics# It seemed to be a general practice, Job©32 revealed, for schools to offer the twelfth graders a social science course in American problems or problems of American de­ mocracy, and these courses usually include a unit about the family#

The history of the family, boy and girl problems,

marriage laws and customs, divorce, and similar topics were found not to be very prevalent#33 32 ibid#, p# 3 2 # 33 Loc# cit#

4o The Burk study»

Carl J ♦ Burk34- completed an inquiry

of the training received in high school in marriage and family life by one hundred young married people.

He also

studied their suggestions relevant to tentative topics for a course in marriage and family life*

Burk35 stated that the results of the study indicate that the high schools of a decade ago and more did not pro­ vide adequately for education for marriage and family life* The topics Burk listed in the questionnaire for mar­ riage and family life study in secondary schools were gen­ erally approved by the one hundred young married couples. A majority of the young couples indicated that the high school should provide instruction on the topies of adoles­ cence, motherhood, fatherhood, child's needs, common diseases, nature of sex life, sex hygiene, physical differences of men and women, family finances, employment, sex adjustments, and related subjects* The questionnaire replies of Burk further disclosed that greater confidence and responsibility is being placed in the secondary schools.

3^4- Carl J. Burk, ftA Study of Education for Marriage as Received in and Suggested for Secondary Schools by One Hundred Young Married People,11 (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939)* 83 PP* Ibid., p. 66.

The hove joy study.

Lovejoy36 made an investigation

and recommended a course of study for an eleventh grade social culture course in the David Starr Jordan High School. Sex, family life, home membership, health, vocations, morals, leisure, and social developments were among the topics Lovejoy emphasized in the proposed course of study. The Taylor study.

Lucile Taylor made an investiga­

tion in 19^-0 entitled, f,A Study of Courses in Family Rela­ tionships in Secondary S c h o o l s .,ft37

Taylor reported an in­

vestigation b y Kent who analyzed the need for instruction in family relationships and the content of such courses offered in the secondary schools in 1933*

The conclusions

of Kent1s study, as reported by Taylor, include the following (1) There was a great need for family relationships education in the school inasmuch as the home had failed to meet this need. (2) Family relationships education should include sex instruction, integrated with other subjects. (3) Family relationships courses should assume their share of the responsibility for teaching character traits

■3 Harold R. Love joy, ,fSocial Living Courses in the Senior High School Curriculum, ** (unpublished Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939)# p. 13, 28. 3'7 Lucile Taylor, MA Study of Courses in Family Relationships in Secondary Schools,w (unpublished Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^0), 12k PP.

(1^) Family relationships courses should train equally for present and future home living*

(5) The personality of the teacher affects successful carrying out of objectives* (6) There is a need for education of the public as to the value of such courses*3$ Taylor*s study involved questionnaire replies from fifty-three classroom teachers of Southern California*

It

was found that the names of family relationship courses differed widely; f,Homemakingff ranked first, and ,fSocial Problems” ranked second. A one-semester course in family relationships was offered by fifteen of the fifty-three schools contacted by Taylor; fifteen other schools offered a two-semester course*39 Family relationships occupied a large portion of a year course in senior problems or a course of a similar nature in ten schools *4-0

All of the classes met daily for a period

of fifty to sixty minutes* The G-reenberg study*

Greenberg* s^-1 investigation

revealed that there are few courses which specifically aim

3^ Ibid*, pp. 8-9* ^

Ifalfl* » P« 35*

^ £ qc» ci t * ^3- Mirrela A* Greenberg, ”Basic Considerations of a Program of Education for Marriage,” (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, I9 I4.I), p. 2 0 .

k-3 to prepare for marriage, but many secondary schools are giving such instruction as parts of other courses*

A few schools

had introduced courses for boys in order to prepare them for worthy home membership*

Greenberg revealed further that

there is a lack of unity in the curricula of the secondary schools*

The investigator said that, as a result::

This lack of certainty as to whether a specific course on marriage should be taught, and an absence of agree­ ment as to the essentially significant content of courses, the fear of violating tradition, and the lack of qualified teachers j promotion of the movement Greenberg reached four particularly important eon-

elusions as follows:; (1) Since happy marriages are dependent to a large extent upon happy and well-adjusted personalities educa tion for marriage begins in infancy, and involves a broad program of education* (2) Teachers need to be trained in mental hygiene, and the whole school program should be based upon the principles of mental hygiene* (3) The emphasis in sex education should be the development of wholesome attitudes toward sex, and the removal of guilt feelings, fears, and anxieties con­ nected with sex* (i|_) Parents and teachers need to. wor•^together in the development of the wholesome child*1 The following substantial recommendations were made by Greenberg

Greenberg, l o c * cit

^

ibid., pp. 170-171.

1* The teachers of every age level should be trained in mental hygiene* 2* Specific courses for marriage preparation should be given in the junior and senior high schools* 3* Early marriage should be advocated to avoid harm­ ful inhibitions or sexual practices which might result in personality distortions*44 The Keeler study*

Keeler45 made an illuminating study

of the problems of boys in the sophmore, junior, and senior grades of a Santa Ana senior high school* from each class took part in the study.

One hundred boys Results of the in­

vestigation disclosed that the problems of the boys of this particular school could be classified into fifteen categories, as followst School Money Girls Friends Future job Personality College Home Time * Health Social activity Expression Sex Clothes Religion Keeler stated that the categories were named in order of their importance, based on the number of questions in each 44 Ibid,, pp. 174-75* 45 John. T. Keeler, "Problems on Which Boys Seek Guidance,*1 (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19i|-2), lij.2 p p #

k5 division*

Every large division was further divided into

subtopics, and constitute eligible subject matter for marriage and family life courses* The school in which Keeler conducted the study had a course entitled ^Personal Science*11

The study did not per­

tain to the content of courses, but it was pointed out that some of the topics listed as problems of the boys were dis­ cussed in the course, which was only for seniors. The Maher study*

Maher emphasized the need for co­

operation between the home and the school as follows t

11It

is agreed that for a child to develop as completely and as harmoniously as possible,

there must be absolute co-opera­

tion between the home and the school*”^6

The faculty and

the parents must be convinced of the need for mutual help­ fulness and support, Maher further pointed out, and the child will be the one to benefit from the co-operation* The Smill study*

Plans for health coordinators in

the Los Angeles city schools were made in 1938*

SmillV?

^ Mary C* Maher, ”A Study of Parents* Attitudes in Problems of Child Growth and Development,” (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^4-3) $ p. 17* ^ Rose A* Smill, wThe Role of the Health Coordinator in Los Angeles High Schools,” (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^4-3) ^

1^-3 PP.

made an investigation of the role of the health coordinator in the schools of the Los Angeles secondary school system in 19^4-3*

The health coordinator in one particular school,

Smill reported, devoted the last period of the day to a senior problems class in family relations. major unit in this course.

Health was the

Personal health, contagious and

infectious diseases, venereal diseases, eugenics, genetics, personality behavior, first aid,

and citizenship were some

of the topics discussed in the course. The Flynn study.

F l y n n W offered a tentative unit of

study for a Marriage and Family Life course for high school students under the title "Health in Social Relationships." The suggested teaching content included a study of the followings

(1) The family;

(3) Boy-girl relationships; (6) Parenthood;

(2) Development of the individual (l±) Choosing a wife;

(7) Problems of the home;

(5) Marriage

(8) Individuals who

do not marry; and (9) "Race poisons." The Abbott study.

Abbot t^-9 refers to the

James M. Flynn, "A Tentative Course of Study in Health for Boys in a Senior High School," (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19iji>), llij. pp. k 9 George Abbott, "Partial Summary Survey of Material for the Teaching of Senior Boys* Hygiene," (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University.of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^1-7)> 63 PP*

Itf Campbell^O study.

The latter made an investigation of the

sex education courses offered in twenty-two selected schools in Los Angeles and Orange Counties of Southern California. Campbell sent out seventy-five questionnaires of which forty-seven were returned.

Sex information, according to

the returned reports, was .given in thirty-three of the schools* The following were among the findings of the Campbell investigation: 1.

Sex education cannot begin too early#

2. Only rigidly selected and well qualified teachers should be permitted to teach sex education. 3* Sex education was taught in nine fields: biolog­ ical science, natural science, health and physical educa­ tion, home economics and home nursing, family problems, the humanities, and guidance* i|.* Sex education is more wisely accomplished when woven (integrated with) the lesson plans of other courses. fs# One third of the teachers believe there should be a state-wide program of sex education* 6 * Criticism usually comes fromreligious groups or other conservative elements of the community who do not understand the meaning and principles of sex education* 7* Subjects taught in order of importance were repro­ duction, venereal diseases, heredity, eugenics, menstru­ ation, etc.

Raymond E. W. Campbell, WA Critical Examination of Sex Education in Twenty-two Selected Public Schools in Southern California,,f (unpublished Master* s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938), 303 PP«> cited by George Abbott, op. cit., p. 21.

8 * The school, collectively speaking, is not yet ready to accept sex education* 9# Parents are both reticent and unprepared to teach their children simple truths* 10* Sex education must strive for its place In the curriculum as have all other accepted subjects*51 Abbott^S reported that there was not any agreement of the topics to be included in a high school student!s sex education course, however, there were a number of topics which seemed to be the main subjects of interest*

The topics in­

clude the followings

(1) Reproduction,

(2) Sex organs,

(3) Seminal emission,

(Ij.) Menstruation,

(5) Fertilization,

(6) Sex hygiene, control, bation,

(8) Sterility,

(9) Birth

(10) Misuses of sex, (11) Promiscuity, (13) Homosexuality,

emotions,

(llf) Family life,

(l6) Necking and petting,

(18) Engagement, hood,

(7) Heredity,

(19) Marriage,

(22) Divorce,

(12) Mastur­

(15) Love and

(17) Selecting a mate,

(20) Honeymoon,

(21) Parent­

(23) Venereal diseases, and (2l|.)

Prostitution* One of the significant conclusions of the Abbott study was that only 5 P©r cent of the students in high schools are getting direct instruction in sex education*53

Abbott, o£* cit*, pp. 22-23* 52 Ibid., p. 27. 53 ibid., p. 51.

1*9 The Wallace study*

Karl M. W a l l a c e ^ completed a

study of previous methods and findings of marital prediction studies, utilized the findings of these studies in the con­ struction of a marital adjustment scale, and tested the validity and reliability of the two scales to a new sample of 2 3 6 married persons residing in Los Angeles and vicinity* The research was not an attempt to isolate new, previously unknown predictive items* The adjustment scale constructed by Wallace followed the pattern of the Burgess-Cottrell and Terman scales*

An

attempt was made to actually use what proved to be the most significant items in each of the two measuring instruments* The construction of the prediction scale by Wallace was a common sense selection of those variables which s eem to go together*

All available marital adjustment and pre­

diction research was studied in a search for the most significant and basic predictive variables for utilization in the new prediction scale* The items included in the adjustment scale and the prediction scale were tested for reliability and validity

^ Karl W. Wallace, MConstruction and Validation of Marital Adjustment and Prediction Scales,” (unpublished D o c t o r ^ dissertation, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1914-7)* 20i|. pp*

50 by Wallace among the 2 36 married subjects divided equally between males and females* The reliability of the adjustment scale was computed by the odd-even technique, and the coefficient of correlation, after treatment by the Spearman-Brown formula, was found to be */■*•90.

The sample used in testing the validity of the

adjustment scale resulted in a wide difference in mean scores, indicating that the adjustment scale had considerable validity* The reliability of the prediction scale was computed in a similar manner to the adjustment scale, and the reli­ ability coefficient obtained was 7U*8]+*

The validity of the

prediction scale was determined by correlating the pre­ diction score with the adjustment score, and for the total sample the correlation was

— *0 5 *

The value of the study to this thesis is that the Wallace findings demonstrate that relatively efficient marital prediction can be achieved by using a small number of marital prediction variables which are considered some­ what fundamental.

Persons with high and low scores in the

marital prediction scale may be advised to proceed, toi.pro­ ceed with caution, or perhaps to s top entirely in marital pursuits• IV.

SPECIAL EMPHASIS OP THIS STUDY

The Burgess-Cottrell and the Terman studies disclosed

51 that certain background factors may be influential in the failure or success of a marriage.

The review of the pre­

vious literature, the theses studies, indicated that the time to prepare for successful marriage and family life is actu­ ally in the formative years of the individuals life.

Most

of the studies revealed that the parents felt their prepara­ tion for family life was inadequate.

The surveys reviewed

point out that the majority of parents are in favor of family life and sex education in the secondary schools. The present study corroborates the results of pre­ vious surveys and brings into consideration new evidence. Detailed information, heretofore unavailable, has been secured for the purpose of developing, if possible, the accomplishment of secondary schools in the relatively new and vitally important subject of Marriage and Family Life.

CHAPTER IV THE QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS AGE, OCCUPATION, EDUCATION, CHILDREN, INCOME, AND RELIGION OP THE ONE HUNDRED FAMILIES STUDIED The results of the investigation are based upon the attitudes of two hundred parents consisting of one hundred fathers and one hundred mothers*

The majority of question­

naires used represented the attitudes of the father and the mother of a family, however, some of the results used were from just one of the parents of a family.

When it was

possible to interview a father but not the mother, or vice versa,

the results were utilized of the one interviewed*

When a mother wrote on her questionnaire ftsame as father!s,ft or words similar in meaning, it was possible to utilize only the schedule actually completed. The conclusions are recorded for part one on Table I, pages 5 3 * 5 7 * 5 9 * and 6 3 . Age.

The first question in Table I discloses the

relative ages of the fathers and the mothers who completed the questionnaires*

The average age of the fathers was

forty-two and three-tenths years, and the average age of the mothers was found to be forty-one and seven-tenths years.

53 TABLE I

CLASSIFICATION OF ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS AS TO AGE, OCCUPATION, EDUCATION, CHILDREN, INCOME, AND RELIGION

1*

In which group does your age fall?

Years Fathers Mothers 2.

20-2i|. 2 2

25-29 3 2

30-3U k 5

35*09 it lu.

29 1^0

Ij-5 and Not over stated lj.6 2 35 l

Your occupation (kind of work you d o )•

Fathers

Number reported 97

Not stated 3

Total 100

NOTE: A supplementary table of the ninety-seven occupations listed by the fathers may be found in Appendix A, page 137. 2#

Your occupation, if other than housewife*

Number working outside Housewife ______________ the home __________ only___________ Total_____ Mothers 29 71 100 NOTE: A supplementary table of the* twenty-nine occupations recorded by the mothers may be found in Appendix A, page 1 3 8 * 3*

Total years married. Have you been married before? No. Age at first marriage.

Total years married Arithmetic me an Fathers 20.3 Mothers 1 9 •8

Married before Yes No 12 79 8 87

Not stated 9 5

Yes

Age at first marriage Arithmetic Not mean stated 23. 8 "~ 19 22 21*7

5k The ages of the fathers and mothers indicate that 75 P©** cent were over forty years of age.

The greatest number of fathers

were at least six years older than the mothers in the same numerical category of comparison. Occupation.

The second question of Table I states

the number of occupations which the fathers reported.

Sup­

plementary Table I, page 137> was prepared of the occupa­ tions which ninety-seven per cent of the fathers indicated, and it discloses lines of work from advertising to the Venetian blind business. The second question of the mother*s questionnaire, Table I, shows the number of mothers working outside the home.

Supplementary Table II, page 138 lists alphabetically

the occupations, which twenty-nine per cent of the mothers indicated was their work outside the home. Question two of the mothers* questionnaire, pointed out that 71 pe^* cent of the mothers were performing solely the duties of a housewife. Marriage.

Question three in Table I, points out the

average number of years that the fathers and the mothers had been married, whether they had been married before, and the average age of the fathers and mothers at the time they were first united in marriage.

55 The table discloses that the fathers* average number of years of married life had been 2 0 * 5 years; the average number of years married for the mothers had been 1 9 *8 * slightly lower than for the fathers* Some of the fathers and mothers had been married more than once*

Twelve of the fathers and eight of the mothers

had been married before* The average age of the fathers at the time of getting married was 2 3 * 8 years; and the mothers* average age at the time of marriage was 21*7 years.

The table discloses that

22 per cent of the total number of mothers studied did not

state their age at the time of their marriage* A detailed breakdown of the number of years married of the one hundred fathers was recorded in the Supplementary Table III, page 139* The age when they were first married was reported by eighty-one fathers*

Supplementary Table IV, page II4.O

indicates the ages to be from seventeen to forty-nine years* The mothers, who answered question three of the schedules, had been married from one year to as high as fifty-two years.

Supplementary Table V, page llj-1 gives the

number of years married of each of the one hundred mothers* Supplementary Table VI, page llj-2 shows that the age of marriage for seventy-eight of the mothers had been from sixteen years to thirty-two years*

56 Education*

Question four in Table I, indicates the

number of years of education for the fathers and the mothers* All except

6 per cent of the fathers had finished

eight years of elementary school;

and everyone of the mothers

except I4. per cent had finished the eighth grade.

Almost three-fourths of each of the fathers and the mothers had four years of high school*

The fathers reported

that 73 P©r cent had been in high school for the four years, and 71 per cent of the mothers reported also four years of high school* Almost one-half of the fathers indicated from one to four years of college*

Of a total of forty-six cases, twenty

fathers had four years of college*

More than one-fourth of

the mothers had one to four years of college, however, only thirteen of the total of thirty~one, who had some college education, had received four years of college* Very few of the fathers and mothers had postgraduate work*

Only 9 P©r cent of the fathers and 6 per cent of the

mothers had taken college work beyond the sixteenth grade. Less than one-fourth of each of the fathers and the mothers had business school experience*

The fathers indi­

cated that 22 per cent had from one to three years of business school experience.

The fathers indicated that 22

per cent had from one to three years of business school; the mothers reported that 25 per cent had from one to two years

57 TABLE I (continued)

CLASSIFICATION OF ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS AS TO AGE, OCCUPATION, EDUCATION, CHILDREN, INCOME, AND RELIGION

4*

How many grades did you complete in elementary school? 1-5, 6, 7, 8. Years of high school: 1, 2, 3, k . Years of colleges 1, 2, 3, 4* Years of postgraduate: 1, 2, 3, 4* Business school: 1, 2, 3, 4*

Elementary school Fathers Mothers

1-5 4 1

6

0 1

7 2 1

High school Fathers Mothers

1 1 3

2 10 12

3 7 5

College Fathers Mothers

1

3

b

2 5 7

Postgraduate Fathers Mothers

1

2

1

5

k

Business school Fathers , Mothers 5«

2

1 i5

21

2 6

_

k..

8

Not stated 0 1

9k

96

k

Total 91 91

If

Total 4.6 31

3 2 0

if

Total 9 6

3 1 0

k

Total 22 25

k

5

73 71

20 13

1 0

0 0

How many children do you have under 18 - Boys? 18 years and over - Boys? Girls?

Under 18 Fathers Mothers

Boys Girls 65 82 -.. lk ..

18 and over

Boys 19 27

Girls?

Girls

35 30

of a business school*

The majority of fathers and mothers

spent one year only in a business school* Children*

Question five, Table I, shows the number

of boys and girls under and over eighteen years of age, as reported by the one hundred fathers and one hundred mothers* The fathers indicated a total of 202 children, and the mothers reported the sum of 213 boys and girls.

Although

the majority of the one hundred fathers and the one hundred mothers in the study represented single households,

the re­

sults from questionnaires in which only one parent was repre­ sented clarifies the difference in the number of children reported by the fathers and the mothers. One father recorded, 11One of 2 boys is a stepson*M Another father indicated,

f,2 boys by Marriage and Adoption.1*

One father recorded one boy under eighteen years of age, how­ ever,

the mother recorded two boys in the family as being

under eighteen years of age*

11Two boys and 1 stepson age l6,

was disclosed by another father. Children in school*.

Question six in Table I, dis­

closes the number of children that the parents had in high school at the time of the investigation. The fathers designated fifty-eight boys and fortyone girls,

or a total of ninety-nine children,

in high school

59 TABLE I (continued)

CLASSIFICATION OF ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS AS TO AGE, OCCUPATION, EDUCATION, CHILDREN, INCOME, AND RELIGION

6*

How many children do you have in high school at the present time?' Boys? Girls?

____________________ Boys Girls___________Not stated T Fathers 58 2J1 T5 Mothers___________________ 59___________ ^5________________ 17____ 7#

Name of high school your children attend*

Fathers Mothers

Manual Arts 24 22

Susan Miller Dorsey ijlj. I4Z

Not stated 114 17

Other lo 19

1

6*

What is the approximate level of family income? # 1 ,5 0 0 1,999; # 2 , 000 - 2 ,999; #3 ,000-3,999? $4, 0 0 0 -4 ,999s # 5 ,0 00 9 ,9 9 9 ; #1 0 ,0 0 0 and over*

# 1 ,5 0 0 ~ 2 ,0 0 0 - 3 ,0 00 - lj.,0 0 0 - 5 ,0 00 - 1 0 ,0 0 0 1,999 2,999 3,999 14,999 5,999 and over 2 fc> 3tf Fathers 3 10 13 Mothers 2 11 11 27 33 9*

Not stated b 12

If • Is your wife employed outside the home? No? Yes? she do? your answer is ttYes,w what type of work does i How many hours a week? Employed

No 67

Type of work

Hours per week

1^.0 or more 31

Yes 30

Not stated 3

Stated 29

Not; stated 1

3 5 or less 5

Not stated 3

Unknown 1

6o The mothers indicated fifty-nine boys and forty-five girls, or one hundred and four children, in high school* High schools children attend*

Question seven, Table

I, shows that forty-four fathers indicated that they had children attending the Susan Miller Dorsey High School; and twenty-four of the fathers specified that they had children as pupils in the Manual Arts High School.

There were seven

other high schools listed by eighteen fathers*

Supplementary

Table VII, page ll|.3, lists the seven schools to which the fathers were sending their boys and girls* The Susan Miller Dorsey High School was indicated by forty-two mothers as the school to which they were sending their children; and twenty-two mothers listed that they had children in the Manual Arts High School*

In addition,

mothers had children attending several other high schools* Supplementary Table VIII, page ll0, shows the eight miscellaneaous high schools indicated by nineteen of the mothers* Family income*

Question eight, Table I, marks the

incomes of the one hundred families.

The majority of fathers,

constituting 38 per cent, reported that their incomes were from $5,000 to $5*999 a year.

Only If per cent of the

fathers had incomes of $10,000 and over each year. The income of the family as listed by the mothers

6i was very similar to that of the fathers#

The mothers indi­

cated that 33 per cent of the families had incomes from $>5*000 to #5*999; the percentage was the highest of all of the six possible ranges of income#

Incomes were as low as

# 1 ,5 0 0 to #1,999 as disclosed by 2 per cent of the mothers* Employment of mothers*

Question nine of the father’s

questionnaire pertained to the employment of the wife outside the home*

Table I, question nine, shows that 30 per cent of

the wives were employed outside the home; 67 per cent of the total cases studied were employed only in the home, as a housewife* The fathers stated the occupations of twenty-nine of the wives who had outside employment, and the work ranged from an assessor to a waitress, as listed on Supplementary Table IX, page li|4» The fathers disclosed further the number of hours the wives were working each week outside the home*

Of the

thirty wives employed outside the home 70 per cent were working forty hours or more each week*

An examination of

the questionnaires of the fathers revealed specifically that one of the wives, employed as a waitress, was working fiftysix hours each week*

The majority of wives were working,

however, an average of forty hours each week* Employment of fathers*

Question nine of the mother’s

62

questionnaire asked the kind of work performed by the husband# Table I, question nine, indicates that the.mothers reported the occupations of ninety~six per cent of the fathers.

The

occupations ranged from an accountant to truck driver# Supplementary Table X, pages llj-5 and llj.6, discloses an alphabetical listing of the occupations of the fathers, as specifically indicated by the ninety-six mothers# Religion,

The religious preferences of the fathers

and the mothers was indicated in question ten, Table I#

The

fathers indicated a preference for the Protestant religion in 62 per cent of the total cases, the Catholic religion in 17 per cent, and the Hebrew faith in 5 per cent# The fathers manifested an interest in four other forms.

The interests expressed by four of the fathers were

as follows:

(1) Open mind,

(2) No preference,

(3) Mason,

and (4) Religious science# All of the one hundred fathers did not have a religious preference; 3 per cent of the fathers of the total cases studied recorded nNot any.11 The mothers did not disclose as high a religious preference as the fathers.

The Protestant faith was indi­

cated as a preference by 55 per cent of the mothers,

the

Catholic faith was second with 19 per cent, and the Hebrew faith was third as indicated by 7 per cent of the total cases#

63

TABLE I (continued) CLASSIFICATION OF ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS AS TO AGE, OCCUPATION, EDUCATION, CHILDREN, INCOME, AND RELIGION

9#

What kind of work does your husband do?

Mothers

Stated 96

Not stated il-

Total 100

NOTE:; A supplementary table of the ninety-six occupa­ tions m a y be found in Appendix A, pages 1 \\S and llj.6# 10#

Your religious preference#

Protestant Fathers bZ Mothers 55 11#

Catholic 17

19

_

Hebrew 5 7

Other

3

Not any 3 5

Not stated 9 11

Total 100 100

Membership in what church?

Membership Fathers Mothers

Yes

Si 65

Not any 22 ...ik .

Not stated 21 21

Total 100 100

6i{-

The mothers disclosed an interest in three other forms, as follows:;

(1) Nonsectarian,

(2) Christian (any of

them), and (3) Science of Mind# The mothers in 5 per cent of the cases stated "Not any" religious preferences* Church membership*

Question eleven, Table I, shows

the number of fathers and mothers who have joined churches* Although the fathers had disclosed a higher religious preference than the mothers, it was the latter which indi­ cated a higher church membership* the fathers were church members*

A total of 57 per cent of Almost one-fourth of the

fathers or 22 per cent indicated "Not any*1 membership, and 21 per cent did not disclose any information whatsoever* A total of 65 per cent of the mothers disclosed church membership* the fathers*

This was 8 per cent higher than that for

"Not any" membership was revealed by lip per

cent, and 21 per cent of the mothers did not indicate their membership status* Supplementary Table XI, page llj-7,, shows the member­ ship in churches that was listed by 57 P®r cent of the fathers, and Supplementary Table XII, page lij.8, gives the church membership that was indicated by 65 per cent of the mothers• Summary*

The following deduction from the chapter

65 may b© convenient in construing the data in the succeeding divisions of the study: 1*

The average age of the one hundred fathers was

years. 2.

The average age of the one hundred mothers was

l ± l .7 years.

3*

The number of mothers working outside the home,

as recorded by the mothers, was 29 per cent of the total number of cases. 1|.. eighty-one 5*

The average number

of years of married

life for

fathers was 20.5 years. The average number

of years of married

life for

the mothers was 19*3 years. 6.

Of the one hundred fathers 12 per cent indicated

a previous marriage. ?•

Of the one hundred mothers 8 per cent indicated

a previous marriage.

8.

The average age at the time of the marriage was

2 3 .8 years for eighty-one fathers.

9*

The average age at

the time ofmarriage was

21.7

years for seventy-eight mothers. 10.

Elementary school education (8 years) was com­

pleted by 9^ per cent of the one hundred fathers. 11. by

Elementary school education (8 years) was completed

96 per cent of ninety-nine mothers.

66

12#

A high school education was completed by 73 pei*

cent of the one hundred fathers* 13*

A high school education was completed by 71 per

cent of the one hundred mothers* li^.*

Of the total number of fathers (one hundred)

2 0 per cent had four years of college.

15.

Of the total number of mothers (one hundred)

13 per cent had four years of college.

16.

Postgraduate work was taken by 9 Per cent of

the one hundred fathers and by 6 per cent of the one hundred mothers. 17*

Business school training was taken b y 22 per cent

of the total number of fathers and by 25 per cent of the total number of mothers* Id*

The one hundred fathers reported a total of lOlj.

boys and 9 ® girls in the families* 19*

The one hundred mothers reported a. total of 109

boys and 10 i|. girls in the families. 20*

The average number of children in each family

(one hundred families) was two* 21.

The one hundred fathers indicated having 99 boys

and girls attending high school. 22*

The one hundred mothers recorded having IOI4. boys

and girls attending high school. 23*

The income was $5*000 to $5*999 each year as

recorded by 38 per cent of the fathers and 33 per cent of the mothers of the total number of families studied* 2Ij.*

The wife was employed outside the home, as

reported by the fathers, in 30 per cent of the total number of fathers studied* 25*

The fathers indicated a preference for the

Protestant religion in 6 2 per cent of the total number studied, and the mothers recorded a preference for the Protestant faith in 55 per cent of the total cases studied* 26*

The fathers were church members in 57 per cent

of the total number examined, and the mothers were church members in 65 per cent of the cases of the total number studied*

CHAPTER V

CONTENT OP COURSE ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE Th© second part of the questionnaires consisted of topics which may be included in a course on Marriage and Family Life for high school pupils*

Table II, 6 9 , 73, and

7 I4., presents the responses of one hundred fathers and one

hundred mothers towards twenty-three selected topics of family life.

The parents were asked to indicate their

attitude toward including the topic in a course of study for high school pupils, and to designate also whether they had received instruction on the subject at some time during their life*

Table III, pages 77 and 79* discloses the attitudes

and the instruction reeeived by the families towards ten selected topics of sex education for high school boys and girls* An interpretation is not made of the entire number of topics of Table II and III in this chapter*

A brief ex­

planation is made only of a few topics from each table* I* Topic 1*

FAMILY LIFE

History and meaning of the family*

Of the

one hundred fathers and the one hundred mothers who responded to the topic of the importance of the family, 95*5 per cent stated that they would approve instruction among high school

69

TABLE II ATTITUDES AND INSTRUCTION OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS TOWARDS TOPICS ON FAMILY LIFE FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS

Would approve instruction Yes No Blank

Topics 1* Importance of the family. Its history and its meaning*

Received instruction Yes No Blank

F M T

9kr 97 I9T

5 3 B

1 0 1

5 90 88 8 13 178

!

2* Courtship and en­ gagement .

F M T

90 89 179

8 -2 17

2 2 5

1 97 6 88 7 T8F

2 6 B

3. Factors in select­ ing life partners.

F M T

94-

I

1^

9

3 0 3

6 87 8 86 15 173

7 6 13

F M T

90 89 179

8 10 lB

kr 1 F

5 88 5 89 10 177

7 6 13

F M T

92 88 TB5

5

12

3 5 . B'

3 90 5 88 B 178

7 7 15

F M T

96

2

2 0

if!

1

9 85 5 15 if?

6 6 T?

7* Co-operation in the family.

F M T

97 97 194-

2 3 5

1 0 1

10 OO 6 a!l T5 172

6 6 TZ

8. Occupation of the father.

F M T

87 88

9 10 19

k

8 8k 3 91 11 17?

8 6 15

4.. The time to get married. Ag© factors. 5. Presence or absence of children. 6. Duties of father and mother.

TTS

1

2 B

70 pupils#

A total of if per cent of the fathers and mothers

disapproved instruction on the topic*

One father did not

designate his attitude* The number which designated no instruction on the topic was 89 per cent of the total number studied*

Instruc­

tion had been received by 6*5 per cent of the two hundred parents and !f*5 per cent of the total number did not indicate any conclusion to the subject* Topic 2*

Courtship and engagement*

The topic of

courtship and engagement received the attitudes of 98 per cent of the fathers and mothers*

Of the total number of

cases, 2 per cent did not respond toward or against the topic*

Instruction was approved by 90 per cent of the total

number of fathers and by 89 per cent of the total number of mothers*

It was 8*5 per cent of the total number of fathers

and mothers who did not approve instruction on courtship and engagement for high school pupils* A total of 92*5 per cent of the two hundred parents disclosed that they had not received any instruction on the topic, and 3*5 per cent of the parents had received instruc­ tion at some time.

Of the total number studied if per cent

did not indicate a decision* Topic 3*

Life partners*

Instruction on factors in

selecting life partners was approved by 9^4- per cent of the

71 total number of parents studied*

Of the total number con­

sidered, 6 per cent of the mothers and 3 per cent of the fathers did not approve instruction*

A value was not desig**

nated by 1*5 per cent of the two hundred parents* Instruction pertaining to the selection of a person of the opposite sex was received by only 7 per cent of the number studied, .and 86*5 per cent had not received any in­ struction.

A total of 6*5 per cent of the parents did not

answer the inquiry* Topic 4*

Age of marriage*

A total of 89*5 per cent

of the fathers and mothers approved instruction on the topic of the time to get married, which pertained to age factors* Of the two hundred parents, 9 per cent disapproved instruc­ tion on the topic, and 2.5 per cent did not make an inference* Of the total number studied, 5 per cent of the fathers and 5 per cent of the mothers had received instruction on the time to get married, but 88*5 per cent had not been subject to formal education on the topic*

The topic was not

answered by 6*5 per cent of the one hundred families* Topic 5*

Children*

Instruction on the subject of the

presence or absence of children was approved b y $0 per cent of the parents*

Disapproval of instruction on the topic was

expressed by 6 per cent of the total number of fathers and mothers, and I4. per cent did not indicate an attitude toward

72 the topic* Instruction on the topic of the presence or absence of children had been received by

per cent of the fathers

and mothers* 89 per cent did not receive any instruction* An opinion was not expressed by 7 per cent* Topic 8*

Occupation of father*

Of the two hundred

fathers and mothers, 8 7 * 5 per cent disclosed their approval of instruction on the topic of the occupation of the father, and of the same number of parents 9*5 per cent expressed a disapproval of instruction among high school students.

The

reasons for the negative values were not given on any of the questionnaires*

The topic was not answered by 3 per cent*

Instruction pertaining to the occupation of the father had been received by 5®5 per cent of the cases, and 87*5 per cent had not received any instruction*

The topic was not

answered by 7 per cent of the total number of parents* An examination of Topic 9> 11Occupation of the Mother,n reveals results similar to Topic 8* Topic 13*

Education*

Table II, Topic 13> discloses

that 9 6 * 5 per cent of the cases reviewed approved instruction on the topic of education,

and a minimum of 2.5 per cent did

not approve instruction In a course for hig h s c h o o l pupils* Two (1 per cent) parents of the two hundred studied did not designate their attitude on the topic.

TABLE II (continued)

ATTITUDES AND INSTRUCTION OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS TOWARDS TOPICS ON FAMILY LIFE FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS

Would approve instrueti on Yes No "Blank

Topics 9* Occupation of the mother.

Employment of children*

F M T

85

9°. 175

F M T

177

F M T F M T

Influence of education.

lk* Kinds of recreation and amusement.

10*

11.

Income.

12. Budgeting and home management •

13*

Choice of friends*

l6. Relationship with i n-laws•

10 8 lH

5

2 7

Received instruction Yes No Blank 5 5

90 89

10

179

9 3

90

81

1 IT

10 7

7

7

7 15

2 9

TZ 171

T?

89 89 1 78

6 8

5

80 8 86 2 T 1 66

7 13

95

2

3

3

4

13 27 50

80 70

X 89

2 5

TFo

10

F M T

96 97 193

3

2 5

1 1 2

11 8 3 16 78 161 27

6 6 12

F M T

93 ?3

5 5 10

2 2 5

16 15

78 80

31

lFH

6 5 11

F M T F M

86

91

¥

9k

I 06

96

3

191

1 0 1

92

3

2

13

22 13

73 82 3? T5? o

8k

6

7

5 Jj 10 10

714-

table

II (continued)

ATTITUDES AND INSTRUCTION OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS TOWARDS TOPICS ON FAMILY LIFE FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS

Would approve instruct!on Yes No B1 ank

Topics 17* Conduct and manners:: F Social behavior M (etiquette)• T

96 97 T?5

3 2 5

18. Conduct and mannerst Table manners* F

94

19* Personal habits:; Smoking .

93 91

Z

33 63 38 57 71 120

5 9

3

3

32

7

0 3 3

2:8 66 6 25 68 7 53 134 13

3 6 9

28

9 9 52 130 18

l

8k 7 88 5 IE 172 IZ

F M T

1 BI 4.

7 6 13

20* Personal habits: Drinking*

F M T

90 88 17 B

7 6 13

21* Factors which make happy and unhappy marriages*

F

92

7 5

22*

Divorce-

23* Physical examina­ tion before marriage*

M T F M T F M T

1

IZ

Z

11

M

IB

0 0 0

93 91

6 8 Hf

1 1 2

89

7 t

1 1

184

Received instruction Yes No Blank

61

63

2k. 67 9 7

12 a

15 10

81 7 92 Jt 173 11 79 85 XEZf

6 5 11

75 Instruction on the influence of education had been received by 13*5 per cent of the total cases,

and 80*5 per

cent of the parents had not received instruction on the topic*

The topic was not answered by 6 per cent of the total

number of cases* Topic 1 7 •

Conduct*

The parents were very favorable

toward the topic of conduct and manners, social behavior or etiquette*

as relevant to

The percentage designating

approval of instruction was 9&*5 P er cent.

Disapproval of

instruction on the topic was indicated by 2*5 per cent of the total cases, and 1 per cent of the same number omitted answering the topic* Of the cases reviewed 35*5 per cent gave evidence of instruction on the topic of conduct and manners in reference to social behavior*

Instruction had not been denoted by 60

per cent of the cases, and 1^*5 per cent did not specify any opinion* Topic 1 8 *

Table manners*

Conduct and manners as

applied specifically to table manners was a topic of con­ sideration of only the fathers* questionnaires. Topic 18, discloses that 9^4-

P®r

Table II,

cent of the one hundred

fathers approved instruction, and 3 per cent of the fathers did not recommend instruction.

The topic was unanswered by

76 3 per cent of the fathers# A total of 6l per cent of the fathers had not received instruction on the topic of conduct and manners as related particularly to table manners, however, 32 per cent of the number did specify instruction.

The subject was not replied

to by 7 per cent of the fathers# £ ■

Topic 2 2 . Divorce#

Table II, Topic 22, presents the

results of the topic of divorce as replied to by the one hundred fathers and one hundred mothers#

Of the total number

of cases 91 per cent approved instruction on the topic#

A

total of 9 per cent declined to sanction instruction on the subject#

All of the parents gave an attitude toward the

problem# II. Topic 1#

SEX EDUCATION

Physical development#

Table III, Topic 1,

reveals that 93 per cent of the parents approved instruction on the topic of stages in the physical development of boys and girls#

Five per cent did not recommend the subject, and

2 per cent of the total number studied did not designate a value # Table III discloses further that 8l#5 per cent of the parents had not received instruction pertaining to the stages in the physical development of boys and girls#

Instruction

77 „TABLE III ATTITUDES AND INSTRUCTION OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS TOWARDS TOPICS ON SEX EDUCATION FOR HIOH SCHOOL PUPILS

Would approve instruction Yes No Blank

Topics

9k

Received instruction Yes No Blank

6 10

2 2 5

13 80 10 83 23 163

I?

2* Special sex problems of adolescence*

F 914- k Mi 6 92 T. 1 86 To

2 2 5

5 88 It 89 9 177

7 7 T5

3* Sex differences between boys and girls*

F M T.

Ij.* Male reproductive system* Female reproductive system*

!• Stages in physical . F development of boys and M girls* T

6* Mental hygiene, such as value of athletics, hikes, neat and clean body* . 7* Boy-girl relationships* 8* Understanding of the other sex, such as considerateness and adjustment with people*

92

1.86

k

7 7

9o

k

8 12

2 2 5

1 1± 79 7 85 21 l61j.

7 8 IF

F M T

93 90 1S 3

5 8 13

2 2 5

16 77 7 85 23 TH2

7 8 IF

F M T

92 89 I8a

5 7 12:

3

k

11 81 16 73 2? 15^

8 11 19

F

2 3

2 2

33

67

■F

5

8 7 T2o

7 7

T

96 95 191

F M T

93 89 1 82

5 6 11

2 5 7

76 7 8ij. 8 25 180 T5

F M> T

% 96

3

2 3

12 80 11 80 21 160

M

191

l 5

7

5

3k JO.

15

17 8

8 9 17

76 had been received by 11*5 per* cent, and 7 per cent of the two hundred cases did not indicate an inference on the topic* Topic 5* Topic 5,

Female reproductive system*

indicates that 92 per cent

Table III,

of the fathers and 89

per cent of the mothers recommended instruction on the subject of the female reproductive system*

Six per cent of

the total number of fathers and mothers designated disap­ provals of the topic for instruction in high school.

Of the

total number of parents 3*5 per cent did not indicate a decision on the topic* Instruction had not been received on the topic of the female reproductive system by 77 per cent of the fathers and mothers; 1 3 * 5 per cent disclosed instruction on the topic* Of the total number of parents 9*5 per cent did not indicate an opinion* Topic 2*

Friends and acquaintances*

Instruction on

the importance of the wise choice of friends and acquaint** ances was approved by 96 P©r cent of the parents.

Disapproval

of the topic was expressed by 1*5 per cent of the fathers and mothers*

The topic was unanswered by 2*5 per cent*

Table III, Topic 9 * discloses further that 66 per cent of the parents had not received instruction on the importance of the wise choice of friends and acquaintances*

A total of

23 per cent disclosed instruction on the topic, and 9 per

79

TABLE III (continued) ATTITUDES AND INSTRUCTION OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS TOWARDS TOPICS ON SEX EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS

Topics

Would approve instruction Yes No Blank

Received instruction Yes No Blank

9* Importance of wise * F choice of friends and ac- M quai nt anc e s • T

96 96 192

2 1 3

2 3 5

25 61 20 71 if? 132



10. Importance of ideals and self-control in F relation to health M and happiness* T

96 96 192

2 2 ¥

2 2 5

16 76 18 75 M T5T

8 7 15

9

80 cent of the total number of parents did not make a decision* Summary*

An examination of the respondents* attitudes,

as expressed on the one hundred fathers* and the one hundred mothers* questionnaires, revealed six topics relevant to family life which were approved for instruction in high schools by 95 per cent or more of the entire number of fathers and mothers, as follows:: 1*

Topic 1*

and meaning*

Importance of the family*

Its history

(95*5 per cent)*

2*

Topic 6*

Duties of father and mothers*

3*

Topic ?♦

Co-operation in the family*

i|_*

Topic 13*

5*

Topic 15*

Choice of friends*

6*

Topic 17*

Conduct and manners:

(9 6 per

cent)• (97 per

cent)• Influence of education*

(9&«5 per

cent)*

(etiquette)*

(95*5 per cent)* Social behavior

(9^*5 per cent)*

The questionnaires revealed further ten topics of family life which were approved for instruction by 9 0 bo 95 per cent of the total number of respondents, as follows: 1*

Topic 3*

(9ij- per cent)*

Factors in selecting life partners*

81 2.

Topic 5®

Presence or absence of children.

(90

Topic 12.

Budgeting and home management.

(9^*5

Topic 11},.

Kinds of recreation and amusement.

per cent)* 3* per cent). 1|..

(9 3 per cent).

5*

Topic 16.

Relationship with in-laws.

6*

Topic 18.

Conduct and manners:

(93 per

cent)•

(9^4- per cent).

Table manners.

(Answered by fathers only).

?•

Topic 19•

Personal habits:.

Smoking.

(92 per

8.

Topic 21.

Factors which make happy and unhappy

cent)•

marriages.

(9 3 per cent).

9*

Topic 22.

Divorce.

(91 per cent).

10.

Topic 23.

Physical examination before marriage.

(9 2 per cent).

..The seven remaining topics of family life were ap- ' proved for instruction by the respondents, as follows: (8 9 .? per

1.

Topic 2. Courtship and engagement.

2.

Topic 14.. The Time to get married. Age factors.

cent)•

(8 9 * 5 per cent). 3« cent).

Topic 8. Occupation of the father.

(87*5 per

82

if*.

Topic 9*

Occupation of the mother*

5*

Topic 10*

6*

Topic 11. Income.

?•

Topic 20. Personal habits:

(87*5 per

cent)* Employment of children*

(88*5 per

cent)« (8 9 per cent). (8 9 per

Smoking.

cent)• The five topics pertaining to family life least ap­ proved for instruction for high school pupils were as follows: 1.

Topic 2.

Courtship and engagement.

2.

Topic if.

The time to get married.

(8.5 per cent). Age factors.

(9 per cent)* 3*

Topic 8.

Occupation of the father.

(9*5 per cent),

if*' Topic 9*

Occupation of the mother.

(9 per cent).

5*

Topic 22. Divorce.

(9 per cent)*

There were four topics of family life relevant to approval or disapproval for instruction which were most often unanswered (left blank) by the one hundred fathers and the one hundred mothers, as follows t 1*

Topic 5»

Presence or absence of children.

(if

per cent).

cent)•

2m

Topic 10. Employment of children.

3*

Topic 11. Income.

if*

Topic 20. Personal habits:

(if*5 per cent).

(if per cent). Drinking.

(if.5 per

There were four topics of family life which the total number of parents indicated most often as having received instruction on, as followst 1* (etiquette)*

Topic 17* Conduct and manners:

Social behavior

(35*5 P©** cent)*

2.

Topic 19*

Personal habits:

Smoking*

(26*5 P©r

3*

Topic 20*

Personal habits:

Drinking*

(26 per

Ij.*

Topic 12. Budgeting and home management*

cent)•

cent)• (20

per cent)* There were four topics relevant to family life which the total number of respondents disclosed most often as hav~ ing received no instruction on, as follows: 1*

Topic 2* Courtship and engagement*

2*

Topic 9*

3*

Topic 1* Importance of the family*

(92*5 per

cent)•

and its meaning* i|_*

Occupation of the mother*

(92 per cent)* Its history

(8 9 per cent)*

Topic 5* Presence or absence of children.

(8 9

per cent)* An examination of the one hundred questionnaires for the father and the one hundred questionnaires for the mother revealed four topics on sex education which were most often approved for instruction in high schools, as follows:

Qk 1*

Topic 6*

Mental hygiene,

ics, hikes, neat and clean body* 2*

Topic 8*

such as value of athlet-

(95*5 per cent)*

Understanding of the other sex, such as

considerateness and adjustment with people* 3*

Topic 9*

acquaintances* I).*

(95*5 P©r cent)*

Importance of wise choice of friends and

(9 6 per cent)*

Topic 10*

Importance of ideals and self-control

in relation to health and happiness*

(9 6 per cent)*

The four topics of sex education most often disap­ proved for instruction by the two hundred parents were as follows: 1*

Topic 3*

Sex differences between boys and girls*

(6 per cent)* 2*

Topic ij.*

Male reproductive system.

(6*5 per cent)*



Topic 5*

Female reproductive system.

‘ i|_*

Topic 7*

Boy-girl relationships.

(6 per cent)*

(5*5 per cent)*

There were two topics on sex education which were most often left unanswered by the parents, as follows: 1*

Topic 5»

Female reproductive system*

(3*5 P©r

cent). 2.

Topic 7*

Boy-girl relationships.

(3*5 per cent)*

The results of the questionnaires of the fathers and the mothers disclosed one topic on sex education which the parents indicated most often as having received instruction on, as follows:

85 1* ics*

Topic

6* Mental hygiene, such as value of athlete

(33*5 per cent)# The topics pertaining to sex education which were

designated most often by the parents as having no instruction on were as followst 1. and girls* 2.

Topic

1# Stages in physical development of boys

(8l*5 per cent). Topic

2* Special sex problems of adolescence*

(88*5 per cent)* 3»

Topic

(82 per cent)*

3« Sex differences between boys and girls.

CHAPTER V I

WHERE AND WHEN A COURSE ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE SHOULD BE GIVEN The purpose of this chapter is to present the attitudes of the one hundred.families studied towards the problem of where and when a course on Marriage and Family Life should be given*

Table IV, pages 85, 86, and 87 shows the results

of the interrogations as expressed by one hundred fathers and one hundred mothers* Family life* 2lj. per cent

Table IV,

Statement 1, indicates that

of the fathers and

35 P©** cent of the mothers

did not indicate a preference in relation to instruction in family life

on the elementary level, while

the fathers

and 38 P©r cent of

lj.6 per cent of

the mothers of the total cases

disclosed a propensity for instruction in family life for elementary school pupils* Parents did not restrict their responses to one par** ticular year of high school for instruction in family life; one year, two years, and more were often expressed, as dis** closed by Table IV, Statement 1*

The senior year of high

school was indicated by both fathers and mothers by the highest percentage as the year during which instruction in family life deserves greatest emphasis*

87

TABLE I V

ATTITUDES OF ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS AS TO WHERE AND WHEN A COURSE ON FAMILY AND MARRIAGE LIFE SHOULD BE GIVEN

1* In what grade do you feel that instruction in Family Life should be offered to pupils? Elementary grades:. Yes* No. Freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior year of high school. Elementary grades Yes No Blank Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Blank Fathers !|i> 30 2l£ 32 23 2B Zj3 IS Mothers 38 2? 35______ 30________ 20______ 2k 32______ l6 2. If your answer is !lYes,fl to one of the years of high school, should it be given in separate classes for boys and girls? Yes. No. ___________________________Yes_________ No___________ Not stated Fathers Eo 3^ 0 Mothers 5k3&_________________2____ 3* In what grade do you feel that sex instruction should be given to pupils? Elementary grades: Yes. No. Freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior year of high school* Elementary grades ________ Yes No Blank Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Blank Fathers i|J. 26 31 I£o 23 27 32 HJMothers 29 22 k 9 _______ 1)4________ 12______ 22 13______17_

88 Separate classes.

Parents may have differed con**

siderably in their construing of family life, and Table IV, Statement 2, shows that of the 65*2 per cent of the fathers and 58*6 per cent of the mothers of the cases which chose high school as the institution for instruction desired the dissemination of family life instruction in separate classes. Although two of the mothers indicated one of the years in high school for instruction of pupils in family life, they did not designate whether the instruction should be in a separate class or mixed class of the sexes. Sex instruction.

Of the total number of cases re­

viewed 2 5 per cent disclosed that sex instruction should not be given to pupils in the elementary grades, but 35 per cent of the parents showed an approval for sex instruction among elementary school pupils.

The fathers were considerably

more propitious toward sex instruction on the elementary level than the mothers. Table IV, Statement 3> discloses further that parents often designated more than one year of high school for sex instruction, however,

the freshman year was considered by

33*8 per cent of the fathers and mothers as the initial period for sex instruction.

The junior year ranked second

for sex instruction by 1 9 * 5 per cent of the parents.

89 Method of sex instruct!on»

Table IV, Statement ij.,

discloses that the parents were largely prejudiced toward separate classes for sex instruction for high school boys and girls#

The distinction was specified by 60#9 per cent

of the fathers and 6 0 *9 per* cent of the mothers of the total responses given*

The analysis of the questionnaires disclosed

that parents were favorable not only to a mixed class for sex instruction but private consultation by a specialist as well*

More than one source of sex instruction was designated

by several fathers and mothers* Responsibility for family life education*

Table IV,

Statement S» indicates that the fathers and mothers did not select only one of the three primary or s econdary institutions of society for the responsibility of family life education*

The home as well as the school was indicated

simultaneously by parents, however, the home was designated most frequent by the parents*

Of the total number of 210

responses, 58*7 per cent designated the home*

One of the

fathers selected 11Other" as a category, however,

an explana­

tion was not given of the preference* Concurrence of family life and sex education*

The

total families considered in the study expressed an out­ standing designation for the uniting of family life and sex education, as revealed on Table IV, Statement 6*

The fathers

90

TABLE IV (continued) ATTITUDES OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS AS TO WHERE AND WHEN A COURSE ON FAMILY AND MARRIAGE LIFE SHOULD BE GIVEN

4-. How should the sex instruction be given to pupils? Separate classes for boys and girls? Mixed classes? Private consultation by a specialist? No classes? Separate classes 5k 6k

Fathers Mothers

Mixed classes 29 29

Private consultation 7 8

No classes 4 3

Not stated 1 1

*

5* What institution should have the major responsibility Other? for Family Life education? School? Home?’ Church?

Fathers Mothers

School k3 37

Home 58 73

Church 7 9

Other 1 0

Not stated 1 1

6 * Should a course on Family Life include Sex Education? Yes* No*

Fathers Mothers

Yes &9 80

No 9 18

Not1 stated & 2

Total 100 100

91 and mothers designated the combination of family life and sex instruction by 89 per cent and 80 per cent respectively of the total cases studied. Sex education as a part of other courses.

Table IV,

Statement 7, shows that the parents were almost unanimous in agreement upon the integration of sex education and pertinent courses of high school.

Of the one hundred families studied

8 I4. per cent of the fathers and 8 I4. per cent of the mothers

expressed their approval of the association of sex education with relevant courses, such as social problems, which ranked first among the selection of other subjects for. the propaga** tion of sex education. Responsibility of sex education.

The analysis of the

questionnaires disclosed that many parents felt that the home and school together should serve as the principal sources of sex education.

Table IV, Statement 8, indicates that 5i{-.2

per cent of the fathers and £6.8 per cent of the mothers of the total cases preferred the home as the Institution mainly j

responsible for the diffusion of sex education, however, both parents in several cases designated both the home and the school.

One mother indicated the school and ?tOther” as her

categories of selection with the declaration, since the home will not do it.1*

tfThe school

92

TABLE IV (continued) ATTITUDES OP OWE HUNDRED FATHERS AND OWE HUNDRED MOTHERS AS TO WHERE AND WHEN A COURSE ON FAMILY AND MARRIAGE LIFE SHOULD BE GIVEN

7. If not given as a separate course, should the sex educa­ tion be given as a part of specialized courses?. Yes* No. If your answer is HYes,11 please check the course, as follows: (1) Home Economics, (2) ,Social Problems, (3) Biology, (I4.) Physical Education, (5) Other*

Fathers Mothers

Spec. courses Yes No Blank tiL. 1 0 6 8ll 5 XX

Phy* Home Soc. Econ. Prob. Biol. Educ. Other b £>2 22 28 0 30 7 k5 21 3

Blank 3 11

8* Which institution should assume the major responsibility of sex education? The home? the school? the church? other? Home Fathers Mothers

School

Church

E7

66 _______ kL

~



Other

0

Not stated

E

3_________ 1____________2

93 Summary#

A compendium of the eminent facts revealed

by the one hundred families studied (one hundred fathers and one hundred mothers) relevant to where and when a course on Family and Marriage Life should be given for high school or elementary grade pupils is as pursuses: 1*

A consensus of I4.2 per cent of the parents was that

instruction in topics of Family Life should be given to elementary school pupils, and a concentration of maximum instruction as designated b y 2 8 .8 per cent, should be given in the senior year of high school* 2#

Parents designated by a majority of judgment, (6l*9

per cent) that Family Life instruction should be given in separate classes for the sexes among high school pupils. 3*

Sex instruction should be given to elementary

school pupils as disclosed by 3 5 per cent of the two hundred parents studied, however, 25 per cent of the total cases did not designate the elementary level as a mandatory level for instruction.

Freshman pupils in high school were designated

by the parents among the greatest number studied as the cluster where sex instruction should begin in high school. i|..

Fathers or mothers of the one hundred families

studied indicated more than one category of selection for sex instruction, however, separate classes were selected b y the greater number, 6 0 .9 P©** cent, for sex instruction of high school boys and girls.

9k The parents designated the home as the institu­ tion which should assume the major responsibility for family life education; the school ranked second as a responsible establishment, and the church ranked third with a low per­ centage# 6#

Sex education should be included in a course on

Family hife as expressed by 8I|.#5 per cent of the total cases of fathers and mothers# 7*

The course of social problems ranked first as the

specialized subject in which sex education should be inte­ grated among high school pupils; physical education ranked second, and biology ranked third as remaining courses of approvement for sex education# 8#

The home was designated by the one hundred

families as the paramount institution which should assume the major responsibility of sex education, as designated by 5^*2 per cent of the fathers and $ 6 *Q per cent of the mothers of the total cases reviewed#

The school ranked second with

a relatively high percentage of families, and the church ranked third with a percentage of 2#5 per cent of the total families studied#

CHAPTER V I I

THE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS The fourth and concluding division of the questionnaires sought information pertaining to the parents* personal ex­ perience,

The first four interrogations of the schedules are

concerned principally with the age and early sources of sex information of the fathers and the mothers, and the three remaining questions pertain to the sex instruction, if any, received by the boys and girls of the families studied# A selected number of the questions and results, as recorded on Table V in the succeeding pages, will be ex­ amined in this chapter# I.

SEX INFORMATION OP PARENTS

Age of receiving sex information#

The first question

of part four of the questionnaires asked the parents to give the age at which they first received sex information#

Table

V, Question 1, shows that the average age at which parents first received sex information was at approximately twelve and one-half years of age# A supplementary table was prepared to show precisely the range from the earliest age to the highest age at which

96 TABLE V

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS

1*

At what age did you first receive sex information?

____________________ Number Fathers 75 Mothers_______________ jlj2+

Arithmetic mean_____ Not stated 12 + 82 211 12 + 58_____________ 2o____

Where did you as a child receive information about sex?

Source

O H

r^vo

Helpfulness Not Not Helpful helpful stated 30 1 3

o

Mother Fathers Mothers

Amount secured Not Not Most Some Least any stated 19 12 35 3 31 25 k 22 25 2k

CM

Source

Helpfulness Not Not Helpful helpful stated it o 5 7 k 1

X) CM H H

Father Fathers Mothers

Amount secured Not Not Most Some Least any stated 31 19 0 27

h3

2

8

Source________ Amount secured________________ Helpfulness Friends of Not Not Not Not yours Most Some Least any stated Helpful helpful stated 2d Fathers 2 II 21 31 35 33 ik 28 37 Mothers 26 3 6 17 17 „ 3k

Source________ Amount secured________________ Helpfulness Not Not Not Not Books Most Some Least any stated Helpful helpful stated Fathers 16 27 If k3 19 : 23 S 7 Mothers 6 16 32 29 5 l 17 .. it° ..

97 sex information was first received by the fathers and mothers* Supplementary Table XIII, page ll ± 9 , discloses that one father received sex information at five years of age, which was the earliest age designated by the fathers studied, and three fathers recorded on the schedules that they had first received sex information at twenty years of age, which would likely be considered a rather late age in life for initial sex information. At four years of age one mother denoted the first sex information; and at twenty-three years of age, the highest specified in the results, one mother first received sex infoma t i on.

The ages at which the mothers in the study first

received sex information may be found in Supplementary Table XIV, page lip9. Sources of parents* sex information*

The second

query of part four of the questionnaires requested the fathers and mothers to check where they as a child received sex information*

The parents were given seven probable

sources extending from ’’Father" to "Physician,11 and an eighth choice was designated "Other" to insure as complete coverage of sources as possible*

The results of the inquiry

were tabulated on Table V, Question 2, pages 96 an^ A conclusion disclosed by the totality of fathers studied was that the source of sex information entitled

98 TABLE V ( c o n t in u e d )

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS

Source________ Amount secured________________ Helpfulness Not Not Not Maga­ Not zines Most Some Least any stated Helpful helpful stated 2 Fathers 8 46 12 17 23 19 4 Mothers 1 8 16 23 9 38 — 22... 9

Movies Fathers Mothers

Amount secured Not Not Most Some Least any stated 3 17 13 53 21 14 12 Ml

Helpfulness Not Not Helpful helpful stated n 13 8 15 %

Source Physician Fathers Mothers

Amount secured Not Not m y stated Most Some Least any Mi 12 10 17 9 8 6 23 ik

Helpfulness Not Not Helpful helpful stated

Source

Fathers Mothers

Ik

Other sources stated 9 10

NOTE:; A supplementary table listing the other sources of sex information of the fathers and mothers may be found in Appendix A , page 150* 3* Do you believe that the information thus received was adequate? Yes. No. Do not know. Yes

Fathers Mothers

“19 20

No

75 70

Do not know

Not stated 1

8

2

5

99 **Friends of yours” ranked first in importance as a source, as indicated by 31 per cent*

The ranking and percentages of

the several other sources of sex information as recorded by the fathers as most beneficial to them were as follows: father, 19 P©** cent, 9 per cent,

(2) books, l6 per cent,

(1)

(3) physician,

(I|.) magazines, I4. per cent, and (5 ) movies and

mothers, each 3 P©** cent* An analysis of the sources of sex information as re­ corded by the mothers disclosed a similarity of position of sources to that of the fathers, yours, 28 per cent, per cent,

as follows:;

(2 ) mothers, 2 I4. per cent,

(Ip) physician, 8 per cent,

and (6 ) magazines, 1 per cent*

(1 ) friends of (3 ) books, l 6

(5 ) movies, 2 per cent,

Of particular significance

is that the mothers did not in a single case designate the ,fFather1* as a source of sex information in the highest de« gree, which was affixed wMost*,f

The mothers did give their

fathers credit, however, in the second category of amount of sex information secured, which was titled ’‘Some * 11 Table V, Question 2, page 9 6 , shows further that of the total cases of mothers studied 6 l per cent disclosed that the father was not a source of sex information*

Only

12 per cent of the mothers gave the ffFather” recognition for some sex information* Although as already has been stated the selection Wpriends of yours” received the highest rank as a source of

100 sex Information by the fathers and mothers, it was not rated the highest in helpfulness by the parents*

The greatest

helpfulness was received from books by both fathers and mothers• An analysis of the data of Table V, Question 2, page 9 6 , discloses further that only 39 P®r cent of the fathers

designated their ’’Father11 as a source of sex information, however, of this number 3k- P er cent disclosed that the In­ formation was helpful*

Furthermore, only 12 per cent of the

mothers designated their ’’Father” as a source of sex infor­ mation, however, of this number 7 per* cent indicated that the infoimation was helpful* Of the one hundred fathers and the one hundred mothers involved in the study 9 P @r cent of the former and 10 per cent of the latter listed ’’Other” sources of sex information* The sources were arranged as disclosed by the parents and may be scrutinized in Supplementary Table XV, page 150* Adequacy of sex information*

Table V, Question 3#

page 9 8 , related that 7 ^- per cent of the fathers and 70 per cent of the mothers were dissatisfied with the amount of sex information received*

The proportion of parents who indicated

the information was Inadequate to the number who reported an adequacy of sex information is significant in its extreme disproporti on*

101 II •

SEX INSTRUCTION OP SONS AND DAUGHTERS

Sex instruction of the boys and girls*

Table V,

Question 5# discloses that there were boys in eighty-three of the families studied.

Of the eighty-three families the

fathers disclosed that 6?#^ per cent were giving the boys sex instruction and 2l}..8 per cent were not receiving sex instruction. There were seventy-four families which had daughters in them.

The mothers reported of this number that 75 P@r

cent of the girls were receiving sex instruction and l6 per cent were not receiving sex instruction. Person giving sex instruetion.

The father1s question­

naire requested the source of the son1s sex instruction. Table V, Question 7# indicates that the source of sex in­ struction for the boys was mainly both the father and the mother.

The percentage in which both parents gave the sex

instruction is 3^4-*^ P ei* cent of the total number of sources recorded by the fathers. The mothers did not in any case disclose that they alone were giving the daughters sex instruction.

Table V,

Question J , indicates that more fathers than mothers were giving the instruction to the daughters.

The mothers,

similar to fathers, often indicated more than one source of sex instruction for the progeny, however, of the eighty-four U niversity of

Southern C alifo rn ia

102 TABLE V ( c o n t in u e d )

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS

ii* What was your reaction to the information? Startled. Offende.d. Indifferent. Fathers Mothers 5*

Offended 2 li_

Indifferent 26 22

Are your boys receiving sex instruction?

Fathers 5«

Helped Startled 1|_5 ■ 15 4.3 . 22

Yes j?b

No 20

Are your girls receiving sex instruction?

Mothers

Yes 56

Helped.

No l2

Not stated 9 9

Yes •

No.

Not stated 7 Yes.

No.

Not stated

6* If your answer is ^Yes,11 please check the following subjects which the instruction includes:: Attitudes toward sex? Sex differences between boys and girls? Reproductive system? 7 Repro­ Attitudes Sex differences toward Not ductive Not between boys Not stated sex and girls stated system stated 1*4 12 Fathers I4.3 ^3 W 21 Mothers 35 37 39 17 ... 12. 7* If your answer is f,Yes,,tr who gives the instruction to the boys? Father? Mother? Both? By referral to: Teachers? Doctor? Nurse? Minister? Other? (Name)

103

TABLE V (continued) PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OP ONE HUNDRED FATHERS AND ONE HUNDRED MOTHERS

Persons who give sex instruction to sons _________________ as designated by the_fathers_________________ MinisNot Father Mother Both Teachers Doctor Nurse ter Other stated 17 5 30 13 5 2 £ g S '"'" NOTE: A supplementary table listing the sources of sex instruction indicated under the category of "Other”1 by the fathers may be found in Appendix A, page 15>1 • 7* If your answer is "Yes," who gives the instruction to the girls? Mother? Father? Both? By referral to: Teachers? Doctor? Nurse? Minister? Other? (Name) Persons who give sex instruction to daughters; _________ as designated by the mothers_________ Minis­ Not Other stated Father Mother Both Teachers Doctor Nurse ter 1 0 1 6 $ 33 23 ili i NOTE: A supplementary table listing the sources of sex instruction indicated under the category of "other" by the mothers may be found in Appendix A, page '1$1#

1014 -

sources listed by the mothers, as the origin of the daughters1 instruction, the father gave the instruction in 39*28 per cent of the various sources indicated by the mothers* III.

SUMMARY

The conclusion and fourth division of the fathers* and mothers* questionnaires pertains to the age and origin of the parents* sex information and to the sex instruction of the progeny. The personal experience of the fathers and mothers may be summarized as follows: 1.

The average age at which the fathers and mothers

first received sex information was twelve years of age. 2.

The fathers as well as the mothers received the

greatest amount of sex information from friends. 3*

The greatest amount of helpfulness of sex informa­

tion was received from books by both fathers and mothers* lj_.

The fathers of the study recorded the sex informal

tion received from their fathers as helpful in almost unan­ imous proportion. 5.

Of the total of one hundred mothers studied 6l

per cent indicated that they did not receive any sex informa­ tion from their mothers. 6.

Of the one hundred mothers studied only 12 per

cent recorded sex information from their mothers.

105 7»

Magazines, movies,

and the physician ranked low

as a source of sex information by the fathers and mothers* 8*

The sex information received by the parents was

rated inadequate by them*

The percentage of fathers who

rated the instruction inadequate was 7^- per cent, and of the mothers the inadequacy rate was 70 per cent*

The majority of parents recorded that their re­ action to sex information was one of helpfulness* 10*

Over one-half of the fathers

and mothers reported

that their sons and daughters were receiving sex instruction* 11*

The fathers disclosed that in the majority of

families both of the parents or either the father or teachers are supplying the greatest amount of sex instruc­ tion to the sons* 12* parents,

The mothers designated that the father, both or the teachers are giving the daughters most of

their sex instruction*

CHAPTER V I I I PERSONAL ATTITUDES OP FATHERS AND MOTHERS TOWARDS MARRIAGE AND F A M IL Y L IF E

The fathers and the mothers who participated in the survey were free to make any suggestions and comments con­ cerning the topics of the questionnaires#

The quotations

which follow are a few of the written quotations of the re­ spondents •

I#

CASE QUOTATIONS

I believe that the responsibility for family life education should rest primarily with the parents, to be imparted most importantly by example# Parents of a badly integrated family, however, can seldom be expected to inform their children adequately in family relations# These children need organized instruction at school, and the fortunate sons and daughters will learn something too As to sex education, I believe it a father1s respon­ sibility to advise his son intelligently, without the hush-hush sidestepping of a generation or two ago# Mystery about sex is to my mind the very worst treatment. Furthermore, I believe that every boy should have rather thorough sex instruction in school— perhaps a little of the birds and bees treatment early in the elementary grades, then the real McCoy when he enters high school (9th or 10th grade)# He will get sex instruction then, from the older boys, and he will need fortification# Most importantly, though, sex instruction in the schools takes on an academic status in the boy*s mind and will strike chords of understanding and response that parental advice cannot always reach# The academic treat­ ment, too, permits discussion of difficult phases which may be a little too personalized for a father-son session Husband and wife relationships, for example, are much easier handled in the abstract.

107 Tlie mot her-daughter relationship is something else entirely; I 111 have to leave that to the mothers of the nation* I lm strongly against mixed classes, however, in sex education. Either they must lose import through the employment of suitable doubletalk or they will serve to make commonplace a subject definitely not for adolescent drawing room conversation. I hope I haven*t been dogmatic. I .believe that information on family life should be given by the parents, as soon as children begin asking, according to their ability to assimilate it. Detailed and more real study should be given in the schools. For family relations I think some can be given in elementary grades, but for sex education by the schools I think the junior or senior high is best. Since 20 years ago children have become sophisticated at a much earlier age and so the approach to this subject is entirely different from what it was at that time. The school can be very helpful if the instructor is competent and well trained in the field, but this is of vital importance. I feel very strongly that sex instruction should come from the home, therefore educate the parents in special adult educational classes if necessary. In my estimation sex instruction given in school classes in mixed groups has been a serious mistake. Teachers can give them factual information but are not equipped to give them the wisdom with which to use the facts. I am thoroughly in favor of such education in our public schools. Specific answers are inadequate because of differences of need In individual cases. The home, of course, should take the major responsibility but the school has a responsibility in supplementing such in­ struction. Again home instruction may be lacking or inadequate. The church has a share in the responsibility for sex education and education in family life. With our girls we have followed the principle of keeping the way open for frank discussion and answering queries as they

108

came up and required information. I am opposed to some individuals teaching sex because their experience and outlook is not adequate. Thus many answers depend on who is doing the teaching. I have received some sex and family life problems instruction from Mother and some from my older sister and quite a bit at church. There was also some given in school in the junior and senior year in the form of movies and lectures. Prom these places I feel I received enough information so that sex came natural in my life, and the family is studied in our church, and taught in the home. And I think there are some subjects you have here that are not necessary. Since I believe the family to be the core of society and government, I feel instruction can't begin too early and should be integrated with- all other social education throughout the schooling period. Such instruction should come first and always from the home. Unfortunately a large percentage of parents are either incapable, uneducat­ ed or indifferent; so such education must start in the schools and stress to our children the importance of their educating their children. In this way perhaps in a few generations all such instruction can be given in the home. Our faith being Roman Catholic, the church instructs her children according to our belief in matters of birth control. This delicate subject being a matter of person­ al persuasion should be handled impersonally in public school instruct!on--that is, information of a general nature might be given so long as the social and personal nature of the final decision be made clear. I feel that there can be no one grade in which this educational material can be completely presented. Sex education should be as gradual as learning manners, according to the age and questions of the child and ability to understand. The wise choice of friends and acquaintances I consider a most important question (from my own experience) with

109

our girl. Proper companionship in the early teenagers group rates 99 Per cent. Recommend that sex education be given gradually as related to age or child, thus preventing the accumula« tion of the knowledge from the **street11— which is harmful. I feel very definitely sex instruction or sex education should not be given in mixed classes. I feel if it is given in mixed classes with possible discussions that follow, that students will feel there is nothing wrong with a social evening, shall we say, spent in discussions of these subjects. In my opinion this sort of thing would not make for gracious living. My daughter is only nine. The sex and reproduction questions have come up. I have given her answers she must know and can understand. I do not go into the de­ tail of how such results come about. I will tell her the facts as she reaches the age to understand. I for one believe your course is a must for children when they are ready to leave high school and are ready to meet the facts of life. I am not positive in my opinion that the classes should be held separately for boys and girls. If a mix­ ed group didn* t get to regard the classes as a lark, I believe the studying of sex problems together would then tend to give a better understanding of normal sex problems between boys and girls. The mere fact that these classes would be taught separately might still give the impression of secrecy between the sexes, of facts that both know but have a shyness to discuss with the opposite sex in later life, due to the fact that they were not taught in mixed groups. I believe the home is the place for a child to learn about sex life. The talks between the parents and children will result in confidence. If all this is taught in schools it takes away one of the family ties.

110

Properly developed and administered courses on these subjects would be most helpful to the coming generation* Sex education should not be hidden behind anything* It should be handled on the greater part in the home but should be also given in school* The idea that sex education is dirty and a topic to be whispered about should be abolished* These subjects you might say affect all people much of the time in one way or another* I believe our school systems to have been missing out on teaching subjects which are much more important than some taught* Altho not an insurance salesman, I believe insurance to be very important and pertinent to the family life and would highly recommend a course of it in high school* This should include types, rates, benefits, etc* This could come under either income or budgeting and home management* I sincerely believe my son left school and joined the U*S. Navy because he did not respect some of his teachers and the subjects failed to hold his interest* I believe this to be true in many eases where the person is about 17 years old* The boy was not delinquent but on the contrary one of very clean habits* The few weeks he has been in boot camp have changed his whole outlook on life and I believe helped him much* I believe this questionnaire, as answered, fully covers my beliefs in regard to the advisability of in­ struction in proper family life and sex education in all years of high school* It is hoped that your research and efforts will assist in the establishment of adequate high school courses in these subjects. I think that Sex and Family life are fast becoming a major problem with bur young people of today, and they should definitely be taught the fundamentals of this problem at home and also at school* I also think this survey has been needed and necessary for too long a time now, and I hope it will develop into the project that Is

Ill

needed for the welfare of our children*

(Signed)*

I know the children receive some instruction in school now. My information to them has been inadequate also* I hope this is of some help to you* I am inclined to believe instruction should be given at school where there would not be so much ’’personal relations’* as in church and at home. There are too many ,!don't and do's” in the home and church which tends to confusion in the young minds• I also believe there is too much attention paid to sex in books, discussions, radio, and all other mediums. Proper instruction and advice should be given to teen­ agers as a matter of course without emphasis on the subject* (Signed). As you will observe in my replies to your question­ naire, I am very much in favor of sex education in our public schools. My endorsement is qualified, however* Because you have not included anything pertaining to **Who will offer this instruction?” I would like to give you my opinion* If and when Sex Instruction becomes an integral part of public school curriculum, it would behoove Board of Education to exercise particular vigilance and the utmost care in the training and selection of instructors* From my observation of California schools--based on some 2 5 years1 newspaper experience--I would hesitate to allow my daughters to enroll in Sex Instruction courses under MOST of the teachers now employed* I don't believe there is another study so important in the mental growth of children as Sex Instruction. Therefore, the instructors must be men and women of exceptional background. Under no circumstance should an unmarried woman or an unmarried man be permitted to disseminate such instruction. The spectacle of a young woman or a desicated female of undoubted maturity tho unmarried attempting to give such instruction would be ludicrous if not insulting to the intelligence of any parent* Marriage, of course,

should not be the sole qualification

112

for S.I* instructors# But family background, without the impediment of divorce, must be carefully scanned by any group selecting such instructors# I feel so strongly upon this point, that I, for one, would NOT permit my daughters to take such instruction unless and until I had personally made the acquaintance of the teacher or teachers and had satisfied myself that they were qualified by temperament, training and history to give such courses. I thank you for permitting me to express my views and I wish you • • • « If I can be of further service, please • • • • (Signed). II#

SUMMARY

The quotations as have already been given disclose a wide variety of attitudes towards courses in Marriage and Family Life for high school pupils. that the home,

They indicate, however,

the school, and the church, must co-operate

in teaching pupils of high school age the topics relevant to Marriage and Family Life.

Above all, the parents desire

most capable and qualified teachers for teaching the course.

CHAPTER I X

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The principal purposes of this report was to secure the attitudes of the father and the mother in one hundred families towards the presenting of courses on Marriage and Family Life to pupils in senior high schools.

A desideratum

was to use the information for counseling high school pupils, or assist persons responsible for public school education in the formation of the course of study. The questionnaire method was utilized in securing the attitudes of the one hundred fathers and the one hundred mothers.

The summary which follows pertains to the findings

in the two hundred questionnaires. I.

SUMMARY

Information about the fathers and mothers.

The

fathers and the mothers who participated in the study h a d . an average age of forty-two years.

The average number of

years of married life was twenty years.

In the one hundred

families studied there was an average of two children, and most of them were attending high school. The majority of the parents had an elementary school education:

94 per cent of the fathers and 9 6 P er cent of

the mothers had an elementary school education.

Among the

111*. one hundred fathers 73 per cent had completed high school, and of the total number of mothers 71 per cent had completed high school.

Of the total number of fathers 20 per cent had

four years of college.

Of the mothers, 13 per cent had four

years of college. In economic status, 35*5 per cent of the families earned between $5#000 and $5*999 yearly; 26.5 per cent earned between $lj., 000 and $lj-,999 yearly; 12 per cent earned between $3*000 and $3*999 yearly; and 10.5 per cent earned A total of I4. per cent of

between $2,000 and $2,999 yearly.

the families earned $10,000 and over yearly; 2.5 per cent of the families earned between $1,500 and $1,999 yearly. The m a jo r it y a tte n d in g H ig h

e ith e r

S c h o o ls

of

th e Los

o f fa m ilie s

s tu d ie d

Susan M il le r

had

D o rs e y

or

th e ir th e

c h ild r e n

M anual

A rts

A n g e le s .

In regard to religious preference, 62 per cent of the fathers indicated the Protestant faith and 17 per cent the Catholic faith.

Among the mothers 55 per cent designated

the Protestant faith and 19 per cent the Catholic faith. The fathers had joined churches in 57 per cent of the one hundred cases; and 65 per cent of the one hundred mothers disclosed church membership. T o p ic s fo r

p o te n tia l

of

fa m ily

s tu d y b y

lif e . th e

T o p ic s

c h ild r e n

in

w h ic h w e r e a h ig h

s u g g e s te d

school

c o u rs e

115 received varying degrees of approval and disapproval by the parents*

There were six topics whichreceived, however, a

high rate of approval, as follows: 1*

Importance of the family*

Its history and meaning*

2*

Duties of father and mother*

3*

Co-operation in the family*

ij_*

Influence of education*

5*

Choice of friends*

6*

Conduct and manners*

The preceding topics were approved by 95 per cent or more of the parents* The respondents of the study designated ten topics pertaining to family life with a high rate of approval but lower than the preceding six topics*

The following ten

topics were approved by 9 0 1° 95 P®r cent of the families: 1*

Factors in selecting life partners*

2.

Presence or absence of children*

3*

Budgeting and home- management*

if*

Kinds of recreation and amusement*

5#

Relationship with in-laws*

6*

Conduct and manners::

7*

Personal habits:

8*

Factors which make happy and unhappy marriages.

9*

Divorce*

10.

Table manners*

Smoking*

Physical examination before marriage*

ll6

The fathers and the mothers disclosed a considerably high rate of approval for seven potential topics for a Marriage and Family Life course, however,

the topics were

also among the lowest approved by the parents*

The seven

succeeding topics were approved from 87*5 per cent to 89*5 per cent o f 'the one hundred families: 1*

Courtship and engagement*

2.

The time to get married.

3*

Occupation of

the father.

lj.« Occupation of

the mother.

5*

Employment of children.

6.

Income.

7*

Personal habits:

Age factors.

Smoking.

Of perhaps peculiar interest, the five topics least approved for instruction for high school pupils (of the twenty-three topics suggested) were as follows: 1*

Courtship and engagement.

2.

The time to get married.

3.

Occupation of

the father.

!}.• Occupation of

the mother.

S*

Age factors.

Divorce.

A general statement may be made in regard to the instruction which the parents themselves had received on the topics of family life, which were suggested for their children in a potential course on Marriage and Family Life.

117 On the topic of ,fConduct and Manners*

Social behavior

(etiquette),11 33 per cent of the fathers and 3$ per cent of the mothers had received instruction, which was the highest percentage related by the parents on the various topics listed*

The instruction received by the parents on the

family life topics was generally quite low* Sex education*

A total of

ten topics on sex educa­

tion were listed for the families on the questionnaires* There were four topics which were approved for instruction 4

in high school by 95 per cent or more of the fathers and the mothers, as follows: 1*

Mental hygiene, such as value of athletics, hikes,

neat and clean body* 2*

Understanding of the other sex, such as consider­

ateness andadjustment with people* 3*

Importance of wise choice of friends and

acquaintances* if.

Importance of ideals and self-control in relation

to health and happiness. The parents approved the remaining six topics of sex education, however, the percentage designating approval was slightly lower than for the four previous topics*

The

following six topics were approved by 90 per cent to 95 per cent of the parents:

118

1*

Stages in physical development of boys and girls.

2.

Special sex problems of adolescence*

3*

Sex differences between boys and girls*

Ij.*

Male reproductive system.

5*

Female reproductive system*

6*

Boy-girl relationships.

The male reproductive system and the female repro­ ductive system were the two topics of sex instruction which were least approved by the parents, however, the percentage of disapproval was by only 6*5 per* cent and 6 per cent of the total number of fathers and mothers. The topic of sex education which the parents indicated as having received the least instruction in was Msex dif­ ferences between boys and girls . New York: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1914-2. 277 P P * Baber, Roy Erwin, Marriage and the Family. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939* 656 pp. Baker, John N.,' Sex Education in High Schools. Emerson Books Company, 191+2T 155 P P * B ib b y ,

H a r o ld

C .,

Sex E d u c a ti o n ,

A G u id e

Teachers, and Youth Leaders. Company, I 9 I4-6 . 290 pp. Bogardus, Emory S., Sociology. Company, I9 I+6 . 56? P P *

fo r

New York:

P a re n ts ,

London: The Macmillan

New

York: T h e Macmillan

Bossard, James H . , Marriage and the Child. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, I 9 I+O. 178 PP* Burgess, Ernest W . , and Harvey J. Locke, The Family. York: American Book Company, 191+5• 800 PP*

New

Calhoun, Arthur W . , A. Social History of the American Family From Colonial Times to the Present. 3 vols.; New York: A . S . B a r n e s a n d C o m p a n y , 191+5 • C a v a n , R u th , Com pany,

The

F a m ily .

191+2”

New Y o r k :

Th o m as Y .

C r o w e ll

593 P P *

Chesser, Eustace, The Practice of S e x Education. Roy Publishers, 1956* 22? pp. Corner, George W., Attaining Manhood. Brothers, 1938. 67 P P * _______ , Attaining Womanhood. 1939 * 95 P P *

New York:

New York: Harper and

New York: Harper and Brothers,

Cunningham, Bess V., Family Behavior. Saunders Company, I 9 I+O. 52? PP *

Philadelphia: W. B.

Dealey, James Q . , The Family in Its Sociological Aspects. Boston: The Houghton Miff Tin Company, 1912". 137 P P *

127

Dexter, Elisabeth W . , The Minister and Family Troubles. New York: R. R. Smith, 1931* 97 PPDrummond, Laura W., Youth and Instruction in Marriage. York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 186 pp. Duvall, Evelyn M . , and Reuben Hill, When You Marry. Heath Publishing Company, 19^4-5* k-5 0 pp. FIske, G-eorge W., The Changing Family. Brothers, 1928. PP« , The Christian Family. I9?9. 138 pp.

, Plan for Marriage.

Boston:

New York: Harper and

Cincinnati: Abingdon Press,

Folsom, Joseph K., The Family. Inc., I 93 I4-. 60iq_ pp.

T75&.— 505-pp.

New

New York: J. Wiley and Sons,

New York: Harper and Brothers,

Foster, Robert G., Marriage and Family Relationships. York: The Macmillan Company, 194^7" 314- PP«

New

Goodsell, Willystine, Problems of the Family. New York: The D. Appleton-Century Company, 1936* $30 P P • Groves, Ernest R., Marriage. pany, 19^ 1 . 671 pp.

New York: Henry Holt and Com­

_______ , Edna L. Skinner and Sadie J. Swenson, The Family and Its Relationships. Chicago: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1951: $83 pp. Groves, Ernest R ., The American Family. Lippincott Company, 193^4-. 500 pp.

Chicago: J. B.

_______ , The Family and Its Social Functions. J. B. Lippincott Company, 19if0. 63 1 P P •

Chicago:

_______ , and Gladys H. Groves, Sex in Marriage. Macaulay Publishing Company, 1953* 23^ pp. Groves, Gladys H., Marriage and Family Life. Houghton Mifflin Company, 19^2 • 561^ p p .

New York:

New York:

Hart, Hornell N., and E. B. Hart, Personality and the Family. Boston: Heath Publishing Company, I 9 I4.I. 526 pp.

128

Himes, Norman E., Your Marriage: A Guide to Happiness. York: Rinehardt and Company, 19^0i4_30 pp. Levy, John, The Happy Family. Inc., 193#* 3 1 9 PP•

New

New York: Alfred A. Knopf,

Lincoln, Edward A . , Sex Differences in the Growth of American School Children. Baltimore: Warwick and New York, I n c ~ 1927” 189 PP* Lumpkin, Katherine DuPre, The Family. Chapel Hill: The Uni­ versity of North Carolina Press, 1933* I 8 I4. pp. Lundberg, George A., Social Research. Green and Company"^ 19M>* if2:6 p p . March, N., Towards Racial Health. and Company, 1919- 3 6 6 pp.

New York: Longmans,

New York: E. P. Dutton

Mowrer, Ernest R . , Family Disorganization. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press/ 1939• 356 pp. Nimkoff, Meyer F . , Marriage and the Family. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1957767 pp. Parshley, Howard M . , The Science of Human Reproduction. York: W. W . Norton and Company, 1933* 319 PP« Pedersen, Victor C., The Man a Woman Marries. Minton, Balch and Company, 1929• 2bb pp. , The Woman a Man Marries. 276 pp.

New

New York:

New York: Doran Company,

1927.

Pomerai, Ralph de, Marriage, Past, Present, and Future. New Y o r k : R. R. Smith, 1930. 370 pp. Reuter, Edward Byron, The Family. Company, 1931ol5 "pp.-

New York: McGraw-Hill Book

T h u rm a n B., S e x , M a r r i a g e , a n d F a m i l y . J. B . Lippincott Company, "T9 I4.ST--------

R ic e ,

R ic h m o n d , Y o rk :

P h ila d e lp h ia :

W . V., A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S e x E d u c a t i o n . N ew F a r r a r , S t r a u s s a n d C o m p a n y , 1^3 if-. 312 p p .

Roan, Carl M . , Home, Church, and Sex. Company, 1 9 3 0 . 3 2 5 pp.

New York: Washburn

12 9

Robinson, William J., America1s Sex, Marriage, and Divorce Problem. New York: Eugenics Publishing Company, 19314-79 PP* Rockwood, Lemo T., Teaching Family Relationships in High School. Washington, D. C.: The American Home Economics Association, 1935* 117 PP« Sanger, Margaret, What Every Boy and Girl Should Know. York: Brentanno 1s , 1957 • ~ljo pp.

New

Sowers, Ray V., and John W. Mullen, Understanding Marriage and the Family. Chicago: Eugene Hugh Publishers, 19q-5. 237 ppSteinhardt, Irving D., Sex Talks to Boys (Ten Years and Older). Phi 1 a de lphi a : J. B. Lippincott Company, 191l0. IBB"T?p. _______ , Sex Talks to Girls (Twelve Years and Older). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1939* 221 pp. Stone, Hannah M « » and Abraham Stone, A Marriage Manual: A Practical Gui debook to Sex and Marriage. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1939* 334- P P • Strain, Frances, Sex Guidance in Family Life Education. York: The Macmillan Company, 194-5 • jjij-Q PP«

New

Terman, L. M . , .Psychological Factors in Marital Happiness. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 193& • 4-74- PP* . _______ , and C. C. Miles, Sex and Personality. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 193&” 500 pp.

New York:

Thomas, W. I., and F. Znaniecki, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. 5 vols.; Boston: Gorham Press, 1919* Truxal, Andrew G . , and Francis E . Merrill, The Family in American Culture. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 194-7* 750 pp. Walker, Kenneth M., Preparation for Marriage. W. W. Norton and Company, 1933* 179 PP * Wright, Helena, The Sex Factor in Marriage. Vanguard Press, 1937” l95 pp.

New York:

New York: The

Zimmerman, Carle C., Family and Civilization. Harper and Brothers, 194-7• 510 pp.

New York:

130 B.

P E R IO D IC A L A R T IC L E S

Adams, C. R., f,How to Pick a Mate,” American Magazine, 138:32-33, December, 1944* Andrews, B. R., MEvery Family Should Plan,” Journal of Home E^onnmics, 392 6l7“19i December, 194-7* Auerback, A. B., "Sound Approach to Sex Education,” Parents Magazine, 2 1 :30-l, •May, 194-6* Burgess, E* W - , "End of Romantic Marriage,” Collierfs, 121;12, January 31, 194®* Carmichael, E. S., 11Trends in Family Life Education,” J ournal of Home Economics, 39*399-400, September, 1947Chapin, F. S., ”Degrees of Kinship Intimacy,” Sociology and Social Research, 1 9 :1 1 7 -2 5 5 Nov.-Dec., 1934* Cohn, D. L * , f,Do American Men Like Women?” Atlantic Monthly, 178:71-45 August, 1946Dewberry, M ., "Sex Secrecy Is No Answer,” Hygeia, 24:736-7, October, 1946* Dreikurs, R., ffHow to Choose a Partner,” Ladies Home J ournal, 63-30, October, 1946Ferree, J. W., "Social Responsibilities of the Teacher,” Journal of Home Economics, 38:493-55 October, 1946Groves, E- R-, "Divorce: It Hits One Out of Five; Is it the Only Way Out?" Better Homes and Gardens, 24:30-1, September, 1945^ Jennings, D-, "Sex in the Classroom," Collier1s, 116:22-3, September 15, 1945Kirkpatrick, J, D . , "Child of Divorce,” Parents Magazine, 2 1 :1 9 4 5 September, 1946Landis, P. H., and A- A- Fenton, "Should Our Schools Teach Sex?” Better Homes and Gardens, 25:14“1^5 November, 1946Lea,

E-, " B i g F a m i l y o r L i t t l e 18:22-3, N o v e m b e r , 1943-

F a m ily ,”

P a re n ts

M a g a z in e ,

131 Levine, M. I., and J. H. Seligmann, "Explaining the Pacts of Life," Ladies Home Journal, 62:39* June, 1914-5* Locke, Harvey J., ,fPamily Behavior in Wartime,rf Sociology and Social Research, 27:277-814., Mar*-Apr., I 9 I4.3 • Lowrie, S. H*, and J. T. Landis, "Education for Marriage," Survey, 8 4 ; 1 5 - 1 9 * January, 19 I4-8 . Lydgate, W. A., "Ten Faults of Wives and Husbands," Reader1s Digest, 14.9 :8 8 -9 0 , July, 19 I46 . Mead, Margaret, "What1s the Matter With the Family?" Harper1s Magazine, 190:393-9* April, 19^5• Nimkoff, M. F«, "A' Family Guidance Clinic," Sociology and Social Research, l8:229-lj-0, Jan.-Feb., 193^4-Ogburn, W. F., "Marital Separations,." American J ournal of Sociology, 14.9:316-23, January, 1 9 I4P Popenoe, Paul, "Can the Family Have Two Heads?" Sociology and Social Research, l8:12>17, Sept.-Oct., 1933_______ , " T o d a y s Marriages," Parents Magazine, 22:l63, November, 19^-7* Ringe, J., and B. Johnson, "Goals for Family Living," Journal of Home Economics, 37:1514-* March, 1914-5• Schuyler, J. B . , " S o c iety^ Suicide," Catholic World, 159:230-5* June, 19lp4-« Stevenson, E., "Family Life Education in Elementary Schools," Journal of Home Economics, 35:5^9-71* November, 1914-3• Whitman, H., "Sex and Early Marriage," Better Homes and Gardens, 2 5 :14-0 - 1 , August, 19147Woodward, L. E., "Basic Training; Happiness in Family Living," Parents Magazine, 2l:2lj.-5, October, I9I4-6. Ziegler, E. W . , "How to Get Along With People You Love," Readers Digest, 14-5:35-7* November, I 9 I4I4--

132 C.

P U B L IC A T IO N S

OP LEARNED O R G A N IZ A T IO N S

^Characteristics of the Population,” Sixteenth Census of the United States: 191+0. Parts 1-7> 7 vols *; Washington, D. C*: United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United States Government Printing Office, 19U-3Corner, George W., and Carney Landis, ”Sex Education for the Adolescent.w Chicago: American Medical Association, 191+3•

18

PP-

Gruenberg, Benjamin C., and J. L. Kaukonen, ”High Schools and Sex Education.” Washington B.C.: United States Public Health Service, Superintendent of Documents, 191+0 . 110 pp. Klemer, Dora Hudson, tfThe Other Sex.” Press, 1939- 1+2 pp.

New York: Association

^Population: Characteristics by Age,tr Sixteenth Census of the United States: 191+0* Part 1: United States Summary. Washington B.C.: United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United States Government Printing Office, 191+3* 183 PP* f,Population , 11 Sixteenth Census of the United States: 191+0* 2 vols.; Washington D.C.: United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United States Government Printing Office, 191+3* Rice, Thurman B., ”How Life Goes On and 0n.,f Chicago: The American Medical Association, 1933* 39 PP* _______ , ”ln Training.” Chicago: The American Medical Association, 1933* 1+8 pp. ”Sex Education in Schools and Youth Organizations,” Pamphlet 119* London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 191+3 • 22 pp. Stokes, John H., ”Sex Education and the Schools,” Publi­ cation A-569New York: The American Social Hygiene Association, 1 9 1+5* 18 pp. Venereal Disease Council and Health Section, compiler, ”What Parents Think About Sex Education.” Los Angeles: Venereal Disease Council, October, I 9 I+6 . N.P.

133 W h i t e , M a u r i c e S . , ,fS e x I n s t r u c t i o n . ** E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h B u re a u , 1 9 4 4 *

D.

W a s h in g to n D . C . : ^ 4 PP-

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

A b b o t t , G e o r g e , ’’ P a r t i a l S u m m ary S u r v e y o f M a t e r i a l f o r t h e T e a c h i n g o f S e n i o r B o y s 1 H y g i e n e . 1* U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 -7 • 63 P P * B a n k s t o n , G e n e , ,fA S u r v e y o f t h e P r e s e n t S t a t u s a n d P r o p o s e d C o n te n t o f C o u rs e s i n F a m ily R e la t i o n s h i p s . ” U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 4 * 86 p p . B r o w n , M a r y R . , ’’ P e r s o n a l a n d F a m i l y P r o b le m s o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P u p ils .* * U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , T h e U n i ­ v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 4 * 160 p p . B u r k , C a r l J a m e s , **A S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r M a r r i a g e as R e ­ c e i v e d i n a n d S u g g e s t e d f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s b y One H u n d r e d Y o u n g M a r r i e d P e o p l e . ’* U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 9 * 83 PP* F l y n n , J a m e s M . , lfA T e n t a t i v e C o u r s e o f S t u d y i n H e a l t h f o r B oys i n a S e n io r H ig h S c h o o l . ” U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s is , The U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 4 6 * l l 4 PPG r e e n , D e l l a J . E a r h a r t , ’’E d u c a t i o n f o r M a r r i a g e i n L o s A n g e l e s a n d V i c i n i t y . ’* U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e le s , 1934. 112 p p . G r e e n b e r g , M i r r e l a A*, ’’ B a s i c C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a P r o g r a m o f E d u c a tio n f o r M a r r i a g e . ” U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,

1941•

184 P P •

G r i f f i n , V e r a A * , ’’E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s C a l i f o r n i a , Lo s A n g e le s ,

f o r M a r r ia g e a n d F a m ily L i f e o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a . ” Un­ , The U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn 1937* l4 4 PP-

1314 -

J o b e , C l a i r e W . , ,fE d u c a t i o n f o r M a r r i a g e i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o ls . ” U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e le s , 1 9 3 8 14-3 P P * K e e l e r , J o h n T . , ,fP r o b le m s o n W h ic h B o y s S e e k G u i d a n c e . ’* U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 -2 * 14-2 P P * L o v e j o y , H a r o l d R . , ’’ S o c i a l L i v i n g i n t h e S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l C u r r ic u lu m .” U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i ­ t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Lo s A n g e le s , 1 9 3 9 * 14-6 P P * M a h e r , M a r y C . , ” A S t u d y o f P a r e n t s * A t t i t u d e s i n P r o b le m s o f C h ild G ro w th an d D e v e lo p m e n t.” U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 -3 * 296 p p . M a t h e s , P a y M a t h a n , ’’ C o u r s e s i n Home P r o b le m s a n d F a m i l y R e la t io n s h ip s f o r S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l B o y s .” U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s is , The U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 2 . 126 pp. S m i l l , R o s e A l i c e , ’’ T h e R o l e o f t h e H e a l t h C o o r d i n a t o r i n L o s A n g e le s H ig h S c h o o ls .” U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 4 -3 * 14-3 P P * T a y lo r , L u c i l e , ”A S tu d y o f C o u rs e s i n i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . ” U n p u b lis h e d U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , 1 24 . p p .

F a m ily R e la t io n s h ip s M a s t e r ’ s t h e s is , The L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 -0 *

W i l l a r d , D o r o th y R ., ”An E x p e r im e n ta l D e t e r m in a t io n o f th e D e s ir a b le C o n te n t o f C o u rs e s i n S e c o n d a ry -S c h o o l P r e p a r e n ta l E d u c a tio n .” U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 4 -*

lip. pp.

APPENDIXES

APPENDIX A

137 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE I NINETY-SEVEN OCCUPATIONS LISTED BY THE FATHERS

. _____ Occupations______ Advertising Advertising salesman Accountant Banking Builder Building contractor Carpenter (3) Chemist Clerical (2) Clerk Clothing buyer Construction Dairy science Dental medicine Dentist Dentist-retired District sales manager Electrical appliance store Electrical estimating Engineer Engineering Factory worker (2) Filter in Automatic Sprinkle Company Fixture maker Furniture company foreman Hd. custodian, L*A. B. of Ed. High school principal Industrial relations . Inspector-plant Insurance Labor Laborer Law and teaching Lawyer (2) Letter carrier Lubrication engineering Machine helper Master plumber Mechanic

Mechanics Minister Mortician (2) Newspaper-Editorial Optometrist Painting and carpenter Personnel Plant superintendent Plastie business Plumber Policeman Postal clerk (2) Power plant engineer Pumper--Richfield Oil Purchasing agent (2) Radio business Radio sales Real estate Real estate broker (2) Roofer Retired (2) Retired police officer Salesman (6 ) Sales manager Sales work (3) Senior engineer--valuation Service m a n - - S o . Calif. Gas Sewing machine dealer Smelting Spray painter Standard oil foreman Stock clerk Store manager Student (2) Supervisor of attendance Surveyer Teacher Telephone repair Truck driver Venetian blind business

138 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE I I

TWENTY-NINE OCCUPATIONS OP MOTHERS WORKING OUTSIDE THE HOME

_________________________Occupations Artist Bookkeeper and purchasing agent Candy worker Cashier Domestic worker Educator Elementary school teacher Garment machine operator History teacher H u s b a n d ’s technician (dental) IBM key punch and tabulator Insurance underwriter Librarian Maid and laundry work Newspaper work Nurse

Office work PBX and clerk typist Personal property assessor Postal clerk Private secretary Registered nurse Secretary (2) Sewing Shipping clerk (2) Stanley dealer (direct sales) Waitress

139

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE III TOTAL YEARS MARRIED REPORTED BY FATHERS

Number of fathers 1 1 1 1 1 k 2 1 2 1 1 1 k 1 T3

4 10 7 13 10 3 5 l 2 1 1 5 l l l l 100

Number of years married 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 lk 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2k 25 26 27 28 29 30 33 36 k-0

52

llj.0

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE IV AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE AS REPORTED BY EIGHTY**ONE FATHERS

Number of fathers 2 3 8

9

10 10

6 3 7 3

5 6

l l 2 2 1 1 1

BI

_______ Age of marriage 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 29 26 27 28 29 30 34 35 36 37

49

lip.

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE V TOTAL YEARS MARRIED REPORTED BY MOTHERS

Number of mothers______ Humber of years married 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 6 1 7 8 3 9 £ 1 10 2 n 1 lk 1 15 5 17 18 n 8 19 20 9 21 7 22 9 8 23 2l\. 3 25 5 26 5 27 kl . 28 29 l 30 3 1 33 1 36 1 52

lM

lij.2

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE VI AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE AS REPORTED BY SEVENTY-EIGHT MOTHERS

Number of mothers 1 2 8 11 8 12 11 6 5 6

k

l 1 1 1 7H

Age of marriage '' ” ..... 15--- 17

18 19 20 21

22 23 2k 25 26 28 29 31 32

" .. ..

li|3

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE VII OTHER SCHOOLS CHILDREN ARE ATTENDING AND NUMBER OF TIMES THE SCHOOL WAS INDICATED B Y THE FATHERS

High Schools Fremont Jefferson Mt. Carmel Poly Manual Polytechnic St. Agne s Washington

Number .......S'— ..

” ..

-

..

2 1 1

2 3 7

IB

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE VIII OTHER SCHOOLS CHILDREN ARE ATTENDING AND NUMBER OF TIMES THE SCHOOL WAS INDICATED BY THE MOTHERS

High Schools Fremont Gardena Inglewood Jefferson John Francis Polytechnic Mt. Carmel St. Agnes Washington

'■

Number "2...... ’...... ‘ ...... . 2 . 1 3

2 1 1 7 19

ikb

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE I X

OCCUPATIONS OP MOTHERS EMPLOYED OUTSIDE THE HOME AS LISTED BY THE FATHERS

_______ Occupations Assessor Candy maker Clerk Direct sales Educator Garment machine operator Insurance Insurance underwriter Key punch. Lab technician Librarian Mortuary Newspaper Office Office w o r k (2) Purchasing agent Secretary (2) Sewing Shipping clerk (2) Stenographer Teacher (2) Teaching Trained nurse Typist Waitress

14-5 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE X

OCCUPATIONS OP NINETY-SIX FATHERS AS LISTED BY THE MOTHERS

Occupations Ac countant Advertising and sales Auto mechanic Banking Beverage Building contractor Buyer Carpenter (2) Clerical (2) Clothing buyer Construction (2) Contracting and building Dairy science Dentist District salesman Dry cleaning Electrical Electrical estimation Electrician Engineer Exec# of mfg. bus. Factory worker Filter in Automatic Sprinkle Company Fixture maker Foreman Foreman at Office Furniture Company Industrial Relations L# A. Bd# of Education Labor Law and teaching Lawyer (2) Lubrication engineer Machine helper Machinist foreman Makes slacks Manager of plastic company Mechanics Mfg# filing supplies

Minister Mortician Newspaper editorial Optometrist Own business Owner, electrical appliance store Painting and carpenter Plumber Plumbing contractor Post office Postal clerk Principal of high school Pumper at Richfield Oil Purchasing agent-steel fabricating plant Radio Radio announcer Railroad conductor and manager of Venetian Blind Company Real estate Real estate broker Retail liquor salesman Retail store operator Retired (2) Retired dentist Retired police officer Roofing Salesman (8 ) Sales manager Scale mechanic School School custodian Selling

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE X (c o n t in u e d )

OCCUPATIONS OP NINETY-SIX FATHERS AS LISTED BY THE MOTHERS

____________________________ Occupations Sells advertising Senior engineer valuation Service m a n — So. Calif, das Service station Sewing machine dealer Smelter Spray painter Standard oil foreman Stock clerk Supervisor of attendance Supervisorial engineering Surveyor Student Teacher __ Truck driver

1^-7 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE X I

MEMBERSHIP IN CHURCHES AS LISTED BY FIFTY-SEVEN FATHERS

_____________________________ Churches Baptist (3) Bethel Beverly Vista United Presbyterian Catholic (6 ) Christ Church Unity Christian C ongregati onal Episcopal (2) First Baptist First Baptist of Los Angeles First Presbyterian Good Shepherd Grace Lutheran (2) Hollywood-Beverly Christian Church Jewish Latter Da y Saint (3) Lutheran (I4.) Mason Methodist (6 ) Methodist Episcopal Neighborhood Church Our Lady of Sorrows Presbyterian (2) Roman Catholic S. H. Center St. Agatha St. Anthony*s St* B r i g i d ’s St. Cecilia*s (2) St. James Episcopal St. John*s (2) St. Paul 10th Ave. Baptist Unitarian (2)______________________

114-8

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE XII MEMBERSHIP IN CHURCHES AS LISTED B Y SIXTY-FIVE MOTHERS

Churches St. Paul Baptist Baptist (3T 10th Ave. Baptist Beverly Vista Gommunity-*Beverly Hills Triangle Church of Truth Unitarian (2) Calvary Baptist Tabernacle United Brethren Catholic (5) Christ Church Unity Vermont Square Methodist Christian (2) Zion Hill Christian Science Church of the Transfiguration Congregational Episcopal (2) First Baptist of Los Angeles (3) First Presbyterian Good Shepherd Grace Lutheran Hollywood Beverly Christian Holman A.M.E. Immanuel Baptist Jewish Jewish Cecilia*s Latter Day Saints (3) Luthern (4 ) Methodist (Ij.) Mt. Obey A.M.E. Neighborhood Church Our Lady of Sorrows Presbyterian Roman Catholic (2) S. H. Center Saint John The Evangelist Church, Hyde Park St. Anthony*s St. Agatha»s St. Brigid*s St. Cecilia* s St. J ohn *s (3 ) St. John*s, Hyde Park St. Mark *s Luthe ran

114-9 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE XIII AGES AT WHICH FATHERS RECEIVED SEX INFORMATION

Age of ]?ocoiving sex Information ........... . 'T 6 8

Number of fathers 1 2 5 1 7 5

9 10

n 12 13

Ik

9 10

lk

8

15

l6

9 2

17 20

T6

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE XIV AGES AT WHICH MOTHERS RECEIVED S E X INFORMATION

Age of receiving sex information .......

.. .

¥ 5 7 8 10 11 12 Ik

15 l6 17 18 21 22 23

Number of mothers 1 1 1 3 11 5 21 5 8 7 5 3 1 1 1 1

75

150

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE XV

"OTHER" SOURCES OF SEX INFORMATION RECEIVED IN YOUTH BY THE FATHERS AND MOTHERS

Sources listed by fathers A booklet called f1What E v e r y Young Man Should Know.”

Number of fathers

1

Aunt with whom I lived. Helpful.

1

Cousin.

1

A nurse.

Environment school— biology, physiology, zoology, and others*

Sources listed by mothers First year in college. Physical education course.

Number of mothers

1

Husband.

1

I was raised around animals•

1

Junior and senior school.

1

1 1

1

Executive— Ameri can boy scouts.

1

M y husband was a wonderful teacher and still is.

Experience.

2

N e i g h b o r 1s child.

High school teachers*

1

Y.M.C.A. movies on V.D.

1 9

Playmates and listening to adult conversation.

1

Sisters.

1

Sunday school recom­ mended books. Teacher.

1 1

10

x$x

SUPPLEMENTARY

table

XVI

"OTHER" SOURCES OP SEX INSTRUCTION FOR THE SONS AND' DAUGHTERS AS GIVEN BY THE FATHERS AND MOTHERS

Other sources listed by fathers Army Athletic director Church Many books United States Navy training center

Number' designating the source 1 1 1 1 1

Other sources Number listed by designating mothers the source Books . 2 Books and around table d i s ­ cussions 1 tfOr owing U p rr very happy 1 Physiology and gym teachers 1 Psychologi cal consultant 1 Heading matter 1 7 " ...........

APPENDIX B

QUESTIONNAIRE

,FOR

TEDS

FATHER:

The purpose of these questions is to secure the attitudes of the father toward the giving of courses on Marriage and Family Life in Senior High School* The infor­ mation, w h e n compiled, m a y be utilized for counseling high school pupils, or assist those responsible for public school education in the formation of the course of study* The main fact to consider is the type of education you desire for your children. (You need not sign your name to the questionnai reTl Please answer each question by check mark or other means as indicated* I 1* In which group does your age fall? 25-29______ 3i0—3^4-________ > i4.O-l4.l4-

(Check) 20- 2I4______ ; 3 45 and_over_______•

2* Your occupation (kind of work you do)_____________________ . 3* Total years married_______ Have you been married before? Yes______ No______ Age at first marriage_______ • I 4.

How m a n y grades did you complete in elementary school? (Please circle the number) • 1 -5 , 6, Years of high school:; 1,

2,

3.

Years of colleger 1,

2,

3,

k

Postgraduate: 1,

3,

k

2,

Business school: 1,

2

3,

k

5« How many children do you have under 18 years - Boys?_____ Girls?______ 18 years or over - Boys?______ Girls?_______ 6* How many children do you have in high school at the present time - Boys?_______ Girls?______ 7« Name of high school your children attend__________________ • 8* What is the approximate level of family income? $1,5001*999 3. #2,000-2,999 ; $3 ,000 -3,999 s $ 4 ,000 -14,999 ; $ 5 ,000-9,999 ; $10,000 and over___ . 9 * Is your wife employed outside the home? No__ Yes • If your answer is ’fYes,Mwhat type of work does she do______ , _____________ • How many hours of work a week?____________ •

15k 10* Your religious preference__________________________________ * 11* Membership in vh at church?________________________________ • II*

CONTENT OP COURSE ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE

The following subjects pertain to attitudes on Mar­ riage and Family Life* At the right of the subjects are two «Yes-NoM columns. In the first column check f,Y e s w or ftN o w according to your attitude toward including the topic in a course on Marriage and Family Life for high school pupils* In the second column, check "Yesn or f,N o ,f to indicate whether you yourself received instruction on the subject in high school* E x a m p l e : Question 1 * If you recommend in­ struction in the ^Importance of the family* Its history and its meaning,n then check the ftY e s M in center column. If you did not receive instruction on the subject in high school, check the ^No” in the outside column. 1.

Family Life I Would Approve Instruction

You Received Instruction

Importance of the family. Its history and its meaning.

Yes

No

Yes

No

Courtship and engagement*

Yes

No

Yes

No

Factors in selecting life partners*

Yes

No

Yes

No

The time to get married. Age factors*

Yes

No

Yes

No

1* Presence or absence of children.

Yes

No

Yes

No

2. Duties of father and mother*

Yes

No

Yes

No

3« Co-operation in the family.

Yes

No

Yes

No

Ij.* Occupation of the father.Yes

No

Yes

No

Factors affecting family life



155 I Would Approve Instruct!on

You Received instruction

5. Occupation of the mother •Y © 3

No

Yes

No

6. Employment of children*

Yes

No

Yes

No

7. Income •

Yes

No

Yes

No

8. Budgeting and home management*

Yes

No

Yes

No

9. Influence of education*

Yes

No

Yes

No

10. Kinds of recreation and amusement*

Yes

No

Yes

No

11. Choice of friends*

Yes

No

Yes

No

12. Relationship with in-laws*

Yes

No

Yes

No

13. Conduct and manners Social behavior eti­ Yes quette )• Table m a n n e r s • Yes

No No

Yes Yes

No No

14. Personal habits: Smoking* Drinking*

Yes Yes

No No

Yes Yes

No No

Yes

No

Yes

No

(7) Divorce*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(8) Physical examination before marriage*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(6) Factors which, make happy and unhappy marriages*

2*



Sex Education

I Would Approve Instruction (1) Stages in physical development of boys and girls* Yes

No

You Received Instruction Yes

No

156 I Would Approve Instruction

You Received Instruction

(2 ) Special sex problems of adolescence.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(3) Sex differences between boys and girls.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(k) Male reproductive system.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(5) Female reproductive system.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(6 ) Mental hygiene, such as value of athletics, hikes, neat and clean body.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(7) Boy-girl relationships.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(8 ) Understanding of the other sex, such as considerateness and adjustment with people.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(9) Importance of wise choice of friends and acquaintances.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(1 0 ) Importance of ideals and selfcontrol in relation to health and happiness. Yes

No

Yes

No

III.

WHERE AND WHEN SHOULD A COURSE ON FAMILY AND MARRIAGE LIFE BE GIVEN?

1. In what grade do you feel that Instruction in Family Life should be offered to pupils? (Check) Elementary grades: Yes_____ No_______ • Freshman sophomore_ junior ______ or senior year of high school______ • 2. If your answer is f,yes,f* to one of the years of high school, should itbe given in s eparate classes for boys and girls? Yes_____ No_______ . 3 * In whatgrade do you feel that sex instruction should be given to pupils? (Check) Elementary grades t Yes______ No • Freshman______ sophomore______ junior______ or senior year of high school______ •

157 lj-« How should the sex instruction be given to pupils? (Check) Separate classes Tor boys and girls?;______ Mixed classes? ■ Private consultation by a specialist?______ Ho classes?______ • 5« What institution should have the major responsibility fur Family Life Education? (Check) School?5_______ Home?______ Church______ Other?______ • 6* Should a course on Family Life include Sex Education? Yes No 7* If not given as a separate course, should the sex educa­ tion be given as a part of specialized courses? Yes_____ No • If your answer is ^Yes,” please check the course, as f o l l o w s : (1) Home Economics ; (2) Social Problems ; (3) Biology ; (l±) Physical' Education ________ ; (5) Other____ ______________________________________________

8* Whi c h institution should assume the major responsibility of sex education? (Check) the home?______ the school?____ the church?_______• Other?__________• ____________ , ____ ____ IV.

YOUR PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

1. At what age did you first receive sex information?_______ 2. Where did you as a child receive information about sex? Pleas® Check Please Check Most Some Least Not Helpful Not ____________ ^_______ any_____________Helpful Father • • • • •

Mother Friends of yours Books

• • • • •

Magazines

• • .

Movies • • • • • Physician

♦ . *

Other (Name)

158 3» Do you believe that the information thus received was adequate? Yes______ No______ Do not know_______. if. What was your reaction to the information? (Please check) Helped______ startled______ offended______ indifferent___ 5* Are your boys receiving sex instruction? No '

Yes

6. If your answer is ^Yes ,11 please check the following sub­ jects which the instruction includes: Attitudes toward sex? Sex differences between boys and girls?______ Reproductive system?______ 7* If your answer is ^Yes,'* who gives the instructions to the boys? Father? Mother? Both? . By referral to: Teachers? Doctor? Nurse? ________ ________________ Minister?______ Other? (Name)

If you have further comments or suggestions, please use the above space or/and the reverse side of sheet.

QUESTIONNAIRE

FOR

THE

MOTHER

The purpose of these questions is to secure the attitudes of the mother toward the giving of courses on Mar­ riage and Family Life in Senior High School* The informa­ tion, when compiled, m ay be utilized for counseling high school pupils, or assist those responsible for public school educa­ tion in the formation of the course of study* The main fact to consider is the type of education you desire for your children. (You need not sign your name to the questionnaire.) Please^ answer each question by check mark or other means as indicated* I 1. In which group does your age fall? (Cheek) 20-2I4 2 5 -2 9 i 3 0 -3 ^______ 5_35-39______ ; b o - k b 14.5 and over_______•

;

;

2. Your occupation if other than housewife____________________ • 3* Total years married_______ Have you been married before? . Yes______ No______ Age at first marriage I 4* How many grades did you complete in elementary school?

(Please circle the number) . 1 -5 , Years of high school:: Years of college:

1,

2,

Years of postgraduate: Business school: 5*

1,

2*

3,

3,

b

1, 2, 2,

6,

3,

•3,

7,

8

b

i*.

I4

How many children do you have under 18 years - Boys? Girls?______ 18 years or over - Boys?______ Girls?__ |

6 . How many children do you have in high school at the present time - Boys?________ Girls?_____ • 7* Name of high school your children attend______________

8 * What is the approximate level of family income? $1,500 1,999 ; $ 2 ,000- 2,999_______; $ 3 ,000- 3,999 ; $[4,000-14,599_______; $ 5 ,000-9 ,999; $ 10,000 and_over____ 9 . What kind of work does your husband do?_________________

l6o 10*

Your religious preference__________________________________•

11*

Membership in what church___________________ II*



CONTENT OF COURSE ON MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE

The following subjects pertain to attitudes on Mar­ riage and Family Life. At the right of the subjects are two ,fYes-Noft columns. In the first column check "Yes 11 or tfNo*f according to your attitude toward including the topic in a course on Marriage and Family Life for high school pupils. In the second column, check ”Y e s M or "No 11 to indicate whether you yourself received instruction on the subject in high school. E x a m p l e : Question 1 . If you recommend in­ struction in the ^Importance of the family. Its history and its m ea n i n g ,1 1 then cheek the ,?Yesfl in the center column. If you did not receive instruction on the subject in high school, check the f,N o M in the outside column. 1.

Family Life

I Would Approve Instructi on

You Received Instruction

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

1. Presence or absence of children.

Yes

No

Yes

No

2. Duties of father and mother.

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

(1) Importance of the family. Its history and its meaning.

(2) Courtship and engagement. (3) Factors in selecting life partners.

(i|.) The time to get married. Age factors.

(5) Factors affecting family life

*

3. Co-operation in the family. Ij.. Occupation of father.

l6l I Would Approve Instruetion

You Received Instruction

Yeo

No

Yes

No

6 * Employment of children. Yes

No

Yes

No

7. Income •

Yes

No

Yes

No

8 . Budgeting and home management.

Yes

No

Yes

No

9. Influence of education. Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

1 2 . Relationship with in-laws.

Yes

No

Yes

No

13. Conduct and manners: Social behavior (eti­ quette ).

Yes

No

Yes

No

lif. Personal habits: Smoking. Drinking.

Yes Yes

No No

Yes Yes

No No

(6 ) Factors which make happy and unhappy marriages.

Yes

No

Yes

No

(7) Divorce.

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

5« Occupation of mother*

1 0 . Kinds of recreation.

U.

Choice of friends.

(8 ) Physical examination before marriage. Yes 2. Sex Education

I Would Approve Instruction

You Received Instructi on

(1 ) Stages in physical development of boys and girls. Yes

No

Yes

No

(2 ) Special sex problems of adolescence.

No

Yes

No

Yes

162 I Would Approve Instruction

You Received Instruetion

(3) Sex differences between boys and girls*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(k-) Male reproductive system*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(5) Female reproductive system*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(6 ) Mental hygiene, such as value of athletics, hikes, neat and clean body* Yes

No

Yes

No

(7) Boy-girl relationships*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(8 ) Understanding of the other sex, such as considerateness and adjustment with people*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(9) Importance of wise choice of friends and acquaintances*

Yes

No

Yes

No

(10 ) Importance of ideals and selfcontrol in relation to health and happiness* Yes

No

Yes

No

III.

WHERE AND WHEN SHOULD A COURSE ON FAMILY AND MARRIAGE LIFE BE GIVEN?

1# In what grade do you feel that instruction in Family Life should be offered to pupils? (Check) Elementary grades: Yes_______ No______ • Freshman_ sophomore_______ junior______ or senior year of high school_______• 2* If your answer is MYes,ft to one of the years of high school, should it be given in separate classes for boys and girls? Yes______ No______ «

3* In what grade do you feel that sex instruction should be given to pupils? (Check) Elementary grades: Yes______ No______ • Freshman sophomore junior or senior year of high "school______ •

163 ij.. How should the sex Instruction be given to pupils? (Check) Separate classes for boys and girls?_______ Mixed classes_ Private consultation b y a specialist?_______ No classes?____

S* What institution should have the major responsibility for Family Life Education? (Check) Church?______ Other?______

School?______

Home?______

6 . Should a course on Family Life include Sex Education? Yes______ No______ • 7« If not given as a separate course, should sex education be given as a part of specialized courses? Yes______ No______ • If your answer is nYes,” please check the course, as follows: (1) Home Economics_______; (2) Social Problems % (3 ) Biology______ ; ([}.) Physical Education ; X5~5 Other ____________________________________________________________ • IV.

YOUR PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

1# At what age did you first receive sex information?______ 2.. Where did you as a child receive information about sex?

Most

Please Check Some Least

Not any

Please Check Helpful Not _____ ____ Helpful

Father * • • • • Mother • • • * ♦ Friends of yours Books

* • • * »

Magazines



Movies Physician

« • •

Other (Name) ___________________________________________ 3* Do you believe that the information thus received was adequate? Yes______ No Do not know What was your reaction to the information? (Please check) Helped startled offended indifferent

164 5* Are your girls receiving sex instruction? No

Yes

6. If your answer is l,Yes,,t please check the following sub­ jects which the instruction includest Attitudes toward sex?______ Sex differences between girls and boys?______ Reproductive system?______ 7* If your answer is MYes,,f who gives the instruction to the girls? Mother_____ Father______ Both * By referral to: Teachers?______ Doctor?______ Nurse?______ Minister? Other? (Name )______________ .

If you have further comments or suggestions, please use other side of sheet*

U n iversity of Southern California Library