A study of some of the fertility factors affecting the availability of potassium applied to some Maryland soils

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Thesis and Abstract approved:

A hl....iJ'ri t .,, ................. . Professor in Sfa®rg© of .Su m i#

John Paul Wintemoyer, thetor of Philo sophy,19*£2 Major: Soils., Department of Agronomy Title of 'fhoois: A Study of Some of the Fertility Fa©tor® Affecting the Avail ability of Potassim Applied to Some Maryland Soils. Directed by Dr. R. P. Thomas in thesis, 1*3 Words in abstract, 2SS The srnaunt of soluble potassium retained by the exchange complex

of sails receiving various applications of potash, sop®sphosph&t ©, lime and a mixture of miser dements was studied,

©rap response from thee®

treatment® was observed os plots located o a some representative soil

series of the state.

Following the field investigation, soil sample®

fro© some of the plots were takea into the laboratory and analyzed for exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and hydrogen.

Rapid soil

tests wore also used to estimate the available potassium and other ions held by the exchange complex of these soils. Crop response varied with the different soils -as well as with the various treatment®.

The field results, as a whole, emphasised the im­

portance of providing a sufficient supply' of the essential nutrients as a necessary factor in maintaining a fertile soil.

The labor&toiy in­

vestigations demonstrate, the effect of lime and superphosphats on the availability of potassium, and other cations.

Superphosphate decreased

the amount of applied potassium retained as the exchangeable form in the majority of the soils.

‘ The highest application of phosphere® and potash,

in most instances, lowered the amount of exchangeable magnesium to a marked degree*

She combined effects of lime and sup erphosph&te also decreased

the amount of applied potassium absorbed by the exchange complex of ©oils having a small amount of exchangeable hydrogen*

fh© resalts of the rapid

soil tests when compared to the exchangeable data g&v® a gpod indication

of tbo mw&il&blo plaat food*

fhm rosoli* of I M i ®tody# In isftai^l,

slaow tfeot ooilsi *ho^l& bo aoslyjsod for all oralloM# wtrtoobo* and If any m m f o m d to bo dofleleat they should be oapfiiod im fo®atitto« that oill allow oil thm aoooooosgr e l . « o b to bo awail&blo 1» sofficie&t

fim John Pail Wintenaoyer Degree and date

Doctor of Philosophy,

19^-2.

Bate of Birth e, West Virginia,

Pl&oe of Birth

M i l School* Williamsport* Ml, Collegiate la®tituitions UniTersi tj of Mai

Sept. 1931-Jun© lf33 Sept.

X%

Veh. 193^** June 11 June 11 Publications Positions held

» *** M . S. Ph. D.

19? 19% 19fe

aone Graduate Assist ant ship with Soil Conservation Service* Division of Sill culture Be search, Wash­ ington, D. C., from Yehruaigr 193& to April Graduate Assistant ship with the- American Potash Institute, Washington, D. C. from April 19^10 to Ksgr 19^2. At present, a position as analytical chasist with the S. S„ Bep&rtiaeiit of Interior, Bureau of Mines, College Park, Maryland.

A STU3JI or SOWS OF THS FSHTILITT FACTOBS AFFSCTIKG TBS AYAlLaSILITT OF POTASSIUM APPLIED TO SOiUS KAHXLAHB SOILS

Or John Pawl Wintersoyer

Sheets suhaitted to the Faculty of the of the Tfoiversity of Maryland in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Boctor of Philosophy X$%2

School

UMI Number: DP71180

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fit© writer expresses M s appreciation to Mr. S. S>. Qray of the American Potash Institute,. Washington, 2>, C. sm& the Agronomy depart­ ment of the ISairersity of Maryland for making this study possible. He also expresses M s thinks to dr. B. P. fhom&s A s directed the research and made construct It © criticisms in the preparation of the manuscript* to Mr. M. B. iim&mi A s directed the field Imres tig&ttom; to the cooperating farmors A o contributed space on their f a m e for the location of experimental plots; to Miss Mary H l e n tray for her services as typist, and. to many other® A o added in securing these data.

aist m

Table

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Title

Page

1.

The Fais Humber, location and Soil Types of Faces Cooperating in the Project....... ....... ......... .1$

2.

The 19^0 Yields of Tomatoes Obtained from Cooperative Farm Plots BeeeiTing different Amounts of Phosphoric Acid, Potash and Minor Element Mixture................. 20

3*

The 19*10 fields of C o m Obtained from the Cooperative Farm- Plots Receiving Differeat Amounts of Phosphoric Acid, Potash and Minor Element Mixture........... .. . .21

%•

The 19^1 Yields of Barley Obtained from the Cooperative Farm Plots Deceiving the Second Application of Phos­ phoric Acid and Potash....... .23

3*

The 19%1 Yields of 9heat Obtained from the Cooperative Farm Plots Receiving the Second Application of Ffeosl phorle Acid and Potash* .... .2h

6.

The 19^1 Yields of C o m Obtained from the Cooperative Farm Plots Receiving Different Amounts of Phosphoric Acid, Potash, Lime and Minor RLementMixture. ..... 26

7,

The 19^1 Tields of Soybeans Obtained fro® the Cooperac­ tive Para Plots Receiving Different Amounts of Phos­ phoric Acid, Potash, lime and Minor Unseat Mixture.... .27

3*

The Mill!e sBH5g»st©d the possibility of ttierohdLologieal flaws,tion of potfA-.

Sxsy ©©atend that ©alalia. carbonate teearpar».t©& in the soil

liberates ndsortel. potnroiua which is turn may b© ahsorfeod by mid©organisms*

A stellar suggestion m s mad© by Blugae and Purvl* (3)

roffeed with eoastsi plain rolls of Virginia*

found fixation m i

greatest in the Portsaaouih roil which ©©©tains a hlg& percentage of organic ©attar*

Sin©© the ▼ariaiion in the

of petasstea fixed

at various sampling* was so groat* they suggested a lalcarol&oio^iossl

afctteliy factor as being largely reopoxudbl*. Hi© offrot of different ions on the ©ojonreroloa of soluble potasste® to a non»sr&ll&ble form has been inrrotigaied*

oos& ©a various p r e p a r e

©©Tspieaees of Fef AX, Ca said Mg pkroephates suggested to «f©£f© and Kolo&ny Clh) that the K 3 ion is in roae manner responsible for the

fixation of potassium*

Sheir setfc with, roils mhowed that the plot

reeelrliig ©eld phosphate sloe*-. * fixed the htggbest quantity of potaftela*.

On the other hand* the soil® Ttfoioh received maxsmX sppXlcoticms of KOI or SOI / aai4 phosphate fixed the least* She possibility of tho alumina® ion affecting the fixation of

5 potasslua was studied by folk (2*4).

%■ resowing the free alumina from

various clays and minerals, the ability to fix potaeeium m s decreased. % o a replacement of this alumina the fixing power was restored, w M e h demonstrated that the aluminum Ion may play a part in the availa M 11 ty of potassium. A [email protected] existing between the availability of potassium and the exchange capacity of soils m s found by many workers (l2,23,I5#l6). An equivalence between potash fixation and decrease in exchange capacity wss found by f m o g and Jones {23).

A decrease in exchange capacity with

potassium fixation was also noted by Jeff® and Levene j£l6 ), but no equivalence was Indicated.

Contrary to these views. Wood and BeTmfc

(26) reported an increase in exchange edacity as a result of soluble potash reverting to a no

replaceable form.

Available potassium in Maryland soil® was investigated by fhomas and Willi sms (a2), using both quantitative and rapid chemical methods. A good agreement was found between exchangeable potassium and that determined by the rapid soil test.

She influence of fertilizer treatments

on the exchangeable potassium of some Maryland soils was studied by Thomas and Sehneler *m .h imhih



*

mm*. i n —

100 200 400

Minor Element Mixture

_



-



50

*"***— iiw



----

150



1-B

2~A

5

4

5

7

fto. 71,5 48.8 72.8 67.9 72.8 79.S

Du. ©.9 58.9 61.0 66.5 60.7 51.8

Bn. 67.4 67.4 62.2 70.5 65.4 75.6

Btt. 68.0 66.1 72.6 67.8 62.6 59.5

8u. 65.2 75.2 65.6 51.8 59.9 49.6

Bu. 80.0 74.6 58.1 66.2 68.9 65.8

82.8 55.1 45.5 51.0 40.5 65.8

55.4 69.2 68.6 51.8 65.7 55.4

76.8 67.4 64.2 65.8 Wt *1 68.7

55.2 56.4 66.5 72.0 66.9 62.8

75.7 66.S 71.4 54.0 64.5 61.6

72.6 65.8 51.6 55.9 67.5 75.2

74.6 67.9 70.9 70.9 65.6

59.2 52.7 61.0

68.9 72.2

58.0

54.5 so.s

14.8

68.7

47.5 58.0 70.0 65.9 61.7

66.1 71.9

54a

72.7 61.4 75.9 69.9

66.1 52.2

62.1

c*

TABLE 5 (Gout*)* The 1940 Yields of Corn Obtained from the Cooperative Farm Plots Keceiving Different Amounts of Phosphoric Acid, Potash and Minor Element Mixture.

Fertiliser Treatment C o m Yields

-Bomids~per~Ac£&~-— — Plot No.

P~0.

1 2 $ 4 5 6

160 160 160 160 SGQ 70

7 8 9 10 11 12

80 80 80 80 500 70

IS 14 IS 16 17

K 5

_ _ _ * —

I 0 2

Minor Element Mixture

_

100 200 400



me Ho. 2 5

1 11 100 21 Ave.

Eo0 2

Ground

100

2 II

100

100

1(000

Ca Mg

A1

F F L F

F f F

H a IS H

1

L L L L

500 ------

T

||

500

500 ------

Ave. IS 28 Ave.

10 20

30

Ave.

500

500

h.b k,j k.$ k.S

* f L F

H H L M

L L F L

M F L

1

L . IS « II F II -f-

M L M M

1 1

$

L H L

F f F

M L M M

F M L 1

F F F £

F L F F

F L F f

H

F f T f

L 1 M L

h L

L I» F F M F F L F F L F

5.0 4.9 ^.9

m m m

L M II M

M L M

L L M 1

M II F L

F F L F

M F M F M -jT II T

5.6

H

F F F F

1* F f F

H H H H

%

F F F F

M 1 IS M

F .. F f

L F L L

T

L

F

100

L

F H H L

u

100

L

H f i L

1

Ave.

pH Valu.

f L f f

k

500 Uooo

Ma

H H I* M

L M

Ave.

100

I

F I*

1

||J

BO, f f i , F 3 ~

1

1 ioo

Fe

M M L X

1

Ave. 3 |3

A v a ila b le Ions in S o il Samples from F a m Ho. 13

9 f 9

%

F 1

H H E

• This treatm ent received in a d d itio n M ix tu re .

1 L

L L L

1

L

h

F F F

L L F L

F F F F

F F F

£ L F F

F F F

5.0 5.1 5.^ 5.a

M M M M

F F L F

k.u h.b 5.1

L M L I*

F F 4. F

5.6 5.0 5.6

4

.

%

F L F

£ .9

5.^

M

5.3

5.4 5 .^

5.0 **.7 ^.7 U.S

kOO pounds o f the M inor 331ament

reepoae© of crops to various sgpplieatlons #f potash, super* phosphate, [email protected] sad a minor eleeiefit mixture m e observed or some repre­ sentative sail *e?lee of the state*

Soil samples frost some of these

[email protected],ts0a%© were taken into thm X&horatoigr to siudgr the availability of pehasslws a# it was affected tgr the od&itloxi of ather el entente* nmtptm ■wm-’ B analysed for aad hgrdrogen*

eeloiuta, aaisQeslua, pot^srsitM

the rapid sell test® a«s enplogred at

used to determine-

fix#

(21) were

the swell able potassitw sasd other oileons*ts held

the solution eoapXeaE. of thes# soil** Si# result* of this s.tm% suggest the following ge&ersl ae«i£lmttl#B*i X*

a sufficient supply of all the reqsired nutrients i© ©n essential factor im crop ptedttC’tlogu She iufXtteaee, therefore * of & eiag&e tilmmt im fertilising field crops is difficult to seswsore.

2, Saperpifeaephate applied with potash fertiliser &eere#B©« the se^mat of potuesiuB M L d Xn the exehaegsehle form* TM.% affect 1# ©out noticeable ia tlx© Seessfr&e ssad Manor soil seriee. 3* A large portion of the eoMfcaageefel# nagaeslusi Is diepXseed t m m the «&ehaage eoap&ex of soils *e a reealt of heavy potaati sad plioeplkorue f©rttil attioa* M#©sesiiaa asM&ril&teate are therefore aseessargr to eospe&e&te for this loss* H * fre a ts e a ts of s g p s rf& o e p ta a ttea n d1 1 © #o ns o il©lo wlit e g o tb s iig e *

aide kqp&rogsn also deereusee the m rehgdtaed in the exdiaagcahl® tom*

i

! of applied. potassium

Im general, it 1 ® coxtclusiv© that a euffieieat unpplf of smsilall© plant food Is ea tisportimt factor 1m aai&telning a fertile ©oil* fhis tsnjrlj Includes all the *1eatents used by plants, m d ^ h m defielent 41 ©neat© are noted %

aoil test®, they should he mjpplie&in mount©

that will resell Is. a suffieleney of ©11 the available nutrient® for use in crop growth*

1.

Allaway, H. and Pierre, $. 3. Availability, Fixation sad liberation of Potassium in Slgh-llme Soils* Jour. Am. Sac * Agron. Boveaber 1939*

2.

Bartholomew, S. F. end Janssen, 0. The Bate of Absorption, of Potas«iu» by Flints and Its Possible Bffeet % o s the- Aj&ounl of Potassium Hcmalnlng in Soils From Application of Potassium Fertilisers. Ark. Agr. Ebqp. Sta. Sul. 2&Jju 1932-•

3*

Bltsme, J. M, and Purvis, 2. 3. Fixation and Bel ease of Applied Potash on Three Coastal Plain Soils. Jour. Am. Soc. Agron* 3 1 s 657-Ss. October 1939. Bray, B. H. and Befurk, 2. 2. The Bel ©as® of Potassium from Ho ir­ replaceable Forms in Illinois Soil®. Proc. Soil Set. Soc. of As. 3} 101-106. 193S,

5. Chaminade, E. and Brouneau, Gr. Becherches sur la' Ohirai^m© dee Cations Sxchaoge&bl©s. Am. Agrem. 6 s 6J7-691 • 193^ 6 . Enfield, O. H. and Conner, S, D, Fixation of Potash by Muek Soils. Jour. Am. Soc. A g r on. 28s lMS-55. February 193^* 7.

Fine, L« 0., Bailey, T. A* and fell Truog. Availability of Fixed Potassium as Influenced by Freezing and “ Biasing. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 3s 183 . 19^0.

S.

0©ma®n, H. A Base Ibeehange Study on Some Maryland Soils. Master’s Thesis at the University of Maryland (unpublished data).

9.

Gorbunov, K. I. The Mature of Potassium Fixation in lon-cxchangeable Form* Miadstsiya Sotsialist, &enle&eliya. So* 2-3? 82—92.

1936. 10. Barrie, H. 0. Bffeet of Lime on the Availability and Fixation of Potash In Soils. Soil Sci* V4j 2 6 3 -275. 1937*

IX. tester, J* B» and Shelton, P. A. AvaiXsMlity of Haplaeesbl© Potassium to Tomatoes on a Sassafras Sandy Bosa. Jour. Am. Agron. 32s 5^3~“S^9* August 19*10.

Soc.

12. So&gland, B* B» and Martin, J. 0* Absorption of Potassium by Plants in Halation to SopXaceable, Eon-ropi sc sable and Soil Solution Potassium. Soil Sci. jBt 1-33* 1933* 1 3 . Jenny,

H. and Shade, 3. B* The Potaseium-Blme Problem in Soils. Jour. Am. Soc. Agroa, 26: 162-1 JO. 193^ •

lA, Joffe, J. S. and Iblodi^r, 1, Fixation of Potassi-osa in Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. of As. 1 0 9 3 6 ) 8 1 *7 - 9 2 . 1937.

Free.

H3

15. Jaffa, J. S.and Solodny, B. file SFfect of Alternate Drying and Wetting on the Base Exchange Complex with Special Eef r©[email protected] to the Behavior of the Potassium Ion* Proc. Soil Sci. Soc* of A®* y. 107-111. 1 9 3 8 . Id. Joffe, d* S. and [email protected], A. K. fhe Relation of Potassium Fixation to the Racehange Capacity of Soils* Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of As. ht 157-lbl. 1939.“ 17. Madatire, W* H* The Biboratioa of Hative Soil Potassium Induced by Different Calcic and Hagnesic Materials as Measured by Xysimeter teachings. Soil Sci. Ss 337-39&* 1919* IS. Page* J. B, and Barer, I>*D. Ionic Sis© in Relation to Fixation of Cations by Colloidal Slay. Proc* Soil Sci, Soc. of Am* I5O-I55. 1939. 19* Scimeler, d. B. and Tkimt&&9 R. P. Beteminatlon of Potasdtaa& by Sodium Gobaltinltrite. Ind. and "Sag, Chen. Anal. M i . 55 163-165. May 1933. 20. Shaw, W. M. and Maclntire, TT* B. Relationship Between Water-Soluble, Replaceable and Fixed Fractions of Potash Additions to Soils. Proc, Soil Sci. Soc. of Asa. 1 (1936)2 l U > 8 . 1937* 21. Thomas, B. P. and Schueler, J, B. Potassium Retained in the *Sxehsogeable Form by Some Maryland Soils. Jour. A®. 3©c. Agr©a. 2 9 * 17-2: 2. 1937* 22. Thomas, R. P. and Williams, R. C. A Comparison of the Results of Rapid Tests with the Amounts of Available Wntrimts Obtained by titative Methods on Maryland Soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. 1 (1936)5 2ii-3-25h. 1937.

23. Traog, IS. and doxies, R. d. Fate of Soluble Potash Apclied to Soils. Ind* Sng. dun, 30: SS2-SS5. 193S. £U. Volk, 0. «*. The fiatarc of Potash Fix®.lion in Soils* k5i ;•$>??$. 1936.

25. Tolk, N* d. Soil®.

Soil Sci.

Fixation of Potash in difficultly At ail able Form in Soil Sci. 3?! 2 6 7 -^7 . 193^.

26. Wood, 1*. S. and DeTurk, B, S. Absorption of Potassium in Soils in hon-ReDlsce&ble Forms. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. of Ass. 5i 152*161. isl-c.