A study of psychological factors affecting micrometer measurement

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PURDUE UNIVERSITY

THIS IS TO CERTIFY T H A T T H E THESIS P R E P A R E D U N D E R M Y SUPERVISION

b y __________ Rupert Kelson Evans

entitled

A STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS

AFFECTING MICROMETER MEASUREMENT

COMPLIES W I T H T H E UNIVERSITY REGULA T I O N S O N G R A D U A T I O N THESES

A N D IS A P P R O V E D B Y M E A S FULFILLING THIS P A R T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S

FOR THE DEGREE OF

Doctor of Philosophy

t

S".

P r o f e s s o r in C h a u g e o f T h e s is

JJ

H ead o f S ch o o l or D epa rtm en t

-.0003

0

+.0001

7

.0000

10

-.0001

5

-.0002

5 Total Frequency 28

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

j

58

TABLE 16 MEASURES OF ACCURACY FOR INDIVIDUAL APPRENTICES USING PERSONAL MICROMETER ON GAGE BLOCKS HELD IN HANDS

Subject No.

No. Of Measurement8

Percent Correct to ± .0001”

1

10

10

2

10

3

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation of Errorb

.00022”

.00044"

.000454”

100

-.00008”

.00008"

.000040"

10

70

.00008”

.00010”

.000117”

4

10

20

.00019”

.00019"

.000054”

5

10

30

-.00013"

.00025"

.000249"

6

10

20

.00027”

.00027"

.000119”

7

10

0

-.00031”

.00031”

.000083"

8

10

70

.00013"

.00013"

.000078"

9

10

90

-.00007”

.00011”

.000249"

10

10

100

.00000

.00006”

.000077"

11

10

100

-.00002”

.00004”

.000060"

12

10

40

-.00017"

.00017”

.000090"

13

10

100

.00001"

.00003"

.000054"

14

10

20

-.00017”

.00033”

.000338"

15

10

100

.00001"

.00001"

.000030”

16

10

100

.00005”

.00005"

.000050”

R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

{

59

TABLE 17 MEASURES OF ACCURACY FOR INDIVIDUAL APPRENTICES USING PERSONAL MICROMETER ON GAGE BLOCKS HELD IN FIXTURE

Subject No.

No. of Measurements

17

Percent Correct to ± ,0001"

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation of Errors

50

-.00015"

.00015"

.000081"

18

10

70

-.00012"

.00012"

.000060"

19

10

60

-.00005"

.00021"

.000291"

20

10

60

.00002"

.00018"

.000282"

21

10

30

-.00038"

.00038"

.000275"

22

10

60

-.00013"

.00013"

.000090"

23

10

80

-.00002"

.00014"

.000268"

24

10

90

-.00003"

.00013"

.000261"

25

10

30

.00025"

.00025"

.000163"

26

10

100

-.00002"

.00004"

.000060"

27

10

20

-.00017"

.00021"

.000155"

28

10

100

-.00003"

.00005"

.000064"

29

10

60

-.00009"

.00009"

.000094"

30

10

100

-.00003"

.00007"

.000078"

31

10

70

.00003"

.00025"

.000372"

32

10

90

.00009"

.00015"

.000311"

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

60

TABLE 18 MEASURES OF ACCURACY FOR INDIVIDUAL APPRENTICES USING STANDARD MICROMETER ON GAGE BLOCKS HELD IN FIXTURE

Subject No.

No. of Measurements

Percent Correct to * . 0001"

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation Of Errors

1

10

20

-.00029"

.00035"

.000284"

2

10

60

.00011"

.00013"

.000137"

3

10

90

.00003"

.00005"

.000078"

4

10

20

.00011"

.00025"

.000281"

5

10

40

-.00011"

.00025"

.000311"

6

10

90

.00005"

.00007"

.000081"

7

10

70

.00016"

.00016"

.000136"

8

10

90

-.00002"

.00012"

.000178"

9

10

60

-.00010"

.00018"

.000205"

10

10

80

.00008"

.00018"

.000309"

11

10

30

.00020"

.00020"

.000110"

IS

10

80

-.00001"

.00017"

.000274"

13

10

20

-.00008"

.00024"

.000303"

14

10

20

-.00024"

.00024"

.000102"

15

10

80

.00008"

.00008"

.000075"

16

10

90

-.00008"

.00008"

.000060"

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

61

TABLE 19 MEASURES OF ACCURACY FOR INDIVIDUAL APPRENTICES USINC STANDARD MICROMETER ON GAGE BLOCKS HELD IN HANDS

Subject No.

No. of Measurements

Percent Correct to ± .0001”

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation Of Errors

1?

10

100

-.00001"

.00003"

.000054"

18

10

100

.00000

.00000

.000000

19

10

100

-.00009"

.00009"

.000030"

20

10

80

.00010"

.00012"

.000100"

21

10

20

-.00038"

.00040"

.000264"

22

10

90

-.00006"

.00009"

.000091"

23

10

0

.00008"

.00040"

.000433"

24

10

100

-.00001"

.00001"

.000030"

25

10

90

.00011"

.00011"

.000030"

26

10

90

.00002"

.00008"

.000030"

27

10

90

.00005"

.00007"

.000081"

28

10

90

.00011"

.00011"

.000030"

29

10

60

.00013"

.00013"

.000119"

30

10

100

.00002"

.00002"

.000040"

31

10

40

-.00015"

.00037"

.000420"

32

10

100

.00005"

.00007"

.000067"

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

62

TABLE 20 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIOUS MEASURES OP ACCURACY, AGE, TIME ON THE JOB, AND TIME WITH THE COMPANY, POR 60 JOURNEYMEN AND APPRENTICES

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Individual S.D. of Errors

.089

-.195

-.164

-.078

Time on Job

-.164

-.184

-.075

-.190

Time with Company

-.105

-.177

-.107

-.061

Percent Correct to ±.0001"

Age

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•e x p e c t e d IFREQUENCY

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100 110 120

130 140 150 160 170

FREQUENCY

Fig. 8— Expected and Observed Frequencies of Vernier Readings by 60 Journeymen and Apprentices.

ca

APPENDIX; SECTION E . TRAINING PROGRAM IN MICROMETER MEASUREMENT

64

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65

TRAINING IN MICROMETER MEASUREMENT Problem— To study the effect of a brief training progrem on accuracy of micrometer measurement. Materials— Five used one-inch vernier micrometer calipers; two sets of ten Class C gage blocks, sizes, .1000, .1001, .1002, .1003, .1004, .1005, .1006, .1007, .1008, and .1009 inches; five felt covered benches; five chairs; numbered strips of adhesive tape. Procedure; 1. shop course.

Five subjects were selected from a university general Scores on the American Council on Education Psychological

Examination were checked, and it was found that for these subjects the mean percentile rank (based on college freshmen) was 34.

None of the

subjects had used a vernier before, and only one subject had read a micrometer before this training program. 2.

Each subject was assigned a micrometer for use throughout

the training progrem.

Each micrometer had been checked for ease of

turning against zero load (.25 inch-ounces or less), and for zero read­ ing in the closed position. 3.

A demonstration was given, showing the correct manner of

cleaning the micrometer anvil, and checking for a zero reading with the micrometer closed. 4.

Ten minutes were spent in individual instruction on

holding, setting, and reading the micrometer. 5.

A four minute description of size comparisons was given.

Each subject measured one of his hairs, and was told that if that hair were split 25 times, the thickness of one slice would amount

I i

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66 to about one ten-thousandth of an inch.

Other comparisons of the

same general type were also given. 6. Each subject was instructed to measure various gage blocks, to note the reading on the micrometer, and to compare this reading with the size stamped on the block. 7.

Thirty minutes after the start of the training program

the first test was given.

This test consisted of the measurement of

a set of gage blocks which had their sizes concealed by a prearranged set of random numbers on adhesive tape.

Each subject recorded his own

readings in ink. 8. After all measurements had been taken, the correct size was read to the group and written by the subject beside his own read­ ings.

Subjects were cautioned to note both the size and direction of

errors. 9.

Steps six through eight were repeated according to the

schedule shown in Figure 9.

A different set of prearranged random

numbers was attached to the test gage blocks before each test.

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FIGURE 9 SCHEDULE OF TRAINING PROGRAM IN MICROMETER MEASUREMENT

First Day 11:00 AM 11:30 AM 12:00 M

12:00 > 1:00 PM 1:00 PM

lunch

2:00 PM

Third Test Practice Fourth Test Practice Fifth Test

- 2:20 PM

Rest Period

1:30 PM

2:00

Start of training program Demonstration and practice First Test Practice Second Test

2:30 PM 3:00 PM 3:30 PM

Sixth Test Practice Seventh Test Practice Eighth Test Third Day

11:00 AM 11:30 AM

Ninth Test Practice Tonth Test Twelfth Day

3:30 PM' Eleventh Test

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68

TABLE 21 INDIVIDUAL ACCURACY DURING MICROMETER TRAINING PROGRAM SUBJECT NUMBER ONE

Test No.

1 2

Percent Correct to ± .0001“

100 50

Constant Error

Absolute Error

.00002“ .00014"

.00004" .00014"

Standard Deviation

.000060" .000092"

One Hour Lunch Period S 4 5

100 100 100

.00001" .00004" .00000

.00003" .00004" .00000

.000054" .000049" .000000

20 Minute Rest Period 6 7 8

100 100 100

-.00006" -.00001" .00000

.00006" .00001" .00000

.000049" .000030" .000000

.00000 .00000

.000000 .000000

.00018"

.000040"

42 Hour Interval 9 10

100 100

.00000 .00000 10 Day Interval

11

20

.00018"

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69

TABLE 22 INDIVIDUAL ACCURACY DURING MICROMETER TRAINING PROGRAM SUBJECT NUMBER TWO

Test No.

1 2

Percent Correct to ± .0001' '

10 10

Constant Error

-.00023" -.00023"

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation

.00023" .00023"

.000064" .000064"

One Hour Lunch Period 3 4 5

80 70 80

-.00009" -.00009" -.00009"

.00009" t00015" .00009"

.000070" .000277" .000070"

20 Minute Rest Period 6 7 8

-90 90 90

-.00008" -.00004" .00004"

.00008" .00004" .00004"

.000060" .000066" .000066"

.00015" .00004"

.000102"

.00023"

.000323"

42 Hour Interval 9 10

30 100

.00015" .00004"

.000049"

10 Day Interval 11

50

.00005"

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70

TABLE 23 INDIVIDUAL ACCURACY DURING MICROMETER TRAINING PROGRAM SUBJECT NUMBER THREE

Test No.

Percent Correct to

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation

-.00004” -.00009"

.00006"

.000066" .000070"

* . 0001”

1 2

100 90

.00011"

One Hour lunch Period 3 4 5

80 80

100

-.00005" -.00003" -.00003"

.00011"

.00011" .00003"

.000128" .000168" .000046"

20 Minute Rest Period 6 7 8

100 100 100

-.00007" -.00008" .00001"

.00007" .00008" .00005"

.000046" .000040" .000070"

.00009" .00007"

.000054" .000090"

.00010"

.000063"

42 Hour Interval 9

10

90 90

.00009" -.00003" 10 Day Interval

11

80

.00010"

\

ii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

71

TABLE 24 INDIVIDUAL ACCURACY DURING MICROMETER TRAINING PROGRAM SUBJECT NUMBER FOUR

Test No.

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation

80

-.00007"

.00009"

100

-.00002"

.00002"

.000090" .000040"

Percent Correct to

afc .0001'* 1 2

One Hour lunch Period 3 4 5

90

100 100

-.00002" .00002"

.00016"

-.00007"

.00007"

.00002"

.000296" .000040" .000046"

20 Minute Rest Period

6

90

7 8

80 100

-.00002" -.00006" -.00009"

.00016" .00006" .00009"

.000252" .000080" .000030"

.00000 .00002"

.000000

.00031"

.000396"

42 Hour Interval 9

10

100 100

.00000 .00000

.000045"

10 Day Interval

11

10

.00001"

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

72

TABLE 25 INDIVIDUAL ACCURACY DURING MICROMETER TRAINING PROGRAM SUBJECT NUMBER FIVE

Test No.

Percent Correct to ±

Constant Error

Absolute Error

Standard Deviation

.00010"

.000275" .000046"

.0001“

1

90

2

100

.00008" .00003"

.00003"

One Hour Lunch Period 3 4 5

80

100 100

-.00004"

.00002" -.00004"

.00022" .00002" .00004"

.000405" .000040" .000049"

20 Minute Rest Period

6

100

7

90

8

100

-.00005" -.00005" -.00002"

.00007" .00005" .00004"

.000067" .000067" .000060"

.00008"

.000092"

42 Hour Interval 9

10

(Absent) (Absent) 10 Day Interval

11

90

-.00004"

I f i i

i

J Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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