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A STUDY OP OIL AS A FACTOR IN GREAT POWER RELATIONSHIPS IN THE NEAR EAST
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of International Relations The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts
by John Rolfe Beeson January 1950
UMI Number: EP59890
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
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T h is thesis, w r i t t e n by
John Bolfe Beeson u n d e r the g u id a n c e o f A.ls.._ F a c u lt y C o m m it te e , and a p p ro ve d
by a l l its
m em bers, has been
presen ted to a n d accep ted by the C o u n c i l on G r a d u a te S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
H. J. DEUEL, Jr. Dean, Graduate Sch oo 1 Dfl^.January„„19.50_______
TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.
THE PROBLEM OP NEAR EASTERN OIL DELIMITED AND D E F I N E D ............. ............... ...........
The p r o b l e m ....................................
Definitions of terms used
The organization of the thesis • . ...........
Review of the literature ......................
Method of procedure
PRESENT PETROLEUM STATUS OP THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES
Home petroleum possessions of the countries of the w o r l d ............................... .. Petroleum haves and have-nots
. . ...........
Sources of supply for petroleum seeking powers III.
ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE NEAR EAST
13 31 34 52
Activities of governmental and private economic agencies in the Near East .........
The place of Near Eastern petroleum in the present world economy
. . . .
Plans and possibilities for the future of Near Eastern oil ............................. IV.
STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE OP NEAR EASTERN PETROLEUM
The position of the Hear E a s t ..................
An examination of the place of Hear Eastern oil during war t i m e ...........................
Lessons of the w a r ...............................
The emergent strategic philosophies of the p r e s e n t ........................................
Considerations on means of solving the strategic dilemma V.
MAIH TREHDS TOWARD POLITICAL S T A B I L I T Y ...........
Political institutions of long standing con sidered in the petroleum s i t u a t i o n ............
Great Power political positions concerning the Hear East as conditioned by oil• • • • • • ,
Trends toward collective security as affecting the petroleum industry . . . .
SUMMARY AHD C O H C L U S I O H S ........................
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ............................................
LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.
PAGE Home Production and Consumption of Petroleum P r o d u c t s ............................................. 35
Crude Oil Production in Foreign Countries by Major N a t i o n a l i t i e s ................................46
Estimated Foreign Petroleum Reserves, by Location and Ownership, as of January 1, 1945 • * • • • •
Dollar Supply of Petroleum Under E R P ................ 76
LIST OF CHARTS AND MAPS CHARTS !•
United States Crude Oil Reserves vs. Total Oil Known
• • •
.Proved Reserves and 1947 Daily Average Production
Petroleum Reserves of the W o r l d .................
Distribution of Ownership of World Oil Reserves Including United States
Oil Enterprise in the Near E a s t ................. Key to Private Ownership Map .
S e v e r s k y fs Conception of the Strategic Situation •
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM OP NEAR EASTERN OIL DELIMITED AND DEFINED On© of the several explosive issues of our present period is the matter of Near Eastern oil#
It has not been
made clear, however, to what extent the quest for this oil
by interested parties has operated as a causal factor in the various relations of the Great Powers during the contemporary period# I.
It is the purpose here*
(1) to examine the oil
status of the more important countries of the world, both in the absolute and relative sense;
(2) to surmise the economic
and strategic need for Near Eastern oil on the part of the powers;
(3) to ascertain to what degree political relation
ships in the Near East among the great powers are affected by an oil thirst# At the present time there are three countries who are extremely desirous of controlling varying amounts of Near Eastern oil#
These are Great Britain, the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics, and the United States of America# Attached by economic ties to the oil interests of these countries are groups in Prance,
the Netherlands and to a
lesser extent most of the other countries of the world. Opinions as to the influence of the need of petroleum re sources on the practices of World Powers in and concerning the area vary widely from those who maintain it is the sole conditioning factor‘d to those who maintain that there Is no oil problem behind the political relationships in the Near East.
Within each country mentioned there are a variety of
justifications for any acts committed in and concerning the area on the grounds that the country in question Is compelled to obtain petroleum resources in addition to those it pos sesses.
The reasoning done on behalf of private interests
usually hinges on either economic or strategic considerations. The validity of these claims will be examined herein.
that the matter of "petroleum determinism" will be considered as carefully as existing sources will permit. obtained will,
it is hoped, point to some valid conclusions
concerning the true place of oil in the general picture of Power relationships in the Near East. II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
The terms "Near E a s t ” and "Middle E a s t ” cause consider able confusion to anyone considering those areas which begin — 1 Harold J. Laski, "Power Politics Spells W a r , ” Nation, 165:355-8, October 4, 1947. 2 Leonard M. Fanning, American Oil Operations Abroad (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947).
where Europe and Africa end, and which have their farther boundary where India and Pakistan begin*
basing their definition on State Department reasoning usually consider the ’’Near Eastern” borders as coinciding with the northeastern boundaries of the Arab world*
In such reasoning
the modern ”Near E a s t ” covers the territory that is of primary concern to the League of Arab States*
To put it
another way, the ’’Near E a s t ” proper includes Egypt, Syria, Palestine, the Tigris-Euphrates Valley (Mesopotamia), and the Arabian peninsula*
Unfortunately, even persons who have associated them selves with the United States State Department for many years deviate from the above definition. Under-Secretary of State,
Sumner Welles, one-time
includes Egypt, Anglo-Egyptian
Sudan, French North Africa,
Iran, Iraq,. Palestine, Saudi
Arabia, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey in what he terms ”the Near East and Mediterranean o r b i t . K e r m i t
spent considerable time in the area under discussion,
the term ’’Middle E a s t ” to describe the same general area* • • • By the Middle East I mean the Arab countries, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Trans-Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the principalities and sheikdoms of the southern
3 Karl Saben Twitchell, Saudi Arabia (Princeton* Princeton University Press, 1947), p* xiv. 4 Sumner Welles, A n Intelligent A m e r i c a n ’s Guide to the Peace (New York* The Dryden Press, 1945), pp. vi, 3T3.
4 Arabian Peninsula, Iran and Turkey and for military and strategic purposes Greece as w e l l . 5 Max Weston Thornburg, war time petroleum advisor to the United States State 'Department and former vice-president of the California Texas Oil Company, terms the regions con sidered in this thesis as the ’’Middle East.”^
Afghanistan and the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt as part of the area.
He points out that the term only suggests a geographic
area. What it defines is the integrated system of political, economic and social forces which are constrained by fundamental circumstances to act in unity. These funda mental circumstances include some natural features such as the bordering oceans and inland seas, and the towering mountains on the east. They include also the surrounding pressures of the outside world, with Russia hanging ominously for 2,700 miles across the north. Primarily however the circumstances which unite the Middle East are innate in the people and their history, in their social institutions and their common aspirations. . • • Thornburg is believed correct in his definition of that which is defined.
Whether it Is called ^Middle” or
’’N e a r ” East seems relatively unimportant once one is aware of what any particular author is writing about.
tinction there was between the two terms has lost all meaning because in most writings they mean the same thing.
5 Kermit Roosevelt, ’’The Importance of Middle East Oil,” Standard of California Bulletin, 33*1, July, 1948. R o o s e v e l t ’s article was based on a speech called ’’Crises in the Near East,” presented to the Commonwealth Club of California on April 2, 1948. 6 Max Weston Thornburg, ”Political Problems and Policies,” Petroleum Times Review of Middle East Oil, Export Number:97-8, June, 1948.
work the term tfNear E a s t ” is used solely for purposes of consistency*
It is construed to mean those lands made up of
the modern entities listed as follows:*
Egypt, Turkey, Iran,
Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Trans-Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Aden, Bahrein, Cyprus, Dhofar, Hadhramaut, Kuwait, Yemen, Oman, Trucial Oman, and Qatar. concerned,
As far as this thesis is
in quoted material the a u t h o r fs original termi
nology is used in reference to the area described above* The term "domestic producers” is used to indicate persons or corporations having no capital investments outside the country in which they reside* "Foreign producers” is used to refer to commercial entities which derive most of their production from lands outside that of their nativity* III.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS
The work entitled A Form Book for Thesis Writing by William Giles Campbell has been used throughout in questions relating to the format of the thesis and problems of citation, abbreviation, footnotes and the like*
The suggestions of
Homer Carey Hockett have been followed in citing government
8 publications * ^ William Giles Campbell, A Form Book for Thesis Writing (San Francisco: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1939). 8 Homer Carey Hockett, introduction to Research in American History (New York: The Macmillan Company, 194877
6 In order to facilitate reading, a brief resume7 of the organization of the remainder of the thesis is here presented. It is the intention first to examine the oil status of the various countries in the world in some detail#
This will be
done by considering the relation of a countryfs control of reserves to its estimated needs#
A second approach will also
be given by determining the varying percentage of the w o r l d fs total petroleum reserves held by each country#
cation of some seriousness on this latter approach is the matter of location.
This too, is a matter of great importance
in the subject at hand and will be examined*
needs for the powers discussed herein will be considered under two main headings?
economic and strategic.
termining these needs it then becomes possible to consider the heart of the question— How important is the oil of the Near East to the Great Powers and how much does a desire for it compel the actions of the Powers in the Near East?
drawing conclusions it is possible only to consider the sources of information available up to the present moment# The numerous systems of translations of place names pose a problem.
In translating from Arabic to English great
liberty is taken by the individual translator in presenting the equivalent of the Arabic sound in English lettering. There is apparently no standardized system in common usage# For example the prophet of Islam, Mohammet, has his name
7 spelled an estimated thirty-two different ways in English*9 Due to the variety of source materials concerned, there has not been an attempt made in this paper to follow the spelling system of any one particular writer, but there is the desire to have the spelling of any single Arabic word rendered in consistent fashion throughout the thesis* IV.
REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE
There are no works which have been devoted to the exact issue to be considered in this paper*
several, however, which are intimately related to the subject under study*
One of the most recent of these is from an
American viewpoint to the exclusion of a consideration of the needs of other countries* *1 A
This is the work of Ephraim Avigdor
Another American writer, Bernard Brodie, has been
of great assistance in considering the double-headed interests of the United States in, first, the economic ends to be gained in the Near East, and secondly,
the strategic aspects dic-
tating American moves in the area*
Robert Lee Baker has
presented a valuable work in considering the events leading 9 Ameen Rihani, Around the Coasts of Arabia (New Yorks Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930), Introduction, p. x. 10 Ephraim Avigdor Speiser, The United States and the Near East (Cambridge! Harvard University Press, 1947)• 11 Bernard Brodie, ’’American Security and Foreign Oil,” Foreign Policy Reports, 24:298-311, March 1, 1948.
up to and during the second holocaust of the twentieth century which pertain to petroleum interests*
Morrow Wilson has been of considerable aid in his discussion of pipelines*
A good book of an introductory nature has /
been recently done by Andre Visson*
A recent study by
Raymond Prech Mikesell and Hollis B* Chenery has been published which attempts a discussion of the economic importance of Saudi Arabia*s oil to the United States*
Other works are on the general topic to somewhat lesser degrees.
The bulk of the i n f o m a t i o n herein presented comes
from these with a little information from one source and a little from another*
A great deal has necessarily been
derived from periodicals and some from newspapers, the New York Times in the main.
15 Robert Lee Baker, O i l , Blood and Sand (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1942)• 13 Charles Morrow Wilson, Oil Across the World (New Yorks Longmans, Green and Company, 1946)• 14 Andre/ Visson, The Coming Struggle for Peace (New Yorks The Viking Press, 1944T1 13 Raymond Prech Mikesell and Hollis B. Chenery, Arabian O i l , A m e r i c a *s Stake in the Middle East (Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press, 1949)* 16 ipkepg are innumerable sources which have been of help in providing historical background.
METHOD OP PROCEDURE
General works on the area to be studied were first consulted and those concerned with the historical background were read with particular care.
The next step was to get
into more specific studies of selected problems in the Near Eastern area.
These specific studies are divided roughly
into several groups: East,
oil in the various areas of the Near
including in addition to supply problems the matter of
marketing, shipping and transportation; recent political relationships in and concerning the area; economic interests other than oil; war time dispensation of petroleum resources and agencies to handle this; strategic concepts as concern the area including certain geopolitical concepts; and lastly, there was considerable study done on the question of internal politics in the area which are traceable to Great Power tutelage.
Obviously many current articles were combinations
of two and sometimes more of these general headings. Material was taken from a great variety of sources of data, from government publications of various types down to, in some instances, various currently popular magazines.
sources considered most reliable have been cited rather than making an effort to cite as many different works as possible. All sources consulted are listed in the bibliography. In treating the data some care has been taken to follow the steps of the scientific method as far as it can
be applied in a pure sense to a paper of this type*
usual steps of setting up a problem, recording the facts of observation, classification of this information and generalization from these facts has been complied with.
Elements of the historical approach are used.
is resorted to because of the nature of the sources used and also due to the fact that it would seem undesirable to state a hypothesis before the facts are ascertained in this case* Direction is sometimes obtained by posing a question in place of a hypothesis*
The problem has been isolated by p r e
senting the world petroleum picture in the light of the needs of various nations concerned*
Then the problem is examined
from the vantage points of the series of facets mentioned earlier.
Rather than historical discourse one might say
that scientific description has been used in diseussing the series of pertinent specifics*
Necessary historical back
ground in the usual sense has been brought in whenever it serves as proof for statements made, because there is a desire to avoid dogmatic remarks* 17' John C. Almack, Research and Thesis Writing (San Francisco: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1938), p* 63, cites F* Stuart Chapin, Progress in Methods of Inquiry and Research in the Social and Economic Sciences, pp* 390-91, as reducing TEe scientific method to these terms as applied to the Social Sciences. 18 Cf. ante, p. 6.
11 The conclusions have been arrived at by examining the obtainable facts as objectively as possible and stating where these facts lead.
On the basis of these conclusions
a suggested line of action has been set forth.
CHAPTER II PRESENT PETROLEUM STATUS OP THE VARIOUS COUNTRIES The fuel producing compounds available and used in the world today are described by William Hotchkiss as being coal, natural gas, petroleum, water power, wind, and wood* As he goes on to point out, there is a dearth of evidence to the effect that atomic fission can be brought to use in the immediate future as a commercial fuel.'*'
The interest here
is oil, particularly that of the Near East*
In order to
understand the Near Eastern oil situation it is first neces sary to investigate the present status of the petroleum seeking powers in terms of what they have to begin with. There are various estimates of world petroleum re sources which have recently appeared.
In this chapter those
figures are reviewed in order to know the place of oil in the economies of the countries of the world.
ship of home production to need in terns of petroliferous substances for each major country is pointed out.
It is then
possible to present an expansion of the foregoing by de termining the amount of world petroleum resources controlled by interests within each country, and to discuss the location of the world*s total oil output and potential production.
1 William 0. Hotchkiss, "Our Declining Mineral Reserves," Yale Review, 37j70, Autumn, 1947*
HOME PETROLEUM POSSESSIONS OP THE COUNTRIES OP THE WORLD
The United States produces more petroleum within its continental limits than any other single nation.
to Wallace E. Pratt, the total past petroleum discoveries of this nation up to 1945 were in the neighborhood of 48 billion o 3 barrels. In 1945, there were 1,711,103,000 barrels taken 4 out of the ground at a value of f>2,093,300,000. To ac complish this, the United States has done considerable drilling; for example in the twenty-three year period, 1919 through 1941, there were 551,676 wells drilled in the country, and of these 136,381 were failures. of the second World War,
Due to the requirements
it was necessary to contruct, up to
April 1, 1944, 11,388 miles of pipeline in the United States to facilitate an estimated 1,700,000 barrels of oil getting £t to the eastern seashore each day. & Wallace E. Pratt, flQur Petroleum Resources,11 Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1944 (Washington, D.C.: SmithsonTan Institute, 1945}, pT 298. 3 An oil barrel contains 42 gallons and is the measure used by. American groups. Some Europeans use metric tons as a measurement. A metric ton, 2,205'lbs., is equal to 7-g- barrels of 42 gallons. The short ton, 2,000 lbs., is also sometimes used. 4 The Statesman »s Year Book (New Yorks Macmillan and Company, 1947), p. 530. 5 Leonard M. Fanning, editor, Our Oil Resources Yorks McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1945), p. 3. 6 Ibid., p. 313.
14 After the war, production stayed at a high peak. According to some estimates,
it was higher in 1946 than in
any year during the war, the figure being 1,733,424,000 barrels.
The five leading states in production in this country are in order: Kansas.
California, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
The location of these production facilities, on the
gulf coast and mid-continent, play a part in American thought Q
concerning the place of petroleum in the international scene. Q In the important consideration of reserves the United States is reasonably well off until the awesome rate of use is observed.
As of December 31, 1946, composite proved p e
troleum r e s e r v e s ^ totaled some 50,990,095,000 b a r r e l s O n ^ Petroleurn Facts and Figures (eighth edition; New Yorks The American Petroleum Institute, 1947), p. 54, which is an admitted estimate on their part. 8 C f . p o s t , pp. 96, 99. 9 The Petroleum Almanac (New Yorks National Industrial Conference Board, 1946), p. 5?9, states that proved reserves means s ’’The oil in developed or partly developed fields estimated to.be recoverable under existing economic conditions, also called primary reserves. World O i l ; Fact and Policy (New Yorks The Petroleum Industry Research Foundation, Inc., 1944), p. 8, agrees with this and goes on to point out that proved reserves are ”• . . confined to only a part of the oil we actually find. . . . ” and that most oil-scares are based on proved reserves. Reserves in the broad sense means all the oil actually found by drilling* Petroleum Facts and Figures, 1947, p. 82, indicates that composite proved petroleum reserves include: liquid crude oil, natural gas liquids and natural gas equivalents being stated in terms of the oil barrel by using a conversion ratio of 6,000 cubic feet of gas as being equal to one barrel of crude oil. 11 Loc. cit.
15 the question of crude oil reserves fairly well off*
the United States is
Crude oil reserves as of 1946 number some
Petroleum Facts and Figures gives
these crude oil reserves as being 20,873,560,000 barrels which is indicative of how close relatively independent esti mates come to one another. New discoveries of oil in the United States appear to have reached a plateau stage. present concern.
This has an impact on our
Proved reserves number some 1,711,103,000
barrels as of the end of 1 9 4 5 . The line of logic followed by Pratt and others attempts to explain any inferred eventual shortage away by stating that*
(1) less than half the total
area in the United States promising petroleum has been thoroughly explored;
(2) our past experiences have proved
that from 1 to 2 per cent of the total area in which we may reasonably hope to find petroleum actually produces when thoroughly tested.
From this then it is assumed that we shall
12 Reserves used here in the broader sense, note 9 of this chapter.
13 c f . Petroleum Facts and Figures, 1947, p. 83, chart on which chart 1 on page 16 Is based. 14 The Petroleum Almanac, p. 42. 15 Petroleum Facts and Figures, 1947, p. 82. 16 Cf. Ibid., p. 83, and The Petroleum Almanac, p. 42. 17 The Petroleum Almanac, p. 41.
b\U_!OKJ lbA p.R E L S
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1932 '37 "38 "39 '4 0 *4i '4a "45 "44* ''4-5 '46 '4-7
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Petroleum Pacts and Figures, 1947* p. 83*
17 discover as much in the future as has been discovered to date*
We have produced more than 60 per cent of the petro-
leurn the world has consumed to date.
The "X” in the world oil formula is the Soviet Union* Authorities in Russia have been reluctant to release exact figures of production and reserves.
In 1926, a series of
summaries of some of the oil fields of Russia was published by the Council of Petroleum Industry but even this far back no actual estimates were usable.
They were of a descrip
tive nature dealing with the geological features of the regions.
It is to be remembered, however, that oil was
discovered in Russia before it was found in the United States, and at the turn of the century the former supplied 50 per cent of the world market.
Ten years ago Russian estimates
claimed proved and prospective reserves as being 21*6 billion barrels.
American estimates, as well as British, of Russian
16 Wallace E. Pratt, ”0ur Petroleum Resources,” Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1944, pp* 297-8. 19 I b i d ., p. 300. 20 cf. N. Khaliaeve, The Trans-Caucasian Oil Regions (Tiflis-G a n d j a ) (Moscow: The Council of Petroleum Industry, 1926); V . Obruchev, The Oukhta Oil-Bearing Region; V. Obruchev, The Kertch-Tasmsan O i l R e g i o n ; JU Pritula7 The Berekei Oil Region; A. Pritula, The Fergana Oil Region; D. Sokolov, The Oil Regions of the Eastern Coast~~o»T the Caspian S e a . 21 Bernard Brodie and Ruth Adamson, ,!0il Resources of the U.S.S.R.,” Foreign Policy Reports, 23:312, March 1, 1948* 22 Loc. cit.
18 oil run high but not that high*
It is granted by most ob
servers that the oil fields of the Baku region, the north Caucasus,
the Perm Basin and the Turkmen region rank among
the great fields of the world*
In world production of crude petroleum the U.S*S*R. Is ranked second only to the United States by the American Petroleum Institute, with a production in 1938 of 202,290,000 barrels which comprised 10*23 per cent of the total world production,
as compared to 61*33 per cent of the world total
originating in the United States.
In 1945 these production
figures .were up to 300,000,000 barrels according to the esti mates of the Oil Weekly*^ The matter of reserves, proved and otherwise, leaves even more to be desired in the way of completeness.
cally there is a great probability that Siberia and parts of northern China contain vast oil reserves which have never been checked adequately*
For a time before World War II
the U.S.S.R* made a practice of purchasing quantities of gasoline in the California market because of the lesser water 23 The Petroleum Almanac, p. 43. 24 Petroleum Facts and Figures (first edition; New York* The American Petroleum Institute, 1939), p. 51. 25 As cited in The Petroleum Almanac, p. 296* 26 Ronald Buswell Shuman, The Petroleum Indus try (Norman, Oklahoma* The University of Oklahoma Press, 1940), p. 214.
19 rate as compared to the cost of transporting the fuel from the developed southern Russian oil fields to Siberia for local use*
According to one estimate the very minimum of
Russian reserves would be 6 billion barrels*
Most of these
reserves are assumed to be located in the southern part of Russia*
The great Baku fields have long received envious
glances from would-be oil concessioners*
Besides Baku there
are fields on the western shore of the Caspian Sea,
and to the
south, and west of Baku*
Caspian Sea itself*
There are wells in
In addition to these fields of the
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic there are large fields in the Ural mountains and the Azov-Black Sea area and Bashkiria*
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
great oil reserves and Karafuto, in the eastern part of the 29 30 U*S*S*R*, is known to have large petroleum reserves* The fact that the usual estimates of proved reserves have in parenthesis,
ff0utside U.S.S.R.” makes invalid most attempts
at ascertaining the seemingly large reserves of the U*S*S*R*, other than the most generalized statements.
28 Walter M* Puchs, When the Oil Wells Run Dry (Dover, New Hampshire: Industrial Research Service, 1946), p* 236* 29 Japanese Sakhalin obtained by Russia in 1945* 30 The S t a t e s m a n 1s Year Book, 1947, pp. 1297, 1301, 1304, and 1306.
20 estimates have been attempted but are of doubtful validity#
A short while ago there was but on© oil well in the British Isles*
Prom this modest beginning the British have
expanded their home production to some degree# 1944, the D fArcy Exploration Company
Prom 1934 to
probed British soil
some ninety-three times to discover five oil fields and two areas of natural gas which allowed a total of 243 producing wells to go into operation#
In 1945, British wells pro-
duced an inadequate 500,000 barrels#
that they hardly warrant consideration#
Reserves are so low Even the British
published reference work, The State s m a n *s Year Book, doesn*t give the matter any mention.
The French are in an even sadder plight than the British when the matter of domestic petroleum is considered. 31 Leonard M# Panning, Our Oil Resources, p. 30, gives the proved crude-oil reserves of Russia as being 5,661,598,000 barrels of oil as of January 1, 1944. Other authors who give an estimate place the figure at approximately the same amount. C f * "American Petroleum Interests in Foreign Countries," a report submitted October 15, 1945, to the Special Senate Committee Investigating Petroleum Resources as cited in The Petroleum Almanac, p# 305. 32 e. M. Friedwald, Oil and the War (London! William Heineman, Ltd., 1941), p. 7TT, 53
subsidiary of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
34 Walter M# Fuchs, When the Oil Wells Run D r y , p. 94. Th-e Petroleum Almanac, p. 296. 36 C f * The S t a t e s m a n Ts Year B o o k , 1947, passim.
21 They produce as m uch on home soil as do the British, the amount being given as exactly the same in 1945 according to 37 estimates given by The Petroleum Almanac,
They do not even
approach the British in the amount controlled outside of their boundaries, however.
The few French oil resources are
found in the oil fields at Pechelbronn and Bas Rhin,
are refineries in France which have crude distilling capaci ties of some 152,800 barrels a day which is the largest refining capacity of any country in Europe with the exceptions of Russia and Rumania.
" ' Obviously a great deal of the oil
is imported for French refining and use. The smaller countries of Europe produce a little petroleum.
Scattered fields are to be found in Albania,
Czechoslovakia, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Rumania.
Italy, Poland, and
The latter country produces in the vicinity of
33,000,000 barrels a year which is more than the other countries mentioned in this paragraph produce together by 41 about 10,000,000 barrels a year. ^ The Petroleum Almanac, p. 296. 500,000 barrels a year.
The amount is
38 Cf. p o s t , p. 46. 39 f . Gorkin, 0. J. Schmidt, and others, Great Soviet World Atlas (Moscow: Scientific Editorial Institute, 1938), Vol. I, plate 53. .40 The Petroleum Alma n a c , p. 335. 4T I b i d ., p. 296, furnishes the figures upon which these assumptions are based. They are as of 1945 and are considerably lower than pre-war.
22 Th© countries which are heavily industrialized are accustomed to look to the Caribbean area for a large amount of their petroleum supplies*
By far the greatest producer
outside of the gulf coast area of the United States is Venezuela*
This second ranking country in the Caribbean area
ranks third in world production, coming after the United States and the Soviet Union.
The seepage of an almost tar-
like oil has been a good guide to oil locales in Venezuela.
To date there has been an increasing volume of oil taken from these fields with the exception of the years of United States participation in World Wars I and II.
In 1946 a record
388,200,000 barrels of crude petroleum was taken out to make a cumulated total of 3,596,700,000 barrels having been given up in crude petroleum from 1857-1946.
A few years ago
Venezuela was credited with having some 8 billion barrels in estimated reserves.4® 42 Leonard M. Fanning, Our Oil Resources, p. 121. 43 Walter M. Fuchs, When the Oil Wells Run Dry, p. 77. 44 Fanning,
op. cit., p. 14*
45 petroleum Facts and F igures, 1947, p. 208, whose data is taken from the Oil Weekly and the Bureau of Mines. This does not, nor have other figures given before in this paper, include related fuels such ast natural gasoline, benzol, power alochol, and synthetic mineral oils made from coal and shale, unless indicated otherwise by means of footnotes• 46 Fuchs,
ojc>. cit., p. 236.
23 Lying between the gulf coast regions of the United States and the desirable oil fields of Venezuela are the often discussed Mexican oil fields.
An Oil Weekly estimate
placed their production of crude oil at some 41,975,000 barrels during 1945.
This is a considerable decline from
the peak year as far as production goes, which was 1921, that time 193,398,000 barrels were produced.^8
production has more or less leveled out at around 40,000,000 barrels yearly.
The largest producing area of Mexico is
Tuxpan with the Isthmus area second and the Tampico area third.50 Colombia produced 22,743,000 barrels of oil in 1945. Trinidad produced very nearly the same amount.
Outside of what is casually referred to as the Caribbean area by r,oil writers11 there are other smaller fields which are located in Latin America. more than Colombia in 1945.
Argentina produced just slightly Peruvian production is somewhat
below the 13,500,000 barrel mark, according to recent estimates. 47 The Petroleum Almanac, p. 295. 48 cf# lo c ♦ c i t ., and Mexico 1s Oil (Mexico Cityr Government of Mexico, 1940), p. 535. Trend is shown as being the same although Mexican measurements are given In thousands of cubic meters. 49 h o c , c i t . Low point in 1930-46 period was 1932, with 32,805,0OO barrels; high point was 1937, when 46,907,000 barrels were produced. 88 M e x i c o 1s O i l , pp. 131-4. T*1® Petroleum Almanac, p. 295.
24 Ecuador and Bolivia contribute a little oil also*
for several years are considered, Latin American production is leveling out*
Brazil has recently appeared as a South
American oil p r o d u c e r . ^ Burma, India, Japan and Taiwan, British Borneo, Sarawak, Brunei, and other small Par Eastern oil fields. produce among them some 18,400,000 barrels per year* Obviously this was higher before the war but does not alter the relative position of the fields*
The richest fields in
the Par East and Oceanic areas are those of the Netherlands East Indies.
Excepting 1942, they have produced more than
the other combined efforts of the areas mentioned each year, the figure for 1945 being 35,000,000 barrels.
contributed a little during 1946, according to an Oil Weekly estimate.
There was some production there before, but
never an appreciable amount on the world market# Scattered production facilities have been operating in 56 Canada, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and very small 52 The Petroleum Almanac, loc* c i t * Petroleum Facts and Figures, p. 208# 54 CJf. l o c * cit., and The Petroleum Almanac, p. 297. Figures differ considerably for this area but placement is much the s ame • 55 petroleum Facts and Figures, p# 208, citing the Oil Weekly. 56 In particular Egypt, which produces some 9,200,000 barrels per year whereas the rest of Africa produces a scant 25,000 barrels per year. loc* cit* In the rest of this thesis Egypt is considered a part of the Near East in spite of the fact that it is geographically part of Africa.
25 amounts in what is referred to by Petroleum Facts and Figures as "undistributed.rt^ The Near East is assumed by many to possess almost fantastic quantities of oil reserves* as high as 32 billion barrels*
These estimates range
Production figures are not
as large as they might be, due to the dearth of small inde59 pendent, highly competitive companies in the area. In 1945 Iran placed fourth in world oil production figures, being out ranked by the United States, the U.S.S.H. and Venezuela*
1944, Iran passed the 100,000,000 barrels a year mark, being one of only four countries in the world which accomplished this.
Production has soared since then until a recent
estimate places their figures at 146,500,000 barrels a year. After Iran came Iraq in oil production in the Near Eastern area up to 1946.
The year 1946 saw the American
developed Saudi Arabian fields surpass the Iraq area even though we consider Iraq in geographical terms and include Kuwait.
Iraq and Kuwait produced 41,900,000 barrels of oil
57 Ibid., pp. 208, 210. 58 Arabian Oil and the World Oil Shortage (San F r a n c i s c o A r a b i a n American 0 II Company, n . d •), p . 5. 59 James Gerald Crowther, About Petroleum (New York: Oxford University Press, 1938), p. 15. 60 Walter M. Fuchs, When the Oil Wells Run D r y , p. 97. 61 Petroleum Facts and F igures, p. 208. 62 Loc. cit.
26 whereas Saudi Arabian fields gave up some 60,500,000 barrels in 1946*
Of course if the term 1857-1946 is considered, and
the cumulated total production is considered, second to Iran,
as this country produced 320,476,000 barrels
as compared to 112,902,000 barrels from Saudi Arabia in the same period*
The Arabian American Oil Company
what different estimates and places the estimate at 112,346,000 barrels produced in Saudi Arabia up to the end of 1946.
Total production through 1947 is given at 202,198,235 barrels for Saudi Arabia and 84,999,000 barrels for the production achievement of the off-shore island of Bahrein.
fields of coming importance are located in the Sheikdom of Qatar ( s i e j , ^ and exploratory ventures are underway in Cyprus, Trans-Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Oman, Dhofar,
Coast and.Syria.68 Loc. c i t . C f . The Petroleum Almanac. There is some difference of opinion on production in recent yeiars. Petroleum Facts and Figures offer no figures for 1945, stating that data is not available although it was published a year later than The Petroleum A l m anac. Both cite the Oil Weekly as the source of information and these figures are admi11edly an estimate. 64 Usually referred to as Aramco in most writings. 65 Arabian Oil and the World Oil Shortage, p. 13, furnishes an excellent chart upon which this is based. 66 It will be recalled that Bahrein is an independent Sheikdom not politically responsible in any way to Saudi Arabia. 67 The consonant rfq fl is not followed by lfu" in trans lations of Arabic names. 68 S u m m a r y ; Middle East Oil Developments (second edition; San Francisco; Arabian American Oil Company, 1947), pp. 24, 28, 29, and 30.
27 The entirety of Near Eastern output has steadily risen since production on a commercial scale began in 1913, until by 1944 the Near East was producing 16.5 per cent of world production outside the United States.
An estimate of
recent vintage places the area *s proved reserves as being 42.3 per cent of the world total and a daily production average in 1947 as comprising 10.5 per cent of the w o r l d ’s total.
There are numerous opinions as to the productive
capacities of the Near East, but it can be accepted that the area is indeed rich.
It is said that Saudi Arabia alone can
produce over 700,000 barrels per day by 1952, for production can be brought on the scene.
Having examined the estimates of oil production in specific countries it becomes possible to determine distri bution by general geographic areas.
It is agreed that all
the large oil fields were begun w hen volumes of marine sedi ments,
rich in organic matter were laid down.
As Pratt points
outs • • • But for sediments to accumulate to a great depth it is necessary for the sea floor to subside as fast as the load of sediments is laid down upon it; otherwise the area fills up and becomes land, and sedi mentation ceases. Hence the search for petroleum turns to the unstable belts of the earth*s crust where there is delicate, prompt response to any change in l o a d . 72 69 The “Petroleum A l m anac, p. 303. 70 Summary? Middle East Oil Developments, p. 3. VI Arabian Oil and the World Oil Shortage, p. 17. 72 Wallace Everett Pratt, p. 301.
tf0ur Petroleum Resources,"
28 As he goes on to say, there are two common environ ments often occurring which provide for accumulation of the makings of petroleum.
There are seas which have fine muds
coming into them so fast that the bottom layer of water be comes too foul to permit the presence of oxygen or marine creatures of size.
In addition there are the nearly or
completely land-locked seas In which evaporation becomes quite intense and the water becomes overly salty so as to cause what he terms "evaporites”
to accumulate on the
bottom and very little oxygen is in the water* several such areas in the world.
The best known depressed area between great land masses is partly covered by what is known to us as the Persian Gulf, the Mediterranean, Red, Black,
and Caspian Sea.
Another great area of the same type is the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Asia and Australia.
Still another is the island area between 76
Another such zone is the area covered
73 Limestone, dolomite, substances.
salt, anhydrite, and other
74 Pratt, o p . c i t ., p. 301-2. 75 Wilbur Prank Cloud, Petroleum Production (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959), passim, furnishes an interesting source of the technical aspects involved in the creation of petroleum, as well as how to get it out, how it is prospected for, and many other physical, chemical, bio logical, and engineering details* 76 Pratt, ojo. c i t ., pp. 302-3.
by a polar Ice cap in the Arctic circle.
the most important of these as being the Near Eastern Area.
P r o m a close examination of the figures it will be observed that the bulk of the w o r l d Ts petroleum has come from the Caribbean area if we include the gulf coast area of the United States.
In the matter of reserves, however,
now be assumed that the opinions of oil men tend to favor the Near East as the area producing the greatest reserves.
will also be well to recall that Russians great oil fields are in the general area of the Near East.
East Indies area and environs run a poor third.
Pole field has not been adequately explored for petroleum, although oil seepages have been noted by explorers in that region.
Russian scientists have interested themselves in
this area more than any other group.
Chart 2 presented on the following page provides a summary of world proved reserves, by area, as compared to average daily production.
77 I b i d ., pp. 303-4. 78 Pratt, o£. cit., p. 303. This is not an omniscient statement on his part as he goes on to point out that after all one third of the land surface of the globe has at one time or another been carved by seas and thus it is possible that there are other fields which have not yet been dis covered. Ibid., p assim.
W E A £
t s d
PROVED RESERVES B U S S IA
OTP HR NOfc: AMEtl C.A «e/
1947 daily^ vss&ge^qductiok CHART 0
PROVED RESERVES AMD 1947 DAILY AVERAGE PRODUCT!OH
Summary: Middle East Oil Developments* p* 3*
PETROLEUM HAVES AHD HAVE-NOTS
If the discussion is confined to the Great Powers it would seem impossible to find a single country which is completely content with its own petroleum resources, with the possible exception of Soviet Russia.
Some expect it
even to threaten the marketing of petroleum products of the United States.
It is assumed that Russia used about
189.000.000 barrels of petroleum in 1940, not including military usage. The lesser powers do not approach the oil consumption figures of the great powers and thus countries such as Venezuela, Colombia, Saudi Arabia, and other areas of great petroleum production potential have not entered the picture as competitors for control of the world*s petroleum resources. In 1940, for example,
the only countries consuming over
20.000.000 barrels per year were: Germany,
Argentina, Canada, Prance,
Japan, Netherlands West Indies, U.S.S.R., United
80 Richard W. Van Alstyne, "Arabian American Entente,11 Current History, new series 13:137, September, 1947. 81 L. M. Herman, !lExport Ebb and Plow of Russian Petroleum,11 Foreign Commerce Weekly, 12:5, 47, April. 7, 1945. 82 The Petroleum Almanac, p. 342. This includes re lated products such as natural gasoline, benzol, power alcohol and synthetic mineral oils from coal and shale. The original source for consumption figures in the U.S.S.R. for 1940 for this work and Petroleum Facts and Figures was Foreign Oil Department, Cities Service Oil Company*
32 Kingdom, and the United States*
Countries not listed in
the last sentence are not considered as being factors in demand for petroleum and herewith are dismissed from con sideration except for matters in w hich their productivity is of concern* The United States may be termed a borderline case in terms of satiability.
The United States has used a little
over 60 per cent of the w o r l d Ts total production because of its highly industrialized state and the somewhat morbid attachment of its citizens to the automobile.
The year 1947
marked a turning point in the role of a net exporter to that of net importer*
From the year 1938 to 1947, United States
oil consumption increased about 75 per cent.
It does not
necessarily follow that the United States is not capable of producing sufficient oil to fill its demand at the present if production were boosted by technological improvements and other means, but it would be well to recall that the United States is reaching a plateau stage in the question of domestic 86 reserves* It is assumed that demand in the United States for petroleum products will continue to go up and any Q5 L o c .T"cit*, Military requirements are not included. Cf. post* f o r “chart on consumption and production figures. 8^ Arabian Oil and the World Oil Shortage, p. 1.
85 Ibid.* P* 3. 86 Cf. a nte., p. 16.
33 industrialization program abroad will also add a further drain on available petroleum products.
A late reliable
figure for United States petroleum consumption is for 1941, the figure being 1,494,779,000 barrels.8^ The United Kingdom consumes more petroleum than any European country with the exception of Russia.
A preliminary 88 report for 1940 placed this at 50,000,000 barrels. The greater bulk of this is imported*
Prance is also an importing nation is
Importations do not
for Great Britain,
as far as petroleum
amount to as much as those
the reason being that French consumption
is lower, the amount having been but 10,000,000 barrels in 1941.
This is unusually low for French consumption.
even when a year such as 1938 is used, French consumption shows 49,100,000 barrels as contrasted to 90,300,000 barrels for Great Britain in the same year*
Production and consumption figures for the countries of
world are given in Table I.
This contains not only a
Petroleum Facts and F i g u r e s , p. 212. These figures include military requirements and butane-propane. 88 The Petroleum A l m anac, p. 342. A revised estimate by Petroleum Facts and Figures verifies this figure and shows a sharp decline for 1940. Prior to 1940, consumption was even higher. 89 cf, p o s t ., p. 38. ^ ££.• PQtroleum Facts and Figures, p. 212, and The Petroleum Almanac, p. 342*
.34 summary of those nations who have not been discussed in this thesis, but provides a review of the Great Power figures* The sheikdoms of the Near East are included*
sources there is a consistent lag between time of publication of supply figures and consumption estimates by approximately five years.
back to 1941 as a
to get an exact count
it is necessary to go
base year in order to obtain reliable
figures in regards to production and consumption. III.
SOURCES OF SUPPLY FOR PETROLEUM SEEKING POWERS
From the figures in the following table It is ascer tainable that two
countries of our world are required by need
to import a great
amount of petroleum.
France and Great Britain. planet,
These countries are
The two great powers of this
the U.S.S.R. and the United States can, if need be,
fulfill their immediate requirements from domestic supply. In peace time, however, neither power has good reason to avoid the use of foreign oil.
There is the ever present
desire to get the raw materials to markets as cheaply as possible and thus these countries are decidedly interested 91 in obtaining what might be termed "easy oil.11 There is 91 By this is meant oil which is close to markets and easy to obtain. As is pointed out in the work Arabian Oil and the World Oil Shortage, p. 16, the average well in the Near East produces 5,600 barrels per day whereas the average South American well produces 164 barrels per day and those of the United States average but 12 barrels per day.
35 TABLE I HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barrels?*
AFRICA Algeria Belgian Congo
Production figures for Algeria unavailable 500 1,855 1,100 1,850 1,990 0 338
French West Africa
Italian East Africa
Portuguese East Africa
Kenya, Uganda, Zanzibar
0 0 0 344 350 418 See end of table for footnote marked A . indicates small undeterminable amount*
56 TABLE I (cont inue d ) 9
HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OP PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barrels)
t • •
Union of South, Africa EUROPE Albania Austria
Germany (old Reich produc tion)
718 383 693 692 Consumption figures listed with Germany 0 5,810
120 119 109 Consumption figures listec with Germany
37 TABLE I (continued) HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of* Barrels)
0 2 ,350
Irish Free State Italy
3,898 3,891 3,319 Consumption listed with Germany
38 TABLE I (continued) HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OP PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barrels)
U#S#S#R, United Kingdom
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
Yugoslavia WORTH AMERICA15
^ including Central America,
0 _ 1,100 _
39 TABLE I (continued) HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barrels)
0 • ♦•
Netherlands West 0 18,050 Indies
Panama Canal Zone
Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico
United 1,279, 160 1,214, 355 1,264 ,962 1, 351,847 1, 402, 228( States 1,169, 682 1,137, 123 1,231 ,076 1, 323,400 1, 494,779 © when natural gas, benzol,^ power alcohol, and synthetic mineral oils from coal and shale are included the production figure is somewhat larger than consumption for 1941*
TABLE I (continued) HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OP PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barrels)
0 . 5,465
24,533 3 ,200
SOUTH AMERICA Argentina Bolivia Brazil British Guiana Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
0 2 ,480
0 3 ,300
A SIAd British India
2,488 2,162 16,150 15,450 d. excepting the Near Eastern area*
41 TABLE I (continued) HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OP PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barrels)
7,848 • mm
m mm 6,600
Netherlands East Indies
Sarawak and Brunei
Hongkong Indo China
Siam OCEANA Australia Fiji Islands
42 TABLE I (continued) HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OP PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barries)
0 • • ♦
NEAR EAST Aden Bahrein Cyprus
• • *
Dhofar Egypt Hadhramaut
66,900 9, 660
e - indicates no statistics available*
45 TABLE I (continued) HOME PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OP PETROLEUM PRODUCTS (Thousands of Barrels)
Oman Palestine Qatar
0 1,770 -
0 1,700 -
0 1,630 -
0 1,150 -
0 1,280 -
0 1,330 rm
0 1,125 -
0 870 :
■** Includes military requirements only in the case of the United States • The upper figure in each pair is for The lower figure is for production of thousands of barrels. Estimates were comparec consumption in thousands of barrels. and the lower figure taken throughout in the few instances where there was a marked difference of opinion* Consumption figures include natural gas, benzol, synthetic mineral oils from coal and shale in addition to petroleum* Production figures refer to crude oil production. Source: Petroleum Facts and F i g u r e s , sixth edition, p* 9; seventh edition, pp. 16-19; eighth edition, pp. 208-9, 212-13; The Petroleum Almanac, pp* 293-8, 342, furnished the figures from which the above figure is compiled.
44 also apparent a growing concern for the conservation of natural resources on home soil.
Sometimes the prospect of
cheaper labor in certain parts of the world makes concessionering attractive*
Thus each country needing crude petroleum
in quantities has cause to look to foreign sources of supply* The conclusions reached by the Group on Petroleum Interests in Foreign Countries in its report to the United States Senate Committee Investigating Petroleum Resources very well sum up the feelings of any of the powers as applied to its individual position in the case of obtaining foreign supplies of oil: Participation in the development of oil production and reserves and in petroleum refining, transportation and marketing in foreign countries by American oil companies has had a sixfold importance* First, it has enabled us to maintain abroad an American business of large proportions with resulting benefits to our nation* Second, it has made it possible for this country to supplement United States reserves in carrying on a world petroleum trade in which American capital pioneered and still has a tremendous investment* Third, only by such activities could American interests meet foreign competition that derives oil supplies from both foreign and United States sources* Fourth, with respect to Western Hemisphere develop ment, it is insurance of contiguous, readily marketable supplies against the day when to fill the United States » needs will require greater supplement from abroad* Fifth, participation in foreign oil development is a means toward world peace in guaranteeing Americancontrolled supplies for national defense in strategic ally located parts of the globe and is so recognized by our state, War, and Navy Departments*
45 Sixth, the United States, accounting for about twothirds of the entire world*s petroleum consumption, is compelled to control an adequate share of foreign oil production and reserves to ensure high living standards in its domestic economy. At the same time participation by American oil companies in foreign business has also afforded broad social and economic benefits to the foreign countries themselves. Among such things are the following: 1. That the development of natural resources with the aid of foreign capital greatly benefits the people of the country in which the investments are made. 2. That these activities create new productive wealth. - 3. That this in turn, stimulates trade not only with the investing nation but also with the rest of the world. ............................................................. 92 A table recently published is here presented to give an over-all projection of ownership of foreign crude oil production. The situation shown for 1944 in Table II has undergone considerable change in a relatively short time.
entire world production figures for 1945 are considered, Near Eastern oil was accounting for 7.27 per cent of the total; 93 94 8.89 per cent in 1946, and 10.5 per cent in 1947. There 92 As quoted by Leonard M. Fanning, American Oil Operations Abroad (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947), pp. 175-80. 93 "Middle East Oil Output Increased by 29 Fer Cent," Middle East Economic Service, 1:1, August, 1947. 94 s u m mary: Middle East Oil Developments, p. 3; C f • ante, p. 31.
TABLE II CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES BY MAJOR NATIONALITIES (In Barrels Daily)
% of area
% or Total Foreign Source;
Europe & % of Near & fo of Africa area Mid.East area
% Of area
. . •.
. ♦. •
% of area
405,167 100.0 109,500 100.0
Leonard M. Fanning, American Oil Operations Abroad (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947), pp. 204-14, has table upon which this is based* These figures are for 1944.
47 has been a decline in Caribbean production. decided shift in supply sources*
This marks a
There is a change in the
petroliferous center of gravity when the matter is considered solely in economic terms.
But more important even than production in long range strategic consideration is the matter of reserves. reserves, proven and otherwise,
are of course subject to
great change due to technological improvements and extended exploration efforts.
The present situation follows in some
detail. A general area distribution has been presented before.
A breakdown into more specific countries within those areas according to one c o m p a n y ’s figures is given in the following chart on page 48. Control of these reserves is an issue complicated by the inter-relationships between the various companies.
attempt is made by Panning to determine the percentages of ownership by each petroleum controlling country in foreign QQ lands as is also attempted by The Petroleum Almanac. As the 95 Bernard Brodie, ’’American Security and Foreign O i l , ” Foreign Policy R e p orts, 23:298, March 1, 1948. 96 I b i d ., p. 300. 97 cf. ante, p. 31. 9®
P o s t , P* 55.
99 Leonard M. Fanning* American Oil Operations A b r o a d , p. 70, citing ’’American Petroleum Interests in Foreign Countries.” A report submitted on October 15, 1945, by a group of American oil companies to the Special Senate Com mittee Investigating Petroleum Resources.
PETROLEUM RESERVES OP THE WORLD 70,400,000,000 Barrels '
EAST BIL.UOM -i.AW^E’-'1,
UjkllTrD STAT^ si 20
S1 U l m*s
.b K’-f? .6 )Fm
CHART 3 Sources
Summary: Middle Bast Oil Developments, p. 4.
49 approach is decidedly different in each case it is permissible to present both of them to best advantage.
tation is submitted in Chart 4 on page 50* To consolidate these figures into percentages for each owner, although these are taken from the same basic source as that used by Fanning,
the compilation of The Petroleum Almanac
is presented in Table III. By comparing production figures with the figures on reserves it can be seen that in the past the Caribbean area has produced the great bulk of the world*s oil if we include the southerly parts of the United States as being an integral part of this area.
The general flow of exported petroleum
has been from "Western Hemisphere" to "Eastern Hemisphere.". In contrast, the most part of the world*s reserves are in the Near East.
In general it is possible to say that the United
States is the chief controller of reserves in the "Western Hemisphere," with British Dutch interests some distance behind. American, British, reserves.
and Dutch groups share the Near Eastern
French reserve areas are included to some extent
in British and Dutch interests. reserves outside the U.S.S.R.
Russia has but negligible
although attempts have been
made to expand home production and at the same time build up reserves both at home and abroad.
BISTRJBOTIOB OF OWNERSHIP OF WORLD OIL RESERVES INCLUDING UNITED STATES
DCS AMsAs JS#
////£ \ L!LUTED STATED
SJ* o rH e .*,, w r - i t f c
i /i£SPW AFRICA .1S'
L&&£*.i 'OF VCR.I.D
cp.uue, c-t u rksflrls
SEfTESsUT^ T>R©PC>wmoM OP* O V M K R .SU IP 'ME?ACU £at=0 i V4G*
f .£TCULtDlM,AK.HA.i-m i ‘< , »T e>s?!r*b^\r pi. / OTP FR =0 26 DUTO-P VOL
‘ Y'OT/V- Eie.S«R.VE:£ ■ A 3 ..7 7 2 ,3 > 0 . 0 6 0
4 2 .'
TABLE III ESTIMATED FOREIGN PETROLEUM RESERVES, BY LOCATION AND OWNERSHIP AS OF JANUARY 1, 1945
Ownership of Reserves
% of Total Amer Brit. Forican Dutch eign
« •• •
• • «•
• • ••
• « ••
• • ••
CJI ro • 00
Location of Reserves
Millions of Barrels British Other Foreign American Dutch
TOTAL Foreign excluding Russia 17,371.7
TOTAL Foreign including Russia 17,371.7
Caribbean Other Western Hemispheres TOTAL Western Hemisphere
Europe (excluding Russia) Africa Near East Far East (excluding Sakhalin) Oceana TOTAL Eastern Hemisphere (exeluding Russia) Russia in Europe and Asia
The Petroleum Almanac (New York: National Indus trial Conference Board, 1946), p ,
3 0 5 .
CHAPTER III ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE NEAR EAST In Chapter II an examination of production, con sumption and control of reserves was made with a view toward placing the Near Eastern oil situation in its proper setting. There is no desire to over amplify the importance of this petroleum to the powers concerned over the area nor on the other hand to make a gross underestimate. The economic ramifications of the problem of Near Eastern petroleum production and resources are examined in this chapter.
To do this, three questions are posed which
are answered in the following pages.
(1) What is the present
situation of private and governmental economic agencies of the Great Powers in the Near East?
(2) What are the arguments
advanced by authoritative sources on the place of Near Eastern oil in economic considerations?
(3) What are the plans for
the future and what are the resultant possibilities stemming from such plans? I.
ACTIVITIES OP GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE ECONOMIC AGENCIES IN THE NEAR EAST The great possibilities of the petroleum resources of
the Near Eastern area have been subject to a continuous
53 development since the turn of the century,^
As is the case
with most international petroleum developments the great bulk of production,
transport and marketing facilities
fall into the hands of just a few large combines*
came to The
octopus-like organization of these companies becomes exceed ingly difficult to trace.
A n attempt to illustrate all of
the involved inter-relationships in the international control of petroleum developments is made by William J, Kemnitzer*
If the multiple affiliates and subsidiaries and behind-thescenes arrangements are omitted,
it is possible to summarize
the holdings of major companies in the Near Eastern part of the world intelligibly.
A map is presented on page 54 with
an explanatory key on page 55 for purposes of clarification* Chief among the large companies in the Near East is the Iraq Petroleum Company*
Until 1933, when the Saudi
Arabian concession was obtained by the Arabian-American Oil Company, all of the oil of the Near East was controlled by this consortium.^
The Iraq Petroleum Company in turn is
1 Margaret Boveri, Minaret and Pipe-Line (London; Oxford University Press, 1939), p. 225. The entire work gives a great deal of the early history of concession seekers in the area. 2 Ladislas Farago, "inside Report on the Palestine Fiasco," United Nations W o rld, 2:10, May, 1948. 3 William J. Kemnitzer, Rebirth of Monopoly (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1938), pp. 42, 43, and 173* 4 John A. Loftus, "Middle East Oils The Pattern of Control," The Middle E a s t .Journal, 2:17, January, 1948.
OIL ENTERPRISE IS TBS SEAR EAST K A .V * t E U T
U. 5-5. p.
«tS*J!AVl oli. ;
C J ir
J tT S O v -lU M
D E V E 'J l P M C N 't
:( S Y E I A
C O .
.N U A M ftK i
V B T V X I.
lABAa^AM AUBMCAU Si ' \QMA M
v9 / k w ? •
r'A kr /^1 /•s'"''
EGYPTIAN S UDAM
O',’ _ F1HUOS
55 KE Y TO PRIVATE OWNERSHIP MAP
P E T R O L E U M D E V E L O P M E N T (C Y P R U S ) L T D .
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CONCESSION : T E R M - O R I G I N A L A R E A --66 Y E A R S J U L Y 15. 193.1. ADDIIIONAI. A R E A 66 Y E YRS JULY 21, 19.19. AREA A P P R O X I M A T E L Y 440,000 SQ. A1H.ES EXPI RES 1999 OWNERSHIP : (BASED O N P E N D I N G N E G O T I A T I O N S ) l\-r Harry Saint John Bridger, A r a b i a . S c r i b n e r ’s Sons, 1930. 387 pp.
New York: C.
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Shuman, Ronald Buswell, The Petroleum Industry, an Economic Survey. Norman: The University of Oklahoma Iress, 1940• 297 pp. Speiser, Ephraim Avigdor, The United States and the Near E a s t . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1947. 263 pp. Spykman, Nicholas John, America »s Strategy in World Politics. New York: Hareourt, Brace and Company, 1942. 500 pp. ________ , The Geography of the Peace. Brace and Company, 1944. 66 pp.
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157 Stark, Freya, The Arab Island; The Middle E a s t , 1959-45, le w York; A. A# Knopf, 1945, 235 pp. Steiner, M. J., Inside Pan-A r a b i a . Bloomington, Pantagraph Press, 1947, 237 p p .
Summary; Middle East Oil Developments. Second edition; San Francisco; Arabian American Oil Company, 1948. 30 pp. Towle; Lawrence W., International Trade and Commercial P o licy. New York; Harper and Brothers, 1947. 780 pp. Toynbee, Arnold Joseph, and Kenneth P. Kirkwood, Turk e y . New York; C. Scribner*s Sons, 1927. 329 pp. Twitchell, Karl Saben, Saudi Arabia. University Press, 1947. 192 pp. Van Ess, John, Meet the Arab. Company, 1943. 229 pp.
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Visson, Andre, The Coming Struggle for P e ace. Viking Press, 1944. 301 pp.
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Warriver, Doreen, Land and Poverty in the Middle E a s t . London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1948. 148 pp. Watkins, Myron Webster, O i l : Stabilization or Conservation? A Case Study in the Organization of Industrial Control. New York; Harper and Brothers, 1937. 267 pp. Wells, Sumner, An Intelligent A m e r i c a n 1s Guide to the P eace. New York; The Dryden Press, 1945. 370 pp. Whittlesey, Derwent Stainthorpe, Charles C. Colly and Richard Hartshorse, German Strategy of World Conquest. New York: Farrar and Rine h a r t , Inc., 1942. 293 pp. Whittlesey, Derwent Stainthorpe, The Earth and the S t a t e : A Study of Political G eography. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1939. 618 pp. Willert, Sir Arthur, Aspects of British Policy. Oxford University Press, 1928. 141 pp.
Williams, Benjamin Harrison, Economic Foreign Policy of the United Sta t e s . New York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1929. 426 pp.
158 Wilson, Charles Morrow, Oil Across the W o r l d # New York: Longmans, Green and Company, T946. 318 pp. Wilson, Sir Arnold T., P e r s i a . Sons, 1933. 400 pp.
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161 Frechtling, Louis E., "United States Uses Oil as Instrument of Policy," Foreign Policy Bulletin, n.v.:2-3, August 8, 1941. "Functional Collaboration in World Affairs," Nature, 152:671-3, December 11, 1943. Gaskill, Gordon, "Our Partner in Oil," American, 144:34 ff., October, 1947. Gibb, H. A. R., and others, "The Near East," University of Chicago Round Table, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, June 28, 1942. Grew, Richard, "Organization of Trade in the Middle East: Setup and Functions of the Middle East Supply Centre and Its Results Since Being Established in 1941," Canadian E x p o r t e r , n.v.:12 ff, November, 1944* Gupta, Raj Narain, "Iranian Oil," Journal of Indian Institute of International A f f airs, 3:11-28, January, 1947. Hallett, Robert M . , "Many Hues to Desert Oil," The Christian Science Monitor Magazine Section, n.v.:2, April 23, 1949. Hanna, P. L . , "The Middle East in the Post-War World: Power Politics in the Arab World is a Dangerous Game," Current History, new series, 10:48-55, January, 1946. Hart, W. E . , "Strategic Importance of the Middle East," Dalhousie Review, 26:135-41, July, 1946. Hearn, Arthur, "Oil and the Middle East," International A f f a i r s , 24:63-75, January, 1948. Henderson, L. W., "American Political and Strategic Interests in the Middle East and Southeastern Europe," Academy of Political Science, Proceedings, 22:451-9, January, 1948. Henry, J. C., "Ibn Saud Rubs a Magic Lamp: Venture Capital Helped W i n the Greatest Single Asset Among Our Many Foreign Commitments," Nations Business, n.v.:36-8, ff., January, 1948. Herman, L. M., "Export Ebb and Flow of Russian Petroleum," Foreign Commerce W e e k l y , 19:5-9 ff., April 7, 1945. Heymann, H . , "American Aid to the Middle East," Fortnightly, new series, 163:96-101, February 1, 1948.
162 Hitti, Philip K . , "Conflicts in the Arab East," The Virginia Quarterly R e view, 22*32-47, Winter, 1946, Holme, Christopher, "The Middle East* A Depressed Area," Petroleum Times Review of Middle Eastern Oil, Export N umber:102-5, June, T948* Hoskins, Halford L . , "Background of the British Position in Arabia," Middle East Journal, 1*137-47, April, 1947. Hotchkiss, William 0., "Our Declining Mineral Reserves," Yale Review, 37:68-79, Autumn, 1947. Hutchison, K * , "Oil: East and West," Nation, 1947.
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164 Morgan, Edward P., and Harrison E. Salisbury, f,Oil Troubles I r a n ’s W a t e r s , ” Colliers, 119-21 IT., April 5, 1947. Neal, Sydney J., !fOil Profits and E.R.P.,” The Nat ion, 167*632-33, December 4, 1948. "Near East and British Foreign Policy,” Great Britain and the E a s t , '52*466, April 27, 1939. Neumann, Emanuel, ’’Economic Regionalism in the Near E a s t , ” Jewish Fron t i e r , n . v . *10-14, March, 1943. ”New Major Oil Field Found Near Caspian Sea,” Science News Letter, 52*249, October 18, 1947. ”New Middle East Oil Pact,” Business W e e k , n . v . *114-15, December 4, 1948. ”New Middle East Oil Policy,” Business W e e k , n . v . *117-18, June 26, 1948. Odhe, Thorsten, ’’Control of World Oil Resources,” Review of International Cooperation, 40*125-32, August, 1947. ’’O i l , ” Economic Service A g ency, Topic of the Month, n.v. *1-8, July, 1948. ’’Oil, Communications, and Bases,” Nation, 164*601-3, May 17, 1947. ’’Oil and Politics,” New Statesman and N a t i o n , 27*269, April 22, 1944. ’’Oil Concession in Saoudi-Arabia, ” Great Britain and the East, 53:185, August 17,. 1939. ’’Oil Discovered in Saoudi-Arabia,” Great Britain and the East, 51*469, October 27, 1938. Oil-Field Engineer (pseudonym), ’’The Oil Situation in the Middle E a s t , ” The Far Eastern R e v i e w , 37*288-290, August, 1941. ’’Oil in the Middle Easts The First Agreement,” Fortune, 30*113-4, October, 1944. ’’Oil: Number One Problem in World Politics,” United Nations World, 1*32-3, July, 1947.
165 "Oil on the Middle East Chessboard,11 Great Britain and the E a s t , 65:42-5, September, 1947. "Oil that Hitler Covets," Illustrated London News, 198:661-3, May 24, 1941. "Other Developments in the Near and Middle East," Documents on American Foreign Relations, pp. 340-4, 1940-41. Parr, G., "Behind the Palestine Mess: Reply with Rejoiner," American Mercury, 67:632-6, -November, 1948. Patch, B. W., "Oil of the Middle East," Editorial Research Reports, n . v . *309-28, April 23, 1947. Peretz, D., "Middle East Oil and the Marshall Plan," United Nations W o r l d , 3:46-9, February, 1949. "Persian 0I1--A Soviet Bone of Contention in the Middle East," Illustrated London N e w s , 121:347, September 27, 1947. "Petroleum and Power Politics," Scholastic, 51:7-9, 1948.
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167 Sykes, Percy, "The Hole of the Middle E a s t , ” Royal Central Asian Journal, 28:47-67, January, 1941* Teller, J. L., "Behind P ale s t i n e fs Arab Armies: Power Politics and Mid-East Intrigue,” Commentary, 3:243-9, March, 1947. ________ , "The Arab States— Dependents of the West," Palcor Middle East Bulletin, 1:1-3, February 20, 1948. "Text of the Chester Concession," Current History, 18:485-9, June, 1927. "The Great Oil Deals," F ortune, 35:138-43, May, 1947. "The Middle East: Political and Strategic Position," Bulletin of International News, 17:143-55 ff., February 10-24, T94U~. "The Middle East Supply Centre: Organization and Functions; Regional Planning and International Cooperation," Bulletin of International News, 21:619-25, August 5, September 2, 1944. "The Near East: An Economic and Strategic Outline," Economist, 138:557-9, March 30 - April 6, 1940. "The Oil Concessions and Palestine,” Bulletin of the Economic Research Institute of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, 5:80-2, May, 1939. "The Oil Fields of Saudi Arabia,” Standard of California Bulletin, 32:1-11, Autumn, 1941H "The Oil Forum Map of Middle East Oil," Oil F o r u m , n.v.:l, October, 1947. Thornburg, Max Weston, "Political Problems and Policies," Petroleum Times Review of Middle East O i l , Export Number: 99-101, June, 1948. Tokayer, 0., "War for Oil in the East," Great Britain and the E a s t , 57:6-7, November 22, 1941. "Too M u c h Oil: A m e r i c a s 1 Worry," United States N e w s , 26:34, April 1, 1949. "Troubles of Oil," F o r t u n e , 31:231, January, 1945. "Two Worlds for Oil,” Business W e e k , n.v.:85-6, April 5, 1947.
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AUTOBIOGRAPHIES, BIOGRAPHIES, AND MEMOIRS
Churchill, Winston S., The V/orld Crises 1918-1928: The Aftermath. New York: Charles Scribner»s Sons, 1929. 496 pp. Jellicoe, Admiral Viscount, The Crises of the Naval W a r . New York: George H. Doran Company, n.d. 33l pp* _______ , The Grand Fleet 1914-1916: Its Creation, Development and W o r k . New York: George H. Doran Company, 1919. “ 509 pp. Lawrence, Thomas Edward, Revolt in the Desert. George H. Doran Company, 19*277 335 pp.
________, Seven Pillars of W i n d o w s : A Triumph. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 1935. 672 pp. Ludendorff, General Erich Von, L u d e n d o r f f 1s Own S t o r y : August 1914 - November 1 9 1 8 . London: Harper and Brothers, n.d. 2 vols* ________, The General Staff and Its Problems♦ Hutchinson and Company, n.d. 2 vols.
Nicolson, Harold, Curzon--The Last Phase, 1919-1925. Constable and Company, L t d •, 1957• 416 pp.
PUBLICATIONS OP LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Arab Progress in Palestine* New York: The Institute of Arab American Affairs, I n c •, 1946* Badeau, John S., East and West of S u e z . Headline Books, No. 39. New York: Foreign Policy Association, Inc., 1943* 94 pp. Bain, Harry Foster, Ores and Industry in the Far E a s t : The Influence of K e y Mineral Resources on the Development of Oriental Civilization. New Yorks Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 1933* 288 pp. Bain, Joe S., "War Agency Records Concerning Petroleum and Solid F u e l s , ” American Economic R e v i e w , Vol. 37, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Fifty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, Atlantic City, New Yorkr American Economic Association, May, 1947. pp. 667-670. Brodie, Bernard, Foreign Oil and American Security, Yale Institute of International Studies, No~ 25, Frederick S. Dunn, Director. New Havens Yale University Press, 1947. 32 p p . De Golyer, of the af the 1947. 1947.'
E., ’’The Oil Fields of the Middle E a st,” Problems Middle East. Proceedings of a conference held School of Education, New York University, July 5, 6, New York: American Christian Palestine Committee,
Gayer, Arthur D., and Carl T. Schmidt, American Economic Foreign Policy; Postwar History, Analysis, and InterpretationT New York: American Coordinating Committee for International Studies, 1939. 286 pp. Gibb, H. A. R., and others, ”The Near E a s t ,” University of Chicago Round Table, June 28, 1942. Chicago: The * University of Chicago Press, 1942. 96 pp. Harris, F. S., The Future of the Near East, Institute of World Affairs, Proceedings, 1941. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1942. Pp. 174-81. Hossain, Syud, ”The Situation in the Near E a s t , ” Proceedings of the Institute of World Affairs, No. 16. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press, 1938. Pp. 225-37.
171 Miser, Hugh Dinsmore, Our Petroleum Supply. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, 1939* Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1940* Pp. 303-18. Oil Conservation and Fuel Oil Supply. Conference Board.
Petroleum Industry Research Foundation, World O i l : Fact and Policy. New York: The Petroleum Industry Research Foundation, Inc., 1944. 79 pp. Pratt, Wallace Everett, Our Petroleum Resources. Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report, 1944. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1945. Pp. 297-306. Reitzel, William, The United States in the Mediterranean, Yale Institute of International Studies, No. 25, Frederick S. Dunn, Director. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1947. 32 pp'. Saunders, R. M., "Whither the Near East?" Behind the Headlines, No. 4, Canadian Institute of International Affairs. 281 pp. Scott, Charles Craven, editor, Petroleum Industry Committees in World War II: District V., 1941-1946. San F r ancisco: Petroleum Industry Committee for District II, 1947. 351 pp. The Petroleum. A l m a n a c : A Statistical Record of the Petroleum Industry in the IJniTecl. States and~~Forelgn Countries. New York:~TTational Industrial Conference Board, 1946Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metal lurgical Engineers. Petroleum Development and Technology; New York: The Institute, 1924Van Valkenburg, Samuel, Whose Promised L a n d s ? Headline Series, Number 57. New York: Foreign Policy Association, MayJune, 1946. 96 pp. Wight, Martin, Power Politics. Looking Foreward pamphlets, No. 8. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1 9 4 6 . ^ 68 pp. Yearbook of World Affairs, 1948, George W. Keeton and Georg Schwarzenberger, editors. London: London Institute of World Affairs, 1948. 376 pp.
PARTS OP SERIES
American Petroleum Institute, Annual Report of Progress— Fundamental Research on Occurrence and Recovery of Petroleum. New York? American Petroleum Institute", 1944-45. Documents on American Foreign Relations. Foundation, 1938-
Boston? World Peace
Petroleum Facts and F i g u res, Sixth edition; Petroleum Institute, 1939. 190 pp.
New York: American
________, Seventh edition; New York: American Petroleum Institute, 1941. 192 pp. ________, Eighth edition; New York: American Petroleum Institute, 1947. 236 pp. Middle East Economic S e r vice. Haifa, Palestine: Middle East Economic Service, January, 1947The S t a t e s m a n 1s Y e a r b o o k : Statistical and Historical Annual Of the States of the W o r l d . New York: Macmillan and Company, L t d . , 1864The World Almanac and Book of Fact for 1 9 4 8 . York World-Telegram, 19*4B. 9l2 pp. F.
New York: New
The Christian Science Monitor. The (London) Times. The New York Times G.
Leven, David D . , Petroleum Encyclopedia. Ranger Press, Inc.,.1942. 1084 pp.
New York: The
Great Britain, Command Paper 3488, Agreement Between UK and the Amir of Trans-Jordan (February, 1 9 2 8 )1 1929-30. ________, 4661, Agreement Between UK and Trans-Jordan, supplementary to that of February, 1928 ("June* 1934); 1933-34. ________, 4691, Treaty of Friendship and bon voisinage between Trans-Jordan and Saudi Arabia (July* 1933; ratified December, 1953); 1935-34. , 5173, Agreement Between UK and Iraq Regarding the Hailway System of Iraq; 1935-36. , 5380, Exchange of Notes Between the UK and Saudi Arabia for the Modification of the Treaty of Jedda of 20th M a y , 1927; 1936-37. _______ , 5930, Supp1ementary List of Ratifications, Accessions, Withdrawals, e t c ., 1958. Treaty Series n o . 75 (1 9 5 8 ); 1939. , 5931, Index to Treaty Series, 1938. No. 76 (1 9 5 8 ); 1939. , 6031, General Index to Treaty Series, Treaty Series N o . 28 (I959j; 1939.
Treaty Series 1936-38.
^______, 6148, Supplementary List of Ratifications, Accessions, ■Withdrawals, et c ., 1 959. Treaty Series N o . 59 (1 9 5 9 ); 1940. No.
, 6 1 4 9 , Index to Treaty Series, 60. (1 9 5 9 ); 1940.
_______ , 6253, Supplementary List of Ratifications, Accessions, Withdrawals, etc., 1940. Treaty Series No. 5l (1940); 1941. , 6254, Index to Treaty Series, 1940. No. 32 (1 9 4 0 ) 1 9 4 1 .
, 6329, Supplementary List of Ratifications, Accessions, Withdrawals, e t c ., 1941. Treaty Series N o . 25 (1 9 4 1 ); 1942. , 6330, Index to Treaty Series, 1941. N o . 24 (1 9 4 1 ); 1942.
, 6335, Treaty of Alliance Between the UK and the Soviet Union and I r a n ( w i t h notes); 1941-42; 1942.
174 , 6381, Trade Agreement Between the Government of the U K (acting on behalf of His Highness the Sheikh of K a w e i t ) and the Government of Saudi Arabia; 1941-42; 1942. , 6431, Supplementary List of Ratifications, Accessions, Withdrawals, et c ., 1943-46, (In continuation of "Treaty Series N o , 14 (194271 nTcET , 6432, Index to Treaty Series, 1942. NO*. 15 (1942); 1943.
, 6615, Report of the Hydrocarbon Oil Duties Committee, 1 9 4 4 - 4 5 ; n.d. , 6646, Agreement Between UK and the Iraq Government Concerning Iraqi Foreign Exchange Requirements for 1945, 26th May 1 915; 1944-457 , 6683, Agreement on Petroleum Between UK and the US (September, 1 9 4 5 ); T945-46. , 6779, Treaty of Alliance Between the UK and Trans jordan (March 1946~JT 1&45-46• , 6916, Treaty of Alliance Between UK and Trans-Jordan. Treaty Series N o . 52 (1 9 4 6 ); n. d. '' , 7044, Proposals for the Future of Palestine, July, 1946 - F ebruary, 19%7; T947. , 7062, Agreement Between UK and Trans-Jordan Regarding Halfa-Baghdad Roadj which passes through Trans-Jordan. Treaty Series ll (1 9 4 7 ); 1947. 7063, Agreement Between UK and Trans-Jordan Regarding Trans-Jordan Oil Mining Law. Treaty Series No. 12 (1947); 1947. , 7064, Notes Between UK and Saudi Arabia Prolonging Treaty of Jedda, May, 1927. Treaty Series No. 13 (1947); 1947. , 7065, Trade Agreement Between UK (acting on behalf of His Highness the Sheikh of Kawe~it1 and the Government of Saudi A r a b i a ; 1946-47. , 7084, Agreement for Friendship and Neighborly Relations Between the Government of the UI (acting for Sheikh of K a w e i t 7 and the Government of Saudi Arabia (with notes) and Exchange of Notes Containing Lists of Tribes; 1946-47.
175 , 7084, Agreement for Friendly and Neighborly Relations Between U K and Saudi Arabia. Treaty Series No. 17 (1947); 1947. i
, 7088, Protocol of Proceedings of Crimea Conference♦ Miscellaneous 7 (1^4TJ; 1947. , 7092, Military Conclusions of the Tehran Conference. Miscellaneous 8 (1 9 4 7 ); 1947. , 7098, General Index to Treaty Series, Ireaty Series N o . 22 (l 9 4 T f; 1947.
, 7154, Notes Between UK and Lebanon. Cases Before Lebanese Mixed Co u r t s. Treaty Series No. 45 (1 9 4 7 ); 1947. See 7140 for same discussion en re Syria. , 7201, Financial Agreement Between UK and Iraq. Treaty Series N o . 65 (1 9 4 7 )1 1947. __ , 7269, Financial Agreement Between U K and Iraq Supplementary to Agreement of August, 1947. Treaty Series No. 86 (1 9 4 7 ); 1947. , 7293, Index to Treaty Series, 1947. No. 91 (1 9 4 7 ); 1947.
, 7309, Treaty of Alliance Between UK and Iraq.
X T1948); 1948. , 7344, Economic Survey for 1948.
(White P a p e r ); 1948.
, 7368, Treaty of Alliance Between UK and Hashimite Kingdom of Trans-Jordan. Trans-Jordan N o . 1 (1 9 4 8 ); 1948. , 7404, Treaty of Alliance Between UK and Trans jordan. Treaty Series N o . 26 (1 9 4 8 ) 1 9 4 8 . , 7471, Agreement Between UK and US for a Settlement of Claims Under the Specific Agreements of 27 M a r c h , 1946, wTth Agreement on Disposal of Joint Installations on the Sale of Surplus Lend-Lease Stores in the Middle East; 1949. , Sessional P apers. November, 1946.
, The Parliamentary Debates. Stationary Office, 1900-
London: His M a j e s t y ’s
176 India, Aitchinson, C. V., editor, Collections of Treaties, Engagements and Sanctions Relating to India and Neighbour ing Countries, Vol. XI. Delhi: Government of India, 1§31. ________, Aitchinson, C. V., editor, A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads Relating to India and "Weighbouring Countries. Delhi: Government of India; Foreign and Political Department, 1933. Mexico, M e x i c o 1s O i l . 881 pp.
Mexico City: Government of Mexico,
United States, "Bureau of Mines Bulletin, No. 351," George Samuel Rice,"Mining Petroleum by Underground Methods, 1932. 159 pp. ________, Congressional and Senate Special Hearings and Investi gations, Report of Investigation of Petroleum in Relation to National Defense7 conducted by Special Subcommittee on Petroleum, 1948. _______ , Use of American-owned Tankers Transporting Gasoline and Oil to R u s s i a , conducted by. Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, 1947. _______ , American Petroleum Interests in Foreign Countries, conducted by Special Senate Committee Investigating Petroleum Resources, 1945. , Wartime Petroleum Policy Under Petroleum Administrafrio*1 for W a r , conducted b y Special Senate Committee Investigating Petroleum Resources, 1946. ________, War Emergency Pipe-Line Systems and Other Petroleum Facilities. Hearings before Special Committee Investigating Petroleum Resources and Surplus Property Subcommittee of Committee on Military Affairs, 1945. , National Defense Program, conducted by Special Committee Investigating National Defense Program, 1948. ________, Petroleum Requirements and Availabilities. Prelimin ary Report 5 of House Select Committee on Foreign Aid Pursuant to House Resolution 296. 1947. _______ , Requesting Information from Secretary of Interior Concerning Fuel O i l , Gasoline, Petroleum Products, and Coal, and What Steps the Government Should Take to ^ake Proper and Necessary Supply Available. House Report 1231, Report from Committee on Public Lands to Accompany Above, 1947.
177 , Fuel Investigation, Petroleum and European Recovery Program* Progress report from Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1948* , Navy Purchases of Middle East Oil* Senate Report 80th Congress, Item 312, 440th report, Part 5, 1948* , Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1870________ , European Recovery Program, Estimated Commodity Imports and Exports of the Participating Countries by .Value and Quantity',' April 1~$ 1946 - June T~, 1949* ________, Foreign Policy S e ries, f,United States Foreign Economic Policy," address by Winthrop G. Brown* ________ , Near Eastern Series, N o * 1. , Report to Congress on ties Located A broad, April
Owned Petroleum Facili
, "Department of State Bulletin," E C A , U . K * , and the Netherlands Discuss Expansions of Foreign Crude Oil Production, July 25, 1949* Pp. 102 f f • , U*S. - Arab Views on the Palestine Problem, November Pp. 848-31.
, Development of the Arab League, May Pp.
_______ , Howard, Harry N . , Some Recent Developments in the Problem of the Turkish Straights, January 26, T947. Pp. 143-5T. _______ , Loftus, John A., Oil in United States August 11, 1946. Pp. 276-81.
_______ , Loftus, John A*, Petroleum in International Relations, August 5, 1945. Pp. 173-5. _______ , Petroleum Agreement Between the United States and the United Kingdom, August 13, 1944. Pp. 153-6. United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Oil Division, Under ground and Dispersal Plants in Greater Germany, 1947. 176 pp.
178 , Petroleum Administration for War, A History of the Petroleum Administration for W a r , John W. Prey ancPH. Chandler, editors, 1946. 463 pp. _______ , Department of Interior, A National Policy on Imports and Its Effect on the Domestic Petroleum Industry, (1 9 4 5 ); Bulletin Nos.' 1 and 2, 1947. , Petroleum Reserves Corporation, "Report to Harold M. Ickes, President, Petroleum Reserves Corporation," Journal of Commerce, March 14, 1944. USSR, Council of Petrol, N. Khaliaev, editor, Oil Regions (Tiflis - Gandja). Moscow: Council of Petroleum Industry, 19261 25 pp. ________, Obruchev, Vladimir Afanasevitch, editor, The KertchTaman Oil R e g i o n . Moscow: Council of Petroleum Industry, 1926. 51 pp. , Obruchev, Vladimir Afanasevitch, editor, The Oukhta Oil-Bearing R e g i o n . Moscow: Council of Petroleum Industry, 1926. 43 pp. _______ , A. Pritula, editor, The Berekei Oil R e g i o n . Council of Petroleum Industry, 1926. 19 pp.
________, A. Pritula, editor, The Fergava Oil R e g i o n . Council of Petroleum Industry, 1926. 28 pp.
______, D. Sokolov, editor, Oil Regions of the Eastern Coast o'jf"the Caspian S e a . Moscow: Council oT Petroleum Industry, T9 2 ^ 61 pp. _______ , A. F. Gorkin, 0. J. Schmidt, and others, editors, Great Soviet World A t l a s . Moscow: Scientific Editorial Institute, 1938. I.
BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GUIDES, AND INDEXES
Baden, Anne L . , compiler, Petroleum Industry of the United S t a t e s : A Selected List of Recent References. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Division of Bibliography, 1942. 60 pp. Brodie, Fawn Mary, Peace Aims and Post-War Planning, A Biblio graphy. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1942. 53 pp.
179 De Golyer, Everette Lee, and Harold Vance, Bibliography on t*1e P e t r o l e d Industry. Bulletin of the Agricultural"” and Mechanical College of Texas, September, 1944. 730 pp. Furbeck, Mary Elizabeth, and May Mellinger, Bulletin of the Public Affairs Information Service. New York: Public Affairs Information Service, 1938-48. Glazer, Sidney, Bibliography of Periodical Literature on the Near and Middle E a s t , n.p., 1947. International Index to Periodicals. Wilson Company.
New York: The H. W.
Porter, Hollis Paine, Petroleum Dictionary for Office, Field and F a c t o r y . Second edition; Houston, Texas: The Gulf Publishing Company, 1930. 253 pp. Readers Guide to Periodical Literature: An Author and Subject Index. New York: The H. W. Wilson Company. Sutherland, Anne C., and Beulah C. Rathbun, editors, Annual Magazine Subject Index, 1938-48. Boston: The F. W. Faxon C ompany• The New York Times Index: A Book of R e c o r d . New York Times Company, 1952-
New York: The
United States, Department of State, Publications of the Department of Sta t e . Washington, D.C.: Department of State Division of Publications, Office of Public Affairs, April, 1948. 56 pp. ________, Division of Publications, The Near E a s t . Recent Publications of the Department of State, Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1947. _______ , Selected Publications and Materials Relating to American Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.: Department of State Division of Publications, Office of Public Affairs, May, 1948. 23 pp. United States Government Publications Monthly Catalog Nos. 6T2- Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1946-
Bartholomew, John George, editor, The Citizens Atlas of the W o r l d , Eighth edition; London: J. Bartholomew ancPSon, Ltd*, 1944. 192 pp. Cram, George P., C r a m 1s Political Map of A s i a * George P. Cram Company, 1947.
_______ , C r a m 1s Unrivaled Atlas, The World--Indexed* Sixty-third edition; Indianapolis: The George' P. Cram Company, Inc., 1941. 410 pp. Hudson, G. Donald, editor, Encyclopedia Britannlca World A t l a s . Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1940. 280 pp. Philip, George, P h i l i p *s Regional Wall Map of the Near East and Middle East. London: G. Philip and Son, Ltd., 1945.
University of Southern California