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A STUDY OF METHODS USED TO PROTECT THE HEALTH AND SAFETY OF COLLEGE INTRAMURAL PARTICIPANTS

A T h esis P r e s e n t e d to th e F a c u l t y o f the G raduate S chool The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree M aster of A rts i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n

by C a r l t o n G. W h i t e J u n e 19 4=S

UMI Number: EP62840

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Pobi stomg

UMI EP62840 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48 10 6 - 1346

T h is thesis, w ritten by ..............................

under the direction of h A s . F ac u lty C om m it te e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been pr es e nt e d to and a c ce pt e d by the C ouncil on G rad ua te S t u d y and Research in p a r tia l fulfill­ m e n t of th e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e d e g r e e of

MASTER. OF ARTS

D ean

Secretary D a te .

J u n e , 1942

F aculty Com m ittee

Chairman

TO MY WIFE E n t h u s i a s t i c P a r t n e r i n Work o r P l a y

TAKE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION .

.

.........................................................................

S ta te m en t o f th e p ro b le m '. R elated in v e s tig a tio n

.........................................

1

....................................

5

.........................................................

7

. . .

M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e

O rg a n iz a tio n of rem aining c h a p te rs II.

COMBAT I YES W restlin g B oxing Summary

III.

. . . . .

11

...................................................................................

14

.

14

.

.

................................................................'

....................................................................................... ...................................................

32 35

T o u c h F o o t b a l l ........................................................................

35

B a s k e t b a l l .........................

40 .

42

S o f t b a l l .......................................................................................

43

B a s e b a l l ......................................................................................

45

Summary

45

........................................................................

INDIVIDUAL EVENTS

.

T rack and f i e l d Cross C ountry

.

..........................................................

49

..............................................................

49

.........................................................

51

.

S u m m a r y ......................... V.

23

TEAM GA MES........................................................................................

S p e e d b a ll and s o c c e r

IV.

1

53

HEALTH S E R V I C E .............................................................................. P h y s ic a l exam ination

.........................................................

54 54

CHAPTER

PAG-E C a r e o f i n j u r i e s .................................................................

56

R e c o r d s .....................................................................................

57

S u m m a r y ............................................... ............................................ VI.

59

SmmJiRY, CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS. . . .

61

S u m m a r y ..................................................................................... C o n clu sio n s and recom m endations. . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY

61 •

70

..................................................................................................

85

A P P E N D I X .........................................................................................................

.

92

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE O r d e r o f U se o f M o s t P o p u l a r I n t r a m u r a l A ctiv ities

II.

III. IV* 7.

...............................

. . . . .

15

D e g r e e o f H a z a r d o f M o st P o p u l a r I n t r a m u r a l A c t i v i t i e s ............................................................................................

15

D u r a ti o n o f W r e s t l i n g B outs

................................

19

D u r a t i o n o f -Boxing B o u t s ..........................................................

£6

U se o f P r o t e c t i v e E q u i p m e n t i n F i f t y B o x i n g P r o g r a m s ...........................................................................................

.

29

CHAPTjsk I IHTROuIJuIIOB G ollege in tr a m u r a l a c t i v i t i e s have e x p e rie n c e d a r a p ­ i d g r o w t h a n d h a v e made r e m a r k a b l e p r o g r e s s of a d m in is tra tiv e problem s. phase of th e program i s

i n the

so lu tio n

P r o b a b ly th e most im p o r ta n t

th e p r o t e c t i o n o f the h e a l t h and

s a f e t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM i

How may t h e h e a l t h a n d s a f e t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s lege

in tram u ral a c t i v i t i e s

be p r o t e c t e d ?

What m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f r u l e s

c a n be made t o make g am es

s a f e r w i t h o u t ‘d e c r e a s i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e tec tiv e

d e v ic e s a re b ein g u sed?

the h e a l t h s e r v i c e

What i s

sp o rt?

What p r o ­

the re la tio n s h ip

to th e in tr a m u r a l program ?

er a d m in istra tio n decrease

in c o l­

of

How c a n p r o p ­

in ju ries?

Scope o f the p ro b le m .

The p r o p o s e d p r o b l e m i s n o t a n

a t t e m p t to r e p e a t an y of t h e g e n e r a l o v e rv ie w s of c o l l e g e in tram u ral a c t i v i t i e s

t h a t have been w r i t t e n .

In tram u ral

a t h l e t i c s h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s a n d au th o rs. less

F o r t h e m o s t p a r t t h e s e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n more o r

s u r v e y s of g e n e r a l i n t r a m u r a l p r a c t i c e s

and have been

v e ry u s e f u l as a b a s is f o r p a r t i a l s t a n d a r d i z a ti o n of

3 program . The p o s i t i o n o f c o l l e g i a t e n o t i n any se n se

in tram u ral a c t i v i t i e s

a p r e c a r i o u s o n e , "bat b e c a u s e

mendous number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s e f f i c i e n t and wise*

of t h e t r e ­

t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m u s t be

In tra m u ra ls to a la r g e

nance and m o tiv a te th em se lv e s. ment i n p ro g ram or p o l i c y is

is

d e g re e must f i ­

C o n seq u en tly ,

any im prove­

doubly im p o r ta n t.

M o s t o r p e r h a p s a l l o f t h e a b o v e q u e s t i o n s h a v e no u n iv e rs a lly a p p lic a b le answ ers. th is

It

i s n o t th e p u rp o se of

s t u d y to draw h a r d and f a s t r u l e s

tra tiv e p rac tic es. b e r of f a c t o r s ,

and,

P o lic ie s are

concerning adm inis­

c o n tro lled

b y a l a r g e num­

c o n se q u e n tly , l o c a l a d a p ta tio n s o f even

p r o v e n p r a c t i c e s m u s t be m a d e , determ ine g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e s

The s t u d y w i l l e n d e a v o r t o

a n d w i l l a l s o make a n e f f o r t

to

f i n d w h a t t h e i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s t h i n k s h o u l d be t h e g e n ­ e ra l p rac tic e in v o lv ed ,

concerning the

Then j u s t i f i a b l e

o n ly from g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e

q u e s tio n s o f h e a l t h and s a f e t y c o n c l u s i o n s may be d r a w n n o t

b u t from o p in io n s of the

in tra ­

m u r a l men i n t h e f i e l d . Ju stific a tio n

of s e l e c t i o n of

the p r o b le m ,

The p r o b ­

lem s in v o lv e d i n d e v e lo p in g th e u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p te d c o lle g e in tr a m u r a l program in t h i s

c o u n t r y h a v e b e e n many a n d v a r i e d .

The f a c t t h a t v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s g r o w n f r o m a w i d e l y

3

s c a t t e r e d few to an a v e ra g e of f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t '1' o f th e t o t a l m ale e n r o l l m e n t o f m ost o f t h e l a r g e r A m erican u n i v e r ­ s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s shows t h a t th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f th e w o r k ’h a s b e e n done w i s e l y , made,

but th e re s t i l l

h e m a rk a b le p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n

r e m a i n many " u n s o l v e d i n t r a m u r a l i s -

-9

s u e s . *** The h e a l t h a n d s a f e t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s h a s b e e n one o f the

c h i e f c o n c e rn s of i n t r a m u r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .

the

tr e m e n d o u s number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s

in in tram u ral sp o rts

and because o f the v e ry n a tu r e o f th e pro g ram , so.

Because o f

it

is rig h tly

When W i l l i a m s ^ d e f i n e d h e a l t h a s " t h a t q u a l i t y o f l i f e

th a t renders

the i n d i v i d u a l f i t

t o l i v e m ost and t o

serve

b e s t , " h e g a v e ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e of h ealth a t th is If

tim e i n th e

two w o r d s ,

th e in tr a m u r a l s p o r ts program i s

p r e p a r i n g young A m erica to s e r v e i t s pro tect

"serve b e s t." t o do i t s

co u n try b e s t,

the h e a l t h and s a f e t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s

it

p a rt in m ust

as w e ll as

d e v elo p and c o n d i t i o n them .

^•Thomas E . K e l t , I n t r a m u r a l s u r v e y o f C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ( P a l m s , u a l i f o r n i a : M i m e o t ext~~Uompany, 1 9 1 1 } , s u m m ary p . 1 . ^ E l m e r P . M i t c h e l l , "Some U n s o l v e d I n t r a m u r a l I s s u e s , ” The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l h d u e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1 9 3 8 , p . 3UZ 3 J e s s e P . W i l l i a m s , P e r s o n a l Hy g i e n e A p p l i e d ( P h i l a ­ d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s a n d f o m p a n y , 1 9 4 1 } , p . 3 •

4 fhe p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f s p o r t s accid en ts i s E astw ood."

v e r y d e f i n i t e l y sh o w n b y L l o y d , B e a v e r ,

and

‘t h e y m a i n t a i n t h a t Ka p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y p e r c e n t

o f the a c c id e n ts 'n o w s u s t a i n e d in a t h l e t i c s

are unneces­

s a r y . 11^ fhe im p o rtan c e of p r o p e r s a f e t y m easures i n in tra m u ­ rals

c a n b e s e e n v e r y e a s i l y when t h e

are p u t to g e th e r. th is

S i n c e a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e c o l l e g e men o f

cou n try p a r t i c i p a t e

of the a t h l e t i c

two p r e c e e d i n g f a c t s

in in tra m u ra l s p o rts and i f h a lf

in ju rie s , are p re v e n ta b le ,

i n number and s e v e r i t y o f s p o r t s

accid en ts

a g re a t decrease c o u l d be e f f e c t ­

ed. It is

the p u rp o se o f t h i s

s t u d y t o a s c e r t a i n how t h e

a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f th e in tr a m u r a l s p o r t s program s i n th e l a r ­ g e r c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s p r o t e c t the h e a lth ,a n d the

safety of th e ir p a rtic ip a n ts

th ro u g h m odifying s p o r ts

r u le s , p ro v id in g p ro te c tiv e

equipm ent,

ing,

and earin g fo r

classin g p a rtic ip a n ts , It

p erfect,

is

in su re

not the purpose o f th is

in su rin g co n d itio n ­ in ju rie s.

stu d y to

fo o l-p ro o f s e t of safeguards.

set fo rth a

F o r i n the f i r s t

%?ranlc S . L l o y d , u-eorge u-. B e a v e r , a n d F l o y d S . i s a s t w o o d , s a f e t y i n A t h l e t i c s ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s a n d Com pany, 1 9 3 9 T 7 P* 2*

5 p lace,

"life

in sip id "^ ,

c a n n o t be made f o o l - p r o o f w i t h o u t b e i n g made

a n d i n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , n o two i n t r a m u r a l p r o r -

grams o p e r a t e u n d e r the II.

same c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

RELATE!) IKVESTIGATIOHS

A n u m b e r o f s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n made o f i n t r a m u r a l p r o ­ gram s on th e

co lleg e le v e l,

been e x te n s iv e

in

b u t f o r th e most p a r t

th ey have

t h e i r scope r a t h e r th a n in te n s i v e

in th e ir

treatm en t. O verview s o f c o l l e g i a t e

in tra m u ra ls.

Johnson

u se d an e x te n s iv e

p o lic ie s

and program s o f s i x t y - t h r e e l a r g e

r a l o rg an izatio n s. te d throughout

q u e stio n n a ire

The i n s t i t u t i o n s

the n a tio n .

to d e te rm in e the co lleg e

in tram u ­

s t u d i e d were d i s t r i b u ­

The s t u d y s h o w e d t h a t t h e p r o ­

gram s of t h e v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s l o c a l f a c to r s and,

In 1933,

co n seq u en tly ,

w e r e i n f l u e n c e d b y many t h a t t h e r e was n o t a s e t

of stan d ard p o lic ie s . W ith in th e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s a number o f s t u d i e s h a s b e e n made t o d e t e r m i n e

the s t a t u s

of in tra m u ra ls

in a

5A. M. W h i t n e y , S a f e t y f o r More a n d . b e t t e r A d v e n t u r e s (Hew T o r l c : The M a c M i l l a n company,** 1'925) , p . 6 . ~ ^ R o n a l d L . J o h n s o n , f,A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f C o l l e g i ­ a t e I n t r a m u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s »u ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s I s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 99.

p a rticu la r rals

class of in s titu tio n .

in large

sta te

co lleg es

teach ers

M iller^

and u n i v e r s i t i e s ;

co lleg e s;

s tu d ie d in tram u ­ G -allican^,

and T a y l o r i n

negro c o ll e g e s .

B oth G a l l i c a n and T a y lo r were i n t e r e s t e d ten t

to w hich t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r

These s t u d i e s

o f q u e s tio n n a ir e s se n t to

were i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e g ro u p s s t u d i e d . t h e r e w a s much r o o m f o r

in the ex­

ty p e c o l l e g e s w ere f o l lo w in g

co m m on ly a c c e p t e d i n t r a m u r a l p o l i c i e s . made b y t h e u s e

in

co lleg es

were

th at

B oth fo u n d t h a t

im provem ent i n f a c i l i t i e s

av aila b le

and in h e a l th sa fe g u a rd s. S a f e ty of p a r t i c i p a n t s .

E astw ood*s*^ s tu d y of a c c i ­

d e n t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was v e r y i n f o r m a t i v e v alu a b le .

In th is

and q u i t e

s t u d y a c c i d e n t r e c o r d s were c o l l e c t e d

f r o m - i n s t i t u t i o n s r e p r e s e n tin g a b o u t f i f t e e n p e r c e n t of the

co lleg e

stu d en ts o f th is

co u n try .

T hese r e c o r d s were

7c . E . M i l l e r , " I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s f o r Men i n l a r g e C o l l e g e s a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s , n ( u n p u b l i s h e d Mas t e r l s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f ' N e b r a s k a , L i n c o l n , 1 9 3 8 ; . ®(*. E ; G a l l i e a n , " T h e s t a t u s o f I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s f o r Men i n s t a t e T e a c h e r s - C o l l e g e s , 11 The He s e a r c h q u a r t e r l y , 9 : 5 8 - 6 S , May, 1 9 3 8 . ^w. s . T a y l o r , “ I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s f o r Men i n l e g r o C o l l e g e s , " The H e s e a r c h q u a r t e r l y , 1 1 : 6 0 - 6 7 , May, 1940. •^%*loyd i t. E a s t w o o d , “A S t u d y o f S a f e t y i n c o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , ” The i c e s e a r c h q u a r t e r l y , 8 : 1 4 4 - 1 4 9 , May, 1 9 3 7 .

7 th en a n aly ze d ,

and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were c l a s s ­

i f i e d as to d eg ree of h a z a r d , th is

and s im ila r s tu d ie s

Leaver,

is

a

m o re d e t a i l e d r e p o r t o f

c o n ta in e d i n a hook hy L lo y d ,

a n d E astw ood.-^* In tram u ral a d m in istrativ e a s p e c ts .

To f o r m u l a t e r e ­

commended a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s , H o r d l e y ^ the in tr a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s in stitu tio n s. the

en tire

recorded.

in terv iew ed

o f tw elve e a s t e r n and m id w estern

I n the t a l k w ith each d i r e c t o r ,

ad m in istrativ e

p rac tic ally

o r g a n i z a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d a n d

F ro m t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s H o r d l e y v e r y a p t l y d e t e r ­

m ined a c c e p t e d and p r o v e n p r a c t i c e s .

By u s e o f t h e p h i l o ­

s o p h i c a l m eth o d , p r o p o s e d re c o m m e n d a tio n s were d e v e l o p e d . T his f i n e

s tu d y sh o u ld s e rv e as an e x c e l l e n t

b a s is and r e f ­

erence f o r a s tu d y o f a d m in is tr a tiv e problem s. III.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

D e t e r m i n i n g p r o b l e m t o be s t u d i e d . in tra m u ra l o rg a n iz a tio n has i t s

own p e c u l i a r p r o b l e m s .

was n o t a s k t o t h i n k o f many o f t h e m .

-^L loyd, L eaver,

P robably every

and E astw ood,

It

B u t i n o r d e r t o make

op_. c i t .

- ^ C a r l 1 . H o r d l e y , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s f o r Men i n C o l l e g e s a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s ( T e a c h e r ' s . C o l l e g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o e d u c a t i o n , Ho. 7 1 6 . Hew Y o r k : B ureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T ea ch e rs C o l le g e , C olum bia U n i v e r ­ s i t y , 1937), p. 134.

8 the s tu d y w o rth w h ile, i t

was n e c e s s a r y t o c h o o s e a p r o b l e m

t h a t was o f u n i v e r s a l n a t u r e . The r e l a t i v e

i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e many e x i s t i n g i n t r a ­

m u r a l p r o b l e m s was d e t e r m i n e d b y r e a d i n g w i d e l y i n field

of in tram u rals,

the

s t u d y i n g t h e s e s oh t h e s u b j e c t ,

terv iew in g s e v e ra l d i r e c to r s ,

in ­

and re v ie w in g p e r s o n a l l y con­

ta c te d problem s. D iv id in g the p ro b le m .

A f te r th e problem of h e a l th

an d s a f e t y w a s c h o s e n a l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n b y s p o r t s was d e ­ cid ed upon.

The s p o r t s

two c r i t e r i a

- d e g re e o f h a z a r d and w id e n e s s o f u s e

lege

t o b e s t u d i e d w e re d e t e r m i n e d by in co l­

in tra m u ra l program s. The minimum d e g r e e o f h a z a r d w a s a r b i t r a r i l y

taken

a s o n e a c c i d e n t o r o ne d a y l o s t d u e t o a c c i d e n t p e r one thousand e x p o su re s.

I f a s p o r t was u s e d i n t w e n t y - f i v e

p e r c e n t o r more o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s

in tra m u ra l program s,

was c o n s i d e r e d o f s u f f i c i e n t p o p u l a r i t y t o The d e g r e e

it

be i n v e s t i g a t e d .

of h a z a r d f i g u r e s were ta k e n fro m t h e s t u d y o f

L loyd, L eav er,

and E astw ood*^,

and the

s p o r t p o p u l a r i t y was

a s c e r t a i n e d from K e l t ' s s t u d y . 44

4 ^ L loyd, L e a v e r , and E astw ood, 14H e l t ,

o p . c i t . , summary p .

2.

op. c i t .

9 Source of i n f o r m a tl o n * the

in tram u ral d ire c to rs ,

S ince

t h e men i n t h e

would l o g i c a l l y

know t h e m o s t a b o u t d i r e c t i n g

field ,

be e x p e c t e d t o

a n i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m , i t was

d e c i d e d t o make a n o r m a t i v e t y p e s u r v e y t o a n s w e r t h e t i o n tTWhat a r e co n d itio n s?" istin g

th e r e a l f a c t s w ith re g a rd s to the

TR

l o go a s t e p

co n d itio n s

farth er,

ques­

e x istin g

n o t o n l y w ere the e x ­

i n v e s t i g a t e d , b u t e a c h c o n t r i b u t o r was

a sk ed to i n d i c a t e p r e s e n t

p ractice

and a l s o

to

sta te

what

p r o c e d u r e he t h o u ^ x t d e s i r a b l e • The q u e s t i o n n a i r e #

W ith n i n e

q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o n s t r u c t e d .

s p o rts as a b a s is a

The i t e m s u n d e r e a c h s p o r t

were c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y w i t h the h e l p

of th re e

o u tstan d in g

i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s , who a l s o c h e c k e d t h e f i n i s h e d tio n n aire. qu estio n ,

Follow ing th e

ques­

space f o r th e answer to each

a n o t h e r s p a c e wa s p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e d i ­

r e c t o r an sw ering

th e q u e s tio n s m ight f i l l

i n th e i d e a l as

w e ll as th e a c t u a l answer t o e ach q u e s tio n . A s e l e c ti o n o f g e n e ra l h e a lth in fo rm a tio n q u estions was a d d e d t o t h e

q u estio n n aire•

A f t e r b e in g m im eographed

th e

q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t to t h e i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s

the

one h u n d r e d a n d t h i r t y - f i v e

larg est

co lleg es

of

and

^ C a r t e r Y. Good, A. S . B arr, and D ouglas E. S c a t e s , fh e M ethodology of E d u c a tio n a l R esearch (Hew York: D. App l e t o n - 0 en tu r y ’Uompany, 19 3 6 ) , p . 28 ? •

10 u n iv ersities

in th is

co u n try .

These i n s t i t u t i o n s

in cluded

s t a t e , r i r u n i c i p a l , d e n o m i n a t i o n a l , .*a n d p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s ,

lan d g ran t c o lle g e s,

They were l o c a t e d i n e v e r y s t a t e p lan a to ry l e t t e r

lo w -u p c a r d was s e n t t o t h o s e q u e stio n n a ire .

and f i v e

in

th is

co u n try .

An e x ­

and a s ta m p e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e a l s o w ere

m ailed w ith each q u e s tio n n a ir e .

th eir

and m i l i t a r y a c a d e m ie s.

S e v e r a l weeks l a t e r a f o l ­

d i r e c t o r s who h a d n o t r e t u r n e d

A f t e r a b o u t t h r e e m on th s one h u n d r e d

q u e s tio n n a ire s had been r e tu r n e d .

T hree o f th e s e

r e t u r n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r s c h o o l h a d no i n t r a m u r a l p r o ­ grams ♦ The f i n d i n g s . ied c a re fu lly ,

The r e t u r n e d

and the

q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s t u d ­

a n sw e rs w ere t a b u l a t e d u n d e r t h e

h ead in g of a c tu a l p r a c t ic e

and i d e a l p r a c t i c e .

A tten tio n

wa s p a i d n o t o n l y t o w e i g h t o f n u m b e r s b u t t o new i d e a s , tren d s,

and to the p o s s i b i l i t y

to

t h a t th e m in o rity r a t h e r th an

t h e m a j o r i t y may be r i g h t . G eneral c o n s id e r a tio n . been overw orked,

but i t

Hot o n ly h a s th e

h a s b e e n c o n d e m n e d i n some c i r c l e s .

One o b j e c t i o n h a s b e e n t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o tio n n a ire .

q u estio n n aire

answer th e

ques­

A n o t h e r a n d m ore i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i o n o r q u e s t i o n

a s a s k e d b y G-ood1 ^ i s

16I M d . , p .

335

n Gan c r u c i a l i t y

be i n f e r r e d f r o m

11 f r e q u e n c y ? 11 B r e v i t y and c o n c i s e n e s s ,

c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n f o r m a ­

t i o n d e s i r e d , were p aram ou nt i n f o r m u l a t i n g th e n a ire used in th is such a n a tu re

stud y .

q u estio n ­

The q u e s t i o n s w e r e c h o s e n w i t h

a s t o be p r a c t i c a l

and e a s i l y a n s w e r e d b y a

d i r e c t o r who knows h i s w o r k . A d m itting

the w eaknesses o f th e

q u estio n n aire, i t

is,

n e v e r t h e l e s s , a s t r o n g and f a r - r e a c h i n g f a c t g a th e r in g m edi­ um ’w hen u s e d w i t h c a r e a n d a r e a l i s a t i o n o f i t s

short-com -

in g s. IY .

ORGAHIZATIOM OF THE HSHAOTIHG CHAPTERS

The n e x t f e w p a r a g r a p h s h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d t o p r o v i d e th e r e a d e r w ith an i n d i c a t i o n o f th e c o n te n t of e a c h o f the fo llo w in g c h a p te rs . C h apter I I i s w r e s t l i n g and boxing.

concerned w ith th e

com bative s p o r t s ,

A s t u d y i s made o f t h e

a d v isab ility

of

u s e o f t h e s e s p o r t s a s show n by t h e n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s t h a t use

them a n d t h e num ber t h a t h av e d r o p p e d th em .

t i o n i s p a i d to th e r e a s o n s t h a t the ued.

s p o r t s were d i s c o n t i n ­

The l e n g t h a n d n u m b e r o f r o u n d s a n d t h e

bouts a re l i s t e d .

d u r a tio n of the

The s o u r c e s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f u s e o f r e f ­

ereein g personnel are discu ssed a ls o . in clu d in g

C lose a t t e n ­

e a r and h e a d p r o t e c t o r s ,

P r o t e c t i v e equipm ent

m o u th p i e c e s , h a n d w r a p s . ,

12 mat c o v e r s ,

f l o o r p ad d in g ,

frequency o f use

studied*

m o d if ic a tio n of r a l e s , the

and u n i f o r m s a re l i s t e d

and th e

The c o n d i t i o n i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ,

and p r e - b o u t i n s t r u c t i o n s r o u n d o u t

chapter* C hapter I I I

c o n ta in s the s i z e

of p lay in g a re a,

and t h e

l e n g t h and num ber o f p l a y i n g p e r i o d s o f t h e te a m games s u c h as touch f o o t b a l l , and b a s e b a l l . o fficials

is

b a sk etb all,

The n u m b e r , stu d ied .

of p ro tectiv e

source,

soccer,

so ftb a ll,

a n d r e m u n e r a t i o n o f game

M o d if ic a tio n o f r u l e s , u s e and n a tu re

equipm ent,

and s p e c i a l s a f e t y a p p l i a n c e s and

safety ru les

are

brought o u t.

k e tb a ll also

are

discussed.

covered under

sp eed b all,

C o n d itioning p e rio d s fo r b a s­ Some i n t e r e s t i n g

facts

are d is ­

the h e a d in g o f o t h e r s a f e g u a r d s .

C h a p t e r I V i s made u p o f t h e e v e n t s b e i n g u s e d , t h a t have been dropped,

c o n d itio n in g p ro c e d u re , le n g th of

c o u rse and o th e r p e r t i n e n t in f o r m a tio n about t r a c k , and c ro ss

co u n try .

F ro m t h i s

c h a p te r the i d e a l l i s t

v en ts t h a t v a rio u s d i r e c to r s have seen f i t to liste d . is

The n a t u r e a n d d u r a t i o n o f t h e

o u tlin ed ,

as w e ll a s the

i s , m andantory.

c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h a s i s

the h e a l t h s e r v ic e

of e-

drop a re

c o n d itio n in g program

of cross

co u n try i s

the i d e a l le n g th

d is­

of course.

a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e

field ,

e x t e n t t o which t h e p r e p a r a t i o n

The d e s i r a b i l i t y

C hapter V i s

th o se

betw een

i n t r a m u r a l p ro g ram as to a d m i n i s -

13 t r a t i o n of the p h y s ic a l e x am in a tio n and f i r s t a liza tio n ,

check o f re c e n t

in ju ry records* a tio n s

is

illn e sse s,

'the n a t u r e

discussed,

spo rts n e c e ssita tin g

a sp ecial

B en efit funds,

and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n are

c e rta in in d iv id u al p lan s. ance of a c tiv e

of

k e - s p o n s ib ility f o r and a d m i n i s t r a ­

t io n o f f i r s t a i d a re touched a ls o . dent insurance,

and m aintenance

and e x t e n t o f p h y s i c a l exam in­

and the

exam ination are l i s t e d ,

a id , h o s p it­

F in a lly ,

acci­

t r e a t e d By c i t i n g

th e problem o f m ain ten ­

and d e p e n d a b le p h y s i c a l

c o n d itio n records is

exam ined fro m th e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e h e a l t h s e r v i c e . C h a p t e r VI i s

an a tt e m p t to sum m arize th e v a r i o u s

m ethods o f m e e tin g i n t r a m u r a l h e a l t h and s a f e t y p r o b le m s . C e rta in concrete f a c ts i s made t h a t

are brought o u t,

and the s u g g e stio n

th e r e a d e r a s c e r t a i n what o t h e r s

are doing to

make t h e i r p r o g r a m b e t t e r a n d t o a d a p t t h e many i d e a s t o h is

own i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i t s

p e c u lia r problem s.

CHAPTER I I COMBATIlfES W r e s t l i n g and. boxing- w a r r a n t f i r s t

c o n sid eratio n in

a stu d y of h e a lth and s a f e t y o f in tra m u ra l p a r t i c i p a n t s . T able I I ,

page 15,

in tram u ral s p o rts , In p o p u larity ,

sh ow s y ^ r e s t l i n g a s t h e m o s t h a z a r d o u s o f and b o x in g ra n k s se c o n d o n ly to s o c c e r .

ranked in o r d e r o f u s e , w r e s t l i n g and boxing

ran k tw e lf th and t h i r t e e n t h , r e s p e c t iv e ly ,

a s sh o w n i n

T able I . I. W restlin g f a l l s tiv ity sp o rt.

WEESTLIHG

very n a tu r a lly in to

t h a t i s hazardous

because

c la ss of ac­

o f t h e n a t u r e o f the

The b o d i l y c o n t a c t a n d t h e s t r a i n o f l a r g e m u s c l e s

p r e s e n t i n w r e s tlin g le a d to i n j u r i e s p ite

the

any and e v e r y p r e c a u t i o n .

th a t w ill occur des­

H ow ever, the

fa c t th at

w re s tlin g ranks tw e lfth i n s e v e n ty -e ig h t in tra m u ra l a c t i v i ­ st tie s i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t is a w orthy a c t i v i t y d e s p ite the

in h eren t hazard. Use i n th e p r o g r a m .

Out of th e

o n e h u n d r e d a n d two

- T h o m a s IS. K e l t , I n t r a m u r a l S u r v e y o f C o l l e g e s a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s ( P a l m s , C a l i f o r n i a : M i m e o t e x t C o m p an y, 1941" ), su m m a r y p . £ .

15 TABLE I ORDER OF USE OF MOST POPULAR INTRAMURAL A C T IV IT IES2

A cliv ity

O rder

O rder

B a s k e t Ida l l so ftb a ll Touch F o o t b a l l T ennis Track s w im m in g T able T ennis V o lley b all G olf H orseshoes

1 O 3 4 5 6 ? 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

A c tiv ity H andball w restlin g Boxing Bow ling B adm inton F en cin g F re e Throw ing B aseball Cross C ountry Soccer

TABLE I I DEGREE OF HAZARD OF MOST P{3PULAR INTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES'

O rder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A c tiv ity

W restlin g Soccer Boxing C ross C ountry T ouch F o o t b a l l B aseball B ask etb all T rack & F i e ld

p

Loc.

A ccid en ts p e r 1 ,000 Exposures 1 0 .7 6 .1 4 *6 1 .0 3*4 1*5 2 .5 .7

Days L o s t p e r 1 ,0 0 0 E xposures 24.7 5 .2 3.9 7 .5 4 .7 4 .4 2 .3 1 .0

C lassific atio n Very H azard o u s H ig h ly H azardous H ig h ly H azardous H ig h ly H azardous H ig h ly H azardous H azardous H azardous Low H a z a r d

c it.

' V l o y d R . E a s t w o o d , nA S t u d y o f S a f e t y i n C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 11, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 8 : 1 4 4 - 1 4 9 , May, 1 9 3 ? •

16 in stitu tio n s

stu d ied ,

a c tiv itie s*

n i n e t e e n , how ever,

ious re a s o n s .

s ix ty used w re stlin g

as one o f t h e i r

dropped the s p o r t f o r v a r ­

One s c h o o l r e p o r t e d t h a t i n t e r c l a s s w r e s t ­

l i n g h ad been added r e c e n t l y and met w ith f a i r s u c c e s s . o th er d ire c to r

sta te d

th a t since

t h e i r men i n t o

w r e s t l i n g t h a t i n t r a m u r a l p o i n t s w ere no

l o n g e r aw arded f o r

the s p o r t ,

still

continue

evidenced to

some c o m p e t i n g u n i t s

An­

forced

b u t t h a t e n o u g h i n t e r e s t was

its

■use.

A th ird d irec to r in d i* c a t e d t h a t w r e s t l i n g w o u l d be a d d e d t o h i s p r o g r a m n e x t year. S is co n tin u an ce the schools

F orty-tw o p er cent of

t h a t abandoned w r e s tlin g

d i t i o n i n g o f the the

of w re stlin g .

d i d so b e c a u s e t h e c o n ­

c o n t e s t a n t s was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .

in tram u ral d ire c to rs

who h a d d r o p p e d t h e a c t i v i t y s a i d

t h a t s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t was h i g h b u t t h a t tic ip an ts

d id n o t have the

in to proper co n d itio n .

Three o f

tim e o r t h e

a p p a re n tly the p a r ­ in c lin a tio n to get

A nother d i r e c t o r

p i n i o n t h a t t h e num erous i n j u r i e s

e x p re s s e d the

accom panying th e

o-

sport

w ere c a u s e d p o s s i b l y by l a c k o f p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n i n g o f th e p a rti e ip a n ts• One u n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t e d t h a t w r e s t l i n g was d i s c o n ­ t i n u e d due to a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t . d e n t was n o t i n d i c a t e d ,

but i t i s

was q u i t e

it

serio u s since

The n a t u r e o f t h e a c c i ­ lo g ical

l e d to the

to assume t h a t i t

c e s s a t i o n of the

17 sp o rt. N o t.a ll

o f t h o s e t h a t d r o p p e d w r e s t l i n g d i d so b e ­

cause' of s a f e ty re a so n s. c ien t in te r e s t

to

Four i n s t i t u t i o n s

Ju stify i t s

co n tin u an ce.

found i n s u f f i ­ Four o th e r c o l­

l e g e s had in a d e q u a te equipm ent o r im proper s u p e r v i s i o n and a s a r e s u l t g av e up t h e a c t i v i t y . I?No i n t r a m u r a l s p o r t o r a c t i v i t y ter

to

d isco n tin u e

it

As o n e d i r e c t o r p u t i t , can ru n i t s e l f .

th an to l e t

it

d i r e c t o r h a d b e e n u s i n g som e o ne e l s e phase of h is program , the

the

is

b et­

A pparently,

th is

to d i r e c t th e w r e s tlin g

and t h i s p e r s o n h a d l o s t i n t e r e s t i n

a c t i v i t y as an i n t r a m u r a l s p o r t .

p o rted th a t

la g .”

It

Two u n i v e r s i t i e s

re­

f a c t t h a t w r e s t l i n g had been d i s c o n ti n u e d

as a v a r s i t y s p o r t le d to i t s

te r m in a tio n as an in tr a m u r a l

a ctiv ity . L ength of b o u ts.

As h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y

a l a r g e number o f i n t r a m u r a l w r e s t l i n g e n t r a n t s p rop erly.

do n o t t r a i n

C o n s e q u e n tly , the l e n g t h o f b o u ts need t o

shortened to decrease

the

be

s t r a i n on p o o r l y c o n d it io n e d

b o d ies. The a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f

the

b o u ts i n the f i f t y - f i v e

p r o g r a m s t h a t r e p o r t e d o n t h i s p h a s e o f t h e s p o r t was s i x m in u tes. bout,

M o s t o f t h e s e s c h o o l s h a d o n l y one p e r i o d i n e a c h

b u t e i g h t o f t h e m u s e d t h r e e r o u n d s o f e i t h e r tw o o r

th r e e m inutes

each,

a n d o n e u s e d two t h r e e m i n u t e r o u n d s .

18 No i n d i c a t i o n was made a s

t o how e a c h r o u n d w a s s t a r t e d o r

a s t o ho?/ t h e r o u n d s ? /e r e a w a r d e d *

The f o l l o ? / i n g

shows t h e l e n g t h o f t h e - b o u t s u s e d i n th e Several d ire c to rs

v a r i o u s program s*

i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o n g e r b o u t s were

u se d i n s e m i- f i n a l and f i n a l b o u ts . m inute

tab le

s e m i - f i n a l s and f i n a l s ,

Two p r o g r a m s u s e e i g h t

an d t h r e e u s e n i n e m i n u t e

bouts* O fficia tin g . preserve

and e n f o r c e t h e s p i r i t o f

no e x c e p t i o n t o v /restlin g is itie s.

Most s p o r t s n e e d good o f f i c i a l s

th e .ru le,

th e game.

b u t the r e f e r e e

to

W restlin g is

in in tram u ral

e v e n m o re e s s e n t i a l t h a n i n m o s t o t h e r a c t i v ­

N ot o n l y m ust he e n f o r c e t h e r u l e s ,

p r o te c t the p a r t i c i p a n t s

b u t he a l s o m ust

by p r e v e n t i n g d a n g e r o u s h o l d s a n d

throw s,, s t o p p i n g u n e v e n b o u t s ,

and,

in g en eral,

lo o k in g a f ­

t e r the w e lfa r e o f th e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The i n t r a m u r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s th is lers,

study re p o rte d th a t w re stlin g student re fe re e s ,

who c o n t r i b u t e d t o

coaches,

s t a f f mem bers,

e r e e s w ere u s e d i n i n t r a m u r a l b o u ts .

v a rs ity w rest­

and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e f ­ A lm ost h a l f o f the

program s u se d the w r e s t l i n g coach as th e r e f e r e e , many e a s e s ,

and i n

th e coach a lso p ro v id ed th e in tra m u ra l i n s t r u c ­

t i o n and s u p e r v i s e d th e used- as r e f e r e e s i n

c o n d i t i o n i n g w ork.

tw enty-seven c o lle g e s ;

w e r e s p e c i f i e d a s v a r s i t y m en .

Only f o u r

S t u d e n t s were of th ese,

tw enty

in s titu tio n s used

19

TABLE I I I DURATION OF WRESTLING BOUTS

Freauency of Use 14 9 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1

Number o f Rounds in Bout 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 2 1

length, of Rounds in M inutes 5 6 7 2 3 3 10 4 3 9

l e n g t h of Bout i n M inutes 5 6 7 6 3 9 10 4 6 9

20 m em b ers o f t h e

in tram u ral s t a f f ,

p ro fessio n al referees P ro tectiv e

for

a n d two u n i v e r s i t i e s h i r e d

t h e i r i n t r a m u r a l bouts.,

eq uipm ent,

The r e s u l t s

of th is p a rt of

t h e s t u d y showed c l e a r l y t h a t i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s e r a l were v e r y c o n s c i o u s p an ts. ers,

Ear p ro te c to r s ,

in gen­

of the s a f e ty of th e ir p a r t i c i ­ knee a n d e lb o w c o v e r i n g s , mat cov­

and p a d d i n g on f l o o r s u r r o u n d i n g

the mat p r o p e r w ere

used e x ten siv ely . Ear p r o te c to r s . ty-one p er cen t) lers

A lm ost h a l f o f

the d i r e c t o r s

e ith e r used ear p ro te c to rs

o r t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be u s e d .

u se d th e eq u ip m en t.

fo r th e ir w rest­ F o u rteen schools

Ho s p e c i f i c a t i o n was m a d e , h o w e v e r ,

w h e th er th e p r o t e c t o r s w ere u s e d o n ly i n p r a c t i c e p rac tic e

and a c t u a l c o m p e titio n ,

t h a t th ey th o u g h t e a r p r o te c to r s v ario u s reasons

fen o th er d ire c to rs s h o u l d be u s e d ,

sta te d

but for

th e u s e o f e a r p r o t e c t o r s were r e ­

q u ire d of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s ,

the

o r i n both

t h e y were n o t u s i n g them .

In s ix schools

quipm ent.

(for­

and t e n s c h o o l s s u p p l i e d

T en m o re d i r e c t o r s

the

e-

e x p re ssed the o p in io n t h a t

p r o t e c t o r s s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d o r a t l e a s t made a v a i l a b l e

to th e

stu d en ts. U niform .

The m a j o r i t y o f i n t r a m u r a l w r e s t l e r s

larg e

c o lleg e s of th is

have,

p rovided th a t

in the

c o u n try wear any u n ifo rm t h a t th e y

th ere

a r e no d a n g e r o u s h o o k s o r b u t t o n s

El attack ed .*

T h irty -fo u r per cent o f th e

type of lo n g p a n ts . in fiv e , oth ers

s c h o o l s r e q u i r e some

I n t e n p r o g r a m s t i g h t s m u s t 'be w o r n ;

any h in d of lo n g p a n ts i s

sw eat p a n ts are r e p a i r e d .

acceptable;

and i n f o u r

Three d i r e c t o r s

t h a t k n e e an d e lb o w p r o t e c t i o n was p r o v i d e d ,

sp ecified

but th e y did

n o t s p e c i f y w h a t e q u i p m e n t was u s e d * Mat c o v e r s .

One d i r e c t o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t

if

a so ft,

c l e a n m a t c o v e r was u s e d , n o k n e e o r e l b o w p r o t e c t i o n was necessary.

A p parently th is

as o n ly t h i r t y - f o u r

was t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y

per* c e n t r e q u i r e d k n e e o r e l b o w p r o t e c ­

t i o n w h e re a s f i f t y - e i g h t o u t o f s i x t y p ro g ram s u s e mat co v ­ ers.

One o t h e r

b u t was u n a b l e Most of

d irec to r to se cu re

thought th a t a cover should

be u s e d

one.

th e answ ers to

Hie s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g mat

c o v e r s - d i d n o t r e l a t e w h a t k i n d o f a c o v e r was u s e d ,

but ten

d irecto rs

and a n ­

d id s p e c if y t h a t they u sed a ru b b er co v er,

o th e r u se d a canvas c o v er.

A number o f s c h o o l s p r e s e r v e and

p r o t e c t tu m b l i n g m ats by p a i n t ,

b u t n o t o ne o f t h e r e p o r t i n g

a d m i n i s t r a t o r s m en tion ed the u se F loor p a d s .

F o rty -n in e

of p a i n t on 'w r e s t l i n g m a t s .

of th e c o n tr i b u ti n g

r a l men i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f l o o r a n d w a l l s mat w ere p a d d e d a d e q u a t e l y * q u ire as

to

in tram u ­

s u r r o u n d i n g the

The q u e s t i o n n a i r e

did not i n ­

t h e m eth o d o r m a t e r i a l t h a t was u s e d ,

but from

zz

o b se rv a tio n of s e v e ra l program s, i t

is

assum ed t h a t tu m b lin g

m ats were u s e d i n m ost e a s e s to p r o v i d e o f f - t h e - m a t p r o t e c ­ tio n , u o n d itio n in g

of p a r t i c i p a n t s .

Of t h e

d i r e c t o r s who

d isco n tin u ed in tra m u ra l w re s tlin g ,

fo rty -tw o per cent did

so

c o n t e s t a n t s wa s u n s a t i s ­

because the

facto ry .

c o n d i t i o n i n g o f the

w ithout

e x c e p tio n the d i r e c to r s u sin g

e ith e r provided a c o n d itio n in g p e rio d cen t)

(e ig h ty -th re e

o r t h o u g h t t h a t o ne s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d

cen t).

I n tw e n ty - e ig h t program s

the

the a c t i v i t y per

(seventeen p er

com pletion o f a c o n d i­

t i o n i n g s c h e d u l e was r e q u i r e d

o f each e n t r a n t ,

and seven

m o re d i r e c t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t

th ey thought the r e q u ire d p r e ­

p a r a t i o n was d e s i r a b l e . N ature

of c o n d i t i o n i n g o f f e r e d .

amount and k i n d o f c o n d i t i o n i n g i s the f a c i l i t i e s o fferin g out for

and s t a f f

I n any s c h o o l the

n a t u r a l l y dependent upon

av ailab le.

H a lf o f th e program s

c o n d i t i o n i n g r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s work a p rescrib ed p erio d ,

fa c ilitie s

and,

the

i n m any c a s e s ,

o th e r h a lf in tim ated th a t

i n s t r u c t i o n were a v a i l a b l e .

Three s c h o o ls u s e d " p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e v a r s i t y ” as a d e v ic e for

c o n d itio n in g ,

tra in in g ." ics, a ls. "

but m ost s p e c i f i e d " g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e

Two i n s t i t u t i o n s

re q u ire d e x ten siv e

a n d two o t h e r s c h o o l s u s e d tTe x e r c i s e s

and

c alisth e n ­

and f u n d a m e n t ­

L ength o f t r a i n i n g s c h e d u l e .

fen d ir e c to r s re q u ire d

a t l e a s t tw o w e e k s p r a c t i c e u n d e r a n i n s t r u c t o r ; ed t h r e e weeks of p r e p a r a t i o n ; to w ork o u t t h r e e

five

s i x demand­

asked each p a r t i c i p a n t

t i m e s a w e e k f o r f o u r w e e k s ; a n d one

s c h o o l e a c h r e q u i r e d s i x weeks a n d t e n weeks p r e p a r a t i o n , re sp ec tiv e ly . Pre- to u t in s tru c tio n s .

E i g h t y - t w o ' p e r c e n t o f the

w r e s t l i n g b o u t s r e p o r t e d on w e r e p r e c e d e d b y i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i l l e g a l and d a n g e r o u s h o l d s .

The c o a c h o r i n ­

stru c to r

e ith er

covered th ese holds during th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l

p erio d s,

or the

r e f e r e e b r o u g h t them o u t i n h i s

tw o c o n t e s t a n t s

th at

i n h i s p r o g r a m a b o u t was

s t o p p e d w h e n a n i l l e g a l h o l d wa s s e c u r e d . but it

is

reaso n ab le

to

He d i d n o t s a y

a s s u m e t h a t t h e b o u t was o n l y

sto p p e d lo n g enough to a llo w l e g a l h o ld to

to the

b e fo re each bout •

One d i r e c t o r s t a t e d

so,

talk

th e w r e s t l e r h o ld in g the

change to a l e g a l h o l d .

T his i s

il­

do ne i n s e v ­

e r a l program s t h a t have been o b se rv ed . II.

BOXING

"The o b j e c t i v e o f a l l o f f e n s i v e m a n e u v e r s i n b o x i n g is

to

i n j u r e a n o p p o n e n t , 11 i s

the

o p in io n o f Kenney,

24 T hacker,

and G eb h art.^

It

i s not the purpose

of t h i s

stu d y

to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r b o x in g . s h o u l d he u s e d i n i n t r a m u r a l s , but i t

is

c l e a r fro m the

above s ta te m e n t t h a t

s h o u l d be s u r r o u n d e d by e v e r y p o s s i b l e U se i n t h e p r o g r a m . ( f o r ty - n in e p er cent)

tio n s

dropped, t h e

used i t

in th is

a c tiv itie s.

a c tiv ity ,

d isco n tin u an ce

s u r v e y -used b o x i n g l'w e n ty -six i n s t i t u ­

T h e r e Y^ere s e v e r a l r e a s o n s

o f boxing,

c e n te re d around th e s a f e t y a s p e c t, in d icated th a t

safeguard.

and tw e n ty - s ix o th e r s have n e v er

as an in tram u ral s p o rt,

g iv en fo r the

a c tiv ity

A lm ost h a l f of th e p ro g ram s

stu d ied

a s one o f t h e i n t r a m u r a l

the

b u t m o st o f them

ifive d i r e c t o r s ,

how ever,

t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t b o x i n g s h o u l d be i n t h e

i d e a l program i f

t h e t r a i n i n g was s u p e r v i s e d p r o p e r l y .

T h r e e o t h e r i n t r a m u r a l men a l s o t h o u g h t t h a t b o x i n g s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d b u t d i d n o t m e n t i o n t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r n o t u s i n g it. D isco n tin u an ce the l i s t d ifferen t

of b o x in g .

of r e a s o n s f o r t h e in stitu tio n s

In ju rie s

d isco n tin u an ce

found i t

and d eath s le a d o f boxing.

Three

a d v is a b l e to drop boxing

a f t e r a p a r t i c i p a n t had been k i l l e d

in an in tra m u ra l b o u t.

m. K e n n e y , 1 . a . T h a c k e r , a n d H . C. G e b h a r t , " T h e E v a l u a t i o n o f ±$oxing a s a C o l l e g e A c t i v i t y , The R e se a rc h q u a r t e r l y , 1 1 : 8 0 -9 3 , M arch, 1940.

25 One s c h o o l l o s t t w o t o y s i n t h i s

sp o rt.

S ix o th e r c o lle g e s

te rm in a te d boxing because o f i n j u r i e s . riv e

sch o o ls found th e s p o rt u n p o p u lar.

One d i r e c ­

t o r r e p o r t e d t h a t i n one tournam ent he h a d fo u r and th r e e h u n d red s p e c t a t o r s , nl a e l c o f i n t e r e s t "

and "lack

fhree

c o n testan ts

sch o o ls each r e p o r te d

of p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n i n g . "

In­

c o r r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n was t h e r e a s o n g i v e n b y t w o o t h e r c o l ­ le g e s f o r the

abandonment o f t h e s p o r t .

-boxing was d r o p p e d f r o m o t h e r p r o g r a m s b e c a u s e o f d iffic u lty s ity sp o rt,

of s p e c ta to r c o n tro l, d isco n tin u an ce fu e d s betw een th e

boys,

as a v a r ­

and hie n a tu re

of the

/

sp o rt. said ,

One d i r e c t o r i n s t a t i n g uf h e

why h e d i d n o t u s e b o x i n g

b r a i n w e i g h s one a n d one h a l f p o u n d s ; a n y j a r

cau ses a low ering

of I.Q ,.n

L ength o f b o u ts.

In tra m u ra l b o u ts, because

of

the

f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e n o t u s u a l l y i n good boxing con­ d itio n ,

are

s h o r t e r a n d of f e w e r r o u n d s t h a n p e r h a p s a n y

o th e r ty p e o f boxing. f o u n d t o be f i v e

The a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f t h e b o u t s was

and f o u r - t e n t h s m in u te s ,

one a n d e i g h t - t e n t h s m i n u t e s e a c h i s

fh re e rounds of

th e average b o u t.

L ong er ro u n d s were u s e d i n s e v e r a l program s i n the s e m i- f in a l and f i n a l b o u ts . m i n u t e was u s e d .

An i n c r e a s e

o f one h a l f o r one

26

TABLE I I BURATIOIf OF BOXIIG BOUTS

Frequency of U se

Humber o f H o un d s i n Bout

L e n g tlx o f Rounds in M inutes

le n g th of B outs in M inutes

34

3

■2

6

6

3

1

3

5

3

1*

3

2

2

4

1

2

1

2

1

6

2

12

27 O fficia tin g .

The g r a v i t y o f b o x i n g i s

c l e a r l y by t h e p e r s o n n e l o f the r e f e r e e s ,

in d ic ate d

n ig h ty per cent

of t h e r e f e r e e s were a d u l t s

- t w e n t y - t h r e e were r e p o r t e d to

be c o a c h e s a n d i n s t r u c t o r s ,

and s e v e n t e e n were p r o f e s s i o n a l

referees.

Of t h e t e n p r o g r a m s t h a t u s e d s t u d e n t s ,

seven

were s p e c i f i e d as v a r s i t y b o x e rs . P ro tectiv e

equipm en t.

The e m p l o y m e n t o f p r o t e c t i v e

equipm ent i n in tr a m u r a l b o x in g i s The u s e o f l a r g e

s u rp ris in g ly e x ten siv e.

g l o v e s , m outh p i e c e s , h e a d g u a r d s , h a n d

w raps, padded ro p e s ,

and good m ats a r e th e r u l e .

W eight o f g l o v e s .

The b o x i n g g l o v e s u s e d i n t h e v a r ­

io u s program s v a ry from e ig h t ounces to s i x t e e n o u n c e s, a v erag e w eig h t b ein g tw elv e and s i x - t e n t h s

ounces.

the

One p r o ­

gram r e p o r t e d u s i n g t w e lv e ounce g l o v e s f o r b o u t s up t o th e one h u n d r e d an d s i x t y - f i v e p o u n d c l a s s g lo v e s f o r b o u ts above t h i s Head g u a r d s .

a n d f o u r t e e n ounce

c la ss.

F o r ty - f o u r p e r c en t o f the d ir e c to r s

h a v i n g b o x in g e i t h e r u se h e a d g u a rd s or think, t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be u s e d ,

about h a lf f a l l in g

{ fifty -o n e p er cent) only seven r e q u ir e re c to rs in d icated

of

the p ro g ra m s

t h a t they th at

s h o u l d be m a n d a t o r y .

in each c l a s s .

be u s e d .

Over h a l f

supply head g u a rd s, However,

but

t e n more d i ­

th ey th o u g h t the use o f head guards

28

Mouth p i e c e s *

xhe u s e o f mouth p i e c e s i s a l m o s t u n ­

i v e r s a l i n th e p ro g ra m s s t u d i e d .

E o r t y - f o u r o f the f i f t y

u s i n g b o x i n g employ mouth g u a r d s , and the r e m a i n i n g s i x b e ­ l i e v e d t h a t they a re d e s i r a b l e , p ly

them b u t o n l y t h i r t e e n r e q u i r e hand w raps.

of

xw enty-three sc h o o ls sup­ th e ir use.

Hand w rap s a r e u s e d i n n i n e t y p e r c e n t

th e i n t r a m u r a l boxing c o v e re d in t h i s

fiv e per cent req u ire

them .

One u n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t e d t h a t

o l d a n k l e w r a p s t o make h a n d w r a p s .

O ther s a f e t y i te m s .

C a r e f u l l y an d a d e q u a t e l y p a d d e d

f l o o r and r o p e s w ere s p e c i f i e d by t h r e e s a f e g u a r d s ■used.

P r o p e r boxing s h o e s ,

the

a th letic

su p p o rter,

ing

the r i n g

a re added p re c a u tio n s

and a l a r g e

A n o th e r boxing a d m i n i s t r a t o r u s e d f r e e l y on th e

d irec to rs

as o th e r

a eup p r o t e c t o r

in

cleared are a surround­ u s e d by t h r e e p r o g r a m s .

s u g g e s t e d t h a t v a s e l i n e be

s i n u s a n d c h e e k b o n e s of t h e b o x e r s .

.Knockdown p r o c e d u r e . p artm en ts

sev en ty -

the u se o f th e w ra p s, and s e v e n ty -

eig h t p e r cent su p p lie s th ey use

study,

sponsoring

S ix te e n o f the in tr a m u r a l d e ­

b o x in g s t o p t h e r o u n d on a knockdown

and aw ard t h a t ro u n d t o

t h e man t h a t s c o r e d t h e

I h e u s u a l r e s t betw een ro u n d s th e n i s s t a r t o f th e next round.

knockdown.

observ ed b e fo re the

One s c h o o l f o l l o w s

th is procedure

o n t h e s e c o n d k n o c k d o w n b y one man i n a g i v e n r o u n d ,

six

29 TABIE Y USE OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IN FIF TY BOXING PROGRAMS

USED

ITEM

SUPPLIED

Ac t u a l B e s i r a b l e

REQUIRED T o ta l A c t. D es. T o t . A c t. Des. T o t.

Head G uards

12

10

22

26

3

29

7

10

17

Mouth P ieces

44

6

50

23

5

28

13

4

17

Hand W ra p s

45

0

45

39

5

44

37

5

42

d irecto rs sp e cified d e p en d in g on th e rela tiv e

th at

t h e r o u n d may o r may n o t be s t o p p e d

judgem ent by th e r e f e r e e

c o n d i t i o n a t the

o f t h e b o x e r Ts

tim e o f th e knockdown.

A nother u n i v e r s i t y a llo w s a f i v e second r e s t a f t e r a knockdown and t h e n p r o c e e d s w i t h t h e r o u n d .

o u ts.

Many d i r e c t o r s

l e a n tow ard aw ard in g t e c h n i c a l knock

Nine s p e c i f i e d

th at

s tru c te d to tan ts

appear

the r e f e r e e

is

d e fin ite ly

be q u i c k a b o u t s t o p p i n g a b o u t when t h e

in ­ co n tes­

t o be m a t c h e d p o o r l y .

C ond itio n in g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . tram ural d ire c to r

said ,

One c o n t r i b u t i n g i n ­

nDo n o t p e r m i t a n y o n e t o p u t o n

g lo v e s u n t i l a good c o n d i t i o n i n g pro g ram h as been cove r e d . n The n e c e s s i t y o f t r a i n i n g

f o r i n t r a m u r a l b o x i n g was i n d i c a ­

t e d by s e v e r a l d i r e c t o r s ,

but th e l a c k

of

t r a i n i n g was n o t

30 a s e v i d e n t a s was th e

ease in w re s tlin g .

K i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g program s p r o v i d e d a c o n d i t i o n i n g s c h e d u le f o r "boxing, and s i x t y - f o u r per

cent re q u ire d t h a t

w ork b e f o r e

th e y w ere

If a t o r e pu nching,

1he b o x e r s c o m p l e t e

the

co n d itio n in g

a llo w e d t o com pete.

of c o n d itio n in g o f f e r e d .

In stru ctio n ,

ex ercises, ro ad w o rk , p rac tic e

b o u ts,

w o r k w e r e am o n g t h e m e t h o d s -used i n c o n d i t i o n i n g ral

boxers.

The t r a i n i n g

up o f p r a c t i c e iv ersities

b outs,

schedule

bag

and c l a s s in tram u ­

o f s i x s c h o o l s wa s made

bag p u n c h in g ,

and e x e r c is e s .

Two u n ­

r e q u i r e d s e v e r a l weeks o f r o a d w ork b e f o r e a ll o w ­

ing c o n ta ct p r a c t ic e ,

L lev en in tr a m u r a l program s a p p a r e n t­

l y a l i o ? / o n l y m em b ers o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n b o x i n g classes these

to e n te r in tra m u ra l boxing,

classes

av ailab le to

or a t l e a s t

a ll p ro sp ectiv e

t h e y make

in tra m u ra l box­

ers . The f a c i l i t i e s

a n d e q u i p m e n t a t two c o l l e g e s

v a ilab le

fo r v o lu n ta ry w orkouts.

sw er f o r

the c o n d itio n in g problem in t h a t

th o se

t h e c o a c h deems t o

are a-

One s c h o o l h a s a g o o d a n ­ they a llo w

only

be i n p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n t o e n t e r

boxing. L ength o f schools

th a t use

train in g

schedule.

Kot i n c l u d i n g t h o s e

th e s e r v i c e program i n c o n ju n c tio n w ith

31 c o n d i t i o n i n g the

boxers,

a v e ra g e l e n g t h of th ese

train in g

schedules v a rie s

w orkouts

t w e l v e and s i x - t e n t h s h o a r s i s schedule u se d ,

of

f r o m s i x w e e k s o f t h r e e two h o u r

t o tw o w e e k s o f f i v e

p o p u lar schedule is

The l e n g t h

the

one h o u r w o r k o u t s ,

f o u r weeks o f t h r e e

xhe m ost

one h o u r p e r i o d s

p e r week, sp e cta to r c o n tro l. n o t w holly a s a f e t y item , fects

is

im p o rtan t

t h a t im proper s p e c t a t o r

testa n ts

and the

d e ta ile d

in fo rm a tio n about

it

T he c o n t r o l o f s p e c t a t o r s , w h i l e

o fficials.

because of the e f ­

c o n d u c t may h a v e

on t h e c o n ­

The q u e s t i o n n a i r e

did not a sk

t h i s phase o f the a c t i v i t y ,

but

d i d show t h e h a l f of t h e p r o g r a m s c o n t r o l l e d s p e c t a t o r

ex p ressio n . tw o

stated rounds.

d i r e c t o r s w ent i n t o d e t a i l on t h i s

th at

the

c r o w d was a l l o w e d t o

s u b j e c t and

c h e e r o n ly betw een

T h i s r u l i n g was p r o b a b l y t o f a c i l i t a t e

derstan d in g

b e tw ee n t h e b o x e rs and the

t e r gave d i r e c t i o n s Weight d iv id ed in to mum w e i g h t i s

during

c la sse s. classes

the

r e f e r e e as the l a t ­

bout.

A lm ost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n b o x e rs a re

by w e i g h t .

s e t fo r each c la s s .

a llo w e d to g e t i n t o

c le ar un­

a class

nut o ften tim es

In o th e r w ords,

above h i s w e ig h t,

l o w e d t o b o x 11o u t o f h i s w e i g h t 11,

o n ly a m axi­ a boy i s

or he i s

x h i r t y - s e v e n of th e

al­

32 rep o rtin g

d irec to rs

i n d i c a t e d t h a t minimum a s w e l l a s m a x i ­

mum w e i g h t s w e r e s e t f o r e a c h c l a s s a n d t h a t a b o x e r wa s r e q u i r e d to box i n t h e p r o p e r d i v i s i o n . O ther s a f e g u a r d s . th e

atten d a n ce

p recau tio n s, in th is

B oth p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n s

and

of a d o c t o r were m e n tio n e d a s a d d i t i o n a l

b u t t h e s e t w o i t e m s w i l l be r e p o r t e d on l a t e r

study. III. The r e s u l t s

o f the

SUMMARY q u estio n n aire

showed t h a t b o x in g

a n d w r e s t l i n g p r e s e n t e d mor e p r o b l e m s t h a n a n y o f t h e

o th er

in tram u ral, s p o r t s . U se o f c o m b a t i v e s . th ese

G -enerally,

stu d en t

in te rest

two m a n l y s p o r t s was sh o w n t o b e q u i t e h i g h ,

in

but in

many e a s e s i t was e i t h e r n o t h i g h e n o u ^ x

or t h e

ju s t d id not have s u f f i c i e n t

in to p ro p e r condi­

tio n .

For t h i s

tim e

to g e t

r e a s o n m any d i r e c t o r s

co n testan ts

d i s c o n t i n u e d the

sp o rts.

B o x i n g wa s d r o p p e d b y some s c h o o l s b e c a u s e o f t h e

v io len ce

o f t h e s p o r t a n d t h e r e s u . l t irig i n j u r i e s .

n t any r a t e w r e s t l in g

is

now b e i n g u s e d i n f i f t y -

e ig h t p e r c e n t and boxing i n f o r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f th e program s s tu d i e d . s p o rts are

How ever,

in alm o st e v e ry case th e s e

b e i n g c l o s e l y and. c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d .

two

33 L ength o f b o u t s . leg iate u tes,

in tram u rals

The a v e r a g e w r e s t l i n g

bout

as show n by t h i s s t u d y l a s t s

and most i n t r a m u r a l bo x in g

in c o l­

s i x m in­

i s made u p o f t h r e e t w o

m i n u t e r o u n ds • Q fficia tin g .

W r e s t l i n g and b o x i n g c o a c h e s or o t h e r

q u a l i f i e d a d u l t s w ere u s e d t o r e f e r e e most o f t h e b o u ts these

two s p o r t s *

recto rs

Some s t u d e n t

in

o f f i c i a l s w ere u s e d by d i ­

b u t n o t to th e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y were u s e d t o

referee

o th er s p o rts .

P r o t e c t i v e equipm ent.

Many t y p e s o f p r o t e c t i v e e -

q u ip m e n t were f o u n d to be i n wi de s p r e a d u s e .

i!iar p r o t e c ­

t o r s , knee and e l b o w c o v e r i n g s , c l e a n mat c o v e r s , and f l o o r p a d s f o r t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e mat p r o p e r were u s e d t o safeguard w re s tle rs . larg e

gloves of averag e

tw e lv e to f o u r t e e n ounce

w e i g h t , h e a d g u a r d s , m outh p i e c e s , h a n d w r a p s , p r o p e r s h o e s , cup p r o t e c t o r s ,

a n d w e l l - p a d d e d r o p e s and f l o o r w ere i n us e

i n many o f t h e i n t r a m u r a l b o x i n g p r o g r a m s .

Knockdown p r o c e d u r e .

Many b o x in g p r o g ra m s p r e v e n t e d

u n n e c e s s a r y i n j u r i e s by s t o p p i n g t h e r o u n d on a knockdown, and s e v e r a l o f th e d i r e c t o r s

i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e f e r e e was

i n s t r u c t e d t o s t o p a l l b o u t s when a b o x e r was s e e n to be o u tclassed .

34 U o n& ition in g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .

A l a r g e m a jo r ity of

th e i n tr a m u r a l program s s t u d i e d o f f e r e d c o n d itio n in g u les

and f a c i l i t i e s

f o r d o th boxing and w r e s t l in g ,

h a l f o f t h e s e r e q u i r e d the

c o n sists p u nching,

o f about

com pete.

average re q u ire d c o n d itio n in g p e rio d

t w e l v e one h o u r p e r i o d s

ex ercises,

and over

com pletion of th e c o n d itio n in g

p ro g ra m d e f o r e th e p a r t i c i p a n t s were a llo w e d t o F o r boxing the

sched­

and i n s t r u c t i o n #

o f r o a d w ork,

dag

Much s o c a l l e d i n t r a ­

m u r a l d o x i n g was t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e

doxing c la s s e s i n

th e s e r v i c e program * The a v e r a g e w r e s t l i n g

c o n d itio n in g program c o n s i s t e d

o f f u n d a m e n t a l s and e x e r c i s e s f o r a b o u t t h r e e p e r i o d s p e r w eek f o r t h r e e weeks* A d d itio n al safeguards *

In e ig h ty -six per cent of

th e program s s tu d i e d c a r e f u l i n s t r u c t i o n

on i l l e g a l

d a n g e r o u s w r e s t l i n g h o l d s wa s g i v e n t o t h e H a lf of the d i r e c to r s boxing s p e c t a t o r s , to rs

c o n tr o lle d the

and

c o n testan ts.

d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the

a n d d u r i n g b o t h s p o r t s m any a d m i n i s t r a ­

d e s ire d the a tten d a n c e

of a d o c to r a t the r in g s id e .

CHAPTER I I I TEAM GAMES Team g a m e s a s sh ow n by T a b l e s I a n d I I , th e m ost im p o r ta n t p h a se least

dangerous.

rank f i r s t ,

of in tr a m u r a l a t h l e t i c s

B ask etb all,

second,

and t h i r d

i n t r a m u r a l s , and b a s e b a l l , een th ,

tw e n tieth ,

page 15,

so ftb a ll,

and t h i r t i e t h ,

t e a m g a m e s a r e w e l l down t h e

H ow ever,

a ll

and s p e e d b a l l r a n k e i g h t ­

resp ectiv ely .

W ith t h e e x ­ of hazard,

degree of h a zard s c a le .

of th e s e s p o r t s a re w o rth y of s a f e t y s tu d y be­

cause th ey are

c l a s s e d as e i t h e r ”h i g h l y h a z a r d o u s ” or

trh a z a r d o u s ?f a n d b e c a u s e I. ■Touch f o o t b a l l i s

of t h e i r

trem endous p a r t i c i p a t i o n .

TOUCH FOOTBALL a n i d e a l i n t r a m u r a l game i n t h a t

m ost boys a r e f a m i l i a r w ith f o o t b a l l and e n j o y p l a y i n g and th en ,

the

in c o lle g ia te

c e p t io n of s o c c e r , w hich ra n k s second i n degree the

and a r e

and to u c h f o o t b a l l

in order of use

soccer,

are

too,

very l i t t l e

t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f the

equipm ent i s n e c e s s a r y .

in stitu tio n s

p a rticip a tin g

s tu d y in c lu d e d touch f o o t b a l l i n t h e i r program , o ther d ire c to rs

answ ered t h a t th e y w ould u se

th ey had s u f f i c i e n t S ize f i e l d .

the

it,

Seven­ in th is

and s e v e r a l sport i f

outdoor sp a ce . F i f t y - e i g h t per cent of the

in tram u ral

36 t o u c h f o o t b a l l p r o g r a m s s t u d i e d was p l a y e d o n r e g u l a t i o n size

fo o tb all fie ld s.

eig h ty -fiv e

F i f t e e n sc h o o ls u se d e ig h ty to

yard f i e l d s ;

and e ig h t had f i f t y

t e n p l a y e d on s e v e n t y y a r d f i e l d s ;

yard f i e ld s .

D u ra tio n o f game.

The a v e r a g e l e n g t h

p l a y i n g t i m e wa s f o u n d t o b e t h i r t y - t h r e e sev en program s u se d q u a r t e r s , average o f t h i r t y - t h r e e schools played t h e i r erage

of a c tu a l

m in u tes,

fh irty -

and t h e s e games l a s t e d an

and s e v e n -te n th s m in u tes.

touch f o o tb a ll in h a lv e s ,

t o t a l p lay in g

t i m e was t h i r t y - t h r e e

O fficia ls.

T his s tu d y a tte m p te d to

and

F o rty the

av­

m in u tes. a s c e r ta in only

t h e n u m b e r o f o f f i c i a l s u s e d p e r game a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y were p a i d .

T h i r t y - f o u r o f die

p r o g r a m s u s e d two o f f i -

c ia ls , p e r game, an d m ost o f t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s u s e d o n e . Two s c h o o l s a s s i g n e d f o u r o f f i c i a l s

to each c o n te s t.

had th re e

and f iv e

o fficials

w ould have h a d t h r e e

w o r k i n g a game,

schools

i f p o ssib le .

F if ty - n in e p er c en t o f the touch f o o t b a l l p a id t h e i r

schools

o fficials.

eq u ip m en t.

s t u d i e d u s e d no p r o t e c t i v e

th a t offered

Four o th er d ir e c to r s

in d ic a te d th a t th ey thought p a id o f f i c i a l s P ro tectiv e

other

Seven

Most o f th e

were d e s i r a b l e . in tram u rals

equipm ent o t h e r th a n r e q u i r i n g

th e use of te n n is or b a s k e tb a ll shoes.

F ifty -fo u r

d irecto rs

37 made t h e v^/earing o f t h e s e thought th a t

shoes m an d an to ry ,

t h e y s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d .

b u ted a sev ere a c c id e n t to Three d i r e c t o r s

One d i r e c t o r

a ttri­

th e i ^ e a r i n g o f h a r d s o l e d s h o e s .

s a i d t h a t h e a v y c l o t h i n g was w o r n b y

touch f o o t b a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s ,

a n d two o t h e r s

h e a d g e a r and s h o u l d e r p a d s were p e r m i t t e d , to rs p ro b a b ly m irro red the

in d ic ate d

th at

six ad m in istra­

t h o u g h t s o f m an y o t h e r s

s t a t e m e n t t h a t no c l e a t s w ere a l l o w e d . stated

a n d f o u r more,

in the

A nother d i r e c to r

t h a t he had c o n te m p la te d the u s e . o f a l i g h t h e ad g e ar

to p re v e n t c o n c u ssio n . h a le s,

fhere is

b a l l r u l e s u s e d by a l l gram s. a set

It

no o ne s t a n d a r d s e t o f t o u c h f o o t ­ o f the

c o lle g e and u n iv e r s ity p ro ­

is not a purpose of th is

of r u l e s .

However,

t a i n what m o d if ic a tio n s

s tu d y to d ev elo p such

the s t n d y d i d a t t e m p t to a s c e r ­

and what r u l e

c h a n g e s h a d b e e n made

to p r o t e c t th e p a r t i c i p a n t s w ith o u t d e s tr o y in g

the s p i r i t

of th e game• On b a l a n c e

tac k lin g .

e ig h t program s u s i n g touch to be v a l i d , b alan ce.

E x a c tly h a l f of th e s e v e n ty fo o tb a ll req u ires

th a t th e to u ch ,

m u s t be made b y a d e f e n s i v e p l a y e r who i s

Ho d i v i n g , l u n g i n g ,

on

o r one h a n d t o u c h e s a r e h o n ­

ored.

.S l o c k i n g ,

b l o c k i n g a s u s e d i n A m eric an f o o t b a l l i s

38 p r o h ib ite d in e ig h ty -se v e n p e r c en t of th e program s. ( f if ty - s e v e n p er cent) the

o f the t o u c h f o o t b a l l r u l e s r e q u i r e

b lo c k e r to re m a in on h i s f e e t

Twelve s c h o o l s a l l o w m a g e ; two l i m i t i t o nly.

Most

th ro u g h o u t the b lo c k .

b lo ck in g only in t h i s

to ru n s;

One d i r e c t o r r e q u i r e s

lin e

of scrim ­

and e ig h t p e rm it s c re e n in g th a t a l l blocks

be a b o v e t h e

w aist. ii m o re o r l e s s u n i v e r s a l r u l e m ise b l o c k i n g i n j u r i e s sp rin ter* s

is

th a t attem p ts to m in i­

the p r o h i b i t i o n

s t a r t p o s i t i o n by t h e l i n e m a n .

most lin e m e n i n i n t r a m u r a l to u c h f o o t b a l l t o p u t e i t h e r o r b o t h h a n d s on th e during

of the use of th e I n o th e r w ords, are n o t allow ed

ground b e fo re ,

a fter,

or

a block. S e v e ra l sch o o ls e lim in a te d d o w n -fie ld blocking by

p r o h i b i t i n g b l o c k i n g on k i c k - o f f o r p u n t p l a y s . d irec to r

s a i d t h a t most i n j u r i e s

One d i r e c t o r said ,

o c c u r on t h e s e p l a y s *

i n show ing th e

s e rio u s n e s s o f blocking

"The b o y s d e c i d e d t h e y w a n t e d b l o c k i n g .

d a y we h a d f o u r g a m e s , p ita l.

The f i r s t

and s i x t e e n boys went to th e h o s ­

The n e x t d a y we h a d no b l o c k i n g - . " tum bles.

su ltan t

A nother

A ttem p ted r e c o v e r y of fu m bles and th e r e ­

c o n t a c t were i n d i c a t e d as a n e v e r p r e s e n t c a u se of

in ju ry , by r u l in g

.rive d i r e c t o r s h av e a t t e m p t e d to m eet t h i s a l l fum bles dead a t t h e p o i n t t h a t

hazard

th e y touch

th e

39 ground.

The u s a g e o f t h i s r u l e

is not ex ten siv e,

be t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f a d e s i r a b l e Hum ber o f p l a y e r s . alm ost u n i v e r s a l .

Three

o u t i t may

tren d .

The u s e d irec to rs

o f s e v e n men o n a t e a m i s said

th at

th e number o f

i n j u r i e s h a d b e e n d e c r e a s e d b y c h a n g i n g f r o m e l e v e n man team s t o s i x p l a y e r s p e r u n i t . P ro te ctin g

the p u n te r ,

one d i r e c t o r p r o v i d e d p r o ­

t e c t i o n f o r t h e p u n t e r b y a l l o w i n g no r u s h i n g o n p u n t p l a y s . Most p ro g ram s f o llo w ru n n in g in to

th at p ro h ib it

o r r o u g h in g die k i c k e r .

O ther r u l e s . th is

stan d ard fo o tb a ll ru le s

A num ber o f r u l e s were b ro u g h t out i n .

s t u d y t h a t h a v e no p a r t i c u l a r

w i l l be m e n t i o n e d h e r e

because

bearing

on s a f e t y b u t

of g en eral i n t e r e s t ,

rour

doY/ns t o move t h e b a l l f r o m o n e t w e n t y y a r d z o n e t o t h e n e x t zone, u n lim ited pass

e lig ib ility ,

a n d two h a n d t a g g i n g a r e

in general use. G-eneral c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . c ilitie s, areas,

I n a d e q u a t e an d crowded f a ­

poor ground c o n d itio n s ,

fre e p lay in o b stru cted

an d u n p a d d e d g o a l p o s t s were s p e c i f i c a l l y b lam ed f o r

touch f o o tb a ll

accid en ts.

40 II.

BASKETBALL

B a s k e t b a l l i s u n d o u b t e d l y the m ost w id e ly u s e d i n t r a ­ m ural a c t i v i t y .

T h i s s t u d y f o u n d t h a t i t wa s i n u s e

in

ev ery c o n tr i b u ti n g program . S ize

of co u rt.

S lig h tly over h a lf of c o lleg e

m u r a l b a s k e t b a l l was f o u n d t o co u rts.

in tra ­

be p l a y e d on r e g u l a t i o n s i z e

T e n p e r c e n t of t h e c o l l e g e s u s e d e i g h t y t o e i g h t y -

fiv e

foot c o u rts;

f o u r te e n p e r c e n t have s e v e n ty to s e v e n ty -

fiv e

foot c o u rts;

and th e rem a in d e r u t i l i z e

less

th an s i x t y - f iv e

f e e t long.

D u r a tio n of game.

F i f t y - s e v e n of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g

p r o g r a m s p l a y games d i v i d e d i n t o use h a lv e s .

How ever,

p l a y i n g tim e i s used v a rie s

spaces t h a t are

q u arters,

and f o r t y - f i v e

i n b o th cs.ses th e a v e r a g e l e n g t h of

tw e n ty -e ig h t m in u tes.

from f i v e m in u te

q u arters

The l e n g t h o f g a m e s to tw e n ty m inute

h a lv e s. Time o u t s .

R e g u la ti o n number o f a llo w a b le tim e o u ts

is used in fo rty -fiv e

p e r c e n t o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s

The a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f t i m e o u t s u s e d i s recto rs

four,

stu d ied .

but nine d i ­

a ll o w an u n l i m i t e d number of r e s t p e r i o d s . O ffic ia ls.

number of d i r e c t o r s

Under the s u b j e c t sp ecified

"other safeguards" a

t h a t good o f f i c i a l s

are

the

41 b e s t s a f e t y m easures to p re v e n t b a s k e t b a ll i n j u r i e s , one p e r

cen t o f the sc h o o ls u se d p a id o f f i c i a l s

b a l l and s e v e r a l o t h e r s w ould u s e su b stitu tio n s.

and

b ask et-

th e m i f p o s s i b l e .

R eg u latio n s u b s ti t u t io n r u l e s

u s e d by f i f t y - e i g h t s c h o o l s , lim ite d

for

six ty -

are

th e re m a in d e r alio?; u n ­

su b stitu tio n s. C o n d itio n in g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .

i n g wa s f o u n d t o

B ask etb all

c o n d itio n ­

be l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f a v a i l i n g

fa c ilitie s

to th e com peting u n i t s ,

F i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of th e d i r e c ­

t o r s p ro v id e d c o n d i t i o n i n g , b u t o n ly tw elve p e r c e n t r e ­ q u i r e d t h a t a team w orkout

a g i v e n number o f t im e s ,

fhree

d e p a rtm e n ts u se d p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n i n s t r u c t i o n as a c o n d i­ tio n e r;

fiv e

req u ired

ten p ra c tic e s

program in c lu d e d p r a c t i c e

f o r e a c h t e a m ; a n d o ne

games b e f o r e

t h e l e a g u e games

sta rte d . o th er safeg u a rd s.

F u r t h e r p r e c a u t i o n s w e r e m en ­

t i o n e d by s e v e r a l d i r e c t o r s . top s h o e s ,

glasses p ro te c to rs,

tr a to r lim ited

each team t o

vided r e s t p erio d s

and w a ll m a ts .

One a d m i n i s ­

two g a m e s a w e e k .

A nother p ro ­

by a l l o w i n g

I n t h i s way

team s

team s C and

D p lay th e ir

h a lf

a -B

of the

They i n c l u d e d t h e u s e o f h i g h

a

team s to a l t e r n a t e h a l v e s .

and B p la y t h e i r f i r s t h a l f , f i r s t perio d ,

r e s t w hile

and t h e n th e l a s t

game i s p l a y e d w h i l e € a n d I? r e s t .

42 III.

SPEEDBALL A O SOCCER

S p e e d b a l l a n d s o c c e r w e r e s t u d i e d u n d e r one h e a d i n g because of th e s i m i l a r i t y f a c t t h a t few ,

o f Hie g a m e s and b e c a u s e o f t h e

i f any, program s o f f e r

both s p o r t s .

Tw enty-

t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p o r t i n g s c h o o l s u s e d o ne o r t h e o th e r of th ese

two s p o r t s .

S iz e of f i e l d , and s p e e d b a ll f i e l d s are

h i ^ i t y - f o u r per c en t of th e so c c e r are re g u la tio n s iz e ,

and th e r e m a in d e r

e ig h ty yards lo n g . .D u ra tio n o f gam e.

The a v e r a g e s p e e d b a l l or s o c c e r

game was f o u n d t o b e t h i r t y - t h r e e long.

and tw o -te n th s m in u tes

A ll e x c e p t one o f th e p ro g ra m s u s e d q u a r t e r s a s th e

play in g u n i t ,

b u t o ne t e a m u s e d f i f t e e n m i n u t e h a l v e s .

l e n g t h of q u a r t e r s v a r i e d from f o u r m in u te s O ffic ia ls. p e r cent

P aid o f f ic ia ls

The

to te n m in u te s .

a r e u s e d by f i f t y - f o u r

o f t h e d i r e c t o r s who a n s w e r e d t h e

q u estio n n aire.

H a l f o f t h e p ro g ra m s u s e one o f f i c i a l p e r game, a n d h a l f use

two o r t h r e e . P r o t -—e ctiv e

ing th e

e q u i pdm, m ea..M ni.t .

,

An e r r o r was made i n d e v e l o p -

q u estio n n aire used in th is

s p e e d b a l l were com bined. tec tiv e

,.111

study in t h a t

s o c c e r and

The g ames a r e s i m i l a r b u t t h e

e q u ip m e n t u s e d i n one s p o r t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y

pro

43 ap p licab le

to t h e

ten n is shoes,

o th er,

.sig h t program s r e q u i r e d th e u s e o f

f o u r d e m a n d e d t H a t s h i n g u a r d s be w o r n , t h r e e

used re g u la r soccer s u its , len g th

and o n e s c h o o l e a c h r e q u i r e d k n e e

hose and s o c c e r s h o e s .

the w earing

of

c le ats,

Three d i r e c t o r s p r o h i b i t e d

a n d one r e q u i r e d t h e u s e

o f eye g l a s s

p ro tec to rs• O ther s a f e g u a r d s .

S e v e r a l i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s men­

t i o n e d good g r o u n d c o n d i t i o n s and c l o s e ficiatin g

as e x tr a p r e c a u t i o n a r y m e a su re s. IV .

S o ftb a ll is T his

stu d y found i t

SOFTBALL

w id e ly u s e d as an i n t r a m u r a l a c t i v i t y . to

be i n u n i v e r s a l u s e .

U niform and p r o t e c t i v e

•I h mh.mpi m* '.II

may be

!■!!

- I- —Ii«n—■—

worn i n

program s

s u p e r v is io n and o f ­

stu d ied .

A —. I.

. . . . .. . . . . . . I l l mil I w

— 'I I

e q u i d me n t .

i■ I ■. i

I M i l l wt*

f h

. . . . . . ............................

B aseb all spikes

tw en ty p e r c e n tof th e in tr a m u r a l

so ftb a ll

The o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s m u s t w e a r s m o o t h

or r u b b e r s o l e d shoes* C a t c h e r s 1 masks a re of the program s,

and t h e i r u se

ber.

Several d ire c to rs

m itts

for

the

B ats* al d irecto rs

su p p lie d in s ix ty - f iv e p e r cent

also

is req u ired in h a lf th is

num­

s u p p ly masks f o r u m p ire s and

c a t c h e r s and f i r s t

basem en.

" F l y i n g b a s e b a l l b a t s ” was m e n t i o n e d b y s e v e r ­ as a c o n s ta n t cause o f i n j u r i e s .

T his s tu d y

44 fo u n d t h a t the u se

o f r e g u l a t i o n s o f t b a l l b a t s was a l m o s t

u n i v e r s a l and t h a t h a l f

of the

b a t s u s e d h ad to be t a p e d

or

made w i t h c o r k g r i p s . tw o

d i r e c t o r s were u s i n g a w r i s t s t r a p s i m i l a r

to

t h a t on a p o l i c e m a n ’ s n i g h t s t i c k t o p r e v e n t a c c i d e n t a l throw ing of the b a t. fa c ilita te

ease

T his

strap

of rele a se ,

wa s made l o o s e l y e n o u g h t o

but i t

was s u c h t h a t a n u n i n ­

t e n t i o n a l t h r o w was i m p r o b a b l e . *

sp ectato r

c o n tro l,

stan d s,

ropes,

fences,

b e n c h e s w e r e f o u n d t o be i n u s e t o k e e p p l a y e r s to rs

at

s a fe d i s t a n c e from b a t t e r s ,

i n g l i n e was u s e d b y n i n e d i r e c t o r s fiv e c ia ls

d ire c to rs.

and

and s p e c t a ­

w hite-w ashed r e s t r a i n ­

a n d r o p e d o f f a r e a by

Three each u s e d benches and s t a n d s .

O ffi­

and m a n a g e rs w ere c h a r g e d with, t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

enforcing1 th ese r e s t r a i n t s stop

a

lin e s,

a n d i n some c a s e s w e r e t o l d

of to

t h e game i f ' n e c e s s a r y . O ther s a fe g u a r d s .

s e v e r a l r u l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s and

e q u i p m e n t i d e a s w e r e b r o u g h t o u t t h a t w e r e made p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t o r s p r o h i b i t e d s l i d i n g and

fo r sa fe ty reasons,

tw o

allow ed base ru n n e rs

to o v e r - r u n a l l b a s e s .

tecto rs

w e r e u s e d by two o t h e r s ,

n*ye g l a s s p r o ­

xo p r e v e n t t u r n e d a n k l e s

o ne d i r e c t o r u s e d c a n v a s b a g s f i l l e d w i t h s a w d u s t a n d r e ­ c e sse d in sh allo w h o le s

i n the

ground.

One s c h o o l u s e d

45 r u b b e r covered, b a t s , good playing- f i e l d

several

co n d itio n s

o th e r d i r e c t o r s m entioned as a r e q u i s i t e

to s a f e

so ft­

b a ll. V. W ith th e p r o b a b l e

BASEBALL ex cep tio n of sh o es,

problem s of b a s e b a l l a re v e ry s i m i l a r to

the s a f e ty

those of s o f t b a l l .

H o w ev e r, b a s e b a l l i s more d a n g e r o u s t h a n s o f t b a l l w h ich i s p r o b a b l y one r e a s o n t h a t i t

i s u sed in only t h i r t y - f o u r per

cent of th e program s. Uniform, a n d p r o t e c t i v e cen t of the in tra m u ra l use

of s p ik e s .

are

a llo w the

Masks a r e s u p p l i e d b y n i n e t y - f o u r p e r c e n t per cen t.

f u r n i s h e d w ith com plete

S p ectato r c o n tro l. i n keeping

E ig h ty -th re e per

baseb all a d m in istrato rs

and r e q u i r e d b y n i n e t y - t w o catch ers

eq u ip m en t.

sp ectato rs

A lm ost h a l f

of t h e

c a t c h e r s 1 equipm ent.

The d e v i c e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s u s e d

at a safe distan ce

are

t h e same a s

th o se m entioned u n d e r s o f t b a l l . V I. As n e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e

SUMMARY the r u l e s

t h e team games as p l a y e d i n i n t r a m u r a l s r e g u la r ly accepted

stan d ard s

and e q u ip m e n t o f te n d to fo llo w

of th e o f f i c i a l s p o r ts .

the

46 S ize field s

b ask etb all,,

the s o f t b a l l

are

R eg u latio n s iz e

are u se d whenever p o s s ib le

fo o tb all,

th is

of p l a y i n g s p a c e .

study,

sp e ed b a ll,

co u rts

and

i n m ost i n t r a m u r a l touch and s o c c e r .

The s i z e o f

a n d b a s e b a l l d i a m o n d s wa s n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d b u t f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n ,i t

in

a p p e a rs t h a t m ost f i e l d s

stan d ard s iz e . D u r a tio n o f game.

lim ited

by th e

In tra m u ra l p la y in g p e rio d s are

c o n d itio n of th e c o n te s ta n ts

of tim e th a t ' th e

fa c ilitie s

are

av aila b le,

and t h e l e n g t h s fhe average

t o u c h f o o t b a l l game was f o u n d t o c o n s i s t o f t w o s i x t e e n an d a h a l f m inute h a l v e s . the

Four sev en m inute

q u a r t e r s make up

a v e r a g e b a s k e t b a l l game, an d i n t r a m u r a l s o c c e r games

last

th irty -th re e

m in u te s and u s u a l l y a re p l a y e d i n

quar­

ters . O ffic ia ls. schools

F ifty -fiv e

to s i x t y p er cent of th e

stu d ie d used p a id o f f i c i a l s

t h e a v e r a g e was two o f f i c i a l s

for

the

t e a m games., a n d

p e r game i n f o o t b a l l ,

soccer,

and s p e e d b a l l. P ro te ctiv e

eq u ip m en t.

W ell o v e r h a l f

o f the i n t r a ­

m ural touch f o o t b a l l ,

s o c c e r , , and s o f t b a l l p l a y e r s a r e r e ­

q u ire d to wear te n n is

or b a sk e tb a ll shoes,

p e r c e n t of th e as a re

baseb all p lay ers

t w e n ty p e r c e n t of the

are

flig h ty -th ree

allo w ed t o wear s p ik e s

so ftb a ll p a rticip a n ts.

47 Y ery l i t t l e

sp ecial p ro tec tiv e

i n t r a m u r a l team s p o r t s .

c lo th in g is used for

Some d i r e c t o r s

re q u ire heavy c l o t h ­

in g f o r to u ch f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s and h ig h to p sh o es i n b a s k e t ­ b a ll.

Sye g l a s s g u a rd s a r e u s e d i n Soccer p lay ers

both s p o r t s .

a r e p r o t e c t e d by knee l e n g t h h o s e and

s h i n g u a r d s i n so m e s c h o o l s . M ost o f t h e s c h o o l s use

s t u d i e d s u p p l y and, r e q u i r e

th e

o f c a t c h e r s 1 m asks i n b o t h s o f t b a l l and b a s e b a l l ,

and

over h a l f s u p p ly h a r d b a l l c a tc h e r s w ith com plete eq u ip m en t. W rist s t r a p s

on s o f t b a l l b a t s w ere i n f r e q u e n t l y u s e d b u t

s u g g e s te d an in n o v a tio n w orthy of s tu d y . R ule m o d i f i c a t i o n s . fo o tb all ru les

stu d ie d re q u ire d the

t o be on b a l a n c e feet

S l i g h t ly over h a l f o f the t a c k i e r and th e

th ro u g h o u t the

touch o r b lo ck . be !fi n l i n e

O ther blocking r e s t r i c ­

blocking

o n l y ” , the

t i on o f b l o c k i n g on p u n t and k i c k - o f f p l a y s , b i t i o n o f a s p r i n t e r fs s t a r t .

and t h e

M aking a fu m b le

R ules m o d if ic a tio n s

bases.

of slid in g

and the

elim in ap ro h i­

a dead b a l l

a n o t h e r s a f e t y m o d i f i c a t i o n t h a t was f o u n d t o

h ib itio n

blocker

a t t h e t i m e o f c o n t a c t a n d r e m a i n on t h e i r

t i o n s w ere found to

is

touch

be i n u s e .

i n s o f t b a l l w e r e f o u n d t o be p r o ­ allo w an ce

o f an o v e r - r u n on a l l

i'h e se c h a n g e s w ere u s e d i n o n l y a few p ro g ra m s b u t

may b e w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

48 S p e c ta to r c o n tro l*

I n b o th s o f t b a l l and b a s e b a l l

s p e c t a t o r s were k e p t a t a s a f e d i s t a n c e use of sta n d s,

ropes,

fences,

and o f f i c i a l s were u s e d to C o n d itio n in g most i n t r a m u r a l

enforce

departm ents p ro v id e a v ailab le

g a m e s a n d w o r k o u t s.-

b er of w orkouts i s

b a tters

and benches.

by

M anagers

th ese r e s t r a i n t s .

of p a r tic ip a n ts .

ing th e p l a y i n g f a c i l i t i e s p ractice

lin e s,

from the

I n the

te a m games

f o r c o n d i t i o n i n g b y mak­ a t s p e c if i e d tim es fo r

I n some c a s e s a minimum num­

r e q u i r e d and f o r

b ask etb all th is

number

was f o u n d t o b e a b o u t t e n . O ther s a f e g u a rd s * sm ooth p l a y i n g tio n s,

c lo se

surfaces,

su p erv isio n ,

O th e r p r e c a u t i o n s m e n tio n e d were e l i m i n a t i o n and p a d d in g and good o f f i c i a t i n g .

of o b s t r u c ­

CHAPTER IV i m i Y i m & L EVERTS T rack, b itra ry lim its study, th is

field ,

and c r o s s

s e t f o r the

c o u n t r y f a l l w i t h i n the a r ­

sp o rts

t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s

b u t th e y are n o t o f p rim ary im portance

k ind.

T rack and f i e l d ,

order of use}, co u n try i s

w hile v e ry p o p u la r

(fifth

a re c l a s s e d as "low h a z a r d s p o r t s . n

liste d

as

" h i g h l y h a z a r d o u s rr, b u t i t •r*j

tee n th

i n a s t u d y of

C ross

is n in e-

«*,

i n o r d e r o f u s e a s sh o w n o n T a b l e I , I.

in

page 15.

TRACK A3STD HELD-

T rack and f i e l d w ere u s e d i n n i n e t y - tw o p e r c e n t of th e program s s t u d i e d ,

and s e v e n te e n d i f f e r e n t

e v e n t s were

liste d . P a rtic ip a tio n lim its . th at

The a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f e v e n t s

a man c o u l d e n t e r wa s f o u n d t o be t h r e e .

allo w ed each p a r t i c i p a n t to e n te r ev ery e v e n t, lim ite d p a rtic ip a tio n

t o two e v e n t s .

fu rth e r sp ecified th at three races

and one,

C o n d itio n in g

F ive sch o o ls and nine te e n

Several d ire c to rs

a boy c c u ld e n t e r e i t h e r on e, tw o,

tw o,

or th ree f i e l d

of p a r t i c i p a n t s .

or

ev en ts.

S ix ty -fiv e

of the

n i n e t y - f o u r i n tr a m u r a l t r a c k program s o f f e r e d a c o n d itio n in g

50 p erio d ,

and tw e n ty - s ix o f th e s e

co n d itio n in g

schools re q u ire d

be c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e

N ature o f c o n d itio n in g .

th at

th is

c o m p e t i t i o n was a l l o w e d . As o n e d i r e c t o r p u t

?ls o m an y w o r k - o u t s a r e r e q u i r e d . "

it,

The n u m b e r o f w o r k o u t s

v a r i e d fro m s i x t o t w e l v e and c o v e r e d p e r i o d s r a n g i n g from one to f o u r w e e k s . siste d

Ihe a v e ra g e

of e ig h t w orkouts,

fa c ilitie s

co n d itio n in g p e rio d con­

'tw elve s c h o o l s

were f u r n i s h e d ,

in d icated th a t

and seven o th e rs r e p o r t e d t h a t

the t r a c k c o a c h d i r e c t e d th e

p rac tic e

and p r e p a r a t i o n

of the

i n t r a m u r a l t r a c k m en. .D isc o n tin u e d e v e n t s . gram s,

the

ja v e lin

A lth o u g h i n u s e i n a few p r o ­

throw h a s been dro p p ed from th e in tra m u ­

r a l t r a c k m eets o f t h i r t y s c h o o l s .

The ha m m e r t h r o w w a s

d i s c o n t i n u e d by e i g h t e e n p r o g r a m s .

It

in use

i n any o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s

tu tio n s also

d ro p p ed the

a p p a r e n t l y was n o t

stu d ied .

eig h teen i n s t i ­

d i s c u s throw from th e l i s t

of

ev en ts• D i s t a n c e r u n s w e r e f o u n d t o b e i n d i s f a v o r by m any d irecto rs

because,

to th e n a tu r e to rs

as

they s a id ,

uB oys w i l l n o t t r a i n

of in tram u ral s p o r t s .”

dropped lo n g d is ta n c e r u n s ;

o n e a n d two m i l e r u n s ;

due

T h irteen a d m in istra ­

s i x t e e n each abandoned the

a n d two d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e h a l f m i l e .

The f o u r h u n d r e d a nd f o r t y y a r d d a s h Ys/as s c r a t c h e d b y s e v e n

51 scho o ls,

a s was t h e

two h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y y a r d e v e n t .

't h e m i l e a n d two m i l e r e l a y s w e r e d i s c o n t i n u e d i n th r e e and e le v e n s c h o o ls ,

resp ec tiv e ly ,

gave up t h e u s e o f the h i g h h u r d l e

and e le v e n o t h e r s

races.

The p o l e v a u l t

was d r o p p e d b y s e v e n t e e n p r o g r a m s . A ll of the the

above e v e n ts were aban d o n ed b e c a u se of

in h e re n t danger o f the event and the la c k of p ro p e r con­

d i t i o n i n g o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s O ther s a f e g u a r d s . fu rth e r safeguard t o r m entioned program s,

in the

ev en t.

S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s w e r e made t o

t r a c k , a n d f i e l d p a r t i c i p a n t s . One d i r e c ­

the p r a c t i c e , th a t

is

pro b ab ly in

of running o f f p re lim in a rie s

u s e i n m any

one d a y a n d f i n a l s

the n e x t .

The n e c e s s i t y o f r e q u i r i n g l o n g w a r m - u p s wa s a l ­

so b r o u g h t

o u t.

The e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l

s p e c t a to r s from the

f i e l d p r o p e r w a s a p r e c a u t i o n u s e d by a n o t h e r d i r e c t o r . II.

The r e s u l t s

CROSS COIBTt k Y

o b ta in e d concerning in tra m u ra l cro ss

c o u n try c l e a r l y in d ic a te

t h a t the

tren d is

away f r o m s p o r t s

of a stren eo u s n a tu re . U se i n the

events in

th e c o lle g e s

the pro gram ,

a

cross

c o u n try m eet i s

one o f

the in tr a m u r a l program s o f t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f stu d ied .

How ever,

it

wa s i n d i c a t e d

t h a t the

5£ e v e n t may be d r o p p e d f r o m o n e o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s b e c a u s e o f lack of in te re s t, 'tw e n ty o t h e r d i r e c t o r s h a v e d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e u s e the ru n .

a

l a c k o f i n t e r e s t was g i v e n a s

elev en c a s e s .

the r e a s o n i n

I m p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n i n g was t h e

c e s s a t i o n of the

cause of th e

sp o rt in seven o th er in s titu tio n s .

d ir e c to r each sa id

of

One

t h a t t h e s p o r t wa s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d

i n v o l v e d t o o m uch s t r a i n . L ength o f c o u r s e . c r o s s .co u n try c o u rs e The c o u r s e s

is

The a v e r a g e c o l l e g i a t e

in tram u ral

tw o a n d o n e q u a r t e r m i l e s i n l e n g t h .

i n u s e v a r y f r o m o n e a n d one q u a r t e r m i l e t o

fo u r m iles. C o n d itio n in g

of p a r t i c i p a n t s .

of the sc h o o ls u s in g c ro ss io d ,

E ig h ty -fo u r5 p e r cent

co u n try p rovide a t r a i n in g p e r­

and s ix ty - tw o p e r c e n t r e q u i r e d t h a t th e

p e r i o d be c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e

the p a r t i c i p a n t

co n d itio n in g

is p e rm itte d to

ru n in th e m eet. N ature th at a ll

cross

resp ectiv ely * p erio d ,

of co n d itio n in g ,

c o u n t r y men r u n t h e

course f iv e

l o u r program s u t i l i z e

th ree use

weeks p e r i o d .

d irec to rs

two

and t e n t i m e s

a two w e e k s t r a i n i n g

a t h r e e weeks s c h e d u l e ,

In th re e o th er u n iv e r s itie s

in tram u ral cross

each re q u ire

and o n e , a s i x the tr a in in g

c o u n t r y men i s h a n d l e d b y t h e v a r s i t y

of coach.

53 III.

SUMMARY

The e v e n t s u s e d i n t r a c k a n d f i e l d course run in c ro ss

co u n try b o th in d ic a te

stren eo u s in tram u ral p a r tic ip a tio n . p a n t s were l i m i t e d

and th e

to an average

length, of

a t r e n d to l e s s

I n t r a c k the p a r t i c i ­

of th ree ev en ts,

and the

r a c e s w e r e u s u a l l y o f a maximum o f f o u r h u n d r e d an d f o r t y yards.

The a v e r a g e

cross

c o u n t r y c o u r s e was f o u n d t o h e two

and one q u a r t e r m i l e s l o n g , tiv ity

b ecause o f la c k o f i n t e r e s t and po o r c o n d itio n in g . C o n d itio n in g .

in tram u ral are

b u t m any s c h o o l s d r o p p e d t h e a c ­

More t h a n h a l f

t r a c k and over t h r e e

o ffered co n d itio n in g .

of the p a r t i c i p a n ts

q u arters

in cross

E v en ts. the

average

d iscus

h u rd les,

in

runs is re q u ire d .

S tan d ard v a r s i t y tr a c k events are u sed in

in tr a m u r a l m eet,

throw ,

co u n try

The t y p e o f w o r k o u t s v a r y b u t

m an y c a s e s a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f p r a c t i c e

in

but the

R a v e l i n , h a m m e r,

th e m iddle and lo n g d i s t a n c e

ev en ts,

and

the h ig h

an d th e p o l e v a u l t were d ro p p e d i n a number of

sch o o ls. i

O ther s a f e g u a r d s .

C areful sp e c ta to r c o n tro l,

ance of e x c e s s iv e p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,

av o id ­

an d r e q u i r e d w a r m - u p s w e r e

o t h e r s a f e g u a r d s t h a t were m e n tio n e d *

GHAPTER 7 HEALTH SERVICE A clo se

c o o p e r a t i o n betw een th e h e a l t h s e r v i c e

th e in tr a m u r a l program i s

i n d i c a t e d by t h e

every i n s t i t u t i o n stu d ie d

the

fact

co lleg e h e a lth se rv ic e ,

n in e p e r c e n t of the

cases i t

It

th at in

i n t r a m u r a l p h y s i c a l exam ina­

t i o n i s g i v e n by t h e

the h o s p i t a l .

and i n

eig h ty -

is g iv en a t th e expense of

s h o u l d b e made c l e a r t h a t

the

ex am in atio n

d isc u sse d here is not p u re ly fo r in tra m u ra l purposes, i n m any c a s e s

is

and

the re g u la r c o lle g e

but

en tran ce p h y sic a l ex­

am in atio n . 1.

PHYSICAL EXAMIHATI OH I

In tram u ral d ire c to rs

i n g e n e r a l p l a c e much e m p h a s i s

on the p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . E x ten t of u s e .

S ix ty -eig h t per

cen t o f the in tra m u ­

r a l program s w hich were r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s th at

the p a r t i c i p a n ts

in atio n .

in a l l sp o rts pass

T h irteen d ire c to rs

p h y s i c a l e x am ­

r e q u i r e d o n ly the

w r e s t l in g p a r t i c i p a n t s to p a ss the cross

the

study req u ire d

boxing and

ex am in atio n .

T rack and

c o u n t r y r u n n e r s w e r e t h e o n l y men f o r w h i c h n i n e p r o ­

gram s p r e s c r i b e d e x a m i n a t i o n s . and f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s

Sw immers i n f i v e

schools

i n o n e w e r e t h e o n l y o t h e r p l a y e r s who

55 were s i n g l e d ou t to p a s s a g e n e r a l h e a l t h e x a m in a tio n . s p e c ia l s p o rt ex am in atio n s. sp ecific

exam ination i s

sp o rts,

i n m ost e a s e s t h i s

sta rt

of the p a r t i c u l a r

I n a number o f e a s e s a

given to th o se test is

sp o rt,

en terin g c e rta in

made j u s t p r i o r

to the

n oxers and w r e s t l e r s

were

r e q u i r e d to p a ss an e x a m in a tio n i n tw en ty -tw o and s e v e n te e n schools, re s p e c tiv e ly ,

rarticip an ts

c o u n t r y m eets w ere exam ined i n m ing, f o o t b a l l ,

in tr a c k and c ro s s

elev en i n s t i t u t i o n s .

and b a s k e t b a ll a re

th e o th e r th re e

f o r w h i c h a n e x a m i n a t i o n was r e q u i r e d Coverage o f e x a m in a tio n , prehensive fav o rite

a

Swim­ sp o rts

of the p la y e rs .

v e r y c o m p l e t e a n d com­

e x a m i n a t i o n was f o u n d t o b e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g

o f t h e d i r e c t o r s who a n s w e r e d t h e

q u e s tio n con­

c e r n i n g ite m s on th e p h y s i c a l e x a m in a t io n ,

e ig h ty -th re e

p e r cent in d ic a te d th a t the h e a r t , eyes,- e a r s ,

nose,

com prehensive and h e r n i a ,

e tc .,

lungs, f e e t,

jo in ts,

s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y e x a m i n e d ,

fhe

ex am in atio n a ls o in c lu d e d p re v io u s i n j u r i e s deven d i r e c to r s

f o r p o o r h e a r t and l u n g s , should s u f f ic e

th o u g h t t h a t an ex am in atio n

n o se and t h r o a t ,

fo r in tram u ral p u rp o ses,

exam ine o n l y f o r h e a r t ,

lung,

and h e r n i a

lo u r

o t h e r s would

and h e r n i a t r o u b l e .

&. minimum a c c e p t a b l e e x a m i n a t i o n f o r i n t r a m u r a l u s e was f o u n d t o

c o n s i s t i n s i x t y f i v e p e r c e n t o f th e answ ers

of a check of h e a r t ,

lu n g s, h ern ia,

and p rev io u s i n ju r i e s .

56 S ev en teen d i r e c t o r s ,

how ever,

felt

t h a t a minim um e x a m i n e -

t i o n wa s a c o m p l e t e a n d t h o r o u g h o n e . II. D espite e lim in ated . p lay ,

a ll p recau tio n s

In ju rie s w ill

rh e im m ediate c a r e

arran g em en ts f o r t h e i r tio n s

CAKE OF INJURIES

sp o n so rin g

sp o rts hazards

occur in

the b e s t su p e rv ise d

of th ese i n j u r i e s ,

care,

c a n n o t be

are the

o r a t l e a s t the

c o n c e rn o f the

in stitu ­

the p la y .

a d m in istra tio n of f i r s t b e tv y e e n t h e h e a l t h s e r v i c e

a id ,

rhe

clo se

cooperation

and th e i n t r a m u r a l program is

a g a i n e v i d e n c e d by t h e f a c t

th a t in th ir ty - n in e

co lleg es

serv ice ad m in isters f i r s t

to

in ju re d in tram u ral p a r tic ip a n ts ,

first the

s tu d ie d the h e a lth

rhe

aid in t h i r t y - s i x i n s t i t u t i o n s .

aid

t r a i n e r h an d les

I n s e v e n t e e n program s

in tram u ral d ir e c to r adm in isters f i r s t

m u ral m anagers i n t h r e e

of the

a i d and the

in tra ­

o th ers.

F i r s t a i d s u p p l i e s come f r o m t h e h e a l t h s e r v i c e , p h y sic a l ed u ca tio n departm ent,

and th e a t h l e t i c

A v a ila b ility of p h y sic ia n . was t h e d o c t o r h a r d t o

c o n ta ct,

the

d epartm ent.

In only te n i n s t i t u t i o n s oev en ty -tw o d i r e c t o r s

c a t e d t h a t a d o c t o r was e i t h e r o n c a l l o r e a s y t o g e t . t e n . p r o g r a m s t h e t r a i n e r o r d o c t o r was o n h a n d .

in d i­ In

5?

a

th irty

a n d one d u r i n g h o c k e y .

S e v e n c o l l e g e s had. a d o c t o r

slig h tly

over h a l f of the

s tu d ie d provide h o s p i t a l i z a ti o n

leg e o perated h e a lth se rv ic e f o r i t s

serv ice,

fo u rteen f e l t

in stitu ­

i n Hie fo rm o f a c o l ­ stu d en ts,

u f the

t y - s i x d i r e c t o r s whose s c h o o l s d i d n o t o p e r a t e

for­

a h ealth

t h a t such a p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e i r p a r ­

t i c i p a n t s was d e s i r a b l e . each s tu d e n t take

p o lic y ,

in f i f t e e n

a ll sp o rts.

H o s p it a li z a t io n,

th at

boxing in

E i g h t s c h o o l s h a d a d o c t o r on han d d u r in g f o o t -

a t hand during

tio n s

during

i n t r a m u r a l p rogram s and d u r i n g w r e s t l i n g

oth ers, h a ll,

d o c t o r was k e p t a t t h e r i n g s i d e

One w e l l known u n i v e r s i t y r e q u i r e s

out a fiv e hundred d o l l a r a c c id e n t

a n d two o t h e r s

advise t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s to

sub­

s c r i b e t o a com m ercial g r o u p - h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n p l a n . One c o l l e g e p u t s m issio n i s

charged.

on a n a n n u a l f e s t i v a l

The p r o c e e d s o f t h i s

to w hich ad ­

f e s t i v a l go to a

fu n d t h a t i s u se d to d e f r a y the ex p en ses o f i n j u r i e s ceived in in tra m u ra l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . partm ent pays the h o s p ita l b i l l s

re­

A nother i n tr a m u r a l d e­

fo r in ju r ie s receiv ed

by

in tram u ral p a r tic ip a n ts . III. The u s e illn e s s records

EEC 0 EDS

to w hich p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , are put is

in ju ry ,

o f m ore c o n c e r n h e r e

and

th a n what

58 d i v i s i o n m a i n t a i n s them . R ecords o f p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .

'The m e c h a n i c s

c h e c k in g th e p h y s i c a l condition, of p a r t i c i p a n t s t e r e s t i n g h u t com plex p r o b le m . th e m aintenance

of a se t

p a rticip a n ts

no s m a l l t a s k .

is

p h y sic ally u n f it ig ib le s

T w enty-three o f th e r e p o r t ­

on t h e

Tw enty-tw o o f the th ro u g h u se

p h y sic al co n d itio n

to rs req u ired th at h e a lth the

of a l i s t

each sem ester. h ealth ra tin g s

S ix ty -fo u r

th e beginning of

o f the

seven o f the schools

c o r d s were k e p t p u t t h e s e

k e p t the

records

one h u n d r e d a n d

survey kept records i n w hich i n j u r y r e ­

t o no p a r t i c u l a r u s e .

of the program s u se d t h e i r r e c o r d s

m odify s p o r t s

demand­

on f i l e .

of a l l in ju r ie s ,

to reduce h a z a rd s

o f th e m ethods u s e d .

lo w ed up a l l

o th ers

in tram u ral o ffic e s

two i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m s c o v e r e d i n t h i s

T w enty-five

S eventeen d i r e c ­

and t h i r t e e n

be r e c o r d e d a t

F ourteen of the

In ju ry reco rd s.

su lts

of p h y sic ally in e l-

c a r d s be p r e s e n t e d b y t h e p a r t i ­ sp o rt,

ed t h a t t h e h e a l t h c a r d s

of

s c h o o ls e l i m i n a t e d the

s e n t out by th e h e a l t h s e r v i c e .

c ip a n t upon e n te rin g

be s e e n t h a t

of th e p h y s ic a l e x am in a tio n th a t

was g i v e n a n d k e p t no r e c o r d s p a rtic ip a n ts.

can e a s i l y

an i n ­

of r e c o r d s on s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d

i n g p r o g r a m s made no u s e

its

It

is

of

in ju ries

to t r y

and t o d e t e r m i n e

to

the r e ­

The u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c i a n f o l ­

recorded in

th irtee n

sch o o ls,

and i n

59 the

te n rem ain in g c o lle g e s

th e r e c o r d s were e i t h e r

in ease of quest io n n or u sed in r e p o rts H ecords of r e c e n t i l l n e s s e s * program s r e p r e s e n te d i n in g i f

"file d

to ad m in istrato rs*

Most o f t h e i n t r a m u r a l

t h e s e f i n d i n g s h a d n o way o f know­

a p a r t i c i p a n t was f u l l y r e c o v e r e d f r o m i l l n e s s

he s t a r t e d c o m p e t i n g .

One d i r e c t o r m e n t i o n e d t h a t

l e f t up t o th e s t u d e n t l s ju d g em en t,

and t h i s

before

th is

was

statem en t un­

d o u b t e d l y i n d i c a t e d t h e p o l i c y f o l l o w e d b y m an y d i r e c t o r s . S e v e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s h a d p l a n s worked o u t t h a t p r o v id e d a g o o d c h e c k o n t h e s t u d e n t Ts p r e s e n t h e a l t h . vice

of seven sch o o ls n o t i f i e s

when a boy becomes i n e l i g i b l e becomes e l i g i b l e . e n t r i e s to h e alth

catio n s

the in tra m u ra l

departm ent

t o c o m p e t e a n d a g a i n w h e n he

One i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s e n d s h i s l i s t

the h e a l t h s e r v i c e

of th e p a r t i c i p a n t s .

receiv es

The h e a l t h s e r ­

for c e rtific a tio n

of

of the

A nother i n tr a m u r a l d ep artm en t

a d a i l y s i c k r e p o r t a nd makes t h e n e c e s s a r y n o t i f i ­ to p r e v e n t th e

subsequent p a r t i c i p a t i o n

of th o se

in ­

volved. IV .

STJMMABY

Through th e u s e o f p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n s , f i r s t h o sp italiza tio n , the

and r e c o r d s

schools surveyed a re

th e h e a lth s e rv ic e

aid ,

o f m o s t of

c o o p eratin g w ith the in tra m u ra l

d i r e c t o r s t o make i n t r a m u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n

as s a f e

as

60 p o ssib le. P h y sica l ex am in atio n . m ural p a r t i c i p a n t s

S7ell o v e r h a l f o f t h e

a r e r e q u i r e d t o p a s s ,a c o m p l e t e a n d com­

p reh en siv e p h y s ic a l ex am in atio n , r e q u ir e d of boxers and w r e s t l e r s and c ro s s

in tra ­

a

second check-up is

in sev eral schools,

also xrack

c o u n t r y men w e r e a l s o g i v e n s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s

i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s . F irst first

a id .

I'he c o l l e g e h e a l t h s e r v i c e a d m i n i s t e r s

a i d i n m ost e a s e s ,

m ural d i r e c t o r when t h e tho u g h ,

b u t the a t h l e t i c

t r a i n e r and i n t r a ­

s u p p l e m e n t t h e p h y s i c i a n i n m an y p r o g r a m s

co lleg e

d o cto r is

a d o cto r i s

e ith er

not a v a ila b le .

O rd in arily ,

o n t h e c am p u s o r e a s i l y a v a i l ­

able . H o sp ita liza tio n . a b o u t h a l f of the

c o lleg iate

c o lleg e h e a lth s e rv ic e , m en d o r r e q u i r e

H o sp ita liza tio n is

a v aila b le

in tram u ral p lay ers

iliree o th e r schools

to

thro u g h a

e i t h e r recom ­

group h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s

for th e ir

stu d e n ts• P h y sica l c o n d itio n re c o rd s . o ffices

kept records

these records in ju ries,

and,

on t h e

Most of t h e i n t r a m u r a l

s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e

co n tain r e s u l t s i n some c a s e s ,

and

of the p h y s ic a l ex am in atio n , recent illn e sse s.

CHAPTER VI

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS T his of a ll

c h a p te r does n o t

the f i n d in g s

of th is

c o n ta in a com plete r e s t a t e m e n t stu d y .

sio n s of those p r a c tic e s

th a t are

the

he t h e

m ost im p o r ta n t o r to

It

co n sists

of d isc u s­

c o n s i d e r e d t o he e i t h e r

in d ic a tio n of a tren d .

S e v e ra l unusual id eas

a lso are

c h a p t e r the

alm ost e v e ry i n tr a m u r a l program o p e r­

fa c t th at

discu ssed .

a te s im der d i f f e r e n t c irc u m s ta n c e s i s

Throughout t h i s

k e p t i n m ind and t h e

g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i s made t h a t l o c a l a d a p t a t i o n s

he

made •

I. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e

SUMMARY t h a t Y;as u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r

th is

s t u d y was c i r c u l a t e d i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r of 1941.

At t h a t tim e

but m ost i n s t i t u t i o n s

the

c o u n t r y was p r e p a r i n g

were f o l l o w i n g

th eir

tim e-h o n o red

p l a n s a n d h a d n o t made a n y w a r - t i m e c h a n g e s y e t . q u estio n n aire

c irc u la ted

th is

f o r w ar,

a

sim ilar

y e a r o r n e x t y e a r m i g h t show

a d e c id e d change in th e g e n e r a l a s p e c t o f in tr a m u r a l s p o r t s . A change d e sig n e d to

c o n d i t i o n and to u g h e n the s t u d e n t s

r a t h e r th an to provide p rim a rily fo r r e c r e a tio n i s undoubt­ e d ly the

tren d .

T he p r a c t i c e s s u m m a r i z e d h e r e w i l l c o n c e r n

62 f o r th e m ost p a r t ,

the r e c r e a t i o n a l type

s i n c e r e c r e a t i o n was t h e p r i n c i p l e tim e t h i s

as an in tra m u ra l a c t i v i t y .

t h a t d id n o t o f f e r the

but found i t

a ctiv ity ,

n e c e ssa ry to d isc o n tin u e

e a s e s w r e s t l i n g was a b a n d o n e d b e c a u s e n o t h ig h enou^i to cause p h y sical c o n d itio n .

its

co lleg e

by th e w r e s t l i n g co ach or

use.

I n most

s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t was

the p a r t i c i p a n t s

I*he a v e r a g e

Of t h e

n in e te e n had t r i e d

to

get in to proper

in tram u ral w re stlin g

b o u t was f o u n d t o b e o f s i x m i n u t e s d u r a t i o n , ficiate d

a t the

F i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f th e program s

stu d ie d used w restlin g

it

aim o f i n t r a m u r a l s

s t u d y was m a d e .

W restlin g ,

schools

in tr a m u r a l program

and i t

was o f ­

some o t h e r c o m p e t e n t

ad u lt. har p ro tec to rs ten siv e u se , quired.

and m at c o v e r s w ere f o u n d to be i n e x ­

b u t f o r m o s t p a r t no p r e s c r i b e d u n i f o r m w a s r e ­

O f f - t h e - m a t p r o t e c t i o n was p r o v i d e d i n h a l f

p r o g r a m s by p a d d i n g t h e

surfaces

xhe i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s were unanim ous i n th e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e

surrounding

co n trib u tin g to

tin e

of tra in in g ,

th is

study

to a l l i n t r a m u r a l w r e s t l e r s , and t w e n ty com pletion of th e t r a i n i n g

f o r e a boy was a l l o w e d t o w r e s t l e • co n d itio n in g

th e m at.

o p in io n t h a t a c o n d it i o n in g program

e ig h t d i r e c t o r s r e q u i r e d the

ferin g

the

H alf

be­

o f the s c h o o ls o f ­

f o r w r e s t l e r s s e t up a p r e s c r i b e d , r o u ­

an d the

o th er h a lf had f a c i l i t i e s ,

63 eq u ip m en t, an d ,

i n some e a s e s ,

- B o x in g . the

in stru c tio n av ailab le.

B o x i n g was f o u n d t o b e i n u s e

co u n try T *s l a r g e

of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s

c o lleg iate

in tra m u ra l program s.

t h a t d id n o t u se boxing i n

r a l program had t r i e d fo r in tram u ral u se.

in h a lf of

it

b u t found the

In ju rie s,

death s,

the

H alf in tram u ­

a c tiv ity u n fitted l a c k of i n t e r e s t ,

a n d i m p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n i n g ?/ere t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r a b a n ­ d on in g the

sp o rt.

The a v e r a g e i n t r a m u r a l

b o x i n g m a t c h was f o u n d t o

c o n s i s t o f t h r e e r o u n d s o f one and e i g h t - t e n t h s d u ratio n ,

e ig h ty p er cent of th e re fe re e s

e it h e r coaches or r e f e r e e s . are

in stru cted

About h a l f

were a d u l t s ,

of these re fe re e s

to s to p uneven b o u ts im m e d ia te ly .

j-he a v e r a g e g l o v e u s e d was o f t w e l v e ounce w e ig h t.

m inutes

Head g u a r d s , m outh p i e c e s ,

a re used w id ely ,

to f o u r t e e n

and hand w raps

and m ost o f th e d i r e c t o r s

agree

th a t th ey

s h o u l d be u s e d w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e . n i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the

d irec to rs

sp o n so rin g

boxing p ro v id e c o n d itio n in g f o r in tra m u ra l b o x e rs,

and

six ty -fo u r per cent req u ire

condi­

tio n in g

sch edule.

th e com pletion of t h i s

The a v e r a g e s c h e d u l e i s

a b o u t tw elve

h o u r s l o n g a n d i s made u p o f r o a d Y?ork, b a g p u n c h i n g , ercises,

p rac tic e

bo u ts,

and i n s t r u c t i o n .

ex­

64 xouch, f o o t b a l l *

S ev en ty -sev en p e r cen t of th e

m ural program s r e p r e s e n te d i n t h i s b a ll*

rhe av erage p la y in g

m inutes*

reg u latio n size

than h a l f of th e found to

schools,

fo o tb all but

f i e l d s w e r e u s e d i n m o re

sm aller f ie ld s

a l s o were

iin a v e r a g e o f tw o o f f i c i a l s

and i n m ost c a s e s

stu d en t lab o r r a te s .

su rv ey used touch f o o t ­

t i m e p e r game was t h i r t y - t h r e e

be s a t i s f a c t o r y ,

game was u s e d ,

in tra ­

these o f f i c i a l s

per

were p a i d

r h e w e a r i n g o f r u b b e r - s o l e d s h o e s was

m andantory i n s i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t

of th e t o u c h f o o t b a l l

p lay ed . Aule m o d i f i c a t i o n s to p r o t e c t ip an ts

in clu d e

^ o n b a l a n c e t o u c h i n g 11' ( 5 0 $ ) , p r o h i b i t i o n o f

A m erican A o o tb a ll b lo c k in g 157$),

(87$),

sta n d in g b lo ck in g only

and e l i m i n a t i o n o f s p r i n t e r * s

(alm ost 1 0 0 $ ).

An i n t e r e s t i n g

i n f i v e program s i s to p re v e n t e r y . .. r h e

the ru lin g

the u s u a l r e c k l e s s b a ll

touch f o o tb a ll p a r t i c ­

is

aw arded t o

sp o t of th e fu m b le. M iscellan eo u s

start

i n l i n i n g up

m o d ificatio n th a t

in use

o f a l l fum bles a s dead b a l l s scram ble i n a tte m p te d r e c o v ­

the

team t h a t fum bled a t th e

. causes

of to u c h f o o t b a l l a c c id e n ts

w e r e f o u n d t o be f r e e p l a y i n c r o w d e d a r e a s , co n d itio n s,

is

poor ground

and unpadded g o a l p o s t s .

B a sk e tb a ll.

B a s k e t b a l l was f o u n d to

used in in tra m u ra l a th l e t i c s ,

be u n i v e r s a l l y

x h e a v e r a g e game i s

of

65 t w e n t y - e i g h t m i n u t e s d u r a t i o n and i s p l a y e d on a r e g u l a t i o n size

co u rt,

l o u r tim e o u ts

are

a l l o w e d i n t h e a v e r a g e game,

and r e g u l a t i o n s u b s t i t u t i o n r u l e s p a r t i c i p a n t s was f o u n d t o b a sk etb a ll f a c i l i t i e s program s s t u d i e d ,

are u sed .

x w elv e p e r c e n t o f the

how ever, r e q u i r e d

t h a t e a c h team work out

n a i l m a ts, h i g h top

shoes,

e y e g l a s s p r o t e c t o r s w e r e among o t h e r s a f e g u a r d s s p e e d b a l l and s o c c e r .

and

in use.

E ith e r speed b all or soccer

wa s i n u s e i n t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m s , w ere fo u n d t o

be o f t h i r t y - t h r e e

u-ames

m in u tes a v erag e d u r a tio n

a n d w e re p l a y e d m o s t l y on r e g u l a t i o n s i z e ing o f te n n is

of

be l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f m a k i n g t h e

a v aila b le,

an a v erag e of te n tim e s .

C o n d itio n in g

field s,

s h o e s was r e q u i r e d f o r m o s t o f t h e

xhe w e a r ­ sp eed b all

gam es, b u t t h e s o c c e r p l a y e r s c o u ld w ear e i t h e r l e a t h e r or ru b b e r shoes in th e m a jo r ity of c a s e s .

Over h a l f

of t h e

s p e e d b a l l and s o c c e r games were w orked by p a i d o f f i c i a l s , and th e a v e ra g e number o f o f f i c i a l s one a n d s i x - t e n t h s , tio n s,

stric t

p e r game was f o u n d t o

o fficiatin g ,

be

good ground c o n d i­

and eye g l a s s p r o t e c t o r s w ere m e n tio n e d a s a d d i t i o n a l

safeguards. so ftb a ll,

o o ftb all,

be i n u n i v e r s a l u s e stu d y ,

in

lik e

b a sk etb a ll,

the c o lle g e s

was f o u n d t o

co n trib u tin g

riig h ty p e r c e n t o f th e s e program s r e q u i r e

to

th is

the

so ft-

66 b a ll p lay ers

t o ?/ear r u b b e r - s o l e d s h o e s ,

t w e n t y p e r c e n t allow ;:

but

the rem ain in g

s p ik e s o r any o t h e r ty p e

The u s e o f c a t c h e r f s m ask s i s r e q u i r e d by h a l f to rs using s o f tb a ll, men s u p p l y m a s k s ,

of

o f the

d irec­

and over s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s e

r a p e d o r c o r k g r i p s w e r e f o u n d t o be u s e d

on h a l f o f th e s o f t b a l l iatio n

of fo o tw ear.

b ats u sed ,

the w r i s t s t r a p

nvo d i r e c t o r s u s e a v a r ­

on a p o l i c e m a n ’s n i g j i t s t i c k

to

p r e v e n t 1Tf l y i n g s o f t b a l l b a t s . u* S tands, ro p es, t o be i n u s e

fences,

lin e s,

to keep s p e c t a t o r s

t a n c e f r o m t h e man a t b a t .

and b e n c h e s w ere f o u n d

and p l a y e r s

at

a safe

The o n l y m o d i f i c a t i o n o f r u l e s

t h a t was b r o u g h t o u t w a s t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f s l i d i n g allow ance

d is­

o f an o v e r - r u n on a l l b a s e s .

and t h e

One d i r e c t o r a t t e m p ­

t e d t o p r e v e n t s p r a i n e d a n k l e s b y u s i n g b a s e s made o f s a w ­ d u st-fille d b ats

bags r e c e s s e d

i n sh allo w h o le s ,

and good p l a y i n g f i e l d

ru b b e r covered

c o n d it i o n s were m en tio n ed a ls o

as sa fe g u a rd s. B aseb all.

B piked s h o e s , m asks,

and,

i n some

cases,

c o m p le te c a t c h e r ’s e q u ip m e n t a r e i n a lm o s t u n i v e r s a l u s e the

th irty -fiv e

in tr a m u r a l program s t h a t use

sam e d e v i c e s a n d r u l e s

The

t h a t a r e u s e d i n s o f t b a l l a r e u s e d to

keep b a s e b a l l s p e c t a t o r s T r a c k and f i e l d .

b aseb all,

in

a t a safe

d istan ce

from th e

b a tter.

N in e ty -tw o p e r c e n t o f th e program s

67 s t u d i e d u s e d t r a c k and f i e l d m e e ts . p a r t i c i p a n t was a l l o w e d t o e n t e r

I n th e average m eet each

a maximum o f t h r e e

ev en ts.

Th e a v e r a g e m e e t c o n s i s t s

o f s t a n d a r d t r a c k and f i e l d

w ith the

j a v e l i n th ro w and most o f the

tance

e x c e p tio n of the

ev en ts.

th irty

The j a v e l i n

in tra m u ra l program s,

tfl o n g d i s t a n c e r u n s 11 i n six teen .

events d is­

throw has b een d i s c o n t i n u e d i n t h e h am m er t h r o w i n e i g h t e e n ,

th irte e n ,

o n e a n d two m i l e r u n s i n

The h a l f m i l e was d r o p p e d b y t w o d i r e c t o r s

a s was

t h e f o u r h u n d r e d a n d f o r t y y a r d e v e n t by s e v e n o t h e r s .

The

p o l e v a u l t was a b a n d o n e d i n s e v e n t e e n p r o g r a m s a n d t h e h i g h hurdles

in elev en . The u s e

o f tw o d a y s i n r u n n i n g o f f

im in atio n of a l l sity

of w arm -ups,

sp e cta to rs

from th e

th e m eet,

field ,

the

e l­

and th e n e c e s ­

a l s o were b ro u g h t o u t .

Cross C o u n try .

A cross

c o u n try ru n i s

among t h e

e v e n ts u se d i n t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f th e i n tr a m u r a l program s stu d ied .

I t h a s b e en drop p ed from tw e n ty p ro g ram s b e c a u se

o f l a c k of i n t e r e s t and i m p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n i n g * cross

co u n try course

len g th .

is

tw o a n d one

The a v e r a g e

q u a rte r m iles

in

C o n d itio n in g of c ro s s co u n try p a r t i c i p a n t s

f e r e d i n e i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of th e program s and i s quired in six ty -tw o p e r c e n t.

These c o n d i t i o n i n g

is

of­

re­

schedules

c o n s i s t o f a s p e c i f i e d number o f r u n s t h a t v a r y from f i v e to

t e n i n n u m b e r a n d c o v e r a p e r i o d o f two t o s i x w e e k s .

68 P h y s ic a l ex am in atio n ,

s i x t y - e i g h t p er c e n t of the

i n tr a m u r a l program s s t u d i e d r e q u i r e

th at a ll

p a n ts p ass a p h y s ic a l e x am in atio n ,

o n ly boxers,

t r a c k men, p lay ers

cross

e ig h ty -n in e p e r cen t of the

eases

some c a s e s

of the sp o rt,

exam inations

a ls o p a y the

and in

co st.

c o m p l e t e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n was g i v e n

a

in e i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t of

the c o lle g e s ,

seven d ire c to rs

th o u g h t t h a t an e x a m in a tio n f o r p o o r h e a r t , and p o s s ib l e h e r n i a sh o u ld s u f f i c e

purposes,

lu n g s , nose, for

in tram u ral

fo u r o th e rs th o u g h t th a t a check of h e a r t,

a n d h e r n i a s h o u l d be e n o u g h , recto rs

or fo o tb a ll

ju s t p r i o r to the s t a r t

co lleg es u s u a lly a d m in iste r th e s e

th ro at,

w restlers,

s p e c i a l ex am in a tio n s are g iv e n i n

th ese p a r t i c i p a n ts

rhe

sw im m ers,

p a rtici­

are re q u ire d to p ass an ex am in a tio n in th e rem ain ­

ing p ro g ra m s, to

cou n try ru n n e rs ,

the

in d icated th a t

six ty -fiv e

the h e a r t,

w o u l d b e a m in im um a c c e p t a b l e

lung,

lu n g s,

p e r c e n t of the and h e r n i a

d i­

cheek

in tra m u ra l ex am in atio n ,

but

*

the rem ainder f e l t

t h a t a t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n was t h e

m in i­

mum. care of i n ju r ie s . and th e b ility

in tr a m u r a l departm ent sh a re for f i r s t

h an d lin g the of the

xhe h e a l t h s e r v i c e ,

the

e q u a lly the re s p o n s i­

a i d i n th e program s s u rv e y e d ,

im m ediate c a r e

in stitu tio n s.

train er,

of i n j u r i e s i n about

nach

one

one t h i r d

69 ±n m o s t o f t h e s c h o o l s e asy to c o n ta c t , sp o rts,

a d o c t o r wa s e i t h e r

on h a n d or

ue v en . p r o g r a m s h a d a d o c t o r o n h a n d f o r

e ig h t during

fo o tb all,

fifte e n

f o r boxing,

a ll

and t h i r t y

w h i l e w r e s t l i n g was i n p r o g r e s s . n a i f of the

in tram u ral d ire c to rs

i n s t i t u t i o n p rovided a c o lle g e fo u rteen o th ers rhree

a d v ised t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n ts

R ecords.

ihe f in d in g s

i ’w e n t y - t w o s c h o o l s

of' a lis t

serv ice,

take

out

rwo p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e d

fe stiv a l.

o f the h e a l t h

u s e d i n v a r i o u s ways to p r o t e c t t h e h e a l t h

use

to

of i n j u r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t h r o u g h i n t r a m u r a l f u n d s ,

one o f w h i c h w a s r a i s e d b y a s p o r t s

p an ts.

and

t h o u g h t t h a t s u c h a p l a n wa s d e s i r a b l e ,

o th er d ire c to rs

care

th eir

o perated h e a lth s e rv ic e ,

a com m ercial h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n p o l i c y . for

in d icated th a t

of ph y sical

e lim in a te th e in elig ib les

seventeen o th e rs re q u ire

s e n t e d when, a p a r t i c i p a n t c o r d the h e a l t h

start

of the fin d in g s

In ju ry records the r e s u l t s

are

p h y s i c a l l y u n f i t by

th a t h e a lth cards

cf

the

file ,

four­

b u t tw en ty -

exam in atio n .

k e p t i n m ost program s to d e te rm in e

o f m eth o d s -used, t o r e d u c e h a z a r d s ,

reco rd for th e h e a lth s e rv ic e , m in istra to rs .

be p r e ­

and t h i r t e e n r e ­

of each se m e ste r,

te e n in tra m u ra l o ffic e s m ain tain a h e a lth t h r e e make n o u s e

of the p a r t i c i ­

s e n t o u t by t h e h e a l t h

e n ters a s p o rt,

c a rd s a t the

ex am in atio n are

and to

to p r o v id e a

com pile r e p o r t s

to a d ­

70 R ecords o f r e c e n t i l l n e s s e s in tram u ral

o ffices.

schools n o t i f i e s

a r e k e p t by o n l y e i g h t

Hie h e a l t h s e r v i c e

the

in seven of these

i n t r a m u r a l o f f i c e when a p a r t i c i p a n t

i

becomes p h y s i c a l l y i n e l i g i b l e g ib le . to

a n d a g a i n when he becom es e l i ­

I n on e s c h o o l t h e e n t r y l i s t

in each s p o rt is

sent

the h o s p i t a l f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . 11

.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A y e ar ago,

before

th is

c o u n t r y wa s a t w a r ,

c l u s i o n s and recom m endations o f t h is very easy to d eterm in e.

Up t o

th at

the

con­

s t u d y w ould have been tim e i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c ­

t o r s were eng ag ed p r i m a r i l y i n p r o v i d i n g a r e c r e a t i o n a l program .

A c tiv itie s

or m o d ified . decreased,

i n w h ich i n t e r e s t l a g g e d were d ro p p e d

The u s e o f s p o r t s

and p u re ly r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s

Now t h e

th in k in g in tram u ral d ir e c to r is

the p ro b le m o f i n c r e a s i n g a c tiv itie s

th a t re q u ire d co n d itio n in g

the u se

were a d d e d . faced w ith

o f body b u i l d i n g

type

as w e ll as m a in ta in in g h i s program of r e c r e a ­

tio n a l sp o rts. The c o n c l u s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w not s e t f o r t h as

the o n ly answ er to

t h e m any a n d v a r i e d

problem s t h a t c o n f r o n t an i n tr a m u r a l d i r e c t o r . com posite p i c t u r e th is

of the

are

average p r a c tic e

They a re

a

as d eterm in ed in

s t u d y com bined w i t h s e v e r a l u n u s u a l i d e a s

t h a t some

71 c o n trib u tin g d ire c to rs Program . is

brought o u t.

What s p o r t s

to

add o r what s p o r t s

an i m p o r ta n t and e v e r - p r e s e n t p ro b le m .

b a sk etb a ll, m ing,

so ftb a ll,

v o lle y b all,

because

h a n d b all,

the

Such s p o r t s as

ten n is,

and b ad m in to n a r e

track ,

sw im ­

i n wide u s e

o f t h e i r n a t u r a l a p p e a l and a r e l i m i t e d o n l y by

la c k of f a c i l i t i e s , . cer,

touch f o o t b a l l ,

to drop

W restlin g ,

boxing,

cross

co u n try ,

a n d s p e e d b a l l a r e n o t u s e d i n m any p r o g r a m s

b e c a u s e of

i n h e r e n t h a z a r d and r e s u l t i n g l a c k o f i n t e r e s t .

ten n is,

g o lf,

soc­

T able

and h o rs e s h o e p i t c h i n g a re u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y

but are p rim a rily r e c r e a tio n a l s p o rts . The i d e a l c o l l e g e

in tra m u ra l program sho uld o f f e r

e v e r y s p o r t i n w hich an i n t e r e s t

is

tie s

of n a tio n a l c r is is

are

av ailab le.

I n the

s tr o n g bodies a re n eed ed , more s t r e n e o u s be u s e d .

sp o rts,

tim e

in te rest

ev id en ced and f a c i l i ­ when

s h o u l d be c r e a t e d i n t h e

but o b viously every safeg u ard should

The m o r e h a z a r d o u s s p o r t s

are u s u a l ly v e ry v a lu ­

a b le from th e s t a n d p o i n t o f b ig m uscle d e v e lo p m e n t.

Conse­

q u en tly ,

and

p ro v isio n s

th e y sh ould r e c e iv e tiv e s

s h o u l d be made f o r t h e s e s p o r t s ' , every p o ss ib le

encouragem ent.

a r e i n m an y o f t h e l a r g e p r o g r a m s .

r e l a ti v e ly hazardous, proper p recau tio n s

are

Comba-

A lthough th e y a re

t h e y may be u s e d w i t h o u t u n d u e r i s k taken.

if

72 W restlin g . is

w re stlin g .

The m o s t h a z a r d o u s o f i n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s

However,,

it

is

in use

th e i n tr a m u r a l program s s t u d i e d . not in clu d e w r e s tlin g , the

sp o rt.

If

less

fa c ilitie s

W eight c l a s s e s . co n testan ts

Of t h e p r o g r a m s t h a t do

are a v a ila b le ,

safeguard i f

of

th a n h a l f a c t u a l l y has dropped

u s e d as an i n tr a m u r a l s p o r t , every p o ssib le

i n more t h a n h a l f

w r e s t l i n g s h o u d be

b u t i t m u s t be s u r r o u n d e d b y it

At the

is

to

be u s e d a d v a n t a g e o u s l y .

b e g in n in g o f t h e s p o r t the

s h o u l d be c l a s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o w e i g h t .

T his

" w e i g h i n g i n " s h o u l d be d o n e by a p e r s o n i n a u t h o r i t y who can and w i l l p r e s c r i b e may l o s e

the l i m i t o f w e ig h t t h a t

t o make a c e r t a i n w e i g h t c l a s s .

two o r t h r e e p o u n d s b y t h e d isc o u rag e d because

e n t r a n t s who w o u l d b e n e f i t th erefo re,

of over

co lleg e

in tram u ral p a r t i c i ­

b y h a v i n g t o k e e p h i s w e i g h t down

over a p e r io d of s e v e r a l w eeks.

pounds;

The l o s s

a v e r a g e c o n t e s t a n t s h o u l d be

the average

pant w ill not b en efit

e a c h man

N a t u r a l l y t h e r e a r e some

by l o s i n g a s m uch a s t e n o r - m o r e

j u d g e m e n t m u s t be u s e d i n t h e l i m i t s

p rescrib ed . P h y sical f i t n e s s .

B ach w r e s t l i n g e n t r a n t s h o u l d be

ch eck ed as to

th e fin d in g s

and as

elasp ed p e rio d sin ce h is

th ere

to th e is

of h is l a s t p h y s ic a l exam ination last

illn e ss.

any d o u b t c o n c e rn in g th e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s

If

of any

73 e n t r a n t , h e shonlcL be s e n t t o

th e h e a lth

serv ice

for

c e rtifi­

c a t io n b e fo re b e in g allo w ed to w r e s t l e . C o n d itio n in g .

If it

is

a t a ll p o ssib le,

i n g p r o g r a m .s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d a n d - t h e

a c o n d itio n ­

com pletion of th is

co n d itio n in g re q u ire d of a l l p a r tic ip a n ts .

The c o n d i t i o n i n g

s c h e d u l e shoiald c o n s i s t o f t h r e e t o f o u r h o u r s p e r week f o r a t l e a s t two o r t h r e e weeks-.

1’h e s c h e d u l e s h o u l d i n c l u d e a

p r e s c r i b e d number o f r e p e t i t i o n s s e t c o u rs e f o r r o a d w ork, s e lf-a rra n g e d bouts. in stru ctio n ,

beyond p u re l e c t u r e

p a rticip a n ts warm -up.

in tr a m u r a l program a c t u a l ty p e,

is

alm o st im p o s s ib le ,

c o n d i t i o n i n g c a n be c h e c k e d o f f b y

a n i n t r a m u r a l m anager o r the warm- u p .

a

a n d a minim um n u m b e r o f p r a c t i c e ,

In a larg e

but th e com pliance o f th e

of heavy c a lis th e n ic s ,

e q u i p m e n t m an.

w hile a b o u t i s

in progress,

the next

two

s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o go t h r o u g h some t y p e o f

This may c o n s i s t

of push u p s,

b rid g in g ,

and ru n ­

ning in p la c e . The m a t s .

a

c l e a n s o f t m a t c o v e r s h o u l d be u s e d o v e r

th e w r e s t l i n g mat p r o p e r ,

and tu m b lin g m ats s h o u ld s u rro u n d

th e w r e s t l i n g mat to p r o v i d e The b o u t . c o n d itio n ,

U nless the

l* o f f t h e

m atn p r o t e c t i o n .

e n tran ts

a re i n u n u s u a lly good

t h e b o u t s s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o f i v e

to s i x m in­

74 u tes.

S l i g h t l y l o n g e r b o u t s may b e u s e d i n t h e s e m i - f i n a l s

and f i n a l s

if

d esired .

R eferee.

I f p o ssib le ,

i n t r a m u r a l w r e s t l i n g s h o u l d be

o f f i c i a t e d b y a n a d u l t who i s

th o ro u g h ly f a m ilia r w ith a l l

of the dangerous w r e s tlin g h o ld s .

1'he r e f e r e e

c a n do much

to p r e v e n t i n j u r y by g i v i n g p r o p e r i n s t r u c t i o n s holds

t h a t a r e b a r r e d a n d by s t r i c t l y Ear p r o te c to r s .

Ear p ro te c to rs

as to

the

e n f o r c in g the r u l e s . s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d

and r e q u i r e d f o r a l l b o u ts .

I n r u n n in g o f f a l a r g e number

o f bouts s e v e ra l p r o te c to r s

s h o u l d be on h a n d i n o r d e r t h a t

t h e y may be a d j u s t e d t o

the v a rio u s h ead s i z e s w ith o u t de­

la y in g the b o u ts. first on th e

a id .

A com plete f i r s t

t i m e r !s t a b l e .

be c h e e k e d t h o r o u g h l y .

A f t e r each b o u t the

s h o u l d be k e p t co n testan ts

should

Any a b r a s i o n s o r o t h e r i n j u r i e s m u s t

be w a s h e d w i t h some a n t i s e p t i c

and bandaged i f n e c e s s a r y .

C l o s e a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o linee and elbow p r o t e c t o r s . n o t conducive

aid k i t

th e knees a n d elbow s. I*he n a t u r e

of in tram u ral

sp o rts

is

to s t a n d a r d i z a ti o n of u n ifo rm ,

lig h ts

o r k n e e p a d s a n d e l b o w p a d s may be u s e d i f

d esired ,

b u t a good s o f t m at c o v e r w i l l m in im iz e mat b u r n s . B oxing*

B oxing i s

in use

i n a b o u t one h a l f o f th e

75 co lleg e

in tra m u ra l program s;

i t has

been d ro p p ed from one-

f o u r t h o f th e p ro g ram s b u t h a s n e v e r b e e n u s e d - i n die r e m a in ­ ing fo u rth .

If fa c ilitie s

as an in tr a m u r a l s p o r t, every p o ssib le

are

b u t,

a v aila b le,

it

s h o u l d be u s e d

a s was t h e c a s e i n w r e s t l i n g ,

p r e c a u t i o n s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d .

In ju rie s

and

l a c k of p r o p e r c o n d i t i o n i n g were th e r e a s o n s f o r ' ab an doning the s p o r t. in atio n

The v e r y n a t u r e

of a l l

of th e s p o rt p rec lu d es th e

the i n j u r i e s ,

elim ­

b u t t h e y c a n be d e c r e a s e d i n

number and r e d u c e d i n s e v e r i t y by u s e o f p r o p e r p r e c a u t i o n ­ a ry m easures. P re lim in ary o rg a n iz a tio n . cheek in g p h y s ic a l f i t n e s s ,

W eig h in g -in e n t r a n t s ,

and c o n d i t i o n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s

s h o u l d be h a n d l e d i n a m a n n e r s i m i l a r t o lin g .

fhe a c t u a l item s i n

d ifferen t,

the

th a t used fo r w rest­

c o n d itio n in g sch ed u le are

b u t th e d u ra tio n of th e re q u ire d

th e m ethods u s e d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t C o n d itio n in g .

may be t h e s a m e .

n o ad work o v e r a p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e ,

s c h e d u le p e r i o d on th e l i g h t and p r a c t i c e

c o n d i t i o n i n g and

and heav y bag s,

b o u t s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n

a

rope sk ip p in g ,

the c o n d itio n in g

program .

xhe b o u t .

An in tr a m u r a l bout f o r th e a vera g e typ e of

p a r t i c i p a n t sh o u ld c o n s i s t o f th r e e rounds o f one and on eh a l f m in u tes d u r a t io n ,

i f the boys are i n good c o n d i t i o n .

76 keferee.

The r e f e r e e

s h o u l d be a n a d u l t who i s

i l i a r - w i t h t h e i n h e r e n t h a z a r d of b o x i n g . s tr u c te d to

sto p any bout as soon as i t

fam ­

He s h o u l d b e i n ­

becomes o b v i o u s l y

uneven. Knockdown,

i'he r o u n d s h o u l d be s t o p p e d o n a k n o c k ­

down a n d a w a r d e d t o t h e man who s c o r e d i t .

The s t a n d a r d

r e s t p e r i o d s h o u l d be o b s e r v e d b e f o r e t h e n e x t r o u n d i s sta rte d . E q u ip m en t.

Twelve t o f o u r t e e n

w r a p s , m outh p i e c e s ,

ounce g l o v e s ,

hand

and h e a d g u a r d s s h o u l d be s u p p l i e d by

the i n tr a m u r a l d e p a rtm e n t and t h e i r u s e r e q u i r e d o f a l l box­ ers.

I n a l a r g e p r o g r a m w h e r e t i m e b e t w e e n b o u t s m u s t be

k e p t to

a m in im u m ,

several sets

d o z en m outh p i e c e s ,

of g lo v e s,

at le a st a h a lf

a l a r g e number o f h a n d w ra p s ,

and s e v ­

e r a l h e a d g u a r d s a d j u s t e d t o d i f f e r e n t h e a d s i z e s w i l l be necessary. a jar

The m o u t h p i e c e s may b e k e p t a t t h e r i n g s i d e

of a n tis e p tic . Touch f o o t b a l l .

of f ie ld s the

o f t h e games a n d s i z e

of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a n from th e h e a l t h and

s a f e ty v iew p o in t. is

The d u r a t i o n

f o r t o u c h f o o t b a l l i s m o r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d f r o m

stan d p o in t

zones;

in

one h u n d r e d y a r d f i e l d

a good average

t o o much s p a c e b u t i s

size f i e l d

ad eq u ate

th at

( in c lu d in g end

does n o t r e q u i r e

in every re s p e c t.

If

77 necessary, m inute

sm aller f i e l d s

q u arters

may be u s e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ,

are d e s i r a b l e , but in

number o f games,

the

Ten

o rd er to p la y a la rg e

q u a r t e r s w i l l of n e c e s s i t y o f t e n be

sh o rten ed . O ffic ia ls.

S trict

o fficiatin g

to e l i m i n a t e undue

roughness i n s c re e n in g and to u ch in g i s At l e a s t sira b le .

two o f f i c i a l s p e r g a m e ,

a b so lu tely necessary.

t h r e e .i f p o s s i b l e ,

F re q u e n t r u l e s m eetin g s of a l l o f f i c i a l s

c e s s a r y to m a in ta in i n t e r e s t

are de­ are n e­

and to em phasize r u l e s

a n d me­

chanics . T ouching.

Touch f o o t b a l l i s

a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f Amer­

ic a n F o o tb a ll f o r the prim ary purpose n u m b e r s t o p l a y t h e game w i t h l i t t l e w i t h ' a m in im u m n u m b e r o f i n j u r i e s .

o r no e q u i p m e n t a n d The t o u c h e r

s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o s t a y o n b a l a n c e a n d s h o u l d be p r e v e n t e d f r o m d i v i n g , grabbing.

good, firm ,

n e c e s s a r y and i s B lock in g .

a ll

of a l l o w i n g l a r g e

(tack ierJ

th ro u g h o u t the shoving,

tw o-handed to u ch i s

touch,

slap p in g , a ll

th at

or

is

t h a t s h o u l d be a l l o w e d .

B l o c k i n g s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o

balan ce , sta n d in g p o s i t io n ,

d o llin g

b lo ck s,

th e on-

or d iv es,

should

be p r e v e n t e d .

O n - b a l a n c e b l o c k i n g may be i n s u r e d m ore e a s i l y

by p r o h i b i t i n g

t h e s p r i n t e r Ts s t a r t

s h o u l d l i n e up w i t h o n l y t h e i r f e e t

in the l i n e .

L inem en

i n c o n ta c t w ith the

78 ground,

xhe b lo clce r* s h a n d s m u st r e m a in c l e a r

t h r ough o u t th e

R u l i n g fum bloo a s

by e l i m i n a t i n g

fum ble,

xhe r e f e r e e

fum bled

b a ll strik e s

the fu m b lin g

dead b a l l s

w ill prevent

t h e s c ra m b le t h a t alw ays f o llo w s s h o u l d blow h i s w h i s t l e the ground,

team a t

the p o i n t of

O ther c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .

and i t

as so o n as the

sh o u ld

be a w a r d e d t o

th e fum ble.

touch f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s .

F i e l d s m u s t be k e p t s m o o t h a n d f r e e f r o m o b s t r u c t i o n s .

If

the amount o f tim e t h a t

are a v a ila b le w ill p erm it,

d u ratio n .

the f a c i l i ­

i n t r a m u r a l b a s k e t b a l l games

sh o u ld c o n s is t of fo u r q u a rte rs u tes

R ai­

a re an added p r e c a u tio n .

■ B asketball. tie s

a

The w e a r i n g o f b a s k e t b a l l

s h o e s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d o f a l l

ded g o a l p o s t s

ground

block.

F um bles. in ju rie s

ofth e

o f a b o u t s e v e n t o e i g h t m in­

R e g u l a t i o n t im e o u t and s u b s t i t u t i o n r u l e s

a re recommended. O ffic ia tin g . d esirab le, ly

and th e s e

The u s e

o f t w o o f f i c i a l s p e r game i s

o fficials

s h o u l d be r e m i n d e d f r e q u e n t ­

t o p r e v e n t r o u g h p l a y by c a l l i n g

t h e games v e r y c l o s e l y .

F la g ra n t or in te n tio n a l fo u ls should not O ther c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . ing of f a c i l i t i e s

be c o u n t e n a n c e d .

As a g e n e r a l r u l e ,

should p ro v id e

su fficien t

the

a v ail­

co n d itio n in g

79 o p p o rtu n ity , stra in is

b ask etb a ll is

a stren eo u s

m i n i m i z e d by p la y in g * s h o r t p e r i o d s a n d a l l o w i n g

num erous tim e o u ts *

Ihe u se of h ig h top b a s k e t b a ll

eye g l a s s p r o t e c t o r s ,

shoes,

a n d w a l l p a d d i n g s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d *

S p e e d b a l l a nd s o c c e r . terest

game, bu t e x c e ss

If

and a d eq u ate f a c i l i t i e s ,

th ere

is

su fficien t

in ­

e ith e r sp eed b all or soccer

s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a w e l l r o u n d e d i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m . The w e a r i n g o f t e n n i s

s h o e s f o r s p e e d b a l l and r e g u l a t i o n

equipm ent f o r s o c c e r i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e quired i f p o s s ib le . m inute

a n d s h o u l d be r e ­

The g a m e s s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f f o u r e i g h t

q u a r t e r s and s h o u l d be o f f i c i a t e d by a t l e a s t

ficials.

tw o o f ­

O lo s e a t t e n t i o n m ust be p a i d t o g r o u n d c o n d i t i o n s ,

a n d e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e made t o p r o v i d e s m o o t h p l a y i n g surfaces,

i h e s p e e d b a l l o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d be c a u t i o n e d t o

m in im iz e c o n t a c t by o f f i c i a t i n g

t h e game a s i f

it

were b a s ­

k e tb a ll. S o ftb a ll.

There i s

no q u e s t i o n

but th a t s o f tb a ll

s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a g o o d i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m . u n iv ersal in te re s t

and is

low on th e

It

is

of

degree o f h a z a rd s c a le .

I'he w e a r i n g o f r u b b e r - s o l e d s h o e s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d o f a l l p lay ers.

A l l c a t c h e r s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o w e a r m a s k s ,

i f necessary

a nd

t h e m a s k s s h o u l d be s u p p l i e d b y t h e d e p a r t m e n t .

b a t h an d les

should

be t a p e d o r c o r k c o v e r e d .

The u s e

80

of w rist stra p s is problem *

ad v isab le i f

Some e f f o r t i s

a t-b a t

team a t a s a f e

lin e s,

fences,

Mf l y i n g

b a t s ' 11 h a s b e e n a

needed t o keep s p e c t a t o r s

d i s t a n c e from th e

benches,

b a tter*

and the

W hitew ash

o r s t a n d s may b e u s e d t o r e s t r a i n

n o n -p articip an ts. ulose a tte n tio n bases*

s h o u l d be p a i d t o

I f wood b a s e s a r e u s e d ,

th e l e v e l of t h e ground* by p l a c i n g are

safe

the

in atin g sp lin te rs

c o n stru ctio n of

t h e t o p e d g e m u s t be b e lo w

b a g s m ay b e made l e s s

them i n s h a l l o w h o l e s *

in th at

the

of a hazard

M oulded c o n c r e t e

bases

e d g e s may b e p e r m a n e n t l y r o u n d e d e l i m ­

and d a n g ero u s p r o j e c t i o n s

th a t are

in h er­

e n t i n wood b a s e s . B aseball *

The

recommended s a f e g u a r d s f o r b a s e b a l l

a re v e ry s i m i l a r to th o s e

for

so ftb a ll

c a t c h e r 5s e q u i p m e n t s h o u l d b e u s e d ,

except th a t

a n d the u s e

com plete

of spiked

s h o e s may be a l l o w e d * Track and f i e l d *

T ra c k and f i e l d l e n d th e m s e lv e s t o

i n tr a m u r a l type p a r t i c i p a t i o n adap ted e a s i l y the

to th e f a c i l i t i e s

c o n te stan ts.

the dashes u n le s s tio n *

in th a t th e and to

events

the

c a n be

c o n d i t i o n i n g of

The r u n n i n g e v e n t s s h o u l d be l i m i t e d the ru n n e rs

U nless f a c i l i t i e s

are

and space

j a v e l i n throw , p o le v a u l t ,

to

i n u n u s u a l ly good c o n d i­ are r e a d i ly a v a ila b le

a n d hammer t h r o w s h o u l d be

the

81 elim in ated # ii maximum o f t h r e e set. is

events per p a r tic ip a n t

s h o u l d be

I f l o n g r a c e s a r e u s e d and t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s

such t h a t p r e l i m i n a r i e s

one d a y and t h e f i n a l s uross

co u n try #

come m o r e i m p o r t a n t , comeback, t i o n to

t h e y s h o u l d be r u n

the n e x t d ay. a

i f p ro p er co n d itio n in g

are n e c e ssa ry ,

cross

is

cross

co u n try ru n i s

req u ired ,

as

a good e v e n t

toughening s p o rts

co u n try w i l l p ro b a b ly stag e a

i h e l e n g t h o f c o u r s e s h o u l d be i n d i r e c t p r o p o r ­

the

amount o f c o n d i t i o n i n g r e q u i r e d ,

but fo r a gen­

e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n two o r two a n d o n e - h a l f m i l e s i s d istan ce#

be­

In p r e p a r a tio n fo r the

be r e q u i r e d t o r u n t h e

course

ev en t, p a rtic ip a n ts

a good should

two o r t h r e e t i m e s a w e e k f o r

about th r e e weeks. P h y sical

ex am in atio n ,

idvery i n t r a m u r a l p a r t i c i p a n t

s h o u l d be e x a m in e d e a c h y e a r a n d t h e t y p e p a rticip a te s tio n .

i n b e g o v e r n e d by t h e

When i t

of stu d e n ts

is

sp o rts

fin d in g s

t h a t he

o f th e ex am ina­

rem em bered t h a t h u n d re d and even th o u s a n d s

tak e p a r t i n a g iv en program ,

th is

t a s k assum es

enorm ous p r o p o r t i o n s # M ost c o l l e g e s am in atio n of a l l

and u n i v e r s i t i e s r e q u i r e

incom ing s t u d e n t s .

p r i m a r i l y an i n t r a m u r a l e x a m in a tio n ,

a p h y sical ex­

O rd in arily , but i t s

th is

is

fin d in g s are

not

82 u su a lly accessib le b le the r e s u l t s the h e a lth

to the

o f the

serv ice

in tra m u ra l d epartm ent.

e x a m i n a t i o n ' s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d b y

an d h a n d e d to

th e form o f a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a c tiv itie s

in

in tra m u ra l

d irec to r in

of s tu d e n ts according' to ty p e s

"u n lim ite d ,

are o fte n u sed .

p h y sical f i tn e s s ,

s e m i - s t r e n e o u s , and r e s t r i c ­

These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s

the i n t r a m u r a l o f f i c e

s h o u l d be f i l e d

s o t h a t e n t r i e s may be e h e c k e d f o r

u n i t m a n a g e r s s h o u l d be n o t i f i e d

th e h e a l t h s t a t u s its.

the

t h a t e ach s t u d e n t can and cannot p a r t i p a t e .

xhe c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ted "

I f p o ssi­

as to

o f t h e i r men a n d a d v i s e d a s t o t h e i r l i m ­

T h es e u n i t m a n a g e r s s h o u l d be e d u c a t e d t o h e l p p r o t e c t

and im prove t h e h e a l t h o f t h e i r

men by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e p r o p ­

e r type o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r th e p h y s i c a lly u n f i t . If

th e

in stitu tio n

c a l ex am in atio n , in atio n . p o ssib le

xhis

the n e x t b e s t

th in g i s

to a d m in is te r ,

I f p o ssib le

it

but i t

a n i n t r a m u r a l exam ­

h eart, is

l u n g s , and h e r n i a .

d esirab le

and e n t r a n t s

be e x a m i n e d j u s t

before

is

should c o n s is t o f a t l e a s t

t h e more d a n g e r o u s s p o r t s ,

c o u n t r y men,

a com plete p h y s i ­

e x a m in a tio n s h o u ld be as co m p lete a s i t

an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the

e n ter

does n o t r e q u ir e

t o r e - c h e c k a l l men who .n ox ers, w r e s t l e r s ,

in o th e r stren eo us sp o rts

the p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s t a r t s ,

cross should and

s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n s h o u l d be e x c l u d e d from th e a c t i v i t y .

83 Pare o f i n j u r i e s . adm inisters f i r s t

aid

p ro v id ed th a t the care m.

is

xhe a g en c y o f th e

in stitu tio n

and e a r e s f o r i n j u r i e s is

is u n im p o rtan t,

im m ed iately and e x p e r t ly re n d e re d .

d o c t o r s h o u l d he a v a i l a b l e w h e n e v e r a n i n t r a m u r a l scheduled.

th at

The d e p a r t m e n t t o w h i c h h e i s

c o n test

assigned

is

im m aterial. co lleg e- o p e ra te d h e a lth s e rv ic e

a

i d e a l a rran g em en t,

but

if

such a s e rv ic e

some f o r m o f c o m m e r c i a l h o s p i t a l i s a t i o n

is

c ertain ly

is not

the

a v a ila b le ,

s h o u l d be made m an ­

d ato ry fo r a l l p a r tic ip a n ts . iiecords . be k e p t on a l l

An a c t i v e

in tram u ral p a r tic ip a n ts .

trem endous p r o p o r tio n s co o p eratio n of

and a c c u ra te h e a l th

serv ice

it

should

T his t a s k assum es

in a la rg e program ,

the h e a lth

file

but through

the

c a n a n d s h o u l d be m a i n ­

tain ed . T h is r e c o r d s h o u l d show t h e f i n d i n g s c en t p h y s ic a l exam in atio n , and th e n a tu r e career.

re c e iv e d d u ring c o lle g ia te

o f t h e p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n may be

by u s e o f a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n

H ealth serv ice to -d ate

tim e o f m ost r e c e n t i l l n e s s ,

of sp o rts in ju rie s

The f i n d i n g s

tab u lated

the

rep o rts

o f the m ost r e ­

c a n be u s e d

on r e c e n t i l l n e s s e s .

as s u g g e s te d e a r l i e r .

to keep t h e r e c o r d s u p -

In ju ry re p o rts

s h o u l d be k e p t

a n d r e c o r d e d on t h e h e a l t h f i l e . If

a u n it p a r tic ip a tio n record is

k e p t by th e

in tra -

m ural d e p artm e n t, u n it

the h e a lth

c a n be k e p t e a s i l y i n

r e c o r d o f e a c h m em ber o f t h e

the

sa m e f i l e .

t i c i p a n t Ts name a p p e a r s

on a s c o r e

is

same t i m e o n t h e

recorded,

and a t

the

be s e e n e a s i l y i f h e i s th is

Then when a p a r ­

card, h is

p h y sic ally f i t

p a rticip a tio n

sa me f i l e

form ed o f th e h e a l t h s t a t u s not use

t h e men i n s p o r t s

In

th a t each

I f e ach u n i t m anager i s of h is

can

fo r th at sp o rt.

m anner a c o n s t a n t c h e c k on th e ty p e s p o r t s

b o y e n g a g e s i n c a n be k e p t .

it

in ­

team m em bers, h e w i l l

f o r which, t h e y a r e n o t f i t t e d .

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOHS

C a m p b e l l , W i l l i a m G . , A F o r m B oo k f o r T h e s i s W r i t i n g * B oston: H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 3 9 . 145 p p . A- p r a c t i c a l a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e g u i d e f o r

th esis w ritin g .

G o od , C a r t e r V . , A. S . B a r r , a n d D o u g l a s a . S c a t e s , The M ethodology of E d u c a ti o n a l R e s e a r c h . Be?/ Y o r k : D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Co m pany , 1 9 3 6 . 882 p p . A g u i d e b o o k f o r m an y t y p e s o f r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s . H u g h e s , W i l l i a m L . , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r Men i n C o l l e g e s a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s . Hew Y o r k : A. S . B a r n e s a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 5 . ” 36 8 p p . a book f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b a s e d on a d o c t o r a l n a ire stu d y .

g u estio n -

K o o s , L e o n a r d V . , The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n e d u c a t i o n . The M a c M i l l a n c o m p a n y , 1 9 2 8 . 174 p p .

He?; Y o r k

& book to f a c i l i t a t e tio n n a ire .

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of the

ques

L i n d w a l l , R o b e r t F . , I n t r a m u r a l A c t i v i t i e s . M anitow oc, W is c o n s in : P u b l i s h e d by th e a u t h o r , 1 9 3 3 . 87 p p . A b r i e f , p r a c t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f j u n i o r and s e n i o r h ig h school in tra m u ra ls. c o n t a i n s some e x c e l l e n t s u g g e s ­ t io n s as to p o l ic y , p u b l i c i t y , and program fo r th is le v e l. L l o y d , F r a n k s . , G e o r g e G. B e a v e r , a n d F l o y d R. E a s t w o o d , s a f e t y i n A t h l e t i c s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s a n d company, 1939 . 432 p p . The r e s u l t s o f m a n y y e a r s o f s t u d y o f a t h l e t i c a c c i d e n t f a c t s and p r a c t i c a l recom m endations f o r th e p r e v e n t io n of h a lf of a ll a th le tic in ju rie s. M'oCloy, C h a r l e s H . , P h i l o s o p h i c a l B a s i s f o r P h y s i c a l e d u c a ­ t i o n . He?; Y o r k : F . a . U r o f t s a n d Comp a n y , 19 4 0 .

86 A c o l l e c t i o n o f m a g a z in e a r t i c l e s and t a l k s by th e th a t m irro r h is philo so p h y of p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n . M i t c h e l l , E lm er S . , I n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s . a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 9 . 324 p p .

a u th o r

Hew Y o r k : A 8 .

B arnes

d i s c u s s i o n o f a c c e p t e d and s u g g e s t e d m eth o d s of a d m in ­ is te r in g in tra m u ra l sp o rts. In c lu d e d a re d i s c u s s i o n s of h e a lth of p a r t i c i p a n ts , o b je c tiv e s , o rg a n iz a tio n , m o ti­ v a t i o n , p u b l i c i t y , f i n a n c i n g , p r o g r a m a w a r d s , and p r o b ­ lem s as r e l a t e d to i n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s .

a

_________ , e d i t o r , S p o r t s f o r R e c r e a t i o n a n d How t o P l a y Them . Few Y o r k : A . S . B a r n e s a n d C o m pany, 1 9 3 6 . 4ST p p . An a n a l y s i s ru le s .

of the m ost p o p u la r i n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s

as t o

s a v a g e , Howard Ja m e s , C u r r e n t D e v e lo p m e n ts i n A m e ric an C o l l e g e S p o r t s . Few Y o r k : The Carnegie~T*To u n d a t i o n , The r e s u l t s sp o rts.

o f a su rv e y to d eterm in e

trends in

1931.

co lleg e

o h erm an , J a c k s o n R o g e r, M odern P r i n c i p l e s o f P h y s i c a l Bduc atio n . Few Y o r k : A. S . B a r n e s a n d C o m p an y, 1 9 3 7 . 208 p p .

A d is c u s s io n of the p h ilo s o p h ic a l background of p h y s ic a l ed u catio n . v o l t m e r , E d w a r d P . , a n d A r t h u r a . E s s l i n g e r , The O r g a n i z a ­ t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l A d u c a t i o n . Few Y o r k : P . S. C r o f t s a n d Company, 1 9 3 8 . 467 p p . t e x t book t h a t m a in ta i n s a b a la n c e betw een i d e a l and p r a c t ic a l p h y sic a l e d u catio n a d m in is tra tio n .

a

W h i t n e y , a . M . , S a f e t y f o r More a n d n e t t e r A d v e n t u r e s . Y o r k : The MacMlTXan C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 5 •

Few

A s t a te m e n t o f th e p h il o s o p h y t h a t s a f e t y c o n s i s t s as much i n knowing how t o . f a c e danger as how to a v o id i t . W i l l i a m s , J e s s e P . , a n d C l i f f o r d 1 . B r o w n e l l , The A d m i n i s ­ t r a t i o n of H e a lth and P h y s ic a l -a d u c atio n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 9 . 634 p p .

87

A com p reh en sive c o v e r a g e o f th e e n t i r e h e a l t h and p h y s i ­ c a l e d u c a t io n program. w i l l i a m s , J e s s e F . , P e r s o n a l H y g i e n e 1A p p1 i e d . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 4 1 . 5E9 p p . A p r a c t i c a l and e a s i l y r e a d t e x t b o o k on p e r s o n a l h e a l t h * B.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

C l a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , "The Use o f I n t r a m u r a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s , " The R e s e a r c h q u a r t e r l y , 6 : 2 7 - 3 2 , M a rc h , 1935. l i s t s r e a s o n s why v a r i o u s i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m s s h o u l d n o t be co m p ared and d i s c u s s e s u s e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n statisti cs. D a n ie ls, A rth u r S ., "In tra m u ra ls in a L ib e ra l A rts c o lle g e ," The J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 8 : 1 5 6 - 1 5 8 ; T oU -189, M arch, 1937. A re v ie w o f the i n t r a m u r a l program a t A lle g h e n y C o lle g e . E a s t w o o d , F l o y d R. , !tA S t u d y o f S a f e t y i n C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , " The R e s e a r c h q u a r t e r l y , 8 : 1 4 4 - 1 4 9 , May, 1 9 3 7 . A l i s t and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of m ost of th e p h y s i c a l e d u ca ­ t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as to r e l a t i v e h a z a rd . G - a l l i g a n , G-. E . , "The S t a t u s o f I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s f o r Men i n S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s , 11 T h e R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 9 : 5 8 - 6 2 , May, 1 9 3 8 . A stu d y to d eterm in e teach ers c o lle g e s.

th e s t a t u s

quo o f i n t r a m u r a l s i n

K e n n e y , H. E . , E . A. T h a c k e r , and H . C. G - e b h a r t , " T h e E v a l ­ u a t i o n o f B o x i n g a s a C o l l e g e A c t i v i t y , 11 The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 1 :8 0 - 9 3 , M arch, 1940. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o f i n d t h e s t r o n g a n d w e a k p o i n t s boxing as a c o ll e g i a t e a c t i v i t y .

of

_________ , " U n u s u a l I d e a s f o r I n t r a m u r a l s , " J o u r n a l of H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , 10-S31- , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 9 .

88 A b r i e f m e n t i o n o f some o u t s t a n d i n g i n t r a m u r a l p r a c t i c e s t h a t t h e a u t h o r n o t e d on a t r i p t o v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y . Moss m a n , E v e r i t t L . , TTI n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s a t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , " A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l , 1 6 : 3 0 - 3 5 ; 4 3 , November, 1935. An o u t l i n e o f t h e p l a n u s e d a t T he U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r ­ n i a t o e n a b l e c r e d i t t o be g i v e n f o r i n t r a m u r a l a c t i v i t y . H ash, J . K . , "Problem s of C o lle g e I n t r a m u r a l s , u A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l ,, 1 6 : 1 6 - 1 7 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 6 . A d i s c u s s i o n of in tr a m u r a l problem s u n d e r i n s t r u c t i o n , r e l a t i o n to r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a n d r e l a t i o n to v arsity a th le tic s . T a y l o r , W. S . , " I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s f o r Men i n N e g r o C o l ­ l e g e s , " The K e s e a r c h q u a r t e r l y , 1 1 : 6 0 - 6 7 , Ma y, 1 9 4 0 . A s u r v e y t o d e t e r m i n e how c l o s e l y t h e i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m s in negro c o lle g e s fo llo w the b e s t a c c e p te d in tr a m u r a l p o lic i e s. w a s h k e , P . R . , " S o m e ■O b j e c t i v e s o f I n t r a m u r a l s , " J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 0 : 8 6 - 8 7 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 9 . A l i s t and d i s c u s s i o n o f m odern o b j e c t i v e s o f i n t r a m u r a l s as t o p h y s ic a l developm ent, s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t, w o rth y u se of l e i s u r e , and th e e x p a n s io n of n e u ro m u s c u la r s k i l l s . W i l l i a m s , J e s s e P . , "The S u b s t i t u t i o n o f th e E x p e d i e n t s , " Jo u rn a l of H e a lth and P h y s ic a l ib d u catio n , I : 22- , Jan u ary , 1933. An e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i n t r a m u r a l g a m e s may b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r o n e o f two p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a week b u t n o t f o r a l l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . C.

PARTS OF SERIES

H u g h e s , W i l l i a m H. , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Men i n c o l l e g e s a n d T e a c h e rs c o l l e g e , Colum bia u n i v e r s i t y ' E d u c a t i o n , Ho. 5 4 1 . Hew Yor2c: B u r e a u T e a c h e rs c o l l e g e , Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y ,

H e a l t h and P h y s i U n iv ersi ti e s . co n trib u tio n s to of P u b lica tio n s, 1932. 181 p p .

89 Th e r e s u l t s o f a f i n e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y . The s o l u t i o n o f e a c h p r o b le m s t u d i e d h a s b e en s u b m i t t e d to a j u r y o f e x p e r t s , and th e f i n a l r e s u l t s a r e com bined i n t o a n i d e a l program . N o rd ley , u a r l L. , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s f o r Men i n c o l l e g e s . a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s . T eachers C o lle g e , C o l u m b i a u n i v e r s i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n , Mo. 7 1 6 . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , } .9 3 7.. 1 3 4 p p . The c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e d u c t i o n s f r o m a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s o f i n t r a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s of tw elv e l a r g e e a s t e r n ’a n d m i d w e s t e r n c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s . i).

PUBLICATIONS QP LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

F a u v e r , i s d g a r , " I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s i n s m a l l C o l l e g e s , '•* The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l .E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1931. Pp. 53-63. s e l f - s t y l e d " R a m b l i n g Comments o f a n O l d Man" b u t a c t u ­ a l l y a g o o d d i s c u s s i o n o f how t o p u t o n a n i n t r a m u r a l program . L a n g t o n , c l a i r v . , n The R e l a t i o n o f a n e q u i r e d P h y s i c a l e d ­ u c a tio n P ro g ram .to H e a lth s e r v ic e , H e alth I n s tr u c tio h , a n d H e a l t h S u p e r v i s i o n , " The c o l l e g e P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 19 3 8 . P p . 1 1 4 - ES. recom m endation o f c lo s e c o o p e r a tio n o f r e q u i r e d p h y s i ­ c a l e d u c a tio n program , h e a l th s e r v ic e , h e a l th i n s t r u c ­ t i o n , and h e a l t h s u p e r v i s i o n .

a

L o w e , H a r o l d a . , “A b a s e H i s t o r y o f The e v o l u t i o n o f I n t r a ­ m u r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " The Co1 1 e g e P h y s i c a l n d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1 9 3 9 . ’P p 1 0 8 - 1 1 ’E . The m e t h o d u s e d b y u o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y t o s o l v e t h e i r problem s o f i n t r a m u r a l m a n a g e rs , o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e , and o f f ic ia tin g p erso n n el. McS’o r d , 1 . , "'A d v an tag es and D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f a n I n t r a ­ m u r a l P r o g r a m , * 4 The 0 o l l e g e P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a tio n P ro c ee d in g s, 1937. Pp. 30-2. An e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e

o p in io n th a t

an i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m

90 comes n e a r e s t t o e n a b l i n g a c o l l e g e t o f u l f i l l i t s o b l i ­ g a t i o n s i n the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l developm ent o f i t s stu d e n ts. M i t c h e l l , E l m e r D . , "Some U n s o l v e d I n t r a m u r a l I s s u e s , " The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1938* P p . ' 90U7, A r e v i e w o f u n s o l v e d i s s u e s a n d t h e p r o g r e s s made by i n ­ t r a m u r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n solviigg t h e i r p ro g ra m p r o b le m s . I T i c h o l s , J . H* " P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s ­ t r a t i o n o f I n t r a m u r a l A t h l e t i c s , " The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u ca tio n A s s o c ia tio n P ro c e e d in g s , 1936. Pp. 56-60. P r a c t i c a l s t e p s and p o l i c i e s in tr a m u r a l program .

in s ta rtin g

and ru n n in g an

S h ay , C la y to n I . , "Touch F o o t b a l l a s an I n t r a m u r a l S p o r t , " The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1939. Pp. 111-17. C-ood a n d b a d p o i n t s sp o rt.

about

to u c h f o o t b a l l as an i n t r a m u r a l

S t a n l e y , P . K . , "Some M e t h o d s a n d D e v i c e s U s e d i n P r o m o t i n g I n t r a m u r a l P r o g r a m s , 11 The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a / b i o n A sso c ia tio n P ro c e e d in g s, 1937. Pp. 31-44. The r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y o f o ne h u n d r e d c o l l e g e s c o n c e r n ­ in g m o tiv atio n , d e s ira b le r e la tio n s h ip s , a d m in is tra tio n , s a f e t y , and p u b l i c i t y of i n t r a m u r a l s . S t e e r s , W i l l i a m H . , "W h a t S h o u l d Be T h e R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n T h e R e q u i r e d a n d I n t r a m u r a l P r o g r a m ? " The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s / “TU3WI T p T 3 E P J 7 An e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e i n t r a m u r a l p r o g r a m s h o u l d be a l a b o r a t o r y f o r r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . S w a in , L e s l i e E . , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p B etw een th e R e q u i r e d Work a n d t h e I n t r a m u r a l D i v i s i o n , ” The C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n P ro c e e d in g s , 1938. Pp. 83-9. The p r o s a n d c o n s o n g i v i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c r e d i t f o r i n t r a m u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d the re c o m m e n d a tio n t h a t l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s be d e c i d i n g f a c t o r .

91 E.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL

J o h n s o n , K o n a l d L . , nA C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f C o l l e g i a t e I n ­ tra m u ra l O rg a n iz a tio n s ." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r Ts t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1953. 99 p p . The b e s t p o i n t s o f s i x t y - t h r e e c o l l e g i a t e i n t r a m u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d and d i s c u s s e d . A p p lic a tio n to lo c a l c o n d itio n s is su g g ested . P a l f r e y , E r n e s t R . , nA C r i t i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e I n t r a m u r a l P r o g r a m i n t h e R u r a l H i g h S c h o o l s o f C a l i f o r n i a . ” Un­ p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 5 . 101 p p . A s t u d y o f e x i s t i n g s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i n t r a m u r a l s and. the develo p m en t o f an i d e a l p ro g ram .

APPEMDIX

AG RICU LTU RA L AND

M ECH A N ICA L C O L L E G E

O F TEXAS

C O L L E G E S T A T IO N , T E X A S P H Y SIC A L ED U CA T IO N AND IN TRA M U RA L A T H L E T IC S

In an e f f o r t t o improve our In tr a m u ra l program by i n c l u d i n g s a f e g u a r d s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s b e in g s u c c e s s f u l l y u sed by t h e d i f f e e e n t s c h o o l s th r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n tr y , we a r e s e n d in g t h e a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n s t o In tr a m u r a l D i r e c t o r s o f c o l l e g e s h a v in g o u t s t a n d in g In tr a m u ra l S p o r ts Programs* We p la n t o co m p ile our f i n d i n g s and w i l l be g la d t o send them to you i f you w i l l i n d i c a t e your d e s i r e on th e q u e s t i o n n a ir e * We r e a l i z e t h a t we a re a s k in g a g r e a t f a v o r o f y ou , so we have made e v e r y e f f o r t t o con d en se th e q u e s t i o n s in o rd er t h a t you r an sw ers may be made as e a s i l y and as q u ic k l y as p o s s ib le ^ , We s h a l l c e r t a i n l y a p p r e c i a t e i t i f you w i l l answer th e q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d in g t o p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e in your p r o ­ gram, and th en in th e p a r e n t h e s i s a f t e r each qu e s t i o n i n d i c a t e what you thTnk w o u ld - be th e answer in "an i d e a l program * Of c o u r s e , i n many c a s e s th e two answ ers t o a q u e s t i o n w i l l be t h e same, but then a g a in we a r e n o t a lw a y s a b le t o do what we t h in k would be th e p e r f e c t t h i n g t o d o , so th e two answ ers may be d i f f e r e n t * Thank you v e r y much f o r your c o u r t e s y and h elp *

Very t r u l y y o u r s ,

W. L. P e n b e r th y , D i r e c t o r In tr a m u ra l A t h l e t i c s C . Cr. W h ite, A sst# Dir* In tr a m u ra l A t h l e t i c s

Eno.

Q.UESTI QNNAIRE HEALTH AND SAFETY OF INTRAMURAL PARTICIPANTS is tr u c tio n s : P l e a s e answer t h e q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d in g t o p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e i n your p r o ­ gram. I f t h e r e i s an ot h e r p o l i c y t h a t you a d v o c a t e , p l e a s e add t h i s answ er i n t h e ' p a r e n t h e s i s » For exam ple: 5 . Are p a id o f f i c i a l s _u sed ?_______ ( ______ ) Which would mean t h a t you do n o t u se p a id o f f i c i a l s , b u t you t h i n k i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o do s o . WRESTLING 1* Used in program?

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2 , I f d is c o n t in u e d ,, why?______________ ,_______ __ _____ ______________________

3 . L ength o f b o u t s _____ (______) ;

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R eq u ired ? _______

4 . Are e a r p r o t e c t o r s used?

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5 . P r e s c r ib e d u n iform used?

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6 . Who r e f e r e e s t h e b o u ts ?

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8.

Are f l o o r s and w a l l s su r r o u n d in g th e mat a d e q u a t e ly padded?

9.

Are m ats c o v e r e d , p a i n t e d , or used b are?

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1 0 . I s a ch eck made t o be s u r e t h a t a l l c o m p e t ito r s a r e f a m i l i a r w it h i l l e g a l and dangerou s h o ld s ? ____________________

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3 . Number o f rou n ds?

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6 . Are mouth p i e c e s used? S u p p lie d ? ______

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Of what n a tu r e ? 8 . Other s a f e g u a r d s u sed ________________________________________ , _____________ (

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SOETBALL ■1. Used in program? ______ (

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3 . Are c a t c h e r s * masks s u p p l i e d ? _______ (______) ; Req*d?________ (_____ _ ) 4 . Are s o f t b a l l b a t s used e x c l u s i v e l y ? 5 . Must b a t h a n d le s be ta p ed ?

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6 . Are w r i s t s t r a p s used on b a t s ? __________

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7 . What method i s u sed t o keep ”a t bat*1 team and s p e c t a t o r s .at s a f e d i s t a n c e from b a t t e r ? __________________________ (_________________________ ) How i s t h i s e n f o r c e d ? _________________________ _ _

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8 . Other s a f e g u a r d s u s e d ; ___________________________________________________ ;

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4 . A r # m a s k s s u p p l i e d ? _______ 5,

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O t h e r s a f e g u a r d s u s e d ; ___________________________________________

7 . Are hand wraps u sed ? S u p p lie d ?

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7 . What o t h e r p r o t e c t i v e equipm ent i s used?

8 . I s t h e t a c k i e r ( t o u c h e r ) r e q u ir e d t o be on b a la n c e when to u c h i s made?

(

) 9 . I s b l o c k i n g a llo w e d ?

(

) If so.

how i s b l o c k i n g m o d if ie d t o p r e v e n t i n .i u r i e s ? )

( 1 0 . What o t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s have b een made?

BASKETBALL ! • Used in program? _______ (_______ ) (_______ )

2 , Are p a id o f f i c i a l s used?

3* Length c o u r t used

4 . L en g th o f q u a r te r s _______ ( 5 . How many tim e o u t s a llo w e d ?

(

)

) ; or h a l v e s (

):

(

)

Length o f t o t a l tim e

V III,

TRACtr. and FIELD 1 . Used i n program?

_ _ _

2 . L i s t e v e n t s used

(____________ )

________ ___

3 . Maximum e v e n t s one man can e n t e r

_____ .

4 . I s a c o n d i t i o n i n g p e r io d p rov id ed ?, (

)

__ _________ (_____ _

____ (

___)

) ;Rec ’ d?

Of what na t u r e ? _____ __________ ___

5 . What e v e n t s have b een d is c o n t in u e d o r n e v e r used b e c a u s e o f danger or la c k o f c o n d it i o n ?

__

.

....

6 . Other s a f e g u a r d s u sed :

IX. CROSS COUNTRY 1 . Used in program?_______ (

J

2 . I f d i s c o n t i n u e d , why?,

_ _ _ _________

3 . Length o f co u rse 4 . I s a c o n d i t i o n i n g p e r io d p ro v id ed ? (

) Of what n a tu r e ?

. ■

(

)

) ;Req’ d?________ _________ __ _____________

GENERAL 1 . In what s p o r t s a r e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u ir e d t o p a s s a p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n ? ___________ ______ ____________ ________ ______________________ In what sp o rts, i s a s p e c i f i c e x a m in a tio n r e q u ir e d f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t ? _____________

__

2 . Are p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n c a r d s or h e a l t h ca r d s p r e s e n t e d by c o n t e s t a n t b e f o r e each c o n t e s t , p r e s e n te d upon e n t e r i n g th e s p o r t , or j u s t how i s th e c h e c k in g p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o h done?

______________________________________

3# Who g i v e s th e p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n and a t whose ex p en se?

)

4* P l e a s e l i s t it e m s t h a t a r e in c lu d e d i n in tr a m u r a l p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n (su c h a s h e a r t , l u n g s , h e r n i a , f g e t , j o i n t s , and p rev io u s i n j u r i e s ) .

)

What sh o u ld be in c lu d e d in a minimum a c c e p t a b l e in tr a m u r a l ( p h y s i c a l ex a m in a tio n ? ____________________

)

5 . What check i s made o f r e c e n t i l l n e s s e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ?

6 . Who a d m in is t e r s f i r s t a id ? ____________________ (____________________ J Who s u p p l i e s f i r s t a id equipm ent?_______________ (______________

_)

7 . I s a t r a i n e r o r a d o c t o r p r e s e n t , a v a i l a b l e , o r hard t o con taen ­ d u r in g h ou rs o f c o m p e t itio n ? D uring what s p o r t s i s a d o c t o r k ep t on hand? )

( Are r e c o r d s made o f a l l i n j u r i e s ? made o f t h e s e r e c o r d s ?

(

) What u s e i s

)

( 9 . Are p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o t e c t e d by any ty p e o f h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n or in s u r a n c e ? ________ (_________) Of what n a tu r e ? __________________ _____ ________ (

1 0 . Are a l l games s u p e r v is e d by s t a f f members?

)

{____________ )

1 1 , What s p o r t s ( i f any) o t h e r th a n t h o s e l i s t e d in th e q u e s t i o n a i r e have been d i s c o n t i n u e d b e c a u s e o f i n j u r i e s ?

(.

1 2 . In what s p o r t s d o e s in tr a m u r a l d epartm ent g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ?

1 3 , Have you had any a c c i d e n t s o c c u r , t h e f a c t s o f w hich m ight p ro v e b e n e f i c i a l t o o t h e r in tr a m u r a l d i r e c t o r s ? I f s o , w i l l you p l e a s e o u t l i n e th e f a c t s ? (These an sw ers w i l l be t r e a t e d c o n fid e n tia lly .)