A study of love and marriage in the novels of Vicente Blasco-Ibáñez

597 32 6MB

English Pages 129

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

A study of love and marriage in the novels of Vicente Blasco-Ibáñez

Citation preview

A STUDY OF LOVE AND MARRIAGE IN THE NOVELS OF VICENTE BLASCO-IBANEZ

A T h e sis P re se n te d to th e F a c u lt y o f th e D e p artm en t o f S p a n is h The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D egree M a ste r o f A rts

by T e r e s a V. P a t t e r s o n J a n u a r y 1 950

UMI Number: EP65434

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

UMI EP65434 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

S

'S-O

P 3 / f

This thesis, written by .TEEESA..y....P^C!EEHSCN............................................................... th­

under the guidance of h.2sr.. Faculty Committee, and ap p r o v e d by all its members, has been presented to and accepted by the Council on Graduate Study and Research in partial fulfill­ ment of the requirements fo r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS

D ean

Faculty Committee

_

I

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

INTRODUCTION * .

.

...................................................................

G en eral sta te m e n t o f i n t e n t i o n V a ry in g c o n c e p ts o f lo v e and m a r r ia g e

.

S c o p e a n d m e th o d o f t h i s I.

.

xi

.

x ii

• .

x iii

* .

D e f i n i t i o n o f th e w ords lo v e and m a r r ia g e

s t u d y ......................................*

TYPES OF L O V E ........................................................................ A. I d y l l i c

x iv 1

lo v e

I d y l l i c lo v e r e p r e s e n te d E ro c i6 n in S 6 n n ic a , l a

by R a n t o an d C o rte sa n a .

.

.

N a tu ra ln e s s o f t h e i r lo v e Its

xi

a m o ra lity

1 2

^ ....................................

I t s l a c k o f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h e stu d ie d a r t of th e p ro fe s sio n a l a m o rist • • • • • • • * • » • • « * • »

3

3

Love o f R a n to and E r o c i o n o v e r ­ id e a liz e d

*

4

T h e ir lo v e c o n tr a s te d w ith t h a t o f A g u i r r e a n d L u n a i n L u n a B enam or

*

4

E le m e n t o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n lo v e o f A g u ir r e f o r Luna • • • • • • • • • * *

5

N o b le c o n d u c t o f A g u ir r e a f t e r d e p r iv a tio n o f h is lo v e

6

th e

B. C o m p a ssio n a te lo v e C o m p assio n ate lo v e r e p r e s e n t e d in r e l a t i o n s h i p o f M ig u e l an d A l i c i a i n L os E n e m ig o s d e l a M u j e r

6

iii CHAPTER

PAGE Man n o t n a t u r a l l y e n dow ed w i t h c o m p a s s i o n •

7

D e v elo p m en t o f c o m p a ss io n th r o u g h trib u la tio n * . « • * • « • * •

7

A l i c i a ’s e a r ly d e v o tio n to th e c u l t o f V enus ............................................. • . • .....................

7

The P r i n c e s s r e b u f f e d

by P r i n c e M i g u e l

A l i c i a ’s fo rtu n e d e stro y e d

*

*

8

by w a r • . • •



9

*

9

H er a tta c h m e n t f o r h e r i l l e g i t i m a t e

son

.

H e r a t t e m p t t o r e c o u p h e r f o r t u n e s - by g a m b lin g • • • • • ................................... . . . . She a p p e a ls t o P r i n c e M ig u e l f o r h e lp T he P r i n c e f i n d s h i m s e l f a t t r a c t e d He a t t e m p t s t o A lic ia . .

. *.

.

10

to h e r

.

10

.

12

e x p la in h is f e e lin g s to ........................................................

A lic ia ’s r e a liz a tio n of her a lte re d n a tu re ........................................



• 13

The P r i n c e i s u n a b l e t o r e a l i z e t h a t s h e i s now i n c a p a b l e o f l o v e e x c e p t t h r o u g h p ity • • . • • • • • • • • ...............................

14

A l i c i a s u c c u m b s , t o t h e w o o in g o f M a r t i n e z

14

.

The i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f h e r s u b s e q u e n t w i t h ­ d r a w a l fro m t h e w o rld o f p l e a s u r e . . . . II.

10

TYPES OF LOVE ( C o n t i n u e d ) 0 . P sy c h o tic

. . .

* ..........................

15 17

lo v e

Many i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f p s y c h o t i c lo v e - i n I b a n e z .............................................

17

R e l a t i o n s h i p o f F e b r e r a n d M ary G o r d o n i n L o s M u e r t o s M andan a m u s i n g e x a m p l e . . .

17

iv CHAPTER

PAGE P e b r e r ’ s m e e t i n g w i t h M ary

. . . . . . . .

17

M ary b e c o m e s h i s m i s t r e s s

. . . • • « • •

18

F e b r e r ’s d isc o v e ry o f th e s e c r e t o f h e r l o v e • • * • • * • • . . ......................... . He d e s e r t s h e r

.

. • • • • • • • • . • • * *

18 20

M ary’ s lo v e a c a se o f p s y c h o lo g ic a l d isso c ia tio n

20

Keen i n t e r e s t o f B l a s c o - I b a h e z i n p s y c h o lo g ic a l d is o r d e rs , e s p e c ia lly i n w o m e n ..................... * , ♦ . . . .

20

H is c l i n i c a l a n a l y s i s women • • • • .

of so p h istic a te d

D oha S o l i n S a n g r e y A r e n a a s y m b o l D oha S o l c h i e f l y

.

20

• • •

21

i n t e r e s t i n g a s a ty p e

* .

21

An e x p l a n a t i o n o f h e r m o t i v e s i n d e s tro y in g G a lla rd o * • * * » • • • • *

22

G a lla rd o re s p o n s ib le

22

f o r h is

own d o w n f a l l *

An a n a l y s i s o f G a l l a r d o ’ s c h a r a c t e r

. . .

D oh a S o l u n i q u e i n G a l l a r d o ’ s e x p e r i e n c e The e a s e o f D o h a S o l ’ s t r i u m p h

23 .

. * . . ♦ •

25 24

E le m e n ts t h a t e n t e r e d i n t o h e r e n s la v e m e n t of th e b u l l f i g h t e r . • * • • * • . • • •

25

G a lla rd o n o t a v o lu p tu a ry

25

• • • . . • • .

D ram a o f D oha S o l a n d G a l l a r d o h i s t o r ic a l l y not unusual ...............................

26

D oha S o l ’ s t y p e f r e q u e n t i n c o s m o p o l i t a n n o v e ls o f Ib a h e z ..............................

26

A n a l y s i s o f D oha S o l ’ s p s y c h o s i s

26

. . . . .

V

CHAPTER

PAGE R e l a t i o n s o f R e n o v a le s and J o s e f i n a i n L a M a ja D e s n u d a m o s t u n i q u e i n a l l Ib an ez

27

The n o v e l s u p e r b l y w r i t t e n ..........................................

27

C o m p ariso n o f R e n o v a le s w i t h G a l la r d o

• •

28

* *

28

Bofia S o l a n d J o s e f i n a n o t c o m p a r a b l e

.

E a rly in flu e n c e s t h a t c o n d itio n e d J o s e f i n a ........................

28

H e r c o n f u s i o n w hen s h e d i s c o v e r s t h e a r t i s t i c n a t u r e o f h e r h u s b a n d .....................

29

H er p arv en u y e a rn in g s

• . • . * * • * . .

30

H e r l o v e o f m oney

.

30

H er h a tre d

• .

*

o f fe m a le m o d e ls

* •

31

H er je a lo u s y deepens a f t e r th e d e s t r u c t io n o f h e r own p o r t r a i t a s L a M a ja D e s n u d a •

32

H e r p s y c h o - n e u r o t i c sy m p to m s

3B

. . . . . . .

H e r d e a t h ..................................................................# .



The r e m o r s e o f R e n o v a l e s b e c a u s e h e h a s ta k e n a m is tr e s s He t r i e s

and f a i l s

to p a in t J o s e fin a

He h o l d s h i m s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e J o s e f in a 's d e a th The m a g n i f i c e n t r e a l i t y c h a ra c te riz a tio n III.

33 . •

33

fo r 34

of J o s e f in a 's

TYPES OF LOVE ( C o n t i n u e d ) D. P l a t o n i c

.

33

34 37

lo v e

E a rly l i f e o f G a b rie l L u n a ,‘ h e ro o f La C a t e d r a l

37

vi CHAPTER

PAGE R a r ity o f p la to n ic lo v e in n o v e ls of I b a n e z .................................................................................

38

" I t w as a n e l e c t i v e

38

a ffin ity ”

L o v e o f G a b r i e l an d L u c y s u b j e c t t o change . . . ........................................................* .

39

T h ey a r e e v e n t u a l l y d r a w n t o g e t h e r o n l y t h r o u g h t h e i r s h a r e d s u f f e r i n g .....................

39

G a b r i e l ’ s lo v e f o r S e g r a r i o d i f f e r s from h i s p r e v i o u s l o v e f o r L u c y ...............................

40

E . C a su a l o r ep h em eral lo v e A f f a i r b e t w e e n J u l i o a n d B e r t a E rc k m a n n i n Los C u a t r o J i n e t e s ' d e l A p o c a l i p s i s i l l u s t r a t i v e ...................................................................

40

J u l i o ’s c a p a c ity f o r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n

. . .

41

T e c h n ic a l re a s o n s f o r in c lu sio n - o f th e * in c id e n t in th e n o v e l ....................................

41

The r e l a t i o n o f Don L u i s a n d M a r i a i n La B odega a l s o a t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e

42

. . .

P . P r o f a n e lo v e P r o f a n e lo v e o f t e n u sed f o r p u rp o s e s o f c h a ra c te r d e lin e a tio n . .............................. F re y a T a lb e r g ’s p u r s u i t o f C a p ta in F e r r a g u t i n M are N o s t r u m ...................

42 42

The p o r t r a i t of- F r e y a - l a c k s e f f e c t i v e - r n e s s ......................................................* ............................ P ro fa n e lo v e r e p r e s e n te d i n th e n o v e l E l P a p a d e l Mar and A L o s P i e s d e Y e n u s ................................................................. P ro fa n e lo v e u se d a s a n a r r a t i v e fra m e ­ w o rk .......................................................................................

43

43 43

v ii CHAPTER

PAGE A d u l t e r o u s l o v e o f N e l e t a and T o n e t i n C anas y B a rro a l s o a n a r r a t i v e - i n s t r u ­ m e n t a l i t y .............................................

44

G . C o m r a d e ly l o v e Love o f F e rn a n d o and L u c e ro i n I n B usca d e l G r a n K an a n d E l C a b a l l e r o d e l a V irg e n . . . . . . . . ...............................

*

44

The e l o p e m e n t o f F e r n a n d o and L u c e r o

*

44



45

.

T h e i r m e e t i n g w i t h ”B on O u t “ & t - E l b o w s ”

Love o f F e rn a n d o and' L u ce ro n o t o th e r - w o r l d l y . . . . . . ..............................................

45

T h e ir lo v e a c c e p t a b l e t o th e g e n e r a l r e a d e r d e s p i t e e le m e n t of i n c r e d i ­ b ility .............................................................................

45

T h e ■e x t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e o f F e r n a n d o a n d L u c e r o .............................................................................

46

T h e ir lo y a lty to each o th e r

. * .....................

46

C e r t a i n r e a s o n s why t h e p o r t r a i t - o f L u c e r o r e m a i n s u n c o n v i n c i n g ..........................

47

H . S u b s t i t u t i o n a l or im a g in a ry lo v e ,A lo n z o d e O j e d a ’ s l o v e f o r ' I s a b e l d if f ic u lt to c la s s ify . . . . . . . . .

48

A lo n z o ’ s e a r l y

48

career

• .

• ...............................

H is p h y s i c a l c o u ra g e and s t a l w a r t c h a r a c t e r .............................................. . . . . .

48

H is r e s t l e s s n e s s - a t th e a p p ro a c h of m id d le ag e ..............................................................

48

H is

49

l o v e f o r ’’t h a t o t h e r ” I s a b e l

A lo n z o t a k e s a n I n d i a n m i s t r e s s

. . . . .

.

.

.



49

v iii CHAPTER

PAGE He g i v e s h i s m i s t r e s s t h e name o f h i s f i r s t l o v e ............................................... . . . . .

49

H is d i f f i c u l t y

49

The n a t u r e

of a d ju s tm e n t

of illu s io n

* * . * * . .

• • •

*

A tta c h m e n t o f C la u d io B o rja f o r R o sa u ra d e P i n e d a i n E l P a p a d e l M a r ..........................

51

C la u d io * s y o u t h f u l ro m a n tic is m

52

R o sau ra r e f u s e s th e r o le

. . . . . .

o f goddess

.

* *

C la u d io i s f o r c e d t o em erg e fro m th e w o rld o f d ream s • • • .................................... I.

50

53 53

Love d e r i v i n g fro m d u ty J a s m in e T a v e r a , h e r o i n e o f E l E an tasm a de l a s A la s de O ro , m e e ts E s p in o s a . . . . H er f i r s t

im p re ss io n s o f th e m i l l i o n a i r e

54 *

54

S h e i s m in d e d t o r e f u s e h is* p r o p o s a l o f m a rria g e .........................................................

55

a c c e p t ..........................

55

H er f a t h e r u rg e s h e r t o

She w e a k e n s , a c c e p t s E s p i n o s a , i s m a r r i e d .............................................................

56

She becom es b o re d a n d l i s t l e s s

57

S he e n j o y s

» • • • • •

th e a d m ira tio n o f C araceda

. .

He p u r s u e s h e r r e l e n t l e s s l y .............................. S h e s u r r e n d e r s and b e c o m e s h i s m i s t r e s s

57 57

.

58

A r tf u l and i r o n i c arran g em en t of p lo t e l e m e n t s by I b a f t e z . . . . . . . . . . .

58

H a tre d o f Ib afie z f o r u n n a t u r a l r e p r e s s io n o f n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s .............................................

58

ix CHAPTER 17.

PAGE

TYPES OF MARRIAGE...................................................................

59

A . T y p e s o f m a r r i a g e d e f i n e d ..............................

.

59

• • • •

61

W ooing o f M a r g a l i d a b y J a i m e F e b r e r i n L o s M u e r t o s M andan .....................

61

T he e l e m e n t o f c a s t e

65

C o u r ts h ip and p r e - m a r i t a l c u sto m s

in v o lv e d

. . . . . .

The i d e a o f c a s t e u s e d o f t e n b y I b a f i e z • a s a n a r r a t i v e d e v i c e .........................................

65

C o u r t s h i p among th e* S p a n i s h g y p s i e s - i n * La H o rd a .........................................................

67

Illu s tra tio n s

70

of c o n v e n tio n a l c o u rts h ip

.

1 . C o n v e n t i o n a l m a r r i a g e ...................................

70

P le b e ia n m a rria g e o f M a ltra n a * s p a r e n ts i n La H o r d a .........................

72

A seco n d and t h i r d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f p l e b e i a n m a r r ia g e i n La B a r ra c a

73

. . . .

In fre q u e n t use o f c o n v e n tio n a l m a rria g e i n t h e n o v e l s o f B l a s e o - I b a f t e z ..................... 7.

TYPES OF MARRIAGE ( C o n t i n u e d ) 2 . M ariage,-.' d e c o n v e n a n c e . .

75 76

.

* ...............................

S d n c h e z M o r u e t a , in - E l I n t r u s o , - c h o o s e s a w ife .........................

76 76

R e lig io u s z e a l of w ife c a u se s r i f t in m a rita l re la tio n s ..............................................

.

77

* .

79

C r i s t i n a a t t e m p t s t o w i n b a c k her* h u s b a n d a t t h e b e h e s t o f h e r c o n f e s s o r .....................

79

The p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e m a r r i a g e

81

S a n c h e z becom es i n v o lv e d w i t h a J e w e s s

. . .

X

CHAPTER

PAGE C r i s t i n a ’ s c h a r a c te r c o n tr a s te d w ith t h a t o f L a d y M a c B e t h .........................................

81

The o v e r - a l l p a t t e r n o f t h e m a r i t a l tra g e d y . * . .........................

83/

The same m a r r i a g e f o r m u l a f o u n d i n La T e r r a d e T o d o s ............................................. *

84

B la s c o -Ib a fie z ’ t r e a tm e n t o f fe m in in e ty ra n n y in m a r r i a g e

*

85 O

P o s s ib le s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e r e l a t i o n o f t h i s them e to th e S p a n is h w r i t e r ’ s own e x p e r i e n c e ..................................................

86

M a ria g e de c o n v e n a n c e i n C a fk s y B a rro

.

87

B ru ta l n a tu re

.

87

M a r r i a g e o f N e l e t a and C afiam el . . . .

*

88

N o n -s p iritu a l a sp e c ts

.

89

o f T lo P a lo m a ’ s u n io n

.

o f t h i s m a rria g e

R a r i t y o f m a r r i a g e a c t u a t e d s o l e l y by ro m a n tic lo v e in th e n o v e ls o f Ib afie z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E s p o u s a l w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f c le r g y of F e l i a n d I s i d r o M a l t r a n a i n La H o r d a The t r i b u l a t i o n s

o f th e lo v e rs

E ffe c tiv e p o rtra y a l of m a rita l

trag e d y

The l o v e r s r e g a r d e d a s s y m b o l s

. . . . .

CONCLUSION

*

. . . . .

P ro b a b le s o c ia l s ig n if ic a n c e as in v o lv ­ in g im p r a c tic a l id e a lis m v e rsu s th e . . . . . . . . d o c tr in e o f e x p ed ien c y V I.

90

...................................

B I B L IO G R A P H Y .........................................................* .........................

91 93

*

94 94

95 97 109

INTRODUCTION It

is

t h e a im o f t h i s

show t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e

stu d y to

iso la te ,

d e fin e ,

and

o f lo v e and m a rria g e in th e n o v e ls o f

V ic e n te B la sc o -Ib a fte z . I t s h o u ld be n o te d a t th e o u t s e t t h a t any d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e w o rd l o v e ,

i n r e f e r e n c e b o th to l i f e

m u st n e c e s s a r i l y be l i m i t e d n o common c u p f r o m w h i c h a l l

to

its

and l i t e r a t u r e ,

a p p lic a tio n .

lo v e rs d rin k ;

T here i s

nor has th e re

e v e r b e e n d e v i s e d a n y u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t a b l e m e th o d o f m easu rem en t o r e v a l u a t i o n o f th e d iv in e p a s s i o n .

I n one

o f h i s n o v e ls t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d A ld o u s H u x le y s p e a k s o f t h e l o v e r s ♦’q u i e t l y s w e a t i n g p a lm t o p a l m ” ; Thomas H a r d y r e p r e ­ s e n t s l o v e i n e v e n m o re n a t u r a l i s t i c

te rm s, h is

fic tio n a l

h e ro e s and h e r o in e s a lm o s t i n v a r i a b l y m e e tin g w ith f r u s t r a ­ tio n and tra g e d y ; w h ile th e f a t h e r o f a l l

th e n a t u r a l i s t s ,

E m i l e Z o l a , m o re o f t e n t h a n n o t r e p r e s e n t s l o v e a s m e r e l y a n o th e r a s p e c t o f p h y s ic a l d e b ase m en t. we h a v e a l l

th e ro m a n tic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s

I n c o n t r a s t , how ever, o f th e w o rd , from

th e e x tre m e m e d ie v a l r o m a n tic is m o f T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , w h ich lo v e i s

th e one g r e a t m o tiv a tin g f o r c e i n l i f e

c o n s u m m a t i o n t h e a im a n d e n d o f a l l e x i s t e n c e , re stra in e d

b u t no l e s s

in

and i t s

t o t h e m o re

e x a lte d P u rita n concept of lo v e ,

in

w h i c h l o v e b e t w e e n m an a n d woman i s m e r e l y a m u n d an e r e v e l a t i o n

o f th e i n f i n i t e l y th e re are

g r e a t e r l o v e o f God f o r man#

In a d d itio n ,

th e v a rio u s p u r e ly p ra g m a tic c o n c e p ts ,

th e r a is o n d ’e t r e fa c ilita te

o f lo v e i s

i n w h ic h

s o le ly p ro c re a tio n a l,

te n d s to

t h e e c o n o m ic o r p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o f one o r

b o th l o v e r s ,

or c o n trib u te s to

t h e F l a t o n i c i d e a l o f com­

p a n io n sh ip *

F in a lly ,

e v en th e m odern p s y c h o l o g i c a l

th e re is

c o n te n tio n t h a t lo v e i s ,

a f t e r a l l , m e re ly a n o th e r fo rm o f

n e u ro sis * The sam e i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e

o f m a rria g e *

D iffe re n t

c o n c e p ts o f m a r r ia g e h a v e a lw a y s o b ta in e d a t d i f f e r e n t tim e s in h i s t o r y and in d i f f e r e n t c o u n tr i e s . d o u b te d ly fou n d th e s o le

Many o f t h e s e u n ­

j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r w id e a c c e p ­

t a n c e i n t r a d i t i o n . 1 And t h i s may b e s a i d t o b e a s t r u e m a rria g e in

of

c o n t e m p o r a r y t i m e a s i t w a s e v e n am ong p r i m i t i v e

p e o p le s• Thus i n p r o v id in g a w o rk in g d e f i n i t i o n

o f th e w ords

1 A dvances i n s o c i a l p sy c h o lo g y and s o c i a l a n th r o ­ p o l o g y h a v e m ade u s c e r t a i n t h a t m a r r i a g e d i d n o t o r i g i n a t e i n th e d e l i b e r a t e a p p r a i s a l o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and g ro u p w e lf a r e * . . .T h e r e i s good r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e u s u a l c o u r s e o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n w as f o l l o w e d ; i * e . , c e r t a i n f o r m s a n d p r a c t i c e s g r a d u a l l y g re w up a n d b e c a m e a p a r t o f th e fo lk w a y s, t h i s p a r t o f th e p ro c e s s b e in g u n ­ c o n sc io u s. I n tim e t h e s e p r a c t i c e s , th ro u g h th e p r e s t i g e o f a n t i q u i t y , w o u ld b e co m e s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e y w o u ld b e l o o k e d u p o n a s " r i g h t " a n d t o g o c o n t r a r y t o th e m w o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d " w ro n g " . R a y E . B a k e r , The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f th e F a m ily (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B ook C om pany, 1 9 3 8 ) , p * 33.

x iii lo v e and m a r r a ig e , re s tric tio n s

it

and to

se e m s n e c e s s a r y t o a c c e p t c e r t a i n

i n t e r p r e t t h e w ords s p e c i f i c a l l y a s

th e y a p p ly to th e e x p e rie n c e o f lo v e and th e e s t a t e m a rria g e as re p re s e n te d

of

in th e n o v e ls o f B la sc o -Ib a fte z .

From t h a t p o i n t o f v i e w , l o v e may b e d e f i n e d a s a d e e p l y s y m p a th e tic e m o tio n ,

n o t d iv o r c e d fro m p a s s i o n , w h ich e x i s t s

b e t w e e n tw o p e r s o n s o f o p p o s i t e s e x , a n d w h i c h p r o v i d e s a p o w e rfu l im p e tu s to a c t i o n , w h ile m a rria g e

is

c o n stru c tiv e

or d e stru c tiv e ;

s im p ly t h e l e g a l j o i n i n g i n w edded r e l a t i o n ­

s h i p o f a m an a n d a wom an, p e r m i t t i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l sa n c tio n fo r

c o h a b ita tio n w ith o r w ith o u t lo v e .

In th is in

stu d y th e v a rio u s ty p e s o f lo v e re p r e s e n te d

th e n o v e ls o f B la s c o -Ib a fS e z w i l l be a n a ly z e d fro m b o th

a s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v ie w , c la sse s

o f m a rria g e d e s c rib e d

a n d t h e tw o m a i n

in th e n o v e ls ,

i.e .,

m a rria g e

f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s and f o r r o m a n tic r e a s o n s , w i l l be c o n stra ste d

in term s o f c a u s a tio n and r e s u l t .

The m e r e f a c t

t h a t B la s c o - I b a fS e z was s o i n t e n s e l y a S p a n i a r d n o t o n l y e n ­ dow ed h im w i t h a n tio n s

of

a c u te aw aren ess o f th e

v a rio u s m a n ife s ta ­

lo v e and p a s s i o n in d ig e n o u s t o "L es I s p a g n e s " , 2 b u t

2 S p a i n i s a c o u n tr y o f r e g i o n s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o one a n o th e r in s p i r i t . I t w a s w i t h j u s t i c e t h a t V i c t o r Hugo spoke o f "L es E sp a g n e s" . N a t u r e , by i t s s u c c e s s i o n o f tra v e rse m o u n ta in r a n g e s , h a s b ro k e n th e I b e r i a n p e n n in s u la

xiv a ls o a ffe c te d h is

c o n c e p tio n o f th e r e l a t i o n s

b e t w e e n m en

a n d women a s h e e n c o u n t e r e d th e m i n S o u t h e r n E u r o p e g e n e r a l l y and i n S o u th A m erica*

H i s women i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e

c a se s L a tin in th e se n se

t h a t lo v e and m a rria g e a r e th e

c r u c ia l e x p e rie n c e s in t h e i r l i v e s , w ith in g ra tia tin g p lish m e n t*

E stee m and r e s p e c t a r e a t t r i b u t e s

e n sla v e m e n t,

m a rria g e . se n te d

in

th e a r t o f b e in g

t o m en t h e i r m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y c u l t i v a t e d a c c o m ­

so u g h t a f t e r th a n p a s s io n a te d e v o tio n , e ro tic

in m ost

le s s fre q u e n tly

even to th e p o in t of

t o g e t h e r w ith e c o n o m ic p r o t e c t i o n i n

T h is b a s i c d e s ig n o f lo v e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e women p o r t r a y e d

th o u g h i t a p p e a rs a l s o

i n th e c o sm o p o lita n n o v e ls ,

i n som e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l ,

and r e v o lu tio n a r y n o v e ls •

re g io n a l,

I n g e n e r a l t h e women a l l f o l l o w

t h e sam e t e c h n i q u e o f p r e m e d i t a t e d w i l e : a p p ro a c h o f l o v e w i t h coy e v a s i o n ;

To c o n f r o n t t h e

c o q u e ttish ly

to evade

th e b e lo v e d , b u t a lw a y s i n su c h a m anner a s a r t f u l l y stim u la te p u rs u it;

and e v e n tu a lly to

o r assum ed a b a n d o n - - t h a t i s Nor is

th is

rep re­

th e

to

c a p i t u l a t e w ith r e a l

c la ss ic p a tte rn .

s o - c a l l e d a r t o f lo v e i n an y w ay a l t e r e d

by m o s t o f t h e m ale c h a r a c t e r s ;

th e y a c c e p t i t ,

w ith t a c i t

( F o o t n o t e 2 c o n ti n u e d ) i n t o s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s , and t h i s d i s l o c a t i o n h a s i m p o s e d l o c a l i s m a n d i s o l a t i o n on t h e in h a b ita n ts* W a l t e r S t a r k i e , nB l a s e o I b a f i e z , 1 8 6 7 - 1 9 2 8 , tf The N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y a n d A f t e r , 1 0 3 : 5 4 2 , J a n u a r y - J u n e ,

19381

XV

c o n d e sc e n sio n f u l f i l l i n g

th e t r a d i t i o n a l r o le e s ta b lis h e d

b y c u s t o m a n d d e m a n d e d o f th e m by women*

U t i l i z i n g ev ery

m e t h o d o f p u r s u i t a l l o w e d t o th e m b y t h e t r a d i t i o n s g a lla n try ,

of

n o t e x c l u d i n g m o n e y ; e f f e c t i n g by e v a s i o n a n d

d i s s i m u l a t i o n w h a t may n o t b e a c h i e v e d b y s i m p l e r a n d m o re d i r e c t o r m o r a l l y a p p ro v e d m e th o d s ; r e s p e c t i n g no p r e v i o u s c o n j u g a l r i g h t e s t a b l i s h e d b y o t h e r m en— i n m any c a s e s t h a t is

th e

t e c h n iq u e f o llo w e d by th e m en.

of th e ir success lie s s e l f a p p ro v a l.

th e b a s is

And i n t h e m e a s u r e

o f m uch o f t h e i r s o c i a l a n d

A t o n e a n d t h e sam e t i m e l o v e t h u s b e c o m e s

t h e i r m a j o r c o n c e r n a n d t h e s u p r e m e e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r m an­ hood. so le

I n some b a s e s i t w o u l d s e e m e v e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e ju s tific a tio n

fo r th e ir e x is te n c e .

A l l t h e s e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f hum an r e l a t i o n s B la sc o -Ib a fie z p e rc e iv e d

in l i f e .

A fin e

a r t i s t as w e ll as

a s h r e w d a n d i r o n i c o b s e r v e r o f t h e f o i b l e s o f hum an b e i n g s , h e a l s o r e c o g n iz e d t h e i r suprem e l i t e r a r y be s a i d ,

in f a c t ,

th a t i f

a ll

I t may

th e n o v e ls o f B ia sc o -Ib a fie z

c o u ld be g ro u p e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r one t i t l e , n e c e ssa rily

a p p e a l.

be A p h r o d ite T r iu m p h a n t.

th a t t i t l e

w o u ld

CHAPTER I I n non© o f t h e n o v e l s o f B l a s c o - I b a f i e z i s lo v e f o r i t s

own s a k e m o re e f f e c t i v e l y

p o rtra y e d th a n in

th e h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l S d n n i c a , La C o rte s a n a * i n any o f th e n o v e ls s e n te d th a n R a n to , so n o f M opsus,

ro m a n tic

N o r do we f i n d

two l o v e r s m o re i d e a l i s t i c a l l y r e p r e ­

th e s l a v e - g i r l ,

and E r o c id n , f r e e - b o r n

c h i e f a r c h e r o f S a g a n tu m .

R a n to w as a m ere c h i l d when A c te d n f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d h e r on th e bank o f th e B o e t i s - P e r k e s : D e l g a d a , e s b e l t a , d e m ie m b r o s e n j u t o s y c o n l a p i e l de un m oreno a t e r c i o p e l a d o , h u b i e r a p a r e c i d o un m uchacho a no s e r p o rq u e l a c o r t a t u n i c a , a b i e r t a en e l c o s ta d o i z q u i e r d o , d e ja b a a d i v i n a r e l pecho l i g e r a m e n t e h i n c h a d o , con u n a r e d o n d e z su a v e de t a z a , como u n c a p u l l o q u e e m p i e z a a e x p a n s i o n a r s e r e p l e t o de s a v ia j u v e n i l . S u s o j o s n e g r o s , burn ed os y g r a n d e s , p a r e c i a n l l e n a r t o d a su c a r a , b a fid n d o la de m is te r io s o f u lg o r . T ras l o s l a b i o s , to s ta d o s y a g r ie ta d o s p o r e l v ie n to , b r i l l a b a una d e n ta d u ra n itid a , fu e rte e ig u a l. Su c a b e l l e r a , anudada a t r a s , l a h a b la a d o rn a d o con una g u i r n a l d a de a m a p o l a s c o g i d a s e n t r e e l t r i g o . . . .C o n l a mano que l e quedaba l i b r e a c a r i c i a b a l o s b la n c o s v e ll o n e s de u n a c a b r a d e e r g u id o s c u e r n o s , l a f a v o r i t a , que s e a p r e t a b a c o n t r a s u s p i e r n a s , h a c i e n d o s o n a r u na c a m p a n u l a de c o b re en s u c u e l lQ . A c t e d n e x a m in d a q u e l l a f i g u r a j u v e n i l . . . .S u e s b e l t e z , de l i n e a s r e e t a s y a r m o n io s a s , l e r e c o r d a b a l a e le g a n c ia de l a s f i g u r i l l a s de T anagra so b re l a s m esas de l a s h e t e r a s de A te n a s , l a a rro g a n t© a d o l e s c e n c ia de l a s c a n d fo ra s p in ta d a s en to rn o de lo s vaso s g rie g o s

A

1 V ic e n te B la s c o - I b a f ie z , S d n n ic a , l a C o r t e s a n a , Q bras C o m p le ta s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : E u g en io S an ch ez L e a l, 1 9 4 6 ), V o l. 1 , p . 687.

2

As f o r t h e b o y I r o c i d n , w h o s e v e r y name d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s o n o f A p h r o d i t e a n d who l o n g e d t o o rd er to h is

im m o rta liz e

e n tra n c e in to

beco m e a s c u l p t o r i n

i n m a r b le t h e body o f h i s b e l o v e d , even

th e n o v e l i s

c h a ra c te ristic .

A c o m e ly

G re e k y o u t h who m i g h t h a v e b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f a p a s t o r a l i d y l by T h e o c r i t u s , a c r e a t u r e p r i m a r i l y o f im p u ls e , and d e s i r e , b o rn to l o l l m ead,

e m o tio n ,

i n am orous d a l l i a n c e upon a s u n l i t

b u t a t t h e m om ent a b l a z e w i t h a d o l e s c e n t r e b e l l i o n a t

th e p r o s p e c t o f an e n f o r c e d e x i s t e n c e a s a tra d e s m a n — f a u n ­ lik e ,

he b u rs ts

i n t o v iew u p o n t h e n o t e o f a f l u t e .

I n t r e lo s a rb o le s so n aro n unas n o ta s d u lc e s , u n a s e s c a l a s r e g o c i j a d a s de c a r a m i l l o , y A c te d n v i d s a l i r d e u n s a l t o a l c a m in o a u n m u c h a c h o c a s i d e l a m is m a e d a d d e R a n t o , a l t o , e n j u t o , d e s c a l z o , s i n o t r a v e s t i d u r a que una p i e l d e c a b r a q u e s u j e t a d e l h o m b ro i z q u i e r d o y d e j a n d o al d e s c u b ie rto el d erech o , e ra a p re ta d a p o r una c u e r d a en t o r n o a s u s r i f i o n e s . Sus o j o s p a r e c i a n b r a s a s , y su c a b e l l o , n e g r o , de to n o a z u l a d o , fo rn a n d o c o r t o s r i z o s , se a g i t a b a con lo s n e r v i o sos m o v i m i e n t o s d e l a c a b e z a como u n e s p e s o t o i s o #n . 2 B e tw e e n t h e s e t w o , R a n t o a n d t h e b o y E r o c i d n , e x is te d

an i d y l l i c

d e v o tio n .

c o n c e rn e d a lm o s t to th e re v e a le d th e

u n in h ib ite d ,

p o i n t o f b e in g a n t i - s o c i a l ,

se lfth ey

t h e i r f e e l i n g to w a rd each o th e r c o n s t a n t l y and w ith

candor o f c h ild re n .

fa c t,

In n o c e n t,

th e re

t h a n he o b s e r v e d

2 Ib id .,

p.

688.

No s o o n e r h a d A c t e d n m e t t h e m ,

in

3 l a s m ira d a s am orosas que s e c ru z a b a n e n t r e lo s a d o l e s c e n t e s , e l a p r e t 6 n c a d a v e z m as f u e r t e d e s u s c u e r p o s j d v e n e s y s a n o s , qu e s e b u s c a b a n , a p o y d n d o s e m u t u a m e n x e . E r o c i d n , como o b e d e c i e n d o a u n a s u p l i o a m uda d e s u a m a d a , h a b i a s a c a d o d e l s e n o e l c a r a m i l l o d e c a n a s a g u j e ^ e a d a s y s o p l a b a en. e l d u l c e m e n t e , la n z a n d o u n a m u s ic a t i e r n a y p a s t o r 1 1 , a l a que c o n te s ta b a n l a s c a b r a s eon b a l i d o s . 3 I t was a n e n t i r e l y n a t u r a l and t h e r e f o r e When A c t e d n a c c i d e n t a l l y

came u p o n t h e G r e e k b o y i n a s h e l t e r e d

g r o v e m o d e l i n g t h e n u d e H a n to n o m o re n a t i v e

am oral l o v e .

in red

c la y ,

em barrassm ent th a n c h il d r e n .

aw ay, b u t E ro c id n e x p la in e d a p o l o g e t i c a l l y

th e lo v e rs re v e a le d T r u e , R a n to r a n t h a t h e r s was a

c o n d itio n e d f e a r . No l o e x t r a f i e s , e s d e r a z a d e b d r b a r o s ; te m e e l g a r r o t e d e s u a b u e l o e l p a s t o r , q ue c a e r l a ; : > s o b r e s u s c a r n e s s i l a v i e s e como t d a c a b a s d e v e r l a * 4 C o m p are d w i t h t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d p a s s i o n o f t h e b e a u t i ­ f u l c o u r te s a n S d n n ic a f o r A c te d n , th e ir a ffa ire

i n w h ic h t h e l o v e r s e n jo y e d

d*am our b o t h p e r s e and o b j e c t i v e l y , a s th o u g h

p e rfo rm in g t h e i r

am orous r i t e s

in f r o n t o f a m ir r o r ,

o f R a n to and E r o c i d n was e n t i r e l y

th e lo v e

f r e e b o th of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s ­

n e s s and th e s tu d ie d a r t o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l a m o r is t. in g en u o u s and n o rm al a s t h e b i l l i n g th em l o v e h a d no n u m b e rs , no d e g r e e ,

3 Ib id . . p. 4 I b id .,

689.

p . 725.

I t was

an d c o o in g o f b i r d s . and c o n s id e ra tio n s

To of

4 s p a c e and tim e w ere t h e c o n c e rn o f p h i l o s o p h e r s an d m o r a l i s t s . F o r t h a t r e a s o n i t m ig h t be a rg u e d

t h a t th e lo v e of

t h e two c h i l d r e n f o r e a c h o t h e r w as h a r d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , t h a t i t w as i d e a l i z e d

u n til i t

to o k on th e c h a r a c t e r o f a

r e l a t i o n a lm o st o th e r - w o r ld ly , l i k e O ly m p ia n g o d s . N ow here e l s e

th e lo v e s o f th e m y th ic a l

And t h a t w o u l d b e m o r e t h a n a l i t t l e

tru e .

i n a n y o f t h e n o v e l s o f B l a s c o - I b a f i e z d o we

f i n d a lo v e so v i s i o n a r y .

Even d u r in g t h e s i e g e o f S a rg a n tu m ,

w hen E r o c i d n i s s l a i n a n d R a n t o , l o s i n g h e r f a c u l t i e s , l o w s h im p a r t way i n t o th e h i s to r y th e s to ry

fo l­

t h e shadow y h a I f - w o r l d o f d e l u s i o n ,

o f th e l o v e r s re m a in s f a n c i f u l a n d r a r e ,

o f a s o rro w fu l o ld le g e n d , l i k e

lik e

th e sad t a l e

of

O rpheus a n d E u r i d i c e . One o f t h e f e w l o v e a f f a i r s Ib afie z t h a t i s E ro cid n is Luna,

in

th e n o v e ls o f B la s c o -

e v e n r e m o t e l y c o m p a ra b le t o t h a t o f R a n to and

th e a b o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n A g u ir r e and

th e b e a u tif u l Je w e ss,

in th a t e x q u is ite ly w r itte n

n o v e l e t t e Luna B en am o r.

H e re t h e r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e

lo v e rs

id e a listic ,

it

is

is

a ls o

in te n se ly

su ffic ie n tly

hum an t e r m s . b o liz e d

o f t h i s w o rld t o b e

T h e ir d e v o tio n ,

i n th e d e a t h

its

if

t h e sa m e t i m e

c o m p re h e n sib le i n

tra g ic

o f O ld K h a i m u l l ,

y o u n g m an a n d a n o r m a l , th e a u th o r,

but a t

is

e v a n e s c e n c e sym ­ t h a t o f a norm al

so m e w h a t i n h i b i t e d ,

sp e a k in g f o r Luna,

g irl.

Says

5 A q u e l l o s d l a s h a b l a n s i d o l o s me j o r e s d e s u e x i s t e n n i s l a n o v e l a d e s u v i d a , l a f l o r a z u l qu e t o d a s l a s m u j e r e s , h a s t a l a s m£s v u l g a r e s , l l e v a n e n s u r e c u e r d o como u n s o p l o d© p o e s l a . And L u n a h e r s e l f s a y s t o A g u i r r e , Til e r a s l o i m p r e v i s t o , e l d u l c e d e s o r d e n q u e e m b e lle c e l a v i d a , l a a l e g r l a d e l am or, que e n c u e n tr a l a f e l i c i d a d e n to d o c u a n to l e r o d e a y no p i e n s a en e l m a f i a n a .5 W hereupon A g u i r r e , p l e a d i n g w i t h Luna f o r h e r l o v e ,

c rie s:

E l am or e s una f o r t u n a , Es como l a h e r m o s u r a , como l a r i q u e z a , como e l p o d e r ; t o d o s l o s qu e n a c e m o s estam o s e x p u e s to s a c o n s e g u ir a lg u n a de e s t a s f e l i c i d a d e s , p e r o s o n muy p o c o s l o s q u e l l e g a n a a l c a n z a r l a s . . . .Y c u a n d o e l a m o r t e s a l e a l p a s o , L u n a , L u n i t a t . . . .$ T h e n , a f t e r L u n a h a s g o n e f r o m h im i r r e t r i e v a b l y , A g u i r r e i s a b l e t o s a y , w ith a pow er o f o b j e c t i v i t y w h ic h a t o n e a n d t h e sam e t i m e g i v e s hum an a u t h e n t i c i t y t o d e v o tio n and l i f t s

h is

i t beyond th e u n re a s o n in g i n f a t u a t i o n

o f c a llo w y o u th : I b a n a r e a n u d a r s u m a r e h a e n l a v i d a , c a d a uno p o r d i s t i n t o c a m in o ; i b a n a l e v a n t a r e l v u e l o a l d l a s i g u i e n t e p a r a p o s a r s e e n l o s l u g a r e s m as o p u e s t o s ^ d e ^ l a T i e r r a , y n a d a l l e v a r l a n e l uno d e l o t r o , n a d a m as q u e e l r e c u e r d o , y e s t e r e c u e r d o , b a j o l a m o r d e d T p a d e l t i e m p o , s e ?h a r i a c a d a v e z m as p e q u e f i o , m as f r a g i l , m£s s u t i l . l le v a n d o s e l a a l a c a sa de su s p a d r e s . tG-ran e s c ^ n d a l o e n e l b a r r i o * . E l b a to de l a n o v i a s a l i a a l a e a l l e g r i t a n d o que i b a a m a t a r a su h i j a . Todos l o s a m i g o s , c o m p a d res y v e c i n o s , l e a g a r r a b a n p a r a que no r e a l i z a s e su v e n g a n z a p a t e r n a l . J u r a b a , pon£a los o j o s en b i a n c o , p e d i a una p u sc a de dos e a n o n e s b ie n c a r g a d a de plomo p a r a m a t a r a l o s f u g i t i v o s , u n a c h u r i a f B a d a p a r a c o r t a r l e s e l c u e l l o , y no s e m o v l a d e l s i t i o , ^ a p e s a r de que lo s am igos a p e n a s s i l e s u j e t a b a n , l i m i t a n d o s e a d i c t a r l e p r u d e n t e s c o n s e j o s como e r a , c o stu m b re.3 The f a t h e r t h e n g o e s home a n d v e n t s h i s w r a t h on h i s w i f e ,

t o whom h e a d m i n i s t e r s

sim u lated

in dead e a rn e s t a

3 V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a r i e z , La H o r d a , O b r a s C o m p l e t a s (M.- A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : Sugenio Sanchez L e a l, 1946), V o l. 1, p . 1470.

68 te rrific seeks

th rash in g .

out the f a t h e r ,

Two d a y s l a t e r

t h e p r o s p e c t i v e groom

k n e e ls and asks h is

fo rg iv en ess,

and

*

s h o r tly afterw ard the g i r l

is

s e n t home#

A f te r she a l s o has

been f o r g i v e n she r e t u r n s t o

t h e home o f h e r s w e e t h e a r t a n d

rem ains

s e t fo r th e n u p tia ls ,

th e re u n t i l th e d ate

from s i x

t o tw e lv e m onths l a t e r # One d a y p r e v i o u s t o t h e ' . w e d d i n g a n o l d c r o n e a p p e a r s to

can tan ear the

b rid e,

an im p o r ta n t t r a d i t i o n a l cerem ony.

. . .L a n o v i a se p r e s e n t a b a h e c h a u n a b e l d a d , en a n aguas y cham bra, l a banda de ra s o c ru z a n d o la e l p e c h o , l a c a b e l l e r a s u e l t a , y una c o r o n a de f l o r e s d e t r a p o , a l t a como u n m o r r i d n . L os c o n v i d a d o s s e quedaban a l a p u e r t a de l a c a s a , y a v an z ab a l a T e o d o r a c o n e l r i c o p a f i i z u e l o e n l a itiano, g r a v e y c e j i j u n t a como u n a s a e e r d o t i s a . I n t r a b a n con e l l a l o s p a d r e s dd l o s n o v i o s , l o s i n d i v i d u o s mas a n c i a nosi- d e l a s d o s f a m i l i e s , y l u e g o d e c e r r a d a l a p u e r t a , t e n d l a s e l a m uchacha en una c o lc h o n e ta , con s u c o r o n a y s u b a n d a . La T e o d o ra , s i n d e j a r s e g a n a r p o r l a em ocidn de l o s p r e s e n t e s , t r a n q u i l a y seg u ra de su p e r i c i a , in tr o d u c ia por e n tre la h o j a r a s c a d e l a s e n a g u a s s u m ano e n v u e l t a e n e l p a f t u e l o , b u c e a n d o d u r a n t e m ucho r a t o e n e s t e o l e a j e de t e l a a lm id o n a d a . La v i r g e n p e r m a n e c l a in m d v il , con l o s o jo s e n t o r n a d o s , s i n un g e s t o , co lo rean d o se lig ra m e n te por e l d o lo r y la s c o s q u illa s . V o v lla a s a l i r a lu z e l p a h u e lo y to d o s l o m irab an * Las t r e s f l o r e s b l a n c a s l ?La s e f l t o d e l a v i r g i n i d a d ! P o d ia c e le b r a r s e l a boda. Y a l a b r i r de nuevo l a p u e r t a y m o s t r a r l a v i e j a e l p a h u e lo , e n t r a b a l a g e n te en t r o p e l , v o c if e r a n d o de a l e g r l a , s a l u d a n d o a l a d e s p o s a d a con r u i d o s o s asp av ien to s: - - » Y i v a l o b u e n o l . . ♦ #»Viva l a h o n r a 1 f O l e p o r el m erito l Jva m o s a j u n t a r l o s t ^

4 I b i d . . p . 14 7 2 .

69

The b e s t man. t h e n t a k e s u p a b a s k e t o f s u g a r - c o a t e d alm onds s u p p l i e d

by t h e g r o o m a n d e m p t i e s i t s

the p r o s tr a te b r id e . sim ila r in

The p a r e n t s

c o n te n ts over

an d g u e s t s r e s p o n d w i t h

show ers o f alm onds u n t i l t h e b r i d e i s

a sm a ll m o u n tain o f sw eet k e r n e l s .

a ll

bu t b uried

T h e n c om e s t h e m u s i c .

Romp f a n l a s g u i t a r r a s e n m e l a n c < $ l i c o r a s g u e o , d a b a e l n o v i o s u mano a l a n o v i a p a r a q u e s e l e v a n t a s e e n t r e e l c r u j i r de l a s a lm e n d r a s a p l a s t a d a s p o r s u s p i e s , y comenzaban a b a i l a r , c o lo c a n d o e l l a su c o ro n a s o b re l a cabeza d e l m arid o . As! p a sa b a n la n o c h e , devorando d u lc e s , a rro ja n d o lo s c o n tra la s p a re d e s, sorbi^ndose p o r d o c e n a s l a s t a z a s de c h o c o l a t e , h a s t a que a l a m a n ec er se ib a n a d o r m ir a h i t o s de a z u c a r y s o o o n u s c o . Todos lo s g ita n o s b a ila b a n con la d e sp o sa d a, c ala n d o se su flo re a d o m o rrid n . Al d i a s i g u i e n t e , l a s m adres de lo s n o v i o s h a c l a n p l a t o s con l o s d u l c e s e s p a r c i d o s en l a cama y l b s e n v i a b a n a l a s s o l t e r a s d e l b a r r i o c o n u n a f l o r de l a c o ro n a . E l n o v io m ontaba en un c a b a l l o , lle v a n d o l a hem bra a la g ru p a ; to d o s l o s c h e v a le s , j i n e t e s en su s m e jo re s b e s t i a s , l e s deban e s c o l t a , l l e v a n d o ta m b id n a a n c a s l a s mozas d e l b a r r i o , y l a v i s t o s a c a b a l g a t a p a r t l a a l t r o t e p o r l o s cam pos, como s i e s t a c e r e m o n i a f u e s e u n a i n i c i a c i d n d e l m a t r i m onio e n l a v i d a a n d a r i e g a de l a r a z a . ^ This

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r e m a r i t a l custom i s

in th e novel as gy p sies t

ta k in g p lac e in the

from A n d a lu c ia , C a s t i l e ,

4

illu stra tio n

m arita l r ite s ,

th eir

o rig in s

P. 1472

J o h n ’ s Day.

of the p e r s is te n c e l o s t in a n tiq u ity ,

o f m odern exam ple and r e l i g i o u s

5 Ibi d. ,

o f M adrid, w here th e

and La Mancha g a t h e r e a c h

y e a r t o a t t e n d t h e f a i r h e l d on S t . an in te r e s tin g

c ity

d escrib ed

ukase.

It

provides

of an cien t in th e face

In sen sib le

t o th e m arch

70 of p r o g r e s s , w i t h o n l y a few f e e t life ,

th e g y p sie s adhere to

a nom adic e x i s t e n c e . pero se ig n o rab an , su a is la m ie n to , a rrib a ."

sep aratin g

the a n tiq u e r a c i a l p r a c tic e s

se d esconoclan,

Even th o u g h p r o f e s s i n g

m on ial a t th e

th ey p ra c tic e

v e ry door o f the

F in a lly ,

of

"Las dos v i d a s r o z a b a n s e d i a r i a m e n t e , sin

s i n t i e s e n . l a m as l e v e

b e go o d b e l i e v e r s ,

them f ro m m odern

que l o s d e a b a j o , in flu en cia

C ath o licism ,

en

de lo s de

p r e t e n d in g to

t h e i r n a t i v e w edding c e r e ­

c h u r c h 1*

we h a v e t h e o r d i n a r y m e t h o d s o f c o u r t s h i p

t h a t o b t a i n i n m ost ex am ples o f w hat h a s b e e n term ed co n ­ v e n tio n a l m arriage*

T h e y may o r may n o t i n v o l v e s e c r e t

w in d o w -la ttic e ap p o in tm en ts, s io n s under the s u p e rv is io n custom ,

serenades,

of a chaperon,

th e tem peram ent o f th e l o v e r s ,

The a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h e n u p t i a l s That is u su a lly proper

arranged

and a f t e r n o o n e x c u r ­

is

d e p e n d i n g on l o c a l

and o t h e r f a c t o r s . the

im p o rtan t th in g .

by t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a r e n t s

a fter

c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e am ount o f money p r o v i d e d f o r

g i r l ’ s dow ry,

"req u isite

the

i n d i s p e n s a b l e en muchos p u e b l o s

c i v i l i z a d o s p a r a s e r m u jer h o n rad a y c o n s t i t u i r un h o g a r , ” and s i m i l a r p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r s .

6 I b id . . p.

A fter the m arriag e,

alw ays

1473.

? V i c e n t e B i a s c o - I b a n e z , Mare N o s t r u m , O b ra s C o m p le ta s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : E u g e n i o S a n c h e z L e a l , 194-6) , V o l. £, p . 1194.

71

perform ed a c c o rd in g to h is

C ath o lic r i t u a l ,

tr a d itio n a l o b lig atio n s

stan ces

it

is

a felicito u s

in m ost c a s e s ,

how ever,

in th e h ousehold. d iv isio n

t h e man i s

i s h e who, w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s d ire c ts

the

a ffairs

a d v is e s M elchor t o h e r w ith bread th e union is fid e lity ,

th e do m in an t f a c t o r and i t

of r e l i a b i l i t y

o f t h e ho m e.

I n L a s T r e s R o s a s Don E u g e n i o

ch aracterized

keeps her v ir tu e ;

th ese

self

u n ab le

w hile

even t o r e s i s t

q u a litie s are

exam ple, d e s p i t e

own h o u s e h o l d *

band’s w eakness, th a t she fin d s

demanded o n ly the f a c t th a t

of lo v e , n o n eth e­

le c h e r o u s M e lch o r f i n d s him ­

charm s o f th e k i t c h e n m aid s i n

Dof5a M a n u e l a , t h o r o u g h l y a w a r e o f h e r h u s ­

is

it,

the

the

Som etim es

by m u t u a l c o n f i d e n c e a n d m a r i t a l

Dona M a n u e la , f o r

less

ap proaching

in th e o th e r.

she m a rrie d h e r husband w ith o u t any p r e te n s e

h is

and hum aneness,

t r e a t h i s w ife w ith f irm n e s s ,

b u t in m ost e a se s

of the w ife.

I n some i n ­

o f l a b o r and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;

i n one h a n d and a s t i c k

also

each p a r t n e r assum es

o n ly m i& ly a n n o y e d . in f a c t ,

fa r easier

Such i s

her n atu re

t o w ink a t h e r h u s b a n d ’ s

e s c a p a d e s w i t h women t h a n a t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f w a l k i n g i n

the

s t r e e t when s h e g o e s s h o p p i n g - ~ a s h a m e f u l s y m b o l , a c c o r d i n g her,

o f p o v e rty and d e g ra d a tio n .

que h a c e n l o s hom bres e n l e j a n a s

”No h a y q u e l l o r a r p o r l o tie rra s.

p a r a u n a m u j e r q u e ama a s u m a r i d o ; y debe p e r d o n a r s e .”

8 Ibi d. ,

D

Es s ie m p r e amargo

p e r o no t r a e

eon secu en cias,

I n t h a t s t o i c a l r e m a f k , made by C i n t a ,

p. 1160.

to

72 th e w ife of U lise s

i n M a r e vN o s t r u m , i s

tow ard m ale i n f i d e l i t y

e p ito m ized

o f m o s t L a t i n women.

L a H o r d a we h a v e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p le b e ia n m arriage

in w hich th e m ale i s

do m in eerin g p a r t n e r . The f a m i l y

liv e s

n o t.

d o m in a n t and

I s i d r o M a ltr a n a 's f a t h e r

E arly

At noon h i s

a b ask et c o n tain in g h is fam ily i s

the

exam ple o f a

is

a b rick lay er.

in a d in g y te n e m e n t h i v e w ith a dozen o t h e r

la b o re rs ’ fam ilies. f o r w ork.

th e a t t i t u d e

in funds,

A ll th re e s i t

in th e m orning th e f a t h e r

w ife,

c a rry in g the

lu n ch ,

t a k e s him

a d i s h o f p o t a t o stew i f

s o m e t h i n g e v e n m o re hum ble i f on t h e g r o u n d a n d e a t t h e i r

The b a b y o n h e r l a p ,

th e m other e a t s

The f a t h e r g u l p s

l a r g e r p a r t o f the

the

c h ild ,

leav es

little ,

th e

th ey a re

lunch to g eth er*

feed in g her c h ild .

c o n te n ts o f the d is h

g ree d ily . On S a t u r d a y n i g h t s t h e f a t h e r g e t s d r u n k . o n S u n d a y t h e f a m i l y g o e s on a p i c n i c . th ese

Som etim es

B lasco-Ibanez d e s c rib e s

e v e n t s a s M a l t r a n a rem em bers them y e a r s

later*

M altran a, a l re c o rd a r su pasado, preguntabase m u c h a s v e c e s c 6mo h a b l a n v i v i d o s u s p a d r e s . Los h ab £ a v i s t o r e f r , v o l v ie n d o de l a s com idas d e l do m ing o , con una a l e g r l a e x t r a o r d i n a r i a , pugnando e l p o r c o g e r l a d e l t a l l e a l e n v o l v e r l o s l a som bra d e l c re p u sc o lo , d efendiendose e l l a , esca n d aliza d a p o r e s t a r en m edio de un cam in o . O tras v e c e s—y e l r e c u e r d o d e s p u e s de t a n t o s afios a u n conm ovla a l j o v e n — , e l p a d r e s u r g l a en su m em oria c o l e r i c o , con l a voz ro n c a y e l r o s t r o c o n g e s tio n a d o , o lie n d o a v i n o , a r r o j a n d o s e con l o s puftos l e v a n t a d o s s o b r e l a p o b r e m u j e r , que c o r r l a l o c a de m iedo p o r e l t u g u r i o , e s q u iv a n d o lo s g o l p e s . E s t a s e sc e n a s de

73 t e r r o r a c a b a b a n s i e m p r e c o n l a c a l d a d e l a l b a f t i l en e l c a m a s tro , f a t i g a d o de g o lp e a r a l a hem bra. Al pooo r a t o sonaban sus ro n q u id o s b r u t a l e s , m ie n tra s l a m adre, a b ra z a n d o a l pequefio, l l o r a b a s o b r e s u cabeza silen c io sam e n te .9 T his c la sses. of a ll

s o r t o f m arriag e

La. B a r r a c a ,

i s n o t uncommon among t h e

in th e o p in io n o f th is

poorer

w rite r th e f i n e s t

th e n o v els of B lasco -Ib a fte z , c o n ta in s a m a g n ific e n tly

e ffectiv e

c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f one P i m e n t e l ,

husband o f th e

w e a k a n d a i l i n g P e p e t a , who f o r c e s h i s w i f e t o r i s e o * c lo c k e a c h m orning and c a r r y from th e farm she r e t u r n s

the b ask ets

o f garden tru c k

t o t h e d i s t a n t m a rk e t i n M adrid f o r

home a t d a w n , w e a r y a n d

cow i n t o t o w n a n d t r u d g e s

at three

h alf-fro ze n ,

s a l e . When she lea d s the

frqrn h o u se t o h o u s e s e l l i n g m i l k

w hich she e x t r a c t s

f r e s h f r o m t h e cow i n

the q u a n ti t y r e q u ir e d

by e a c h

M eanw hile

a q u e l b u e n mozo q u e

tan

custom er.

caro le

co stab a,

"su m arido,

s e g u la roncando d e n tr o d e l c a l i e n t e

e s tu d i t bien a rre b u jad o

en l a s m antas d e l

cam 6n m a t r i m o n i a l . "10

The same n o v e l c o n t a i n s a n o t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f a m a r r i ­ age,

th a t of B a tiste

and h i s w if e ,

in w hich th e r e l a t i o n

f a r m woman t o h e r h u s b a n d i s d e s c r i b e d

of a

in g r e a te r d e t a i l .

H ere

9 V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a f t e z , La H o r d a , O b ra s C o m p le te s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : E ugenio S a n c h ez L e a l , 1 9 4 6 ), V o l. 1, p . 1357. 10 V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a f i e z , L a B a r r a c a , O b r a s C o m p l e t a s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : E ugenio S a n ch ez L e a l , 1 9 4 6 ], V ol. 1, p . 462.

74

the w ife ,

resp ected

c h ild ren ,

o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n o f so m e i m p o r t a n c e a n d t r u s t

i n t h e home.

by h e r h u s b a n d a s t h e m o t h e r o f h i s

A tr u e h elp m eet, she cares

m anages th e h o u se ,

guards

hidden th e fam ily fu n d s,

the sto c k in g and i n tim e

s i d e h e r man i n t h e f i e l d s . sp ecial lack

horse,

w hile

little less

i n w hich sh e k eep s

o f need even works b e ­

As t h o u g h t o

no

sy m b olize h e r

b e s t o w i n g a name o n t h e f a r m e r ’ s

th e a u th o r n e v e r once i n th e n o v e l r e v e a l s

name o f B a t i s t e ’ s w i f e .

ch ild ren ,

T r u e , s h e h a s no u n i q u e n e s s ,

ch aracter or id e n tity .

of in d iv id u a lity ,

f o r the

She r e m a in s

th e given

only a f u n c tio n a r y ,

a

more h i g h l y r e g a r d e d t h a n a b e a s t an d c o n s i d e r a b l y

th a n an e ld e r son,

w i l l alw ays

f o r exam ple*

I n any em ergency i t

be B a t i s t e who w i l l h a v e t h e

f i n a l w ord, whose

d e te r m in a tio n w i l l govern n o t a lo n e h er d e s tin y but t h a t o f a l l her ch ild ren .

B la s c o - I b a n e z s p e a k s r e p e a t e d l y of

t e r r i b l e m ajesta d d e l padre l a t i n o , h i j o s • *’J'A

N o t e v e n when t h e

L atin f a t h e r ’s a u th o rity a sse rts.

sefior a b s o l u to de s u s

ch ild ren a re

g r o w n up i s t h e

o v er them e n t i r e l y n e g a t e d ,

he

I n Cafios £ B a r r o h e c o n t r i v e s a n o t a l t o g e t h e r

unusual s itu a tio n to m arry.

Ml a

in w hich a f a t h e r

The b o y o b e y s .

11 Ibi d. .

p. 488.

commands h i s

grown so n

75 Un d £ a a b o r d o a Tono c o n s u e x p r e s i d n i m p e r i o s o de p a d r e a l uso l a t i n o , que c o n s i d e r a a l a s h i j o s f a l t o s de v o l u n ta d y d is p o n e s i n c o n s u l t s de s u f u t u r o y de s u v i d a . D ebla c a s a r s e ; as£ no e s ta b a n b ie n : en l a c a sa f a l t a b a una m u je r. Y Tono a c o g i o e s t a o r d e n como s i l e h u b i e r a d i c h o q u e a l d i ' a s i g u i e n t e hab£a de a p a r e j a r l a b a rc a g ra n d e p a r a e s p e r a r en e l S a l e r a un c a z a d o r de V a l e n c i a . E stab a b ien . P r o c u r a r f a cum plir cuanto a n te s l a o r d e n d e s u p a d r e .-*-2 S o m uch f o r because i t b izarre

lends i t s e l f

co n flicts

freq u en tly

the t r a d i t i o n a l less

type of m arriag e.

rea d ily

o f w hich s t o r i e s

t o t h e u n u s u a l and even

a r e made,

in everyday l i f e

o t h e r two

e n co u n tere d too

to w arrant e la b o rate

O nly c h i l d r e n and p o e t s p e r c e i v e th a t d iv in e

less

but t h e i r heroism

a p t to be o f th e p r o s a i c v a r i e t y w hich i s

freq u en tly

appears

C o n v en tio n al husbands h a p p ily m a rrie d to

c o n v e n t i o n a l w i v e s m ay b e h e r o i c f i g u r e s , is

it

in th e n o v e ls o f B ia s c o -Ib a n e z th an th e

types of m arriag e.

P robably

a s t o n i s h m e n t which

is

d ram atizatio n .

i n t h e m ere f a c t o f e x i s t e n c e the p re lu d e t o

creatio n .

V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a f t e z , CafiQs £ B a r r o , O b r a s C o m p l e t a s (M .-A g u ila r, e d i t o r ; M adrid: Eugenio S anch ez L e a l, 1 9 4 6 ), V ol. 1, p . 808.

CHAPTER V

Q? m a r i a g e illu stra tio n s

de convenanoe t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g

in the n o v e ls

of B lasco -Ib an ez.

One a p p e a r s

in

E l I n t r u s o - - t h e m a r r i a g e o f S a n c h e z M o ru e ta and C r i s t i n a . T h ro u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f good l u c k , h a r d l a b o r , and shrew d s p e c u l a t i o n , lig h te rm an , tain s

develops th e

the

foundries' p ro d u cin g r a i l ,

huge f l e e t s

s o n o f a hum ble

i r o n d e p o s i t s o f t h e B i s c a y a n Moun­

and becomes a m u l t i - m i l l i © n a i r e .

g ig an tic

tain s

Sanchez M orueta,

H is power i s p r i n c e l y :

bridge

steel,

p l y i n g b e tw e e n S p a i n and E n g l a n d ;

of o re —a l l are under h is

arm y of s e r v a n t s

and p a r a s i t e s ,

ag ed f a t h e r and m o th e r i n man o f g r a v e s t e r n

c o n tro l.

cannons;

enorm ous moun­

S u r r o u n d e d by a n

M orueta r e s i d e s w i t h h is

a p a l a t i a l m ansion i n B i lb a o .

c h a r a c t e r who h a s n e v e r h a d t i m e t o

much a b o u t women, he now d e c i d e s t o m a r r y . m ental c o n s i d e r a tio n s ,

in h is

A th in k

Ig n o rin g a l l

ch o ice of a w ife he i s

sen ti

e n tirely

re a listic . Ademas, e l p o d e r o s o p r i n c i p e de l a i n d u s t r i a s e hab£a c a s a d o , p a ra h a c e r dignam ente los h o n o res a l a f o r t u n a que l l e g a b a . Su m u je r e r a una " s e r i o r i t a ” de D urango— y e l a n t i g u o g a b a r r e r o r e c a l c a b a con r e s p e t o y tem or l a c a l i d a d s o c i a l de s u n u e r a — , una p a r i e n t a de l o s p r i n c i p a l e s que S a n c h e z M o r u e ta h a b i a t e n ido en L o n d r e s . Su f a m i l i a de h id a l g o s v i v l a e s t r e c h a m e n te de l a s f l a c a s r e n t a s de a l g u n a s c a s e r i a s , n o b l e z a a g r i c o l a q ue h a c i a r e m o n t a r s u s b l a s o n e s a l o s t i e m p o s c a s i f a b u l o s o s d e V i z c a y a , a J u a n Z u r i a , e l Cid v a s c o n gado, y que, s tu r d id a p o r la escan d alo sa f o r tu n a d el h i j o d e l g a b a r r e r o , h a b f a a c c e d id o a e m p a re n ta r con e l . S a n c h e z M o r u e t a , c a s i a l d f a s i g u i e n t e de l a b o d a , h a b i a

77

c o n t i n u a d o s u v i d a d e a g i t a c i 6n , d e v i a j e s y d e e n c i e r r o s en e l e s c r i t o r i o . La m u j e r , d e u n a b e lle z a ru b ia , aspera y dura, fru n c ia el e n tre ce jo a n t e l o s d o s a n c i a n o s , que v e g e t a b a n t l m i d a m e n t e en l a c a s a como s i f u e s e n u n o s c r i a d o s d i s t i n g u i d o s , y v i v i a s o l a , r e p a r t i e n d o s u tiem p o e n t r e l a s i g l e s i a s y l a s v i s i t a s a l a s p r i n c i p a l e s f a m i l i a s de B ilb a o # La s a t i s f a c c i d n de a n o n a d a r l a s c o n su l u j o , e l goce d e p r o v o c a r l a e n v i d i a de l a s a m i g a s c o n l a o s t e n t a - * c i d n d e s u r i q u e z a e r a n l a s u n i c e s d u l z u r a s que e n c o n tra b a en e l m a tr im o n io .l But as tim e p a s s e s

th e a c t i v i t i e s

of the

church b eg in

m o re a n d m ore t o a b s o r b t h e a t t e n t i o n o f Doha C r i s t i n a . ardor fo r lack

C ath o licism

i n c r e a s i n g w i t h h e r l o n e l i n e s s and h e r

o f norm al a f f e c t i o n

and l i b e r a l d o n a tio n s G reat C h ris tia n ," d au g h ter,

tie s,

o f m o n e y s h e s o o n b e c o m e s known a s

she d e te rm in e s

accord w ith J e s u i t

not share her re lig io u s

th e a f f a ir s

d o m estic d is c o rd

b irth

the

in

strict

M orueta,

b u t som ething of a l i b e r a l , does he is

t o o much

of h is g ig a n tic bu sin ess to g ive

o f h i s home,

and r a t h e r t h a n p ro v o k e

h e p e r m i t s h i s w i f e t o do a s

f o r Doha C r i s t i n a ,

"The

to a

c h ild

cu ltu re.

o rth o d o x y ; how ever,

up w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n

m u ch t i m e t o

to r a is e

i d e a s o f e d u c a t i o n and

a one-tim e C a r l i s t s o l d i e r

taken

what w ith h e r e n d le s s c h a r i t i e s

When s h e e v e n t u a l l y g i v e s

P e p ita ,

Her

she w ishes#

As

a l l h e r a c t i o n s and e v e n h e r t h o u g h t s a r e

now d o m i n a t e d b y h e r r e l i g i o u s

confessor#

S u p erstitio u s,

a

1 V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a h e z , El_ I n t r u s o , O b r a s C o m p l e t a s (M, A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : Lugenio S an ch ez L e a l, 1 9 4 6 ), V ol. 1, p . 1081.

78

p o te n tia l fa n a tic ,

convinced t h a t

th e r i c h and p a r t i c u l a r l y

th o s e born t o n o b i l i t y

a re d iv in e ly ap p o in ted

e a r t h and a fte r w a r d t o

in h e r it the

d is a ic a l p riv ileg e

to govern the

topm ost h i e r a r c h y of p a r a ­

( t h e r e were r a n k s and c l a s s e s

h e a v e n ) , 2 s h e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y O n ly when sh e r e q u i r e s

alien a ted

an u n u su a lly la rg e

even in

from h e r husband*

q u an tity

of money

w i t h w h i c h t o endow a h o s p i t a l o r a new c h u r c h d o e s s h e a t t e m p t to in g ra tia te

h e r s e l f w ith M orueta.

l o u s l y d u t i f u l , b u t cold# e n te r s th e household Even h i s

O r d in a r ily she is

"The I n t r u d e r "

crupu-

thus in s id io u s ly

o f th e m i l l i o n a i r e and s t e a l s

his

w ife*

bedroom i s n o t i n v i o l a t e .

Sdnchez M orueta, r e s u c i t a d o a l a ju v en tu d despues d e l t r i u n f o de s u s n e g o c i o s , s u f r l a un d e s e n c a n to c a d a v e z que s e a p r o x i m a b a a s u m ju e r con d e l i c a d e z a s o a r r e b a t o s de a m a n te . C r i s t i n a lo m ira b a con e n o jo , como s i e s t e c a r i f i o e x t r e m a d o l a o f e n d i e s e , c o l o c d n d o l a a l n i v e l de l a s v e n d e d o ra s de am or. Para e lla , la p a s i d n m a t r i m o n i a l n o d e b f a i r mas a l i a d e l a i n t i m i d a d Y r f a y c a s i m e c a n i c a d e s u s p r i m e r o s t i e m p o s de v i d a comun. E l m a t r im o n i o e r a p a r a que e l hom bre y l a m u je r v i v i e s e n s i n d a r e s c a n d a l o , p r o e r e a n d o h i j o s que s i r v i e r a n a D i o s , y t a m b i d n p a r a que no s e p e r d i e s e l a f o r t u n e de l a f a m i l i a . Lo q u e l l a m a b a n a m o r l a s p e r s o n a s c o r r o m p i d a s e r a un p e c a d o r e p u g n a n t© , p r o p r i o d e g e n t e s s i n r e l i g i 6n . T r a t a r un m arido a - su m u je r c o n ’m e l i f l u i d a d e s * d e e s a s q u e s o l o s e v e n e n a m a n t e s d e c o m e d i a , e r a e n v i l e c e r l a , i g u a l a r l a c o n l a s que viven de su c u e rp o . La e s p o s a c r i s t i a n a h a b l a d e s e r c a s t a e n e l p e n s a m i e n t o , c u i d a r de l a s a l u d m a t e r i a l y m oral d e l esp o so , a c o n s e ja r le e l b ie n y d i r i g i r e l hogar. Mas a l i a , s d l o i b a n l a s m u j e r e s p e r d i d a s . Y S an chez M orueta tr o p e z a b a con una e s t a t u a im p a s ib le , sien d o i n d t i l e s todos sus i n te n t o s p a ra i n f u n d i r l e v i d a .3

3 Ibi d. ,

p.

1094.

79 As a n i n d i r e c t r e s u l t M o ru e ta becomes s e c r e t l y p reten d s

whom h e i s c h ief h e ir .

happy.

in v o lv e d w ith

r e s i d e n c e w ith a

c o u rs e o f tim e

lia iso n ,

co n ju g al a lie n a tio n , a y o u n g J e w e s s who

t o l o v e h i m d e v o t e d l y a n d whom h e m a i n t a i n s

in a M adrid the

of th is

su m m er c h a l e t

in B i a r r i t z . In

t h e Je w e ss b e a r s him a s o n , a c h i l d

of

i n o r d i n a t e l y p r o u d a n d whom he p l a n A s t o make h i s T em porarily re ju v e n a te d

by t h i s

ex tra -m a rita l

th e m id d le-ag ed m il l io n a i r e

fan cies

h im self q u ite

Then he s u d d e n l y d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s m i s t r e s s h a s b een

d e c e iv i n g him ,

th a t th e fa th e r

h a n d s o m e y o u n g man who i s

of his

"son" i s

m e r e l y b e e n e x p l o i t i n g him b e c a u s e o f h i s M eanw hile,

i n o r d e r t o win h e r h u s b a n d t o t h e t r u e approach.

in th e

th e Jew ess has

w ealth .

e g g e d on by h e r c o n f e s s o r ,

se n ts to adopt a d iffe re n t

actu ally a

em ployed a s a c r o u p i e r

gam bling c a s in o o f th e 6S te d ’A zur, and t h a t

th e

in lu x u ry

one P a d re P a u l i ,

faith ,

C ristin a

The s c e n e b e l o w i s

con­ in

co n fessio n al. * V o l v £6 a s o n a r e l fN a . . . n a . . . h a ’ , ' m a s i m p e r i o s o , como s i d ie s e una o rd e n , y dofia C r i s t i n a s e a c h i c o an te la r e ja o b e d ie n te a su d i r e c t o r , p ero anonadada p o r e l s a c r i f i c i o que l a im p o n fa . — Lb h a r e , p a d r e , l o h a r e . ? S i s u p i e r a e l a s c o que e s o me p r o d u c e ! ? T a n t r a n q u i l a que y o v i v l a ! . . . . P e r o o b e d e c e r e , y a q ue n o h a y o t r o r e m e d i o . D ice u s te d b ien : h a b e rlo pensado a n te s de c asarm e. Son s a c r i f i c i o s que i m p o n e D i o s p a r a l a c o n s e r v a c i o n d e l m u n d o ; e x i g e n ­ c ie s de l a v i l m a t e r i a . . . .O b e d ec ere , p a d re ; p e ro r c u a n t o me c u e s t a l , f q u e r e p u g n a n c i a , D i o s m f o ! . . . .

80 El

*Na.

.

.h a.

.

. h a f to mo u n a e x p r e s i d n i n t e r r o g a n t e .

— S i, padre, s i ; se re o tra . Y o l v e r e , como e n o t r o s t ie m p o s , a p reo c u p arm e de l a e n v o l t u r a t e r r e n a l . E s p e r o q u e me r e c o m p e n s e n e s t e s a c r i f i c i o en l a o t r a vid a. C opiare l a s s e d u c c io n e s m undanas, p a ra s e r v i r a D io s. ' E l m u r m u l l o d e l c o n f e s o r s o n o l a r g a m e n t e , como s i d iese co n sejo s. De c u a n d o e n c u a n d o l e i n t e r r u m p l a d o n a C r i s t i n a con s u s a f i r m a c l o n e s d e p e n i t e i t e s umi s a . . . . —Asi lo h a re , —iN a. .

.fia.

padre. .

.ha?

— Ya h e o l v i d a d o e s a s c o s a s , p e r o p r o c u r a r e darm e d e m is t ie m p o s de v a n i d a d . — £Na.

.

.h a.

.

acor-

.ha?

— &Q u i e r e u s t e d q u e s e a h o y m i s m o ? i B e s p u e s de h a b e r r e c i b ib o a l S eh o r? . . . .B ien ; porque u s te d lo d ice. S e r a un nuevo s a c r i f i c i o .4 But th e a tte m p t f a i l s . w ith a l l

the

a r t and s k i l l

k no w n to

h u sb an d w ith an a f f e c t i o n a t e sad,

is

o nly,

ff— D e j a m e ,

N o n etheless,

When, a f t e r

stim u lated

a t t e m p t t o w in h e r husband t o t h e

5 Ibid.*

*P*

1 1 42 .

she

h is rep ly ,

g reets her

l a c o n ic and

es t a r d e ." 5

i n p a r t by t h e

th a t h e r husband has a m is tr e s s ,

4 ^ k i d *» P* 1 1 3 6 .

coq u etry ,

caress,

C ristin a ;

adorning h e r s e l f

gnawing s u s p i c i o n

Doha C r i s t i n a p e r s i s t s tru e

faith !

in her

T aking a d v a n ta g e

81 of an i l l n e s s

w h i c h f o r c e s h i m t o r e m a i n a t h o m e, s h e n u r s e s

him t e n d e r l y ,

and d u r in g h i s

Je su it re lig io u s

c o n v a l e s c e n c e p r e s s e s upon him

lite ra tu re ,

co n tin u ally

i m p l o r i n g him m ean ­

w h i l e t o r e n o u n c e h i s h e t e r o d o x y a n d b eco m e a g o o d C a t h o l i c . P e p ita ,

now a b e a u t i f u l g i r l

in th ese

en tre aties.

fin a lly

j o i n s h e r m other

H is d e t e r m i n a t i o n weakened a t

t h i s unw onted a f f e c t i o n b e fo g g e d by t h e

of seventeen,

and d o m e s tic f e l i c i t y ,

soo th in g g e n e r a litie s

h is

l a s t by t i r e d m in d

of t h e J e s u i t s , M orueta

c o n s e n t s t o sp e n d a f o r t n i g h t i n s e c l u s i o n a t a fam ous

C ath o lic r e t r e a t ,

from w hich he em erges s i n g u l a r l y

i n body and m in d .

C r i s t i n a and th e

refreshed

rapacious p r ie s ts

who a r e

her constant

c o u n s e l o r s h a v e won: t h e m i l l i o n a i r e r e t u r n s t o

the

the

b o so m o f

Church, a d e v o u t C a t h o l i c .

One n o t a b l e f e a t u r e

of th is m arriage

n e i t h e r M orueta n o r C r i s t i n a i n rela tio n sh ip

ev er took a d e c is iv e s te p

some p h a s e o f m a t e r i a l i t y . la s t a p ra c tic a l.re la tio n , fita b le ,

the

E g o istic , tru e

sta n tiv e th e

cold o b j e c t i v e

u n im ag in ativ e,

sense,

even t h e i r

in n a tu re ,

T heir

v ictio n

z eal,

for

the f a c t t h a t

h isto ry

of th e ir

t h a t was n o t b a s e d on

m a r r i a g e was f r o m f i r s t t o

rooted in

the ta n g ib le ,

the p ro ­

co n sid eratio n of perso n al b e n e fit.

incapable

of s e lf-s a c rific e

in any

t h o u g h t s a b o u t e a c h o t h e r were s u b ­

b e g in n in g w ith th e m se lv e s and f o llo w in g

c u rv e o f a boom erang back to

re lig io u s

the e n t i r e

is

in stan ce,

th em selv es a g a in .

was f o u n d e d

C ris tin a ’s

s o l e l y on t h e

t h a t sh e w o u ld be re w a rd e d h e r e a f t e r

con­

in e x ac t p r o p o rtio n

82

to her to

co n trib u tio n

to

the f a i t h .

Her s a v a g e d e t e r m i n a t i o n

c o n v e rt h er husband, h e r p ra y e rs and p e n an c es,

even h e r

c o r s e t o f woven r e e d s w i t h w hich she c r u e l l y m o r t i f i e d p h y sical fle s h ,

were a l l a p a r t o f th e p u r c h a s e p r i c e

e te rn al f e lic ity

a f te r d eath .

su c h w ords a s l o v e ,

A lth o u g h she

sacrifice,

o f h e r m ind,

lik e

u n d erstan d in g ,

the u n lo v ely f u r n itu r e

b e d ro o m , was d e s i g n e d o n l y f o r s e r v i c e . was no p i t y ,

no k i n d n e s s ,

no l o v e .

and c h a r i t y ,

h e r d au g h ter,

In h e r h e a rt th ere

b u t who h a d b e e n

she s a c r i f i c e d

th e hap p in ess of

hard as m etal,

th e w e lfa re

t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f h e r own e n d s .

m in d s one i r r e s i s t a b l y

len g th ,

of her c e ll-lik e

a s she had p r e v i o u s l y s a c r i f i c e d

of h er husband,

the f u r n i ­

W ithout h e s i t a t i o n , by

f o r c i n g h e r t o m a r r y a m an s h e d e s p i s e d a p p r o v e d by h e r c o n f e s s o r ,

in t h e i r

of

c o n s t a n t l y used

th e y w ere n o t a p a r t o f h e r e m o tio n a l v o c a b u la ry ; tu re

her

o f Lady M a cb e th .

She r e ­

B oth w ere c o ld and

l u s t f o r p o w e r w i l l i n g t o go t o a n y

t h e one t o b e a q u e e n on e a r t h ,

the

o th er

a queen in

heaven. As f o r M o r u e t a , a l t h o u g h f u n d a m e n t a l l y much l i k e h i s w ife , he m e rits stu p id

a less

ev alu atio n .

B e c a u s e h e was

a n d b e c a u s e h e was by n a t u r e a w e a k l i n g ,

s y m p a t h y a nd p i t y . from v a n it y , whom h e

severe

co u ld

he e v o k e s

H i s m o t i v e s i n m a r r y i n g C r i s t i n a stemmed

s o c i a l co n fo rm ity , tra n s m it his

and t h e d e s i r e

fo rtu n e.

f o r an h e i r t o

He h ad no t h o u g h t o f

83 sen tim en t. the

No s o o n e r w a s t h e w e d d i n g c e r e m o n y c o m p l e t e d ,

b r i e f honeymoon o v e r , t h a n h e was b a c k a t h i s

the fo u n d ry . se lfish ;

U nlike h is w ife ,

h e was q u i t e w i l l i n g t o f u l f i l l ;

it

him t h a t t h e r e were any o b l i g a t i o n s

in g .

The f a c t

in to

to h is

t h a t he l e f t h i s

t h a t h e m ade n o e f f o r t t o th e ir rela tio n sh ip ,

at

he was n o t p r e m e d i t a t e d l y

w h a tev e r o b l ig a t io n s he t a c i t l y

c ir c u m s c r ib e d by o r r e l a t e d

o ffice

assum ed in m a rry in g

sim ply n e v e r o c c u rre d to beyond th o s e

t h a t were

o r ig in a l reaso n s fo r m arry­

w i f e a l o n e much o f t h e t i m e ,

i n t r o d u c e any e le m e n t o f rom ance and t h a t he f a i l e d

to p a rtic ip a te

in her a c t i v i t i e s

o r e n t h u s i a s m s was t h u s n o t i n a n y m o r a l

sense a f a u lt;

was e v i d e n c e

aw areness,

it

only of a profound lack

a s o r t of co n d itio n ed

in se n sitiv ity .

And t h i s ,

t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s w e a k n e s s o f c h a r a c t e r , was t h e h is

ev en tu al d is in te g r a tio n .

a tio n ,

it

was h i s

w a y s — by s u b m i s s i o n o r by c o m p r o m i s e . j u s t man o f f i r m h is

to r e t a l i ­

i n o n e o f two

Though e s s e n t i a l l y a

he w as-thus w i l l i n g to

im p eril

own h o n o r by t e m p o r i z i n g w i t h w h a t h e knew t o b e t h e

tru th . h is

co n v ictio n ,

cause of

E x c e p t when s t i r r e d

i n s t i n c t to av o id d is c o rd

of

In h is re la tio n s

both to h is m is tr e s s

r e a c t i o n was t h e sam e.

and h is w ife

W him pering l i k e a c h i l d , h e r e ­

tu rn e d to se ek th e v o lu p tu o u s Jew ess even a f t e r fessed

t o d e c e i v i n g him w i t h a n o t h e r ;

to h is w ife,

begging f o r th e

she had con­

and so a l s o he r e t u r n e d

l o v e t h a t h e w e l l knew h a d b e e n

84

s t o l e n f r o m h i m by t h e u b i q u i t o u s I t may be p o i n t e d p a tte rn

n o v els

v a ria tio n s, ter

is

out in passin g th a t

the o v e r - a ll

o f t h i s m a r i t a l t r a g e d y o f C r i s t i n a a n d M o r u e t a was

ap p aren tly a fa v o rite in h is

" I n t r u d e r . tT

of B lasco-Ibarlez,

s e v e r a l tim es*

is

sim p le:

s in c e he re p e a te d

The b a s i c f o r m u l a ,

w ith m inor

a w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d man o f w eak c h a r a c ­

u n ited to a stro n g w ille d ,

in h e re n tly perverse

m a l i c i o u s woman who p e r s e c u t e s h i m u n t i l h i s p r i d e sh riv e ls

Nowhere i n

o f manhood

a s u b j e c t o f c o m m i s e r a t io n and d i s d a i n .

t h e n o v e l s , n o t e v e n i n La T i e r r a d e T o d o s w h e r e ,

o v e r w h e l m e d w i t h i g n o m i n y a n d sh a m e a f t e r r e p e a t e d w ife,

own l i f e ,

is

t h e M arquis th is

in a s h o rt s to ry th ie f,

o r even

and he becomes a d r o o p i n g c r e a t u r e w i t h o u t v o l i t i o n

o r m oral courage,

by h i s

it

de T o rre B ianca f i n a l l y

b e tra y als

tak es his

f o r m u l a more p o i g n a n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d calle d

one M a g d a l i n a ,

'■Uh H a l l a z g o .*•

is

In th is

se rv in g a sentence

P r e v i o u s l y i m p r i s o n e d m any t i m e s ,

th an

sto ry a p e tty

in a f i lt h y

jail.

over a period of y ears

M a g d a l i n a h a s b e e n b e a t e n a n d w h ip p e d by b r u t a l k e e p e r s u n t i l h e i s now s c a r c e l y m o r e t h a n a s h a d o w o f a m a n .

But he r e t a i n s

through i t

to s u f f e r .

a ll

th e w i l l to l i v e

In th e fo llo w in g p a ra g ra p h the n a tu ra l in s tin c ts ,

his

trag ic

and th e c a p a c ity en tire

tragedy of h is

self-ab asem en t,

thw arted

and h i s w i l l i n g ­

n e ss to endure th e u tm o st m o r t i f i c a t i o n i n o rd e r sim ply to e x i s t and f u r t i v e l y

t o h o p e f o r some v a g u e , m i r a c u l o u s d e l i v e r a n c e

85 is

e l o q u e n t l y and m o v in g ly su m m a riz e d . A l a s h o r a s d e c o m u n i c a c i 6n p r e s e n t a b a s e s u m p j e r , l a fa m o s a P e l u c h o n a , h em b ra b r a v a que l e i n f u n d f a g r a n m iedo. E r a l a a m a n t e d e u n o d e l o s b a n d i d o s m as te m ib le s de l a c £ r c e l . T r a l a a e s t e l a com ida d i a r i a m e n t e , p r o e u r a n d o s u r e g a l o con t o d a c l a s e de v i l e s t r a b a j o s . E l tr o m p e ta , a l v e r l a , a l e j a b a s e d e l l o c u t o r i o , tem iendo l a s a r r o g a n c i a s de a q u e l d esalm ad o , que a p ro v e c h a b a l a o c a s i o n p a r a h u m i l l a r l o con a l g u n g o l p e e n p r e s e n c i a de su a n tig u a com panera. Muchas v e c e s s o b r e p o n l a s e a s u m ied o un s e n t i m i e n t o d e ^ c u r i o s i d a d y t e r n u r a , y a v a n z a b a t i m i d a m e n t e , b u s c a n d o mas a l i a d e l o s t u p i d o s e n r e j a d o s l e c a b e z a d e un n ifto que acompafiaba a . la P e l u c h o n a . — I s mi h i j o , s e f io r — d e c i a con h u m il d a d - - ; mi T o n ic o , q u e y a n o me c o n o c e n i s e a c u e r d a d e m f . D i c e n q u e n o s e me p a r e c e . T a l v e z no s e a m io . . . There

com pressed

is

in to

s o much p a t h o s , th is

b rie f d e scrip tio n ,

sim ila r rep re se n ta tio n s

o n e i s moved t o w o n d e r w h e t h e r t h e

p e r h a p s unkn ow n e v e n t o h i m s e l f ,

p o te n tia l m iso g y n ist. h a s y e t been w r i t t e n , s tr u c t his

No d e f i n i t i v e but

if

c h a r a c t e r from th e

and s h o r t s t o r i e s a l o n e , reaso n ab le one. to f a s c i n a t e

him .

women c h a r a c t e r s

as w ell as o th e r

i n B l a s c o - I b a h e z o f men h u m i l i a t e d

a n d u n m a n n e d b y women t h a t a u t h o r was n o t ,

s o much i r o n i c b i t t e r n e s s

life

an a c t u a l or

o f th e g rea t Spaniard

a b io g r a p h e r w ere f o r c e d to r e c o n ­ in te rn al

evidence

in th e n o v e ls

s u c h a c o n c l u s i o n w o u l d be a n o t u n ­

The s u b j e c t o f f e m a l e t y r a n n y o v e r men s e e m e d We f i n d who a r e

in th e n o v e ls

s e v e r a l prom inent

n o t only s p i r i t u a l l y

dom inant b u t

6 V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a f i e z , 'Un H a l l a z g o ,- O b r a s Comp1 e t a s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d ; E ugenio S anchez L e a l , 1 9 4 6 ;, V ol. £, p . 464.

86 e v e n p h y s i c a l l y t h e m a s t e r s o f men. have th e s p e c t a c l e ,

f o r exam ple,

C a l a f i a by m e a n s o f a j i u - j i t s u

I n l a R e i n a C a l a f i a we

of th e

b eau tifu l,

blow h u r l i n g t o t h e

u n c o n s c i o u s a m a l e a d m i r e r who m e r e l y a t t e m p t s In an o th er fells

the

and th e n la

in s ta n c e , w ith a f i r s t sa m e a d m i r e r ,

to k is s

her.

nd u r o como u n a m a z a ft s h e

sm ashing h i s

nose,

cracking h is

c ald o .??

A gain,

i n S n t r e N a r a n j o s we f i n d

o p e ra s i n g e r L eonora h u r l i n g t o th e ground th e th en

"poniendo su p ie

sobre e l pecho d e l cru jir

ground

jaw ,

Ml e v a n t < 5 u n p i e y p u s o s u t a c d n a l t o y a g u d o s o b r e

boca d e l

R afael,

Am azonian

la

joven,

bru talm en te,

oth er in sta n c e s

of the

them atic

im passioned

sin m iserico rd ia ,

a p r e t a n d o como s i

osam enta de su p e c h o . A n d

the

q u isiera hacer

t h e r e cou ld

be c i t e d

use o f sex a n ta g o n ism coupled

w i t h p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t on t h e p a r t o f t h e f e m a l e .

To b e s u r e ,

t h e i r f r e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e may be w i t h o u t s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , may be m e r e l y a p r o v e n l i t e r a r y a p p e a rs w ith extrem e r a r i t y its

recurrence

Or,

since

i n E n g l i s h and A m erican

i n B i a s c o - I b a n e z m ay i n d i c a t e

o ccu p atio n w ith the g en eral.

d ev ice.

the

them e

lite ra tu re ,

a sp ecial p re ­

s u b j e c t on t h e p a r t o f L a t i n w r i t e r s

As p r e v i o u s l y i m p l i e d ,

if

o n e d i d - n o t know t h a t t h e

S p a n i s h n o v e l i s t was c o n t e n t e d l y m a r r i e d

7 I b id ..

p . 233.

8 Ib id .,

p.

623.

in

to th e v irtu o u s

87 D o na M a r i a I b a n e z ,

i t m i g h t e v e n be s u p p o s e d t h a t so m e u n ­

p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a woman h a d

l e f t w ith him an i d e l i b l e

sense of h u rt.

rem ains t r u e ,

One c a n n o t t e l l #

t h a t som e o f t h e m o s t b r i l l i a n t B lasco-Ibafiez i s

It

how ever,

and c o m p e llin g p r o s e

concerned w ith th e s o v e r e ig n ty

in a ll

o f women a n d

t h e v a s s a l a g e o f men. Two o t h e r i n s t a n c e s

o f m ariag e de c o n v e n a n c e , r e l a t e d

and y e t c l e a r l y d i v e r g e n t i n m o ra l i m p l i c a t i o n , a r e t h e n o v e l C a n a s y_ B a r r o . n arrated

in a flash b ac k ,

T io Palo m a and h i s d ig n ified lik e

w ife,

a hundred y e a rs ,

to r e c a l l h i s dead w ife .

m em ory n o r e c o l l e c t i o n and b a k i n g b r e a d .

everiibeen,

the

union,

b riefly

a p e a s a n t woman who w a s n o t e v e n

g r a y b e a r d who h a s s u r v i v e d t h e

and t r i e s

is

o f t h e o ld h u n t e r and f i s h e r m a n

by t h e a u t h o r w i t h a n a m e .

A lb u f e r a f o r alm ost

n e ts

The f i r s t

found in

An i l l i t e r a t e ,

ch ild ­

swamp f e v e r s o f t h e T lo Palom a lo o k s back But she has l e f t

in h is

o t h e r t h a n o f h e r s k i l l a t m ending She was no more t o h im , n o r h ad s h e

t h a n a s e r v a n t who h a d o n c e s h a r e d h i s h u t a n d

worked w i t h o u t p a y .

T rue,

th e y had had

. . .m u c h o s h i j o s , m u c h f s i m o s ; p e r o , m e n o s u n o , to d o s h a b ia n m uerto o p o rtu n a m e n te . 1 Eran s e r e s b la n c u z c o s y e n f e r m iz o s , e n g en d rad o s con e l p e n s a m i e n t o p u e s t o en l a c o m id a , p o r p a d r e s que s e a y u n t a b a n s i n o t r o d e s e o que t r a n s m i t i r s e e l c a l o r , e s t r e m e c i d o s p o r l o s t e m b l o r e s de l a f i e b r e p a l u d i c a . 9

1

9 Y i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a f t e z , Catias jjr B a r r o , O b r a s C o m p l e t a s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : E u g e n i o S a n c h e z L e a l , 1 9 4 6 ) , V o l . 1, p . 807.

88 The m a r r i a g e o f t h e s e t w o p e o p l e was l i t t l e f r o m t h e c o m i n g t o g e t h e r o f t h e swamp a n i m a l s tr a p p e d and s h o t .

t h e o l d m an

I t was a m a t i n g o f two h a l f - w i l d

e a c h w i t h no o t h e r f u n c t i o n t a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e

d ifferen t

creatu res,

or im pulse th a n of m u tu al c o h a b i­

on t h e m o s t e l e m e n t a r y s o c i a l

lev e l.

I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e u n i o n o f T lo Palo m a and h i s w i f e , th ere

is

t h e m a r r i a g e o f N e l e t a and Cafiamel.

c l e v e r e s t and m ost a t t r a c t i v e v illa g e

of P alm ar.

bonde h a i r , Ibafiez*

g irl

in

th e sm all f i s h i n g

V oluptuous in a p p e a ra n c e , w ith b r i g h t

a w hite s k in , and green eyes

h e r o i n e s h a v e g r e e n e y e s I)

m aid i n a t a v e r n

N e l e t a was t h e

( s o many o f B l a s c o -

s h e was em p lo y ed a s b a r ­

owned by a l e c h e r o u s w i d o w e r ,

Cafiamel b y

name, a w e a lth y fo rm e r sm u g g le r. C a f ia m e l n o p o d i a p a s a r s i n e l l a . E l v i u d o , que h a s t a e n t o n c e s h a b i a v i v i d o t r a n q u i l o con s u s v i e j a s c r i a d a s , d e sp re c ia n d o publicam ente a la s m u je re s , e ra in c a p a z de r e s i s t i r e l c o n ta c t o de a q u e l l a c r i a t u r a m a l i c i o s a que l o r o z a b a con g r a c i a f e l i n a . El pobre C a fia m e l s e n t f a s e i n f l a m a d o p o r l o s o j o s v e r d o s a s d e a q u e l l a g a t i t a , que. a p e n a s l o v e l a en c a l m a p r o c u r a b a h a c e r s e l a p e r d e r c o n e n c o n t r o n a z o s h a b i l e s q ue m a r c a b a n sus e n can to s o c u lto s . Sus p a la b r a s y m iradas s u b le v a ban en e l m aduro t a b e r n e r o una c a s t i d a d de v a r i o s afios. Los p a r r o q u i a n o s l o v e i a n u n a s v e c e s con a ra f i a z o s en l a c a r a ; o t r a s , con a lg u n a c o n t u s i d n j u n t o a l o s o j o s , y r e l a n a n t e l a s e x c u s a s que c o n f u s a m e n t e f o r m u l a b a e l tabernero. fB ie n s a b l a d e f e n d e r s e l a muchacha de l o s i r r e s i s t i b l e s a r r a n q u e s de Cafiam el! *Lo i n f l a m a b a c o n l o s o jo s p a r a a p l a c a r l o con l a s u ^ a s A v e c e s , en lo s c u a r t o s i n t e r i o r e s d e l a t a b e r n a r o d a b a n con e s t r d p ' i t o l o s m u e b l e s , t e m b l a b a n l o s t a b i q u e s c o n f u r i o s o s em p u jo n e s , y lo s bebedores r e ia n m a lic io s a m e n te . . . . ? Cafiamel q u e i n t e n t a b a a c a r i c i a r a s u g a t a ! fDe s e g u r o que s a l d r l a a l m o s t r a d o r con un n u e v o a r a f i a z o l . . . .

\

89 E s ta lu c h a hab£a de t e n e r f i n . N e l e t a e r a dem asiado f i r m e p a r a no r e n d i r a a q u e l p a n z u d o , que te m b la b a a n t e s u s a m e n a z a s d e n 9 v o l v e r m as a l a t a b e r n a . Todo e l P a lm a r s e conm ovio con l a n o t i c i a d e l m a t r im o n i o de C a f i a m e l . IQ And when h e r f o r m e r l o v e r r e t u r n e d f r o m h i s th e arm y, t h e v i l l a g e r s less

serv ice in

c i r c u l a t e d ru m o rs t h a t sh e was f a i t h ­

t o h e r husband* N e l e t a s o n r e l a a n t e l a s m u r m u r a c i o n e s . No a m a b a a su m a r i d o , e s t a b a s e g u r a de e l l o ; s e n t l a m ayor a f i c i & n p o r muchos de l o s que v i s i t a b a n s u t a b e r n a ; p e r o t e n i a l a p r u d e n c i a d e l a h e m b r a e g o l s t a y r e f l e x i v e q ue s e c a s a p o r l a u t i l i d a d y d e s e a no c o m p r o m e t e r s u c a l m a con i n f i d e l i d a d e s . i l H ere i s

w ife, th a t is

an o th er u nion ,

lik e

alm o st n o n - s p i r i t u a l .

t h a t o f T io Palom a and h i s But w h e rea s th e

rela tio n ­

s h i p o f T i o P a l o m a a n d h i s w i f e was a m o r a l a n d h a d t h e d i v i n e le g a lity p recisely lite ra te and e v i l ,

of innocence, the r e v e rs e . p eo p le,

p a s s i o n , he was, th e shrew ish,

I t was a u n i o n o f tw o r e a s o n a b l y b e tw e e n good

e x c l u s i v e l y by c o l d l y p r e m e d i t a t e d

Of t h e t w o ,

A man

a n d C a fia m e l was

each c ap ab le of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g

each m o tiv ated

self-in terest. c u lp ab le.

th e m arriage o f N e le ta

Cafia mel wa s p e r h a p s t h e l e s s

o f d u l l s e n s i b i l i t i e s andu n r e s t r a i n e d t o be s u r e , l i t t l e m ore t h a n

sa v ag ely m ercenary N e le ta ,

10 I b i d . ,

pp. 830-31.

11 I b i d . ,

;p .

832*

a b east;

but

by c a t e r i n g t o h i s

90 c a r n a l i t y f o r m o tiv es o f pure a v a r ic e , scale

even a l i t t l e

low er in

W hile t h e r e a r e in stan ces actu ated

of m arriage

p l a c e d h e r s e l f on a

t h e h i e r a r c h y o f m am m alia.

in th e n o v els

o f B ia s c o -Ib a fte z num erous

i n w h i c h t h e man o r woman o r b o t h a r e

only b y .ro m a n tic

lo v e,

t h e r e a r e none in w hich such

m a rria g e s p e r se p ro v id e th e b a s is f o r an extended n a r r a t i v e . I n m ost i n s ta n c e s m a rria g e f o r of

in cid en ts,

love m ere ly con clu d es a s e r i e s

a s w i t h C e l i n d a a n d W a t s o n i n La T i e r r a d e T o d o s ,

o r even an e n t i r e n o v e l ,

as

in the afo rem en tio n ed union o f

F e b r e r a n d M a r g a l i d a i n Los Mue r t os H a n d a n . m arriage s o le ly fo r as a d ev ice rarely

love i s

of m o tiv atio n ,

len d s

itse lf

to

alm o st in v a r ia b ly

In o th e r w ords, em ployed o n ly

an e le m e n t o f p l o t s t r u c t u r e ;

ex ten ded , n o v e l- le n g th a n a l y s i s .

is u n d o u b ted ly due l a r g e ly to

it T his

th e f a c t t h a t i n S p a in and i n

S o u th e r n Europe g e n e r a l l y m a rria g e

is

a p u re ly p rag m atic r e l a t i o n s h i p to

be u n d e r t a k e n i n m uch t h e

sa m e s p i r i t

th at

l o v e ,an e n t i r e l y n o n -ex isten t,

fre q u e n tly regarded as

one makes an i m p o r t a n t p u r c h a s e , w i t h r o m a n t i c fic titio u s

elem en t c o n t r i b u ti n g ,

a m ore o r l e s s f e s t i v e

B lasco -Ib an ez w rite s

even though

c o lo rin g to th e union.

in El I n t r u s o t anent th e p o t e n t i a l s u ito r s

f o r th e hand o f M o ru e ta ’ s d a u g h te r: Los j o v e n e s s a l i d o s d e D u e s t o h a b l a b a n c o n f r u i c i o n de e l l a y de l o s m i l l o n e s d e l p a d r e . *iM a g n lfic o b o c a d o l 1 Y c a d a uno a c a r i c i a b a l a p o s i b i l i d a d de que l e to c a s e l a l o t e r i a d e l m a trim o n io , en un p a i s donde c a s i n a d ie se c a sa p or n e g o c io s v u lg a r e s convenidos

91 p o r l a s f a m i l i a s con l a a lg iln p a d r e j e s u f t a .1 2 There a r e , n o v els

how ever,

ayu&a y b u e n c o n s e j o d e s e v e r a l m a g n i f i c e n t exam ples in th e

o f B l a s c o - I b a h e z o f w h a t may b e c a l l e d

t h e u n i o n o f t w o l o v e r s who l i v e o u t fo rm a l w edlock. is

the

t o g e t h e r a s man a n d w i f e w i t h ­

The m o s t f a s c i n a t i n g a n d d e t a i l e d

of th ese

e sp o u sa l w ith o u t b e n e f i t of c le rg y o f F e l i and I s i d r o

M a l t r a n a i n Lsa jo u rn a list, and f a l l s ferv id

e o m m o n - la w m a r r i a g e ,

H orda.

M altran a,

an o b s c u re young M adrid

becomes a c q u a i n t e d w i t h

in love w ith h is

Mosco, a p o o r p o a c h e r ,

d au g h ter.

c o u r t s h i p he p e r s u a d e s F e l i

A fter a b rie f

s e c r e tly to

but

leave her

f a t h e r ’ s h o u se and l i v e w i t h him a s h i s w i f e . I s i d r o t u v o l a a u d a z r e s o l u c i o n de l o s d e b i l e s . E l m i e d o a l M os co l e h i z o s e r a t r e v i d o y a r r o s t r a r e l p e l i g r o de u n a v e z . . . . iE r a de v e r a s que F e l i l e querfa? Pues a s e g u i r l e , a v i v i r ju n to s , o lv id ad o s d e t o d o l o qu e n o f u e s e a m o r . Los d o s h a b l a r o n s i n emoci(5n a l g u n a , c o n e l ego£smo d e l a p a s i o n , de a b a n d o n a r a l p a d r e , de e n g a n a r a l am igo. M a l t r a n a t e n i a d o s m i l r e a l e s , un c a p i t a l , p u e s jam as h a b f a v i s t o t a n t o d i n e r o . V i v i r f a n en e l i n t e r i o r de M a d rid , donde no l o s c o n o c i e s e n . Serfan m a r i d o y m u j e r p a r a l a s g e n t e s que s 6l o c o m p r e n d e n e l amor con d o c u m e n to s y s e l l o s . ad elan te, cuando t u v i e s e n h i j o s , y a p e n s a r f a n en e l m a t r i m o n i o . F e l i c i a n a , v e n c id a en su s u ltim o s e s c r u p u l o s , cont e s t a b a a f f i r m a t i v a m e n t e a t o d o s l o s p r o y e c t o s de

Mds

1 2 V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a h e z , E l I n t r u s o , O b r a s Comp1 e t a s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : E ugenio S a n c h e z -^eal, 1 9 4 6 ), V o l . 1, p . 1087.

92 su am an te. E l l a tam bien deseaba l a n u e v a e s t a r s i e m p r e j u n t o a I s i d r o , . . , 13 P r e t e n d i n g t o be m a r r i e d , in a f o u r th - f lo o r butes

C ath o lic

are b lis s fu lly

flat

occupied

le a fle ts

th e

l o v e r s p r o c u r e two room s

by a TTs a n t o l o c o ” who d i s t r i ­

in t h e s u b u rb s o f M adrid •

happy u n t i l ,

l o s s o f h i s p o s i t i o n and the

d e a th of F e l i fs f a t h e r under the

is

taken to

d eliv ered

t h a t h i s w ife i s

I n t h e s u c c e e d i n g m onths a s e r i e s

m isfo rtu n e s b e se t the

the

ch ild b ed f e v e r .

lo v ers u n t i l F e li,

o f the d i r e s t

o n e b l e a k sn o w y d a y ,

c h a r i t y ward o f t h e H o s p i t a l ,

of h e r baby,

and a few d a y s l a t e r ,

where s h e i s succum bs o f

U n a b l e t o f f i n d w o r k , h a l f mad w i t h s t a r v a t i o n

an d w o r r y , M a l t r a n a i s n o t w i t h F e l i w h en s h e d i e s , h e r body i s

H ere th e y

alm o st sim u lta n e o u s ly w ith th e

guns o f th e g am ek eep ers, M a ltra n a d i s c o v e r s p reg n an t.

vida;

unclaim ed i t

is

and s in c e

g iv e n over to the m e d ic a l s tu d e n ts

fo r d isse c tio n . — ;F e lil »F e l i i . . . . R e p e t l a s u n o m b r e , r e c o r d a n d o l o s m il d e t a l l e s de su am orosa i n t i m i d a d . La o r e j a s o n r o s a d a , c u y o l d b u l o m o r d i a d u l c e m e n t e a l m is m o t i e m p o que m u rm uraba p a l a b r a s d u l c e s ; s u c a b e c i t a a v e en l a s n o c h e s de i n v i e r n o s e r e f u g i a b a e n s u hombro con e l m is m o a d e m a n t i m i d o d e l p a j a r o q u e o c u l t a s u p i c o b a j o e l a l a ; s u s p i e r n a s de d i o s a , que p r e t e n d f a o c u l t a r ru b o ro sa m e n te cuando l a p ro b a b a a q u e l l a s m edias a d q u i r i d a s e n e l R a s t r o ; s u v i e n t r e a n t e s de l a d e f o r m a c i 6n m a t e r n a , c o n e l g r a c i o s o h o y u e l o u m b i l i c a l , q u e

61

13 V i c e n t e B l a s c o - I b a h e z , L a H o r d a , O b r a s C o m p l e t e s (M. A g u i l a r , e d i t o r ; M a d r i d : E ugenio S anchez L e a l , 1 9 4 6 ), V o l . 1 , p • 1 41 4 *

93 p a r e c l a g e s t i e u l a r cuando se conm ovla eon l a a g i t a c i o n de l a r i s a ; l a d o b l e e o p a de a l a b a s t r o de s u s p e c h o s , a q u e l i a s d o s m a g n o lia s de am or, . . .t o d o h a b £ a s i d o despedazado b ajo e l a c e ro , s in p ied ad , s in m is e r i c o r d i a . Ma no s q u e n o l a c o n o c £ a n h a b l a n v i o l a d o e l s e e r e t o d e s u c u e r p o , . • .d e a q u e l c u e r p o que l e d e s p e r t a b a p o r -las> m a f i a n a s c o n s u r o c e d e s a t e n , c u a n d o e l l a p a s a b a a g a t a s p o r encim a de p a ra le v a n ta r s e , poniendo un i n s t a n t e s u s o j o s s o b r e l o s s u y o s , c o n fu n d ie n d o s e l a s r e s p i r a c i o n e s de l o s d o s . l 4

61

M altran a f i n a l l y liv e

recovers h is

o n l y when f o r t h e f i r s t

fatherhood

s a n i t y and th e w i l l

to

tim e he c o n fro n ts th e f a c t of

in the p e rso n of h is

in fa n t son.

Lo q u e h a b l a n l o g r a d o l a m i s e r i a y e l t r i s t e d e s t i n o de F e l i , l o c o n s e q u i a a q u e l c h i q u i t l n con s o lo su c o n ta c to . G a l a h e c h a p o l v o l a h e r r u m b r e de su v o lu n tad . E ra o t r o hom bre: s u a u d a c i a c o n s i d e r a b a con d e s p r e c i o to d o s l o s o b s t d c u l o s . S e n t i a s e capaz de r o b a r , de m a ta r , p o r s u h i j o . No t e n £ a o t r a h e r r a m i e n t a , o t r a a r m a q u e s u p l u m a ; p e r o h a r f a de e l l a un p u f ia l, un a p a l a n q u e t a , a l g o i m p l a c a b l e que s i r v i e s e p a r a l a m u e r t e y e l d e s p o j o . Lo q u e n o h a b f a o s a d o h a c e r p o r e l a m o r l o h a r £ a p o r su h ijo . Se l a n z a r l a e n p l e n a l u c h a , con s u i n s o l e n c i a d e l m ercen ario . A dids , i d e a s , f e , e n tu s ia s m o s . . . . I l u s i o n e s , todo i l u s i o n e s . D esp reciab a su c u ltu r e , p ero pensaba a p ro v e c h a rla p a ra h a cerse pagar m ejor. 11 d i n e r o y e l p o d e r t e n d r l a n u n s i e r v o m a s . . . . Y m ira n d o se en a q u e l lo s o j i t o s bobos, s i n e x p re s id n , q ue l e e o n t e m p l a b a n f i j a m e n t e , M a l t r a n a d e c l a a s u h i j o con e l p e n s a m ie n to : ^ l e g a r a s ^ c h i q u i t i n . Yo m a r c h a r e a g a t a s d a l a n t e de t i ; a b r i r e con mi l e n g u a u n eam ino en e l b a r r o , p a r a que a v a n c e s s i n e n s u c i a r t e . No t e m a s q u e c a i g a d e s a l e n t a d o , que v u e l v a a s e n t i r m e c o b a r d e y t e ab an d o n s como a l a p o b r e m d r t i r . I s t e a m o r q ue a h o r a n a c e e s d e h ierro . Ya s o y o t r o . S o y . . . t u p a d r e . ’ 15

14 I b i d . . p .

1489.

15 I b i d . ,

1494.

p.

94 T his n a r r a t i v e

o f two i d e a l i s t i c

a g a i n s t and a r e f i n a l l y w r i t t e n and c o m p e llin g .

o v e rw h elm e d by a d v e r s i t y

in the n o v els of B lasco-Ibafiez,

zeal

in re c o rd in g

.^

th is w riter

it

of F e l i and I s i d r o sy m b olic;

sym bolic a c t i o n ,

The c r i t i c i s m is

is

v iv id ly

I t h a s been re m a rk ed t h a t t h e c h a r a c ­

ters

atm o sp h ere

l o v e r s who s t r u g g l e

is

only p a r t i a l l y i n La H o r d a .

because

of th e au th o r* s

are o ften

ju st,

"b lu rred "

but in th e o p in io n o f

ap p licab le

to

True eno u gh ,

the p o r t r a i t s th e

lo v ers

of s o c ia l e v i l — the

ju v en ile d elin q u en ts

in p riso n s;

inhum an t r e a t m e n t of

th e system

of m a in ta in in g

v a s t game p r e s e r v e s f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e o f t h e r i c h ; v a n i t y and i n e p t i t u d e

of S panish p o l i t i c a l le a d e rs ;

of the C a th o lic

Church a u t h o r i t i e s ;

rid d e n groups of young S p a n ish w r i t e r s d erid in g th e ir p ro flig a te so licit

are

t h e y a r e p o r t r a y e d a g a i n s t a b a c k d r o p crow ded w i t h

rep re se n ta tio n s

fan aticism

by t h e

eld ers,

liv in g ;

exhaust th e ir

th e c ru e l

th e hom osexual-

and i n t e l l e c t u a l s

own c r e a t i v e

th e v e n a lity of b u ild in g

b r i b e s from c o r r u p t c o n t r a c t o r s ;

m e a s u r e s em p lo y e d by t h e p o l i c e

the

who*

energies

in

i n s p e c t o r s who

th e b r u ta lly re p re s s iv e

a g a i n s t t h e w o r k e r s who a t t e m p t

16 "More d i s a s t r o u s i s t h e a u t h o r * s f o n d n e s s f o r . . . r e c o r d i n g t y p i c a l , s y m b o l i c a l a c t i o n , n o t i n d i v i d u a l a c t s , so t h a t a v e i l i s r a i s e d betw een th e r e a d e r and r e a l i t y , or r a t h e r t h e a t m o s p h e r e s w a l l o w s t h e c h a r a c t e r s , whose f i g u r e s a t e a c h s t r o k e o f t h e p a i n t e r Ts b r u s h becom e m o r e b l u r r e d a n d d i s t a n t . " A ubrey F .G . B e l l , C ontem porary S p a n is h L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 9 3 .

95 to b e t t e r a v id ity

th eir

c o n d itio n through o rg a n iz a tio n ;

of the p e tty

the

Je w ish m e rc h a n ts of M adrid;

tr e a tm e n t of orphans in

th e s ta te - o p e r a te d

crass

the

inhuman

orphan asy lu m s.

But th is

s o c i o l o g i c a l m ontage o n ly s e r v e s d r a m a t i c a l l y t o

v ita liz e

th e d e lin e a tio n o f th e lo v e r s ,

th eir

e x p e rie n c e s alo n e

b ig o try of the

th at

it

is

evoked.

church d i g n i t a r i e s ,

who i s

th eir

as a th e is tic

and im m oral c e r t a i n

adorn th e w a lls d esp erately

of t h e i r

ill,

thro u g h

is

evidenced

from t h e i r f l a t

by h i s

in the

C ath o lic

su p erio rs,

p o rtra its

l i v i n g room .

and t h a t t h e

w hich to p r o c u r e o t h e r stre et

in flu en ced

is

The m e r c i l e s s

because th e h a lf - c r a z e d

lan d lo rd ,

it

f o r exam ple,

i n t h e d i s m i s s a l o f F e l i and I s i d r o dead of w in te r s o le ly

sin ce

aco ly te

resen ts

of s c ie n tis ts

th at

The f a c t t h a t F e l i i s

lo v e rs a re w ith o u t fu nd s w ith

lo d g in g s m a tte rs not a t a l l ;

in to

th e

th e lo v e rs a re sy m b o lic,

but

they go. T h u s i t may b e s a i d

th ey a r e ,

in a n a rra tiv e

th at

sense,

too

sharply fu n c tio n a l ever

t o b e co m e " b l u r r e d ” o r " d i s t a n t . ”

T heir ro le

to

s e e n on a h i l l t o p

illu m in ate,

n atu ra lly

and l i k e

ta ll

trees

is to

quicken, th ey

a c c e n tu a te th em se lv e s as w e ll as t h e i r en v iro n m en t.

In reg ard to th e n atu re of th e ir t h a t B lasco-Ibafiez in te n d ed

sym bolism ,

to s ig n ify

in

it

th eir

seem s p r o b a b l e "m a rria g e ” the

c o n f l i c t i n t h e m o d ern w o r ld b e tw e e n i m p r a c t i c a l i d e a l i s m and th e d o c tr in e

of ex pediency.

In the

d e v o t i o n o f F e l i and

96

M a l t r a n a we s e e r e p r e s e n t e d S p an ish w r ite r

o p p o s i n g them and c o n t r i b u t i n g

d e s tr u c tio n are m an ifest a l l

success.

m y stic,

of lo v e,

H ere i s

in d ictm e n t,

the v a rie d a s p e c ts

to th e ir of h a tre d ,

th a t n o t in fre q u e n tly u n d e rlie w orldly

i m p l i c i t l y an i n d i c t m e n t ,

a b i t t e r pow erful

an d o n l y a m y s t i c c o u l d h a v e w r i t t e n

su sta in in g h is

E sse n tia lly

l o v e w hich th e

e x t o l l e d so f r e q u e n t l y and w i th such a r d o r ,

and in the f o r c e s

th e a n t i t h e s i s

th a t v isio n ary

id ealism ,

has a "core

th e w ay-show er and th e p r o p h e t,

it.

For th e 17 of h a rd n e ss."

he is also

and

alw ay s God’ s w a r r i o r .

17 "The m y s t i c s h a v e a c o r e o f s t o i c h a r d n e s s . D id acti­ cism i s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . I t is n o t c o n fin ed to r e l i g i o u s a n d a s c e t i c w r i t i n g s , i t was n o t i n s p i r e d by t h e I n q u i s i t i o n o r t h e C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n , i t was i n d i g e n o u s , m aking i t s e l f f e l t from M a r t i a l t o B ia sc o -Ib a f5 e z . " A ubrey F .G . B ell, C a stilia n L ite ra tu re (O xford: The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 ), p . 122.

CHAPTER VI

In th is

th esis

a n e f f o r t h a s b e e n made t o

some o f t h e m o r e s u b t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e s Ibanez, p a r tic u la r ly But m e a n i n g s a r e

and

n o v els t h a t proud to

to

lo v e and m a r r i a g e .

e s s e n tia lly su b jectiv e

c la ssific a tio n .

re s p e c t to B iasco -Ib ah ez. as a r e a l i s t .

in th e n o v e ls o f B lasco

o f te n e lu s iv e and d i f f i c u l t t o

v ie tio n s th a t are d e fin itio n

those r e l a t i n g

But t h e r e

T his i s

Some c r i t i c s

in sc rib e .

iso late.

p articu larly e sp ecially

Z ola,

Con

resist

true

have r e f e r r e d

a re long p a ssa g es

t h a t suprem e n a t u r a l i s t ,

in d ic ate

in

t o him

in sev eral of h is would h a v e b e en

Aubrey F .G . B e l l s a y s :

The n a t u r a l i s t i c e f f e c t s i n t h e n o v e l s o f B l a s c o I b a h e z a r e v i v i d and im p la c a b le , b u t th e y a r e a l s o p e r s o n a l , t i n g e d w i t h a glow o f h u m a n i t y . . . .T hey c o n ta in a c e r t a i n m y s tic se n se o f th e g r e a t n e s s of man’s d e s t i n y . ^ On t h e

o th e r hand,

a s t u d y of th e r o m a n tic

ten d en cies

in

the

w ork o f B l a s c o - I b a h e z w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y r e v e a l s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e on w h ic h t o b a s e a c l a i m t h a t h e w as, ro m an ticist.

W alter S t a r k i e

g r e a t S panish a r t i s t

in p a r t ,

a g r e e s w i t h Unamuno t h a t

a

the

"w as m o r e o f a n i m p r e s s i o n i s t t h a n a n

a r t i s t ." 2

A ubrey F .G . B e l l , C a s t i l i a n L i t e r a t u r e The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 8 8 . o

(O xford:

" I b a h e z was m ore a n i m p r e s s i o n i s t t h a n a n a r t i s t . When I b a f t e z was l a s t a t S a l a m a n c a , Unamuno a s k e d h i m t o v i s i t

98 A ll such v a ry in g n ecessity

term s

serve to

em phasize th e

o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e w o rk o f B l a s c o - I b a f i e z w i t h

r e s e r v a t i o n s , and w ith th esis

opinions

t h a t t h o u g h t i n m i n d we b e g a n t h i s

w ith a s ta te m e n t o f i n t e n t i o n and a l i m i t a t i o n o f the lo v e and m arriag e *

We t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o o f f e r

o f th e v a ry in g ty p e s o f lo v e and m a r r ia g e . lo v e,

e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e

S dnnica la

of the

its

g re a t ro m an tic p a ssio n s

l o v e was c o n t r a s t e d

came i d y l l i c

d e v o t i o n of R a n to and Fro c i o n i n

C o r t e s a n a , an i n t e n s e l y

a boy and a g i r l w hich i n

F irst

id ea listic

love

betw een

o th er-w o rd lin ess su g g ests of legendary h is to r y .

w i t h t h e m ore e a r t h y a n d ,

d istin c tio n love

T his

ex q u isite

H e r e we p o i n t e d o u t a n i m p o r t a n t

betw een t h e tw o r e l a t i o n s h i p s - - t h e

o f A g u i r r e and Luna d i d n o t e x i s t f o r

a rose or a-jew el,

some

i n hu m an t e r m s ,

s i g n i f i c a n t a t t a c h m e n t o f A g u i r r e and L u n a i n t h a t s h o r t n o v e l Luna B e n am o r.

exam ples

itse lf

but had s o c i a l im p lic a tio n s ,

o f R a n t o a n d B r o c i o n was p u r e r o m a n c e ,

its

fact

th a t the

alo n e,

lik e

w hile th e love

own e x c u s e f o r

b ein g . C om passionate l o v e , . a s

d elin eated

in

the attach m en t of

( F o o t n o t e 2 c o n t i n u e d ) a s e c o n d t i m e some i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s o f th e c i t y , , s u c h as th e c a t h e d r a l and th e u n i v e r s i t y , but Ibanez rep lied * ’N o ; n o me i n t e r e s a a q u e l l o q u e n o me i m p r e s i o n a e n u n a p r i m e r a m i r a d a . ’ T h i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Unam uno, i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f IbafSez: he i s o n l y . . . a w r i t e r o f i m p r e s ­ s i o n s . ” W a l t e r S t a r k i e , ” B l a s c o - I b a r 5 e z , 1 8 6 7 - 1 9 2 8 , ” The N i n e t e e n t h C e n tu ry and A f t e r , 103:544, I a n u a r y - J u n e , 1938.

99 M iguel f o r A l i c i a

i n Los

on t h e p a r t o f A l i c i a ,

E nem igosdel a M u je r w as, a t

an exam ple o f

e v e r t h e com plex m o t i v a t i o n ren u n ciatio n fice

wa s i n i t s e l f

n o b ility . life cep t,

of th e w orld

I t was,

f o r an o th er* it

least

sublim ated lo v e.

W hat­

th a t brought about h er e v en tu al

o f p l e a s u r e and f a s h i o n ,

the

sa cri­

an a f f e c t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n a p p ro a c h in g in essen ce,

the h e ro ic

In terp reted

in

g iv in g o f o n e 's

term s o f th e

C h rist con­

had r e p e r c u s s i o n s n e a r i n g th e s u b lim e .

In sharp

c o n tra s t to th e

l o v e o f A l i c i a was t h e p s y c h o t i c

l o v e o f Bofia S o l f o r G a l l a r d o i n S a n g r e £ A r e n a a n d o f R e n o v a l e s a n d J o s e f i n a i n La Ma.ja D e s n u d a .

The l a t t e r

p ro v id es a spendid

exam ple o f an a t t a c h m e n t

i n w hichth e a w a re n e s s o f s e l f i s

co n scio u sly e x a lte d

the

th at a l l

over

s p i r i t u a l valu es a re

noxious f lo w e r ,

lo v e o f a n o th e r t o su c h an e x t e n t e clip sed .

Such a lo v e ,

exh ales a f a t a l fra g ra n c e ;

succumbed t o an o b s e s s io n o f g u i l t and was h i m s e l f d e s t r o y e d .

un­

in sp ired

lik e

a

R enovales e v e n tu a lly by h i s d e ad s p o u s e

P r o b a b l y no n o v e l o f B l a s c o - I b a f i e z

r e p r e s e n t s m o r e p o w e r f u l l y t h e v i x e n i s h c h a r a c t e r o f a woman in sp ired

by t h e m o t i v e o f r e v e n g e .

of h ero in es,

In h is

n o t a f e w o f whom may b e c l a s s e d

none i s p r e s e n te d w ith such v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . a ttrib u te

alm o st in v a r ia b ly a s s o c ia te d

I b a f i e z women. th a n am o ral,

e x ten siv e g a lle ry

b eau tifu l

P e rv ersity

is

an

w ith love in th e B la s c o -

Some o f h i s h e r o i n e s a r e , ex o tically

as h a rrid a n s ,

in fa c t,

creatu res

little

more

o f i m p u l s e and

100 d esire; th an

b u t i n none a r e

th e refin em en ts

in th e sa v a g e ly cu n n in g p sy c h o tic * Of p l a t o n i c

h a r a s s e d and doomed, a r e

H ere two young i d e a l i s t s ,

a m a rty r-lik e m alaise

in p a r t from t h e i r m i l i t a n t e s p o u s a l of a sh a re d

B lasco-Ibahez r e f e r s

a ffin ity ." tu ally

H ow ever,

to t h e i r r e l a t i o n as an " e l e c t i v e

the f e e lin g

deepens in to p i ty

o f th e two u n f o r t u n a t e s

fo r each o th e r,

in t h e ir

huddle to g e th e r d eath .

own m i s e r y ,

lik e

strick en

u n til

of the

sp irit,

C ath ed ral.

is

th e end th e y m e re ly

the o th e r f le e s

crudescence of re v o lu tio n a ry z e a l, w avering l i t t l e

ex­

anim als a w a itin g th e r e l e a s e o f

When o n e e v e n t u a l l y d i e s

tered p ro te c tio n

in

even­

and t h e p e r i p h e r y o f

t h e i r r e v o lu tio n a r y a rd o r narrow s to a concern c e n te re d c lu siv e ly

each

d raw n t o e a c h o t h e r by t h e g r a v i t a ­

t i o n a l f o r c e of t h e i r m utual m is e ry ,

id e a l.

Jo sefin a.

lo v e h a s been c i t e d th e exam ple o f G a b r i e l

Luna a n d L u c y i n L a C a t e d r a l .

resu ltin g

o f m a l i c e m ere e v i d e n t

also

T here, th is

after

to

the c l o i s ­

a b rief re ­

anim ula v a g u la » t h i s

stille d .

C a su a l o r ep h em eral lo v e and p ro fa n e common i n t h e n o v e l s o f B i a s c o - I b a h e z .

l o v e h a v e m uch i n

Ju lio

and B e r ta in

L o s C u a t r o J i n e t e s d e l A p o c a l i p s i s an d Don L u i s an d M a r i a d e la

L u z i n La B o d e g a r e p r e s e n t t h e f o r m e r , a n d F r e y a a n d C a p t a i n

farragut

i n M a re N o s t r u m t h e l a t t e r ,

i *1 C&flas y B a r r o .

a l o n g w i t h N e l e t a and T o n e t

O th e r exam ples were a l s o

m entioned r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,

larg ely

carn al,

cited ,

estab lish

but the a f o r e ­ the p a t t e r n .

101 F req u en tly t h is

type o f love

i s e m p l o y e d by t h e a u t h o r m e r e l y

a s a m ethod o f c h a r a c t e r d e l i n e a t i o n , it

c o n stitu tes

as a n a rr a tiv e

alm o st th e

b u t in a few i n s t a n c e s

so le m o tiv atio n in a n o v e l.

in stru m e n tality ,

it

is

rarely

as e f f e c t i v e as

o t h e r form s o f m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l s o f Ibafiez; are

i n s t a n c e s — the a d u lte r o u s

E lizab eth an .

c y c lo n ic and

i n t h a t s e n s e h e m i g h t be

H is p r e o c c u p a tio n w ith th e s i n s

f l e s h , and p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s lo v e,

im pact is

B la s c o - I b a f le z had a deep fo n d n e s s f o r t h e

p a s s io n and p a g e a n tr y o f l i f e ; called

but th ere

love of N e le ta f o r Tonet in

Cafias £ B a r r o , f o r e x a m p l e — when i t s d e v asta tin g .

Used

sk ill

in

the

d elin eatio n

of the of e r o tic

su g g est a pow erful k in sh ip w ith c e r ta in d ram atists in

t h e p e r i o d o f t h e V i r g i n Queen o f E n g l a n d . I n B u s c a d e l G r a n Kan a n d i t s l a V irgen p ro v id e th e f i n e s t the n o v e ls

s e q u e l E l C a b a l l e r o de

exam ple o f co m ra d e ly lo v e

of th e S p an ish w r i t e r .

But th e p o r t r a i t s

in a l l

of the

l o v e r s F e r n a n d o and I^ucero r e m a in u n c o n v i n c i n g , and t h e clu sio n s o f

b o th n o v e ls seem i n c o n s i s t e n t .

n o n e th e le ss provides called

The l a t t e r . s t o r y

o n e m a g n i f i c e n t e x a m p l e o f w h a t we h a v e

s u b s titu tio n a l or

im aginary love as r e p r e s e n te d

A lonzo de O je d a * s u n d y in g d e v o t i o n f o r I s a b e l . o f m is c o n c e p tio n w hich, d i f f e r i n g lib e ra te ly d e l M ar, i s

induced s e l f - d e l u s i o n rooted

con­

in

Here i s

from t h a t s u p e r f i c i a l , of C la u d io B o rja

i n t h e human n e c e s s i t y

de­

in E l Papa

to dream ,

University of S eutfiem California Llbrvf?

a form

to w orship*

102 The c r e a t i o n and f o s t e r i n g

of illu s io n s ,

i s norm al and even t h e r a p e u t i c ,

i t may b e a s s u m e d ,

b u t i n A lonzo i t f i n d s

o u t l e t on a p u r e l y s u b s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . v erted

in e x p re s s io n u n t i l i t

It

is

an

th u s p e r ­

becomes more t h a n m i l d l y p s y ­

ch o tic* The l a s t t y p e

of love d e sc rib e d

w hich d e r i v e s from th e s e n s e o f d u ty , m arriag e

th esis

as i l l u s t r a t e d

One s u s p e c t s t h a t B l a s c o - I b a r 5 e z f o u n d

sa tisfac tio n

in w r itin g t h i s

m oral e lu c id a te d

n o v el,

f o r ifcs t h e s i s

in the

is

for

it

a p ecu liar

co n tain s

a pow erful

th a t to

b e c a l l e d The D e a t h o f L o v e »

i n h i b i t love i s

t o d e s t r o y love*

F o l l o w i n g t h e s t u d y o f l o v e came t h e a n a l y s i s in

the n o v els of Ibahez,

of c o u r ts h ip and p r e - m a r i t a l among t h e n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s M uertos M andan, and th o s e d e ta ile d

th at

i n u n f o r g e t t a b l e t e r m s o f c a u s e and c o n s e ­

The n o v e l m i g h t a p t l y

m arriag e

is

o f J a z m in a T a v e r a and E s p i n o s a i n E l F a n ta s m a de l a s

A las de P r o ,

quence.

in t h i s

in La H o rd a .

a lso stu d ied th an a l i t t l e

b e g in n in g w ith v a rio u s ty p e s

custom s,

in c lu d in g th o se o b ta in in g

o f M ajorca as d e s c r ib e d

i n Los

o b t a i n i n g among t h e g y p s i e s a s

C o n v en tio n al

an d t h e s t a t u s C reek.®

of

co u rtsh ip

in S p a in was

of.w om en d e f i n e d a s b e i n g m ore

The sa me wa s s a i d o f c o n v e n t i o n a l

3 So f a r , a t a n y r a t e , a s o u r a u t h o r i t i e s e n a b l e us t o j u d g e , woman i n t h e h i s t o r i c a g e was c o n c e i v e d t o b e s o i n ­ f e r i o r t o man t h a t h e r e c o g n i z e d i n h e r n o o t h e r e n d t h a n t o

103 V

m a r r i a g e ; many o f t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d c u s t o m s t h a t p r e v a i l e d in a n c ie n t G reece a re

e x i s t e n t i n co n tem porary S p a i n , 4

m arriag e of M altran a* s p a re n ts m entioned in i l l u s t r a t i o n ,

The

i n t h e n o v e l L a H o r d a was

t o g e t h e r w i t h two o t h e r e x a m p le s

c o n t a i n e d i n La B a r r a o a , M a r i a g e d e c o n v e n a n c e w a s t h e n d e s c r i b e d a s we f o u n d it

ex em p lified

in the

a llian ce

o f S a n c h e z M o ru e ta and C r i s t i n a

i n El_ I n t r u s o , t h e u n i o n o f T i o P a l o m a a n d h i s w i f e a n d t h a t o f N e l e t a a n d C a n a m d l i n Cafias £ B a r r o , a n d t h e m a r r i a g e w i t h ­ out b e n e fit of clerg y of F e li

and I s i d r o

in l a H orda.

R a re ly in th e n o v e ls of B lasco-Ibaftez i s a n exam ple o f m a r r i a g e a c t u a t e d

t h e r e found

s o l e l y by r o m a n t i c l o v e .

(F o o tn o te 5 c o n tin u ed ) m in i s t e r to h i s p le a s u r e and to become t h e m o t h e r o f h i s c h i l d r e n . R o m a n c e and t h e h i g h e r c h a m p io n s h ip o f i n t e l l e c t and s p i r i t d o n o t a p p e a r ( w ith c e r t a i n n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s ) t o h a v e b e e n co m m o n ly s o u g h t o r found in t h i s r e l a t i o n . Woman, i n f a c t , w e r e r e g a r d e d a s a m e a n s , n o t a s an e n d , and was t r e a t e d i n a m a n n e r c o n s o n a n t w ith t h i s view . G. L owes D i c k i n s o n , The G r e e k View o f L i v e (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , P a g e and Com pany, 1 9 1 1 ) , p . 1 6 9 . 4 I n A t h e n s w e - k n o w t h a t m a r r i a g e s w e r e commonly a r r a n g e d by t h e f a t h e r , much a s t h e y a r e i n m o d e r n F r a n c e , on g r o u n d s o f a g e , p r o p e r t y , c o n n e c t i o n a n d t h e l i k e , a n d w ith o u t re g a rd f o r th e i n c l i n a t i o n of th e p a r t i e s concerned. And a n i n t e r e s t i n g p a s s a g e f r o m X e n o p h o n i n d i c a t e s a p o i n t o f view q u i t e c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h i s a c c e p te d p r a c t i c e . God, h e s a y s , o r d a i n e d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e } b u t on w h a t grounds? Not in th e l e a s t f o r th e s a k e o f th e p e rs o n a l r e ­ l a t i o n t h a t m i g h t be e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n t h e h u s b a n d a n d w i f e , b u t f o r ends q u i te e x t e r n a l and i n d i f f e r e n t t o any a f f e c t i o n t h a t m ig h t e x i s t betw een them . I b i d . , p . 16 6*

104 There a r e , serve

m oreover,

few i n s t a n c e s

e ith e r as a n a rra tiv e

where m a r r i a g e d o e s n o t

d e v i c e o r , more f r e q u e n t l y , a s

an in stru m e n t of f r u s t r a t i o n

and tra g e d y .

w hich a r e p i c t u r e d a s b e in g r e l a t i v e l y as

Even t h o s e m a r r i a g e s

su ccessfu l are not free