A Study of Certain Characteristics, Interests and Activities of Catholic Girls Selected for Training in Leadership

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FORDHAM

U N IV E R S IT Y

G r a d u a t e Sc h o o l

m r twk'

.......19.11.

This dissertation prepared under my direction by

............

entitled..

A C T IV IT IE S CP CATHOLIC GIRLS g E B tT O FOB 7R&IUXKG g

LEA!

has been accepted in partial fulfilm ent of the requirements for the

Degree o f

........... .............................................

{Faculty Adviser)

A STUDY OF CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS*. 1HTEBESTS.AND ACTIVITIES1

OF CATHOLIC 01ELS SELECTED FOE TEA IM E G II LEADERSHIP

By Sister Mary Ctolestlne McHale,1R*S*M# A*. B*, College Miserieor&ia, 19 PS A, M*, fllMnovm College, 1939

DISSERTATION SUBMITTED II PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMEITS FOR TEE

DEGREE

OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY II THE GRADUATE DEPART­

MENT OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION OF F0RDHA1 UNIVERSITY

New York 1950

ProQ uest N u m b e r: 10993266

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10993266 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

li

r t a b l e of c o n t e n t s

CHAPTER ■I*

PAGE INTRODUCTION , t * $ * , * The problem

,

1

» » » • * • • * * • * » • • • »

1

Definition of terms,

5

Significance of the study,

13

Limitations of the investigation , * * . . *

15'

the-history>of the Leo Honor Society • • • . 17 11,

REVIEW Of RELATED INVESTIGATIONS •

25

•Investigations of historical importance* , , 25 Studies devoted to the characteristics of 29

leadership

Studies concerned with extra-curricular activ­ 52

ities and leadership » • « • » • • • • , , Studies concerned with leadership among

68

Catholic youth « « • , • » • • • • » • • •

Studies concerned with training in leadership 84 III,

THE SUBJECTS$ MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES . , , . 91 The* subjects participating in the Investiga­ tion

91

The, materials used 'in the Investigation, , , 94 * i The, procedures employed'in the invest1gation . 98

IV, .AKALTSX8 Of RESULTS,

103

The national backgrounds of the parents of the subjects • , * » * * , « , , , , « »

l

• 105

-j

ill PAGE

'Educational background of the, parents of the sub­ jects selected for:training' in leadership.., • *112 Ballglous affiliation.of the parents of the sub­

jects .selected for training in leadership . • .llB Marital status of the-parents of.the subjects se­ lected for training In.leadership■* */v * i * *122 .Positions of the -subjects in their respectivefamilies* * * . •

* » .* *:* * :«.■■«==•■ *..*** *125

Seelo-economlc•status of the subjects' selected . .for training in leadership, * *

* * * * * * *129

the chronological age# height and .weight of the .subjects selected.for training in leadership* *137 Mental ability* scholastic achievement and early education of the. subjects selected for train-.. ing.in leadership.* *. *.* * , • • • * *• * * * .152 The personality adjustment of. the.subjects se­ lected, for training in leadership • * • » * * *1B0 Faculty ratings.with respect to.certain character traits, and. personal appearance of. the subjects *224 leisure time interests and hobbies of the sub­ jects * * * « « * * . * * * *.* .* •;* * * * . *242 Participation of the subjects in extra-curricular activities*/* * * * * * *

* « ♦.,* -* * * * * * *298-

fhe school 'Subjects liked best'and liked leastby the subjects • • • * * * * * • « * * * * • #316

iv PCHAPTER

PAGE"1

Vocational interests and plans of the 322

subjects for the future • * . . * . . . .

Spiritual activities of the subjects* * * . 331 Opinions of the subjects with respect to the advantages and disadvantages of lead­ ership* * * * * * * V.

• • • . . . . . . . .

SUMHAOT, COBCLBSIONS AND

eecommekbatiohs

339

. .

Summary * • • • • • • • • • * » • • • •

346

• 3^-6

.........

363

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . .

371

BI Bill OGRAPHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37*

APPENDICES

..........

388

The Preliminary Questionnaire. . . . . . . . . . . .

389

Conclusions * * * * . . . .

The Constitution and By-Laws of the Leo Honor Society. . . . * * * * * . * * . * * * * * * . .

• 393

Otis Quick Scoring Test of Mental Ability, Form D.

. 396

California Test of Personality, Secondary Series, Form A * . * * . . * . * * * . • • • • • • • * • •

397

r

L

_j

1*

V

r

i

LIST OF TABLES TABLE

PAGE

X.

Membership Allotments in the Leo Honor Society . 19

II.

Distribution of Subjects Participating in the Investigation. •

III. If.

Distribution of Subjects According to Grade

...

. . • . • . » . . •. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . *» » • • • • • 109

Educational Background of the Fathers of the Subjects • • • • • . • • • * • •

VII.

• • . . . . . 113

Educational Background of the Mothers of the Subjects . • • • • . • • • • • . « » .

VIII.

. ... . • 10?

National Background of the Mothers of the Sub* jects.

VI*

* . * • 115

Beligious Affiliation of the Fathers of the Sub­ jects. • • . • • • • • • • • * • • • • « •

IX.

* . 93

National Background of the Fathers of the Sub* jeets.

V.

92

. • 119

Beligious Affiliation of the Mothers of the Sub­ jects. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . • • 121

X.

Marital Status of the Parents of the Subjects. • 124

XI.

The Position of the Subjects in the Family . . . 12?

XII.

Occupational Status of the Fathers of the Sub­ . 132

jects. • • • • . . XIII.

Occupational Status of the Mothers of the Sub­ 134

jects. XIV.

Chronological Ages of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . • • • • • • • • •

L

. . 138 -I

vl 1 LIST OF T A B U S f Continued)

PAGE

tabu;

xv.

The Bang#, Mean and the Standard Deviation of Chronological Ages of the Subjects . • • • • * 140

XVI.

Height of the Subjeets Selected for Training in leadership

XVII,

. , V

V

*

V

>

V V. >

v •

*

*

v V

• 143

The Range, Mean and the Standard Deviation of Height of the. Subjects Selected for. Training in .leaderships

XVIII.

145

Weights of the Subjeets Selected for Training 149

in leadership; XIX.

The Range, Mean and the Standard Deviation of the Weights of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . • • , • . . , . .. , . 150

-fX' AA*

Mental Ability of Subjects' Selected for Training in Leadership; ; . ; . ; . . . . . ... . . .♦ . . 153

XXI.

The Range, Mean and the Standard Deviation of the Intelligence Quotient of the Subjects. . . 15S

XXII, XXIII,

Scholastic Achievement of the Subjects . . . . • 171 The Range, Mean and the Standard Deviation of

the School Grades of the Subjects XXIV.

. • . . . . 173

Attendance at.Public Sehools by the Subjects Se­ lected for Training in Leadership. . . . .. . 177

XXV. XXVI.

Grades in Public Schools Attended by Subjects. . 179 Total Adjustment of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . . . . . . , . . . . . l8l

L

_!

vii r

i

LIST OF CABLES (Continued) TABLE

PAGE

XXVII.

The Range, Mean Score and the Standard Deviation ofthe Total Personality Adjustmentof the Sub­ jects * * .

XXVIII.

Self Adjustiaerit of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership

XXIX.

*• . . . . •^83

. . . . • . . ♦ • . . .188

The Bang©, Mean Score and the Standard Deviation of the Self Adjustment of the Subjects ’ . . . .191

X X X * S e l f leliahee of the Subjects Selected for Train­ ing in Leadership * . XXXI*

* ♦ . .

Sense of Personal Worth of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership

XXXII.

’* *•> . . . . .194

. * * . . . . . • .196

Sense of Personal.Breed©© of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . . • . . . • . . . 19 8

XXXIII.

Feeling of Belonging of the Subjects' Selected for Training In Leadership . * . .*•• * * . . . . . • 280

XXXIV.

Withdrawal Tendencies of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . . . .

XXXV.

* • . . • 283

Nervous Tendencies of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . . • . . . . * . . * . 205

XXXVI. Social Adjustment of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . . . . •* * . . • . . . 207 XXXVII.,

The Range* Mean Score and the Standard Deviation of the Social Adjustment of the Subjects . . . 209

XXXVIII. L

f 1

Social Standards of Subjects Selected for Tralning in Leadership . . • • • • • • • • • . • •

LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE XXXIX.

PAS® Social Skills of the Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership ......................

XL.

Anti-Social tendencies of Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership ......................

XLI.

213

family Helatioms of the Subjects Selected

215

fo*_

training In Leadership....................... 218 XLII.

School Solution. of Subjects Selected for Train* ing in Leadership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

XLIII.

220

Community lelations of Subjects Selected for Training in Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . .

XLIV.

222

Personal Appearance of the Subjects Selected for Iralhliig In. Leadership • • • • • • • • • . • •

XLV.

Gonrbeey Ratings of the Subjects Selected for training in Leadership . . . . • • * • . . .

XLtle

226

# ff§

ieue® ©f Seaponiiifcmty ©f the Subjects Selected for training' in Leadership

XLVII*

138

W l m m f of Speech of the Subject© Selected fur training In Leadership •

.XLVtlt...

132

Dfiselfishness Ratings © T t h e Subjects Selected

235

far training in Leaietship * # . . . . . . . . XLXX.

Diligence

of

the itihjeets';SeXeetea for training

in Leadership* . . * • • • L.

* * • • • 237

Leadership Ability o f .the Subjects Selected for. Training in Leadership • •

.........

* 239

r

T

LIST OF TABLES (Continued} TABLE

PAGE

LI*. General Ability of the Subjects Selected for Training in' LeadershipLII*

Humber and

LIII. Humber and

*. *. * ,.,

.v*,

.. .: • 240

Per Cent of Sub jects Who Like to Bead 243 Per Gent of Subjects Having, Library

Cards « * *• v . *' * * . •* . . * . • • • o . . #245

LXV.

Humber and

Per Cent of the, Subjects Reading Cer­

tain Type of Books • « * • * * . .* •* . « »• « . 247 LV. LVX.

Newspapers

lead By the Subjects

* * # • » . . . 250

Sections of the Newspaper lead by the Sub jects , 253

rLVII*

Magazines Bead By the Subjects.

LTIXI*

Humber and Per Cent of the

*,

Subjects Who Belong To

Church Organisations * *, * * * ♦, LXX.

«. *. *, * *.* 258

.v

*• 272

Humber and Per Gent of the Subjects Who Have Held An Office In Church

Organizations * * #. 273

.Humber and Per Gent of Subjects Having Hobbies *2 7 5 LXI. Mil*,

• 276

Hobbies Engaged In By The Subjects,

Humber and Per Cent of Subjects Engaged in Various After School and Saturday A c t i v i t i e s *, •„ . .2 8 0

LXIII.

Humber and Per Cent of Subjects School • . • • • • • . » •

LXXV. LXV.

Who Work After

»,

*, •. •

»*284

The Hinds of Work in Which the Subjects Engaged. 286 Humber and Per Cent of .Subjects Engaged in .Vari­ ous Sunday Activities

LXVX.

288

Humber and Per Cent of Subjects Engaged in Vari­ ous Vacation Activities . . . . . .

.......

292

LIST OF TABLES (Continued) , PAGE

TABLE

ynrix.

lumber and Per Cent of the Subjects Participating in Various Extra•Curricular Activities * * . • *300

.

lxviii

Humber and Per Cent ©f the Subjects Who Have Held ■Positions to Extra-Curricular Activities * . . *30?

-M I X * • The Number' of Times' Which- the Subjects Held Posi­ tions in. Extra-Curricular Activities *

* ..

. .307

Subjects Liked Best by the Participants-

.

*

*...317

LXXI.

Subjects Liked Least by the ■Participants



.

**.321

LXXX.2*

Vocational Interests 'of -the Subjects ♦ *

.

*-

••.*323

LXX*

LXXX2X,-

Number and Per. Cent of" the- Subjects Having Plans for the Future . ■ . # . ♦ * *

L3QC1?.

* * * . . . . . .

* .328

lumber and Per Cent ©f the Subjects Selected for Training ;to Leadership1Participating In Certain Spiritual Activities

MX?*

. .332

Humber and Per Cent of the Subjects Who Have Made the Nine Fridays

. . .336

Humber and Per Cent of the Subjects Who Use A " Missal . . . . -* * - * . » » * * « « MXV1I.

.

lxxviii

. . . . . .

. .338

Advantages of Leadership As Listed by the Subjects 340 Disadvantages ©f Leadership As Listed by the Sub­ jects Selected for Training in Leadership

• . .344

chapter

i

INTRODUCTION I.

THE PROBLEM

The emphasis devoted in recent years to training for leadership on all educational levels is merely a recognition of the significance of leadership in deciding the fate of individuals and of nations, whether that decision involves the difference between war or peace, between order or chaos, between paganism or Christianity. That civilization Is a race between education and catastrophe is a warning that has written In it much truth. But after all, it is only a half truth, for catastrophe is inevitable even with education unless the education is the kind that will provide a constant supply of trained, Intelligent leaders.-** Educators, therefore, are aware of the fact that a new world is in the making, a world in which stupendous and profound changes are continually taking place.

They are cog­

nizant of the fact that whatever kind of world emerges, depends upon the type of leader or leaders who will set forth the goals and ideals. Administrators of secondary schools and colleges, in an attempt to prepare for future service those whose endowments qualify them for leadership, are endeavoring to discover and to segregate those with capacities and characteristics of

\ Arthur Jones, The Education of Youth for Leadership ({New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 193&)* P* 3* L

a leadership as distinguished from mere followership.

They

n

realize that* unless they provide proper situations and wider fields of activities for the cultivation of these latent Godgiven talents, they will remain undiscovered and undeveloped. The schools should find as soon as possible the few who are intelligent (they may come from rich parents or poor, from slum homes or from palaces) and both encour­ age them and train them in terms of their superior powers. It is the born-to-be leaders that we have neg­ lected in schools. We have not separated them from the crowd and given them a chance.2 Much research has been conducted to determine methods of developing and training leaders and many experiments and surveys have been made to ascertain the traits which are characteristic of leadership* The majority of these studies have been conducted at the college and secondary school levels. has been twofold:

The reason for this

first, because of the opportunity afforded

at these levels for the development of leadership; and secondly, in order to provide data to determine whether leadership per­ sists in later life. Leadership evidenced in early years has a definite tendency to persist; the qualities which made the members of the leader group outstanding figures in the high school world continued to make them prominent on the college campus and active in the stimulation of community affairs.3 It is to be expected also that the future leaders

Bernard Iddings Bell, "We Lack Leaders— Is Education at Fault,” Hew York Times. See. 6, January 18, 1948. 3 Mary C. Courtney, "The Persistence of Leadership,” ^School Review. 46sll6, October, 1938.

should ©one very largely from among the students who have been successful in academic work.

n

If qualities of leadership

are apparent they should he developed and directed* The problem in this investigation was to ascertain cer­ tain characteristics, interests and activities of 6^4*adoles­ cent girls who had been selected for training in leadership through membership in a high school honor society.

These 694

girls were pupils enrolled in six,Catholic High Schools for girls located in the Diocese of .Brooklyn.

These 694 girls

were members of the bee Honor*Society, the primary purposes of which are ^to develop in students a strong Catholic sense and the ambition to bring to flower all talents to the full; to train Catholic leaders for school life as well as for later life.’1 The characteristics which.the study sought to determine Included physical characteristics; namely, height; weight; age; mental ability; school achievements; socio­ economic status as determined by the occupation of father; —1 position in the family; personality adjustment/and character traits.

The interests which the investigation sought to de

termine included extra-curricular activities, leisure time activities, parish activities, and religious duties and -practic

. IFhe investigation sought to answer the following ques­

tions s i*

What were the national backgrounds of the parents of the subjects selected for training in leader­ ship?

r

4 ■ “! 2. What were the educational backgrounds of the par­ ents? 3*

What was the religion of the parents of the sub­ jects?

4.

What was the marital status of the parents?

5.

What were the positions of the subjects in their respective families?

6.

What was the socio-economic status as determined by the occupation of the father?

7.

What were the physical characteristics of the sub-e­ jects, that is, what was the chronological age of these subjects in years and months? the height? the weight?

8.

What was the mental ability of these subjects as measured by the Otis Quick Scoring Test of Mental Ability. Form D?

9* What was the school achievement of these subjects as evidenced by their grades in academic subjects? 10.

How many ©f these subjects ever attended a public school and, if so, in what grade or grades?

11.

How did the subjects rate with regard to total, personal and social adjustment as measured by the California fest of Personality; Secondary Series. Form 4?

12.

How did the faculty rate these subjects with respect to personal appearance? with respect to courtesy? with respect to sense of responsibility? with respect to speech? with respect to unselfishness? with respect to diligence? with respect to lead­ ership? with respect to general ability?

13•

In what extra-curricular activities did these sub­ jects participate?

14.

What were the vocational interests and plans of the subjects?

15.

What were the school subjects that were liked best and least?

16. To what extent did the subjects engage in the fol­ lowing practices t morning and evening prayers? attendance at Mass? reception of Holy Communionjy

5 rosary* examination of conscience? mental prayer? spiritual reading? visits to the Blessed Sacra­ ment? Stations of the Cross* nine Fridays? use of the Missal? 17;

What were the opinions of the subjects concerning the advantages of leadership and concerning the disadvantages?

II; 'DEFIRITIOM OF TEEMS In order that the problem of this Investigation may be thoroughly understood! certain terms used therein must be defined.

The terms ares

leadership, training for leadership.

Catholic lav leader. Leo Honor Society, adolescence, character. adjustment, personal and"social adjustment. interest, leisure time interest, hobby, extra-curricular activity; diocesan high school. community high school, academyr commercial high school. leadership is a term used to designate the process by which followership is elicited by members of a group*

4

It Is

a term which* up to, and including the present time, has been a subject of much controversy among the Investigators in the field*

Many educators have maintained that since leadership

is not the result of a single trait but is rather a combina­ tion of many traits, it is not definable.

The definitions

of the term which have been presented have been concerned with the functions involved and the qualities and character­ istics which are associated with different types of leaders -

-

-

L. D» Eeleny, "Leadership,.“ Encyclopedia of Educa­ tional Hesearch (Hew Yorks The Macmillan Company, 1 9 4 1 ) pp*J

666 667 -

*

r

and of leadership*

n

All of the investigations are unanimous,

however, in recognising the social implications of leadership. Boring, Langfeld and Weld-* have defined leadership as the re­ lationship of an individual to a group, established in the interest of achieving some end.

Bogardus^ has defined it as

the process of changing the attitudes of a number of persons in important matters*

Pigors7 also has defined it as the

process of mutual stimulation which, by the successful inter­ play of relevant individual differences, controls human energy in the pursuit of a common cause.

That leadership involves

the activity of influencing people to cooperate toward some 8

goal or common cause is the opinion expressed by Tead also by

Jones .9

and

Leadership, as used In this investigation,

means the ability to guide and show the way so that people are caused to do those things the leader wishes them to do, willingly, intelligently and skilfully. 5

Edwin Boring, Herbert S. Langfeld and Harry P. Weld, Foundations of Psychology (Hew Yorks John Wiley and Sons, 1948 ), p. 599. 6

Emery S. Bogardus, Leaders and Leadership (Hew Yorks D. Appleton-Century Company, 1934), p. 136 * ?

Paul Pigors, Leadership or Domination (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1935/* p.TLSI

8

Ordway Tead, The Art of Leadership (New York: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1935X7 P* 20. 9Arthur Jones, The Education of Youth for Leadership York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., I93S) , p. 5» 10

George Halsey, “Leadership Can Be Taught,** Journal _j of Adult Education. H:l85~lB6, April, 1939*

l

Training for leadership.

Leadership and responsibility

are closely related, so in order t o 'develop-leadership, responsibility must be encouraged.

Bernard explains that the

most effective training for leadership must be found in the practice of leadership^“supported by natural ability and theoretical training.*1 — the practice of leadership itself consists not ©lone in the art and practice of making appeals to per­ sons directly or thru the indirect median of communica­ tion, but in the intelligent performance of a variety of everyday collective functions which brings one into contact with his followers.-**^ Training in leadership, therefore, in this present investiga­ tion means membership in an Honor Society which offers the sub« 3ects not only an opportunity to lead scholastically but also to lead in extra-curricular activities* Catholic lav leader.

This term has been employed

throughout the dissertation to designate an individual whose influence over a group is based on the principles of Catholic philosophy, the knowledge, love and service of Cod. Leo Honor Society.

This term has been used to desig­

nate a society in the Brooklyn Catholic high schools in which the members must be in the upper third of the class scholasti­ cally, have a high rating in attendance and punctuality and also be active in their parish activities*

_ __

.

1, S. Bernard, kn introduction to Social Psychology (New forks Henry Holt and Co *,192 6) pp. 530-531*

■Adolescene©.

This ter© has been employed to desig­

nate that period of life during which the Individual passes from childhood to maturity, the years during which he or she comes into full possession of the physical and the mental 12 powers. It extends from the fourteenth to the twentieth years and is characterized by changes of a physical, mental, social and emotional nature. Character,

This is a term which, while clearly under­

stood, is also very difficult to define.

Here, too, no funda­

mental agreement exists among investigators concerning mean­ ing of the term because of the fact that many factors enter into its formation.

They all agree, however, that it involves

three main factors, namely, personality, principles and con­ duct.

Kelly has defined it as follows?

Character implies the adherence to moral principles which a person manifests consistently in his purposeful conduct. This conduct In turn, constitutes a recogniza­ ble and understood sign of his moral worth as a human being.13 Ad iustment»

This term has been employed throughout

the investigation to indicate the quality of behavior in terms of personal and social effectiveness,

It means the

establishment of harmonious and satisfactory relationships

waukee:

Raphael C. McCarthy, Training the Molescent (Mil­ The Bruce Publishing Company, 1934), p . IT

13 William A. Kelly, Educational Psychology. (Third edition; Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 194-5)> P. 534.

t r n within the family, the school and the community, as well as in all the activities of life, including religious activities. Personal adjustment, as measured by the California Test of Personality, is used in this study in the sense in which it is used in that test, as being "based on feelings of per­ sonal s e c u r i t y . T h e components of which are considered by the authors of the test to be self-reliance, sense of per­ sonal worth, sense of personal freedom, feeling of belonging, freedom from withdrawal tendencies, and freedom from nervous symptoms. Self-reliance— A student may be said to be selfreliant when his actual actions indicate that he can do things independently of others, depend upon himself in various situations, and direct his own activities. The self-reliant boy or girl is also characteristically stable emotionally, and responsible in his behavior. Sense of Personal Worth— A student possesses a sense of being worthy when he feels he is well regarded by others, when he feels that others have faith in his future success, and when he believes that he has average or better than average ability. To feel worthy means to feel capable and reasonably attractive. Sense of Pei’sonal Freedom— A student envoys a sense of freedom when he is permitted to have a reasonable share in the determination of his conduct and in setting the general policies that shall govern his life. Desirable freedom includes permission to choose one*s own friends and to have at least a little spending money. Feeling of Belonging— A student feels that he belongs when he enjoys the love of his family, the weli-wishes of good friends, and a cordial relationship with people in general. Such a student will, as a rule, get along well with his teaehers and usually feels proud of his school. 14 Manual of Directi on s> 'S'STMS1 (Los Angeles _!

Withdrawal Tendencies— The student who is said to withdraw is the one who substitutes the joys of a fantasy world for actual successes in real life* Such a person is eharacterically sensitive, lonely, and given to selfconcern, Hornal adjustment is characterized by reason­ able freedom from these tendencies* #

Nervous Symptoms— The student who is classified as having nervous symptoms is the one who suffers from one or more of a variety of physical symptoms such as loss of appetite, frequent eye strain, inability to sleep, or a tendency to be chronically tired. Persons of this kind may be exhibiting physical expressions of emotional conflicts *3-5 Social adjustment. as measured by the California Test of fersona,lity, is used in this study in the sense in which it is used in that test, as being Rbased on feelings of social l6 security.T,A The components of which are considered by the authors of the test, to be social standards, social skills, freedom from anti-social tendencies, family relations, school relations, and community relations. \

Social Standards— The student who recognizes desirable social standards is the one who has come to understand the rights of others and who appreciates the necessity of subordinating certain desires to the needs of the group. Such s person understands what is regarded as being right or wrong* Social Skills— A student may be said to be socially skilful or effective when he shows a liking for people, when he inconveniences himself to be of assistance to them, and when*he is diplomatic in his dealings with both friends and strangers* The socially skilful student subordinates his egoistic tendencies in favor of inter­ est in the problems and activities of his associates. Anti-social Tendencies— A student would normally be regarded as anti-social when he is given to bullying, frequent quarreling, disobedience, and destructiveness to property. The anti-social person is the one who

15 ir

it

Loc

c£t. cit.

_i

IX endeavors to get his satisfactions in ways that are damaging and unfair to others. Hormal adjustment is char acterized by reasonable freedom from these tendencies. Family Relations— The student who exhibits desirable family relationships is the one who feels that he is loved and well-treated at home, and who has a sense of security and self-respect in connection with the various members of his family. Superior family relations also include parental control that is neither too strict nor too lenient. School Relations— The student who is satisfactorily adjusted to his school is the one who feels that his teachers like him, who enjoys other students, and who finds the school work adapted to his level of interests and maturity. Good school relations involve the feel­ ing on the part of the Individual that he counts for something in the life of the institution. Community Helations— The student who may be said to be making good adjustments in his community is the one who mingles happily with his neighbors, who takes pride in community improvements, and who is tolerant in deal­ ing with both strangers and foreigners. Satisfactory community relations include as well the disposition to be respectful of laws and of regulations pertaining to the general welfare.17 Interest.

The definitions of this term are numerous

and diversified.

Many investigators in the field, however,

agree that the term includes two concepts--”feeling," and "attention.*

Kelly has defined interest as "the pleasurable

or painful feeling produced by an idea or object with the 18 power of attracting attention." The term as it will be used in this dissertation Includes these two elements, e.g., feeling and attention.

It means any object or activity which

the individual likes and toward which he tends because it is 17 hoc, clt. 18

Kellv. on. cit., p. 123.

->

12

valued by hi® and results in

satisfaction*.^?

Leisure time interests*

i

This term has been employed

to indicate those objects and activities which the individual likes or with which he occupies himself or in which he en-r gages when he has time free from studies or school work* Hobby*

One form of leisure time Interests which has

been a matter of great interest to investigators is hobbies* In this dissertation the term has been used to designate an interest toward which a person devotes considerable time, irregularly, over a long period. Extra-currieular activity.

This term has been used in

this investigation to designate a program of events which

carry no academic credit, sponsored and organized by pupils or student organizations or by the educational institution, designed to entertain, instruct and provide opportunities for leadership.

20

Diocesan high school* This term has been used to in­ dicate a senior high school declared, or at least commonly considered to be such by the Ordinary of the diocese and open _

Edward F* Donahue, S.J., ”A Study of Leisure Time Interests and Activities of a Catholic High School, 11 (unpub­ lished Master,s thesis, Fordham University, Hew York, 194?), p. 6 . 2° t p*

L

£o pupils from two or more parishes*

Applicants are seleeteci

by means of competitive entrance examinations, or are assigned according to a parish quota*

Tuition is defrayed by the

parishes* Community high school*

This term has been used to in­

dicate a senior high school which is controlled by a parti­ cular religious community under dioeesan supervision and regulation.

Applicants are admitted by means of competitive

entrance examinations.

Tuition is defrayed by the parents

or guardians of the pupils. Academy.

This term has been used to indicate a school

on a secondary level conducted under private auspices but subject to the Jurisdiction of diocesan authorities and which offers a curriculum composed principally of the traditional academic subjects. Commercial high school.

This term has been used to

designate a secondary school offering a curriculum designed to prepare students for a specific task in the business world. III.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Every age and period In the history of the world has been interested in the problem of leaders and leadership, for it is well known that the future of any nation depends upon its leaders.

The world today is faced with a vital need for

leadership, Christian leadership, for the principles of

■T' '

)

.14 Christianity are fighting for existence* Today there is a need for the greatness of Christian life, lived in its fullness with persevering constancy! there is a need for hold and valiant shock troops of those men and women, who, living in the midst of the world, are ~ ready every instant to battle for their faith, for the law of God, for Christ, with their eyes fixed on Him as the model to imitate, as a leader to follow in the work.of the [email protected]*21 Since leadership traits are recognized at a very early age in the child, the school must assume part of the respon­ sibility for developing these traits* *#.wleaders are born and not made11 is only partly true, Training may not create traits, but it can develop them, and lack of training may cause them to atrophy.“ Catholic educators and directors of youth have a stra­ tegic responsibility placed upon them In response to this challenge for training worthwhile leaders* spiritual Implications of it*

They realize the

They know that from the Catholic

schools of today must come the leaders of tomorrow if Christfs work is to be done. It is obvious to them that if Catholic education is to fulfill the mission which Justifies it, its students must develop the conviction of individual responsibility for Influencing society toward Christian principles. Catholic schools and colleges'must produce leaders who have experienced %nd can transmit the essence of 21

Pope Pius H I , "■Christian Rebirth,” The Catholic Mind* 452385, July, 1947* 22 Jones, on. cit.. p. 9.

,

Catholicism, who can carry the eternal message unto the ~1 rich, into university halls, to Jew and Negro, to the labor unions, and to the council table of nations.23 This investigation is significant, therefore, because it involves a study of the characteristics and leisure time interests of -694- girls who were selected for training in leadership in six Catholic high schools for girls in the diocese of Brooklyn.

These girls were selected for train­

ing in leadership through their membership in an honor society, the aims and Ideals of which were to promote and develop Catholic lay leadership in parish*, school and community. The study is significant because it Is the first study that has been made involving a group of elected members to a Catholic honor society, the expressed purpose of which is the development of Catholic lay leadership.

Hie knowledge of

the characteristics, the interests and the activities of such a group should be of significance to Catholic educators in guiding them in the discovery and segregation of the true 1eader from the mere follower» IV.

LIMITATIONS OP THE INVESTIGATION

This investigation was subjeet to the following limita­ tions:

(1) The study was concerned with discovering the

qualities and characteristicsj the educational, vocational, spiritual and leisure time Interests and hobbies of 694 i

_

.

Emily B. Scanlon, "Catholic Colleges and Catholic Leaders,” America. 80:169-170, May 17, 1947•

26 n

r

adolescent girls, designated as leaders in six Catholic high schools for girls in the diocese of Brooklyn,

It does not

seek to find out what training in leadership these girls were receiving, nor does it seek the reason for their likes and dislikes with respect to.their interests, nor does It attempt to determine the effect of their leisure time interests and activities. (2)

In regard to subjects, the study was limited to

the designated leaders of the diocesan honor society.

It

did not attempt to compare these characteristics of leader­ ship and interests v/ith subjects in the schools who were not members of the honor society.

Furthermore, it was limited

to girls. (3)

In regard to schools, the study was limited to

rvvC-' six Catholic high schools; of which two were diocesan and four were community high schools.

It did not seek to deter­

mine the qualities and characteristics of leadership in co­ educational parish schools. (4)

The investigation was limited in area as it in­

vestigated only six Catholic high schools for girls situated In the diocese of Brooklyn. Accordingly, no broad conclusions may be drawn con­ cerning the characteristics of students selected for train­ ing in leadership or designated as leaders In any other school system, diocesan or public either in the state of Hew York or throughout the country*

The Leo Honor Society of which the subjects participat­ ing in this investigation were members, was organized in Sep­ tember, 194-4- in the Catholic high schools of the Diocese of Brooklyn by the Most Reverend Thomas Malloy, Bishop of the Diocese of Brooklyn who is the Supreme Moderator of the Societyi and the Diocesan Director, the Bight Reverend Joseph V. S. McClanoy, Superintendent of the Brooklyn Catholic Schools. The Society was named in honor of Pope Leo XIII, re­ garded as one of the outstanding leaders of the Catholic Church.

The bases for selection for membership in the Society

consist of Catholicity, character and culture on the part of the students.

Its Insignia is a small gold pin in the

shape of a triple crown similar to the tiara worn by the Holy Father. An announcement concerning the organization of this Society was first made in the May, 1944 issue of the School Bulletin and was entitled, the Leo Honor Society Bulletin. This School Bulletin, which is published quarterly and is sent to all schools of the diocese, declared that all high schools and secondary academies of the diocese, even those doing less than four years* work, would be assigned a chap­ ter in this society.

Each chapter was to assume the name

of the school in which It was organized as for example, the Bishop McDonnell Chapter of the Leo Honor Society, and the

%

M f"

— i

principal of the school would be the Moderator of the Society* The criteria for selecting the members were to be based on the aims of the society which were listed in this bulletin as followss 1* Encouragement of love, obedience and gratitude towards parents and those in authority. 2* Complete acceptance of doctrines, moral standards and devotional practices of the Catholic Church, together with active membership in a Parish Soeiety. 3. Obedience to school authorities, regularity and punctuality of attendance, participation in all school activities, integrity of school conduct, respect for school property, qualities of leadership and interest in the spread and patronage of Catholic schools* 4* Fidelity to American ideals, respect for civil authority and promotion among citizens of all faiths and origins of the Christian Brotherhood of Man. 5* Employment through industry of talents to earn scholarship in Catholic Colleges, especially those offered by the State* The procedure for selecting members in the initial organization was also stated at this times 1. Principal is authorized to designate candidates for THE LEO HONOR SOCIETY* It is recommended that he seek the advice of his staff* 2. Applications from a single school are to come in a singlm sheet from the school as a whole. Use school sta­ tionary if x 11 inches in size* Make application in duplicate and on typewriter* Metain carbon, forward original* 3* Oroup applicants on basis of high school terms and within each term arrange names alphabetically, giving home address and home parish. Bach applicant is to secure a letter of recommendation from Pastor of home parish and these letters are to come to Superintendent with appli­ cation sheet* 4* For introductory period, application sheets are to be filed with Superintendent between May 8 and 22* In future they are due before October 10 for the Sep­ tember term and before March 1 for the February term. Recommendations should be made on basis of work in the previous term. 24 Leo Honor Society Bulletin. No* 13*

May, 1944*

19 r*

5*. When membership cards are given a school for ™ accepted and enrolled members, they should be distributed at a school assembly. Students are to carry them in a school envelope and carry them daily to school. 2 ' The membership allottments were to start with the

second high school term or term IB*. Once granted, member­ ship is for the entire high school career of a student ,ahd expires on leaving school or graduating,

la eh school was

allotted a quota of members on the basis of the number of 26 home-roo® classes, each such classroom having a definite and distinct quota.

In Table I is presented the description

of these quotass TABLE I MEMBERSHIP ALLOTTMBNTS II THE LSD HONOR SOCIETY

Membership Quota Term 2nd

Classes

Term Ird

Term 4th

Term 5th

Term 6th

Term 7th

Term 8th

20 members or less

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

21 members or more

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

The School Bulletin in June, 1944 was again dedicated to the organization details of the Leo Honor Society.

i-

2^ Ibid.. May, 1944. 26 Ibid.. May, 1944.

In

_j

this publication, directions were given relative to the master sheets and' membership cards*.

Two of -the most impor­

tant items in this issue were: '1 *. When a -student named on the Master Sheet is with­ drawn by the; Principal the name so concerned shall have a reason attached to it on the Master Sheet and the card assigned to such a student shall be returned blank. Mo ■other studentfs name may be substituted*. 2 . To .prevent the soiling or loss of card, students receiving it shall be given a school envelope in which to keep it* The card thus protected shall be on the student*8 .person each school, day* The purpose is to .keep before his or her eyes the uHonor Aims11 to which the student is pledged*2/ In November, 1946, the Bevised.Handbook of Regulations for the Catholic Schools of Brooklyn was published*

It con­

tained a resume of the aims,' membership requirements and chapter meeting details,

it stated very definitely that all

prominent school assignments must be confined to members of the [email protected] Honor Society. A Chapter of the''-Society with Principal as Moderator is required in all high schools* It is based on Cathol­ icity, character and culture on part of students. Aims: 1. Develop in students a strong Catholic sens© and .the ambition to bring"' to ■flower '-all .talents' to the' full. 2. Train Catholic leaders for school life as well as for later life. 3* Promote good school spirit through example and influence of best students* 4. Strengthen parish sense and disposition to help Pastor of Home Parish in parish activities. 5* Advo­ cate Catholic education for Catholics from kindergarten to university and professional schools* 6 . Train non-Catholic public in the value of Catholic ,secondary edu­ cation through winning of College scholarships in Catho­ lic colleges whether offered by the Board of Regents, Catholic, colleges or Catholic organizations* Memberships Students must be practical Catholics 5 have completed successfully first term in a Catholic high school or academy within the Diocese; procure from

L

27

Leo Honor Society Bulletin. No. 14, June, 1944.

Pastor of Home Parish recosaaendation for practical Catholicity; for scholastic term prior to application for' or advancement In. membership, must■have school stand­ ing among first third, of class with evident .spirit of industry; be regular in school attendance and daily punctuality; participate in school activities; be will­ ing'- to do supplementary"work to'obtain success in com­ petitions for ’scholarships- for Catholic Colleges*' Mem­ bership in the Society can be lost when member in estima­ tion of Principal Moderator falls below standard of schol­ arship ©r is delinquent in any of above-requirements* It is recommended that names of Members be displayed in home room class* Each" classroom is allowed one; member for the students in the second-term* In high schools with a -registration of 750 students, this original number may be Increased, if conditions are met, by an additional member for each classroom- every term*.' In other high schools the addition must be only every year* Small Juniorate High Schools are allowed a maximum of one-tenth of their registration but membership will not start until the third term* There is no obligation on a school to fill its maximum quota but every school must treat a candidate as a non-member until he or she buys a Society pin and wears it * Chapter meetings shall, be called by the Principal Moderator*. - In October it shall elect three officers, namely, President, Secretary and Historian* Meetings shall be held monthly from October to December and March to May and minutes kept* III prominent school assign­ ments should be confined to members of the Leo Honor Society. A distinctive adornment should be worn by them especially at school entertainments and commencements. Constitution and By-Laws were formulated by a committee of ten made up of 'high school principals and heads of school departments*

Ho modifications were, made- with

respect to- the aims and objectives of the society, but def­ inite constitutional requirements and by-laws were sent to all the high schools and secondary academies of the diocese.

for the Catholic I Brooklyn* CBrooklyns Diocesan'.School Office, Avenue, 1§4©>, pp. 82-84*

'22 ******

See*, 4* Officers aTT- fhe officers of the Chapter shall be a Chairman, chosen from the eighth term; Vice-Chairman, chosen from the seventh term; and Sec­ retary, chosen from the sixth terrnf who must be active members* b* A student council composed of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary and four members chosen one from each of the second, third, fourth and fifth terms respectively* e, Ihe term' of office, for all officers shall 'be for one year; Vice-Chairman succeeds 'Chairman' ‘if approved by the .nominating committee in January. Member representatives may be re­ elected for another- term* d* In case*of a'vacancy of office, the Chairman, ' with-the consent1 "of the- faculty members and the’student council shall'be empowered to fill the same until the'next election, except that'' the- Vice-Chairman shall fill' the office of Chairman, If that office becomes'vacant*. Sec* 5* Election off Officers a* A standing nominating committee composed of three faculty members appointed by the Rever­ end Principal shall designate the candidates, b* Officers shall be elected at the first meet­ ing of the year* Voting shall be by ballot with the right of voting limited to members who have fulfilled their obligations during the past year* Bee* 6. The Chapter shall meet monthly from October to December, and from March to May* Bee* 7* Amendments This Constitution and By-laws may be amended at any regular meeting by a two-third vote of the active members present provided that notice of the proposed amendment is given in writing to the three faculty members appointed by the Reverend Principal at least thirty days in advance of the meeting at which the amend­ ment is to be voted upon*

L

By-Laws Sec* 1 Duties of Officers a* Chairman 1 *. To preside at all meetings*, 2 * fo greet new members at the Induction ceremony* 3* To write the letter of invitation to the guest speaker for the Induction ceremony. 4* To propose the question to be answered in writing by the prospective candidates each term* b *• ¥ice-Cha irman 1* To discharge the duties of the Chairman in the absence of the Chairman* 2* To assist the Chairman in all duties assigned* c . Secretary 1. To keep the minutes of all meetings* 2* To keep a record of the questions* proposed to prospective.candidates I 3* To keep a record of all members with the date of admission to the Society* d. Representatives 1 * fo attend all- meetings* 2 . fo formulate plans to carry out the purpose of the Society*2? The investigator sought by means of interviews with the principals to ascertain to what extent the objectives of the society were being realized.

Ill reported'that the society

had been established and was functioning in their respective schools; that it was. .regarded -by the students as the. govern­ ing body in the school; that although it was recommended that only members of the Leo Honor Society be given the positions of leadership and responsibility in the school, the student body was given much freedom in the choice of its class of­ ficers.

They have, however, with few exceptions, elected 29

Constitution gnd Bj-Laws £f tfcg J=e£ Honor Society. ‘September, 1947. J

members of the Leo Honor Society to offices of president and vice-president, chairman of the Student Connell and other * positions of .-prestige*, fhe principals reported also that, rarely had it been found that any member must be dropped from the society because of Infractions of the rules or failure to keep up his or her school work* fhe girls who participated In this study were all members of this honor society-- .and had been designated as potential leaders; first, because they had met the require­ ments for leadership into, this 'society, namely,. Catholicity, character, culture, regularity and punctuality in school attendance, participation in school and parish activities, and willingness to do supplementary work in school; secondly, because one of the fundamental objectives of the society is to train for Catholic, lay leadership*

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS During the past two decades many research studies have been concerned with leadership*

These studies show a

definite trend towards scientific investigation and the ap­ plication of statistical procedure to determine the signif­ icance of the obtained data*

Many of the studies have dealt

principally with young children*

A few studies in the field

of leadership have been devoted to the pre-school child, but the vast majority of them have been concerned with the preadolescent, adolescent, and the adult of college level*

The

Investigations have been concerned with the following aspects of leadership; the methods of selecting and identifying lead­ ers; the characteristics distinguishing leaders from nonleaders; the comparison of leaders with non-leaders and the techniques and methods used in training leaders*

Very little

agreement has been found among the Investigators with respect to these various aspects of leadership*

In fact the studies

have done little to clarify these aspects, but rather they seem to have increased the problems -concerned with leadership* The purpose of this chapter is to present a review of those investigations that were concerned with training for leadership*

Included also In this presentation are those

Investigations involving subjects of pre-adolescence and adolescence levels*

Several studies, however, have been

^incorporated into this chapter because of their contribution

M r n to a fuller und erst and ing of some particular phase of lead­ ership, or ©f characteristics of the leader group alone. Since the subjects of the present Investigation were members of an honor.society that had as one of its aims training in Catholic lay leadership, special attention has been given t© the investigations primarily concerned with the training of leaders* This chapter has been divided into five main sections for the purpose of clarity*

In the first section are pre­

sented the related studies which were considered to be of historical importance*

In the second section are contained

the related studies concerned with the various characteristics of leadership*

The third section is devoted to a presenta­

tion of related studies concerned with extra-curricular activities-and leadership*

The fourth section is concerned

with, those studies involving t h e .comparison.of leaders and non-leaders among groups of Oatholic youth.

In the fifth

section are presented the related investigations which have studied training in leadership. I*

lOTBSTIGATIME OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE

Two Investigations have been included in this sur­ vey of literature In the field of leadership principally because of their historical importance.

These studies,

probably the earliest in the field, have been the

L

inspiration for' many other-'investigations*,

1 "> Terman ■.in. 1904

conduct ed:an investigation'to -analyze'the psychological.-'* factors involved ’in leadership'among school Children*

His-study was

a competitive ■demonstration involving-'a series■of "ten

^martyrs"-items on a large- card displayed, to-a small, group of hoys and a 'small "group o f -girls.*

One hundred subjects from

the public schools of .Bloomington, Indiana, constituted ^the testing', population*

Forty-eight boys and fifty-two girls

were selected from grades ’two to eight. Each experimental group'was composed of.four boys and four girls-*' fo each group-was presented'a'large card contain­ ing -ten pictures;and they Were, informed-that they were to be .given a memory test*

the subjects were’told be answer- all ‘the .

questions' concerning'the objects on'the cards as quickly as possible*

After the card-was exposed, to the-separate groups

for a. period, of ten. -seconds, questions were asked to-determine the initiative and''the lack of initiative with respective. groups*

fbe responses were recorded in terms of first, second

and third groups* ’ After the twenty-five groups were ob­ served, -a second series of -tests was conducted using dif­ ferent ’memory■items on a: large card.

In this second presenta­

tion, the-.-experimental groups were- formed with at least "one hespouse’leader,* that is, an individual who had been- a... leader in res ponding -in the previous series, and "one response *



lewis ferman, "Preliminary Study in the Psychology and Pedagogy of Leadership," Pedagogical Seminary* ■2*413415, March, 1904.

automaton," that .is, one who definitely had not.been a .leader, in each of the new groups* in the order they were made*

The answers were likewise recorded fhe responses were then tabu­

lated: ...and analyzed in the light of additional information ob­ tained fro© tb© respective class teacher© of the children in the groups*

This information consisted of:

age, size, social

status, position in the family, dress and school achievement* On the basis of this analysis, Terman drew the following con­ clusions :

leaders were more often the school leaders; lead­

ers were on the average larger and better dressed; of more prominent parentage, brighter more daring, more fluent of speech, than the nautomaton"; leaders tended to lead regard­ less of whether or not they were right.

According to the

opinions of teachers, the leaders were preferred more fre­ quently for the following qualities:

intelligence, con­

geniality, alertness and goodness. 2 In 1914, Beaney attempted an objective approach to a fuller understanding of leadership.

Her subjects were 600

boys and girls ranging from eight to eighteen years of age, fro® seven schools located in London and Its surroundings* The greater part of the investigation was carried on with girls, because the investigator believed that the girls had not developed the group-game habit to the extent to which —

g

~

Jane Heaney, "fhe Correlation Between General In­ telligence and Play Ability as Shown in Organized Games," British Journal of Psychology* 7:226-252, September, 1914*

m

t

r

boys had, and, therefore, offered more fertile ground for re** search*

She obtained her data fro® three sources:

opinions

of the teachers, school marks, and psychological tests*

The

statistical treatment of the data warranted the following conclusions:

there was a definite positive correlation of

*20 between play ability and agef social position seemed to have little effect on the results$ sex made little if any dif­ ference in the correlation between play ability and intelli­ gence; practice appeared to have a levelling effect, while familiarity with the group games seemed to produce little change In the correlation with intelligence, the correlations concurred with the results of independent observations end indicated that "intelligence goes with poor ability*”

In

general, the results indicated that ability In games correl­ ated highly with intelligence* while poor play ability showed a low correlation with Intelligence*

This fact was

particularly significant since the other data expressed normal correlations with general ability* IX*

STUDIES DEVOTED TO THU CHARACTERISTICS OF .

mmmmm

to interesting survey of youth throughout the state of Pennsylvania has been made by Updegraff*^

This investigation

Harlan Updegraff, Inventory of Youth in Pennsylvania (Washington: American Youth Commission of the American GouneI1 on Education, 1936), 97 PP* L

-i

otostltuted an important: contribution to- a more complete understanding of leaderehlp*.

The subjects consisted of

23,166 hoys and girls enrolled in the sixth grade of elementary schools in forty-seven counties of the state*

The

immediate purpose of this study was to determine significant data pertaining to the educational and social needs of the subjects in order that education might better meet these needs*

These data, obtained from sehool records, were studied

.In the light of the following factors which the Investigator termed f,traitstfs

socio-economic background, intelligence

in terms of I. Q*f emotional drive, social ideals (lawful­ ness and social-mindedness) and school performance* An important outcome of his Investigation was an aware­ ness of the qualities and characteristics Indicative of po­ tential leadership*

Updegraff'found that potential leader­

ship ability was not the resultant of only-one or two traits possessed to a very conspicuous degree, but rather that it tended to result from a combination in varying degrees of the several traits*

High rating in each of the five factors,

listed above, indicated leadership ability*

Updegraff con­

cluded that there were 1 7 5 -pupils out of 1,000 who were po­ tential leaders and fully qualified to pursue college courses* In addition 112 out of 1,000 were potential leaders and fully qualified to graduate from the highest grade of senior high sehool*

In the area studied, there were among every 1,000

subjects in the sixth grade 287 potential leaders, who ranked \ high in all of the five sections listed*

r

Bennett and Jones

4

T

conducted a study to determine

whether the possession of certain qualities indicated ability to become a leader, and whether intelligence underlies these qualities, were*

The qualities designated in this investigation

initiative* courage, self-trust, Insight, kindliness,

good-humor and knowledge of human nature.

The subjects were

twenty-nine pupils attending the Shop school at Rochester, Hew York, and were between the ages of fourteen to eighteen years.

The criterion for leadership was determined by means

of combined judgments of instructors, the principal, and the

athletic director.

This investigation indicated that intel­

ligence underlies leadership and that-low intelligence ef­ fective! y bars a person from leadership.

.Those having su­

perior or high-average intelligence appeared to possess to a marked degree the qualities of initiative, courage, selftrust, insight, kindliness, good humor, and a knowledge of human nature which are essential to leadership; while in the ease of those ranking low on the Intelligence scale these qualities appeared to be lacking to a considerable extent. An analysis of the findings also indicated that those who achieved leadership possessed good physique bodily energy. However, without a high degree of intelligence these physical characteristics did not Indicate potential possibilities for leadership. —

L

_

_

H. S. Bennett and B. B. Jones, ^leadership in Hala­ tion to Intelligence,M School Review* 31*125-128, February, 1923

.

-I

32 Caldwell and

Wellman?

studied leadership at the junior

high sehool of the Lincoln Sehool, Teachers1 College, Columbia University, employing the normative survey technique.

The

grade distribution of the 113 subjects studied was as followss Girls Grade ......... Bovs... 7 21 ' I? 0 22 17 20 - .. 16. .9......... ... TOTAL •y0 ...... .... M .. The leaders were those pupils who had been chosen by their classmates as representatives, in the six types of school activities; class presidents, student council members, magazine-staff members, athletic captains and assistants, scienceclub officers, and citizenship representatives.

These leaders

■were" studied.and compared on the basis of seven characteristics* age, mentality, scholarship, intelligence, extroversion, height and physical achievement.

The data were obtained from

school marks, the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale, the Marston ExtroversIon-1 ntrovers1on Scale, and the California Decathlon Tests for Physical Achievement.

The Investigation

found that the same characteristics were not necessarily pres­ ent in different types of leaders.

For example, high physical

achievement was the outstanding characteristic of the athletic leaders, while, for the other types of leaders, high physical

0. W. Caldwell and Beth Wellman, "Characteristics of School headers,w Journal of .Educational Research. 14*1-13, June, 1926. L

-I

achievement did not appear to fee an important factor.

Schol­

arship was related to leadership in all types of activities; the -athletic leaders, among, the hoys:'w#r® the lowest of the group of leaders in scholarship, hut even they were at the av­ erage of their classes.

Among the girls, the student council,

magazine staff, and the science club representatives were ex­ ceptionally high In scholarship, all of them being in the upper quartile of their classes.

Among the boys, the magazine-staff

representatives ranked highest in scholarship and citizenship

the girls studied, mental ability as expressed by the intelligence quotient was highest for scienee-club chair­ men, next highest for student-council ©embers, and lowest for the athletic captains.

Among the boys studied, the magazine-

staff members- ranked highest In terms of intelligence quotient and the athletic leaders ranked lowest.

The chronological

age of the leaders was for the most part slightly lower than the average of the respective-classes'.'

The scienee-club chair­

men, student council members, and citizenship representatives were younger than-,the -average of their respective classes. The results of the rating scale for extroversion revealed that most of the leaders tended to be more extrovertive than introvertlve.

Among the girls the science-club chairmen,

student—council members and the magazine staff members were extrovertive to a marked degree..

In ail types of leadership

except athletics the girls ranked as extroverts.

The ath­

letic leaders ranked at a balance between extroversion and

int.'reversion-,,

Among the leaders of hoys,, the class presi­

dents and athletic captains were the tallest and the magazinestaff representatives were among the shortest in the respective classes.

Generally the girl leaders were approximately aver­

age in height. Hutting^ studied the characteristics of leadership among girls in 'seventh and' eighth grade gymnasium classes.. The girls were asked to name two of their associates whom they considered to he the best leaders,

teen they were asked to

state the reasons for their two choices,

These leaders were

then compared with the rest of the class in terms of the data obtained from the Illinois Intelligence Test-. A 'total of l8l subjects participated in the investigation,

in analysis of

the results, warranted the following conclusions $

the leaders

were slightly above the average In intelligence ratings, slightly below average in scholarship, well above average in popularity, and noticeably above average in age and physical ability.

The judgment of the girls concerning the qualities

of importance to a leader seemed to be very satisfactory fro© an adult viewpoint,

these qualities were obedience, honesty,

fair play, capability, ability to control others, playing the best she can for her team, dependability, trustworthiness, knowing her business, watching what she is,doing and cleanli­ ness. z ---------

X»* Hath Hutting, “Some Characteristics -of Leadership,11 School and Society. 182387-390, September, I923.

'! Wetzel*' conducted' &■ study of -leadership- as:r£ ouiid to' ■•' the free atmosphere of the modern high school.

Fifty-six sub­

jects were studied of whom thirty-three were boys and twentythree were' girls who were holding positions of leadership'to: 'the'Senior’High School at Trenton, lew Jersey; these subjects held elective and appointive positions as followss

eleven

held only elective positions* twenty-three held only appointive positfonspositions* and twenty-two held both elective and ap­ pointive positions*

Among 'the elective’positions were'the-'

officers of the student organisations and the captains of the athletic teams*

Among

the appointive positions were the mem­

bers of the editorial board of the school paper, members of the cast of the ’senior play,, managers of the intra-moral athletic leagues* and the cheer-leaders*

Seventy-five per

cent of the leaders were registered to the academic curric­ ulum* and many of these were definitely planning to attend higher institmtions of learning*

Eighteen per cent of the

leaders‘Were registered in the commercial curriculum, while l the remaining 7 por cent were registered among three other curricula* In this school every pupil rated himself on this char­ acter rating scale*

later* each pupil was rated"on this
4“ I 2 12 4 1 20 0 17 0 1 .

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5

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20

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17

5

4.5

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__

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....

flie total participation In the sixteen ext ra-currieul&r activities was 2 72 , with am average of seventeen leaders in each activity, compared with a total of seventy participations and am. average of 4*5 ^or each non-leader.

'Back leader av­

eraged participation in 6*8 activities, compared with 1.75 activities for non-leaders*.

The leaders thus averaged, four

times as..,much participation in extra-curricular activities' as- did non-leaders*.

Competitive athletics was the most fre­

quent extra-curricular activity amomg leaders, with a total participation of fifty-six* Special Kecognitlon.

fhe leaders attained special

recognition eighty times or am average of twice each; only

ome leader attained special recognition in only one activity* It is important to note here that although there was a large number of participations in the sixteen extra-curricular activ­ ities, the fact that no one leader had been specially recog­ nized more than five times, indicated that each leader was a non-leader or a follower most of the time. fhe relationship between the number of participants and the number obtaining special recognition varied greatly among various activities*

In casts of plays most of the

leaders In the Hi—T Girl Reserves were given special recog­ nition*

Likewise most of those who were elected to any kind

of class office, were also given recognition.

On the other

hand, out of the fifty-six participants, In athletics only eleven were given special recognition*

fhe same is true

also of the eighty-one participants in musical activities; only eleven received special recognition.

Again, of the

nineteen leaders appearing on the honor roll only one re­ ceived special recognition because of the’fact trthat leader­ ship prevented extreme degrees of application to classroom work***

Participation In publishing the school paper did not

warrant special recognition of any kind.

Amount g£ lime Spent £& Various Activities. An analysis of the leisure time of leaders and non-leaders indi­ cated that leaders found twice as much spare time as did the non-leaders, in spite of the fact that they were engaged in four times as many extra-curricular activities.

Shis fact

was attributed to the probability- that leadership results in planning, better management and foresight.

On'the other hand

non-leaders wasted more time, although they Spent a greater amount* of time in reading than did the leaders*

The investi­

gator, however, did not place too much credence In these re­ sults*

Be expressed the opinion that they might be un­

reliable, due to errors in reporting time by non-leaders or to some use of leisure time not reported* leisure Time Interests *

__

More information was sought

by the investigators with respect to the leisure time inter­ ests of the subjects.

It was found that reading was the most

time consuming interest of all leisure time interests, with the non-leaders spending on the average 357 hours per year and the leaders 220 hours*

Games of physical skill ranked second with

leaders with 255 hours per year or 18*4 per cent.

’’Using the

car1* ranked second with non-leaders with 140 hours per year spent in this way*

Six kinds of activities namelyt

sports,

“using the car," outdoor activities which included hiking, picnics, hunting, fishing, gardening; radio, movies, and reading accounted for 89*2 per cent of the leisure time for leaders and 91*7 Per cent of the time for non-leaders.

The

difference between leaders and non-leaders with respect to sports of all sorts, parties, use of the radio, attendance at movies and concerts and reading of periodicals was es­ pecially significant.

r ’Ckmeral' Cone Ins ionsv

Wf "* headers averaged participations -

in 6*8 activities as compared with 1*7 activities for b o b leaders*

Athletics was the most important eitra-eurricular

activity, for the leaders*

leaders found twice as much time

for leisure’as ?did' the non-leaders, ■although they engaged in. four times as many activities,

leaders were more interested

in leisure time interests of a social nature* such as sports ;of ■competitive ■nature* while non-leaders were more interested in isolated activities such as reading, using the car, and dancing* Belilngrath

2.0

investigated the difference between

leaders and non-leaders and, in addition, endeavored to determine to what extent the measured traits correlated with elected leadership,

fhe subjects were, 240 seniors attending

five high schools-' located in and about' the city of New York. This investigation was limited to the members of the senior class because Bellingrath assumed that high school leaders in extra-curricular activities were usually recruited from the twelfth grade*.

The ■criterion for leadership -was election by

:

'. •

>

>

"

1

fellow pupils to position of leadership in extra-curricular activities, which included the customary listing of such activities common to all secondary schools. 1

19

*

.

The procedure

;

George C, Bellingrath, Qualities Associated with leader shin in Extra-Curricular Activities, of the High School, Contributions to Education, No. 339* .

The scholarship of the entire leader

group-was superior to that, of .the student b o d y as- a whole*.The leaders in the more important positions surpassed the other ■leaders- I n :scholarship.

6.

Subject Preferences.

The data relative to subject

preferences- seems t o ■indicate a consistent relationship be­ tween intelligence, scholarship, and plans for education beyond high- school. *-"There;are no significant -differences between the three groups of leaders.

The pupils of the unselected

group preferred more subjects-from-the non-college prepara­ tory field than did the leaders. Interests. -The. entire leader group had a wider range of.Interests and pursued more hobbles than did their associates.- The leaders, in the- more important positions had more hobbies and they appeared to have time for a larger num­ ber of-outside activities--than-the 'leaders in less Important . positions.

8 . 'Posit ions of leadership -held in Extra-Currlcular Activities,

The leaders participated in a variety of extra-,

curricular -activities both- in minor and -major positions,., Clubs, class organizations, leagues, student government, sports, productions and- publications all offered opportunities for individual leaders to proceed from one kind of activity to

Smother*

■m It was found that leaders who lead a wide range n

of interests and of contacts both In and out of school were chosen for the most important positions within various organi­ zations in the extra-class programs,

9.

Values attached to leadership Experiences,

vidual leaders showed a marked difference in the values which they attached to their experiences. tages than disadvantages.

They listed more advan­

The leaders in prominent positions

seemed to be more aware both of the advantage and disadvantage than did leaders whose experiences were not quite so diversi-? fled. In summarizing the results, Brown mad© the following statements; The leaders of superior Intelligence and scholar­ ship had a greater variety of interests and of activity than the less superior pupils. Diversity, rather than similarity of interest, is characteristic of Individual leaders. The typical leader in this school is younger than his classmates, is above the average in intelligence and scholarship, selects college preparatory subjects, and is preparing to enter into the professional group of occupations. Be seems to surpass his fellows in posture and in general appearance. Be is American in nativity and represents a relatively high economic and social stratum as judged by the occupation of his par­ ents. He has a wide range of contacts and of interests through hobbles, through membership in organizations outside of school and through a variety of duties and other activities in which he spends his leisure time. He represents different degrees of leadership from that In small unified organizations to that of large and diverse groups, and from positions of restricted Influence to those in which the leader shared in mak:ing policies for the entire school. Finally, they showed marked differences in the values which they attached to their experiences ommmBmmmKmmmmmmmamrnKammmmmmmmmmmmmtmm

l

21Ibld.. pp. 90 and 153*

-
. these 703 sub jects ranged from- twelve years to six- . teen years, which in terms of development, constituted the periods of pre-adolescence, and adolescence, in school they ranged from the fourth grade to the eleventh grade.

The cri­

terion for the selection of the leaders was on the basis of position of leadership held by the subjects in the respective Scout units.

The leaders and non-leaders were compared with

respect to- national backgrounds of the parents,- educational . backgrounds of the parents, position of leaders and ■nonleaders in their respective- families,, the socio-economic status as indicated by the occupation of father, the-Scout rank of the leaders and non-leaders, the Scout tenure of leaders and non-leaders, the grade placement, the scholastic achievement as indicated by school grades, age, height and weight, mental ability, developmental age, and personal and social adjustment.

Bata were obtained by means of a Pre­

liminary Questionnaire devised by the Investigator, the Otis

Se-st £f Mental Ability. Fnrfgy mental Age Scale, and the California Test, pt. Personality* ■An analysis of the data revealed the following resultss 1-

Rational Background q £ Pgrent£.

The analysis of

the data concerned with the national backgrounds of the par­ ents of the subjects in both groups indicated that there was

m

r

a tendency for larger numbers and percentages of Irish, Ger­ man, and Italian, national backgrounds to be represented in that order among both the fathers and mothers of the subjects in both groups.

Twenty-five additional national backgrounds

were represented among the parents of the subjects, all of which were represented In small numbers and percentages. 2*

Educational Backgrounds of Parents.

Compilation

of the data concerned with the national backgrounds of the parents of the subjects in both groups indicated that there was a tendency for larger number® and percentages of the par­ ents of the non-leaders group to have attended college and professional schools.

In addition, a greater number and per­

centage of the members of non-leaders tended to have completed high school than the mothers of the leader group.

However,

when the critical ratio technique was applied it was found that the educational superiority of the parents of the nonleader group over the parents of the leader group was not sta­ tistically significant. 3*

Position in the Family.

With regard to the posi­

tion of the leaders and non-leaders in their respective families, an analysis of the data in this investigation In­ dicated a striking similarity with respect to the distribu­ tion of the subjects in terms of "oldest," "youngest," "other," and "only" child.

However, insignificant differ­

ences in favor of the leader group occurred in both the "oldest" and "only" child classification* L

4*

Socio-economic Status.

The leader group was found

to he superior to the non-leader group with respect to the soeio-eeonomle status as determined by paternal occupation. Greater percentages of the fathers of the leader group held positions of professional, managerial, clerical, and skilled classifications.

The critical ratio of 2.224 indicated*that

the difference between the means for both groups was not statistically significant* :5*

Grade' -Placement.

With'respect to grade placement

the leaders were significantly superior t© the non-leaders as indicated by the critical rati© ©f 12.694.

Greater percentages

and numbers of the leaders were In the eleventh, tenth and ninth grades than were those subjects within the non-leader group.

In addition a greater percentage of leaders than non-

leaders were in the eighth grade.

These data also indicated

that the average subject within the leader group was advanced more than a full school grade above the average subject with­ in the non-leader group* 6*

Scholastic Achievement*

The leaders surpassed the

non-leaders in scholastic achievement as Indicated by school grades *

The superiority, however, was very slight as Indi­

cated by the critical ratio of *651 which was not statistically significant*

The leaders received a larger percentage of

"A" and MBW grades in school subjects and a smaller percentage of "C” and "B" grades than did the non-leaders. 7. the non-leaders.

Chronologlea1 Age*

The leaders were older than

The critical ratio of 13*033 indicated that

r

the difference between the mean chronological ages of the

n

two groups was significantly in favor of the leader group. 8. leaders.

Height *

The leaders were taller than the non-

fhe critical ratio of 9*170 indicated that the

differenee between the mean heights of the two groups was statistically significant in favor of the leader group. 9. leaders*

Weight,

fhe leaders weighed more than the non-

The critical, ratio of 8*484 indicated that the

difference between the mean weights of the two groups fa­ vored the leader group significantly* 10.

Mental Ability.

The comparison of leaders and

non-leaders with respect to mental ability indicated that a difference existed in favor of the leader group*

The cri­

tical rati© of 1*65 indicated that the superiority of the leader group was not statistically significant* 11*

Be veiooisental Age.

The comparison of leaders

with non—leaders with respect to developmental age revealed that the leader group was superior to the non-leader group* The critical ratio of 5*72 Indicated that the differenee In favor of the leader group was statistically significant. .12*

Total Personality.

The comparison of the leaders

with the non-leaders with respect to total personality ad­ justment indicated that the difference in scores of the two groups was in favor of the leader groups*

This superiority

was statistically significant as revealed by the critical ratio of 4*623 in favor of the leader group. L

^3*. ■'•Self M ,1

.. The comparison of leaders with ■

non-leaders with respect to self adjustment revealed that the leader .group was- significantly superior to the non-leader group as indicated by the critical ratio of 4.186 in favor of the leaders*,

Furthermore, the significance of this su­

periority was supported by the consistency displayed by the leader group in surpassing the non-leaders in the six subtests concerned with self-reliance, sense of personal worth, sense of personal freedom, feeling of belonging, freedom from withdrawing tendencies and freedom from nervous symptoms. 14.

Social Adjustment.

The comparison of leaders

with non-leaders with respect to social adjustment revealed that the leader group was signifieantly superior to the nonleader group as was Indicated by the critical ratio of 4.339 in favor of the leaders*

This superiority was supported by

consistent superiority displayed by the leader group over the non-leaders in the six sub-tests concerned with social standards, social skills, freedom from anti-social tendencies, family relations, school relations and community relations. General Conclusions.

The results of this investiga­

tion indicated that the leaders were older, taller, and heavier, had longer tenure and held higher rank in Scouting5 ware more advanced in terms of grade placement in school; were superior with respect to maturity as expressed In pref­ erences; attitudes and interests; were superior in total personality adjustment as well as in ©elf and social ad­ justments*

The leader group tended to surpass the non-leaders

with respect to mental 'ability;'with respect to scholastic acMevememt as indicated by grades received; came from homes of better economic status than did the non-leaders..

With

respect be these characteristics, however, the superiority was hot statistically significant.

& trend of Insignificant

differences, however, may be indicative of a real differenee in favor of this group*

On the other hand, the parents of

the non-leader group were slightly, superior to the parents , of the leader group in terms of educational baefcgrouads *

Soth

the leaders and non-leaders came from similar backgrounds and occupied, similar 'positions in their ■respective families . V,

STUDIES C01CBWSD WITH T M I M I M G IH lEABlBSHlF As far as the investigator could determine there have

been, lip to date, only two experimental investigations con­ cerned with training In leadership.

The first of these

studies was made by Ei c h l e r ^ who conducted a series of four experiments with a group of high school students.

He

attempted to determine whether leadership could be developed by means of instruction.

The parallel group technique was

employed in a series of four experiments.

This procedure

consisted In instructing the experimental group and training if George Eiehler, Studies in Student Leadership, Penn State College Studies, Ho. 10, (State College, Pennsylvania,

1935), 55 PP.

them In the essentials of leadership*

This Instruction con­

sisted largely in an explanation of the meaning and importance of the many factors and characteristics considered to be essential for leadership#

The factors and characteristics in­

cluded initiatives physical fitness, loyalty, team work, per­ sonality, purpose, kindliness, good humor, knowledge of human nature, self-confidence and cooperation*

The control groups

did not receive any special instruction in leadership*

The

data used in this study were obtained from leader ship ratings of both leaders and non-leaders by their associates both be­ fore and after the period of leadership training*

In three

of the four experiments, the members of the groups receiving leadership instructions were rated slightly higher by their associates than were members of the groups not receiving such 26 Instruction* The most notable of Iiehlerfs experiments was the fourth in which both instruction and practice in lead­ ership were attempted*.

The names of students in the ex­

perimental section, which were, paired with '•mates* in the control section were given to all ninth grade teachers in the school* ,These teachers were informed of the purpose of the experiment and all agreed to cooperate*

They were asked

to keep these pupils in mind and place before them leader­ ship situations wherever possible* 2&

L

These were to be in the

m r "• nature'..of a “challenge” and the students were not placed in them under compulsion*

Neither instruction nor practice was

given to the control group*

to analysis of the findings re­

vealed that instruction and practice in leadership resulted ■in the greatest change in leadership ratings of the experimental group*

this led Itchier to conclude that “leadership could

he improved by direct instruction and that practice in lead­ ership made this improvement 'effecbive-*s,^ : fhe leaders were found to be superior to .the non-leaders; in the following' traits?

individuality,-- -height, scholarship, social intelli­

gence, self control, reliability and will* 28 Zeleny conducted a series of experiments with col-, lege students in an attempt to determine, whether, leadership ability could be developed*

fhe immediate, problem of this-

Investigation was to discover whether college students eould be trained to assume leadership responsibility within dis­ cussion groups,

fhe subjects consisted of nineteen college

students'who were rated in leadership/ability by means- of the five-man-to-man technique*

fen individuals were selected at

random from the total group of nineteen subjects and they were given leadership training*

fhus, two groups were formed?

I M d **. p. 28*

28 Leslie' f>* ■Eeleny,:“Experiments in Leadership Train­ ing*11 Journal of Educat1onaI Sociology. 4?31®~313, January, 1941*

L

the experimental group* which was given verbal training for ten minutes a day* four days per week during a period of three weeks; the control group consisting of the remaining nine sub­ jects was not given any leadership training.

The leadership

training consisted In the explanation of meanings of the fol­ lowing leadership traitst

prestige, knowledge* forcefulness*

insight* steadiness of purpose* participation* quickness of decision* finality of decision* self-confidence* tact* appear­ ance* voice and self-control.

Stress was placed upon knowledge

participation .and “llkeableness,1* Students were urged -to exercise immediately these traits in class discussion groups. In the discussion-group plan the class was divided into groups of five each under selected leaders.

Thus, these groups dis­

cussed problems under the supervision of the instructor.

Five

weeks after the preliminary rating in leadership* and after leadership training had been given to the experimental group* the flve-maa-to-man rating technique was again administered to both the control and to the experimental groups*

4- com­

parison of these data Indicated that the experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group.

Finally*

as a further check* experiments using experimental and con­ trol groups were conducted on a large scale.

Students In con­

trol classes received no Instruction or practice In leadership* and were placed in classes conducted on the conventional recitation-discussion plan; those In the experimental classes received leadership instruction and the opportunity for daily leadership practice in discussion groups* L

It the end of

i

stated -periods- the different classes were administered rating sheets which included rating in leadership development*

The

experimental group which had received instruction and practice received the highest rating* A filial and more accurate check was made on the find­ ings just reported*

A more carefully prepared rating sheet

was drawn up and administered to the total membership of two large' dosses," which 'had ■just completed .ten weeks of study* One class used the discussion group method which provided for leadership training and the, other used the traditional class discussion method*

The results showed a statistically,

significant difference in favor of the group having leader­ ship training*

All the experimental evidence of this investi­

gation indicated that leadership ability can be developed by instruction and practice in leadership*

However, it was also

noted that"some subjects profited more from this type of instruction and practice than others* VI.

SUMMARY

Of the twenty-six leadership investigations reported in this chapter, six were conducted in school situations be­ low high school level| thirteen at high school level| three at college level§ two with Scout troops; and two were con­ cerned with training in leadership* That leadership cannot definitely be attributed to one or more characteristics was illustrated by the lack of agree­ ment found among the investigators in the field*

The poor

selection ofsubjects, unreliability of measuring instruments and loose procedures has been the cause of much of this disagreement.X Below the high school level leadership was associated with the following characteristics*

superior intelligence,

superior scholarship, average ag*s or younger, overage, physical size, average height or above, emotional stability, and popularity with fellow students. At the high school level’investigators were definitely in agreement with respect to one characteristic, namely, the socio-economic status$ the leaders were superior to non­ leaders in this category.

Intelligence and scholarship were

found to be positively related to leadership in all of the studies except two.

In these studies a negative relation­

ship was found to exist in the case of the athletic leaders, with respect to these characteristics*

Height and weight

tended to show a positive relationship particularly with respect to the boy leaders $ however , the tendency was nega­ tive in the case of the girl leaders who were average In height and weight or shorter and not quite so heavy as the girl non-leaders.

There was also a negative correlation be­

tween age and leadership, both boy and girl leaders were younger than the non-leaders*

The high school leaders

tended to be wonly children,n came from better homes, and had parents who were better educated, were more active in extra-curricular activities and held more positions of lead­ ership in these activities than did non-leaders;

The leaders

also tended to have better attendance records, better appear-, anee and broader experience than non-leaders*

With.respect

to personality traits as measured by paper and pencil tests, the leaders were superior to non-leaders * The two studies conducted among the Scouts indicated that the leaders were superior to non-leaders in mental ability, age,, height, weight., and. .general personality ad­ justments*

toong the boys, the leaders held higher Scout

ranks and. were ■In *Scouting.longer •than -the,non-leaders * .The non-leaders, however, surpassed the leaders with respect to the educational background of the parents*

Among the girls,

the leaders surpassed the non-leaders in scholarship, socio­ economic status and educational background*

The leaders in

both :studies were more':mature, were better adjusted i n ’all factors involving themselves and others, than were non­ leaders. The two studies concerned with training in leadership indicated that leadership definitely can be developed through instruction and practice*

CHAPTER III THE SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AMD PROCEDURES The present study was undertaken in order to ascer­ tain certain 'characteristics, Interests and activities of £94 adolescent girls, who had been selected for training in leadership through membership in the Leo Honor Society* 'The primary purposes of this honor society are nto develop In students a strong Catholic sense and the ambition to bring to flower all talents to the full? to train Catholic leaders for school life as well as for later life***

The purpose of this

chapter is to present a description of the subjects who par­ ticipated in the investigation, of the materials employed to obtain the necessary data, of the method of procedure followed in carrying on the investigation. I.

THE SUBJECTS PARTICIPATING IN INVESTIGATION

The subjects participating In the present study were s ..

-

694 Catholic adolescent girls enrolled in six Catholic high schools for girls located within the confines of the Diocese of Brooklyn.

The distribution of the subjects with respect

to schools and grades Is presented in Table II and in Table III. Of the 694 subjects, 419 were members of the Leo Honor Society in two diocesan high schools for girls; 275 were members of this honor society in four community high schools for girls. L

The four community high schools included -I

r „ two academies, from which 15® members of the honor society

90> “*

were selected, and two commercial high schools with a mem­ bership of 117 girls in the Leo Honor Society.

The grade

placement of the subjects extended to the eighth term in­ clusive, that is, from the second half of the ninth grade to the second half of .'the twelfth grade inclusive.

The age range

of these subjects extended from fourteen years and no months, to nineteen years and five months* table

ix

DISTBXBOTIOH OF SUBJECTS PAHTICIPATIHG IH THE IOTBSTIGATI0M Eexjisnt-. school___________________________________ Ho. 1 300, 43 17 Ho. 2 119 108 16 Ho. 3 Ho. 4 50 7 10 Ho. 5 6? Ho. 6 ................. 50 ....... ..... ........ .......7.... 694 Total lOO The Leo Honor Society of which these subjects were members was organized in the Catholic high schools of Brook­ lyn in September, 1944.

A chapter of the society, with the

principal as moderator, is required in all of the high schools within the Diocese of Brooklyn.

Membership in the society is

based on Catholicity, character and culture on the part of the subjects. The girls who participated in this study were all mem­ bers of this honor society, selected for training in leader­ ship because they had met the requirements for election to L. Jf

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158, or 22.77 per cent.

In the fourth or the skilled classi­

fication was included

per cent of the subjects of school

Ho. 1; 33.61 per cent of school Mo. 2; 31*48 per cent of school Mo. 3; 26 per cent of school No. 4; 40.29 per cent of school No. 5; 28 per cent of school No. 6.

Two hundred and twenty

or 31*71 P©r cent of the total number of subjects were within this classification.

In school No. 1, 8.66 per cent of the

subjects-were included in the fifth classification or semi­ skilled group; in school No. 2, 8^40 per cent; in school No. 3, 1.85 per cent; in school No. 4 no subjects were included in this classification; while 25*37 per cent of school No. 5 and 12 per cent of school No. 6 were within this classifica­ tion.

The total number of subjects within this classifica­

tion was 61, or 8.79 Per cent, of the entire group.

In the

unskilled classification, or the last group, were included 3 per cent of the subjects of school No. 1; 2.52 per cent of school No* 2; 4.48 per cent of school No. 55 6 per cent of school No. 6.

No subjects of schools No. 3 an& No. 4 were

found in this classification. Table XIII presents the data concerning the occupational status of the mothers of the subjects who were employed in positions outside the home.

An analysis of this table in­

dicates that 95* ©r 13.69 per cent, of the subjects had mothers who were working.

In the first or professional classi­

fication were included 22 or 3*17 per cent.

In the second

or managerial classification were found 22 or 3*17

Pe r

cent.

jThe total number of the ratings of the subjects included in^

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21 Reals,

cit** pp. 503^531*

22 Brown, on* cit*. p. 88* 23 K* C* Garrison, "A Study of Some Factors Related to Leadership in High School," Peabody Journal of Education. 11s 11-17, July, 1933* 24 Yressa C* Yeager, An Analysis of Certain Traits of Selected High School Seniors Interested in Teaching* Oontribut ions to Education, No* 660* (Mew Yorks Bureau of Pub­ ;© Bdt lications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935), 166 pp* 25 Hunter and Jordan, SB. cJ^t*, p. 509*

belonging to the professional class was definitely larger than that of the parents of the non-leader group. -'Sward1 %

found in his study of campus leaders that over one-half of the fathers were professional men or engaged in large busi­ ness enterprises*

Sister M. Alexandra Kav&naugh^? found that

the leaders in her study had a higher socio-economic status than the non-leaders*

She found also that the greater per­

centage of the fathers of the leaders came from the first three classifications, namely, professional, managerial and pQ clerical. Borgan w reported that there was a definite ten­ dency for the subjects ©f the leader group to come from homes of higher socio-economic status than non-leaders.

He found

also that the fathers of the leaders held positions grouped in the first four classifications, namely, professional, managerial, clerical and skilled. VII.

THE CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, HEIGHT AND WEIGHT

OF THE SUBJECTS SELECTED FOR TRAINING IN LEADERSHIP An examination of the health cards of the subjects participating in the present investigation was the means used I M"1"

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Keith Sward, "Temperament and Direction of Achieve­ ment ,H The Journal of Social Psychology. 4s406-427, Novem­ ber, 1933* 27 Sister M* Alexandra Kavanaugh, on. cit., pp. 8I-S3 . 28 Horgan, gR* cit.. pp. 142-144.

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by the investigator in obtaining the information which pro­ vided the data concerning chronological age, height and weight. In seeking this information, the investigator endeavored to determine whether the subjects selected for training in lead­ ership tended to be concentrated within certain age groups, height groups and weight groups* Chronological Age,

The chronological age of the sub­

jects as indicated by stable XIV range from 14 years and 0 months to 19 years and 5 months*

Only one school, however, school

Mo. 1 had subjects represented in this total age range.

Ap­

proximately 71*77 Per cent of the subjects In the study ranged in age from 16 years and 0 months to 17 years and 11 months. Subjects ranging in age from 15 years and 0 months to 15 years and 11 months ranked second with 19*45 per cent represented. In the IS year old group, 2J, or 3.02 per cent of the subjects of the study were represented.

Only 1, or .14 per cent of the

subjects was represented in the 19 year age group.

Three

schools, Mo. 1, Mo. 3 and Mo. 4 had subjects represented in the 14 year and 0 month and 14 year and 5 month age group. School Mo. 5# in which the subjects selected for training in leadership were limited to the twelfth grade students, had as *

a result an age group which tended to be more concentrated than that in the other five schools.

The subjects in this

school ranged in age from 16 years and 6 months, to 18 years and 11 months. A further analysis of the chronological age of the

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subjects has been presented in fable XV.

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The range of ages

of the subjects was from 14 years to 19 years and 5 months. The mean age of the subjects participating in the study was 16 years and 5 months.

The standard deviation was 11.10

months which indicates that two-thirds ©f the subjects se­ lected for training in leadership ranged in age from 15 years and 6 months t© 17 years and 4 months. The data regarding the chronological age of the sub­ jects selected for training in leadership as summarized in Tables XIV and XV reveal that the largest number of subjects tended to be concentrated in the older age groups.

The age

Kof the subjects participating In the investigation may have been Influenced to some extent by the constitution of the Leo Honor Society which states that the membership quota may be Increased In the eleventh and twelfth grades. The reported findings of studies in the field of lead­ ership with respect to the relation of age and leadership are numerous, but these findings are quite contradictory.

Cald­

well and Wellman2^ reported that the relationship of age to leadership was not consistent but differed in various situa­ tions.

The club leaders among the girls were younger, and

also the student council and citizenship representatives were —

-

0. W. Caldwell and Beth Wellman, ^Characteristics of School Leaders,n Journal of Bducational Besearch. 14*1-13, June, 1926.

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im rof scores for the subjects in this investigation extended ftom seventy-nine to 179*

The largest number of subjects ranged

in scores from 144 to 1??, in which range 426 or 61*37 P^r cent were represented.

Of this number 32*9$ per cent tended

to be concentrated within the range of scores extending from 1^6 to 177*

Subjects ranging in s cores below 144 constituted

38*63 per cent of- the total number£ 9*23 PeT cent of this num­ ber had scores within the four lowest score ranges extending from 75 to 12?* The range o f •scores among the individual schools for the subjects participating in this investigation was con­ st stent with the total scores*

In all of the schools the

largest number of subjects were located in the range of scores above 144*

Likewise all schools had subjects with score

ranges that indicated a deviation from the normal. In fable XXVII are presented further data concerning the total personality of the subjects.

The range of scores

with respect to the entire group extended from seventy-nine to 179*

The mean score was 145*9*

The standard deviation

was I7 .Q7 * thus indicating that two-thirds of the subjects selected for training in leadership ranged from 128*9 to 163*06 with respect to total personality adjustment scores. The relationship between personality and leadership has been a controversial subject among investigators in the field, and the findings of many of the investigators are not fully in agreement.

The results of the present investi-

L gatIon were In agreement with the findings of several previous

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studies;

Up&egraff^

found that the following traits were

essential to potential leaderships

emotional drive* the

social ideals of lawfulness and social mindedness*

Bennett

and J o n e s ^ reported that those having a superior or high average intelligence* appeared to possess definite qualities of initiative, courage, self confidence, insight, kindliness, amiability and knowledge of human nature, which is essential to leadership;

They found, on the other hand, that those

ranking low in intelligence appeared to be lacking in these qualities.

Hutting*^ found that girls considered the fol­

lowing qualities Important to leaderships

obedience, hon­

esty, fair play, capability, ability to control others, doing onefs best, dependability and trustworthiness;

Wetzel

101

concluded that leaders are prone to rate themselves uniformly high in the following traitss

respect for school regulations

cooperation ?/ith others, reliability and sense of responsi­ bility, industry, and perseverance, thoroughness, self-con­ trol, Initiative, interest in order and beauty* and courtesy; 102 Reynolds found that the leaders rated higher on person­ ality traits than did non-leaders;

Eemmlein^^ reported

~ ~ 9 S -----Bpdegraff, loc. cit. 99 Bennett and Jones, loc. cit. 100 Butting, loc. cit. 101 Wetzel, loc. cit. 102 Reynolds, loc. pit. 103 Hemmlein, loc.

-J

that capable leaders were less neurotic and more self-suf- ~1 104 ficient than followers* Bichlfr found that the leaders were superior to non-leaders in the following traitss

in­

dividuality, social intelligence, self control, reliability 109 and will* Belllngrath y concluded that there was no dif­ ference between the responses of the leaders and non-leaders as measured by the Heidbreder Scale for introversion and ex106 troversion* Moore found that the leaders were slightly more extroverted and considerably more ascendant than the 107 non-leaders* Hunter and Jordan concluded that the leaders were more self-sufficient and more dominant in "face to face” situations than the non-leaders*

Middleton

108

found that

the leaders ranked highest in four traits, namely, per­ sistence, accuracy, sociability and judgment* and Hanawalt3^

Richardson

found that the leaders were reliably superior

104 105 Bellingrath, loc,

10? Hunter and Jordan, loc* cit Warren C* Middleton, Personality Qualities Pre­ dominant in Campus Leaders,” Journal of Social Psychology. 13*199-201, February, 1941* Helen Richardson and Kelson G* Hanawalt, ”Leader« ship as Related to the Bernreuter Personality Measures: I* College Leadership in Extra-curricular Activities,” Journal of Social Psychology. 17*237-249, May, 1943*

zm r -i in dominance and not reliably different from the controlled group in self-sufficiency or sociability;

They concluded that

college women as leaders, as a whole, appeared to be more dominant* more self-confident and less neurotic; no signifi­ cant difference was found with respect to sociability and 110 self-sufficiency* Hanawalt, Richardson and Hamilton re­ ported that there was a closer relationship between college leadership and dominance than with any other traits studied. Extroversion ranked second In importance* while emotional balance and self-confidence were likewise associated with leadership;

Mother if. Dorothea Dunkerley,

however* found

that the three types of leaders were slightly less adjusted than the non-leaders as measured by the California Test of Personality*

The leaders of the intellectual type were less

neurotic, more self-sufficient, more extroverted* and more dominant than the non-leaders when the Sernreuter Personality Inventory was administered.

The leaders of the social type

were more neurotic, less self-sufficient, more introverted, and more dominant than the non-leaders.

The religious type

leaders were less neurotic, less self-sufficient, more extro­ verted and less dominant than the non-leaders.

Sister M.

Alexandra Kavanaugh^^ concluded that the leaders had a 110

Kelson G. Hanawalt, H. M. Richardson and R. J. Hamilton, ^Leadership as Related to the.Bernreuter Personality Measure: II. An Item Analysis of Responses of College Leaders and Non-Leaders,t, Journal of Social Psychology. 17s 251-267, May, 1943. Mother M. Dorothea Dunkerley, loc* cit. 11 2

Sister M. Alexandra Kavanaugh, loc. cit.

~J



I—

significantly better total personality adjustment than the n non-leaders when compared with respect to the scores obtained in the California Test of Personalitv.

Horgan13^ also foun^

that the leaders in his study were significantly superior to non-leaders In terms of total personality adjustment when the California- f e^t. of Personal 1fry. hvd been administered to both groups. B.

Self Adjustment

The total personality adjustment of the subjects par­ ticipating In the investigation as analyzed In fable XXVI was a composite of self adjustment and social adjustment as ?•

measured by the California Test of Personality.

The first

section of the test has been designed to measure the self adjustment of the individual with respect to the following six components:

self-reliance, sense of personal worth,

sens© of personal freedom, feeling of belonging, freedom from withdrawal tendencies and freedom from nervous symptoms.

A

composite of these Items gives some measure of the individuals feeling of personal security.

Table XXVIII presents the data

relative to the self adjustment of the subjects participating In this investigation. The range in scores for the subjects participating in the Investigation with respect to total self adjustment extended from thirty-nine to ninety.

113

Horgan, loc. cit.

Approximately 3^7 of

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