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A study and extension of interpretations of researches concerning the relationship between intelligence and motor abilities

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A STUDY AM) EXTENSION OF INTERPRETATIONS OF RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND MOTOR A B IL IT IE S

A P ro je c t P re se n te d to th e F a c u lty o f th e S chool o f E d u c a tio n T he U n i v e r s i t y

o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia

I n P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D egree M a ste r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n

by M a r c i a M a d o le P e t e r s o n J u n e 1950

UMI Number: EP46518

All rights reserved IN FO R M A TIO N TO ALL U SER S The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI E P 46518 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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izA

'r/ Pvt f

This project report, written under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and a p p ro ved by him, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in partial fulfillm ent of the requirements fo r the degree of M a ster of Science in Education.

A d v is e r

Dean

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I,

PAGE

INTRODUCTION .

.

.

.

...................................................................

.1

The p r o b l e m ............................................................................. ....

1

S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m

...............................

1

I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m .................................... ....

1

L i m i t a t i o n s and w e a k n e s s e s

.........................................

£

D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s u s e d ...................................................

3

C a p a c ity

.......................................................................................

In te llig e n c e

3

.............................................................................

3

M o t o r Q u o t i e n t ........................................................................

3

M e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e

..............................................................

3

T he r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l ......................................... .....

3

O b t a in in g t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t

....................................

4

.....................

4

The i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t

. . . .

T he b a s i c r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y a n d m o t o r a c t i v i t y .............................................................. F ro m t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p o i n t o f v i e w . F ro m t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w

.

. . . .

O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e re m a in d e r of th e p r o j e c t X I.

5 5 6 .

8

REVIEW OF STUDIES COMPARING INTELLIGENCE WITH PHYSICAL A B IL IT IE S ...................................................................

9^

P h y s i c a l a n d M e n t a l l e a r n i n g .........................................

9 x

L e a r n in g f o r t h e b e lo w a v e ra g e i n d i v i d u a l .

.

9 ^

CHAPTER

PAGE L e a rn in g f o r th e

abovea v e ra g e i n d i v i d u a l

.

.

10

C o m p ariso n o f p h y s i c a l w i t h m e n ta l d e v elo p m e n t P h y sic a l a b il i ty

.

.......................... ........................................ com pared w i t h t h e

11^

in te llig e n c e

q u o tie n t o f e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l c h il d r e n

. . .

15 ^

K. L . H e a t o n s t u d y .........................................................> 1 5 ^ A b e r n e t h y s t u d y ........................................ .......................... H a n e y B a y l e y s t u d y ................................................

1 6 ”"

16"”

C o z e n s ’ c o m p a ris o n o f m e n ta l and p h y s i c a l a b ilitie s

.......................... ........................ .....

T h e K u l c i n s k i s t u d y ..................................................

18 19

P ro b a b le re a s o n s f o r c o n s is te n t c o r r e la ­ tio n s

...................................................................

P h y sic a l a b i l i t y

19

com pared w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l

f a c t o r s o f h ig h sc h o o l s tu d e n ts

..........................

21

. B a i l e y s t u d y ..............................................

22

Wayne L . Cheney, s t u d y .............................................. .....

22

F lo r e n c e Fye s t u d y

...................................................

23

M c A l l i s t e r s t u d y .........................................

23

D o n ald

D a v id

M. W. E lm o r e s t u d y ..................................................

24

H o w ard C. R a y s t u d y ..................................................

25

P h y sic a l a b i l i t y fa c to rs

com pared w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l

of c o lle g e u n iv e r s ity

stu d e n ts

.

.

D . W. B a i l e y s t u d y ........................................................

25 25

V

CHAPTER

PAGE J o h n F . B ovard s tu d y

.

.

.......................

26

C h a r l o t t e H o w e l l s t u d y .........................................

26

G ra n v ille B. Johnson stu d y

27

B u rtt,

L an d is,

. . . . . . . . .

and N ic h o ls s tu d y

M. Remp s t u d y III.

.

. . . . . .

.................................... .....

27

FACTORS WHICH CAUSE CONFUSION IN THE SEARCH FOR A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM

.

The d ile m m a o f c o m p a r i s o n s

. ' ................

30"

. . . . . . . . .

30"

E a r l y s t u d i e s ...................................’ ..................................

31"

The d ile m m a o f t e r m s ..................... .............................. .....

32 ^ / 35 / 36

A p sy c h o lo g ic a l im p lic a tio n

....................................

T e s t s a n d t h e i r u s e ......................................................... IV .

27

AN EXPERIMENT TO DISCOVER THE COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT AND MOTOR QUOTIENT OF ONE-HUNDRED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL G I R L S ............................................................... The t e s t i n g

40

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The v a l i d i t y

of th e

in te llig e n c e

q u o tie n t

a n d m o t o r q u o t i e n t t e s t s ....................... T he i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t

40

.........................................

O b ta in in g t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t

40

....................................

T he m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n .......................

44

. M e a n ...............................................................................

44

T he c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d

41 42

vi CHAPTER

Y.

PAGE d e v i a t i o n ..................................................................................

44

.

47

R e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ..........................................

47

M e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e ........................................

47 ^

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.........................................................

Summary o f f i n d i n g s ............................................. . C o n c lu s io n s

. . . . . . . . .

R e co m m e n d a tio n s . BIBLIOGRAHPY

.

.

.

.

48

.....................................

50

.........................

.............................................................

.

.

50 52

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In th e f i e l d s o f e d u c a tio n r e la te d w i t h m o to r and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s , n o tic e a b le

t o and c o n c e rn e d

th e r e h as been a

am o u n t o f d i le m m a i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f a c t

aro u n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p

of th e

is

is

a re la tio n sh ip

th e re

one t o t h e

little

d o u b t.

o th e r.

That th e re

T h e r e have, b e e n

q u e s tio n s c o n c e rn in g th e d eg ree o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p its

dependence upon in d iv id u a l m a tu ra tio n .

a n d s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n m ade i n a n e f f o r t t o b lem .

T here i s

resea rch to

an d

Many e x p e r i m e n t s so lv e th e p ro ­

a r e c o g n i z e d a n d e x p r e s s e d n e e d f o r m o re

d e te rm in e t o w hat e x te n t th e f u n c t i o n in g o f th e

b r a i n d e t e r m i n e s t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e o v e r t m o v e m e n ts o f th e body. I..

THE PROBLEM

S t a t e m e n t o f .t h e p r o b l e m . d isc o v e r

if

The p r o b le m w as (1 ) t o

t h e r e w ere any s y n t h e s i s o f f a c t s

r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

c o n c e rn in g th e

and m o to r a b i l i t i e s

in

fo rm e r and r e c e n t s t u d i e s and e x p e r im e n ts w i t h t h e s e f a c t o r s and

(2) t o d e l i m i t t h e p ro b le m b y f i n d i n g th e

c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

c o e ffic ie n t of

q u o t i e n t and m o to r q u o t i e n t

o f one h u n d re d j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g i r l s . Im p o rta n c e of th e p ro b le m .

R e s e a r c h done i n an

e f f o r t t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m l e a d s on e t o m any a n s w e r s , f e w o f w h i c h a r e f i n a l o r i n a n y way c o n c l u s i v e . R esearch a ls o b rin g s to l i g h t w eaknesses in t e s t i n g p ro ­ c e d u r e s and o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e v a r i e t y of an sw ers g iv e n to th e q u e s tio n , r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e m o to r s k i l l s ? "

If

and p h y s ic a l f a c t o r s ,

w o u ld c o n c l u s i o n s o f w o r th r e s u l t ?

a n a ly z e d and com pared, R e g a rd le s s of w hat th e

i t was t h o u g h t t h a t a n a t t e m p t t o f i n d t h e

s o l u t i o n w o u ld b e w o r th w h ile a n d ,

p erh ap s,

L i m i t a t i o n s and w e a k n e s s e s .

s ig n ific a n t.

The r e s e a r c h o n p r e v i o u s

s t u d i e s w as l i m i t e d t o t h a t w h ic h w as a v a i l a b l e cam p u s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y

on t h e

of S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n ia .

p e r i m e n t w as c o n f i n e d t o o n e h u n d r e d g i r l s e d u c a tio n c la s s e s

or

some o f t h e s e w e a k n e s s e s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d

a n d 'i f s t u d i e s done w ere c a r e f u l l y

an sw er m ig h t b e ,

"W hat i s t h e

o f one s c h o o l .

The e x ­

in th e p h y s ic a l

The r e s e a r c h o n p r e v i o u s

s t u d i e s w o u l d h a v e m o re n e a r l y a p p r o a c h e d c o m p l e t e n e s s h a d it

c o n sid e re d

a g r e a t e r n u m b er o f r e l a t e d

stu d ie s.

e x p e r i m e n t w o u l’d h a v e b e e n m o re c o n c l u s i v e s tu d e n ts t e s t e d had b e en l a r g e r ,

and i f

if

th e

The

t h e n u m b er o f

age ra n g e had

in c lu d e d e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and h ig h s c h o o l a d o l e s ­ c e n ts of b o th B ex es.

T he s t u d y a s a w h o l e w o u ld r e q u i r e

m u ch m o re r e s e a r c h t h a n t h a t w h i c h w as d o n e .

I t w o u ld r e ­

q u i r e m o re k n o w l e d g e a n d i n s i g h t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e tig a to r,

if

in v e s­

t h e r e s u i t s . w e r e t o b e d y n a m ic a n d c o n c l u s i v e .

3 II. C a p a c ity . it

DEFINITION OF TEEMS USED C a p a c it y w as i n t e r p r e t e d

" in d ic a te s th e t e s t

d e v elo p ed a b i l i t y t o w h ic h t h e

a s m e a n in g t h a t

a t t e m p t s t o m e a s u r e n o t s o m u ch

as in n a te p o t e n t i a l i t i e s

.

.

. th e lim it

i n d i v i d u a l may b e d e v e l o p e d .

In te llig e n c e .

"-As u s e d by, t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t ,

in ­

c l u d e s a l l t h o s e a b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h w h i c h we a c q u i r e , r e ­ ta in ,

e x te n d ,

and a p p ly o u r k n o w le d g e ." 2

M o to r Q u o t i e n t . of th e In te llig e n c e

" T h is q u o tie n t

i s t h e m o to r a n a lo g u e

Q u o tie n t in th e m e n ta l f i e l d . " 3

i n d i c a t e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s m o to r c a p a c i t y r e l a t i v e siz e

and g e n e r a l m a t u r i t y ,

j-fc to h is

r a t h e r th a n b e in g an a b s o lu te

m o to r c a p a c i t y . III.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

The r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l .

In th e f i e l d

of p h y sic a l

e d u c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n w as g a t h e r e d fro m t h e s e s , and a r t i c l e s

in p ro fe ssio n a l p e rio d ic a ls .

te x t books,

In th e f i e l d

of

1 C . H . M c C lo y , "T h e M e a s u r e m e n t o f G e n e r a l M o to r C a p a c i t y and G e n e r a l M o to r A b i l i t y , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 5 :4 6 , M arch, 1 9 34. 2 F lo y d C. R uch, P s y c h o lo g y and L if e F o r e s m a n and Com pany, 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 4 7 1 .

(C h ic a g o : S c o t t ,

3 C . H . M c C lo y , T e s t s a n d M e a s u r e m e n t s (New Y o r k : A p p le to n -C e n tu ry -C ro fts , I n c . , 1 9 42 ), p p . 125-2 6.

p s y c h o lo g y t e x t h o o k s and p e r i o d i c a l s w ere u s e d .

No

m a t e r i a l w as u s e d w h ic h w as n o t th o u g h t t o he p e r t i n e n t t o th e to p ic , w ritte n

a n d a n e f f o r t w a s m ade t o u s e l a r g e l y l i t e r a t u r e

sin c e 1930. O b ta in in g th e m o to r q u o t i e n t .

w ere g iv e n t o one h u n d re d g i r l s

A se rie s

of t e s t s

in th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n

c l a s s e s a t E l S eg un d o J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l t h e f i r s t w eeks i n M arch , c itie s.

1950,

t o d e te rm in e i n d i v i d u a l m o to r c a p a ­

T h e s e t e s t s w e r e t h o s e re c o m m e n d e d b y M c C l o y :^

( 1 ) t h e S a r g e n t jump t e s t , B race t e s t , th e se

tw o

(2)

t h e Io w a r e v i s i o n o f t h e

and (3 ) th e B urpee t e s t .

The r a w s c o r e s o f

t e s t s w ere c o n v e r te d t o T - s c o r e s and w e ig h e d a s

fo llo w s t o d e te rm in e th e

i n d i v i d u a l m o to r c a p a c i t y :

3 . 5 7 6 ( S a r g e n t jum p i n c m s . ) 4- 2 . 2 0 ( B r a c e t e s t T - s c o r e ) + 1 9 .1 2 (B urpee t e s t ) * H l l 9 . T he g e n e r a l m o t o r c a p a c i t y d i v i d e d b y t h e n o rm f o r r e s u l t w as t h e

ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l g i r l s ,

470.

The

i n d i v i d u a l m o to r q u o t i e n t . 5

T he i n t e l l i g e n c e of each stu d e n t, M a tu rity t e s t ,

s c o r e was m u l t i p l i e d b y 100 and

q u o tie n t.

The i n t e l l i g e n c e

a s m easured by th e

was o b t a i n e d fro m t h e

by th e sc h o o l f o r each s tu d e n t.

4 Ib M .,

p.

125.

5 I b i d ..

p.

363.

q u o tie n t

C a l i f o r n i a M e n ta l a c c u m u la tiv e f i l e

kept

5 The i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o t i e n t s c o r e s w ere c o r r e l a t e d w i t h

t h e m o t o r q u o t i e n t s c o r e s u s i n g t h e P e a r s o n 1s P r o d u c t - M o m e n t M eth o d . IV .

THE BASIC RELATION BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY AND MOTOR ACTIVITY F ro m t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p o i n t o f v i e w .

s k i l l e d m o v e m e n ts o f m a n ' a r e t h e r e s u l t a p p ly h i s i n t e l l e c t t o m o to r a c t i v i t y , h is

s k ills

and c o o r d i n a t i o n

.

.

.

’’T he

of h is a tte m p ts to t o v a r y and im p ro v e

."® The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r

a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d m o to r s k i l l s

and t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r

w h ic h t h e y a re l e a r n e d m ost e f f i c i e n t l y , i n d i v i d u a l a c h ie v e t o t a l d e v elo p m e n t.

t h a t h e may h e l p th e

" M o to r p e r f o r m a n c e i s ,

th e n ,

th e u n iq u e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n ." * 7

it

n o t c o n s id e r e d a s s e g r e g a te d fro m th e I n t e l l e c t .

is

The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r i s o f m o tio n upon th e f u n c tio n in g m akes u se o f th e f a c t s t h a t : b e in g le a r n e d , re c e p to rs,

in te re s te d

in th e dependence

of th e n e rv o u s sy s te m . (1 ) w hen a p a r t i c u l a r

t h e s t i m u l u s a r i s e s i n some r e c e p t o r

i s tra n s m itte d

a lo n g th e

m u sc le or m u s c le s t o r e s p o n d ,

But

He

s k ill is or

a f f e r e n t n eu ro n t o th e

and t h a t

(2 ) w hen a s k i l l h a s '

b e e n l e a r n e d , t h e a c t i o n t a k e s th e fo rm o f a sim p le r e f l e x

Y ork:

6 G l a d y s M. S c o t t , A n a l y s i s o f Human M o t i o n (New P . S . C r o f t s a n d Com pany, 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 1 2 7 .

7 I b i a *. p . 6.

6 a re w ith o u t th e n e c e ssa ry fu n c tio n in g of th e c e n te rs.

S u ch a c t i o n o f t h e n e u r o m u s c u la r m ech an ism m akes

re a c tio n s f a s t e r .8 its e lf

is

In th e

case of th e fo rm er, th e b r a in

c a lle d upon f o r d e c is io n .

l a t t e r w here t h e r e

is

In th e

n e rv o u s sy ste m . le a rn e d i s ,

case of th e

no s e l e c t i o n o f n e u r a l p a th ,

c ie n c y i s n o t d ep en d en t upon th e b r a i n ,

is

cereb ral

b u t on t h e

e ffi­ c e n tra l

The e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h a new m o t o r s k i l l th e n ,

dependent to

some d e g r e e u p o n t h e

f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e b r a i n and t h e n e rv o u s sy s te m ,

as i t

is

dependent upon o th e r f a c t o r s of le a r n in g . Fro m t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w . p sy c h o lo g y i n i t s

in q u iry in to th e n a tu re

T he f i e l d

of

of in te llig e n c e

is

c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n c e of. i n t e l l e c t u a l u p o n f u n c t i o n ­ in g p h y s ic a l phenom ena.

T h is i s

m o tiv e s o f th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a to r , s im ila r or th e

sam e s c i e n t i f i c

a d i r e c t r e v e r s a l of th e and y e t b o th depend upon

en d eav o rs f o r th e

t h e d e g re e and k in d o f t h a t d e p e n d e n c e .

so lu tio n of

Judd d e m o n s tra te s

t h i s p o in t i n q u o tin g : P r o f e s s o r M u n s te rb e rg h o ld s t h a t m e n ta l l i f e i s con­ d i t i o n e d b y t h e o p e n n e s s o f m o to r c h a n n e ls i n s u c h a w ay t h a t c l e a r n e s s a n d v i v i d n e s s o f i m p r e s s i o n s d e p e n d upon t h e o p e n n e ss o f t h e s e m o to r c h a n n e l s . 9 /

-----------------------

8 Ib id . , p. tio n

c

\

82.

9 C h a rle s H. Ju d d , " A c t i v i t y ," A C y c lo p e d ia o f E duca­ ( E d ite d by P a u l M o n ro e), I , p . 654.

S to d d a rd s t a t e s t h a t i t g i c a l p sy c h o lo g y t o

is

t h e a im o f s c i e n t i f i c

i n v e s t i g a t e th e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n an

i n d i v i d u a l ’s s o - c a lle d m e n ta l l i f e th e body.

p h y sio lo ­

and t h e a c t i v i t i e s

of

He q u o t e s C a r m i c h a e l a s s a y i n g :

Xf hum an i n t e l l i g e n c e c a n o p e r a t e e v e n o c c a s i o n a l l y w ith o u t b e in g r e l a t e d t o th e a c t i v i t y of th e l i v i n g b o d y , t h e w h o le s t u d y o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s te m i n r e l a t i o n t o b e h a v i o r becom es s p e c u l a t i o n , n o t s c i e n c e . 10 H e id b re d e r,

i n s h o w in g t h e r e l a t e d

e r a l s c h o o ls of p sy c h o lo g y ,

c o n c lu sio n s of th e

sev­

sta te s:

T he e v i d e n c e t h a t k i n a e s t h e s i s i s p a r t o f t h e t h o u g h t c o n s c io u s n e s s b r o u g h t i n t o p ro m in e n c e t h e c o n c e p tio n o f th o u g h t a s so m e th in g t h a t c a n n o t b e c o n s id e r e d a p a r t fro m t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l o rg a n is m i n w h ic h i t o c c u rs .il T hrough s c i e n t i f i c

e x p e rim e n ta tio n in th e f i e l d s

of

a n ato m y and p h y s i o l o g y t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r and t h e p s y c h o ­ l o g i s t f i n d t h e b a s i s o f f a c t t o b e a u g m e n te d b y e a c h sp e c ia l f ie ld .

They a g re e t h a t

i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g and

m o to r f u n c t i o n i n g a r e e a c h d e p e n d e n t upon t h e o t h e r . p ro b le m i s n o t s o lv e d , becom e e v i d e n t .

how ever,

The

f o r a num ber o f d ile m m a s

T h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r an d t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t

do n o t d i s a g r e e b u t o f t e n w ork i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f e a c h o t h e r . B ecause o f t h i s ,

u s e o f te r m s and p r o c e d u r e o f e x p e r im e n ta ­

t i o n b e co m e c o n f u s e d t o t h e

s t u d e n t who w o u ld s t u d y t h e

1 0 G e o r g e D . S t o d d a r d , T he M e a n in g o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (New Y o r k : T he M a c m i l l a n Com pany, 1 9 4 7 ) 7 p . 5T". E d n a H e i d b r e d e r , S e v e n P s y c h o l o g i e s (New Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Com pany, I n c o r p o r a t e d 7 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 4 1 5 .

8 m eth o d s and d e f i n i t i o n s o f e a c h . V.

ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE PROJECT

C h a p te r I I

i n c l u d e s p h y s i c a l an d m e n t a l l e a r n i n g ,

e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l s t u d i e s , c o lle g e u n iv e r s ity C h a p te r I I I c a tio n ,

s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d i e s an d

stu d ie s. in c lu d e s e a r l y s tu d i e s in p h y s ic a l edu­

t h e d i le m m a o f t e r m s ,

m e a su re m e n ts,

th e

in a d e q u a c y o f th e u se

of

a p sy c h o lo g ic a l im p lic a tio n .

C h a p t e r IV d e s c r i b e s t h e e x p e r i m e n t c o n d u c t e d w i t h o n e-h u n d red ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l g i r l s . g iv e n ,

t h e m ea n o f t h e

in te llig e n c e

m ea n o f t h e m o t o r q u o t i e n t s c o r e s . c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n and t h e C h a p te r Y su m m arize s, rec o m m e n d atio n s.

It

in c lu d e s th e t e s t s

q u o tie n t It

s c o r e s and t h e

in c lu d e s th e c o e f f i­

sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n . draw s c o n c l u s i o n s ,

and m akes

CHAPTER II REVIEW 0 1 STUDIES COMPARING INTELLIGENCE WITH PHYSICAL A B IL IT IE S A n u m b er o f s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n u n d e r t a k e n t o in sp e c ific a b ilitie s

d e te rm in e

g ro u p s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l

and i n t e l l i g e n c e .

T he f a c t o r s m e a s u r e d h a v e e n ­

co m p assed s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b ilitie s . fa c to rs,

Though t h e

in te llig e n c e

q u o t i e n t w as one o f t h e

t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t w as n o t a f a c t o r o f c o m p a ris o n

i n t h e A m e ric an s t u d i e s . T he s t u d i e s a r e s e g r e g a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e d u c a ­ t i o n a l age l e v e l up on w h ic h t h e y w ere c o n d u c te d . I.

PHYSICAL AND MENTAL LEARNING

L e a r n in g f o r t h e b e lo w a v e r a g e i n d i v i d u a l . in d iv id u a l w ith an i n te l li g e n c e se v e n ty i s lim ite d and w r i t e

q u o tie n t o f from f i f t y t o

i n m o to r a b i l i t i e s .

He c a n l e a r n t o r e a d

and t o p e r f o r m c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l s k i l l s . 1

n e ith e r of th e se

T he

a b i l i t i e s r e a c h th e norm al l e v e l .

H ow ever, ’’B u r c k -

h a r t f o u n d a g r o u p o f f e e b l e m in d e d c h i l d r e n t o b e d e f i n i t e ­ ly re ta rd e d

i n t h e i r m o to r f u n c t i o n s . ” 2

1 Ruch, 2

op . c i t ..

T h is m eans t h a t t h e

p . 493.

N a n c y B a y l e y , " M e n t a l a n d M o to r D e v e l o p m e n t f r o m Two t o T w e lv e Y e a i s , ” R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 9 : 3 7 . ---------------------------------------------------------F eb ru ary , 1939.

lim ite d fu n c tio n in g of th e b r a in causes p h y s ic a l e ff ic ie n c y to be lim ite d th e re

is

a ls o .

For t h i s

a p t to be a p o s i t iv e

lo w r a n g e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n i n t e l l i ­

g e n ce q u o t i e n t and m o to r q u o t i e n t . tin g fa c to rs

are p re s e n t,

W here c e r t a i n m o t i v a ­

some f a c t o r

o f m e n ta l or p h y s ic a l

e f f i c i e n c y m ay b e d e v e l o p e d t o t h e u t m o s t o f t h a t l i m i t e d c a p a c ity .

In th e case of m e n ta l f u n c tio n in g ,

th e

in d iv id u a l

m ay sh o w a v e r a g e o r g r e a t e r t h a n a v e r a g e f a c u l t i e s f o r m e m o riz in g c e r t a i n

ite m s..3

T h is i s

m ent and c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s

due t o u n ev en d e v e lo p ­

i n one d i r e c t i o n .

S im ila r

p h e n o m e n a may a p p e a r I n . r e s p e c t t o p h y s i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . M ost p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s o f p u b l i c

sc h o o ls can

r e c a l l a t l e a s t one c a s e w h ere a u s u a l l y slo w s t u d e n t i n th e

c la s s ro o m w as a v e ra g e i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n c l a s s , y

G e n e r a ll y t h i s b e lo w a v e ra g e boy o r g i r l l e a r n s s e g r e g a te d s k i l l s m o re r e a d i l y t h a n t e a m p l a y w h i c h r e q u i r e s a t l e a s t an a v erag e i n t e l l i g e n c e . L e a rn in g f o r th e above a v e ra g e i n d i v i d u a l . th e m e n ta lly lim ite d th is

in d iv id u a l is

co rre sp o n d e n ce of c a p a c itie s

t h e o t h e r end o f t h e s c a le ,.

A lth o u g h

a ls o p h y s ic a lly lim ite d , is

not n e c e ssa rily tru e a t

T he e x t r e m e l y h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o t i e n t may n o t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h m o t o r q u o tie n t.

At le a s t th e re

3 Rueh,

o£. o i t ..

is

no e v id e n c e t o

p . 478.

in d ic a te

such a

11 c o rre la tio n .

S in c e t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t i s d e p e n d e n t upon

p h y sic a l f itn e s s , fo r th e

a te st

o f t h a t c a p a c i t y w o u ld n o t b e v a l i d

i n d i v i d u a l who h a d n e g l e c t e d t h a t f i t n e s s f o r m o re

in te lle c tu a l p u rsu its.

In th e

c h ild of te n y e ars or le s s ,

V

c a se of th e b r i g h t young

A t h e r e w o u ld b e a g r e a t e r c h a n c e |

t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e tw o f a c u l t i e s w o u ld b e p o sitiv e .

T h is i s b e c a u s e i n t h e n o rm a l, h e a l t h y c h i l d b o th .

m e n ta l and p h y s i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t i s n o t so a p t to co n cern ed .

o v ersh ad o w th e

T he c h i l d

a c c e le ra te d

o th e r as f a r

as in te re s t is

o f th e h ig h i n t e l l i g e n c e

a p t t o show a m o to r q u o t i e n t t h a t i s

and one i s -

q u o tie n t i s

a ls o h ig h .

I n t h e e a s e o f t h e c h i l d who h a s s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i ­ g e n ce and s u p e r i o r h e a l t h , t h e p h y s i c a l q u o t i e n t i s a p t t o b e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f . c h i l d r e n who h a v e s u p e r i o r h e a l t h b u t lo w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e . 4 C o m p ariso n o f p h y s i c a l w i t h m e n ta l d e v e lo p m e n t. a c c u m u l a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e may m o u n t a s t h e m a tu r e s and c o n tin u e th e i n te l li g e n c e a d o le sc e n c e . th ro u g h l i f e

on i n t o o ld a g e .

in d iv id u a l

T he d e v e l o p m e n t o f

q u o tie n t i s t h o u g h t'to p la te a u d u rin g

T h is m eans t h a t th o u g h an i n d i v i d u a l c o n ti n u e s t o l e a r n m o re f a e f - s , h e d o e s n o t m o re r e a d i l y

a d j u s t t o new s i t u a t i o n s a d o le sc e n c e .

The

in la te r

life

th a n he d id i n

The p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t d o e s n o t c o m p l e t e l y

4 L o u is E . K u l c i n s k i , "The R e l a t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e t o th e L e a rn in g o f F u n d a m e n ta l M u scu la r S k i l l s . " R e s e a rc h Q u a r t e r l y o f t h e A m e ric an A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n . 1 8 :2 6 9 , D ecem ber, 1 9 4 5 .

IB p a r a l le l th e

i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e lo p m e n t.

T he tw o t r a i t s

d e v e lo p t o a s i m i l a r d e g re e and a t a s i m i l a r r a t e c h ild h o o d . o th e r. c h ild

One i s

At t h i s

n o t a p t t o h e m o re a c c e l e r a t e d t h a n t h e

age p h y s i c a l e x u b eran c e i s

th a t i s h e a lth y lik e s to p la y .

p la c e d upon h i s d e s ir e

it

n a tu ra l,

th e

Pew r e s t r i c t i o n s

fo r to ta l e x e rc ise .

f o r h im t o d e v e l o p h i s p h y s i c a l p o t e n t i a l . a d o le sc e n c e b e g in s ,

d u rin g

It

are

is n a tu ra l

Soon a f t e r

i s n o t 'u n u s u a l f o r th e p h y s i c a l

d e v elo p m e n t t o r e c e i v e l e s s e m p h a sis th a n t h e fo r th e av erag e s tu d e n t.

in te lle c tu a l

T h i s may m ea n t h a t , w h e n t h e tw o

p o t e n t i a l s a r e m e a s u r e d , t h e p h y s i c a l m ay a p p e a r l o w d u e t o u n d e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h o s e t o o l s m e a s u re d t o d e te r m i n e m o to r or p h y s ic a l c a p a c ity or q u o tie n t. T he p e a k i n p h y s i c a l q u o t i e n t o c c u r s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e , w h ic h i s

s im ila r to th e peak in in te llig e n c e

q u o tie n t.

G i r l s show a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y l i n e a r g r o w t h i n v a r i o u s p h y s ic a l m ea su re s t o abou t th e age o f f o u r te e n , w ith a s h a r p d ro p [^ n e g a tiv e a c c e l e r a t i o n ] t h e r e a f t e r . Boj^s e x h i b i t a s l i g h t p o s i t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n a t age tw e lv e and a n e g a t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n a t s i x t e e n . 5 N e ith e r m a in ta in a p l a t e a u f o r any g r e a t 'le n g th o f tim e .

P in tn e r

s ta te s th a t

a p la te a u e ffe c t

occu rs,

th a t is

~ a p e a k o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v elo p m e n t o c c u r s b e tw e e n t h e a g e s

*5

- -

F o w le r B . B r o o k s , " M e n ta l and P h y s i c a l D ev elo p m en t i n A d o l e s c e n t s , * R e v ie w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 8 :1 1 0 , A p j? il, 1 9 3 3 .

\

\ 13 o f f o u r t e e n o r s i x t e e n . 6 . A c co rd in g t o S to d d a rd th e

in te l-

^

l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t r i s e s r a p i d l y an d i s f o l l o w e d b y * a p e a k a t about n in e te e n y e a rs of a g e .7 A f t e r t h e a g e o f n i n e t e e n a. s m o o th d e c l i n e l e c t u a l d e v e lo p m e n t was f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e

in i n t e l ­

o ld e r age

ran g es. The p e a k o f m o t o r c a p a c i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i s r e a c h e d an e a r l i e r

at

age th a n i s t h a t p eak i n i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e lo p ­

m e n t, an d t h e d e c l i n e

sta rts

e a rlie r

in th e fo rm er th a n in

th e l a t t e r . A p o sitiv e a t th e

c o r r e l a t i o n m ig h t be e x p e c te d t o a p p e a r

a g e s w hen t h e p e a k s i n b o t h p o t e n t i a l s o c c u r ,

a d o le sc e n c e . of p o sitiv e p rev en t t h i s v id u a l.

T e s t s do n o t b e a r t h i s

o u t h ow ever.

in

The l a c k

c o r r e l a t i o n i s p r o b a b ly 'd u e t o th e f a c t o r s t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n i n a d u lth o o d f o r th e

average i n d i ­

T h e s e f a c t o r s a p p e a r .i n a d o l e s c e n c e m o re n o t i c e a b l y

in g i r l s th a n in b o y s. c o n tin u e s to a l a t e r re a s o n f o r th e

T he d e s i r e f o r v i g o r o u s e x e r c i s e

age f o r boys th a n f o r g i r l s .

l a g i n p h y s i c a l d e v elo p m e n t i s

X

A n o th e r

o f t e n due t o

a l a c k o f c o n c e rn on th e p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l sy ste m f o r t h a t d e v e lo p m e n t.

I n a l a r g e n u m b er o f s c h o o l s t h e

6 R u d o lp h P i n t n e r , I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g H e n r y H o l t a n d Com pany, 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 6 6 , 7

S to d d a rd ,

op. c i t .,

p.

£28*

(New Y o r k :

14 e d u c a ti o n a l e m p h a sis i s r e l a t i v e l y

c o n s t a n t com pared t o

t h e e m p h a s i s o n p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h m ay v a r y a g re a t d e a l. On t h e

c o l l e g e - u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l e m p h a sis on i n t e l ­

l e c t u a l d e v elo p m e n t g e n e r a l l y o v ersh ad o w s t h a t p la c e d u p o n p h y s i c a l d e v elo p m e n t f o r t h e

av erag e s tu d e n t.

It

w o u l d l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e d e c l i n e w o u ld g r o w i n .d e g re e w i t h t h e a d v a n c e o f a d u l t h o o d . a d o le sc e n c e on,

i t w o u ld s e e m t h e r e

F rom some p o i n t i n

c o u ld he no c o r r e l a t i o n

b e tw e e n p h y s i c a l and m e n ta l a b i l i t y

o r p h y s i c a l and m e n ta l

c a p a c i t i e s e x p re s s e d by a q u o t ie n t ,

f o r th e average in d i ­

v id u a l. I f a p o s itiv e in te llig e n c e

c o r r e l a t i o n w ere t o be fo u n d b e tw e e n

an d m o t o r q u o t i e n t s ,

i t w o u ld seem t h a t i t

w o u l d b e a p t t o appeal* m o s t f r e q u e n t l y and l e s s f r e q u e n t l y

i n t h e m ea n g r o u p

i n t h e e x tre m e g r o u p s w h ic h r e p r e s e n t

a b n o rm a l and s u b n o rm a l c a s e s i n v o l v i n g m e n ta l p r e c o c i t y on t h e one h an d and p h y s i c a l d ra w b a c k s su c h a s e x c e s s i v e w e ig h t o r h a n d ic a p s on th e

o th e r.

The f a c t o r

of m o tiv a tio n or

c o n c e r n -c a n i n f l u e n c e a c a p a c i t y o r t h e m e a s u r e o f t h a t c a p a c ity .

W here o n e o f t h e f a c t o r s i n q u e s t i o n r e c e i v e s

m o re e m p h a s i s t h a n t h e o t h e r , t h e tw o may b e n e a r l y c o rre la tio n of in flu e n c e

a t r u e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n

im p o ssib le t o d e te rm in e .

A p o sitiv e

i s m o re a p t t o a p p e a r i n c h i l d h o o d w h e r e f a c t o r s se e m t o b e m o s t c o n s t a n t .

15 II.

PHYSICAL ABILITY COMPARED WITH THE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN T he h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e

b e tw e e n p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y re su lt

c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t h a s b e e n fo u n d

and i n t e l l i g e n c e

of t e s t i n g young c h ild r e n ,

school age.

q u o t i e n t w as t h e $

th o s e o f th e e le m e n ta ry

S ix su ch s t u d i e s have b een re v ie w e d .

w ere c o m p lete d b e f o r e 1930,

and t h r e e

a f t e r 1930.

T h ree A lth o u g h

t h e m ost r e c e n t w as c o m p le te d tw e n ty y e a r s l a t e r t h a n th e first,

th e

c o n c lu s io n s w ere s i m i l a r .

T h e re seem s t o b e

g e n e r a l ag reem en t t h a t g r e a t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o c c u rs w ith young c h il d r e n .

No s t u d y w a s f o u n d t o sh o w n e g a t i v e c o r r e ­

la tio n . K. L. H e a to n S t u d y .

One o f t h e

e a rlie s t

stu d ie s

r e v i e w e d w a s t h a t d o n e b y K. L . H e a t o n i n 1 9 2 5 .

He t e s t e d

n in e ty -tw o g i r l s

and

a n d 1 02 b o y s o f e l e v e n ,

tw e lv e ,

th ir te e n y ears of age.

Some o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n w o u l d now

p ro b a b ly be c l a s s i f i e d

a s ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l age, b u t a t

t h a t t im e t h e y w e re i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y •s c h o o l .

He c o m p a r e d

th e p h y s ic a l a b i l i t y

and i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t of c h ild re n

o f lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e ,

and t h o s e o f h ig h i n t e l l i g e n c e .

He

a l s o com pared p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y w i t h s c h o l a s t i c r e s u l t s . c o n c lu d e d t h a t ;

(1)

C h ild re n of h ig h i n te l li g e n c e

in th e p h y s ic a l t e s t s .

He

d id b e t t e r

(JJ) I n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t h e r e

i s d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n a b i l i t y

in p h y sic a l t e s t s

and

16

p ro m o tio n or s c h o l a s t i c r e s u l t s . A b e rn e th y s t u d y .

8

I n 1925 E t h e l A b e rn e th y r e p o r t e d

i n th e J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l P sy ch o lo g y th e r e s u l t s

of a

s tu d y t o d e te r m in e " C o r r e l a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l and M e n ta l G ro w th ."

The s t u d y t o o k p l a c e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o

L a b o ra to ry S c h o o ls.

She t e s t e d

s c h o o l a g e a n d 239 g i r l s

120 g i r l s

of e le m e n ta ry

i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls '.

A ber­

n e th y s t a t e s t h a t : . . . i n t e r e s t i s c e n te re d in th e r e l a t i o n of pubesence, or p sy c h o lo g ic a l m a tu ra tio n , to g e n e ra l p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l g r o w t h , an d i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f m e n ta l age w ith th e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p te d s ta n d a r d s of a n a t o m ic a l d e v e 1 opme n t . S h e f o u n d lo w c o r r e l a t i o n s ta n c e .

o f no p r e d i c t i v e

im p o r-

9

H aney B a y le y s t u d y .

An e x h a u s t i v e

d u c te d by B a y le y and r e p o r t e d E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h .

s t u d y was c o n ­

i n 1939 i n t h e R e v ie w o f

I t w as c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e m e n t a l a n d

m o to r d e v e lo p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n .

S he s t a t e s :

S e v e r a l b a t t e r i e s o f t e s t s o f m o to r a b i l i t i e s h av e b e e n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g t h e l a s t few y ears. T hese have b e e n used f o r o b ta in in g a t o t a l sc o re

K. L . H e a to n , " P h y s i c a l D ev elo p m en t o f C h i l d r e n o f H i g h a n d Low M e n t a l A b i l i t y G r o u p s , " A m e r i c a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v ie w . 3 0 :1 5 4 , M arch , 1 9 2 5 . 9

E t h e l M. A b e r n e t h y , " C o r r e l a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l a n d M e n ta l G ro w th ," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o lo g y . 1 6 :4 6 1 , O c to b e r, 1925.

17

o r m o to r age o r m o to r q u o t i e n t ; and s e p a r a t e t e s t s h a v e a l s o b e e n com pared f o r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and f o r f a c t o r s i n m o to r a b i l i t y . O z e r e tz k i 's t e s t s have b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n F re n c h and d i s c u s s e d b y A b ra h a m s o n a n d L a G - a r r e c . They a n a ly z e d t h e s e t e s t s in to th e fo llo w in g e le m e n ts: s t a t i c a n d d y n a m ic c o o r d i n a t i o n o f m o v em en ts, and t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e of sy n k in e sis. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n m o to r q u o t i e n t s and i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s a r e .3 1 f o r g i r l s and .3 0 fo r boys. The O z e r e t z k i t e s t s

o f m o to r p r o f i c i e n c y a r e w id e ly

u se d i n E u ro p e, h a v in g t h e i r R u ssia .

o r i g i n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n

They a r e u s e d a t t h e Los A n g e le s C i t y S c h o o ls

A d v ise m en t S e r v i c e t o d e t e c t m o to r d e t e r i o r a t i o n . used in r e l a t i o n a d u lts.

t o v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e f o r

They a re

a d o l e s c e n t s and

L assn er r e p o r t s t h a t th e y have been t r a n s l a t e d

G e rm a n , F r e n c h , P o r t u g u e s e , S e v e ra l o th e r

and S v r i s s ,

a s w e l l a s E n g l i s h . 10

a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m ade t o

sc o re s of th e se

t e s t s w ith in te llig e n c e

was no e v id e n c e t o

in d ic a te th e r e s u l t s .

c o r r e la te th e q u o tie n t,

but th e re

N or h a v e t h e s e

t e s t s b e e n s t a n d a r d i z e d on A m e ric a n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . im p o rta n c e ,

or c o n trib u tio n ,

in to

T h e ir

i s e x p r e s s e d by L a s s n e r :

" A l t h o u g h m any f o r m s o f s o c i a l a c h i e v e m e n t d e p e n d m a i n l y on m o to r p r o c e s s e s ,

a. s y s t e m a t i c

in v e s tig a tio n of th e ir

d e v elo p m e n t h a s n o t b e e n u n d e r ta k e n i n t h i s

10 N ancy B a y le y ,

o p . c i t .,

g e n e tic

c o u n t r y . " 11

9 :3 5 .

11 R . L a s s n e r , " A n n o ta te d B i b li o g r a p h y on O s e r e ts k y T e s t s o f M o to r P r o f i c i e n c y , " J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t a n t P s y c h o ­ lo g y , 1 2 :3 7 , J a n u a ry , 1948,

18 C ozens * c o m p a ris o n o f m e n ta l and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s * I n 1 9 2 7 F . W. C o z e n s r e p o r t e d on t h i s

su b je c t.

/

on p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s c o m p le te d

He s t a t e s t h a t t h e f i r s t

stu d y of t h i s

ty p e w as a c c o m p lis h e d b e f o r e 1900 a t S ta m fo rd , C ozens fo u n d t h a t t h i s f i r s t .0 5 2 8 .

A h ig h e r p o s itiv e

w ork w i t h

.1 0 .

s tu d y had a c o r r e l a t i o n of

c o r r e l a t i o n w as show n b y G a r f i e l ’ s

H o w e v e r, t h e s e s t u d i e s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h

o ld e r age g ro u p s .

By c o m p a r i n g t h e s e s c o r e s w i t h t h o s e

o b ta in e d from t e s t i n g

younger c h ild r e n ,

(_!) T h e b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d a b o y i s , s c h o o l w o rk .

C o n n e c tic u t.

C ozens d e c id e d t h a t :

t h e m o re a p t h e i s

in

(2} T he g e n e r a l l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y

c h i l d r e n who r a t e

h ig h in in te l li g e n c e

s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f c h i l d r e n who r a t e

te s ts

is

of

d is tin c tly

lo w i n i n t e l l i g e n c e .

(3 ) T h e re seem s to . b e ' a d i s t i n c t ^ r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n a b ility

in p h y sic a l t e s ts H.

and - s c h o l a s t i c r e s u lts .- * - 2

E . J o n e s a l s o fo u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n u n im p a ire d by

p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s a n d who p o s s e s s e d a p t t o be s u p e r io r

s u p e r i o r h e a l t h w ere

i n p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s .

In

r e f e r r i n g t o a n o th e r s tu d y o f s i g n i f i c a n c e he s t a t e s : S ta n w ic k , c o m p a rin g t h e lo w e s t and h i g h e s t 10$ i n i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s o f a p p r o x im a te ly 400 c h i l d r e n , r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e o f .7 d e f e c t s f o r t h e b r i g h t g ro u p a g a i n s t 3 .4 f o r th e d u l l g r o u p . 13

12 yj. C o z e n s , " S t a t u s o f t h e P r o b l e m o f t h e R e l a ­ t i o n o f P h y s i c a l t o M e n ta l A b i l i t y . " A m e ric an P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v ie w . 3 2 :1 4 7 -5 5 , M arch, 1§27I 1 H. E . J o n e s , " R e l a t i o n s h i p i n P h y s i c a l and M e n ta l D e v e l o p m e n t . " R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 3 : 1 5 ^ A p r i l , 1933.

19

The K u l c i n s k i s t u d y . s tu d ie s rev ie w e d .

T h is i s th e m ost r e c e n t o f th e

I t w as c o m p le te d i n 1 9 4 5 ,

ta k e n t o d e te rm in e th e r e l a t i o n

of th e

in te llig e n c e

l e a r n i n g o f fu n d a m e n ta l m u sc u la r s k i l l s . te s ts

g iv e n t o

g rad es.

1 0 5 b o y s an d g i r l s

m u sc u la r s k i l l s .

e ffic ie n c y

and t h e l e a r n i n g

o f fu n d a m e n ta l

s ig n if ic a n c e fa v o rs th e

are d i f f i c u l t .

is about th e

and s i x t h

(1 ) A r e l a t i o n s h i p

( 8 ) T he p o s i t i v e

g i r l s w here t h e s k i l l s

to th e

I t w as b a s e d u p o n

of th e f i f t h

K u lc in s k i c o n c lu d e s t h a t :

e x i s t s b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

I t w as u n d e r ­

( 3 ) The p r e d i c t i v e

sam e f o r b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s .

P ro b a b le re a s o n s f o r c o n s is te n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . o r d e r t o v a l i d l y t e s t m o to r a b i l i t y

In

o r m o to r c a p a c i t y ,

it

goes w ith o u t sa y in g t h a t th e

in d iv id u a l te s te d

good p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .

a n i n d i v i d u a l w ere t e s t e d w hen

ill

If

o r n o t i n good c o n d i t i o n ,

a tru e te s t

c a p a c i t y w o u ld b e f o r t h a t p e r i o d h is u sual a b ility A lso ,

o n ly ,

sh o u ld be i n

o f^ h is a b i l i t y or

and n o t v a l i d

as to

or c a p a c ity under n o rm al c o n d itio n s .

h i s g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n w o u ld b e m o re a p t t o

b e a t I t s p e a k d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o r y e a r s t h a t he w as m o st m o tiv a te d to e x e r c is e v ig o r o u s ly . c h ild th is

answ ers t h i s age i s

14

la tte r

n a tu ra l,

K u lc in s k i,

The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l

d e sc rip tio n .

and f o r t h e g i r l ,

op., c i t . ,

V ig o ro u s p l a y a t p a rtic u la rly ,

1 6 :2 6 9 -7 6 .

it

is

20

th e

age a t w h ic h i t - i s

t h e m o st v i g o r o u s and u n i n h i b i t e d .

T h is i s t h e o n ly p e r io d

in th e averag e in d iv id u a l’s l i f e

w h ic h s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s a r e n o t g r e a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e lo p m e n t.

on t h e b e h a l f o f

T he p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e

a m a te u r a t h l e t e w o u ld o f c o u r s e be a n e x c e p t i o n . e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l c h ild

is

en d u ran ce,

or th e

The

K

n o t e x p e c te d t o s tu d y a f t e r

l e a v i n g s c h o o l and i s p e r m i t t e d c o o rd in a tio n ,

a tV

c a re fre e p la y .

A lth o u g h

and g e n e r a l p ro w e s s i s n o t g r e a t e s t

a t t h i s p e r i o d , p h y s i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c e i v e s m o re a t t e n ­ t i o n a n d i s m o re n a t u r a l t h a n a t a n y o t h e r p e r i o d . se e m r e a s o n a b l e

and l o g i c a l t h a t t h e

I t w o u ld

c o rre la tio n o f p h y sic a l

p e r f o r m a n c e o f any k in d w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e w o u ld b e m o re f a i r

at th is age.

When t h e s t u d e n t e n t e r s j u n i o r

h i g h , m u ch o f t h i s n a t u r a l p l a y c o n t i n u e s ,

but s c h o la s tic

a c h i e v e m e n t b e c o m e s m o re i m p o r t a n t t h a n b e f o r e a n d may r e q u ir e th e tie s .

s t u d e n t t o c u r t a i l some o f h i s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i ­

On t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t

r e c e i v e s e v e n m o re e m p h a s i s a n d t h e in te llig e n c e

a n d t h e p h y s i c a l m ay b e p o s i t i v e ,

lo w e r s c o r e and, c o rre la tio n . m a tu re s,

c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n

fin a lly ,

but it

on th e a d u lt l e v e l t h e r e

T h is m ig h t w e l l be b e c a u s e ,

as th e

is a

i s no

in d iv id u a l

s o c i e t y dem ands t h a t t h e a v e ra g e o r above m a i n t a i n

a c e r t a i n am ount o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y , g ro ss p h y sic a l a c tiv ity . change a n a tiv e

but l i t t l e

o r n o f\

A c t i v i t y w o u ld n o t n e c e s s a r i l y

c a p a c ity ,' b u t t o m easure i n t e l l i g e n c e

Q u o tie n t th e b r a i n m ust be f u n c tio n in g p r o p e r ly ,

and t h e

sam e i s t r u e w i t h t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e , in n a te o r a c q u ire d .

T h e a v e r a g e a d u l t d o e s n o t w o r r y m uch

a b o u t k e e p in g t h e l a r g e m u sc le g ro u p s i n good t o n u s .

T h is

l a c k o f t o n u s o r c o n d i t i o n w o u ld a f f e c t a n y t e s t s

of

p h y s ic a l p erfo rm an ce.

th e n ,

I t w o u ld l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w ,

t h a t w henever m o tiv a tio n f o r p h y s ic a l a c t i v i t y d e c lin e

i n g e n e r a l p h y s ic a l to n u s r e s u l t s ,

le sse n s,

an d t h e

a

c o rre la ­

t i o n b e t w e e n p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e and I n t e l l e c t u a l p e r ­ fo rm an ce i s

on t h e down g r a d e .

H a ro ld E . J o n e s f e l t t h e r e w ere d e f i n i t e r e a s o n s f o r t h e h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among y o u n g c h i l d r e n . A b e rn e th y ’ s s tu d y he s a y s :

In d isc u ssin g

^

A b e rn e th y c o n c lu d e d t h a t th e t r e n d o f d e c r e a s in g c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n m e n ta l and p h y s i c a l m e a su re s i n l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e i s i n h a rm o n y w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l l y a g ro w th re la tio n .I5 III.

PHYSICAL ABILITY COMPARED WITH INTELLECTUAL FACTORS OF HIGH.SCHOOL STUDENTS

M ost o f t h e s t u d i e s on t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l w ere c o n c e rn e d w it h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n th e s c h o l a s t i c m arks or in te llig e n c e

of a th le te s

and n o n - a t h l e t e s .

I n th e

s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d t h e r e w as no a tt e m p t t o m e a s u re p h y s i c a l

1^

Jones,

op. c i t ..

9p92, F e b ru a ry ,

1939.

EE

o r m o to r q u o t i e n t s b u t r a t h e r t o sp e c ific

c o m p a re t h e . d e g r e e o f

and g r o s s m o to r s k i l l s w ith t h e

q u o t i e n t o r a c a d e m ic m a r k s .

The r e s u l t s

in te llig e n c e of th e s e

g e n e r a l l y , w e re n o t e x p r e s s e d by c o e f f i c i e n t

stu d ie s,

of c o rr e la tio n s

b u t b y p e r c e n t a g e s o r b y m o re g e n e r a l m e a n s . D o n a l d W. B a i l e y s t u d y . 16 p r e s e n te d i n 19E8. lig e n c e

The s t u d y w a s a t h e s i s

^

B a i l e y u s e d a c a d e m ic g r a d e s and i n t e l ­

q u o tie n ts t o d e te rm in e th e m e n ta l s ta n d a r d s o f th e

b o y s t u d e n t s a t L i n c o l n H i g h S c h o o l I n L os A n g e l e s .

Jor

t h e p u r p o s e o f c o m p a r i s o n h e d i v i d e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o tw o gro u p s.

One g r o u p c o n s i s t e d

re c e iv e d

a th le tic

p ris e d th e

aw ard s.

second g ro u p .

r e c e i v e d aw ard s i n t e n n i s , g roup h ig h e r h ig h e r m ark s, in te llig e n c e th e

in te llig e n c e

o f n i n e t y - f i v e b o y s who h a d

The r e s t

o f • t h e s t u d e n t s com­

B a ile y fo u n d t h a t boys h a v in g tra c k ,

and b a s k e t b a l l h ad a s a

q u o tie n t r a tin g s

p o th e r aw ard w i n n e r s , q u o tie n t r a tin g s

and had r e c e i v e d

h ow ever,

sh o w ed l o w e r

and m ark s t h a n t h e r e s t

of

s tu d e n ts . Wayne L . C h e n e y s t u d y . 1 *7

In a th e s is

o f 1934 Cheney

D o n a l d W. B a i l e y , " A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f I n t e l l i ­ g e n c e and S c h o l a s t i c A c h iev e m e n t o f A t h l e t e s , ” ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 S 8 ) , 61 p p . 17 Wayne L . C h e n e y ," A C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e M e n t a l an d P h y s i c a l A b i l i t y o f D e lin q u e n t Boys A ssig n e d t o S p e c i a l S c h o o l s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 4 ), 114 p p .

S3 re p o rte d

on f i n d i n g s from t h e s tu d y o f d e li n q u e n t h o y s

a s s ig n e d t o a s p e c i a l s c h o o l i n th e Los A n g e les a r e a .

T he

p r o b l e m w as t o c o m p a r e t h e m a r k s o b t a i n e d b y ( 1 ) l e t t e r m e n , (2 )

a th le te s,

and (3) n o n - a t h l e t e s

in a secondary sc h o o l.

The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e w as t o d i s c o v e r i f

t h e m arks o f a t h l e t e s

i n i n t e r - s c h o l a s t i c p ro g ra m s w ere p o o r e r o r b e t t e r p a rtic ip a n ts .

He f o u n d t h a t t h e

th e th r e e g roups s h o w e d .little

in te llig e n c e

d iffe re n c e ,

e s t t o t a l was s c o r e d b y t h e a t h l e t e s . t h e l e t t e r m e n w ere t h e a t h l e t e s w ere

th a n non­

q u o tie n ts of

th o u g h th e h ig h -

I n m arks o b ta in e d ,

.3 p e rc e n t above th e n o n - a t h l e t e s ,

•i

and

.5 p e r c e n t above n o n - a t h l e t e s .

F lo r e n c e Fye s t u d y .

The p r o b l e m w a s :

t o d e te rm in e w h e th e r or n o t t h e r e a re d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n h i g h - s c h o o l g i r l s o f h i g h and lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e i n r e g a r d t o d i f f e r e n t m o to r a b i l i t i e s o r i n m o to r a b i l i t i e s a s a w h o le .18 Fye c o n c lu d e d t h a t th e l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e no p a r t

q u o tie n t p la y e d

i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l e v e l o f m o to r a b i l i t y .

found t h a t

th e a b i l i t y

She a l s o

t o p e rfo rm m o to r a b i l i t y t e s t s

d e c r e a s e s a s age and w e ig h t in c r e a s e * D a v i d I . M c A l l i s t e r s t u d y «**~9

T h i s s t u d y w as an

1 8 F l o r e n c e F y e , ” A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e M o to r A b i l i t y , o f H i g h - S c h o o l G i r l s o f H ig h a n d Low I n t e l l i g e n c e , ” ( u n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The u n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 5 ), p . 1 . D a v i d J . M c A l l i s t e r . "An E x p e r i m e n t ' t o D e t e r m i n e t h e C o r r e l a t i o n B e t w e e n C e r t a i n P h y s i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t s an d S c h ' o l a s t i e A c h i e v e m e n t , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 ) , 57 pp.

e x p e rim e n t t o d e te rm in e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l m e a s u re m e n ts and s c h o l a s t i c th e s c h o la s tic re c o rd s

a c h ie v e m e n t i n w h ic h

an d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s o f a

l a r g e g ro u p o f b o y s w ere u s e d a s m e a s u re s o f m e n ta l t r a i t s . G rip ,

c h e s t e x p a n sio n ,

and t h e b i c e p s e x p a n s io n w ere u s e d

t o m easure th e p h y s i c a l t r a i t s '.

C o r r e l a t i o n s w ere c o m p u ted .

T he c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c h o l a s t i c

a c h ie v e m e n t and c e r t a i n

p h y s i c a l m e a su re m e n ts ' w as n o t a c o n s t a n t q u a n t i t y . v a rie d

It

i n s i g n and i n d e g re e w i t h t h e ty p e o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t

c o n s i d e r e d and w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l t r a i t

con­

sid e re d . M* S* E lm o r e s t u d y . 2 0 lig e n c e

q u o t i e n t and s c h o l a s t i c

a t E a g le R ock H ig h S c h o o l. d iv id e d th e

in te llig e n c e

an d

in te l­

g rad es of th e boys e n ro lle d

For th e purpose of th e

s tu d e n ts in to th re e g roup s,

(2) a t h l e t e s ,

g ro u p s.

E lm o r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e

(3) n o n - a t h l e t e s .

(1)

stu d y he

le tte rm e n ,

He f o u n d t h a t t h e

q u o t i e n t m e a n s c o r e s w e r e s i m il a r * f o r a l l t h r e e

The m e a n f o r t h e l e t t e r m e n w as 1 0 5 . 2 5 ,

a t h l e t e s 1 0 5 .0 ,

and. f o r

a l l o th e r boys,

1 0 4 .5 .

f o r th e In su b je c t

a c h ie v e m e n t t h e l e t t e r m e n w ere 1 6 .9 p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n n o n -a th le te s,

and t h e a t h l e t e s w ere 1 4 .4 p e r c e n t h i g h e r

2 0 M o re y W. E l m o r e , nA C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f A c a d e m ic G ra d e s o f A t h l e t e s and N o n - A th l e t e s i n E a g le R ock H ig h S c h o o l , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 0 ) , 81 p p .

/

25 th a n n o n - a th le te s . H ow ard C . R a y s t u d y .21 R a y s t u d i e d t h e

in te r-re la tio n ­

s h ip o f p h y s i c a l and m e n ta l a c h ie v e m e n ts o f 432 hoy a t h l e t e s o f P a l o A l t o H ig h S c h o o l.

I n 1940 in th e R e s e a rc h Q u a r te r ly

he r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a t h l e t e was s u p e r i o r i n m e n ta l a b i l i t y an d a c a d e m i c g r a d e s . I V . . PHYSICAL ABILITY COMPARED WITH INTELLECTUAL ' FACTORS OF COLLEGE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS D . W. B a i l e y s t u d y The t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d b y B a i l e y i n 1940 w as c o n c e rn e d w ith f i n d i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n th e in te llig e n c e

and s c h o l a s t i c

th a t of th e r e s t

of th e

a ch iev e m e n t of a t h l e t e s

s t u d e n t body o f m en.

an d

P a r t of th e

e x p e r im e n t w as w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and p a r t w i t h t h e a t h l e t e s a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n ia . in te llig e n c e r a tin g b e lo w t h a t

of th e

in grade a v e ra g e s.

o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y a t h l e t e s w as s l i g h t l y

s t u d e n t b o d y a n d e v e n m o re m a r k e d l y l o w e r The a t h l e t e s

i n t r a c k an d t e n n i s w e r e y

h i g h e r i n i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t i n g s t h a n w ere t h e th e

T he

o th e r m ajo r s p o r ts *

a th le te s in

B a i l e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e w as

PI

H ow ard C . R a y , ” I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f P h y s i c a l a n d M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s an d A c h i e v e m e n t s o f H i g h S c h o o l B o y s , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . 1 1 :1 2 9 - 4 1 , M arch, 1 9 4 0 . pp

B a ile y ,

lo c . c l t .

26 little

d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p betvireen i n t e l l i g e n c e

and t h e

a b i l i t y t o w in a l e t t e r . Jo h n F . B ovard s t u d y . e n ro lle d

B o v a r d g a v e t e s t s t o t h e m en

a t th e U n i v e r s i t y o f O regon.

He u s e d t h e

A d m in is tr a tin g T e s ts t o d e te rm in e i n t e l l i g e n c e

O tis S e lf

q u o tie n t.

T h ese t e s t r e s u l t s w ere c o r r e l a t e d w ith p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y . The l a t t e r w as d e te r m i n e d b y t h e h u n d re d y a r d d a s h , r u n n i n g b r o a d ju m p , b a s e b a l l t h r o w ,

and t h e fe n c e c lim b .

no c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

He f o u n d

q u o t i e n t and p h y s i c a l

a b ility . C h a r l o t t e H o w ell s t u d y . b u t r e p o r t e d b y C o z e n s . 2^

T h i s s t u d y w as u n p u b l i s h e d

H o w ell g av e p h y s i c a l t e s t s

th e O tis S e lf A d m in is te rin g T e s ts t o

and

387 c o l l e g e w om en.

B e t w e e n t h e tw o s h e f o u n d a v e r y i n s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e o f re la tio n s h ip .

She c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e

who h a v e a h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e slig h tly

s tu d e n ts a s a group

q u o tie n t w i l l p ro b a b ly t e s t

lo w e r i n th e p h y s i c a l s k i l l s

th a n th o se

stu d e n ts

i n t h e lo w i n t e l l e c t u a l g r o u p .

23

Jo h n F . B ovard, u n p u b lis h e d t e s t , r e p o r t e d by F . W. C o z e n s , nS t a t u s o f t h e P r o b l e m o f t h e R e l a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l t o M e n ta l A b i l i t y , ” A m e ric an P h y s i c a l E d u c a ti o n R e v ie w , p p . 1 5 3 -5 4 , 1 9 2 7 . 24

C h a r l o t t e H o w ell, u n p u b lis h e d s tu d y , r e p o r t e d b y F . W. - C o z e n s , o p . c i t . . p . 1 4 9 .

27

G r a n v i l l e B . J o h n s o n s t u d y . 25 stu d y t o d e te rm in e th e r e l a t i o n s h i p p h y sic a l s k i l ls

and t h e

t h a t e x i s t s b e tw e e n

in te llig e n c e

The t e s t s w e r e g i v e n t o t h e D enver.

Jo h n so n c o n d u c te d th e

stu d e n ts

of c o lle g e

stu d e n ts .

of th e U n iv e rs ity of

J o h n s o n c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e r e w as no s i g n i f i c a n t

re la tio n sh ip

b e tw e e n p h y s i c a l s k i l l and i n t e l l i g e n c e .

Nor

was t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n p h y s i c a l sk ills

and a c a d e m ic g r a d e s . B u r t t , L a n d i s , a n d N i c h o l s s t u d y . 26

T hese i n v e s t i ­

g a t o r s t e s t e d t h e f r e s h m e n o f O h io S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . s tu d e n ts w ere g iv e n th e T e s t w h ic h i s

O h io S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y I n t e l l i g e n c e

s i m i l a r t o t h e A lp h a E x a m in a tio n .

of th is

t e s t w ere c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e

a b ility

te s ts .

y ard dash,

The p h y s i c a l t e s t s

t h e r u n n i n g b r o a d ju m p ,

th e fe n c e c lim b .

The

The r e s u l t s

s c o r e s from p h y s i c a l

c o n siste d

of th e h u ndred

th e b a s e b a l l th ro w ,

and

The i n v e s t i g a t o r s f o u n d n o r e l a t i o n s h i p

b e tw e e n p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y M. Remp s t u d y .

27

and i n t e l l i g e n c e The r e s u l t s

q u o tie n t.

of t h i s

stu d y a re

25 G r a n v i l l e B . J o h n s o n , nA S t u d y o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t E x i s t s B e t w e e n P h y s i c a l S k i l l s a s M e a s u r e d a n d t h e G en­ e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e o f C o lle g e S t u d e n t s ," R e s e a rc h Q u a r te r ly , 1 3 :5 7 - 5 9 , M arch, 1 9 4 2 . * ------------26 H . E . ' - B u r t t , M. H . L a n d i s J . K. N i c h o l s , " R e l a ­ t i o n B e tw e e n P h y s i c a l E f f i c i e n c y a n a I n t e l l i g e n c e , ” A m e r i c a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e v i e w , 2 8 : 2 2 0 - 2 1 , May, 1 9 2 3 . 2 ^ Ivl. Remp, "A C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e S c h o l a s t i c R e c o r d s o f A t h l e t e s and N o n - a t h l e t e s , ” A m e ric an P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n R e v ie w . 3 0 :1 9 1 , A p r i l , 1 9 2 5 . ------ ------- -------*-------- ---------------------

28 so m e w h a t I n r e v e r s e re p o rte d .

of th e fin d in g s of th e

Remp f o u n d t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e

h ig h e r t e s t

sc o re s th a n th e

stu d ie s

q u o tie n t of a th le te s

t o be s l i g h t l y h ig h e r th a n n o n - a t h l e t e s . r e c e i v e d lo w e r t e s t

o th e r

F o o tb a ll p la y e rs

o th e r a t h l e t e s b u t

sc o re s th a n th e n o n -a th le te s .

T h e h e a l t h y c h i l d who p o s s e s s e s a h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o tie n t g e n e ra lly has b e tte r th a n th e

sk ill

in p h y sic a l a b ility

c h i l d w i t h a lo w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t.

'T he

c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e tw o f a c t o r s h a v e n o t b e e n h i g h e r th a n

.3 .

I t w as c o n c lu d e d b y m o st o f t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l

s tu d ie s th a t th e re

is

a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n i n t e l l i ­

g e n c e q u o t i e n t and m o to r a b i l i t y

but th e re

f a c t o r s w h ic h p r e v e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s

are

in d e p e n d e n t

of h ig h p r e d i c ti v e v a lu e .

On t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l s t u d i e s t e n d e d t o sh o w z e r o re la tio n sh ip .

R ay, C heney,

a n d E lm o r e f o u n d t h e a t h l e t e

to be s l i g h t l y b r i g h te r th a n th e n o n - a th le te .

M c A llis te r

and B a il e y fo u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t te n d e d t o b e z e r o . fo u n d z e r o and s l i g h t l y s t u d i e s w ere p r i m a r i l y th e a t h l e t e .

n e g a tiv e

c o rre la tio n s .

c o n cern ed w ith th e

T he a t h l e t e

d e te rm in e p h y s ic a l a b i l i t y

F ye

T hese

in te llig e n c e

of

g e n e r a l l y w as n o t g i v e n a t e s t t o n o r w as t h e n o n - a t h l e t e .

H ig h

p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s m ig h t be fo u n d ^ rn th e n o n - a t h l e t e g ro u p . I f m any s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e f o u n d i n a n y o f t h e n o n ­ a th le te

g r o u p s s c o r e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u ld b e t h r o w n o f f . I f th e re la tio n s h ip

b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t

and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y

is

a g ro w th r e l a t i o n s h i p ,

t h a t w o u ld

e x p la in th e p o s itiv e

c o r r e l a t i o n s fo u n d on t h e e le m e n ta r y

l e v e l d ro p p in g t o n e a r z e r o a t th e h ig h s c h o o l l e v e l and te n d i n g to w a rd th e n e g a t i v e

on t h e c o l l e g e

or u n iv e r s ity

le v e l. T he m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e may b e d i s t i n c t l y a c tiv ity

to w ard p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y

an d n o t a t a l l e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d .

on s c h o l a s t i c

stu d e n t

or m e n ta l An e m p h a s i s

a c h ie v e m e n t c o u ld c au se p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y

d e c lin e th ro u g h d is u s e . g i r l u n d e r tw e lv e i s

The m o to r a b i l i t y

n o t so ap t to

to

of th e boy or

s u f f e r from d i s u s e .

CHAPTER III FACTORS WHICH CAUSE CONFUSION IN THE SEARCH FOR A SOHJTION TO THE PROBLEM T he s t u d e n t who w i s h e s t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p ro b le m a s t o w h e th e r o r n o t t h e r e b e tw e e n p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s in te llig e n c e p a th .

is

any c o r r e l a t i o n

o r m o to r c a p a c i t i e s and t h e

q u o t i e n t f i n d s a n u m b er o f o b s t a c l e s i n h i s

R e s e a r c h on t h e t o p i c u n e a r t h s d i s s e n t i n g o p i n io n s

and c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s

of e x p e rim e n ta tio n .

T he d ile m m a o f c o m p a r i s o n s .

One a p p a r e n t d r a w b a c k

t o r e a c h i n g a s o l u t i o n seem s t o hav e b e e n due t o t h e p a ris o n of an in n a te

in te llig e n c e

com­

q u o tie n t w ith t h a t o f an

a c q u ire d s k i l l or a b i l i t y .

T he s k i l l o r a b i l i t y

i n n a t e m ay b e n o i n d i c a t i o n

of th e p o t e n t i a l of t h a t s k i l l

or a b il i ty .

n o t b e in g

E d u c a t o r s know t h e r e c a n b e a l a r g e g a p

b e tw e e n a s t u d e n t ’ s i n t e l l i g e n c e o f k n o w led g e o r s c h o l a r s h i p .

q u o t i e n t and h i s d i s p l a y

T h e re c o u ld be a l i k e . g a p

b e tw e e n a s t u d e n t ’ s m o to r q u o t i e n t o r p o t e n t i a l and h i s a c tu a l d isp la y of s k i l l .

M o to r a b i l i t y

is

a m easu re of

a c q u i r e d s k i l l w i t h no c l a i m a s t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ’ s a c t u a l c a p a c ity .

P h y sic a l a b ility

t e s t s m easure w hat i s ,

m ig h t b e .

T he i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o t i e n t and t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t

a r e b o th i n d i c a t i o n s o f w hat m ig h t o r s h o u ld b e .

n o t w hat

The

in te llig e n c e k n o w led g e, a c q u ire d

q u o t ie n t t e s t d o es n o t m easu re a c c u m u la te d

n o r d o e s t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t t e s t m e a su re

s k ill.

I t w o u l d seem t h e y m i g h t l o g i c a l l y

b e c o m p a r e d , b u t i t w o u ld se em i l l o g i c a l t o

c o m p a re a n

in n a te c a p a c ity of i n te l li g e n c e w ith an a c q u ire d a b i l i t y . E a rly

stu d ie s.

v /ith th e r e l a t i o n s h i p

One o f t h e f i r s t

s t u d i e s co n ce rn e d

o f p h y s i c a l and m e n ta l a s p e c t s o f

t h e i n d i v i d u a l - w a s c o m p l e t e d i n 1 8 9 3 b y W. T . P o r t e r a t t h e Academ y o f S c i e n c e a t S t . L o u i s ,

T he p h y s i c a l s i z e

re p re s e n te d th e p h y s ic a l a sp e c t of th e

in d iv id u a l,

g r a d e p l a c e m e n t was t h e

and

c r i t e r i o n o f m e n ta l a b i l i t y .

O ver

a p e r i o d o f f i f t y - e i g h t y e a r s m u ch h a s b e e n l e a r n e d a b o u t hum an a b i l i t i e s

and c a p a c i t i e s .

T h is f i r s t

s t u d y w o u ld

no l o n g e r b e s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r t h a n a s a c o r n e r s t o n e o f th e q u ery in to th e r e l a t i o n s h i p

b e t w e e n tw o hu m an f a c u l t i e s

w h ic h f o r c e n t u r i e s w e re t h o u g h t t o be i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o th e r. I n th e n e x t q u a r t e r o f a c e n tu r y t e s t s w ere d e ­ v is e d t o a s c e r t a i n m e n ta l c a p a c i t i e s and p h y s i c a l i n d i c e s of stre n g th ,

s k ill,

g e n e ra l,

w i t h t h e s e new t o o l s t h e p h y sic a l a b i l i t i e s

and s p e c i f i c

a b ility .

Even

c o m p a ris o n s o f m e n ta l v /ith

l e f t m uch t o b e d e s i r e d .

T h is was due

32 in p a rt to th e f a c t th a t v a ria b le s w ere n o t w e l l c o n t r o l l e d ,

in flu e n c in g t e s t r e s u l ts

and s t a t i s t i c a l m e a su re s o f

e v a l u a t i o n w ere n o t w hat th e y a r e to d a y . e d u c a tio n ,

i n p o s s e s s i o n o f m odern t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s ,

can rea d th e se e a rly shed l i t t l e

S tu d e n ts of

s t u d i e s a n d s e e why t h e

or no l i g h t upon th e

end r e s u l t

s o l u t i o n of th e p ro b le m .

T h e y d i d p a v e t h e w ay f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . F rom c o n s i d e r a t i o n ’ o f o v e r o n e h u n d r e d s t u d i e s on p h y s i c a l - m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,

t h e v a r i a b l e s o f w h ic h

w ere

body b u ild

(1 ) a n th r o p o m e tr ic m e a s u re s ,

p h y sic a l c o n d itio n , and (2)

in d ic e s ,

a n a to m ic a l or p h y s io lo g ic a l age;

i n t e l l i g e n c e m e a s u r e s o f a c c o m p lis h m e n t and

e ffic ie n c y ,

Jones s ta te s th a t:

The c o n c l u s i o n w a s r e a c h e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a n y o n e m e a s u r e o f p h y s i c a l s i z e Jag© c o n s t a n t a n d a n y o ne m e a s u r e o f m e n t a l s t a t u s w as u n i f o r m l y t o o lo w f o r p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s , u s u a l l y b e l o w . 3 0 an d q u i t e com m only b e t w e e n . 1 0 and . 2 0 . 2 The d i le m m a o f t e r m s .

F ro m 1 8 9 2 u n t i l a b o u t 1 9 3 0 ,

te s te rs

o f p h y s ic a l p erfo rm an ce u sed such term s a s a b i l i t y ,

tra its ,

g ro w th ,

d e v elo p m e n t,

and e f f i c i e n c y .

The w o rd

c a p a c i t y o r q u o t i e n t w as n o t f o r a lo n g tim e v a l i d l y w ith p h y s ic a l t e s t s .

2 1936.

lin k e d

E a rly s tu d ie s a ls o in te rc h a n g e d th e

H a ro ld E . J o n e s ,

op. c i t ..

6 :1 0 2 , F e b ru a ry ,

33 w o rd s m o to r and p h y s i c a l . e ith e r ev er,

T h is i s u n d e rs ta n d a b le

c o u l d b e u s e d t o c o n n o t a t e m u s c u l a r m o v e m e n t. t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t u s e s m o to r i n a s p e c i f i c

d o some p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s .

C ozens s t a t e s

a b i l i t y m eans " b ig m u s c le " a b i l i t y , in c lu d e s f in e r e tc .3

sin c e How­

sense,

as

th a t p h y sic a l

and t h a t m o t o r a b i l i t y

a d ju s tm e n ts such as ta p p in g ,

r e a c t i o n tim e ,

E v en th o u g h t h i s w as k n o w n 'in 1 9 2 7 , t h e p h y s i c a l

e d u c a to r

o f t o d a y i s 'q u i t e

a p t t o s p e a k o f e i t h e r m o to r o r

p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y w hen r e f e r r i n g t o " b i g m u s c le " a b i l i t y . h e c l a i m s a k n o w le d g e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p to in te llig e n c e

q u o tie n t,

he i s

If

o f m o to r a b i l i t y

in c o n f l i c t w ith th e p sy ch o ­

l o g i s t who u s u a l l y t h i n k s o f m o t o r s k i l l a s s k i l l

in fin e

m a n ip u la tio n o f th e ty p e u se d t o d e te rm in e p r a c t i c a l or c o n c re te

in te llig e n c e .4

T h i s i s f u r t h e r d e m o n s tr a te d by

L o c k e ' s e x p e r i m e n t i n w h i c h s h e u s e d a f i n g e r m aze i n a s tu d y o f s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n I n m o to r l e a r n i n g . 5 g i s t may m e a s u r e i n t e l l i g e n c e c e r t a i n ty p e

A p sy c h o lo ­

o f a p re -s c h o o l c h ild w ith a

o f m o to r s k i l l t e s t .

T h is i s n o t th e ty p e o f

m o to r s k i l l t o w h ic h t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r r e f e r s .

3 C ozens,

op. c i t .,

I t w o u ld

3 2 :1 4 8 .

4 G e o r g e P . Car-1, "A Hew P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t f o r A d u l t s •a n d O l d e r C h i l d r e n , ” J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . 7 - 8 : 1 9 3 , Ja n u a ry , 1939. 5

E s t h e r L o c k e , " P e r c e p t u a l F a c t o r s I n M o to r L e a r n ­ in g , " J o u rn a l o f P sy c h o lo g y . 5 -6 :1 6 3 , Ja n u a ry , 1938.

34 se e m t h a t t h e l a t t e r

sh o u ld r e s p e c t th e c o n n o ta tio n o f

" m o t o r 11 g i v e n t o i t b y t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t ,

and r e c o g n i z e d by

an e m in en t p h y s i c a l e d u c a to r su c h a s C o z en s.

T h is d i v i s i o n

o f l a b o r f o r t h e tw o w o r d s m i g h t c l e a r up c o n f u s i o n i n t h e m i n d s o f t h o s e w ho d o n o t r e a l i z e of each.

The n e c e s s i t y f o r t h i s

th e

sin g u la r

sig n ific a n c e

d i s t i n c t i o n becom es

n e c e s s a r y s in c e S e a sh o re r e c e n t l y c o n clu d ed th e r e o v e r-a ll p o sitiv e

in te rre la te d n e s s

and g r o s s m o to r a b i l i t i e s . 6

i s no

o f f i n e m o to r a b i l i t i e s ,

He u s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s

as

m e a s u re s o f f i n e m o to r a b i l i t i e s : 1.

K o e rth P u r s u i t R o to r

2.

W h ip p le S t e a d i n e s s T e s t

3.

M in n e so ta R a te o f M a n ip u la tio n T e st

4.

M ile s A ta x ia m e te r

5.

W e ig h te d L e v e r T e s t S t e a d i n e s s

6.

W ire -b o a rd T e s t o f S te a d in e s s I n c o n t r a s t a r e t h e m e a s u r e s o f g r o s s m o to r a b i l i t i e s

w h ic h he recom m ends; 1.

W a l k i n g Beam T e s t o f D y n am ic B a l a n c e

2.

B a la n c e P l a tf o r m T e s t of G ro ss S te a d in e s s

3.

D o z e n 's G e n e r a l M o to r A b i l i t y T e s t

H a r o l d G. S e a s h o r e , "Some R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f F i n e a n d G ro ss^ M o to r A b i l i t i e s , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y o f t h e A m e ric an A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , 1 3 :2 5 9 -2 7 3 , M arch, 1 9 4 2 ,

4.

J o h n s o n ’ s T e s t o f M o to r E d u c a b i l i t y

5.

M c C lo y ’ s T e s t o f G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y I f th e re

is

no o v e r - a l l p o s i t i v e

c o rre la te d n e ss i t

w o u l d se em t h a t m o t o r , w hen r e f e r r i n g t o l a r g e m o v e m e n ts , o n ly s h o u ld be p r e c e d e d by a m o d i f i e r , A p sy c h o lo g ic a l im p lic a tio n . p o sitiv e

c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n f i n e

such a s " g r o s s ” .

H . G.- S e a s h o r e f o u n d no

and g r o s s m o to r s k i l l s .

T h o m p so n a n d W i t r y o l d e m o n s t r a t e d a . p o s i t i v e b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o t i e n t and m o to r l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y

m e a su re d by a h ig h r e l i e f f i n g e r m aze. e x p e rim e n t h a s b e e n d is c u s s e d , been v a lid ,

a s w ere t h o s e

e x p e rim e n t.

as

T he S e a s h o r e

and r e s u l t s

se e m e d t o h a v e

o f t h e T hom pson a n d W i t r y o l

I f f i n e m o to r s k i l l s hav e b e e n - u s e d t o d e t e r ­

m in e a t y p e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , b e tw e e n f i n e th a t th e re

c o rre la tio n

i f th e re

and g r o s s m o to r s k i l l s ,

is

no c o r r e l a t i o n

i t w o u ld p e r h a p s a p p e a r

c o u ld be no c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n g r o s s m o to r

s k i l l s and i n t e l l i g e n c e .

T h a t w o u ld se e m t o b e t r u e ,

or

t h e r e w o u ld s e e m t o b e a d i s c r e p a n c y . T h om pson a n d W i t r y o l s t a t e d : I n g e n e r a l , p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s h av e fo u n d t h a t o f t h e s e t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f m o t o r l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , (T , U, a n d X m a z e ) , t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n t h i s t y p e o f m aze c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 7

7 G e o r g e G. T h o m p so n a n d Sam L . V J i t r y o l , " T h e R e l a ­ t i o n s h i p B e tw e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d M o t o r L e a r n i n g A b i l i t y a s M e a s u re d by a H ig h R e l i e f F i n g e r M a z e ," J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o ­ lo g y , 2 1 -2 2 :2 3 7 , O c to b e r, 1946.

36

They f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t : H usband o b t a i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e , ' a s m ea su re d by t h e T h o rn d ik e I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t, and t h e am ount o f tim e r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f f i n g e r m a z e s .0 P o s itiv e o b ta in e d :

c o r r e l a t i o n s o f th e f o llo w in g m a g n itu d e s w ere U -m aze,

.4 3 ;

X -m aze,

.6 3 ;

T -m aze,

.1 1 .

Thomp­

so n and W itry o l c o n clu d ed t h a t p a r t o f th e d i f f e r e n c e

in th e

c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n s m ig h t be due t o f a c t o r s w h ic h are d i f f i c u l t a lity ,

t o h o ld c o n s ta n t,

p erso n ­

a n d mode o f a t t a c k . T e s t s and t h e i r u s e .

in th e

such as m o tiv a tio n ,

T he f i e l d

e x p e rim e n ta tio n o f t e s t i n g

of fin d in g fa c to rs

of p sy c h o lo g y le a d s

n a tiv e

in flu e n c in g le a rn in g .

in te llig e n c e

and

E x p e rim e n ta tio n

an d r e s e a r c h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s a l w a y s g r e a t l y depended upon p s y c h o lo g ic a l r e s e a r c h . M c C lo y i n 1 9 4 0 r e f l e c t e d

t h i s t h o u g h t an d t h e

a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d f o r m o re s t u d y a n d r e s e a r c h i n t h e fie ld

o f m o to r t e s t i n g .

d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e

I n c o m p a rin g t h e

in te llig e n c e

ad eq u acy and

q u o tie n t t e s t s w ith th o se

o f m e a s u re s o f m o to r a b i l i t y he w r o t e : J u s t a s th e m easurem ent o f a b s t r a c t i n t e l l i g e n c e h a s a c h ie v e d i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s a s th e r e s u l t o f s t u d i e s co n d u cted o v e r a p e r io d o f t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s by do zen s o f l a b o r a t o r i e s a n d c o m p e t e n t s t u d e n t s , a n d i s o n l y now b e g in n in g t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e tw e e n s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s o f

8 l b l a ..

P . 237

57 a b s t r a c t i n t e l l i g e n c e , s o we b e l i e v e t h a t i t w i l l t a k e m any y e a r s o f c a r e f u l s t u d y b y r e s e a r c h s t u d e n t s i n m any o f o u r . l a b o r a t o r i e s t o r e f i n e , a d d t o , a n d e l i m i n a t e fro m t h i s l i s t o f f a c t o r s , and t o l e a r n t o m e a s u re th em a c c u r a t e l y . ® I n a t h e s i s w r i t t e n i n 1935 F lo r e n c e Fye s t a t e d t h a t th e

sum o f e v i d e n c e a m a s s e d f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s p o i n t e d

to l i t t l e a b ility ,

o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n m o to r and m e n t a l and t h a t ,

" T h i s c a n n o t b e p r o v e d d e f i n i t e l y , how ­

e v e r, because of th e la c k of sta n d a rd iz e d p h y s ic a l t e s t s a v a ila b le .S ta n d a rd iz e d and a c c e p ta n c e . m o to r a b i l i t y

te s ts

h a v e s i n c e come i n t o u s e

T h ere a r e s ta n d a r d iz e d t e s t s

of g e n e ra l

and f o r m u l a s and t e s t s f o r c o m p u tin g t h e

m o to r c a p a c i t y and q u o t i e n t f o r a l l s c h o o l ag e c h i l d r e n o f b o th s e x e s .

T h o u g h t h e y a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d e v e n b y M cC lo y

t o b e b ey o n d im p ro v e m e n t, t h e y a r e v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . in a d e q u a c y c o n ta in e d i n th e s e t e s t s g r e a t e s t stu m b lin g b lo c k ,

does n o t e x p la in th e

but ra th e r,

th e la c k of t h e i r u se ,

and i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n s t a n d a r d i z e d p r a c t i c e s In th e p a s t, o b v io u s d raw b ack . school g i r l s

in th e ir u se .

t h e l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s was an Fye com pared t h e m o to r a b i l i t y

o f h i g h and lo w i n t e l l i g e n c e .

o f m o to r a b i l i t y

Any

o f h ig h

As a c r i t e r i o n

she u sed a group o f n o n - s ta n d a r d iz e d t e s t s .

9 C . H. M c C lo y , "A P r e l i m i n a r y S t u d y o f F a c t o r s i n M o t o r E d u c a t i o n , ” R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 1 ; 5 7 , M ay, 1 9 4 0 . Fye,

o£.. c i t . , p . 2 0 .

38 O n ly o n e o f t h e t e s t s , te s ts

t h e p u s h u p , was i n c l u d e d i n p r e s e n t

c o n s t r u c t e d "by M c C l o y . 11

M cC lo y f s t e s t s h a v e a h i g h

v a l i d i t y w h en c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s . in c lu d e f o r g i r l s , a t h r o w . 12

a p u ll-u p ,

S in c e th e t e s t s

a sp rin t,

a b r o a d ju m p ,

and

u se d by Fye w ere n o t s t a n d a r d ­

iz e d and t h e i r v a l i d i t y u n d e te rm in e d , c o n c lu d e d t h a t

They

it

c o u ld n o t be

s c o r e s w ere v a l i d m e a su re m e n ts o f p h y s i c a l

a b ility . The r e s e a r c h e r

is ap t to fin d re g re tta b le

o b sta c le s

i n h i s p a t h when t r y i n g t o d e te r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n m o to r and i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s

of th e

in d iv id u a l.

R e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e p a s t h a v e com pared q u o t i e n t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f m o to r f a c t o r s , se ld o m w i t h t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t .

but

E a r l y s t u d i e s w ere con­

d u c te d w ith o u t th e a id of "sta n d a rd iz e d t e s t s

i n m any

in sta n c e s . Some o f t h e d i le m m a s h a v e a r i s e n f r o m m e a n i n g s g i v e n t o t h e w o rd m o t o r .

The p s y c h o l o g i s t g i v e s i t

one d e f i n i t i o n

and th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a to r a n o t h e r .

S o m e tim e s t h e r e

a g re e m e n t,

Some c l a i m t h e r e

so m e tim e s d i s a g r e e m e n t .

s u c h t h i n g a s g e n e r a l m o to r a b i l i t y ,

o th e rs are

su re

is is

no

of i t s

e x is te n c e .

11 I b i d . , 1P

p.

26.

C , H. M c C lo y , T e s t s a n d ~M e a s u r e r n e n t s (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , “ 15*42), p . 1 2 9 .

Due t o p o o r t e s t i n g best te s ts

c o n tro l,

fa ilu re

to use th e

a v a i l a b l e , and u n d e rd e v e lo p e d s t a t u s

o f some

t e s t s now i n u s e , m any c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s h a v e a p p e a r e d i n p a s t and r e c e n t r e s e a r c h d a t a .

CHAPTER IY AN EXPERIMENT TO DISCOVER THE COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT AND MOTOR QUOTIENT OF ONE-HUNDRED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS Though, i t w a s p r e v i o u s l y re c o m m e n d e d t h a t m o t o r h e p reced ed by a m o d ifie r

such as g ro s s

or g e n e r a l,

n o t b e e n done i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s e x p e rim e n t.

th is

has

T he t e s t s u s e d

a r e t h o s e re c o m m e n d e d b y M cC loy a n d h i s t e r m i n o l o g y w a s n o t c h a n g e d , b u t u s e d a s he u s e d i t . I. It

THE TESTING

h a s seem ed t h a t t h e

c o r r e la tio n of in n a te

in te lli­

g e n c e a n d m o t o r q u o t i e n t w o u l d -be m o re r e a s o n a b l e t h a n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f f o r m e r and, a n a c q u i r e d a b i l i t y ,

as has

f r e q u e n t l y b e e n d o n e i n t h e p a s t . . The r e s u l t s

of such a

c o r r e l a t i o n •c o u l d n o t b e a n t i c i p a t e d f o r n o l i k e w ere f o u n d . th e

As w a s p o i n t e d

o u t,

i t w o u ld a l s o

e x p e r i m e n t w o u ld b e m o re d e f i n i t e

if

T h is w as n o t p o s s i ­

I n s t e a d t h e t e s t s w ere g iv e n t o g i r l s

e ig h th ,

se em t h a t

and c o n c lu s iv e

done w ith e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l c h il d r e n . b le .

stu d ie s

o f th e se v e n th ,

and n i n t h g r a d e s o f t h e E l Segundo J u n i o r S e n io r

H ig h S c h o o l, E l S eg u n d o , The v a l i d i t y q u o tie n t t e s t s .

C a lifo rn ia .

of th e in te llig e n c e

As t h e r e

q u o t i e n t and m o to r

h a s a l w a y s b e e n some q u e s t i o n a s

41 t o th e d e g re e any i n t e l l i g e n c e lig e n c e ,

th e re

is

t e s t m easures in n a te

in te l­

d o u b t i n t h e m i n d s o f some ' p r o f e s s i o n a l

e d u c a to rs as to th e d eg ree t h a t th e p h y s ic a l e d u c a b il i ty t e s t m e a su re s an i n n a t e

c a p a c i t y .- * -

p e rh a p s im p e rfe c t in d ic e s and n e c e s s a r y t o o l s

of in n a te

B o th t e s t s , c a p a c ity ,

th o u g h

are u s e fu l

in d isc o v e rin g in d iv id u a l c a p a c itie s .

M cC lo y d i s c u s s e s t h e v a l i d i t y

of th e p h y s ic a l c a p a c ity

te s ts: T he t o t a l s c o r e o f t h e t e s t may b e u s e d a s a g e n e r a l m e a su re o f t h e a b s o l u t e m o to r c a p a c i t y o f t h e i n d i v i ­ d u a l. T h is i s t h e m o to r a n a lo g u e o f t h e ra w s c o r e o f an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , w h ic h i s u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d a s m en tal a g e . § M c C lo y e x p l a i n s t h e m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m o t o r q u o ­ tie n t ; The r a w G e n e r a l M o t o r S c o r e may b e d i v i d e d b y t h e n o rm f o r i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e sam e g e n e r a l s i z e a n d m a t u r i t y , i . e . , h a v i n g t h e sam e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n I n d e x f o r b o y s o r t h e sam e a g e f o r g i r l s , g i v i n g a q u o t i e n t w h ic h e x p r e s s e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s c a p a c i ty a s a p e r c e n ­ t a g e o f t h e n o rm . T h is q u o t i e n t i s t h e m o to r a n a lo g u e of th e I n t e l li g e n c e Q u o tie n t in th e m e n ta l f i e l d . 3 T he i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t . d e p a rtm e n t g iv e s th e M a tu rity .

1

E a c h y e a r ‘t h e g u i d a n c e

s t u d e n t s th e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n ta l

T he s c o r e s f r o m t h e s e t e s t s w e r e u s e d a s i n d i c e s

p

-

2 Ib id ., p. 3 L o c .. c i t .

127 •

1S5

of in te llig e n c e

q u o tie n t.

T h is t e s t w as d e v i s e d b y E l i z a ­

b e t h T . S u l l i v a n , W i l l i s W. C l a r k , d e sc rib e d as a d ia g n o s tic t e s t tio n to

a n d W. T e i g s .

of m e n ta l m a tu rity

It

is

in r e l a ­

th e m ajo r f a c t o r s in v o lv e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i ty ,

a s w e l l a s a g e n e r a l m easurem ent o f m e n ta l m a t u r i t y . re lia b ility

w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t e s t d a t a f o r 60 0 p u p i l s

and h a v e b e e n a n a l y z e d and r e l i a b i l i t y by th e

c o e f f i c i e n t s c o m p u te d

s p l i t - h a l v e s m eth o d and c o r r e c t e d by t h e S p e a rm a n -

B ro w n f o r m u l a .

T he r e l i a b i l i t y

f a c t o r s s c o r e was .8 8 ,

The

.8 3 ,

o f eac h of th e m e n ta l

.9 0 o r above w i t h t h r e e

and .8 7 .

R e lia b ilitie s fo r

e x c e p tio n s b e in g

a s in g le g rad e a re

.9 5 and a b o v e . T he v a l i d i t y e sta b lis h .

o f any m e n ta l t e s t

is d if f ic u lt to

The a u t h o r s c o r r e l a t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s

b a tte r y w ith th e av erag es of s e v e ra l o th e r in te llig e n c e te s ts .

They f e e l t h a t th e

in te llig e n c e

q u o tie n t o b ta in e d

m ay b e u s e d f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s w i t h o t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e te s ts . O b ta in in g t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t .

The t e s t s g i v e n t o t h e

s t u d e n t s t o d e te r m in e t h e i r m o to r q u o t i e n t s w ere t h e S a r g e n t Jum p, t h e B u r p e e t e s t ,

and t h e Io w a B ra c e t e s t .

In stru c tio n s

r e c o m m e n d e d b y M c C lo y w e r e c a r e f u l l y f o l l o w e d , 4 T h e S a r g e n i ; Jump w a s m e a s u r e d i n c e n t i m e t e r s .

4 I b id ..

P* 8 5 .

T he

43 h e i g h t t o w h ic h t h e g i r l c o u ld r e a c h w as s u b t r a c t e d fro m t h e h e i g h t t o w h ic h sh e c o u ld ju m p .

A ll g i r l s w ere g iv e n

t h o r o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o a c h i n g o n how t o m ake a maximum ju m p .

They w ere t a u g h t t o u s e t h e t e c h n iq u e s o f t h e s t a n d ­

i n g b r o a d ju m p . i n b e tw e e n .

E ach g i r l was g iv e n t h r e e

t r i a l s w ith r e s t

The h i g h e s t s c o r e w a s r e c o r d e d .

T h a t sam e w e e k t h e s e c o n d t e s t w a s g i v e n , te s t.

A d e m o n s tr a ti o n was g iv e n ,

and a l l

th e B urpee

q u e s tio n s answ ered

t o m ake s u r e e a c h g i r l u n d e r s t o o d t h e t e s t .

For te n seco n d s'

e a c h g i r l d i d t h e r e q u i r e d m o v e m e n ts , w h i l e h e r p a r t n e r k e p t sco re. te s te e

T hree g i r l s sta rte d

to o k th e t e s t

sim u lta n e o u sly .

in a sta n d in g p o s itio n ,

s q u a t t e d dow n,

p l a c i n g t h e h a n d s on t h e f l o o r f o r p o s i t i o n tw o . tw o sh e q u i c k l y t h r u s t t h e f e e t o u t b e h i n d , fro m to u c h in g th e f l o o r th re e th e fo u r, a g a in .

P o s itio n

k e e p in g th e body

e x c e p t f o r han d s and f e e t . -

s t u d e n t ju m p e d b a c k i n t o

she sto o d e r e c t a g a in ,

and im m e d ia te ly s t a r t e d

T he t h i r d

F o s itio n

a s q u a t t i n g p o s i t i o n and

A f te r one t r i a l t h e p a r t n e r s changed p l a c e s .

w as r e p e a t e d t w i c e . a fte r

T he

over T h is

and l a s t t r i a l w as g i v e n

a t h r e e m in u te r e s t p e r i o d .

The h i g h e s t s c o r e w a s

reco rd ed . The Io w a R e v i s i o n o f t h e B ra c e t e s t w as g i v e n a c c o r d i n g t o M cC lo y f s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .5

5 I b i d ..

p p . 74-77.

One w h o l e c l a s s w a s

44 te s te d

a t one t i m e .

T h e g i r l s w e r e l i n e d u p i n tw o l i n e s

fa c in g each o th e r. te s ts

One l i n e

ta k e n by th e

o th e r l in e ,

on e d i r e c t l y

o p p o site h e r.

te s ts

15,

2,

12,

w h ile th e

sco red th e r e s u l t s

19,

each g i r l

o th e r lin e

done p e r f e c t l y th e

l i n e had ta k e n

s a t down a n d s c o r e d

t o o k t h e sam e t e s t s .

d u a l t e s t a g i r l had- t w o t r i a l s . p e r f e c tly th e f i r s t

sc o rin g fo r th e

A fte r th e f i r s t

and 17, t h a t l i n e

of fiv e

For each i n d iv i­

I f t h e t e s t w e re done

tim e she r e c e iv e d

a sco re

o f tw o .

second tim e , h u t n o t th e f i r s t ,

re c e iv e d a sco re

of one.

h ig h e st p o ss ib le

t o t a l s c o r e o b t a i n a b l e w as tw e n ty .

a ll

A f a ilu r e re c e iv e d

s t u d e n t s had c o m p lete d th e f i r s t

to o k t e s t s

1,

13,

11,

16,

b a tte ry

If

she

a zero .

The A fte r

of t e s t s th e y

and ■20 b y t h e sam e m e t h o d a s

b efo re. A f t e r a l l t e s t r e s u l t s w ere r e c o r d e d th e y w ere c o n v e r t e d t o T - s c o r e s a n d t h e m o t o r q u o t i e n t w a s c o m p u te d a c c o rd in g t o th e fo rm u la d e s c r ib e d No s c o r e s w e r e d i s c a r d e d .

i n C h a p te r I . G irls w ith p h y sic a l

d e f e c t s w ere n o t t e s t e d . II. M ean. 9 6 .7 .

THE MATHEMATICAL COMPARISON

T he m e a n o f t h e m o t o r q u o t i e n t s c o r e s w a s

The m e a n o f t h e

in te llig e n c e

q u o tie n t

s c o r e s w as

T he c o e f f i c i e n t

o f c o r r e l a t i o n and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n

1 0 4 .4 .

45 The c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n w a s c o m p u te d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P e a r s o n P ro d u c t-M o m e n t M e th o d .

The c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a ­

t i o n b e tw e e n t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t and i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t

o f o n e - h u n d r e d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s was .5 3 8 . fig u re

is

T h is

n o t h ig h enough t o be o f g r e a t p r e d i c t i v e v a lu e .

H ow ever,

in t h is p a rtic u la r

g roup i t m ig h t be s a i d

a

p o sitiv e

c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s b e tw e e n m o to r and i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t.’ T he s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ' w a s 8 . 2 7 . The c o e f f i c i e n t

o f - c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e C a l i f o r n i a

M e n ta l M a tu r ity T e s t s c o r e s or i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o t i e n t and

m o to r q u o t i e n t w as co m p u ted f o r o n e - h u n d r e d g i r l s E l S eg u n d o J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l, o f c o r r e l a t i o n w as .5 3 8 .

T he m ean o f t h e

q u o t i e n t s c o r e s w as 1 0 4 . 4 . s c o r e s w as 9 6 . 7 . v a lid ity

C a lifo rn ia .

at

T h is c o e f f i c i e n t in te llig e n c e

The m ea n o f t h e m o t o r q u o t i e n t

T he s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n w a s 8 . 2 7 .

and r e l i a b i l i t y

of a l l t e s t s

The

have been e s ta b lis h e d

a s a d e q u a te . T he c o r r e l a t i o n o f . 5 3 8 w a s n o t h i g h e n o u g h t o b e o f g r e a t p r e d ic tiv e v a lu e , p o sitiv e

b u t p o in ts to th e e x is te n c e

c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t f o r th e g iv e n g ro u p .

of a

q u o t i e n t and m o to r

I t w o u ld s e e m t h a t a l i k e

e x p e rim e n t w ith y o u n g er c h i l d r e n m ig h t r e s u l t

in a h ig h e r

c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e tw o q u o t i e n t s . c o r r e l a t i o n w as t h e h i g h e s t o f a n y d i s c o v e r e d

T h is

in p re v io u s

s tu d ie s re p o rte d

in t h is p r o je c t.

due t o t h e f a c t t h a t

in th is

c o r r e l a t i o n w ere q u o t i e n t s .

T h is h a s p ro b a b ly been

e x p e rim e n t b o th f a c t o r s

The p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s d e a l t

w ith t h e m ea su re o f q u o t i e n t and a b i l i t y o f tw o a b i l i t i e s

or s k i l l s .

of

or th e m easures

CHAPTER V SIB/MARY AND CONCUJSIONS R e sta te m e n t of th e p ro b le m .

The p r o b l e m w as ( 1 ) t o

d i s c o v e r i f t h e r e w ere any s y n t h e s i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

of f a c ts

c o n c e rn in g

and m o to r a b i l i t i e s

i n fo rm e r and r e c e n t s t u d i e s and e x p e r im e n ts w ith t h e s e fa c to rs,

and

c o e ffic ie n t

(2) t o d e l i m i t th e p ro b le m b y f i n d i n g t h e of c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t

a n d m o t o r q u o t i e n t . o f one h u n d r e d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g irls . M e th o d o f p r o c e d u r e . th e f i e l d

. I n f o r m a tio n w as g a th e r e d i n

o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n fro m p e r i o d i c a l s ,

and t e x t b o o k s .

In th e f i e l d

of p sy c h o lo g y in fo rm a tio n

w as g a t h e r e d , f r o m t e x t b o o k s a n d p e r i o d i c a l s . w a s m ade t o u s e l a r g e l y l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n In

th e se s,

th e e x p e rim e n t w ith th e

An e f f o r t

sin c e 1930.

one h u n d re d

ju n io r h ig h

school

g i r l s , th e

c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d b y c o m p a rin g t h e

sco res

o f th e C a l i f o r n i a M e n ta l M a tu r ity T e s t w ith th e

sco res

o f t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t s ,

c o m p u te d a s r e c o m m e n d e d b y

C, H . Me C l o y , The i n t e l l i g e n c e m in e d ,

q u o tie n ts had a lre a d y been d e t e r ­

T he m o t o r q u o t i e n t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r

b y g i v i n g t h e m ( 1 ) t h e S a r g e n t jum p t e s t , r e v i s i o n o f th e B race t e s t ,

and

each stu d e n t

(2 ) t h e Iow a

(3 ) t h e B urpee t e s t .

T he

48 r a w s c o r e s o f t h e s e t e s t s w e re c o n v e r t e d i n t o T - s c o r e s and w e ig h te d a s fo llo w s t o

c a l c u l a t e t h e i n d i v i d u a l m o to r

c a p a c ity ; 3 . 5 7 6 ( S a r g e n t jum p i n e m s . ) - * ' 2 . 2 0 ( B r a c e t e s t T - s c o r e ) -#-19 . 1 2 ( B u r p e e t e s t ) 119. The m o t o r c a p a c i t y s c o r e w a s m u l t i p l i e d

by 100 and d i v i d e d

b y t h e n o rm f o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s , was t h e

470.

The r e s u l t

i n d i v i d u a l m o to r q u o t i e n t . Summary o f f i n d i n g s .

re la te d 1.

T hro u g h t h e s tu d y o f r e s e a r c h

t o t h e p r o b l e m i t w as f o u n d t h a t ; The h e a l t h y c h i l d who p o s s e s s e s a h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o tie n t g e n e ra lly has b e tt e r

s k i l l in p h y sic a l a b il i ty

th e c h i l d w ith a lo w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e

q u o t i e n t b u t who i s

h e a lth y .

The c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p h y s i c a l t r a i t s

a b ilitie s

and i n t e l l i g e n c e

th a n

th a n a ls o

and

q u o tie n ts have n o t b een h ig h e r

.3 . 2.

I n t h e / e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l^ s t u d i e s

i t was fo u n d ,

v

g e n e ra lly ,

\

th a t th e re

in te llig e n c e

i s / a .low p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ) b e t w e e n

q u o t i e n t and m o to r a b i l i t y ,

in d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r s

b u t th e re are

i n o p e r a t i o n w h ic h a s y e t hav e n o t been-

se g re g a te d . 3.

On t h e ( h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l ) s t u d i e s t e n d e d t o

show) z e r o

r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? ) M ost s t u d i e s fo u n d th e a t h l e t e t o h a v e a s l i g h t l y h ig h e r in te llig e n c e

q u o t i e n t an d r e c e i v e

h ig h e r m arks th a n th e n o n - a t h l e t e .

slig h tly

A c tu a l m o to r a b i l i t i e s

49 of th e

a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s w ere n o t m e a su re d .

4. te ly

On t h e ( c o l l e g e l e v e l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e p r e d o m i n a -

n e g a tiv e .^ 5.

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t o d e te r m in e w h at i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f th e p a s t and p r e s e n t h ave c o n c lu d e d a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and m o to r s k i l l s

or c a p a c itie s .

b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

One s u c h s t u m b l i n g b l o c k

i s t h e v a r i o u s w a y s t h a t t h e w o rd m o t o r i s u s e d . e d u c a to rs u se i t g r o s s and f i n e

t o m ean g e n e r a l m o t o r ,

a s p e c t s o f m o v e m e n t.

g r o s s m o to r s k i l l s . p o s itiv e

in c lu d in g b o th th e

Some e d u c a t o r s u s e i t

in r e f e r e n c e to f in e m a n ip u la tio n s o n ly . d e m o n stra te d d o u b t as t o th e

Some

One e x p e r i m e n t

in te rre la te d n e s s

of fin e

and

A n o th e r e x p e rim e n t d e m o n s tr a te d th e

c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n f i n e m o to r s k i l l s

and i n t e l l i ­

gence q u o tie n t. 6.

No e x p e r i m e n t s w e r e f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n d o n e t o

d e m o n s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g e n e r a l m o to r q u o t i e n t and i n t e l l i g e n c e 7.

q u o tie n t.

Lack o f s ta n d a r d iz e d t e s t s ,

of t h e i r p ro p e r u se have h in d e re d

and l a c k o f k n o w le d g e

th e a c q u is itio n o f v a lid

te s t re s u lts . 8.

In th e

c o e ffic ie n t

e x p e rim e n t u n d e rta k e n in t h i s

of c o r r e la tio n of th e

and t h e m o to r q u o t i e n t s o f t h e w as .5 3 8 .

T he m e a n o f t h e

stu d y ,

in te llig e n c e

th e

q u o tie n ts

one h u n d r e d g i r l s t u d e n t s

in te llig e n c e

q u o t i e n t s c o r e s w as

1 0 4 .4 .

The m e a n o f t h e m o t o r q u o t i e n t s c o r e s w a s 9 6 . 7 .

The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n w as 8 . 2 7 , C o n c lu s io n s.

A f t e r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e x p e r i ­

m e n t a t i o n i t w as c o n c lu d e d - t h a t : 1.

In sp ite

c o n c lu sio n ,

o f some s t u d i e s w h i c h p o i n t t o

a c o n tra ry

th e g r e a t b u lk o f e v id e n c e e s t a b l i s h e s

t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e . n a t i v e p e rfo r m a n c e and q u o t i e n t . th is re la tio n sh ip

in te re s t

and t h e m o to r

In th e p re -a d o le sc e n t y e a rs,

is p o s itiv e ,

a d o le sc e n t y e a rs th e re I t may b e t h a t

in te llig e n c e ,

a re la ­

b u t lo w p o s i t i v e .

is g e n e ra lly l i t t l e

In th e

c o rre la tio n .

and c o n c e rn e n t e r s t o

o f te n cause

th e in d iv u d u a l to n e g le c t p h y s ic a l e x e rc is e i n fa v o r of in te lle c tu a l p u rsu its.

T h is la c k o f i n t e r e s t

e x e r c i s e may b e co m e m o r e p r o n o u n c e d o n t h e

in p h y sic a l

c o lle g e le v e l

and i n a d u lth o o d . 2.

In th e

e x p e rim e n t o f t h i s

stu d y th e c o r r e l a t io n

w as n o t h i g h en o u g h t o b e o f g r e a t p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e . ev er,

i t w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e

How­

c o rre la ­

t i o n b e t w e e n tw o q u o t i e n t s w a s h i g h e r t h a n p r e v i o u s c o r r e ­ l a t i o n s b e t w e e n o n e q u o t i e n t an d a n a c q u i r e d R e c o m m e n d a tio n s.

k ro m t h e

sk ill.

s tu d y and t h e

e x p e rim e n t

it- i s recom m ended: 1.

T h a t m o to r t e s t i n g n e e d s t o y e t u n d e rg o y e a r s o f

e x p e rim e n ta tio n s im ila r to th o se sp e n t upon th e re fin e m e n t

and p e r f e c t i n g 2.

of th e t e s ts

of n a tiv e

T hat th e r e l a ti o n s h i p

in te llig e n c e .

b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e

a n d m o t o r q u o t i e n t b e m o re f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d k in d th ro u g h s t u d i e s o f th e 5.

q u o tie n t

i n d e g re e and

in d iv id u a l as w e ll as th e g ro u p .

That t h i s r e l a ti o n s h i p be f u r th e r ^ in v e stig a te d by *

te s tin g

e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s .

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

BIBLIOGRAPHY A . BOOKS B o r i n g , , E d w in G a r r i g u e s , H e r b e r t S i d n e y L a n g f i e l d , a n d H a r r y P o r t e r W e ld , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P s y c h o l o g y . New Y ork: J o h n W ile y and S o n s, i n c . , 1 9 3 9 . 652pp. B o v a r d , J o h n P . , F r e d e r i c k W. C o z e n s , a n d E . P a t r i c i a H agm an, T e s t s a n d M e a s u r e m e n t s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P h ila d e lp h ia : W. B . S a u n d e r s Com pany, 1 9 4 9 . 410 p p . C o z e n s , F r e d e r i c k W ., H a z e l J . C u b b e r l y , a n d N. P . N e i l s o n , A c h iev e m e n t S c a l e s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a ti o n A c t i v i t i e s . New Y o r k 1: A.. S . B a r n e s an d . Company, 19371 165 p p . H e i d b r e d e r , E d n a , S e v e n P s y c h o l o g i e s . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Com pany I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1 9 3 3 .

B. 450 p p .

M c C lo y , C h a r l e s H . , T e s t s a n d M e a s u r e m e n t s i n H e a l t h an d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New York": A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C ro fts , I n c ., 1942. 401 p p . P in tn e r , R u d o lf, I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s tin g . H o l t a n d Com pany, 1 9 2 3 . 406 p p .

New Y o r k :

R uch, F lo y d L ., P s y c h o lo g y and L i f e . C h ic a g o : F o r e s m a n a n d C om pany, 1 9 4 1 . 754 p p .

H enry

S c o tt,

S c o t t , M. G l a d y s , A n a l y s i s o f Human M o t i o n . New Y o r k : F . S . C r o f t s a n d C om pany, 1 9 4 6 . 388 p p . S t o d d a r d , G e o r g e D . , T he M e a n i n g o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . Y o rk : T he M a c m i l l a n Com pany, 1 9 4 7 . 504 p p . B.

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F l o r e n c e , "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e M o t o r A b i l i t y o f H i g h - S c h o o l G i r l s o f H i g h a n d Low I n t e l l i g e n c e . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s, 1 9 3 5 . 81 p p .

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