A sociometric analysis of group cohesion in supervision and management

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A SOCIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OP GROUP COHESION IN SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT

A T h e s is P re s e n te d to t h e F a c u l t y o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c A d m i n is tr a t io n The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D e g re e M a s te r o f S c ie n c e In P u b lic A d m in is tr a tio n

S i d n e y D w o sk in Ju n e 1950

UMI Number: EP64481

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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p u . '^o

09n

This thesis, written by

S ID ffi Y ..I

.DWOSON...............................

under the guidance of h J . S — Faculty Committee, and a p p r o ved by all its members, has been presented to and accepted by the Council on Graduate S tu dy and Research in partial fulfill­ ment of the requirements f o r the degree of .....................

.................... iMXNISTRATION a

Faculty Committee

S

p

S

fo

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

'THE PROBLEM AND DEFIN ITIO N OP TERMS.USED . The P r o b le m

II.



1

. . * • • . • • • • • • • . . .

1

S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m

• • » « • • • * .

1

I m p o rta n c e o f th e

s tu d y *

• • • • • • • • .

2

D e f i n i t i o n s o f te rm s u se d *

* * * * • • • • •

2

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE H i s t o r i c a l b a c k g ro u n d * R e v ie w o f l i t e r a t u r e

6

• • • • • • • • . • . .

7

. . . * . .

SOURCES OP DATA AND METHODS OP RESEARCH. .

11

. .

S o u rc e s •

13 13

I n d iv id u a l S tu d ie s . G ro u p S t u d i e s

6

. • • • • • • . • • •

L im ita tio n s o f p re v io u s s tu d ie s * III.

.

• • • • . . • • . . .

ll).

• • • • • • • . . • • • • .

1I4.

In te rv ie w s w ith S u p e rv is o rs

• • . . . . .

15

M e th o d s « • • . • • • • • • • . • • « • • *

15

W ritte n Q u e s tio n n a ire and a n a l y s i s . P a r tic ip a n t o b s e rv a tio n

.....................

• • .

15 •

16

. . . . . . .

16

• • • • * . . .

16

I n d iv id u a l and g ro u p s t u d i e s . T e c h n iq u e o f a p p l i c a t i o n .

. . .

S ta tis tic a la n a ly s is .

l 6

L im ita tio n o f s tu d y

18

ill CHAPTER IV*

PAGE CRITERIA AID METHODS RECOMMENDED TO PROMOTE MAXIMUM GROUP COHESIVENESS IN HUMAN RELATIONS. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C r i t e r i a ..................... •

21

• • • • • • * • • • •

H o riz o n ta l F a c to r s .

21

• • • . • • • • • • •

22

V e r tic a l F a c to rs .

22

Slow t o p r o m o te a H ig h d e g r e e o f g r o u p c o h e s iv e n e s s .

. . » • . . . • • • • • . .

22

O b s e rv a tio n o f p e rfo rm a n c e . . . . . . . .

23

G ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s

23

F a c to rs c o n tr ib u tin g

V.

to f a i l u r e

• • .





23

N ot f o llo w in g th r o u g h b y s u p e r v i s o r s .



.

23

L a c k o f tw o -w a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .

.



23

*

4

25

• . •

*

26

• • .

FINDINGS OF FIV E CASE STUDIES IN THE CORRECTIONAL C1CLE IN THREE JURISDICTIONS (CALIFORNIA, OHIOy ^V IR G IN IA ).

. . . . . .

F i n d i n g s o f G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t . T e c h n iq u e s f o r I m p r o v e m e n t.

. . . . . . .

M e th o d s o f p r e s e n t i n g f i n d i n g s .

. . . . .

F in d in g s o f C o o rd in a tin g C o u n c il U n i t . . •

28 28 jjj.

A re a s f o r re m e d ia l m e a su re s • • . . . . . F i n d i n g s o f tw o t r a i n e e g r o u p s i n L o s A n g e l e s C o u n ty P r o b a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t . . .

58

H y p o th e s is .

38

iv CHAPTER

PAGE

S p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s .................................................................. * Sum m ary a n d c o n c l u s i o n *

• • ♦ •



• • * • • • • •

38 I4.1

F in d in g s o f a J u v e n ile p o lic e u n i t in

10

C i n c i n n a t i O h io • * . • • • • * * * • * * • • • P e rso n n e l fin d in g s * P r o b le m s i n

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .....................................

)|)|

F in d in g s o f a j u v e n ile p o lic e u n i t in N o rfo lk , V irg in ia *

• • • • • • • » * • • • # # • • • • •

P e rso n n e l c o n s titu e n c y * C u r r e n t p r o b le m s *

...............................................

5^

. • • • * * • * * « * • * « •

C o h e s io n s tu d y f i n d i n g s V I.

32

33

• • • • • • • • • • • •

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. * .

.............................. . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36 .

60 70

APPENDIX...............................................................................................................

79

SUPPLEMENTARY: D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o ................................................................................

go

L IS T OP TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE G ro u p C o h e s i o n T a b l e - lite m S c o r e s G ro u p G u id a n c e - L os A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a

II#

51

• #

32

P e r s o n n e l T a b le - C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l Los A n g e le s , C a li f o r n ia

III#

• • «



G ro u p C o h e s i o n T a b l e - I t e m S c o r e s C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il - L os A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a

IV .

36

P e r s o n n e l T a b le - G ro u p G u id a n c e Los

A n g e le s , C a lif o r n ia • • • • • • • # • • #

37

V#

G ro u p C o h e s i o n T a b le o f 23

T r a i n e e s *(b*) • • •

• ♦

I4.3

V I#

G ro u p C o h e s i o n T a b le o f 23

T ra in e e s * M • # #

• .

Ij.5

V II.

G ro u p C o h e s i o n T a b le - I t e m S c o r e s C i n c i n n a t i , O h io

V III.

. . • • # • # • « # . . . • •

P e r s o n n e l T a b le - J u v e n i l e W e lfa re D i v i s i o n

%*

C i n c i n n a t i , O h io IX #

X.

51

P e r s o n n e l T a b le - I d e n t i f y i n g J u v e n ile D iv is io n G ro u p C o h^e s i o..n T a b l e N o rfo lk , V ir g in ia

30

I n fo rm a tio n

- N o rfo lk , V i r g in ia .

• • • •

58

Ite m S c o r e s *

# • # • • # # # « # # • • • •

39

L IS T OP FIGURES FIGURE !•

PAGE H is to g ra m :

A n a l y s i s o f G ro u p G u id a n c e a n d C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il U n its o f th e J u v e n i l e D e lin q u e n c y P re v e n tio n D iv is io n *

* * * * * * * *

8l

2.

G r a p h i c A n a l y s i s : G ro u p C o h e s i o n • • • • • • « • « *

82

5*

V e rtic a l C r ite r ia

85

ij.*

H o riz o n ta l C r i t e r i a .

* # • • * * * • • * * * • • • « « • * • • • * * • • * * • • • * *

87

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AHD DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED A good d e a l o f l i t e r a t u r e to

t h e f a c t o r o f hum an r e l a t i o n s

m e n t*

h as been w ritte n

in s u p e r v is io n an d m anage­

V a rio u s a u th o r s h av e s p e c u la te d a s t o

f a c t o r s in v o lv e d .to a q u a n t i t a t i v e

fa c to r,

b e h a n d le d i n a s c i e n t i f i c m an n e rs a v a ila b le

th u s f a r t r e a ti n g

s ta n d p o in t*

in re g a rd

th e u n d e rly in g

t h e p r o b l e m may

L im ite d m a t e r i a l i s

th e s u b j e c t fro m th e ab o v e

A s p e c ia l g ra d u a te

s e m in a r a t th e U n i v e r s i t y

o f S o- u •t h.e r- n C a l i f o^ r n i a w h^i c^h c o o- r d- i n- a t- e s ^ t h e e ■ f f»o. r t s o f th r e e d i s c i p l i n e s , s o c io lo g y , p s y c h o lo g y , an d p u b lic a d ­ m in i s t r a t i o n s , c o n c e rn s i t s e l f w ith c r i t i c a l in c id e n ts w h ic h a r e It

is

in v o lv e d i n th e phenom ena o f g ro u p c o h e s io n *

p o s s ib le

t h a t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n r e s e a r c h m ay

r e s u l t f ro m t h i s

s itu a tio n * I.

THE PROBLEM

S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m * th e

s tu d y

I t w as th e p u rp o se o f

( 1 ) t o f o r m u l a t e a s t a t i s t i c a l m e th o d t o m e a s u r e

v e r t i c a l and h o r iz o n ta l s o c ia l d is ta n c e w ith in a g ro u p ; (2 ) to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e te rm in e th e d e g re e o f g ro u p c o h e s iv in e s s e x is tin g p ra c tic a b le

th e re in ;

(3 )

to d e t e r m i n e how

t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s u c h a m e th o d may b e ;

to p re s e n t in d iv id u a l a t t i tu d e s

(If.)

i n a g ro u p w ith r e g a r d to

t h e i r v e r t i c a l an d h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s a s r e v e a le d th ro u g h a w r itte n q u e s tio n n a ire

s tu d y #

Im p o rta n c e o f th e fie ld

a n t h r o p o l o• g y — .■ I t .

L a te ly , l i t e r a t u r e

in th e

o f p u b lic a d m in is tr a tio n h a s in d ic a te d v a rio u s i n ­

flu e n c e s tra c e d to ..

s tu d y #

,

su c h s o c i a l s c ie n c e s a s s o c io lo g y and is

-

f e l t t h a t- t h e

s o o n e• m r t h e* • i n v e s t i g a t o r

a t t a c k s t h e p r o b l e m w i t h p r i n c i p l e s i n s t e a d o f " m e re g e n ­ e r a l i t i e s ” and s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s t h e s o o n e r b a s i c k n o w le d g e i n t r a t i o n w i l l b e fo rm u la te d #

in s te a d

o f "v agu e c o n c e p ts ”

th e f i e l d

o f p u b lic a d m in is ­

H y p o th e s e s m u s t b e f o r m u la te d ;

f a c t s m u st b e a c c u m u la te d th r o u g h th e v a r i o u s m eans o f r e ­ se arc h #

T h ro u g h q u a n t i t a t i v e

a s w e l l a s q u a l i t a t i v e m e th o d s

w i l l p r o g r e s s b e m ade# It in

i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s h u m b le e f f o r t w i l l c o n t r i b u t e

some s m a l l w ay t o

th e e x te n t o f i n t e r e s t i n g

th e q u a n ti t a t iv e a p p lic a tio n s o f t h i s b a s ic

o th e rs in

s o c i a l c o n c e p t.#

.............................."hum an r e l a t i o n s ” o r " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e # " I I . D EFIN ITIO N OF TERMS USED In o rd e r

to f a c i l i t a t e a u n ifo rm i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. . . . . .

^



„o

f

c o n c e p t s u s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , p e r h a p s i t w o u ld b e w i s e t o p o i n t o u t how s p e c i f i c w o r d s a r e th is

p a p e r#

The

concept

to be

u sed in

w i l l be s t a t e d , fo llo w e d b y a b r i e f

w o rk in g d e f i n i t i o n # S o c i a l d i s t a n c e # The s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t " s o c i a l

d is ta n c e ” r e f e r s

to n e a rn e s s o r f a r n e s s o f in d iv id u a ls o f

*

g r o u p s o n t h e .' s o c i a l d i s t a n c e

c o n tin u m .

It

in f e r s d e g re e s

o f h ie r a r c h i c a l r e l a ti o n s h i p s o f le a d e r and fo llo w e r a s w e ll a s d e g re e s o f f r ie n d lin e s s and s h a rin g o f p o s itiv e a ttitu d e s * S p e c ific a lly

it

i n c l u d e s t h e tw o f a c t o r s o f h o r i z o n t a l a n d

v e r tic a l s o c ia l d is ta n c e . H o riz o n ta l d is ta n c e .

" H o riz o n ta l d i s t a n c e ,” a s

s t a t e d a b o v e , i s one a s p e c t o f th e c o n c e p t ” s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . ” I t re fe rs

to th e d e g re e s o f f r ie n d s h ip e x is ti n g on th e c o n -

t i n u i m b e tw e e n t h e tw o e x t r e m e s o f ” s t r a n g e r ” a n d ” p a l . ” ( i.e .

- s tr a n g e r , a c q u a in ta n c e , f r i e n d , p a l ) . V e rtic a l d is ta n c e .

th e

l e a d e r s h ip a s p e c t in v o lv e d in th e h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n ­

s h ip s o f p e o p le , e m p lo y e e ; e tc .

" V e r tic a l d is ta n c e ” r e f e r s to

i . e . . . . . .S u p e r v is o r in

(e m p lo y e e i n

s c a la r r e la tio n

s c a la r r e la tio n

to

t o o t h e r e m p lo y e e s )

I t ’ s e m p h a s is i s u p o n s t a t u s . P e rso n a l d is ta n c e .

th a t d is ta n c e

“P e rs o n a l d is ta n c e " r e f e r s

to

(o n e i t h e r th e v e r t i c a l o r h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s )

b e tw e e n tw o i n d i v i d u a l s . G ro u p d i s t a n c e .

" G ro u p d i s t a n c e "

is

th e d e g re e o f

" t o g e t h e r n e s s ? o r " f a r n e s s ” b e tw e e n tw o g r o u p s . . T h i s p h e n o m e n a o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e m ay b e b a s e d o n a s i m p le f r i e n d s h i p b a s i s o r on a fo rm a l o r in fo rm a l s c a l a r o r h i e r a r c h i c a l d i s t a n c e . S o c io lo g ic a lly

s ta te d ,

i t w o u ld b e t h e d e g r e e o f " l i k e -

m i n d e d n e s s ” b e tw e e n t h e s o c a l l e d " i n - g r o u p ” a n d " o u t - g r o u p . "

It

is

t h e g e s t a l t o r sum t o t a l o f a l l

s e p a ra te g ro u p s.

i n d i v i d u a l s i n tw o

The s o c i a l d i s t a n c e , h o r i z o n t a l a n d

v e r t i c a l , b e tw e e n t h e tw o g r o u p s i s k now n a s " g r o u p d i s ­ ta n c e • " P e r so n a l - g r o u p d i s t a n c e . is

" p e r s o n a l - g r o u p d i s t a n c e 11

t h e s o c i a l d i s t a n c e a r e a b e tw e e n a n i n d i v i d u a l a n d a

g ro u p . S ta tu s and d is ta n c e . by s ta tu s .

" D i s t a n c e ” m ay b e d e t e r m i n e d

F a m e s s may b e p r o d u c e d b y a t t a c k

on s t a t u s

w h i l e n e a r n e s s m ay b e p r o d u c e d b y a b o o s t o f s t a t u s . In tim a c y and d i s t a n c e . b rin g a b o u t a n e a rn e s s , i . e . ,

A p o s itiv e

- g r e a t e r d e g re e o f f r i e n d ­

l i n e s s , on th e h o r iz o n ta l s c a l e . tim a te a re

i n t i m a c y m ay

Two p e o p l e who a r e

in ­

c lo s e r to one a n o th e r on th e h o r iz o n ta l c o n ti -

num , t h a n tw o p e o p l e who a r e m e re a c q u a i n t a n c e s , o r d i s l i k e one a n o th e r o r , p e rh a p s , ev en d is a g r e e upon w hat th e y c o n ­ s id e r to be v i t a l I s s u e s . S o c ia l d is ta n c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s d iffe re n tia l” is

”S o c ia l d is ta n c e

th e te n d e n c y f o r one t o r e g a r d th e

i n h ig h e r e s te e m th a n h e e n jo y s h i m s e l f . is

o th e r

T he d i f f e r e n c e

th e " d i f f e r e n t i a l . ” S p a tia l d is ta n c e and s o c ia l d i s t a n c e .

d is ta n c e " r e f e r s to

th e g e o g ra p h ic a l f a c t o r .

" S p a tia l I t m ay b e

c o n d u c iv e to w a rd c r e a t i n g a g r e a t e r d e g re e o f f a r n e s s som e d i s t a n c e s a n d n e a r n e s s i n o t h e r

in

i n s t a n c e s d e p e n d in g

upon th e

s itu a tio n .

F ie ld s o f s o c ia l d is ta n c e . d is ta n c e ” r e f e r s fa c to rs as ag e,

to

" F ie ld s o f s o c ia l

s i t u a t i o n a l d is ta n c e h a s e d upon such

s e x , o c c u p a tio n , e d u c a tio n , r e l i g i o n ,

r a c i a l , n a t i o n a l , c l a s s and c u l t u r e . F o rm a l and in f o r m a l d i s t a n c e . r e f e r s to

"F o rm a l d i s t a n c e "

t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g b e tw e e n tw o u n i t s

fo rm a liz e d by th e f a c t o f p r e - a r r a n g e d s t a t u s o r d is ta n c e due to e tc .

s u c h f a c t o r s a s Jo b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,

o ffic e rs h ip ,

"In fo rm a l d is ta n c e ” I s th a t f a c to r o f d is ta n c e

w h ic h r e s u l t s fro m t h e

s p o n ta n e o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n ­

d iv id u a ls and g ro u p s# G ro u p C o h e s i o n .

The t e n d e n c y o f i n d i v i d u a l s

w o rk in g u n i t t o c o o p e r a te th e ir

t o a maximum d e g r e e

in d iv id u a l and c o ll e c t iv e III.

in a

In f u l f i l l i n g

fu n c tio n s .

ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THESIS

C h a p te r I h a s p r e s e n te d b r i e f l y s tu d y a n d d e f i n i t i o n s o f te rm s u s e d .

t h e p r o b le m u n d e r C h a p te r I I w i l l

r e f e r to h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g ro u n d and a re v ie w

of lite ra tu re .

The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l co v er such I t e m s a s s o u r c e s o f d a t a a n d m e th o d s o f r e s e a r c h ; c r i t e r i a

a n d m e th o d s

re c o m m e n d e d t o p r o m o te maximum g r o u p c o h e s i o n i n hum an re la tio n s ;

th e f in d in g s o f f i v e c a s e s t u d i e s I n th e c o r ­

r e c t i o n a l c y c l e , a n d f i n a l l y , a sum m ary a n d c o n c l u s i o n .

CHAPTER I I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND REVIEW OP LITERATURE The c o n c e p t o f Ms o c i a l d i s t a n c e ” w h i c h we a r e u tiliz in g

a s th e c o re o f ”g ro u p c o h e s iv in e s s " an d s y n o -

n o m o u s w i t h D r* © f i f f n e r ^ b y G e o rg e S im m el* o f th e

"h u m an r e l a t i o n s ” w a s s t a r t e d

T a r d e u s e d ”d i s t a n c e ” i n a n a n a l y s i s

”s tra n g e r• ” L a t e r , R o b e r t E* P a r k o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f

C h ic a g o i n h i s b o o k I n t r o d u c t i o n To S c i e n c e o f S o c i o l o g y , u sed th is

sam e c o n c e p t #

"D e g re e o f s y m p a th e tic u n d e r ­

s t a n d i n g t h a t e x i s t s b e tw e e n p e o p le ” w as t h i s a u t h o r ’ s a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e m a n tic s t o

th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e

Im ­

p o r ta n t co n cep t o f " s o c ia l d is ta n c e # " U pon r e v i e w i n g D e a n B o g a r d u s ’ s s y l l a b u s o f S o c ia l 1 D i s t a n c e we f i n d t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e m ade I s t h e re c o m m e n d e d r e a d i n g s o f E # A . R o s s a n d h i s b o o k o n S o c i a l C o n tro l*

A g a in i n

1 9 0 5 # E .A # R o s s w r o t e F o u n d a t i o n o f

S o c io lo g y * D r . E* S . B o g a r d u s h a d h i s f i r s t m a t e r i a l o n " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e " p u b lis h e d i n 19^5♦

The J o u r n a l o f

S o c io lo g y *

* l . S . B o g a rd u s , D e p a rtm e n t o f S o c io lo g y , D ean o f G ra d u a te S c h o o l U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n ia #

7 D r# B . S# B o g a r d u s h a d h i s f i r s t m a t e r i a l o n " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e 11 p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 2 5 #

The J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d S o c i o ­

lo g y (M a rc h -A p ril) p r e s e n te d th e a r t i c l e D i s t a n c e " i n th e y e a r 1925#

S in c e th e n D ean B o g a rd u s h a s

h a d m a te r ia l p u b lis h e d on th e e v e r y tw o y e a r s s i n c e 1 9 2 5 • w as f i r s t e d it e d

in 1950.

i n 1951 f th e t h i r d

M e a s u rin g S o c ia l

s u b je c t on a n a v e ra g e o f one H is s y lla b u s " S o c ia l D is ta n c e "

T he s e c o n d e d i t i o n w a s p r i n t e d

i n 1935 $

f o u r t h i n 1 9 3 9 &nd t h e f i f t h

i n 19*1-7. A l t h o u g h S im m e l, T a r d e , P a r k a n d B o g a r d u s c o n t r i b u t e d la rg e ly

t o th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e "

m en i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s h a v e s i n c e f o u n d i t s ..♦ • p a r tic u la r ly hum an r e l a t i o n s .

in i t s

a p p lic a tio n

to

c o n c e p t,

a p p lic a tio n u s e f u l.

th e u n d e rs ta n d in g o f

B u r l e i g h G a r d n e r * s b o o k Human R e l a t i o n s

i n I n d u s t r y , A l e x a n d e r L e i g h t o n f s b o o k T he G o v e r n in g o f M en, J . L . M o re n o * s Who S h a l l S u r v i v e . a n d D r . P f i f f n e r * s S t u d y G u id e f o r Human R e l a t i o n s i n M a n a g e m e n t. a r e e x a m p le s o f t h e u s e o f t h e la tte r

" s o c ia l d is ta n c e "

s p le n d id

c o n c e p t.

The

a u t h o r 1s l a t e s t w o r k , A T e n t a t i v e S y l l a b u s f o r t h e

S tu d y o f I n f o r m a l O r g a n iz a tio n i s

s ig n ific a n t in

th e f i e l d

o f P u b lic A d m in is tr a tio n f o c u s in g a t t e n t i o n u p o n in fo rm a l o rg a n iz a tio n . O th e r l i t e r a r y

e n d e a v o rs r e f l e c t th e u se o f th e

sam e p r i n c i p l e s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e a b o v e a u t h o r s — A l v i n B ro w n , I n h i s b o o k O r g a n i z a t i o n . A F o r m u l a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e

8 ( I 9if.5 ) m a k e s g o o d u s e o f t h e h is

s o c ia l d is ta n c e co n cep t in

tr e a tm e n t o f th e d e le g a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y *

G e o rg e F i l i p e t t i ,

P r o f e s s o r o f E c o n o m ic s a t

D r.

th e U n iv e r s ity

o f M i n n e s o t a w r o t e I n d u s t r i a l M a n ag e m en t I n T r a n s i t i o n ( C h i c a g o : R i c h a r d D . I r w i n , I n c o r p o r a t e d , 19I4.6 , J l l p p . ) . T h is b o o k i s b r i n g s h im

im p o rta n t to

th e

s tu d e n t o f m anagem ent a s i t

i n c o n t a c t w i t h some o f t h e

im p o rta n t m ile ­

s t o n e s i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l m a n a g e m e n t, l a b o r l e a d e r s h i p , a n d g o v e rn m e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

One p a r t

p o in ts o u t th e

im p o rta n c e o f

in c r e a s e d r e c o g n itio n o f th e

p s y c h o lo g ic a l and o r g a n iz a tio n a l f a c t o r s upon e f f i c ie n c y a s an im p o r ta n t p h a se i n th e e v o lu t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l m anage­ m e n t.

The p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e

and s o c ia l d is ta n c e

in i t s

"h u m an r e l a t i o n s "

v a rio u s m a n if e s ta tio n s .

D o n a ld C . S t o n e i n h i s N o t e s o n t h e G o v e rn m e n t 2 E x e c u t i v e : H i s R o le a n d H i s M e th o d s p r o p o s e s t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o w h at th e e x e c u tiv e m u st d o i f h i s l e a d e r s h i p be e f f e c tiv e .

The " c r e a t i o n o f a f a v o r a b l e

s im p ly r e s t a t i n g

th e

" s o c ia l d is ta n c e .” to

th e

is

c lim a te "

to is

c o n c e p t o f m a in ta in in g an a c c e p ta b le In c lu d e d in

" m a rria g e o f i n t e r e s t s . "

t h e s y m p o siu m , C la p p r e f e r s M i l l e t t s e e k s th e an sw er

t o t h e q u e r y "How c a n we r e d u c e f r i c t i o n b e tw e e n h e r a r c h y

a One o f s i x l e c t u r e s i n c l u d e d i n L e o n a r d D . W h i t e ’ s , New H o r i z o n s i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (B irm in g h a m : U n i v e r s i t y o f A lab am a P r e s s 7 l?b5 )V P* l i |7

9 and s p e c ia lty ? ” C h e s te r I* B a rn a rd , a n o th e r a u th o r in th e p u b lic a d m in is tra tio n f i e l d

lik e w is e u t i l i z e s

in th e " s o c ia l d is t a n c e ” c o n c e p t.

th e s i g n i f ic a n c e fo u n d

I n h i s boo k O r g a n iz a tio n

a n d M a n a g e m e n t. S e l e c t e d P a p e r s

( C a m b r id g e , M a s s : H a r v a r d

U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19I4.8 , 2Ljlj. p p . )

th e e x - p r e s i d e n t o f th e

Hew J e r s e y B e l l T e le p h o n e C om pany p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s

of

n in e e s s a y s . S u c h s u b j e c t s a s th e " N a tu re o f L e a d e r s h i p ,” " S t a t u s S y s te m s i n F o r m a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s , " P e r s o n n e l R e l a t i o n s ” , in d ic a te

t h e a u t h o r * s v a r i e d u s e o f p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e , -g ro u p

d is ta n c e , p e rso n -g ro u p d is ta n c e ,

s ta tu s and d is ta n c e and

o th e rs d e fin e d p re v io u s ly in t h i s p a p e r. A g a in , C h e s te r I . B a r n a r d , th e p r e s e n t P r e s i d e n t o f th e R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a tio n , i n h i s w o rk "F u n c tio n s o f th e E x e c u tiv e

( C a m b r id g e , M a s s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,

1958*

5I1J4. p p . ) d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f men i n o rg a n iz a tio n s ; tio n . ta n c e

t h e i r c o m m u n ic a tio n s , i n c e n t i v e s an d c o o p e r a ­

A u th o r ity , th e v e r t i c a l m a n if e s ta tio n o f s o c ia l d i s ­ i s d is c u s s e d in f u l l .

The e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n i s

i n th e e n v iro n m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s r e l a t i n g

set

th e m s e lv e s to

one a n o th e r in v a ry in g d e g re e s o f s t a t u s and in tim a c y . M a r s h a l l E dm ond D im o c k s e e k s t h e a n s w e r t o q u e s tio n ,

th e

"W h at d o e s t h e o p e r a t i n g o f f i c i a l d o ? " i n h i s

b o o k " The E x e c u t i v e

in A c tio n .

The k e y t h o u g h t i n t h e

b o o k I n d ic a te s th e a u t h o r f s a w a re n e ss o f th e

" s o c ia l d is ta n c e "



c o n c e p t*

10

f

11T he s u c c e s s f u l e x e c u t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , i s h e who

com m ands t h e b e s t b a l a n c e o f p h y s i q u e , m e n t a l i t y , p e r s o n a *

lity ,

*

.

.

^

.

t e c h n i c a l e q u i p m e n t , p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n s i g h t , k n o w le d g e

o f hum an b e h a v i o r ,

s o c ia l a d a p ta b ility ,

J u d g m e n t, a b i l i t y

to u n d e r s ta n d an d t o g e t a lo n g w i t h p e o p le , an d a s e n s e o f s o c i a l p u rp o se and d i r e c t i o n • ” S o c ia l d is ta n c e T he B o a r d o f

i s a p p a r e n t i n C o p e la n d a n d T o w l* s ,

D i r e c t o r s a n d B u s i n e s s M an ag em en t ( A n d o v e r ,

M a s s : The A n d o v e r P r e s s , 19i|-7, 2 0 2 p p . ) R e a l A u t h o r i t y , L e g a l A u t h o r i t y , a n d o t h e r s a r e m e re r e f e r e n c e s t o

th e

m a n if e s ta tio n s o f v a ry in g d e g re e s o f s o c ia l d is ta n c e

to

b e fo u n d i n e v e n th e ab o v e su c h ty p e o f o r g a n iz a tio n * Jo h n C . B a k er o f th e D iv is io n o f R e s e a rc h in th e G ra d u a te S c h o o l o f B u s in e s s A d m in is tr a tio n , H a rv a rd U n iv e r s ity , a ls o d is c u s s e s th e v a r io u s c o n d itio n s and fa c to rs

th a t d i r e c to r s a s w e ll a s c o rp o ra tio n s a s a

w h o le , m u st c o n s id e r in o r d e r to f u n c t i o n p ro p e rly *

T he

m a in ta ln m e n t o f p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h f e llo w d i r e c t o r s , s to c k - h o ld e r an d th e g e n e r a l p u b lic a r e e q u a lly im p o rta n t* A ll in v o lv e te c h n iq u e s i n

th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e c o n c e p t

” s o c ia l d is ta n c e .” M e t c a l f a n d U r w ic k , e d i t o r s o f tra tio n

m ake i t

u n d e re s tim a te

th e

D y n a m ic A d m in is ­

c l e a r t h a t M ary P a r k e r F o l l e t t d i d n o t im p o rta n c e o f th e

s o c io lo g ic a l and

p s y c h o lo g ic a l a p p ro a c h to b u s in e s s a d m in is tr a tio n *

M is s F o l l e t t f s

5

’b e l i e f t h a t t h e b e s t w ay t o d e a l

w i t h c o n f l i c t w as th r o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n

i s b u t one te c h n iq u e

i n r e d u c i n g t h e d e g r e e o f ”s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . ” O t h e r r e f e r e n c e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f a c t o r o f ”hum an r e l a t i o n s , ” ” s o c i a l d i s t a n c e , ” a n d ”g r o u p c o h e s i o n ” a r e G o r d o n 1s B u s i n e s s L e a d e r s h i p i n

th e L arg e C o r p o r a tio n ,

B e n ja m in S e le c m a n * s L a b o r R e l a t i o n s a n d Human R e l a t i o n s , H e r b e r t S im o n 1s

A d m in is tr a tiv e B e h a v io r , an d H a ro ld

Z in k * s A m e ric a n M i l i t a r y G o v e rn m e n t i n G e rm a n y , T he a b o v e l i t e r a r y

c o n tr ib u tio n s in th e f i e l d

of

p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e b u t a fe w e x a m p le s o f a u t h o r s d e a l i n g w i t h th e v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f th e b a s i c p ro b le m o f h u m an r e l a t i o n s . T he l i m i t a t i o n s o f m any o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s a re a p p a re n t.

F a c ts a r e b e in g a c c u m u la te d .

a p p r o a c h e s w hen c e r t a i n te s te d . in g t h i s .

p r i n c i p l e s m ay b e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y

The q u a n t i t a t i v e m e th o d i s Thus f a r i t s

m inim um l e v e l .

The t im e

one m eans o f a c c o m p lis h ­

u se in th e f i e l d

h as been a t a

P e r h a p s , t h r o u g h t h e m ed iu m o f s u c h

s p e c i a l s e m in a rs a s b e in g c o n d u c te d b y D r . P f i f f n e r (P u b lic A d m in is tra tio n )

t o g e t h e r w i t h D r# G u i l f o r d

( p s y c h o l o g y ) a n d D r# L o c k e ( S o c i o l o g y ) , t h e a c a d e m ic

5 M e t c a l f , H e n r y C * , a n d . L# U r w ic k , e d i t o r s , D y n a m ic A d m in is tra tio n # The c o l l e c t e d p a p e r s o f M ary P a r k e r F o l i o t t , Hew Y o r k : ( H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 19I4.2 ) , p# 5 2 0 .

12 v ie w p o in t, fu rth e r

to g e t h e r w ith p ra g m a tic s i t u a t i o n s w i l l b e

s y n th e s iz e d *

CHAPTER I I I

SOURCES OP DATA AKD METHODS OP RESEARCH The im m ediate so u rce o f in fo rm a tio n f o r t h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a ly s i s o f group c o h e s iv in e s s was f iv e c a s e s found in th e c o r r e c t i o n a l cy c le *

One o f th e th r e e

D iv is io n s in th e Los Angeles County P ro b a tio n D epartm ent— th e J u v e n ile D elin q u en cy P re v e n tio n D iv is io n , se rv e d a s th e so u rce f o r th e p i l o t study*

T h is d i v i s io n c o n s is ts

o f two s e p a ra te u n i t s , The Group G uidance U n it and The Community C o o rd in a tin g C o u n cil U nit*

These two d i s t i n c t

sam pling groups were a v a ila b le w ith a t o t a l o f tw en ty th r e e in d iv id u a l cases* Two groups o f t r a i n e e s in th e P ro b a tio n D epartm ent o f Los

A n g eles C ounty, se rv e d a s th e second case source*

The J u v e n ile P o lic e U n it in H o rfo lk , V i r g i n i a , th e t h i r d so u rce and th e C h ild W elfare U n it in th e C in c ir m a tti P o lic e D ep a rtm en t, th e f i n a l source* The i n v e s t i g a t o r ^ i n i t i a l ap p ro ach from th e s ta n d ­ p o in t o f m ethodology was f i r s t to make a li m i te d rev iew o f th e l i t e r a t u r e in th e f i e l d o f human r e l a t i o n s in in d u s tr y and management* The q u e s tio n n a ir e u se d in th e stu d y was c o n s tru c te d i n th e fo llo w in g m anner: F i r s t th e c r i t e r i a upon w hich th e q u e s tio n s were based

f o r both, th e " v e r t i c a l " and " h o r iz o n ta l" a s p e c ts o f " s o c ia l d i s t a n c e ," were d e r iv e d from such l i t e r a t u r e a s Dr* P f i f f n e r fs An O u tlin e o f S u p e rv is o rs J o b ; B u rle ig h G ardner»s Human R e la tio n s in In d u s tr y and o th e rs *

S eco n d ly , s tu d e n ts and

p r o f e s s io n a ls in th e f i e l d were ask ed to e v a lu a te and r a t e th e q u e s tio n s in o rd e r to f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e th e s e d a ta drawn from l i t e r a t u r e w ith th e r e s u l t t h a t tw e n ty -s ix item s were s e le c te d f o r th e f i n a l q u e s tio n n a ire * may be found on page ^

in

A copy o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e Appendix#

Inasmuch a s i t was f e l t t h a t in o rd e r to o b serv e th e phenomena o f s o c i a l d is ta n c e (a s i t o p e ra te d in th e f i e l d o f human r e l a t i o n s ) th e q u e s tio n s s e le c te d would be c o n s id e re d e q u a lly in r e l a t i o n to one a n o th e r; t h a t d i f ­ f e r e n t i a l w e ig h ts n o t be u t i l i z e d #

I n s te a d , p r o v is io n was to be

made w hereby th e a p p r o p r ia te d e g re e o f th e q u e s tio n on th e h y p o th e tic a l continum would be a ss ig n e d a number o r a r b i t r a r y w e ig h t. The problem , rev iew ed a g a in , was in what way m ight one c o n s id e r " v e r t i c a l " r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r le a d e r s h ip in a group and a t th e same tim e g iv e e q u a l c o n s id e r a tio n to th e " h o r iz o n ta l" o r f r ie n d s h ip a s p e c ts o f i n t r a and i n t e r ­ group r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

These two f a c to r s when combined a f t e r

b e in g c o n s id e re d in a q u a n t i t a t i v e fa s h io n may p e rm it m easure­ m ents and com parisons o f I n tr a - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p o r " i n t r a ­ group eohe s iv in e s s •"

15 The s tu d y c o n s id e rs n o t o n ly th e s u p e r v is o r ia l employee r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t a ls o em ployee-group r e l a t i o n s h i p and s u p e rv is o r-g ro u p r e la tio n s h i p #

Thus ea ch in d iv id u a l

upon s c o rin g h i s s h e e t c o n s id e rs th e above th re e f a c to r s * A f te r s a t i s f a c t o r y f a c t o r s were l i s t e d , th e y were th e n v a r ie d to f i t a continum o f fo u r q u a n t i t i e s ra n g in g from a w e ig h t v a lu e o f one to th e most p o s itiv e w ith a w eig h t v a lu e o f f o u r .

This was done w ith b o th th e h o riz o n ­

t a l and v e r t i c a l f a c t o r s .

Thus e ig h t q u a n t i t i e s were

u t i l i z e d — fo u r f o r th e 1Tv e r t i c a l fl a s p e c t and fo u r f o r th e h o r iz o n t a l * ’ f a c t o r . The s c a le c o n s i s ts o f tw e n ty -s ix q u e s tio n s# q u e s tio n was a rra n g e d in a l o g i c a l sequence#

Each

The words

n e v e r, som etim es, u s u a l l y , and alw ays se rv e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e th e p la c e on th e continum w hich was a p p r o p r ia te .

Each was

g iv e n a number from one to f o u r ; th e n e g a tiv e o r minimum s i t u a t i o n re c e iv e d a l o g i c a l w eig h t o f one and th e f o u r th o r most p o s i t i v e s ta te m e n t o f th e q u e s tio n was a s s ig n e d a number fo u r* Thus a s p e c if ic q u a n tity was a v a ila b le ea ch q u e s tio n was checked#

a fte r

The tw e n ty -s ix q u e s tio n s

were s e le c te d on th e b a s i s o f t h e i r a p p l ic a ti o n to th e s o c i a l d is ta n c e p r i n c i p l e ; c o n s e q u e n tly , th e q u e s tio n n a ir e was d iv id e d in to th e two c a te g o r ie s o f h o r iz o n ta l and v e rtic a l

s o c ia l d is ta n c e #

To a d m in is te r th e s o c i a l d is ta n c e s c a le , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r e n l i s t e d th e c o o p e ra tio n o f th e S u p e rv is o rs o f each U nit* A f te r th e p ro p e r e x p la n a tio n s th e y were in a p o s i t io n to in tro d u c e th e q u e s tio n n a ir e to t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e u n its * B oth " v e r t i c a l ” and “h o r i z o n t a l ” c r i t e r i a s h e e ts were p ro v id e d f o r each in d iv id u a l in th e group* o f form s see A p pendix).

(F or sample

A fte r f i l l i n g o u t th e form s

(ch eck in g w h atev er f a c t o r s th e y f e l t were a p p l i c a b l e ) , th e p a p e rs w ere r e tu r n e d w ith o u t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to th e s u p e r v is o r *s box*

Thus th e work was. k e p t a s anonymous

a s p o s s ib le * I f th e p erso n w ished to know h i s s c o r e , a f te r w a r d , he was i n s t r u c t e d to p u t an i d e n t if y i n g u p p er r i g h t hand co rn er*

number in th e

In th is : m anner, no one co u ld

i d e n t i f y h i s p ap er b u t h im se lf* The sc o re a r r i v e d a t sim ply in d ic a te d th e av erag e o f th e tw e n ty -s ix q u e s tio n s .

F or example i f on q u e s tio n

one th e p e rso n checked th e number two and on th e n e x t q u e s tio n checked number f o u r , th e average would be th re e * By ad d in g th e numbers checked f o r a l l tw e n ty -s ix q u e s tio n s and th e n d iv id in g by tw e n ty - s ix , th e av erag e was determ ined* T h is was done f o r b o th th e q u e s tio n l i s t e d un d er th e v e r t i c a l c a te g o ry and a g a in f o r th o se l i s t e d u n d er th e h o r i z o n t a l c a te g o ry .

A gain by a v e ra g in g th e tw o, th e

f i n a l g rad e was d e te rm in e d .

17 I n th e e v e n t th e p e rs o n d id n o t t h in k t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n w a s a p p l i c a b l e , h e w o u ld s k i p i t • d e n o m in a to r w as a r r i v e d a t th e n b y s u b s t r a c t i n g

The

th e num ber

o m itte d fro m tw e n ty - s ix # T he m e th o d o f g r a d i n g c o n s i s t e d o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r to ta llin g m ean.

th e

" w e i g h t s 11 a n d t h e n f i n d i n g t h e a r i t h m e t i c

W hen t h e m ean w a s f o u n d f o r b o t h t h e " v e r t i c a l ” a n d

" h o riz o n ta l" d is ta n c e d e te rm in e d .

s c a l e s , t h e m ean o f t h e tw o w a s

f

T he n e x t s t e p w a s t o th e g ro u p .

f i n d t h e a r i t h m e t i c m ean o f

By a p p ly in g th e f o r m u la , t h e C o h e s io n In d e x

a n d C o h e s i o n q u o t i e n t w e re f o u n d #

Thus I n d i v id u a l C . I . t s

an d C . Q #f s w e re a v a i l a b l e a s w e l l a s g ro u p C . I . f s an d C# Q . f s . In a sm u c h a s i t w as I m p o r ta n t f o r

th e s u p e r v is o r

to r e c e i v e a n a n a l y s i s o f th e r e s u l t s , h is to g r a m s an d

f\

g r a p s h w e re c o n s tr u c te d #

I t e m s f r o m A t o Z w e re l i s t e d #

T h o se i n d i c a t i n g a n e e d f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f th e

s u p e r v i s o r o r t h e g r o u p a s a w h o le w e r e i n ­

d i c a t e d on th e s e c h a r ts # p l o t t e d , and th e

T he g r a d e o f t h e g r o u p w as

s ig n ific a n c e

o f e a c h ite m w as d e m o n s tr a ­

t e d b y a n a l y z i n g t h e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s w hy i n d i v i d u a l w e ig h ts w e re g iv e n t o c e r t a i n I n c a s e s w h e re th e

Ite m s •

in v e s tig a to r had fu n c tio n e d

in th e p o s i t i o n o f a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r , he c o n s u lte d

w i t h v a r i o u s m em b ers o f t h e g r o u p a s w e l l a s t h e

s u p e rv is o r

t o a s c e r t a i n w h a t m ig h t b e a r r i v e d a t b y f u r t h e r o r a l e x ­ p l o r a t io n o f s e le c te d and s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s * te c h n iq u e , h o w e v e r, w as s e c o n d a ry t o

T h is

th e u s e o f th e

in ­

v e s t i g a t o r ’ s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n * W here t h e p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r r o l e w a s n o t p o s s i b l e , s u c h i n t e r v i e w s w h ic h m i g h t h a v e b e e n e i t h e r f o r m a l o r i n ­ f o r m a l, p ro v e d to b e t h e p rim a ry fram e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r th e a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s * The i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n f e r r e d t h e n w i t h t h e p o in tin g o u t th e

s ig n ific a n c e

c a te d in th e a n a ly s is * up,

in an e f f o r t to

s u p e rv is o r

o f v a rio u s f a c to r s a s i n d i­

The s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld t h e n f o l l o w

im p ro v e f a c t o r s

in d ic a tin g change*

T he m e th o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e w o u ld b e o f s u b t l e , n o n - p e r s o n a l b a s is u tiliz in g

i n te r v ie w s , and c o n fe re n c e s a s w e ll a s i n ­

fo rm a l d is c u s s io n s * L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y m ay b e n o t e d a t t h i s

tim e *

F a c t o r s u t i l i z e d , i n t h e p r e s e n t h o r i z o n t a l 11 a n d wv e r t i c a l 11 s c a l e s a r e b a s e d on a l i m i t e d re v ie w o f l i t e r a t u r e f i e l d , and c o n fe re n c e s w ith p r a c titio n e r s *

As m o re a t t e n t i o n

i s g iv e n to th e a p p li c a t io n o f th e p r in c ip le a n a ly s is u tiliz in g

th e c r i t e r i a

f a c t o r a s th e

d e p a r tu r e , v a li d i ty and r e l i a b i l i t y T h is s tu d y a p p l i e s to E a s t C e n tr a l and

in th e

o f q u a n tita tiv e p o in t o f

s h o u l d b e im p r o v e d *

s e v e r a l d e p a rtm e n ts on th e

W e st C o a s ts *

T he g r e a t e r t h e n u m b e r a n d

19 t h e m o re v a r i e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s ,

th e g r e a t e r w i l l be th e

o p p o r tu n itie s f o r a n a ly s is and su b se q u e n t m o d ific a tio n s a n d im p ro v e m e n ts . B r ie f ly re v ie w in g , th e n , f a c to r s p e r ta in in g m e t h o d o l o g y , we m i g h t s t a t e on th e above s u b j e c t .

to

t h a t a p i l o t s tu d y w as i n i t i a t e d

I t w a s p r o p o s e d t h a t i n v ie w o f t h e

p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s a c h ie v e d i n th e p r o j e c t , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be c o n tin u e d . by d iv e rs ify in g

B y e n l a r g i n g t h e n u m b e r o f s a m p le g r o u p s , th e n a tu re o f th e c a s e s , and by in te n s if y in g

th e t o t a l c o n c lu s io n s and a n a l y s i s i t w as b e li e v e d an in te r e s tin g

and p ro d u c tiv e

th a t

t h e s i s m ig h t b e p r e s e n t e d .

T he c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e s t u d y w a s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e rs ( 1 ) E n l a r g e t h e s a m p le g r o u p s f r o m o n e t o f i v e ; f r o m som e t h i r t y c a s e s t o a t l e a s t o n e h u n d re d c a s e s . ( 2 ) G iv e m o re l a t i t u d e t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e g ro u p s ; in c lu d e n o t o n ly p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p le b u t a l s o c l e r i c a l , m e c h a n ic a l, an d I f p o s s ib le a p o lic e u n i t . ( 3 ) F o llo w th r o u g h w ith r e s u l t s o f s tu d y to d e te rm in e p ra g m a tic v a lu e o f su c h a s tu d y . (I4.) D e t e r m in e f u r t h e r t h e v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e q u e s t io n n a ir e . (5 ) C heck f u r t h e r i n t o th e l i t e r a t u r e f i e l d t o m o re a d e q u a t e l y v a l i d a t e ^ w e ig h ts " o f th e f a c t o r s u t i l i z e d tw o c r i t e r i a . ( 6 ) A tte m p t to d e te r m in e

if

in th e th e p r o p e r In th e

t h e r e a r e common

f a c t o r s to b e fo u n d in g ro u p s d i f f e r i n g in th e n a t u r e o f w o rk p e rfo rm e d # I f p o s s ib le , a rriv e a t som e t e n t a t i v e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s i n g r o u p c o h e s io n * ( 7 ) A t t e m p t t o f i n d o n e s a m p le g r o u p w h ic h b y r e p u t a t i o n m ay i n d i c a t e a n e g a t i v e s c o r e # . T h u s , t h e r e s u i t s c o u l d b e c o m p a re d w i t h a g ro u p w ith a p o s i t i v e sc o re # T h i s w o u ld e n a b l e t h e o b s e r v e r t o c o m p a re t h e c a u s a l f a c to r s in b o th cases# ( 8 ) A s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n a n d sum m ary o f th e p i l o t s tu d y c o n tin u a tio n o f th e s tu d y w o u ld a l s o a t t e m p t t o l e a r n w h a t n e c e s s a r i l y m akes f o r a h ig h d e g r e e o f g ro u p c o h e s i o n . W h at a r e t h e n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s ? ( 9 ) L o g i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g t h e a b o v e w o u ld b e w h a t t e c h n i q u e s m ay b e u t i l i z e d t o a c h i e v e t h e p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s fo u n d to b e c o n d u c iv e t o g ro u p c o h e s io n #

CHAPTER IV

CRITERIA AND METHODS RECOMMENDED TO PROMOTE MAXIMUM GROUP COHESIVENESS IN HUMAN RELATIONS T h is i n v e s t i g a t o r f e e l s r e la tio n s a re

t h a t t h e 11i o n s ” o f hu m an

,fv e r t i c a l s o c i a l d i s t a n c e ” a n d ”h o r i z o n t a l

s o c ia l d is ta n c e * ”

A lth o u g h s e p a r a t e

s c o r e s m ay b e

s e c u r e d f r o m e a c h , n e i t h e r m ay b e c o n s i d e r e d o f s i g n i f i c a n t i m p o r t a n c e u n l e s s c o m b in e d w i t h t h e o t h e r * in

F a c to rs c o n s id e re d

t h e ”V e r t i c a l C r i t e r i a ” w e r e : 1.

L e a d e rs h ip *

2.

D e g re e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .

3.

A d j u s t m e n t i n g ro u p * P h y s ic a l a w a re n e ss* V ocal a b ility *

6.

R e a c tio n to o b s ta c le s *

7.

W o rry .

8.

G ro u p o p i n i o n a n d a p p r o v a l *

9.

E n c o u ra g e m e n t o f g ro u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n

• o

H

5-

E n co u ra g em en t o f i n i t i a t i v e *

n .

D e g ree o f s u p e r v is io n .

12.

I m p ro v e m e n t i n w o r k m e th o d s *

13.

A ttitu d e

Ik •

P a tie n c e and l i s t e n i n g

15.

D is c ip lin e *

o f s u p e rv is io n * a b ility *

l6 .

C o r r e c tiv e

in te r v ie w s *

17*

C o m m u n ic a tio n i n g r o u p *

18•

S u p e r v i s o r i a l s y m p a th y a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g *

19*

A w are n ess o f g ro u p s e n tim e n ts *

F a c to r s c o n s id e re d in th e

" H o riz o n ta l C r i te r ia "

w ere: 1*

F r ie n d lin e s s *

2*

Common a t t i t u d e s *

5*

C ritic is m .

Ij.*

A t t it u d e in e x e c u tin g a u th o r ity or h e s p o n s ib i l i t y ♦

5*

A ttitu d e

6.

C o o p e r a t iv e n e s s *

7#

"In -g ro u p " f e e lin g .

in f r u s tr a tin g

s itu a tio n s *

L o g ic a lly s p e a k in g th e p o s i t i v e

o r sum t o t a l o f

t h e f a c t o r s w o u ld b e t h e w ay t o p ro m o te a m axim um d e g r e e o f g ro u p c o h e s iv e n e s s *

When a n d i f t h e

s u p e r v is o r becom es

a w a re o f s h o r tc o m in g s e i t h e r on h i s p a r t o r w i t h i n th e g ro u p , d e f in ite p a rtic u la r m ent i s

s te p s

s itu a tio n *

s h o u ld b e ta k e n t o

im p r o v e t h e

One w ay o f f i n d i n g o u t i f

a p p aren t a f te r c e r ta in

im p r o v e ­

c o r r e c tiv e m e a su re s h av e

b e e n u t i l i z e d w o u ld b e t o g i v e a r e - t e s t o f t h e V e r t i c a l an d H o r iz o n ta l S c a le s *

By a n a ly z in g th e

in d iv id u a l sc o re s

an d s p e c i f i c w e ig h t I te m s , th e s u p e r v is o r c a n d e te rm in e a r e a s o f I m p r o v e m e n t, e t c * A n o th e r m eans o f d e te r m in in g th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f

25

p o s i t i v e m e a s u r e s f o r g r o u p c o h e s i v e n e s s w o u ld b e o b s e r v a t i o n o f p e r fo r m a n c e i n t h e r o l e

o f p a r tic ip a n t

ob server* I n d iv id u a l in t e r v ie w s a s w e l l a s group c o n fe r e n c e s may b e u t i l i z e d

a s tw o m edium s o f i n f l u e n c i n g o r c h a n g in g

t e n d e n c i e s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e w o r k in g u n i t * F a i l u r e t o a t t a i n a h i g h d e g r e e o f ,!g r o u p c o h e s i v e ­ n e s s ” i n a w o r k in g u n i t w i l l b e a p p a r e n t t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r if

t h e c o h e s i o n in d e x o r q u o t i e n t i s b e lo w a v e r a g e *

n e g a tiv e w e ig h ts o f th e above l i s t e d

Thus

c r i t e r i a w o u ld d e f i n i t e l y

in d ic a t e a la c k o f c o h e s iv e n e s s in th e group*

I f th e su p er­

v i s o r , b e i n g aw a re o f t h i s d e f e c t , d o e s n o t f o l l o w

th ro u g h

w i t h p r o p e r d i r e c t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l n o t b e r e m e d ie d *

A g a in , i f

th e s u p e r v is o r d o e s n o t e n ­

c o u r a g e tw o -w a y c o m m u n ic a tio n , h e w i l l b e u n a b le t o p rom ote th e d e s ir e d change in th e group* I t m ig h t b e p o i n t e d o u t a t t h i s

tim e t h a t a m eth od

b e i n g e x p e r im e n t e d w i t h a t p r e s e n t b y a s p e c i a l s e m in a r c h a i r e d b y D r . P f i f f n e r , D r* G u i l f o r d an d D r . L o c k e , p o in t s o u t th e v a lu e o f g a th e r in g c r i t i c a l in c id e n t s * F u r t h e r s t u d y m ig h t b e a t t e m p t e d i n t h e f u t u r e w h e r e b y i n c i d e n t s r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h f u l s i t u a t i o n s o f wg r o u p c o h e s i o n 11 may b e c o l l e c t e d .

A ls o c r i t i c a l i n c id e n t s r e l a t e d

l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n s m ig h t a l s o b e r e c o r d e d .

to p a th o ­

A fte r s u f f ic i e n t

num ber h a d b e e n r e c o r d e d and a n a l y z e d In b e h a v i o r a l t e r m s ,

2k I n d i c e s m ig h t b e d e v e l o p e d a n d a c t u a l l y t e s t e d o n s t a t i s t i c a l b a s is # s u b s ta n tia te c o h e s io n #

T h i s p r o c e s s w o u ld s e r v e

to f u r t h e r

o r n e g a te th e w o rk d o n e t h u s f a r on g ro u p

CHAP'PER V

FINDINGS OP THE STUDY OP FIVE CASE STUDIES IN THE CORRECTIONAL CYCLE IN THREE JURISDICTIONS (CALIFORNIA, OHIO, AND V IR IG IN IA ) QVro u n i t s o f t h e J u v e n i l e

D e lin q u e n c y P r e v e n t i o n

D i v i s i o n o f t h e H a m il t o n C o u n ty P r o b a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t s e r v e d a s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r 1^

in itia l

so u rc e o f d a te .

o f s t u d y , t h e G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t c o n t a i n e d

A t th e

tim e

s i x t e e n m em b ers

w h ile t h e s e c o n d , th e C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il U n it c o n ta in e d sev en

m e m b e rs . In p a s s in g

T he r e s p e c t i v e

s u p e r v i s o r s w e re i n c l u d e d .

i t m ig h t b e h e l p f u l to d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y

th e c o n s titu e n c y o f th e u n i t u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The a v e r a g e a g e o f t h e G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t w as fo u n d to b e 51*9 y e a r s . a n d n i n e men o f f i c e r s .

A t p re s e n t th e re a re

s i x women

W h ile t h e m en a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s

D e p u ty P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r s , o r A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y P r o b a t i o n -n o f f i c e r s ,

t h e wom en a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s " c o u n s e l l o r s . ”

m ean l e n g t h o f t i m e f o r p r e v i o u s w o r k h i s t o r y s o c i a l s e r v i c e f i e l d w a s lj..5 y e a r s .

in

T he

th e

A l l t h e m en h a d a t

l e a s t a B .A . a n d a l l t h e women a t l e a s t h i g h s c h o o l g ra d u a te s .

One o f t h e women h a d a P H .D . f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y

o f M e x ic o .

A ll h a d th e

b ilin g u is tic .

F in a lly ,

s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f b e in g I t w as d e te r m in e d t h a t t h e a v e ra g e

26 l e n g t h o f tim e i n th e d e p a r tm e n t w as 2*0 y e a r s * I * GROUP GUIDANCE - CASE I I n a s m u c h a s t h e G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t w a s s t u d i e d firs t,

l e t u s c o n s id e r th e f i n d i n g s a t t h i s

in g ly en o u g h , th e

tim e #

In te re s t-

s u p e r v i s o r f s g r a d i n g o f t h e U n it w as h u t

t w o - t e n t h s h i g h e r t h a n t h e g ro u p * s a r i t h m e t i c m ean* v e r tic a l fa c to r ra te d

T he

5 * 1 ? ou t o f a p o s s i b l e l|.*0 a n d t h e

h o r i z o n t a l J .1 2 g i v i n g

t h e g r o u p t h e g r a d e o f 5 *ll|.*

A p p ly in g t h e fo rm u la f o r th e

c o h e s io n in d e x

(Mv t M ^)x 1 0 0

e T he C o h e s i o n Q u o t i e n t = ■

t h e q u a n t i t y 7®*U- w a s d e t e r m i n e d * ( m » Mj,} = *781).•

The C . I .

o r C o h e s i o n I n d e x o f 78.14-

co m p a re s w i t h 62* 5 # t h e p o s s i b l e a r i t h m e t i c a l a v e r a g e C . I* A w o rd a s t o

th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e fo rm u la

m ig h t b e i n d i c a t e d a t t h i s

tim e *

m ean o f t h o s e q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d Mk r e f e r s

to

Mv i n d i c a t e s

on th e v e r t i c a l

5— th e a r ith m e tic s c a l e , w h ile

th o s e q u e s tio n s fo u n d on th e h o r i z o n t a l s c a le *

( P a g e 82A p p e n d i x )

By a d d i n g t h e t w o , t h e a v e r a g e f o r a l l

q u e s t i o n s w e re d e te r m in e d *

The n u m b e r e i g h t r e f e r s

f o u r q u a r t i l e s fo u n d in e a c h o f th e h o r iz o n ta l and v e r t i c a l * a m o re o r l e s s a r b i t r a r y

(q u e s tio n )

to th e

tw o c a t e g o r i e s , n a m e ly

The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s

f lg d e w as

o n e , fo llo w in g a p e rio d o f e x p e r i ­

m e n ta tio n in o rd e r to f in d fa c to r

x 100

some s y s te m o f r e d u c i n g a s u b j e c t i v e

to a q u a n t i t a t i v e d e te rm in a tio n *

27 The i n v e s t i g a t o r , m a y , w i t h t h e a b o v e i n f o r m a t i o n p ro c e e d an d d e te rm in e th e s ta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , e r r o r , and f i n a l l y

th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o

or not a s ta tis tic a l

to m a in ta in w h e th e r

s ig n ific a n c e e x is ts *

s p e a k in g , h o w e v e r, th e

s ta n d a rd

P ra g m a tic a lly

i n v e s t i g a t o r w as a b le

t o m ake a n

a n a l y s i s b y m eans o f g r a p h s an d h is to g r a m s • T he i t e m s l e t t e r s A to Z .

c o n s i d e r e d w e re i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e T he a r i t h m e t i c m ean o f e a c h w a s c a l c u l a t e d *

T h ese r e t u r n s im m e d ia te ly I n d i c a t e d w h ic h o f th e w e r e a b o v e o r b e lo w t h e m ean* t h e d y n a m ic r e l a t i o n s h i p s

in

I t a ls o

c rite ria

i n d i c a t e d w h ic h o f

th e g ro u p r e q u ir e d f u r t h e r

a t t e n t i o n and p o s s ib le re m e d ia l a c tio n b o th on th e p a r t o f th e

s u p e r v i s o r a n d t h e U n i t a s a w h o le * The h i s t o g r a m

o n p a g e 67 i n d i c a t e s

ite m s w e re a b o v e a v e ra g e *

t h a t a l l b u t tw o

Ite m s A an d G r e f e r

f o llo w e r ” and "w o rry ” f a c to r s #

to

In asm u ch a s t h i r t y - s e v e n

p e r c e n t o f t h e u n i v e r s e w e r e new women o f f i c e r s , be in fe rre d

•’l e a d e r -

t h a t t h e g r a d e s w e re a r e f l e c t i o n

it

c o u ld

of th e ir

new ness and o th e r a d m in is tr a tiv e

f a c t o r s c o n n e c te d w ith

t h e i r jo b s *

T h is i n f o r m a ti o n i s

o f im p o rta n c e t o

s u p e rv is o r*

A lth o u g h h e i s

th e

n o t a w a re o f th e g r a d e s o f t h e

I n d i v i d u a l w om en, h e d o e s know w h a t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s a r e r e g a r d i n g t h e a b o v e tw o f a c t o r s * T he i n v e s t i g a t o r a n d s u p e r v i s o r h e l d a c o n f e r e n c e * c o n c lu s io n s a r r i v e d a t w e re d i r e c t e d

to w a r d m e a n s o f

T he

im p r o v in g t h e i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s to w a r d t h e a b o v e m e n tio n e d fa c to r s#

I t w as f e l t t h a t s e v e r a l m edium s w e r e a v a i l a b l e #

F i r s t t h e w e e k ly s t a f f c o n f e r e n c e s o f f e r e d a s p l e n d i d o p p o r t u n i t y t o e f f e c t i n d i v i d u a l an d g r o u p t h e r a p y . C o r r e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w s w h ic h o c c u r r e d fro m tim e t o tim e c o u ld a l s o

o f f e r o p p o r tu n itie s f o r in d ir e c t s tim u la tio n #

f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s , l i k e w i s e , p r o v id e d f e r t i l e

In ­

ground f o r

p la n t in g th e s e e d s t o d e v e lo p th e f e e l i n g o f c o n fid e n c e In o n e s e l f an d i n t h e g r o u p a s a w h o l e . The g r o u p r a t e d i t s e l f S c a l e th a n on t h e H o r i z o n t a l .

.0 5 h i g h e r on th e V e r t i c a l T h is d i f f e r e n c e w a s s o s m a ll

t h a t n o t h i n g o f Im p o r ta n c e c o u l d b e a t t a c h e d t o i t # e v e r , in

How­

i n s t a n c e s w h e r e o n e p a p e r sh ow ed a n e x t r e m e , t h i s

w a s r e g a r d e d a s a w a r n in g l i g h t t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r #

The same

t y p e o f s u b t l e and i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h w a s r e q u i r e d # R o g e r I a n m eth od o f n o n - d i r e c t i v e

The

c o u n s e llin g o f f e r e d a

s p le n d id t o o l t o w ork w i t h . I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , c e r t a i n f a c t o r s a s i n it e m R I n d i c a t e d a common a t t i t u d e group#

am ong t h e m em bers o f t h e

A l l b u t o n e m arked t h e f o u r t h w e ig h t #

I t can

d e f i n i t e l y b e a ssu m e d t h a t a l l m em bers i n t h e g r o u p f e e l th a t " p erso n s w ith r e a l o r d e le g a te d a u th o r ity a re n ev er u n s y m p a t h e t ic , mean o r c r u e l ” #

The g r o u p r a t e d a 3 * 9 on

t h i s ite m . S in c e

some it e m s w e r e b a s e d on w h a t o n e t h o u g h t o f

29

h im s e lf w h ile o th e r s r e f e r r e d a s d ire c te d th e

to

th e I n d iv id u a l a t t i t u d e

to w a r d t h e s u p e r v i s o r a n d t h e g r o u p a s a w h o l e ,

I n v e s t i g a t o r w a s a b l e t o o b s e r v e w e k n e s s e s dow n t o

t h e v e r y I t e m a s i t w a s m ade a p p a r e n t b y o n e i n d i v i d u a l . A s i n t h e c a s e o f I t e m X o n e o f f i c e r s t a t e d h e o r s h e w a s *. “e a s i l y

I r r i t a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y w hen c o n f r o n te d b y f r u s t r a t i n g

s itu a tio n s * •

*I?his w a s o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e

to

th e

s u p e r v i s o r In a s m u c h a s t h e p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d b y a n o f f i c e r I n t h e G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t r e q u i r e d a p e r s o n w ho w o u ld s e ld o m b e a d v e r s e l y i n f l u e n c e d b y n e g a t i v e s itu a tio n s .

The t y p e o f b o y s a n d g i r l s

w o rk e d w i t h w o u ld

n e c e s s a r i l y m ake t h e s e

s i t u a t i o n s a m o s t common o c c u r r e n c e .

Xt w as a p p a r e n t to th e

s u p e rv is o r th a t by n o n - d ir e c tiv e ,

i n d i v i d u a l a n d g ro u p c o u n s e l l in g t h i s p e rs o n m u st b e r e a c h e d a n d som e s o r t o f

tre a tm e n t e f f e c t e d .

F ig u r e 3 m akes a v a i l a b l e

to th e

s u p e rv is o r a q u ic k

m e a n s o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h ic h o f t h e f a c t o r s

in d ic a te d a

s c a t t e r i n g a n d w h i c h sh o w ed common a t t i t u d e s As in ite m R th e w e ig h t l i n e th e

s a m p le c a s e s .

$hus he is

o f "ij." i n c l u d e s a l l b u t o n e o f a b le to

se e th e re

common a g r e e m e n t i n t h e g r o u p r e g a r d i n g The g r o u p ’ s r a t i n g in F ig u re 2 . " H o riz o n ta l"

a s a w h o le i s

( P a g e 7 2 - A p p e n d ix ) lin e d iv id e

in th e g ro u p .

th e a r e a

th is

is

a re la tiv e ly

s p e c ific f a c to r .

g r a p h ic a lly p o rtra y e d

The " V e r t i c a l ” l i n e in to fo u r q u a d ra n ts «

o n e o f t h e f o u r m ay b e c o m p l e t e l y p o s i t i v e .

and O n ly

The a r e a on t h e

V e rtic a l lin e

above th e H o riz o n ta l l in e

a r e a on t h e H o r i z o n t a l l i n e V e rtic a l is

p o s itiv e .

111©

fo u n d to th e r i g h t o f th e

lik e w is e p o s i t i v e .

T h is n e c e s s i t a t e s

t h a t q u a d ra n t B be c o m p le te ly n e g a tiv e c o m p le te ly p o s i t i v e .

is

th e n ,

i f q u a d ra n t D is

T h is le a v e s q u a d r a n t A a n d C w i t h

b o th n e g a tiv e and p o s i t i v e

fa c to rs #

51 TABLE I GROUP COHESION TABLE ITEM SCORES GROUP GUIDANCE LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

I te m

S c o re

I te m

3 -5 3 -6 3 .0 3 -3 3 .9

2 *P 2.6 i

i8 9

10 n

12 13

Score

3 .6 3 -5 3 .5 5 .0 2 .7 3 .3 3 -1 3 -5 2 .9 3 -8

U

3 .0 I:?

3 -3 3 .0 V * 3 .1 7 H » 5 .1 2

H « 3.14

52

TABLE I I PERSONNEL TABLE COORDINATING COUNCIL LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

C ase N o• 1 2 5

% \ 7 8

9 9

Sex

A ge

M M M M M M F M M

k3

BM

1/F

Y r s . E x p . in A llie d F ie ld

55 Ai 57

20 34 8 5 0 10 10 7 5

5 9 .1

8 .5

33 29 56 56

LlZ

C o lle g e BS-MA BA-MA BS BA BA LLB BA BD BA

Tim e i n D e p a rtm e n t 6 U 8 2 3 3 16 5 ll 6 . if.

33 By ta k in g th e V e r t i c a l an d H o r iz o n ta l g r a d e s o f each in d iv id u a l in i n F ig u re

th e g ro u p , and p la c in g

2 , o n e m ay s e e

u n it f a l l s .

i m m e d i a t e l y t h e a r e a i n w h ic h t h e

The g r a p h i n d i c a t e s

G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t f a l l g ra p h ic p r e s e n ta tio n

i t upon th e g ra p h

t h a t a l l m em b ers o f t h e

in th e D q u a d ra n t in d ic a tin g a

o f an above a v e ra g e r a t i n g .

In a s m u c h a s t h e

i n v e s t i g a t o r w as a b le t o

know

w h i c h p a p e r s w e r e f r o m women a n d w h ic h f r o m m e n , t h e i r re s p e c tiv e

g ra d e s c o u ld be d e s ig n a te d a c c o r d in g ly on th e

g ra p h .

is

It

re la tiv e not

In te re s tin g

to n o te t h a t in s p i t e

i n s e c u r i t y f e l t b y t h e w om en, t h e

o f th e

t o t a l g ra d e s do

r e f l e c t a " f e e l i n g o f “ o v e r - s u p e r v i s i o n 11 o r e x e c u t i v e

d o m in a n c e .

T he w om en’ s a v e r a g e a p p e a r s t o b e w e l l s c a t t e r e d

am ong t h o s e o f t h e m en i n q u a d r a n t D o f F i g u r e

2*

I t m ig h t b e w e l l t o a g a in d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y s tu d ie d *

A t th e tim e th e p e r s o n n e l I te m s w e re o b t a i n e d ,

a d d i t i o n a l p e rs o n n e l w as e v id e n c e d . a s a m a tte r o f c o n v e n ie n c e . a w om an.

T h e re w e re in c lu d e d

Of th e n in e o f f i c e r s one w as

The a v e r a g e a g e w a s 5 9 . 1 y e a r s , a r e l a t i v e l y

a v e r a g e w o rk h i s t o r y fie ld )

th e u n i t

o f 8 .5 y e a r s .

( p r e v io u s w o rk i n A l l w e re c o l l e g e

v a ry in g d e g re e s o f g ra d u a te w o rk .

th e s o c ia l s e rv ic e g ra d u a te s w ith

L aw , m i n i s t r y , p s y c h o l o g y ,

s o c io lo g y , a n d e d u c a tio n w e re r e p r e s e n t e d ^ 6.1}. y e a r s r e p r e s e n t e d th e d e p a rtm e n t.

lo n g

I t w as fo u n d t h a t

t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f tim e s p e n t i n

3k W ith w h a t h a s "been m e n t i o n e d i n m in d , l e t u s fo cu s a tte n tio n

on th e f in d in g s o f t h i s

g ro u p .

I I COORDINATING COUNCIL - CASE I I The a n a l y s i s o f t h e C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l U n i t w as p u r s u e d I n t h e sam e m a n n e r a s t h e a b o v e . w e re a t r i f l e

h i g h e r w i t h a V o f J . 2 a n d H o f 3*3 g i v i n g a

t o t a l g ra d e o f 5*55* can e a s ily

see t h i s

^ i 0 C o h e s i o n I n d e x w a s S3*7*

A w a s b e lo w a v e r a g e .

In f a c t ,

o f t h e G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t . to

As o n e

in d ic a te s a g a in a v e ry h ig h d e g re e o f

g ro u p c o h e s io n w i t h i n a w o rk in g u n i t .

in te re s tin g

T h e ir g ra d e s

A g a in , h o w e v e r, ite m

I t w a s o n e - t e n t h b e lo w t h a t

T h is p ro v e d to b e e x tr e m e ly

t h e s u p e r v i s o r s w ho w o n d e r e d i f

i t e m A m ig h t

n o t b e c o n s id e r e d a s b e in g a good p s y c h o lo g ic a l d o u b le c h e c k on su ch f a c t o r s a s I n d ic a te d in The f a c t t h a t o n l y tw o o f f i c e r s i n m any a c t i v i t i e s

Ite m s E , H , I , I , fe lt

t h e y w e re

i n t h e g r o u p 11 i n d i c a t e d

and o th e r s . vl e a d e r s

s o m e th i n g t o

th e

s u p e rv is o r. A g a in ,

in

ite m B , th e g ra d e o f 2 .5

an a v e ra g e r a t i n g .

d e s ig n a te d b u t

T he f u n c t i o n s o f t h e o f f i c e r s

In th e

C o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l r e q u i r e s a m o re t h a n a v e r a g e a b i l i t y in p a r tic ip a tin g

in v a rio u s a c t i v i t i e s w ith p r o f ic ie n c y .

A n y o n e g i v i n g a d v i c e a n d c o u n s e l t o c o m m u n ity l e a d e r s m u s t b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y so m e w h a t o f a n I n d i g e n o u s n a t u r e • A lth o u g h th e

t o t a l g r a d e o f th e C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il

55 U n it w as h i g h e r , a d e t a i l e d

a n a ly s is r e v e a ls th a t th re e

o f t h e i r i t e m g r a d e s f a l l b e lo w a v e r a g e * f a c t o r i n ite m A w as a l r e a d y m e n tio n e d * G ro u p G u id a n c e U n i t l i k e w i s e m e d ia l m e a su re s* a l l , h o w e v er. w as la c k in g

’The

p ro v e d th e m o st s u r p r i s i n g

of

in d ic a te d to th e s u p e rv is o r th a t

he

in h is u t i l i z a t i o n

T he b e lo w a v e r a g e r a t i n g d e s ire

on th e p a r t o f

Ite m G a s i n th e

in d ic a te d an a re a fo r r e ­

th ird

Ite m P

T he l e a d e r s h i p

o f c o rre c tiv e

o f 2*1|. d e f i n i t e l y

in te rv ie w s #

in d ic a te s a

t h e o f f i c e r s t o h a v e m o re i n d i v i d u a l

in te rv ie w s o f t h i s n a tu r e . U pon r e f e r r i n g a b le

to n o tic e

to F ig u re

2 o n p a g e 7 2 we a r e e a s i l y

t h e u p w a rd an d l e f t w a r d

C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il U n it g r a d e s . to n o te

It

te n d e n c y o f th e is a ls o

in te re s tin g

t h a t o n e o f t h e n e w e r women i n t h e G ro u p G u id a n c e

U n i t r a t e s h i g h e r th a n one o f th e C o o r d in a tin g C o u n c il o ffic e rs .

T h is i n d i c a t e d

to th e

s u p e r v is o r o f th e l a t t e r

U n it t h a t c lo s e r a t t e n t i o n be pay ed to h is u n it. d ire c tiv e

th e one p a p e r In

I t m ay s e r v e a s t h e g u i d e f o r f u t u r e s u p e r v is io n o f th e g ro u p in

th e

non-

im m e d ia te f u t u r e #

T h u s, b o th s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e t a n g i b l e e v id e n c e t h a t (1 )

t h e i r u n i t s m ay b e a b o v e a v e r a g e

f u n c tio n a s a u n i t and (2 ) t h a t in p a r a tiv e ly h ig h

in t h e i r a tte m p ts to

s p i t e o f t h e i r com ­

s c o re s , th e q u a n t i t a t i v e s a n a ly s is

r e v e a l s a r e a s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t. g u e ss-w o rk h a s b een e lim in a te d .

A good d e a l o f p re v io u s

TABLE I I I GROUP COHESION TABLE ITEM SCORES COORDINATING COUNCIL LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

S c o re

Ite m

1

2 .2

14

2

2 .5

15

5

3 .8

16

k

3 -5

17

5

5-ii.

18

6

3 .0

19

7

2 »2|>

20

8

3 -5

21

9

5 .7

22

10

3 .7

23

n

3.1*.

Sit-

12

5 .7

25

15

3 .5

26

It
s r *- 0 ■J 1K) i J t>ka .Cu»LC 1