A sociological analysis of a pressure group

Citation preview

A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF A PRSSSUEE GEOUP

m ttOILiET A. ANGLIN

Subm itted to th e F acu lty o f th e Graduate School in p a r t i a l f u l f illm e n t of th e requirem ents f o r th e d e g re e f Doctor o f P hilosophy, in th e Department o f S ociology, In diana U n iv e rsity Septemb©r, 1949

ProQuest Number: 10295241

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon th e quality o f the co p y submitted. In the unlikely e v en t that th e author did not send a co m p lete manuscript and there are missing p a g es, th ese will b e noted . Also, if material had to b e rem oved, a note will indicate th e deletion.

uest ProQuest 10295241 Published by ProQuest LLC (2016). Copyright o f the Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

PREFACE

t h i s in v e s tig a tio n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n fro® th e p o in t o f view o f so cio lo g y i s th e outgrow th of th e w rite r* s i n t e r e s t , e x p e rie n c e , end t r a i n i n g in both th e a c t i v i t i e s o f s o c ia l groups and in sociology#

th e w r i te r w ishes to

e x p re ss h i s g r a titu d e f o r th e immeasurable c o n trib u tio n made t o h i s work through th e c o n sta n t and p a tie n t guidance and a s s is ta n c e o f Dr* A* L« S tra u s s and Dr* $• H* S u th e rla n d . For a c c e s s t o th e f i l e s and o f f i c i a l documents o f th e N atio n al A sso c ia tio n f o r th e Advancement o f Colored P eople, 1 am in* debted t o W alter W hite, E xecutive S e c re ta ry o f th e NAAGP, Madison S* Jo n e s, A d m in istrativ e A s s is ta n t, M s s C* T« Free* la n d , O ffic e Manager, and t o th e e n t i r e o f f ic e s t a f f o f th e A ssociation*

To my w ife , M arian, X am g r a te f u l f o r c o n s ta n t

h e lp and encouragement*

ii

TABLE OF GONTENTS PAGE

CHAPTER I,

INTRODUCTION,

.............................

The G r o u p ................................ • Some Background M a te ria ls from th e L ite ra tu re . . . . . . . . . . . . P re ssu re Groups. . . . . . . . ' In s titu tio n s . . . . . . . . . G uaaar?. « . ................. . . . . . . . R esearch P ro ced u res. . . . . . . . . XX.

THE SOCIAL SETTING.

X 2 . . . . .

. . . . .

...........................................

3 3 13 19 20 22

PART X PHASES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AH ASSOCIATION XXX. THE FOUNDERS........................................... t

S o c ia l Backgrounds o f Three L ead erss « « Mary White Oviagtoit* • • • * . . • • • W illiam E n g lish W allings « « * » » Henry Moskowitaju • I n i t i a l E e c ru ita * * « * * • The F i r s t - Conference * • . * ■ • * * * * * . C ooperation and C o n flic t * * * Summary. * • » * • * « « • « « * « » * * IV. TOWARD SOLIDARITY

30 30 31 36 45 50 $6 6?

75 79

The C o n tin u atio n o f Recruitm onte , * • « 79 The C r i s i s ; A Weapon f o r Defense and " ""A4*/rtilil &£ # * ® * e ’* e e * ♦ e * a e e 8?0 "*** C oo p eratio n and C o n flic t 91 Bases o f Legal A ctio n . « • • ............. 95 Summary* * * * « * * ..................... » , , « lo i V. FORMAL 0ROABI2ATIQ& . . . . . . . ..................... -- Leaders* ■’•■a F o llo w ers. * • * . * • » . * • » » » . . Branches • • • . . . * » • • • • » * * » C ollege C hapters ill

Ill 113 121

127 134

lv South C ouncils* * * • • « • * * .................. C onferences .................. Summary « * # • * . * • * • * * » • • * #

136

13| 146

PART XI

mmwtmxmu*uktXQn ,

TOTlTUTXQmi 2 ATl« 8 FAIT I . * # * * . *

vn .

^

*

151

Ideology* * « * * * * » * # * * * * » • »

154

l e g a l J u s tic e . » *■■■ * # * ♦ • • * ♦ ' • Lynching* * * • * * • • • ■ * . . * S eg reg atio n * » « • * • < • # « . • \ i E ducation * . , * * * . * .......................... la b o r * • « • # • • • • . • # . . « The B allo t* The Armed Forces* l e g i s l a t i o n • « « • * ......................... Summary . . . . . . . . * • » •

162 163 164 166 170 171 173 179

m s s v m m m u z A tio m p a r t ix * . .................

162

162

P re s s u re s * * ................................. * . . . * S e rv ic e S p e c i a l i s t s a t P re ssu re * * ..................... . . Cohn R* Sh l l l a d y » * » * » * « * * « James Weldon Johnson* * « « • • • * W alter m i te * . . . . . . . . . . . W* E. B. DuBois . . . . . . . . . . P re ssu re on th e Courts* « * ......................... Murder. * * * ' . * * * . . . . * * • Rape* • « * » » # • « » • ................. Suffrage* • R e s id e n tia l S eg reg atio n . . . . . . — E ducation . . « * .........................* * » BiscriminatiOKi* • • « * . • * • • . P re ssu re on l e g i s l a t o r s P re ssu re on A d m in istra to rs. . . . . . . . P re ssu re th ro u g h Propaganda Bureau o f In fo rm atio n

162 163 165 166 169 191 193 194 196

& £ « & * : : : : : : : : : : : The Mature o f H* A* A. 0 . P* P ressu re « , Summary .......................... ....

ilf 264

200

204 20s 212

217 232 243 254 255

V

T i l l*

PERSISTENCE AHD RIGIDITY« , . .............................272 P e ra is te a e e « . « . » » < » • » « < > « 273 S c i e n t i f i c Study o f Hegro Schools* # • » « 274 Legal R edress C o m itto o . • » ................... • 276 B ranches * . * • « * » • * * i . « « • • « 276 Infwm&t ion # . . * » * . . . * « 261 MhSS M eetings, » » » „ * . « . . , * « « • 262 F oreign Propaganda » • , • • » , * « » » « 204 C o n g ressio n al D is tr ic ts * * » .......................... 267 R ig id ity , • , . » . * • • * ......................... « . • 26? F in a n c ia l R ig id ity * * « . « * * » • < * • 266 O p position to Lynching * • « . * » » * » * 291 ^ O p position o f O u tg ro u p s . • • * • • • • • 297 Summary * * * . * * * ♦ . . * * * . . * . . * 306 PART I I I

,

ATOWBM IX..

ATTITUDES TOWARD TM I . A* A. G. P . ...................... 312 I n tro d u c tio n , * * * * « » * » * , • , » . » » 312 A tlan ta* G eorgiaa • 316 Summary* 339 C ary, In d ia n a • 341 Smtmary. « « • * * • « « * * » . » * * » » 3oS Oklahoma C ity , Oklahoma 370 S um m ary.......................... .......................... .... . . » 391 Summary o f th e Throe Area®. ..................... 392 PART IF

X.

SUMA&X AND COHCLUSIOHS, . ,

. 400

Summary • C onclusions • . » • .................. . . . • • • • • BIBLIOGRAPHY , * * * * . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX«

400 405

* . * * . . * 406 415

LIST OF TABLES

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f th e S ig n e rs o f th e C a ll. •

51

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f S peakers a t F i r s t N atio n al Negro C onference. . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

S e le c te d Terms and P h rases Used by Speakers bho Addressed th e F i r s t N a tio n a l Negro C onference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f th e 1909 Committee on Per­ manent O rg an izatio n f o r th e F i r s t N ation­ a l Negro Conference . . . . . . . . . . .

62

Membership o f th e N. A. A. C. P . : 1912-1919 •

123

O ates o f O rig in o f Branches in V arious S ta te s

126

Number and L o cation o f C ollege C h ap ters, 1945

135

D is tr ib u tio n o f Youth C ouncils by S t a te s . . .

136

L o catio n and Themes o f N. A. A. C. P. Confer­ en ces: 1909-1943* * .............................. ....

139

D is tr ib u tio n by S ta te s o f Cases o f C rim inal Defense Bandied by th e N. A. A. C. P.s 1910-1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

D is tr ib u tio n by S ta te s o f S uffrage Gases Handled by th e If* A* A* 0 . F«: 1915-1945*

206

D is tr ib u tio n by S ta te s o £ f f « A « A » C » P * E e s id e n tia l S eg reg atio n Gases: 1910-1945* * » 209 D is tr ib u tio n by S ta te s o f E d u catio n al Cases Handled by th e H* A* A* 0 * P»s 1910-1945*

213

D is tr ib u tio n by S ta te s o f H acial D iscrim ina­ tio n Gases Handled by th e M* A* A. G* P*s 1910-1945

216

D is tr ib u tio n by S ta te s o f le g a l Gases Handled by th e I . A, A, C* P ,r 1910-1945*

223

v ii XVX* XVII# XTIIX,

XXX* II*

1X1*

XXII*

XXIII*

XXI?.

XX?*

XXFI*

D is tr ib u tio n o f Case® i n Time According t o T h eir Loe& tlent 1910-1945* • • • * • « » *

225

D is p o s itio n o f Gases i n Which th e M* A* A* 0* P* P a r t i c i p a t e d ; 1910X945 * * * • * * * *

229

E e la tio n s h ip l o t w e n P ercentage P ercen tag e o f H egre-to-W hite and Humber o f 1* A* A# 0* P* 34 S ta te # and th e D i s t r i c t o f

o f Case# Won, P o p u la tio n , Branches in Columbia * *

230

Sample o f th e ' Finance® o f th e H* A* A* 0*’ F« f o r a t h i r t y f e a r P e rio d ; 1911-1941* * * «

2S9

P ercentage o f 102 Answers fa v o ra b le toward#, Complete# P a rtia l,# o r l o t Any S eg reg atio n o f la c e #

319

D is tr ib u tio n o f C h ief L ikes and D islik e # o f th e D iffe re n t Phases o f th e Work o f th e M* A* A* a* P* Among a Sample o f 102 In­ terv iew ee# i n A tlanta# Georgia * * * * * *

321

D is tr ib u tio n o f F i r s t Choice o f Problems to Be Solved and th e F i r s t Method o f Solving These Problem s As E xpressed by 102 I n t e r ­ view ees in A tlan ta# Georgia* * * * « V « *

331

D is tr ib u tio n o f C hief L ikes and D is lik e s o f th e D iffe re n t Phase# o f th e Work o f th e A* A* G» Pe Among a Sample o f 102 In ­ te rv ie w e e s i n A tlanta# Georgia# As Ex­ p re sse d in P ercen tag es * * * * * « • « • •

336

D is tr ib u tio n o f F i r s t Choice o f Problems To Be Solved and th e F i r s t Method o f Solving These Problems A# E xpressed in P erc en tag es by 102 In te rv ie w e e s i n A tlanta# Georgia* *

337

D is tr ib u tio n o f C hief Like® and D islike® o f th e D iffe re n t Phases o f th e Work o f th e If* A# A* 0* P* Among a Sample o f 90 In ­ te rv ie w e e s in Gary, Indiana* « * * * « * «

344

D is tr ib u tio n o f F i r s t Choice o f Problems to be Solved and F i r s t Choice o f Method o f S olving These Problems Among a Sample o f 90 In terv iew ee# in Gary# In d ian a * * * * *

357

v iii

xxra 4

wan* mx, xxx*

Dietrlbufc Ion o f C hief hike© end D is lik e s o f th e D if fe re n t Phases o f th e Work of th e K» A# k* G» P# Among a Simple o f 90 In ­ te rv ie w e e s in Gary* Indiana* a s E xpressed i n Percentages*

362

D is tr ib u tio n o f F i r s t Choice o f Problem s to be Solved and th e F i r s t Method o f Solving th e s e Problems As Expressed l a P ercen tag es by 90 In te rv ie w e e s in Gary, Indians* * * * * 36S P ercen tag es o f Answers F avorable Towards Complete*. P a r tia l* o r Mot Any S eg reg atio n o f Che E a s e s , ..........................................* . • , •

371

D is tr ib u tio n o f C h ief L ikes and D islike© o f th e D iffe re n t .Phases o f th e Work o f th e ■ A. A« 0* P* Among a Sample o f 120 In - ' te rv le w e e s In Oklahoma C ity ! Oklahoma * « •

373

XXXXm D is tr ib u tio n o f F i r s t Gholce o f Problems to

be Solved and th e F i r s t Method o f Solving These Problems Among a Sample o f 120 In ­ te rv ie w e e a in Oklahoma C ity , Oklahoma * • .

m ix ,

m xxx*

XXXI?*

nxfm

3G4

D is tr ib u tio n o f C hief Like© and D is lik e s o f th e D iffe re n t Phase® o f th e Work o f th e N* A* A* C* Pm Among' a Sample o f 120 In­ terv iew ees. in Oklahoma City* Oklahoma*. As E xpressed in P ercen tag es » » « « » • • »

3^9

D is trib u tio n o f F i r s t Choice o f Problem® to be Solved and th e F i r s t -Method o f S olving These Problems As E xpressed In P ercentages by 120 In te rv ie w e e s In Oklahoma City* n®r&liaad th e o ry nay

S ince tmmea in d iv id u e ls liv in g i n s

eeUeetivity have s im ila r basic needs and e n v iro a a e n ta l eoaetities** the ways of s a t i s f y i n g th e s e needs which a f t e r t r i a l and. error have proved relatively w e ll sp rea d by Im ita tio n * beeene individually s t a b i l i s e d aa h a b its * c o l l e c t i v e l y u tttf s r a is e d a s customs* and a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y tra n s m itte d I>y/fth* o ld t o th e yeans*

I b i s I s th e p ro c e ss o f f o r s n tio a o f fo lk w ay s.

Folkways

become m ores whan* because o f f a i t h i a sons d o c trin e o f t r u t h and right **» sons "World philosophy* essential f o r societal w elfare*

th e y sane t o be co n sid ered

out o f th e s o r e s evolve i n s t i t u ­

t i o n s *36

Bi&o# t t e

%&m

of l&rd rad.

t e w gom* on ora*$jn«g$iog

to trlo ra raololotglote th m r lm o f iratefcu tirasi#

la eurvsyioii fctetr te*orio»t w find t t e t tte bulk of t t e i r rio a l date a r t te rlw d r a t from biology w paycholagy# but. from h ie to iy ra d oulfcwm i ra tero jm lo g y * ra d t t e t m c h i u s t l t u t l r a m% £ 1® M

i# a 00110##$ ia tra te d te w w a lo jfiral

o f d a te t e t e o from te r a * ra w ra a *

e l& m

to 00 doing* h om m rt i t mmm

ll(ira*M^lwa^#ra0M^iawia>ii#W Bm|ran«^»^>i(iiwrriifticil|iriW lff1irari(in>0~iiatin>lir'^Tifc'■yr'im-;ritp'nn»—rnlrHmmnVij irimwiitif m '" vrrflr-'iio •fl rn n‘r “li in r if n T T'f—“--p— - .^TT' fi 1 rr^i rr^inriup

*%*«§» l.» ? * , i^uro S o8ialor:y. pp. 1 0 > 9 J .

^S unaer, W* 0»* Folkwava,

is t h a t th * s c h o la r s have d ecid ed t h l th e concept o f s o c ie ty can m lo n g e r se rv e a s c e n te r f a r th e co n c ep tu al in te g r a tio n o f in s titu tio n s *

P robably th e m a t th o ro u g h and i n s t r u c t i v e

cAMnpg t o s y n th e tic s a l l th e s p e c ia l s c ie n c e s o f c u ltu r e ■with th e h e lp o f th e concept i n s t i t u t i o n , b u t w ithout r e f e r r in g e l l i n s t i t s i t i o a a t o " s o c ie ty ” i n th e o ld s e n s e , is t h a t o f 1 fa n u n sla * A ccording t o P aau asio , " th e re mm a t l e a s t s ig h t f a i r l y w e ll in te g r a te d c l u s t e r s o r systaw s o f b r a s s a c t i v i t i e s *

th e

a a r i t a l , f a m i l i a l * ceoacrUta, e d u c a tio n a l, r e c r e a ti o n a l, re lig io u s * s c i e n t i f i c , and g o v e rn M o te l sy stem s. In s titu tio n s *

These we c a l l th e a a jo r

letch p e r f o r m a prim ary fu n c tio n * « * n**? and " . . .

each o f th e s e system s c o n s is ts o f subtypes o f concept*., usages and r u le s * a s s o c ia tio n s * and in sfc ru w a ts*

a im s a r e a g e -lo n g a y s tc e s * * ^

th e ssaster i n a t i t u -

th e n a f t e r e x p la in in g how th e

o aj& r s o c ia l, i n s t i t u t i o n s h a re e a ls te d o v er lo n g p e rio d s o f t i e s aad h a re developed d i f f e r e n t l y i a d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s * he go es a s t o (toy:

" i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e f u r t h e r c h a r a c te r is e d by

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; t h a t i s , th e y a r e iafcerwovea i a o rig in s * dovelopswwfc* s t r u c t u r e s , fu n c tio n in g , in c o n c e p ts, usages* a s s o c ia ­ tio n s * ifm trusaentw ,*2® Although r e f r a in in g £rm e s ta b lis h in g a th e o ry o f i n ­ s t i t u t i o n s * H e r ts le r h a s d e sc rib e d th e o rig in * form* c o n te n t, a& intcnanoe, end decay o f i n s t i t u t i o n s *

te d in a d d itio n * in

^ ^ ^ ! 4iLuiiueiim>#«WU^pUli»iwws>|mm& m& m v® m l l t r r i i # r i i i S | to fmiMtaRi %® m t sW t o t i r in iu t^ im a J l wpm®®m$

a p ito # f

w&%h mm$k%&®Xlf to* m m ^

tr»Mpwfca*»

t i m to d t o to # Mmmfatm # f & to#% *£ @«el wi%h i t # M

mtol#

i l w # tto g

n w m tr p

to to ^ a to # e a r r i t o t o t o ta s # to #

#rf***4MM#M* bar i#togm to# fx w i l i t

to tto

m m

mm

ld$at$*

taftm M M t

%hm

con n ected by th e A seeeis& sd Fre.ee* im ita te d one a n o th e r l a form at X*osfi.ly B rought i n el&va S hips to , thl# c o u n try , and a f t e r a r r iv a l, s y s ts w itie a ily Rkto I# ftfe* w M o f t t o ingr® k$ X kukw to * Of sgfeual 1 ta d m m * in d id a t b am c a lo m i M r m t o f mA to t o m h m m y whiIA 1 bn l i k e l y to ^ h M t w Irto k & f’ti MatoJbtn t o npnnk to a to t o r t o pm&m*#

fhm m m f mi t o r n isrl# i t f # a n to m pv-mmm%m&> M p to rn I m m fuito $% ££® r® A tod torf W# O^tog&m to tor toltohtod tonn

r ® ^ ^ 4 to a to to to m i m ta d a#n#aa t o I f ^ to

n f tta

^ to m k to

tofc to rn

£tafyB|* M i t t e r ft|k \i£m m$L_ f la n a g £

F re d ria k tauirfe^u m r Mm Hfc fc rn to ^

jfy- SBHiSB»

t o f t o i t o l j t o r ^ m to m tto r w u to m% hum totom tod ato *

XlkLm mmt%ingm* km to ntonto tto mtord of to r tolXdhoodi ms* purZmmm mmmm to todtoto# thm% $ mmsm c^tor toelto&to *btoh m ? hum hmu

*. ito to g in t t o u%mm$mm o f t t o

abolition M W «M t m& r e to ta g mhull&im litotttturo d id ®%mmp Xasttog lMpra.#®ic»aa to tto mind u t %bto nhild* Otitor #v#nto in %lm l i l t mi to to e to m c to r up$mmr to lin k up f§uito vm li w ith tor m vXf mwsmpbim mi l i f k | t o r n n n t-to u ii^ # to s ^ n s •#*. t o b to # i # i tt o # t f to w n to to a n Fmfnf to %lm if to g an to « i t o a f t t o f a ib b f u i rn n le 0-y» iiitioit wissiy important probLoaa ia ths lim a o f th s td tite s * 3o*ia«t«B* JNary V.« & »T f e a l a ^aws faraldtog ba>m. pp. 4 * 6 .

% devoured th e s e s t o r i e s a t home, ask in g f r i g h t ­ f u l g u lp s a t th e dieXe«b# The Q aatarv a ls o i n tr o d u e e d u s t o H arry stilX w ard '[email protected] Gbandle r H a ir is , and e t e n i t They in te r e s te d m * 1 m * s u rp ris e d a t th e f a m ilia r ity betw een m aster and s e r v a n t, foot t t e v ta u g h t a s I I tb le ,* * * 1 wanted t o • s e t th e u p p er s u m o f Segrae® , th « d e sc e n d a n ts, s p i r i t u a l l y a t l e a s t , o f to o f u g itiv e slav es* i w anted t o t a l k otrar my f a v o r ite hooka w ith the® , t o le a r n t h e i r te s te d * h o t 1 noun s s l i t t l e l i k e l y t o s o o t one o f th e s e p eo ple in sy M i l w orld s s t o 'f i n d Queen f l e s e r i * rin g in g my door h e l l * ' . . *♦ B» h u rfte srd t ®u B ole m s •% S erv erd when I m s « t k e d e l i f f , b ut w p a th s d id n o t ere»#***« A fte r tw o y ear# a t e e lie g e , i became r e g i s t r a r f o r « y e a r a t P r a tt I n s t i t u t e ; and th e n , with- th e g en e ro u s h e lp o f F re d e ric k B. P r a tt and o f afcadsafca I s d o m estic s e le n e e e lse se # * m s ta r te d th e O raenp e ln t SefctX eaast o f t i e P r a tt I n s t i t u t e ie ip h b o rn eed A se o sia tio a * We were housed i n & model tenem en t, th e A s tr a l, a s o l i d l y b u i l t b ris k b u ild in g t h a t sta n d s a s f ir s tly a s ev er* o v erlo o k in g th e r i v e r a t Twentyt h i r d S tr e e t i n Sew fo rk * X to o k up th e work h a lf ­ h e a rte d ly f o r 1 had l i t t l e em o tio n al u rg e * * .. X a ls o had a c o u rse in -Sodom European h is to ry w ith Si l a s i-'iaaYas*# We sp e n t a lo a g tim e o v er th e F rench R ev o lu tio n , re a d in g v slu n in o ttaly * Khan m 9mm b e th e E elgn o f t e r r o r , th e a u th o rs used m ay page® t e l l i n g , s M e tia e s t e a r f u l l y , alw ays w ith g r e a t s e v e r ity , o f th e mm and wm m g u illo tin e d neuter th e r u le o f t a k e n and Itebeepierre* l a m a h e r t re fe re n c e book on th e E v o lu tio n th a t 1 mm rev iew in g f o r a x a a in a tie n , a f t e r a long c h a p te r on th e h e ig h o f t e r r o r , X tu rn e d a M f s t o r e a d , i n M e p a ra g ra p h , t h a t s e r a psmH« t a t aeon k i l l e d l a th e W hite T e rro r fo llo w in g %m re v o lu tio n , th a n in th e le d T erro r* I e«n se e t h a t p arag rap h now a t th e to p o f th e le ft- h a n d page* I t to ld n o th in g i n d e t a i l o f th e s e m urdered man* women, a id c h ild re n * T h eir l i v e s w ire n o t w orth n o tin g . T h is n e g le c t o f th e s u f f e r ­ in g s o f th e w o rk er, t h i s c o n tin u a l p re s e n ta tio n o f f a s t s by h is to r ia n s item th e sta n d p o in t o f th e p ro p e r­ t i e d e u a n s e was som ething not to be fo rg o tte n * I t h elp ed a e t o d ecid e be see f o r ay -self, in my own c i t y , th e l i f e o f th e w orking sin c e * * • • Xt m s n e t u n t i l my l a s t y«&r a t th e t a t l e a e n f c , i n th e w in te r o f 1903, t h a t th e Hep*® and h i s problem s e a se in to m l i f e , M e re th e y w i l l mmiM u n t i l ay death* At th e b e g in n in g o f M ia c e n tu ry th e S o c ia l K afsra C lu b , o f M ie n X was a devoted a e a h e r, had b^eara© a unique and i n t e r e s t i n g g a th e rin g p lace i n Mew Turk*

b itfa a w ittefH S ite M de up # f p ro fe s s io n a l and wasrtting p e o p le , i t d is c u s s e d p r a c tic a l ami th o c rw tio a l h u m n ita r ia n is a and d id sen* good c iv ic work* E a rn e st Howard Crosby-, s in g le t a x e r , -mo f o r y e a rs i t s p re s id e n t, and i n i t s mtetimra&ip m m Jeaepfclae Shaw lo w e ll, C h arles S to v e r, L eonora O’ Hei l l y , denes ta u ld in g * C h a rle s Spafer, th en e d ito r o f |M aufelaak, and c b a irm n o f th e prograss e o c n itto o , proposed mm ev en in g t h a t th e s lo b g ir o a d in n e r to S oaker T* W ashington sad h ie w ife* *fp From S lavery* was a t t h i s tim e ap p e a rin g in thm d a tio a k , and m s a t t r a c t i n g such a tte n tio n * Vm W W a & m d # 1 was mm m th e s e m th e ©swaiibs® o f a rran g e meat* SfMbr in s tr u c te d u s to d ev o te same o f th e p ra g m a t o c o n d itio n s in dew Torts C ity* *§oa*t m k* i t p u re ly S o u th ern ,* he a a M t *l«ft an h e a r o f condi­ tio n s s t o u r mm do o r.* The n e x t y e a r 1 l e f t O tw eapoint tettlesH W Jt and beeeae « fe llo w o f Greenwich H ouse, engaged in a stu d y o f M e ta g ro in taw fo rk C ity , *•* th e in v e s tig a tio n to o k lo n g e r th an we ex­ ited* £ k e p t ta k in g bias® f o r o th e r worts arong tre ss* I t m s n o t u n t i l I f l l t h a t ssy stu d y was ilis h e d by i-an&mm Green under th e t i t l e S e lf a i* S ta tu e o f th e fff lPflii In iftiy Iorfo.4 M en t h a t book, h a lf

jj,

tan * was p u b lish e d , th e SAAG? ..

tit

had been fu n c tio n in g m am o rg a n ise d body f o r one y e a r and two y e a rs had p assed s in c e Q v in g tea, W allin g , and tasfcow lb* had n e t in th e " l i t t l e rooa*"

I s M e l i f e and th o u g h t o f »>vingtoa a re

tr a s e d from ch ild h o o d be wewssslioed th e re seeais to be a p e r s is te n t ite rc o v e r, th e re amtw

s t r a i n tow ard a n lie re b iv e s o c ia l a c tio n ,

d e f in ite ly t o have boon p re se n t s tro n g p ro p e n s itie s tow ard h e lp ­ in g in p ro v e th e 1 m o f a p a r tic u la r group*

ta g a rd le a s o f what

m e n s t o be t r u e , th e f a c t s a r e , she d id m att o f and r e f l o a t m th e p lig h t o f th e ta g re a f t e r th e C iv il t a r j

she e le c te d to do

s e s i a l work in to which ah® e n te re d '-h&lf~he& rt«41y" because she a d m itte d ly "had l i t t l e e n e tiS M l urge*" *£l>.i*t»« pp* 6—14*

In a d d itio n , sh e "w anted

3& t o s tm t tli* a p p e r *1*8* o f K egroes" and Ht t o d e e c e n to a ts o f th e f u g itiv e s la v e a,*" 5 and in 1909 sh e i n i t i a t e d th e s e a tin g w hich r e s u lta d t o to e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e JJAACI**

I t msf at. f i r s t b lu sh seen s tro n g s th a t ft psr»m o f t o r g e n e ra l h— fe a ro -d w ith so l i t t l e d i r e s t o e n ta e t w ith to g m — sh o u ld t o so B ?ea j» tto tie t o t h e i r cause* to * h e r s e lf d id s o t undergo JSegra ex p erien ces*

A fte r a l l tow «ver( she

d id so— o u t o f a te s e a a its r ia a baakgrmmd* w hieh allow ed t o r to so— d e g r— t o id e n tif y w ith u n d e rlin g s o» th e s o c ia l seeae* sad w ish t o do —

th in g sh o u t t t o i r lo t*

W H lto a B a a lish t o l l i n g ;

WiXil&a E n g lish s a ilin g w >

to r n t o U llsa sg to y and Eoa& liod {E nglish} S a ilin g * .-larah 14* 1S77, t o toutoviX X tit Itogbtiafcgr*

in

IM & m m p A M *

h u d lm m $

ato e& tto a m s

in

T rinity BaXX* &&tobW3^fet

^eottoad» fcb© fmblia mzhml® of tootoi&Xlftt

f « d fcho

ttaimraltjr 0 ? CB*toa$®*

bo rmotvod tho BS d#gw® to X#97 voife to MOMa&®s « d roototoigr* Frm 1900

and 414

to 1901 t e m s a £&®ta*y la*j»**ta¥ to XXltooi**

to 1903 ha

ao m d t # i w T ofk OAiy anti hmmm a raal4 # « it a t U n iw jreitjr awsfc fross

h® m n t to t a t a t o to atu % th * iaoi&Xtofc

Upon X ow tog k m r lm he & g r» d to * w h#ntvar ammnlmii,* mud iu

M n flw pnbli«ti® n to tb*

t h a t oom txy* a w g b is

«®tog to to p a rto d ia a l# had b a m t

Graat Orippto 3r*ok itrto o * 1*^ "ft*

dpm

frA'SM Stotoi»!ldW ^i*IF

'ifeinrau. p* 34* ^%yi«a»adaiM£, $6t §39-48 (I% rsh 3 ,

a*op tfttao iho e»irs>to>^totol

3? B e s tru c tto n o f th e U nions#a? »Tho Labor 'n e h e llio n ' in Q eloerado#^ "The Labor Vote,”9 *fhe D efects o f Labor#"*® from 193L t o 1906 be observed# a s s o c ia te d w ith# and w ro te ab o u t h u a s ie wad i t s people* p la c in g s p e c ia l ea> p h ae ie upon th e c o rru p tio n o f th e th e n e x is tin g c h u rc h -s ta te C H M M M d an w hich he p la c e d th e r e s p o n s ib ility f o r th e t r e s i s p lig h t o f th e R ussian p e a s a n ts .

I t was d u rin g th a t

p e rio d in w hich nu acrous p e a sa n t r e v o lts to o k p la c e th a t he MftlS

$41 ni'tEidifit th ft ffitftdMhitti*. fttt'Wftl

o f $$17 a

I I # a s riia a a la u a a r tto le # (to to h AppM**! in 2$g, In&m** p en d en t* Morlf t r i #< n,fe o f t p , «i n t 'l w H H t h H P8,3 P "*.3 i k $ i S11 ^ rfi %F F 4 § 8 t S g*^el p

a

#»* o 8 |r h

8

o ,P

jo ft to

s t a s ia s I I

aa

J W8 fe *

&« ^ 1 ifo *

n nripivf)

a h ft MMZ •i *1tr, |B>t-3

n crucible oat of

tA M mmr*se aov fonaa of organised activity,

though it la a eyewfcoa of disruption or breaking dam of the order of living, it loads 'to behavior sash a s preceded the

fm n m n im of the NMCf,

With eeiyr groups the actual Mowmt of recognition Is brought ahmjt when the actions of leaders bring to conscious­ sad express, through contact, the inarticulate in terests o f the X&rger number, Of the many ways end m m s of creating contact, the' wsfc em m m ere trm eeitted through language sya» bole, eith e r written or spoken, Both methods were employed by the creators of the IMQP, - The etgpttfisaaft resu lts of the m * %* leg of the 'three people in the " little rooa* was the decision to issue the "Sail* to social action. I f th is "Call'* m s to have the deelred effect®, i t must tales some fora of agitation, A gitation, as the m m m of implanting new conception®, among people, is of basis importance to the success of social movements* I t operates to arouse people and so make them peso* lb le recru its fo r the aovemMb, I t is essentially a wtuu of sssoltlag people and of amksaln® within than new impulses end ideas which make them re stle ss and d issatisfied . Evidently, Oswald Qarr&soa filla rd , wbe mo selected to draft the "Sail," m » successful to giving the m auecrlpt th is sgltatlve far®, as I t m e signed by fifty-tw o people to whom i t m s sent for ness

eoasldaratian* th at the “OaU." m s m eat to convey sp ecific, provocative Ides* to i l l i c i t to the description given i t by one of its signers!

Hikift tell M i l JfjmEi WllJLsivd*B m m b p o w e rfu l, ia p r e e e iv e # I t re a -ltsd t h e wrongs t h a t I t a a o l n would f i n d sh o u ld h i s s p i r i t a t hi® w u A m m f r e v i s i t t h e m l i e d S t a t e s , Ils »wid. f i n d ta» tfesgro s u f f e r in g d is f r s a e h ie s *

®ent awl diseriainabi on in education, in esa* eloysserat, in transportation* Is would find aii® denied Just lo t in the courts m i lynched tar the mob. I t ended in. veiling open the he* Havers in deaosraey tn join in a national eonferena* "for the dlasuaaloa of present e v ils, the voicing of pretests end the renewal . _ taf the struggle f a r c iv il end. p o litie s! liberty**35 I s doubt signer* o f’th is doenmnt sere eorefully selected pereons uj>»n whoa the ot*aifcb«« f e lt i t sould depend fo r .support and cooperation* Table X is a graphic description of the signers o f the saanasorlpt* taw s e r e th e s e people t h a t vers chosen? Mhst did- they have in i r n n l kbat m m th e ir sim ilarities? ih at were th e ir cSioalaHarities? f i r s t and foremost, only four of fifty**«s were Segroes: the remaining fortyweight were whits persons* Second, every one was a professional ia his own field* Mine were educators* mix m m sosX el workers* f o u r were a u th o rs* and f o u r m m jo u rn a l* le ts *

Three m m m tsbam o f th e

reopestive p ro fe ssio n s* social

work and theology} two were Ministers} two were manufacturers;

sad two were rabbisf others were & r e f a w , a humanitarian, an a s s i s t a n t S e c re ta ry o f la b o r* a f e d e r a l Judge* a s o c io lo g is t*

a

writer, a aishop* and a publicist* Third* sixteen of tbs than misting 45 stats® were re**

mrscwatsd by persons who were sufficiently concerned with the problem s to which t h e i r a t t e n t i o n a t s a i le d t o s ig n th e

54

&igh% m m born in Massachusetts, seven to Mew Toifc, tour in Illto ai# # three In Ohio* two to a&ch of the following states? Mew Corner# ^armoub, Connecticut, Kentucky. South Oaroltoa# Paimay!vania, Ehod® Island# Iowa, Galifornto* Vir* gtoto, and Indiana, respectively, were native states of one signer* In addition to these., two were from Ireland, one from eaoh of the following foreign countries* Luxemburg, Germany, Hungary* Fourth, whatever might have been the forces that operated to cause th is polyglot group to la te r in lif e locate to a m all northeast area of the United States# most of them did so* Between the time of th e ir b irth and the year 1909, th is group, members of which were born to widely separated areas, was concentrated in the small area between Illin o is and Massachusetts* Twenty«*o$ie lived and worked in the state of Mew fork; seven had settled to ^Massachusetts5 six lived to Illin o is | three were residents of the D istrict of Columbia5 and one was located to each of the following states? Pennsylvania, Ohio, lew Jersey, Georgia* Fifth# th is was not a group of revolutionary-minded youngsters* Ages of participant® ranged from 3 6 to 74* Seven persons were between 30 and 39 years of age* Two of the oldest were ?Z and 74 years of age, respectively* The majority of the group was in the 40