A socio-economic analysis of the male student body, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, semester II, 1947

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A socio-economic analysis of the male student body, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, semester II, 1947

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A SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OP THE MALE STUDENT BODY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA SEMESTER II, 1947 Abstract An investigation of the relationship between university attendance and socio-economic class*

A twenty percent

sample of the male student body, Indiana University, semester II, 1947, produced 1444 cases*

Occupation of

the students’ fathers was used as an index of socio­ economic class*

The representativeness of the various

socio-economic classes at the university was determined through a comparison of the percentage of students with residence in Indiana in each socio-economic class with the percentage distribution of male workers in the state of Indiana in the corresponding socio-economic classes. Significant differences were found among the several socio-economic classes*

Family background, individual

and social characteristics of the students were also found to vary with socio-economic class. RABiOND A. MULLIGAN

ProQuest Number: 10295243

All rights reserv ed INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this rep ro d u c tio n is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e quality o f th e c o p y subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th a t th e au th o r did n o t se n d a c o m p le te m anuscript a n d th e re a re missing p a g e s , th e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e re m o v e d , a n o te will in d ic a te th e d eletio n .

uest ProQ uest 10295243 Published by P roQ uest LLC (2016). C opyright o f th e Dissertation is h eld by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p r o te c te d a g a in st unauthorized co p y in g u n d e r Title 17, United S tates C o d e Microform Edition © ProQ uest LLC. ProQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhow er Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

PEEPACE

The writer wishes to acknowledge the influence of Dr* E* H. Sutherland and the assistance of Dr. J. H. Mueller who advised the writer during the entire period of time that the research was carried on*

2!o my wife, Virginia, I am indebted

for the many hours of assistance she gave in helping to re­ cord the original data.

Without the cooperation of the

administration of Indiana University in making available to the writer the personnel forms of the students, the present study could not have been undertaken.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

PREFACE ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF TABLES

. .......................

V

..........

lx

LIST OF FIGURES

I. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASSES ARP HIGHER EDUCATION ........... II.

RELATED STUDIES ................... Socio-Economic Background of High School Students • • • • • • • • Socio-Economic Background of College Students Socio-Economic Background of Students in Normal Schools and Teachers’ Colleges •

III. RESEARCH PROCEDURES IV.

. . . . . . . . .

ANALYSIS OF THE D A T A ......... The Socio-Economic Composition of the Student Body • • * • • • • * • Location of the Students’ Homes by Socio-Economic Class * * • • • • • « Selected Characteristics in the Family Background of the Students by Socio-Economic Class . . . . . . . Other Selected Characteristics of the Students by Socio-Economic Class

V.

CONCLUSIONS ......... v APPENDIX I: The Schedule............... APPENDIX ii:

APPENDIX iii:

it

1 9 9 17 29 S3 46 46 57 76 105 128 142

Instructions Given to Students Along with Blank Personnel Information Forms . . . . . .

143

The Questionnaire........

144

ill

Iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page APPENDIX;

APPENDIX

APPENDIX

APPENDIX

iv: Comparison of the percentage of all male workers with the percent­ age of only employed workers by socio-economic class, Indiana, 1940 * ........... ..........

145

v: Socio-Economic composition of male students with residence in foreign countries, Indiana University, semester II, 1947 • • • « • • • •

146

Vi; Residence of male students Indiana University by rural-urban localities of in-state and out-state students, semester II, 1947 * • • • • • • «

147

vii; Number of children in the families of male students by specified re­ ligion, Indiana University, semester II, 1947 • • • * « • * ,

BIBLIOGRAPHY

148 149

T

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Page Percentage Distribution by Occupational Groups of the Fathers of Students in Public Junior Golleges, Private Junior Colleges, and other Institutions of Higher Learning • • «

20

Ratios of the Percentages of Fathers of Students in Selected Occupations to the Percentages of Males 45 and Over Engaged in the same Occupations • » • • • « • • * * • «

21

Socio-Economic Composition of the Male Student Body, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • » • • • • • • • • « • • • •

48

Socio-Economic Composition of Male In-State Students, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • • • ' • * • » * * • » « •

51

Percentage Distribution of Socio-Economic 0ro\ips of In-State Male Students and the Percentage Distribution of Socio-Economic Groups in the State, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 « • • • • • • » * • * • • • *

53

Percentage of Male Hegro Students, Indiana University, Gompared with the Percentage of Hegro Male Employed Workers in the State of Indiana by Socio-Economic Glass and Indices, Semester II, 1947 * • • • * * • • • • • • • • •

56

Percentage of Male In-State Students Gompared with the Percentage of Out- of-State Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • • « « • * • • » • * + * •

59

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside In Contiguous States, or Zone I, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 * . . • •

62

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside In States of Zone II, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • . * * *

63

vi

fable 10

11

12

15

14

15

16

17

18

19

Pag© Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students with Residence in Zone III, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • + • • • • * • •

64

Socio-Economic Class and Geographical Location Residences Male Students, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 ...................* . * . •

65

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside Rural-Farm Areas, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 » • • • * • . « •

68

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside on Rural Bon-Farms, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947

69

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside in Small Towns, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 * • • * • • • * •

70

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside in Mid-Sized Towns, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • • • • * * • •

71

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside in Cities, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • « • • » • • • * * • • • • •

72

Socio-Economic Composition of Male Students Who Reside in Large Cities, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • • « • • • • •

73

Percentage of Male Students Residing in RuralUrban Localities by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 . . . • *

74

Years of Schooling Completed by the Fathers of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • •

. •

77

19-a Years of Schooling Completed by the Fathers of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • *

. *

78

20

Years of Schooling Completed by the Mothers of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 * • • • •

81

vii

Table

21 22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Page

Religion of Male Students by Residence, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • . - • .

84

Comparison of the Church Preference of Male In-State Students, Indiana University, with Church Membership of State Population by Percentage and Indices, Semester II, 1947

85

Protestant Preferences Male In-State Students, Indiana University, Compared with Protestant Membership in State by Percentages and ............... • • Indices

86

Specified Protestant Denominations of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 . * • • . • • • •

87

Selected Religious Bodies of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 . . . . . . . . . . ........

90

Number of Children in the Families of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana .......... University, Semester II, 1947

95

Percentage of Children In Families of Male Students Compared with Percentage of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • • • • . • • .

97

Percentage of Children in the Families of Male Protestant Students Compared with the Percentage of Male Protestant Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 .

99

Percentage of Children in the Families of Male Catholic Students Compared with the Percentage of Male Catholic Students by Socio-Economic Class, Semester II, 1947 • • • • • • • • • • • Percentage of Children in the Families of Male Jewish Students Compared with the Percentage of Male Jewish Students by Socio-Economic Class, Semester II, 1947

100

101

viii

Table 31

Page Birth Order of Male Students by SocioEconomic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • * « • • • • • • • * • • • • •

103

31-a Birth Order of Male Students by SocioEconomic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 * * * * • » . * + . . . . . * «

104

32

Marital Status of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 * * • * • * * • * * * • . • • +

106

32-a Marital Status of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 ............. . * ............. 107 33

34

35

The Percentage of Male Students Who Have Worked Compared with the Percentage of All Male Students by Socio-Economic Class and Indices, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 * . • « .

109

Military Service of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • • • • • * • • * • • • « • * •

111

Comparison of the Percentage of Male Veteran Students Who First Entered College Before the War with the Percentage Who First Entered College After the War by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 » • • * • • • • • •

112

36

Comparison of Male Students with Male Workers in the State of Indiana by Socio-Economic Class, Military Service, and Indices, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 115

37

Comparison of All Male Veteran Students with Veteran Students Who Were Commissioned Officers by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 « » * • * * • * • * • » » • « •

118

Mean Ages of Male Students by Military Service and Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 » * • • * • • » » • • • * « • •

120

38

ix

Table 39

College Class of Male Students by SocioEconomic Class, Indiana University, Semester tl, 1947 .........

121

Percentage Distribution of Male Organized Students by Socio-Economic Class and Indices Indiana University, Semester II, 1947

122

Selected Vocational Choices of Mai© Students by Socio-Economic Class, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 • « • * * » • « • • • * • * • •

124

41-a Selected Vocational Choices of Male Students by Socio-Economic Class and Indices, Indiana University, Semester II, 1947 » • • • • * • • * •

125

40

41

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 2

Page The Zonal Distribution of the Students* Home States

60

Zonal Gradients for Selected Students1 Home States

61

CHAPTER I SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASSES AND HIGHER EDUCATION The socio-economic backgrounds of high-school and college students have been the subject of study in & number of investigations*

There have been many articles

and parts of studies reporting the results of surveys of student abilities, interests, academic achievement and socio-economic background in particular schools* The results from these studies reveal that larger percentages of students with commercial, clerical and professional backgrounds were found in schools that drew their student body from residential communities than in schools that drew their student body from the general population of large cities.^"

A still larger percentage

of private-school students have fathers in the pro­ prietor, professional and managerial service groups*

The

private high-schools exceed the private colleges and 1.

J* F* Towell, HThe Social and Educational Status of the Pupils in a Residential Suburban Community, ’* School Review, 37 : 229-36* Clinton C. Conrad, nA Soeiological Survey of the Pupil Population of University High School,w University High School Journal, X: 117-30* 1

2

universities in this respect.

P

However, Strang points

out the need for caution in making generalizations re­ garding the socio-economic background of students from such studies as the results vary so markedly from com­ munity to community.

She says:

These surveys would be more valuable if they were comparable* But different methods of collecting data, different classifications of occupations, and samplings of different communities over a wide range of years make generalizations impossible ... In order, therefore, to ascertain the changes that have occurred ... over a period of years, it would be necessary to repeat one or more of the earlier surveys In the same groups and to follow precisely the methods of the earlier Investigations. In this field of inquiry *.* there is need for a pattern of research, mapped out by experts, to which many persons independently, might make a precise though limited contribution.3 The purpose of the present study was to analyze the socio-economic background of the male student body at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, as of the second semester of 1947, according to residence, religion, size of family, order of birth, marital status, education of parents, college class, vocational choice, age, fratern­ ity membership, race, military service and employment when it interrupted a student’s education.

Occupation of the

2. 0. E. Reynolds, Social and Economic Status of College Students, Doctor1s thesis, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1927. 3. Ruth Strang, Behavior and Background of Students in College and Secondary ScKool. S. Y.. 1 ^ 3 7 , p. 277” Also see Edward"Shils, The Trdsent State of American Sociology. Glencoe, 111., p. 4, where he points out the need for deliberate concentration on sociological problems.

Students’ father was used as an index of socio-economic background.^ The present study was the third in a series of studies dealing with the socio-economic background of students at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, and the first in a series of studies of the male students.

The first

study of the female students was undertaken by Arnold^ in 1941 In an attempt to discover the relationship of the socio-economic background of female students to their social and academic achievements during their four years at Indiana University.

The second study of the female students A was made by Mueller and Mueller in 1946. The latter study was concerned with the same problem as the former, but in addition attempted to study the effect of the passage of time (1941-1946) on the socio-economic com­ position of the female student body.

At present two stud­

ies dealing with the socio-economic background of students at Indiana University are underway, and others are planned for the future.

All these studies fit into a comprehen­

sive pattern of research of the socio-economic background of the students at Indiana University. 4. 5. 6.

If the present

The use of occupation as a criterion of socio-economic class Is discussed In Chapter III. D. L. Arnold, Socio-Economic Background as Related to University Achievement,'Master* s thesis. Indiana UnT^ versity, 194X. J. H. Mueller and. K* H. Mueller, report of their finding will appear In the forthcoming issue (Pall) of Ed*

4

study proves to be a limited contribution to sociological knowledge it is hoped that it is also a precise con­ tribution* The question might logically and justifiably be asked of what value or sociological significance does the pre­ sent study or a pattern of such studies have*

In an applied

sense such a study is useful for the university administration and faculty at Indiana University in that the socio-economic background of students with whom they deal gives a clue to the social norms and psycho-cultural factors which have in­ fluenced the Individual*^ point of view, attitudes, and be­ havior*

From a theoretical point of view such a study or

a pattern of studies measure the extent to which higher education is a class privilege and contribute to the anal­ ysis of the class structure of our society.

&uch a study

might help answer the question whether or not individuals at the bottom of our social structure can compete through higher education for life*s prises with those at the top. The problem in the form of a proposition would be as follows:

Notwithstanding the attempt on the part of state

legislatures to equalize the opportunity for higher ed­ ucation for all social classes, by the establishment of state universities with minimum tuitions and fees, social class membership In the State of Indiana determines, to a ucational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 9, no* 3, pp. 321-29, Autumn Is sue, 194$ .

5

considerable degree, the chances of the attendance of male students at the state university at Bloomington, Indiana. Attempts to discover any relationship between socio-economic background and such variables as military service, work history, education of parents, etc,, are sound sociological 17 problems* The significance of the socio-economic concept is indicated by the types of studies which are oriented around it.

Socio-economic classes have been studied from

the effects they may have on musical taste^ to the age at which children gain sphinctical

control.^

Infant mortality rates and family income were studied by Woodbury. ^

He found that babies in families having an

annual income of #450 had about three times as many chances of not surviving the first year of life as did babies in families with an annual income of #1250. 7.

8. 9. 10.

Pitirim Sorokin, Contemporary Sociological Theories. N* Y., 1928; on page 760 Sorokin points out that part of the subject-matter of sociology is a study of the relationship and correlations between the various classes of social phenomena. Karl P. Schuessler, Musical Taste and Soclo-Economic Background, Doc tor1s thesis, Indiana University, 1947. A* Davis and R. J. Havighurst- ^Social Class and Color Differences in Child-Rearing, American Sociological Review, XI (Dec.- 1946), pp. 698-710. R. M. Woodbury, "Infant Mortality in the United States,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 188: 102-104 (Nov., 1936).

6

A high positive correlation exists between social class position and mental and physical health*^

Numerous

studies have brought out that the chances of a boy1s be­ coming a juvenile delinquent, in the commonly accepted de­ finition of the term, are in direct ratio to the socio­ economic status of his family*

Those on the lowest socio­

economic levels furnish the largest number of delinquents* Divorce is relatively low among both the lowest and the highest social classes, and is relatively high among the middle class.

Elliott and Merrill break down the

patrons of prostitution into socio-economic classes “both as to themselves and as to those whose services they buy*w ^ An inverse ratio exists between socio-economic class and fertility rates*

Socio-economic class as measured by

occupation is one of the most potent factors in fixing the length of life.*^ Sutherland in his paper on white collar criminality compares crime in the upper or white collar class, compos✓ W. F. Ogburn and M. F. Nimkoff* Sociology* Boston. 1940, p. 312* 12. M. A. Elliott and F. B* Merrill, Social Disorganization* N. Y*, 1941, pp. 744 and 248. See Nimkoff, Marriage and the Family* Boston, 1947, pp. 636-39, for the divorce rate of specific occupations. 13. P. E. Landis, Population Problems* N. Y., 1943, pp. 124 and 184; 'also see G. V. Kiser and H. K. Whelpton, ’‘progress Report on the Study of Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Fertility, American Sociological Re­ view, XII: 175-186. 11.

7

ed of respected business and professional men, and crime in the lower class, composed of persons of low socio­ economic status#

He shows conclusively that our official concepts of crime are class-biased, 14 Kinsey15 in his study of the sexual behavior of the human male shows that sexual patterns and attitudes on sex differ among the socio-economic classes* In an investigation of the characteristics of classes it was found that each socio-economic class had a different sub-culture and participated in community activities in significantly different ways*'*'6 Richard Centers, dealing with the problem of the nature of the relationship between socio-economic strat­ ification and the psychological characteristics of in­ dividuals, found that different socio-economic strata are characterized by differing attitudes and beliefs.^ 14. 15. 16.

17.

E* H. Sutherland, "White Collar Criminality,” American Sociological Review, Feb., 1940, pp. 1-12; also see Sutherland, Wfeiie dollar Crime. N. Y., 1949. A. C. Kinsey, et 'al., Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, Philadelphia, 1948,Chapter 10. A.B. Hollingshead, ^Selected Characteristics of Classes in a Middle Western Community,” American Sociological Review, XIIs 585-95; also see Holiingshea rH

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From Table 18 it may be seen that the proportion of students belonging to the farm class decreases as population increases. ratio startling.

The writer does not consider this

On the other hand the proportion of students

from the skilled class increases as population increases. There is also a general trend for the proportion of students among the clerical and semi-skilled classes to increase as population increases. In all the rural-urban settings the proportion of the white collar classes was greater than that of the blue collar classes.

The smallest difference between these

two groups occurred in the rural-farm setting where only 2.7 per cent separated the two groups.

The largest dif­

ference occurred in the small town rural-urban setting which amounted to 34,9 per cent. The proportion of the blue collar classes increases consistently as popiilatian increases from 23,2 per cent for the rural-farm to 35.6 per cent for the city.

For

the large city the percentage drops to 34,4 per cent.

The

white collar classes increase from 25.9 per cent In the rural-farm setting to 64.0 per cent in the large city. However, for the Intervening rural-urban settings the per­ centages vary as follows; 56.1, 63,8, 60.8, and 56,1. From the above tables it appears that there exists an Inverse ratio between the proportion of students be-

76

longing to the farm class and population.

There exists

a direct ratio between the proportion of students be­ longing to the skilled class and population.

In all the

rural-urban settings the proportion of the white collar classes exceeded, the proportion of the blue collar class­ es.

There exists a direct ratio between the proportion

of students from the blue collar classes and population up to 500,000.

Among the white collar classes there is

a trend for the proportion of students to increase as the population increases. Selected Characteristics in the Family Background of the Students By Socio-Economic Class Under this heading the following characteristics in the family background of the students by socio-economic class are taken up in the following order; years of school­ ing completed by the studentsT parents, religion of the students, number of children in the families of the students, and the birth order of the students. Parental Education. Over 86.0 per cent of the pro­ fessional fathers attended college while only 5.4 per cent of the unskilled fathers had such an experience{Table 19). Excluding the farming class, among which 15.7 per cent attended college, the percentage of fathers in each socio-

77

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79

economic class who attended college decreases as one moves down the socio-economic scale as follows:

professional 86.7;

business 66*0; clerical 26*5; skilled 12.0; semi-skilled 8.0; and, unskilled 5.4.

Out of the 123 fathers who attended

graduate school 102, or 82.9 per cent, belonged to the pro­ fessional class. Approximately 69.0 per cent of the professional fathers graduated from college while only 1.1 per cent of the un­ skilled fathers received baccalaureates; 3,2 per cent of the farmers completed college.

The percentage of fathers in each

socio-economic class with college degrees decreases as one moves down the socio-economic scale, again excluding the farmers, as follows:

professional 69.2; business 24.8;

clerical 14.0; skilled 2.8; semi-skilled 1.1; and, un­ skilled 1.1.

Of all the professional fathers who attended

college over 80.0 per cent graduated.

Only 20.0 per cent

of all the unskilled fathers who attended college graduated. It would appear from the above analysis that the white collar classes are better educated, by far, than the blue collar classes. al.

However, the findings are almost tautologic­

It may be recalled that Edwards placed his socio-econom­

ic groups in a descending order of social status on the basis of education and income*

Knowing this one would expect to

find a close relationship between socio-economic class and the educational attainment of the students’ fathers.

80

Tables 20 and 20-a deal with the years of schooling completed by the mothers of the students by socio-economic class.

Prom Table 20-a it can be noted that approximately

55.0 per cent of the students* mothers in the professional class attended college.

On the other hand 9*8 per cent of

the students* mothers in the unskilled class attended col­ lege.

Percentages for the other socio-economic classes are

as follows: farmers 16.6; business 58.5; clerical 28.5; skilled 10.8; and, semi-skilled 12.5. Of the mothers from professional families 28.4 per cent graduated from college, and only 0*8 per cent of the skilled and 1.1 per cent of the unskilled.

Out of the 12 mothers

who attended graduate school, 7 or 58.5 per cent came from the professional class and none came from the blue collar classes combined.

In the professional class, of all the

students’ mothers who attended college over 50.0 per cent graduated while only 11.2 per cent of the unskilled mothers who attended college graduated. Comparing the educational backgrounds of the students* parents by college experience the following Is found among the various socio-economic classes; 1.

The professional fathers exceeded the professional

class mothers in college attendance by 31.8 per cent; the business class fathers by 7.5 per cent, and the skilled fathers by 1.2 per cent, for mothers in their class.

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w 5? A

O

4

ca

0

p

0 ir\ HI rH et 1 / 4y #

46

Chr Scientist

6

0.7

6,737

C.8

88

Protestant

111

13.4

Total

827

100.0

890,165

100.0

1# #



See p. 85, footnote /?■!* These students did not give a specific Protestant body

87

TABLT’ i 24

SPECIFIC PK0TCS7ANT DENOKINATIQAS op malf students bx socio -eoonokic class

INDIANA NNIVItf^m SSSSS'TIAH II, 1947

SocioEconomic Class

Methodist No.

Heligion Preshyterian

%

No.

Chri stian No,

iV

baptist 0.

%

Professional

48

15.7

27

18,5

22

19.6

14

16.7

Farmers

OO

10. 8

15

10.5

15

12.4

9

10.7

Wholesale

42

13.7

.13

9.0

8

7,1

4

4.8

Other

28

9. 2

28

19.5

11

9.8

5

5.95

Clerical

55

21.2

58

86.1

21

18.8

13

15.5

Skilled

47

15.4

13

9.0

15

Id* 4 13

15.5

8

£.6

6

4.1

7

6.3 10

11.9

Lnskilled

op

7.8

3

2. b

5

4.5

11

13.1

'Jnknoirn

15

4* o

Cj

1.2

8

7.1

5

505

100.0

100. 0

112

100.0

Semi-Skilled

Total

145

5.95

84 100.0

88

table 24 (con*t.)

Lutheran

Roll.:sion Episcopal

Evangelical No. i ' v'

No.

F*

&0

SocioEconomic Class Professional

5

8*3

8

25.0

1

4.3

Farmers

3

5.2

0

0.0

0

0.0

Wholesale

9

15.6

2

6.2

Other

9

15*6

4

12.6

1

4.5

Clerical

10

17.2

7

21.9

6

26.1

Skilled

14

24.2

8

25.0

8

34.7

$

13.0

Semi-Skilled

2

! < K J•*AX

2

6.2

1

AX«k’-) s "

Unskilled

4

6.8

0

0.0

0

0.0

unknoim

2

3.4

1

3.1

5

lo. 0

58

100.0

32

100.0

23

100.0

Total

89

TABLE 24 (con*t. )

SocioEconomic Class

Oh o f Chr No*

Religion Gon^regat.

fyt

No*

tin

%

No.

Brethren

Professional

2

9* i

3

22. 2

1

Farmer

5

15* 6

1

7 .4

8

'•"holessle

5

15*8

2

14 .8

0

0.0

Other

2

9*1

3

oCjo .p'

0

0.0

Clerical

4

18.2

3

22 .2

2

14 .3

Oteilled

4

18.2

1

7.4

2

14.3

.Semi-Okill h

0

0*0

0

0.0

O f t *

14*3

"Unskilled

2

9.1

0

0.0

0

0.0

Mnlcnom

2

9*1

1

7 .4

1

7.2

22

100.0

14

14

100.0

Total

£

100.0

7.2 42 .9

+> 0 Eh

O* sO

rH .

CO

CO

CM

IN

H

H rH

rH

rH



.

H

IN

m

rH

sj

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IN m

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C-

rH

£5

rH

CM

cm

Hf

on

on

os

**

sQ



o

o



.

m

rH

in

* rH

H

4

o

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in

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so

. IN

rH • IN

3

CO rH

3

CM H

NO . sO rH

sO . m

Os * «n

IN • -4

on

m

CO in

.

on o

X! .

o

4 o •*p 3 * • d o O 23

o

rl

rH

4

11.8

o

o 25

Os rH

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s O O Os ' roH O rH rH

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tJO • -P

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c6 £ CU Ctn

11 100.0

T3

rH

ctf g O m ( 0

Students Ho. 4

Professional

420

14•I

149

Farmers

400

13.5

Wholesale

236

Other

Index

Mean

15.1

93

2.8

106

10.8

125

3.8

7.9

99

10.1

78

2.4

2-4

9.5

110

11.2

85

2.6

Clerical

521

17.5

198

20.0

88

2.6

Skilled

494

16,6

163

It),b

100

3.0

Semi-Skilled

189

6.4

55

5.0

114

3.4

Unskilled

232

7.6

58

5.9

132

4.0

Unknown

193

6.5

l±b

4.7

138

4.2

2769

100.0

984

100.0

Total

3.0

100

TABLE 2 9

PSHCSNTAGS OK CHILDREN IN THc FAMILIES OF MALL CATKOLIC STUDENTS COMPAiuSD LTTH THE PFSCDNT OF OF ?!ALE CATHOLIC STUiAiE’ IE 01 SCCI0-1C7K0HIC CLASS EDIANA UNIVERSITY SEMESTER II, 194?

Socio-Econ­ omic Class

Farmers

57

Wholesale

Students No. %

Index

Mean

10.0

75

2.9

B.o

9

5.2

165

6.3

78

11.7

19

11.7

104

4.1

Other

57

8.6

19

11.2

77

3.0

Clerical

71

10.7

20

11.8

91

3.5

Skilled

194

29.0

43

75.3

4.5

Semi-Skilled

65

9.6

18

10.6

97

3.6

Unskilled

82

12.3

13

7.6

162

6.3

Unknown

12

1.6

12

7.1

25

1.0

666

100.0

/V

100.0

Total

f—I i —1

17

i-T\

Professional

Children No* i 50 7.5

3.9

101

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