A public relations program for an elementary school

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A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Kenneth Edward Mitchell August 1950

UMI Number: EP46478

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' 6 7




r * y

T his project report, w ritte n under the direction of the candidate's adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty o f the School of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l fu lfillm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in Education.

A d v is e r





The p r o b l e m ................................




Definitions of terms used .................


Statement of the problem

Public relations



Publicity ................................


The procedure



Organization of the remainder of the


project ..................................


S u m m a r y ...................




Basis for developing the p r o g r a m .........


The policy upon which the program is planned ..................................


Principles for public relations ...........


Guiding principles



Leadership for the p r o g r a m ...............


Characteristics of the l e a d e r ...........


Duties of the leader


............. ..


Initiating the p r o g r a m ...................


The Coordinating Council




PAGE Membership of the c o u n c i l ...............


Guiding principles



S u m m a r y .............................. ... . III.




Representatives inside the school .........




The t e a c h e r ..............................


The p u p i l ................................


The school secretary.....................


The school custodian


The principal


Representatives outside the school

. . . .


The Parent-Teacher Association



Civic, social, service, and fraternal


organizations ..........................


The p r e s s ................................


How to treat press m e n .................


The clergy and churchorganizations . . .


The l i b r a r i a n ................





MEDIA TO USE IN DEVELOPING Interpreting the schools



to the pupils



The school p a p e r ....................... Bulletins

29 29 30




PAGE ...................


The school a s s e m b l i e s ...................


Activity clubs

. .

Units of w o r k ........ . ...........


Taking the schools to the p u b l i c ...


The school p a p e r ..................... . .


The community newspaper .................


How to write a publicity release

. . . .


How to recognize educational news . . . .


School publications for parents .........



P o s t e r s .....................


Reporting to p a r e n t s ............... ..


Home v i s i t a t i o n ....................

39 40

Special weeks ............................


Special events


. . . . ................. r

The community survey


Taking the public to the s c h o o l s ... The first day of school

43 44



Curriculum meetings for kindergarten p a r e n t s ...........................


Curriculum meetings for parents of pupils in grades one through s i x ........ Demonstrations




Visiting days for p a r e n t s ...............


Visiting days for community leaders . . .



PAGE E x h i b i t s ....................... Boy andGirl Scout organizations S u m m a r y .........................

V. VI.


50 . . . . 51


SUMMARY ...........................



. . . . .


B I B L I O G R A P H Y ......... .’ ...........................


CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The public schools belong to the people just as a business belongs to its stockholders.

As the owners of a

business expect a report upon the progress made, the patrons of the school have a right to the facts regarding the schools in their community. The administrator and the teachers are charged with the responsibility of keeping the patrons of the school informed regarding the organization, the management, and the methods used by the school.

In addition to receiving

information about the school, the public should have an opportunity to contribute to the educative process of the school by signifying the community needs which can be met through the school.



Statement of the problem.

The problem the author

faces is planning and organizing an effective public relations program in a comparatively new area of a city within a radius of thirty miles from Los Angeles.

There are

approximately fifteen hundred homes located In this segment of the city which has developed rapidly during the last few

2 years. The people in the area are all substantial American citizens ranging from tradesmen, clerks, and store managers to well-prepared professional people.

Approximately 5 per

cent of the people belong to a branch of the National Armed forces.

The majority of the residents are home owners.


population comes from many parts of the United States where varied types of educational philosophy and practice have been prevalent. The area of the school where the gravest need for better understanding seems most evident is at the primary level.

Pear that reading is slighted or that reading

readiness is prolonged has been apparent from a minority. The school is overcrowded and children in grades one, two, and three attend on a minimum day basis at present.


parents are sincere, interested people who have demonstrated a desire to help with any part of the program.

They are

interested to the point of teaching the children to read simultaneously as the school does, even attempting to . advance more rapidly than' the school in some cases. Other questions prevail with respect to the value of social.studies, the use of manuscript writing, and the use of phonics in both the reading and spelling instruction. Uncertainty prevails regarding the teaching of geography and history in a combined area known as social studies.

3 Even though the materials desired by these patrons are taught, they are not labeled by the school, nor evaluated as such by the pupils. The problem resolves itself to one of interpreting the educational program to the patrons, and providing an opportunity for the patrons to evaluate it also, insuring an exchange of ideas regarding the school and its work.



Public relations.

As our pattern of civilization

grows more complex, we exert greater efforts to transmit information.

In recognizing this need Harral says:

. . . This recognition has led to the development of a new social science— public relations— which seeks to bring about a harmony of understanding between any group and the public which that group serves and upon whose good will it is dependent.* In keeping with these ideas, Fine believes: Dictionary definitions cannot possibly tell the story. Public relations is more than a narrow set of rules— :it is a broad concept. It Is the entire body of relationships that go to make up our impressions of an individual, an organization, or an idea. In building good public relations, we must be aware of all the forces, drives, emotions, and conflicting and contra­ dictory factors that are part of our social life and civilization.2 1 Stewart Harral, Public Relations for Churches (New York: Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1945), p. 7. 2 Benjamin Fine, Educational Publicity (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1943 )$ PP. 255-56.

4 Publicity. relations program.

Publicity is only a part of the public It may Include news stories, picture

bulletins, radio programs, sign boards, and other media which are only a means to an end, desirable public relations.



The procedure which was used in developing this program was as follows: The related literature was extensively studied to determine the nature of public relations and the essentials of an adequately balanced program.

The literature was

searched for accepted practices and standards in the organization and development of such a program.


suitable standards and usable practices were established through reference to acceptable authorities in the field, the author planned a specific program of public relations for an elementary school.



Chapter II discusses the essentials of a well-planned public relations program with reference to the principles, the policy, the leadership, and direction of the program. Chapter III presents the representatives who become an essential part of the public relations program inside the «

5 school, and also those outside the school who may be drawn in as representatives to make the program complete. The discussion in Chapter IV centers around the media to be used in developing the program with directions for interpreting the school to the pupils, taking the school to the public, and for taking the public to the school. Chapter V is an evaluation of the program. The summary appears in Chapter VI. A bibliography concludes the project. Summary.

As this study is undertaken, it is obvious

that certain needs exist.

The school personnel must be

certain the educational program is adequate and that the methods and techniques are educationally sound.

Only when

this is true will satisfaction and progress be assured by close association with the patrons of the community.


these conditions, a desirable and effective public relations program may be organized.

CHAPTER II REQUISITES OP A WELL-PLANNED PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAM The plans for an adequate public relations program depend upon various factors which give it a sense of direction.

Included in these factors will be the policy to

be followed, the standards or principles guiding the program, provision for strong leadership, as well as supporting assistance from the school teaching staff and the public itself.

The duties of these workers must be clearly

defined; their responsibilities and limitations require clear definition and understanding by all concerned.



A public relations program should be established upon a basis of need.

As these needs are considered, the

pupils and their requirements are the first thought. be kept in mind that the school is for the pupils.

It must Their

needs, in the broadest sense, command our first consider­ ation.

Since the pupils are a part of the community, the

broad requirements of the complete area which makes up the school district require continuous thought as plans are being made and carried out.

The patrons of the school must

be thought of as a group which sees the school first in the

7 light of their own past school experiences and, second, through the eyes of their children.

The school and its

staff members also have certain needs and requirements as it is their responsibility to present an adequate educa­ tional program for the community’s children.

The basis for

our public relations program, then, considers the needs of all concerned with education in the community.



The public relations program, like all other functions of the school and community, must have well-defined policies. In the main, the policies are established by the board of education for all schools in the district. In the elementary school it will be necessary to follow the guides as established in the district.


policies affecting the organization and presentation of publicity originating in the elementary school in one segment of a district must be established by the principal under direction of the superintendent.

This policy at the

local, level reflects the educational and human relations philosophy of the principal and the members of the teaching staff. There are several types of policies actually in use

8 which indicate the philosophy of the local school.


public may be informed by several methods: A.

The cover up policy.

Nothing is revealed exeept what

is required by law. B.

Partial fact policy.

Those facts and Information which

are decidedly favorable are released. C.

Unorganized information.

Much information is made

available, but it is not planned to accomplish a purpose. It is handled as news, without organization or inter­ pretation. D.

Organized facts. a motive.

In this case we have publicity with

Information is organized to give a sense of

direction. Without doubt, only the policy of organized facts could meet the needs of the m o d e m elementary school. Material and information must be available in a style that will provide a clear understanding of the school and provide for exchange of ideas respecting the purposes and accomplishments of the education provided.



Guiding principles.

Based upon a policy of organized

Information for school patrons and broad opportunity for parent-school Interplay of ideas, the following principles

9 are suggested in the Twenty-Eighth Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators.*

School public

relations must be: 1.

Honest in intent and execution.

What the school says

must be identified with what it does.

The graduate

will be studied for his citizenship, his skill with such subjects as English and mathematics, and his work habits and attitudes. 2.


Public relations is part of the educa­

tional process itself.

The desired effect should

come as incidental to some activity in which people are interested.

The program must be planned around

those features of the school program-which the patrons consider in their appraisal of the schools. 3.


People's opinions are the result of

interplay between a present situation and past exper­ iences, present attitudes, and emotions. 4.

Positive in approach.

Positive statements have been

found to be the best answer to false or incorrect statements and beliefs.

Contradictory answers more

often offend the patron.

* American Association of School Administrators, "Public Relations for America's Schools," Twenty-Eighth Yearbook (National Education Association: Washington, 1>. C.) pp. “1 7 ^ 0 .

10 5.


Public relations should cover all

areas and each segment of the staff.

School patrons

place satisfactory achievement in regular school subjects and character education first in their desires for educational outcomes, according to the National Opinion Research Center. 6.

Sensitive to its public.

When the essential drives

of the public are satisfied by the school, support is virtually assured. 7.


Effective public relations will use simple

words which mean essentially the same thing to all. In keeping with these ideas, Grinnell


states that

an effective public relations program should be (l) con­ tinuous,

(2) honest,

(5) dignified,

(3) inclusive,

(4) understandable,

(6) in reach of all people in the community,

and (7) able to use every facility at hand. These principles set clear-cut guide-lines to be followed in the establishment of a public relations program.



The success and effectiveness of a home-schoolcommunity relations program depend upon the ability of the


Erie J. Grinnell, Interpreting the Public Schools (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1937)* P* 26.

11 leader who directs it. If the school system is large, it is customary to select a director for the entire district.

Even in these

cases a great amount of work must be done in the local area which is the community of the elementary school.


this task lies within the realm of the principal's respon­ sibilities.

It is recognized that the person in charge must

have adequate preparation, must be vitally interested in the work, and, above all, must possess a background of broad human relations and understanding. Characteristics of the leader.

Consideration of the

leader's characteristics is given by Yeager, who points out the qualities this person should possess; . . . He must know the educational field, how to teach, and how to supervise. The fundamentals of school administration should be thoroughly mastered, both in theory and in practice. . . « Above all, he must know people, their virtues and frailties, and in knowing them, know himself.3 The fact that the leader must direct others pre­ supposes that he will be cooperative, courteous, and considerate at all times.

Since his organization is all-

important for his own success, he will place the school and those with whom he works above self.

3 William A. Yeager, Home-Schoo1-Communlty Relations (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1£$9), p. 452.

12 Duties of the leader.

The public relations leader

or director must know the public whom the position requires him to inform.

This often requires the carrying out of

community surveys, as well as making contact with public and private agencies.

The leader will be called upon to

speak before public and lay groups, lead group discussions upon educational matters, and stimulate the members of the community to participate in a broad program of activities.



Usually the school will find it necessary, to take the initiative in planning and carrying out a constructive plan of public relations.

The public is occasionally interested

in this or that aspect of its educational system, but seldom without guidance does it get a well-rounded conception of the relationships involved, or the cooperation needed in school and community relations.

Social forces run wild

unless intelligent and capable guidance points the way. The leader needs to build up some fundamental con­ ceptions in the key people in both the school and the community.

It is not enough that he himself understands the

place of the school in society or the importance of mutual understanding and cooperation. In the local elementary school the principal, who probably will be the leader, must lead out in carrying on

13 a public relations program.

The enthusiastic though wise

principal begins the task of strengthening the public relations program by using more adequately the existing organizations, talents, and abilities which he finds in the local situation.

First, the pupils probably present the

highest potential capacity for carrying on satisfying schoolcommunity contacts.

How can this multitude of publicity

carriers be used to the greatest advantage for both the school and the community?

Maintaining the highest regard

for student personality and using extreme care to safeguard the exploitation or undesirable regimentation of the pupils, the principal takes steps to assist the teaching staff to i

estimate the value and use of the pupils as public relations officers. Since the teaching staff is nearest the scene, the principal begins with the teachers to evolve a more direct public relations consciousness.

How can this be accom­

plished to meet the needs of the children rather than to satisfy the eagerness of the principal?

Since the pupil is

a public relations officer, whether we desire it or not, the teacher and the principal feel a need to evaluate continually the curriculum in terms of how it meets the needs of the children collectively and individually.


reputation of a good school is dependent upon the materials of instruction, the use of these materials through desirable

14 activities, and the participation of all the pupils under the guidance of a well-prepared teacher.

She is assisted

and encouraged by a supervisor who is capable of unifying the efforts of all the school for the cooperative education of the whole child as his needs appear.

The first step is

to establish, in fact, every pupil in an adequate, satis­ fying school situation.

When the school has an educational

program it can justify and defend with sincerity, the principal is ready for the next step to strengthen the public relations program. When the school is adequate from the certificated personnel's point of view, the patrons of the school need to be made aware of the educational advantages their children receive.

This cannot be done rapidly for all the

members of the community.

The task should be started by

informing, first, those who manifest interest, the active members of the Parent-Teacher Association.

From this group,

key people will be found who have the ability to help organize ways and means of carrying the message of the adequate school to the community.

Certain people will be

capable of helping to evaluate the school in terms of community needs.

Teachers with special abilities are

capable of working and planning with key people from the community, under direction of the principal, for a school which continually seeks to meet the needs of the community

15 more adequately.



A valuable public relations program requires the participation of the entire school including the adminis­ trator, the teachers, the pupils, and the non-certificated personnel.

All these people, important as each is, cannot

accomplish the task embodied in an adequate public relations program. Those people who pay the costs and send the children to the school must be informed regarding the school and its broad undertakings.

Even this is not sufficient.


public must have an opportunity to be heard; in some cases it will need to be encouraged, or perhaps required to speak its mind upon the problems of education. The school and the patrons of the school have a need to be unified in their efforts.

This may be realized by the

use of key people from the community united with repre­ sentatives from the school forming a coordinating council. Membership of the council.

The Coordinating Council

in the beginning should be kept small in size until its purposes, requirements, limitations, and contributions are well worked out.

The public and the school must learn to

use this organ effectively.

TO begin with, the Coordinating

16 Council should be composed of two Parent-Teacher Association members and two people from the teaching staff, the principal, and the city school public relations officer. The lay and teacher members should be selected for their interest and ability by the principal of the school. As the leader initiates the public relations program, he will find a need for representation from the community. These representatives must work closely with the school. Thus, a Coordinating Council will be organized.

The function

of this group will be advisory to the leader of public relations.

They will act as a sounding board for the

community as well as a planning group who may make sugges­ tions for meeting the community needs in a more definite way. Guiding principles.

A set of principles to give

direction to the council have been formulated by Dr. Dickson, co-founder of the original council.

The following guides

seem to him to be fundamental: 1.

Any attempt at coordination should grow out of community recognition of the need for cooperative social planning.


Community coordination is a conference and counsel­ ing technique. . . .


The organization for community cooperation should include individuals and institutions which represent authority and influence . . .



The pattern of community organization develops

17 from the individual needs of the community. These programs progress slowly--as problems are success­ fully met. 5.

The most important considerations In the success of community coordination are the quality of local leadership and extent of assistance which the spon­ soring organization is able to provide. . . .


. . . The council is entirely a counseling and deliberating body. It has no executive or official authority. . . .


A coordinating council should welcome the presenta­ tion of a community problem by any individual or organization. . . . Opportunity for the presenta­ tion of community interests should be available at all times.^ These principles, when applied, serve as guides for

the public relations leader as well as for the members of the Coordinating Council. Summary.

Essentials of an effective public relations

program have been discussed in this chapter. situation does not have the same requirements.

Every However,

certain essentials become evident which could be summarized as follows: 1.

An effective public relations program must have its basis in a sound educational program.


educational interpretation can come only from a good school. 2.

A truly valuable interpretation of the school

^ Virgil E. Dickson, "The Coordinating Council and the School," California Journal of Secondary Education. 13:21-23, January, 193&.

18 will present the facts. 3.

The program must be honest, continuous, positive, understandable, and within reach of all in the community.


Leadership of high quality must be provided.


A method for the community to participate in the planning as well as the interpretation must be provided.


CHAPTER III REPRESENTATIVES CAPABLE OP CONTRIBUTING TO AN ACTIVE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAM At this point it seems necessary to consider the representatives or agents who have the capacity to assist with the public relations program.

There are vital agents

within the school, and other valuable assistants outside the school, whose functions as public relations agents will be considered in this chapter.



The principal.

In the community school, where the

public relations problem is one of working closely with the pupils and staff as well as with the patrons, the principal is a key person.

It is his task to organize the machinery

for the publicity within his school by cooperating with the superintendent, the city public relations officer, and all those at the local level who meet the problems of the school each day.

The principal's functions for improving and

developing public relations are listed by Schofield as follows: 1; Build the staff and pupils into a cooperative unit willing to gather news, to be active in community activities, and to be active ambassadors of good will for the schools.

20 2. Express loyalty for the superintendent by helping him make the program for the school successful. 3.

Encourage frankness and honesty with everybody.

4. Encourage the use of materials for exhibits, skits, rallies, surveys, open house, etc. 5. Organize machinery for a survey of the forces which affect the schools. 6 . Be alert to see that no opportunity is overlooked by the school to inform the public of the needs and achievements of the school. 7. Make public relations a major concern of the school for the teachers, pupils, parents, and the members of the community. 8 . Encourage teachers to report on their educational activities in a sound public relations manner. 9. Determine the proportion of time to be devoted to interpretation in meetings of the faculty and other school personnel. 10. Determine, with assistance of the faculty, at what points in the curriculum a program of inter­ pretation to pupils is the most desirable. 11. Organize machinery for determining agencies and media that may be used in the community public relations program.1 The teacher.

In many cases, the teacher is the school,

as far as the patrons sire concerned.

What the teacher plans

for the class, how the activities are carried out, and the quality of satisfaction attained by the pupils control quite

John Frederick Schofield, "A Plan for Development of a Publie-Relations Program in a Union High School, (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1943)» PP. 42-43.

21 largely their attitude toward the school.

In short, the

teacher is the mainspring of public relations.

The patrons’

attitudes about schools, teachers, and education are vital by-products of teaching.

The personal attention the pupils

receive and their adjustment to other children are important factors which contribute to a child's happiness in school. The teacher’s frequent meetings with the parents and her regular contact with the pupils cause her to play an important role in public relations.

Parley states:

The teacher occupies a key position in public relations. It has often been said, and truly, that a public which likes the teacher likes the school. If the teacher is agreeable personally, if her treatment of pupils is fair and impartial, if her classroom work is effective, if her community contacts are mutually satisfactory, there is little likelihood that irate patrons will come thundering into the principal’s office to complain, or that there will be many sour notes in community gossip about the school.2 Teachers may assist further in the public relations program in the following ways: 1.

Assist in developing the over-all public relations program.


Cooperate with other faculty members in carrying out a definite policy.


Work for ethical professional attitudes among


Belmont Farley, "Public Relations for Classroom Teachers," The Journal of the National Education Association, 33:163-6^, October, 19^77

22 staff members. 4.

Study pupils and their needs Individually as a pupil and a member of the community.


Foster close contact with parents of pupils in her class.


Make use of community resources.


Participate in community activities.


Take an active part in local, state, and national professional organizations.


Sponsor meetings and methods for interpreting the school program. The pupil.

The most systematic and skillfully

planned public relations program cannot maintain the public's confidence or win its approval for a school program that is fundamentally unsound.

Pupils are among the most effective

agents of the school public relations program.

Each day the

children attend school they carry in each direction a continual flow of information, opinions, and attitudes.


only do the children help the public to know the school, but they interpret the homes and the community to the school. Since the pupil is in such a strategic position, what he thinks about the school and his teachers is extremely Important.

If the pupil enjoys reasonable success with what

he does in school his influence in the community is likely

23 to be favorable.

However, If he sees little value in his

tasks, if his efforts often end in frustration or failure, or if his relationships with the adults at the school are less than friendly or helpful, his interpretation of the school is certain to be unfavorable.

The school that desires

public approval of the school must have high regard for pupil approval. The school secretary.

The secretary of the school

makes many contacts with pupils and parents.

On occasion

she is the first to meet new pupils and parents, or patrons who are seeking a hearing regarding a problem.

The ability

of the secretary to handle difficult situations tactfully and quickly builds desirable rapport between the school and the patrons. The school custodian.

In some cases the custodian

has lived and worked in the community longer than any other person.

What he says, or the attitude he displays, does

much to help the patrons evaluate the school.

He should

understand what is being done, and why it is done in a certain manner.

At all times his principal should keep him

informed about school plans and policies.

The school

possibly should not expect him to interpret what is done educationally, but he should understand to the extent that he can defend it sincerely.

24 II.


The Parent-Teacher Association.

Teachers and admin­

istrators usually recognize the Parent-Teacher Association as a valuable representative of the school.

This organiza­

tion presents a golden opportunity to improve home-school relations.

Adequate interpretation of the school cannot be

accomplished by parents visiting the school.

The responsi­

bility for informing the group belongs to the teachers, the administrators, and the pupils.

This requires the use of

all available resources and opportunities.

After discussion

of the curricula, the methods of instruction, procedures which are followed, and all extra-curricular activities available, the parents should have a chance to make contri­ butions for strengthening the program. Civic, social, service, and fraternal organizations. These are not usually thought of as public relations agents or representatives; however, they can become very effective when used to advantage.

Teachers and administrators who

wish to be identified with the community have an opportunity here to interpret the schools to those whom they meet socially.

Through membership and oftentimes office-holding,

the school person can do powerful work presenting the cause of education and, at the same time, hearing what the tax­ payer thinks the school should be.

25 In some communities the teacher member quietly seeks the office of program chairman in the club, which gives an Ideal opportunity for presentation of the cause of education by use of carefully laid plans. The press.

In some instances the press may become

the cornerstone in the public relations program.


cooperation exists, and can be maintained, a powerful spokesman for the educational facilities of the community Is found in the newspaper. reverse is the situation.

There are cases where quite the School officials.and the sub­

scribers to the paper may be Interested in establishing close cooperation between the school and the paper, but if the press does not cooperate, their efforts are of no value. In all cases the school officials, and all connected, with the school, must make certain that their philosophy, attitudes, and actions are in harmony with the ideals necessary to establish and maintain cooperative sehool-press relations. How to treat press m e n . is most effective.

A straightforward attitude

A positive interest to secure for the

press interesting and worthwhile news stories Is a sensible approach.

In order to gain the good will of the press as a

valuable agent for informing the public regarding educational matters, Pine suggests the following ten guides:

26 1.

Be honest— avoid misrepresentation.

2. Be fair— treat all reporters in open manner.

the same fair,

3. Be cooperative— if you can help the reporters, do not hesitate. 4. Be sincere— reporters can recognize your sincer­ ity and expect you to be aboveboard with them. 5. Be friendly— friendship is a powerful asset in greeting reporters; it can help gain their confidence. 6 . Be alert— be on the lookout for good stories suid inform the reporters as the stories develop. 7. Be conscientious— do a good job will ask for little more. . . .

and reporters

8 . Be accurate— reporters do not forgive inaccuracy. It is one of the cardinal sins of newspaper writing. 9. Be appreciative— nothing delights a reporter more than to know his work is being appreciated— an occasional letter of thanks to a reporter or his editor for a story well done is a good Investment. 10. Be human— treat the reporters in a human, intel­ ligent, sensible manner. They are working for a living and want to be treated with respect and courtesy.3 The clergy and church organizations.

Often the

clergy and church organizations are ignored by the schools in their public relations programs.

Even^though, many people

do not attend church regularly, they are inclined to take certain opinion clues from the clergymen and church leaders. Most churches and schools have much in common in their

1 Pine, o£. cit., pp. 213-14.

27 objectives.

They should work together.

Desirable cooper­

ation may be developed by keeping the church informed regarding special education programs such as American Education Week, Public School Week observances, and other important functions of the school. The librarian.

The person in this situation is the

children's librarian in a branch of the city library located in the community.

The teachers work closely with the

librarian, who visits the school three times each term to tell stories and show new books to the children. A minority, at least, of the parents visit the library frequently with their children.

Educational excursions to

the library are made by grades one and two in an effort to stimulate interest and to coordinate the efforts of the teachers, parents, and librarian. Pupils are encouraged by the school to participate in the reading clubs sponsored by the library during the summer vacation. Because of the close association of the children, the parents, the teachers, and the librarian, it is evident that we have a valuable public relations officer in the librarian. The school has the responsibility of keeping her informed, in an up-to-date manner, regarding the school's curricula, its methods, procedures, and general philosophy of education.

28 Both the library and the school can serve the community most satisfactorily by coordinating their efforts. To insure adequate success, each member of the schopl staff must accept a share in the responsibility for school-library cooperation. Summary.

This chapter has discussed representatives

both inside and outside the school who are capable of contributing to an active public relations program.


purpose of the chapter was to show how each of these representatives has a definite and responsible task to perform.

Their cooperative efforts can present a well-

rounded program in the community.

CHAPTER IV MEDIA TO USE IN DEVELOPING PUBLIC RELATIONS Chapter III presented the representatives of the school who should be used in a well-planned public relations program in an elementary school.

In this chapter we are

chiefly concerned with the media that these various representatives may employ in the program.

There is a

possibility of some overlapping in certain sections since the same media may be used by the various groups in different ways.

The school paper, for example, is used to

interpret the school to the pupils and is also a means of taking the schools to the public.

The media suggested in

this section will be treated under the following titles: (1 ) interpreting the schools to the pupils,

(2 ) taking the

schools to the public, and (3 ) bringing the public to the schools.



An economical and effective way to attack the interpretation of the school to the pupils is to use media in existence before launching or organizing new ones. Things which are already being done to promote understanding between the school and the pupils should be used as a basis

30 or a point of departure.

The media whieh will come into

effective usage will depend upon the limitations of the staff rather than upon the lack of opportunity. The school paper.

At the elementary level the school

paper will have a variety of purposes and uses.

It will

mirror the student life in the school at its best.


the paper the students build school morale and develop a spirit of unit and loyalty.

Activities of different groups

and classes are brought to the attention of the students. Articles such as special features, interpretive columns, and editorials should be stressed to balance the many personal items which ofttimes predominate in school news­ papers.

Stories which should be stressed are:

(1) reports

upon units of work in progress at various levels, excursions taken by classes, in the study of science,

(2 )

(3 ) interesting undertakings

(4) reports on collections and

displays of educational material in the classrooms, student hobbies,

(6 ) work of the speech teacher, (7 ) the

nurse’s work with the children, (9 ) school regulations, council,

(5 )

(8 ) student council actions,

(10) activities of the safety

(11) special activities of the school,

(1 2 ) phys­

ical education activities, and many others. The faculty sponsor of the publication and his staff associates should make every effort to impress the students

31 and the public with the worthwhile purposes and achievements of the school.

The primary purpose of the school newspaper

is for the students themselves, and care should be exercised to promote student interests through the paper rather than adult interests. Bulletins.

Principals in many schools issue bulletins

frequently to the faculty and students. newspaper which is issued regularly.

These are unlike the

The bulletins are

issued as the need arises to cover a variety of situations such as:

(l) reporting the successfulness of a fire drill,

or earthquake drill, or perhaps indicating how they could be Improved,

(2 ) the announcement of a coming assembly program,

(3 ) giving the results of a paper drive,

(4) indicating a

special visitor who may be expected, such as the children's librarian or the school doctor,

(5 ) informing the school of

hearing tests to be given and solicitation of cooperation from all,

(6 ) announcement of regulations for playing with

tops as agreed upon by the safety council and the teaching staff which must meet an immediate situation, (7 ) changes in schedule or outdoor procedure on rainy days because of new problems arising, and any other information or announce­ ment which concerns all the children and staff which requires expedient handling. Activity clubs.

Because of crowded conditions in the

32 author’s situation the chief clubs which should be consid­ ered are:

(l) the school choir, (2 ) the art club,

handeraft club, and (^) the bicycle club.

(3 ) the

These clubs are

composed of pupils from grades four through six, except the bicycle club which is open to all pupils owning a bicycle regardless of age, grade, scholastic standing, behavior, or any other limiting factor. The requirement for joining a club is interest in the activities to be carried on.

A pupil must have reasonable

quality of voice to join the choir and gains entrance by passing a simple voice test on a familiar song.


goals are not held up as valid criteria for permission to enter a club.

The child secures the permission of his

parents to join the club in order to keep the parents Informed regarding these activities.

The art and handcraft

clubs display their work for parents and pupils. makes several public appearances during the year.

The choir Each

group receives publicity throughout the year through columns of the school newspaper. The school assemblies.

This is another valuable

approach to the development of "school spirit" and morale. It is truly a learning experience where all pupils meet together for an experience which holds the same interest for all.

Group pride and loyalty develop here under

33 effective leadership. presented:

Here a variety of programs are

(1 ) assemblies presented by various classes

which are parts of class work,

(2 ) musical programs,

special programs from outside the school, produced by clubs of the school, with other elementary schools, the student council,

(3 )

(4) events

(3 ) exchange assemblies

(6 ) assemblies conducted by

(?) special talent events presented

by pupils receiving special training outside the school, (8 ) presentation of awards calling attention to the achievement of individuals and groups, etc. A fine opportunity is open on these occasions to invite special guests to attend the assemblies, at times to contribute briefly, at other times merely to understand some of the purposes and achievements of the school. Parents of the pupils en^oy observing their children’s participation in an assembly, and this again is an oppor­ tunity to establish valuable rapport between the school and the public. Units of work.

The public relations influence of the

pupils should stem from something more than casual and accidental learnings about their sehool.

Their attitude

toward the school and their understandings of its program should result from positive and systematic study. perfectly legitimate study of schools, how they are


34 organized and supported, the services they render in the community, state, and nation, could be established the same as any other unit of work.

Why should children not under­

stand the functions and contributions of the school personnel as well as those of the postman or the fireman? Perhaps this is done in the study of the community in the primary grades, but it should be done again when the county is studied, and again in grade five in connection with the study of the development of the United States.

There is

need for pupils to evaluate the work they are doing regardless of the social study unit in progress.


periods of pupil-teacher evaluation re-establish in the child's mind the objectives and the accomplishments of his school experience.

The pupil then is a public relations

officer in his own right; it is the school’s responsibility to be certain that his understandings and evaluations of the school present a true picture of the good school which he attends.



The object of this section is to show the methods and vehicles which can be used to promote the public relations program by taking the schools to the people where they are. Success in using these media will be in proportion to the

35 effectiveness of the plans which are developed and the enthusiasm with which they are executed. The school paper.

The first section of this chapter

stated the school paper was essentially an instrument of the students, and that no doubt it should remain such under the guidance of the faculty advisor.

However, the sponsor,

by skillful leadership, could develop articles that would hold the parent's interest.

A page or a column may well be

devoted in each issue to the interpretation of the school to the parents.

The highest purpose in this technique

would be the establishment of interest of the school, the pupils, and the parents in a single public relations instrument. The community newspaper.

When the school has the

cooperation of the city or community newspaper, certain obligations will be accepted automatically by the school. These responsibilities are ever present regardless of who publishes the news.

First, the school officials must know

how to write a publicity release, and they must be able to recognize educational news. How to write a publicity release.

If such a person

is available, the writer of publicity should be one with previous newspaper experience.

These releases must be

36 written In acceptable form to conform with standard newspaper practices for good reporting.

Some rules for

writing releases, as suggested by Pine,1 may be summarized as follows: 1.

Write in newspaper style with the "punch" in the opening paragraph.


Write the story so that it may be cut at any point without destroying the substance of the article.


The lead should answer who, what, when, where, why, and how.


Copy should be on white paper, size 8 1/2 x 11 Inches.

5 . Release should be clearly typed. 6 . Release date should appear at the top of the page. 7 . Name of school should be in upper right, or upper left-hand corner. 8 . Release should be double spaced or triple spaced on one side of paper only. 9.

Copy should start halfway down the first page.


Pages must be numbered.


The word "more" should appear at the bottom of the page to denote the copy is unfinished.

1 Pine, o£. cit., pp. 19-50.

37 12.

The finish of the story is indicated by the "end mark."


Each paragraph is ended on a page not continued to next page.


Copy should be written in good English. How to recognize educational n e w s .

The director

or writer must be able to recognize educational news. able to write it will not guarantee success.



consider items that are timely and have an element of conflict to be good copy. by the dramatic event.

Even greater appeal is obtained

Educational news differs from other

news only in the fact that greater emphasis is upon the school than upon the event itself.

The following basic

qualities of an educational release are listed by Fine: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

It It It It It It It It

should should should should should should should should

be timely. be interesting. be instructive. be dramatic. contain an element of conflict. be well written. be pointed. be easy to read.

School publications for parents. a regular publication for parents.

Many districts have

These are usually sent

from the central office of the city schools carrying general

2 Ibid., p. 97.

38 information which is uniform throughout the city. Pease and HuggettJ established a plan where a special bulletin was sent out at the opening of each year to explain the philosophy of the school, the objectives for the year, practices pertaining to absences and excuses, calendar of events and vacations.

This has been received with success.

A practice carried out in Seattle^ is to send a monthly mimeographed sheet to parents.

This plan leaves the school

paper free to devote its entire attention to the students and their affairs.

It is the plan of the author, however,

to use a column of the student paper to interpret the school to the parents of pupils in the local area. Another publication of importance is the mimeographed brochure for parents of kindergarten pupils.

This instru­

ment establishes the purposes of the kindergarten, outlines what is provided for the pupil, how the parent may seek consultation regarding the health or other aspects of the child's life as it relates to the school.

3 J. E. Pease and A. J. Huggett, ’’Bulletins Sell School Needs to Parents,” The Nation's Schools, 30:43> September, 1942. ij.

Kenneth Selby, ”A New Type of School Paper," Eleventh Yearbook of the Department of Elementary School Principal's (Washington, D. G.: National Education Association, 1932), pp. 364-67.

39 Posters.

Grades four, five, and six often are

invited to participate in poster contests for Fire Pre­ vention Week, safety education, or for various other purposes.

Too often this is looked upon as an imposed task

which must be undertaken to appease sponsoring groups.


reality it is a golden opportunity to foster community spirit and public relations of the first order because the impetus for the activity comes from outside the school, which is so rarely the case.

True, posters are often made

by the pupils with high art ability, which is representative of only a few students.

Children vary in their abilities,

and others may receive recognition and satisfaction in another way.

Winning posters should be placed where they

will be seen by large numbers of people, thus becoming a satisfactory medium of public relations. Reporting to parents.

The desire for satisfactory

school-parent relations has been expressed previously in this project.

However, it is possible to destroy much of

this good will through mishandling of the report card. Report cards, like most things, have changed since the parents attended school.

Consequently, parents do not

understand the report cards.

Many parents, after looking

at the card, actually wonder how the child is progressing. This means that the school must either interpret the report

40 card and explain its construction or use a conference method of reporting to parents, or perhaps both.

In order to

understand the school's Interpretation of the child's progress, It is necessary for the school and the parent to understand the child In somewhat similar terms.

This can

be accomplished, but not with the modern report card alone. The curriculum must be explained, the child understood, and the methods of teaching carefully analyzed before the school and the parents will be able to discuss the work of the pupil effectively.

As will be noted later in this report,

the author, with the help of the teaching staff, plans to explain the curriculum and analyze the needs of the child with the parents. card will be used.

After this is done the modern report Individual parent-teacher conferences

play an important role in this method wherever the need arises. Home visitation.

Visiting each home represented In

a teacher's class is a major undertaking.

What one task

could bring a more kindly, interested, cooperative response from the home than a friendly visit early in the year by the classroom teacher whose mission is simply becoming better acquainted?

This task probably cannot be imposed upon the

teacher, but her interest should be solicited. . When planning to visit a home, the visitor should

41 gather all the information available about the child and the family in order to make the visit more meaningful.


information may be gleaned from the permanent records, the health records, and from the nurse's contacts which have been made previously.

An appointment should be made for

the visit. The first objective in the home visit is acquaintance, manifestation of interest in the child, and the establishment of rapport of the highest order between school and home. This being true, the visit should be made before any formal report is necessary.

To secure the greatest value, it should

be one of the first contacts with the home after the school opens. In case all homes cannot be visited the teacher should visit those where adjustment problems seem evident, or wherever she suspects gross lack of understanding of the school on the part of the parent.

Significant facts and

indications should be recorded and filed with the existing records as a report from this initial visit. Special weeks.

There are several special weeks which

should be considered here as part of the public relations program.

They are:

Beautification Week,

(l) Fire Prevention Week,

(2) Horae

(3) Be Kind to Animals Week.

The local

firemen visit the school, inspect the building, conduct a


42 fire drill, and rate the school on its degree of safety during Fire Prevention Week.

They leave with the school

check sheets to be sent home for pupils and parents to use in rating the safety of their homes.

The school has this

opportunity to build civic pride in the home for safety through the school children.

This project is closely

related to the work of the home beautification committee. Their work, conducted in the spring, engages the community in cleaning up and in planting lawns, shrubs, flowers, and trees.

The committee sends a communication to the school

seeking their cooperation.

This is another opportunity to

work with the children and their parents for the improvement of the community.

It is probable that the Parent-Teacher

Association would enjoy planting a shrub or tree at the school*in cooperation with the committee. Animals and pets are close to the hearts of all boys and girls.

Many administrative problems arise from time to

time because of pets coming to school.

Again we have a

community problem, one which is linked with health and safety.

We all know the saying "Love me, love my dog,"

which is actually how the young pet owner feels.

The school

is working in the field of public relations when solving the pet problem.

As suggested earlier, a positive constructive

measure of dealing with pets at school can be adopted through adequate observance of Be Kind to Animals Week.

43 Special events.

The city recreation department

sponsors certain activities throughout the year which strike a responsive chord with the school and its public. these events are: (1 ) kite contest, program,

Some of

(2 ) learn-to-swim

(3) May Day festival, and others.

Though direct

active participation in these events is not a responsibility of the school, an attitude is manifested regardless of the intention.

The school has an opportunity to become iden­

tified with all the worthwhile activities by assuming responsibility for informing the pupils and their parents of the opportunities offered and the rules and regulations involved.

When successes are achieved in these areas, the

school receives a share of credit and praise. The community survey.

As the children grow up and

progress through school, they become well known, as do their families.

But each year there is a new group of

children entering kindergarten from homes unknown to the school. A continual type of survey should be carried on to encompass all the new homes at the opening of the year as well as new families joining the community during the term. The purpose of the survey would be to: (1) locate leadership in the community,

(2 ) identify the patrons with their own

profession or occupation,

(3 ) understand the race problems,

44 (4) help understand other minority groups, and (5) determine the patron's understanding of his school.

This information

should be kept confidential and used by the school faculty. General results could be furnished to the Coordinating Council as an aid to defining the needs of the community.



The interpretation of the school to the pupils has been discussed; taking the school to the home has been presented; and to be considered next are media for bringing the parents to the school. The first day of school.

This is the initial

opportunity for the school to establish rapport with the parents.

Both child and parent are eager for all these new

experiences which will come through the school.

At this

time the parent receives a bulletin informing her of the school schedule, the calendar of special events and school vacations, the nurse's schedule, information about the nutrition period, and many other items to help orientate the child and the family to the school.

When the school

anticipates the first questions of the home and supplies adequate answers, confidence in the work of the school is established.

45 Curriculum meetings for kindergarten parents.


Parent-Teacher Association sponsors a series of three meetings to acquaint the parents with the work the children do in kindergarten and to aid them in understanding the child and his needs.

These discussion meetings are:


presentation and discussion of the kindergarten program by the classroom teacher and the principal,

(2 ) the emotional

and social growth and development of the five-year-old by the school doctor and school psychologist, and (3 ) the reading readiness program led by the first grade teachers and the principal.

The first meeting is held during the

sixth week of school, the second one near the middle of the term, and the other early in May.

Before each meeting,

parents are urged to visit the classroom to note the work in progress and the stage of development which their child has reached.

These meetings allow for a brief presentation

followed by a question or general discussion period. Individual conferences are urged for those possessing a desire or need after the group meetings. Curriculum meetings for parents of pupils in grades one through six.

The Parent-Teacher Association does not

schedule a regular meeting for the month of October. Instead, the organization sponsors a series of meetings for the parents of the children attending each grade.


46 meetings are held in the classroom or in the home of one of the parents.

They provide for discussion of the work that

particular class is doing during the school year.


an effort is made to keep the meeting informal and to encourage questions and general discussion rather than to conduct a formal presentation by the teacher and principal. A visit to the classroom before the meeting is desirable. Individual conferences at a later date are encouraged for parents who desire them. As these meetings are held, a list of questions that parents have asked each year are recorded.

When an adequate

sampling of questions is gathered, an attempt will be made to organize the meetings around the questions as hear as possible to avoid formal presentation.

As time permits in

these meetings,->the report cards are discussed. for using the modern type cards are explained.

The reasons These needs

and the schoolrs efforts to satisfy them are evaluated upon the report card in addition to the scholastic rating which parents expect. Demonstrations.

The doors of the school are con­

stantly open to the public for visitation.

Even though a

demonstration is conducted daily in the classrooms as classes are actually taught, it is difficult to get the parents to visit the classes in sufficient numbers to secure

47 adequate understanding of the school’s materials, methods, and procedures.

To satisfy this desire on the part of the

school to show our pupils and teachers at work, several teaching demonstrations are provided during the year.


demonstrations are parts of the Parent-Teacher Association meetings in most cases.

A brief presentation is given to

the adults before the demonstration to explain its purpose, the type of work being done, and how the work meets the child's needs.

The class then comes in, the lesson is

taught, and the discussion follows regarding the work presented.

An attempt is made to demonstrate work from

various levels and areas to suit the desires of the people. Two or three demonstrations are presented each year.


is given in the early evening to provide an opportunity for fathers to understand the school at firsthand. Visiting days for parents.

Merely to be told that

visitors are always welcome places no particular obligation upon the public to visit the school, and even many of those with serious intentions to come never actually do so. Special visiting days are planned and personal invitatiofts are sent to the parents for those days.

Olsen reports some

valuable methods of bringing the public to the school for visiting:

"Parents enjoy seeing their children's work.

This has its value, but it emphasizes the finished product

48 rather than the process of a c h i e v i n g . ’’^ Visiting days are planned in a series cooperatively by the teachers and the Parent-Teacher Association, whereby a study group visits a class once each week for several weeks.

The principal discusses what will be seen in the

classroom, indicating what visitors should look for. the group observes for one hour.


The teacher and the

principal then answer questions for the group and discuss the work presented.

The first few visits are used to

acquaint the group with a typical school day.

The next

series is concentrated upon reading or any area the study group desires. These people become wonderful public relations officers themselves since they feel closely associated with the school, and a tone of confidence pervades their complete relationship with the school.

These people feel they belong

to the school and the school belongs to them. Many schools observe special visiting days during Public Schools Week and American Education Week.

In these

cases many people visit, but it is not possible to interpret the work to the parents because of the large numbers visiting.

^ Edward G. Olsen, School and Community Programs (New York: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1549), pp. 413-15•

Visiting days for community leaders.

The Audubon

Junior High School, of Los Angeles, has a unique plan which is reported by Olsen.^

Once each week some community leader

receives a special invitation to visit this junior high school.

The visitor is met on the front steps by two stu­

dent guides about half an hour before the lunch hour.


students are trained guides who take the visitor to see several classes before lunch. in each class.

About five minutes is spent

The guides then take the visitor to the

office to meet the principal and the vice-principals. in the office the visitor signs the guest book.


A special

table is set for lunch where in addition to the guest is seated the two guides,, two teachers, one administrative officer, and the school public relations representative. During the latter part of the meal the student guides ask the guest for any suggestions or criticisms he might make. An evaluation of the plan listed by Olsen lists the following points indicating the value of this plan: 1. Guests enjoy the experience, understand school problems better, and are more apt to be supporters of the school. 2. The school feels a pride in having these influential people visit. 3.


The guides develop immeasurably.

PP* ^16-18.

50 4. The faculty appreciates the over-all value of the project and endorses it. 5. School administrative officers find this plan, continued over a period of years, is an effective means of winning friends and influencing the community.' Exhibits.

The attention of the public is easily

attracted with materials and school work interestingly displayed.

There is a definite place for exhibits within

the public relations program.

A favorable time for exhibits

is during some special week when education is receiving some general publicity.

It is easier to- get an advantageous

place to display materials during Public School Week.


exhibit should cover all areas and as many levels as space will permit.

Many opportunities could be made to display

our best art work in the public's places of business. and Girl Scout organizations.

Again we are

considering groups that are not part of the school per se, but all their members attend the school, part of the weekly meetings are held there, and all Pack meetings and courts of award are held at the school building.

The school's

attitude must be revealed as a positive force working for, and with, all these youth organizations if the public relations policy is to be defended on a sound basis.

7 Ibid., p. 418

51 Summary.

Under media to use in developing public

relations, discussion has covered the interpretation of the school to the pupils, ways to take the school to the public wherever they are, and how to bring the public to the school.

These have been considered as some of the most

effective means of establishing adequate relations with the public, the stockholder of the school.

CHAPTER V EVALUATION The administrator needs to guard against over­ zealousness which could cause him to launch a plan of action too advanced for his public and the teaching staff as well. Until the school and the community begin to work closely together in harmony, the program for public relations should be kept simple. It is extremely important to evaluate the public relations from time to time.

The method and the thorough­

ness will vary, but a need exists for continual appraisal. No program can be accurately or fully appraised in terms of its activities.

The success of a public relations program

must be judged by the results produced in the community. A five-point scale was used by Michael1 to determine what school practices were most valuable in promoting good public relations, and he found the ten most favored to be: (1) conferences with parents,

(2 ) parents’ visits to school,

(3) faculty participation in community life, visitation by teachers,

(5 ) school plays,

(4) home

(6 ) special day

1 American Association of School Administrators, "Public Relations for America’s Schools," Twenty-Eighth Yearbook of the American Association of School Adminis­ trators .(Washington, 3t>," C .: National Education Association,

T 35&TTP. 271.

53 programs,

(7) parent visitation days,

(8) school exhibits,

(9) extra-curricular activities, and (10) promotions. Most of the points on this scale are being used as a means of handling the public relations problem in this project. An all-important factor in determining the value of the plans listed herein is the opinion of the public regard­ ing its effectiveness.

Does it seem to accomplish the task?

Do the members of the faculty believe it to be adequate? What modification would the Coordinating Council suggest? Is the Parent-Teacher Association satisfied with the results?

How many complaints do the teachers and the office

receive regarding the instructional program?

A public

relations program is an ever changing instrument. plan can be accepted as final.

No set

As the school changes and

as people grow in understanding, their needs change.


needs of the community will set the requirements for the public relations program.

CHAPTER VI SUMMARY Any modern elementary school today needs to carry on an active program of public relations.

The necessity for a

well-balanced understanding between the home and school was shown in the first chapter. Chapter Two established the basis for the policy and the principles under which a sound program of public relations should operate.

Careful consideration was given

to the leadership and organization of the program. '


The ' ^

principal assumes the leadership in the local area, using personnel members from the teaching staff and the ParentTeacher Association in an advisory capacity. Representatives within the school capable of contributing to an active public relations program were discussed.

They are the principal, the teacher, the pupil,

the school secretary, and the school custodian. •

Each one

A* '

fits into the program and has a vital part to play. v


Representatives outside the school who definitely" " assist with an adequate program of public relations are the Parent-Teacher Association, civic, social, and fraternal organizations, the press, and the church. Various media are found to be valuable for inter­ preting the school to the pupils.

Others are useful in

55 taking the school to the public, and still different ones come into usage when bringing the public to the schools. These representatives and media can accomplish an effective program of public relations when organized adequately and properly guided under wise and enthusiastic leadership.

Provision has been made in this report for

the public to express its views regarding the quality of the school. As a plan is used, it is necessary to measure its effectiveness, to provide for modification whenever needed, and to evaluate the results in terms of the needs of the school and community in order to keep abreast with the understanding of the people.





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New York: Harper

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Olsen, Edward G., School and Community Programs. Prentice Hall, Inc., 1949” ¥T3“pp.

New York:

Reschke, Luvellak, Alfred Reschke, Edward A. Fitzpatrick, and W. V. C. Conrad, The Newspaper in the Classroom. Milwaukee: E. M. Hall and Company, 1939. 384 pp. Waller, J. Flint, Public Relations for Public Schools. Trenton: McCrellish and Company, 1933. 112 pp. Woelfel, Norman I., and Keith Tyler, Radio and the School. New York: World Book Company, 1945^ 358 pp.



Bean, Kenneth S., "Coordinating Councils," Journal of Educational Sociology, 2:67-72, October, 1937. Crosby, Otis A., "On Setting Up’a Public Relations Program," Michigan Education Journal, 22:54-57# November, 1944.

57 Dickson, Virgil E., "The Coordinating Council and the School," California Journal of Secondary Education, 13:21-23, January, 193*4. Farley, Belmont, "Public Relations for Classroom Teachers," The Journal of the National Education Association, 3 3 :164-64,October, 1^44. Harlow, Rex F., "The School Public Relations Program," School and Society, 60:145-48, December, 1945. Johnson, Charles S., "Better Budgets and Public Relations," American School Board Journal, 109:20, July, 1944. Lafferty, H. M., "Where School Newspapers Fall Short," The Nation’s Schools, 34:43-44, September, 1944. Mulford, Herbert B., "Dead-End Public Relations," American School Board Journal, 109:27-28, December, 194TI Pease, J. E., and A. J. Huggett, "Bulletins Sell School Needs to Parents," The Nation's Schools, 30:43, September, 1943. Reck, W. Emerson, "This Is Public Relations," Association of American Colleges Bulletin, 30:519-22, October, l$44.



American Association of School Administrators, "Public Relations for America's Schools," Twenty-Eighth Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. Washington, B . C .: National Education Association, 1950. 305 PP. Archer, F., and G. 0. Swing, "Publie-Relations Agencies— Community Agencies," National Education Association Department of Superintendence, Official Report. Washington,"T5. C . : National Education Association, 1934. Pp. 239-40. Foster, the No. 158

Charles R., "Editorial Treatment of Education in American Press," Harvard Bulletins in Education 21. Cambridge: Harvard University "Press, 193*4. pp.

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