A Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Language [3 ed.]

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SANSKRIT GRAMMAR.

31 o

nbou

:

MACMILLAN AND

CO.

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY OR ©iforfi.

SOLD ALSO BY

W. H.

ALLEN AND

CO.

WATERLOO PLACE, Pvblishers to the India

Office.

:

PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF THE

SANSKRIT LANGUAGE ARRANGED WITH REFERENCE TO

THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES OF EUROPE, FOR THE USE OF

ENGLISH STUDENTS.

/

MONIER WILLIAMS,

M. A.

BODEN PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD,

THIRD EDITION, MUCH ENLARGED AND IMPROVED.

(SMTorfo

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. M.DCCC.LXIV,

ETC.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2016

https://archive.org/details/practicalgrammarOOmoni

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

IN

putting

Grammar

I

forth

third

this

am bound

of

edition

my

Sanskrit

to confess that the great general

development of Sanskrit learning, since the

last edition,

me almost to re-write the work for the Any one who compares the present Grammar

has compelled third time.

with

predecessor will see at once the difference between

its

the two, not indeed in

and arrangement, nor

structure

its

even in the numbering of the rules*, hut in the

more complete explanation of points of

fuller

detail.

and

Thanks

to the criticisms of other scholars, (generally tendered in

that tone of courtesy and spirit of humility which always characterize true learning,)

I

have been enabled to correct

my efforts, unassisted crept into my last edition.

the errors which, notwithstanding as

I

But

was

in the

work of revision,

dare not even

I

now hope

standard of perfection.

* In

some few instances

bering of the rules; but as half exhausted, his

of

new



and

all

Sanskrit

to

have attained the

is far

too vast and intri-

I have been forced to vary slightly the

my

edition of ‘the Story of Nala’

as Professor Johnson’s references to

Hitopadesa’ are to

my

is

num-

more than

my Grammar

in

present edition, the variation will not be

much importance.

b

;

PREFACE TO THE

VI

cate a subject, and lias

still

many untrodden

too

labour, to admit of such pretensions.

affirm

is,

that

have done what

I

I

All

fields of

can with truth

I

could to bring the pre-

sent edition up to the level of the scholarship of the day

and that

my

if

may

editions that

my

life

be spared to complete any further

be required,

will be

it

same

energies again towards the

my

duty to apply

object.

In deference to the increasing attention given by Continental scholars to the study of the Veda,

have intro-

I

duced more notices of Yedic peculiarities in the present

work; and

have to thank

I

my

friend Dr. Kielhorn for

his aid in adding to these notices,

and in revising the

proof-sheets as they issued from the press.

the views of

we

German

scholars, to

Respect for

whose laborious research

English students of Sanskrit cannot be too grateful,

has also induced native

me

to

make more

references to the great

grammarian Panini, and generally

allusions to

to

add more

the technical phraseology of Indian gram-

matical writers than in Nevertheless,

I

my

last edition.

do not venture to hope, that

my

method

of teaching Sanskrit, addressing itself especially to the

English mind, will students,

ever approve

itself

to

Continental

any more than the Sanskrit Grammars published

by German scholars commend themselves

to

my judgment.

But doctors may disagree and yet respect each opinions.

The

public, at least,

the merits of opposite systems other’s

;

must be the

sole

other’s

judge of

and harsh censure of each

statements in publications which are competing

for public favour, is not only unproductive of good,

and

unbefitting the character of true scholars, but discreditable to the quarter

whence such censure emanates.

THIRD EDITION. I

vii

therefore decline all controversy; nor will I enter on

the profitless task of defending

my own

theories against

the attacks of rival grammarians, but simply say that sole

aim as Boden Professor

is

the promotion of a

my

more

general and critical knowledge of the Sanskrit language

among my own fellow-countrymen,

to

whose rule a vast

Eastern Empire has been committed, and hope,

except

dialects

through

Sanskrit,

to

know

who cannot the

of India, or to understand the mind,

thoughts,

spoken read the

and reach the very heart and soul of the

Hindus themselves. M. W. Oxfokd, June 1864.

PREFACE TO THE PREVIOUS EDITION*

IN

1846 I published a

which

Grammar

of the Sanskrit language,

‘An elementary Grammar, arranged according to a new Theory.’ This work is now out of print, and a

new

I entitled

The increasing experience which, during the subsequent ten years, I have derived from my edition is required.

duties

Sanskrit Professor at the East-India College,

as

where every student without exception

some of the views

I

expressed in

me

to

modify

my first Grammar

respect-

ing the Indian grammatical system. felt I

compelled by

is

statute to acquire this language, has led

I

have consequently

myself called upon to re-write the book

and although

;

have seen no reason to depart materially from the

arrangement originally adopted, yet the present

At the

am

confident that

enlarged and more complete work will be

found even better adapted than practical

I

its

predecessor to the

wants of the European student. a grammar is regarded by an European as

best,

a necessary

evil,

only to be tolerated because unavoidable.

must it be so in the case of a language conmore copious, more elaborate and artificial, than any other language of the world, living or dead. The structure of such a language must of necessity be highly complex. To the native of Hindustan this complexity is a positive recommendation. He views in it an evidence and Especially

fessedly

* I have slightly abridged this Preface.

;

PREFACE TO THE

X

a pledge of the sacred and unapproachable character of the

tongue which he venerates as divine.

To him the study of

grammar is an end, complete and satisfying in He wanders with delight in its perplexing mazes and values that grammar most which enters most minutely

its intricate itself.

into

an abstract analysis of the construction of the lan-

guage, apart from

its

practical bearing on the literature or

even on the formation of his

own

vernacular dialect.

But

the matter-of-fact temperament of an European, or at least of an Englishman, his peculiar mental organization, his

hereditary and educational bias, are opposed to

all

such

purely philosophical ideas of grammatical investigation.

A

must be plain, straightforward, practical not founded on the mere abstract theory of native grammarians, not moulded in servile conSanskrit

grammar intended

for his use

;

formity to Indian authority, but constructed independently

from an examination of the

literature,

and with

direct

reference to the influence exercised by Sanskrit on the

spoken dialects of India and the cognate languages of

To the English student, as a general rule, all grammatical study is a disagreeable necessity a mere means to an end a troublesome road that must be passed Europe.





in order that the goal of a

may

be attained.

must be

sound knowledge of a language

To meet

his requirements the

cleared of needless obstacles,

made smooth,

its

its

ground

rough places

crooked places straight, and the passage

by simplicity and perspicuity of arrangement, by consistency and unity of design, by abundance of example and illustration, by synoptical tables, bv copious indices, by the various artifices of typography. Before directing attention to the main features of the plan adopted in the present volume, and indicating the over

it

facilitated

principal points in which to the Indian

it

either differs from or conforms

system of grammatical

tuition,

vour to explain briefly what that system

is;

I

will endea-

on what prin-

— SECOND EDITION. ciples

it

is

based

;

and

in

what

xi

relation

stands to the

it

literature.

might have been expected that in Sanskrit, as

It

in

other languages, grammatical works should have been

composed

in direct subservience to the literature.

without going the length of affirming that the rules anterior to the practice, or that

grammarians in

But were

their ela-

borate precepts aimed at inventing forms of speech which

were not established by approved usage, certain in India

we have

it is

that

presented to us the curious phenomenon

of a vast assemblage of purely grammatical treatises, the professed object of which

is

not so

much

to elucidate the

existing literature, as to be studied for their

own

sake, or

as ancillary to the study of the more abstruse work of the first

We

great grammarian, Panini.

that

to say,

is

rules,

have, moreover,

two

the one, simple and natural composed independently of grammatical

distinct phases of literature

;

though of course amenable to them

;

the other, ela-

and professedly written to exemplify the theory of grammar. The Vedas, indeed, the earliest parts of which are generally referred back to the 12th or 13th borate, artificial,

century

b. c.,

abound

in obsolete

and peculiar formations,

mixed up with the more recent forms of grammar with

much

so

irregularity as to lead to the inference, that the lan-

guage at that time was too unsettled and variable to be brought under subjection to a system of rules;

strict

grammatical

while the simplicity of the style in the code of

Manu and

the two epic poems

is

a plain indication that

a grammar founded on and intended to be a guide to the literature as

it

then existed, would have differed from the

Paniniya Sutras as a straight road from a labyrinth.

What then was work?

It

the nature of Pan ini’s extraordinary

consisted of about four thousand Sutras or

aphorisms, composed with the symbolic brevity of the

most concise memoria

technica.

These were to the science

PREFACE TO THE

xii

of Sanskrit

grammar what

the seed

series of

bud germ of that

to the tree, the

is

They were

to the full-blown flower.

the

grammatical treatises which, taking root in them,

speedily germinated and ramified in all directions.

Each

aphorism, in itself more dark and mystic than the darkest

and most mystical of

was pregnant with an endless progeny of interpretations and commentaries, sometimes as obscure as the original. About one hundred and fifty grammarians and annotators followed in the footsteps of the great Father of Sanskrit grammar*, and, professing to explain and illustrate his dicta, made the display of their own philological learning the paramount aim and oracles,

purpose of their disquisitions. It

cannot be wondered, when

Indian intellect expended science of Sanskrit

all

the subtlety of the

itself in this direction, that

grammar should have been

elaborated by the Hindus to a degree wholly

refined

and

unknown

The highly

the other languages of the world.

the

in

artificial

writings of later times resulted from such an elaboration,

and were

closely interwoven with

was

of the literature part

was

affected

still

it

;

and although much

simple and natural, the greater

by that passion

for the display of philo-

which was derived from the works of Poetry itself became partially disciples.

logical erudition

Panini and his

inoculated with the mania.

who

Great poets, like Kalidasa,

in the generality of their writings

for majestic simplicity

and vigour, condescended known

* It should be stated here, that Yaska, the well

Yedic

dialect,

was doubtless

earlier

than Panini,

placed in the middle of the 4th century

names

of at least ten

mentary Rules.

2.

1.

Ivatyayana,

Patanjali,

3.

is

Kaiyata, who, in

in

some

explainer of the

himself

now

generally

Panini, moreover, mentions the

who wrote

who wrote

(Maha-bhashya), in which he often

Katyayana.

B. c.

who

grammarians older than himself.

followers of Panini were,

were remarkable

The most

illustrious

the Varttikas or Supple-

the great commentary on Panini

criticises the criticisms of his

predecessor

his turn, commented on Patanjali. Yopadeva,

a great authority in Bengal, lived probably in the 13th century of our era.

SECOND EDITION. of their works to

humour the

taste of the

xiii

day by adopting

a pedantic and obscure style; while others, like Bhatti, wrote long poems, either with the avowed object of exemplifying

grammar, or with the

biting their

own

ill-concealed motive of exhi-

familiarity with the niceties

and

subtleties

of speech.

Indeed

it

is to

be regretted that the Pandits of India

should have overlaid their system, possessing as

it

undeniable excellences, with a network of mysticism.

does

Had

they designed to keep the key of the knowledge of their language, and to shut the door against the vulgar, they

could hardly have invented a method more perplexing and

Having required, as a prelimi-

discouraging to beginners.

nary

step, that the

years in the

student shall pass a noviciate of ten

grammar

alone, they

have constructed a com-

plicated machinery of signs, symbols, and indicatory letters,

may have been well

which

native teachers when printing

difficulties of

of

was unknown, hut only serves

to bewilder the English tyro.

conquering the

memory

calculated to aid the

He has enough

to do, in

a strange character, without

puzzling himself at the very threshold in a labyrinth of

symbols and abbreviations, and perplexing himself in his endeavour to understand a complicated cipher, with an equalty complicated key to

its interpretation.

Even Coleimbued

brooke, the profoundest Sanskrit scholar of his day,

as he

was with a

marks on the

predilection for every thing Indian, re-

eight lectures or chapters, which, with four

sections under each, comprise all the celebrated Paniniya

and constitute the basis of the Hindu grammatical system The outline of Panini’s arrangement is simple, but numerous exceptions and frequent digressions have involved it in much seeming confusion. The first two Sutras,

;





lectures (the first section especially,

which

is in

a manner

the key of the whole grammar) contain definitions

;

in the

three next are collected the affixes by which verbs and c

PREFACE TO THE

XIV

nouns are

inflected.

the third lecture

;

Those which appertain to verbs occupy

the fourth and fifth contain such as are

The remaining three lectures treat of the changes which roots and affixes undergo in special cases, or by general rules of orthography, and which are all effected by the addition or by the substitution of one or more elements. The apparent simplicity of the design vanishes in the perplexity of the structure. The endless pursuit of exceptions and limitations so disjoins the general precepts, that the reader cannot keep in view their intended connexion and mutual relation. He wanders in an intricate maze, and the clue of the labyrinth is continually slipping from his hand.’ Again The studied brevity of the Paniniya Sutras renders them in the highest degree obscure; even with the knowledge of the key to their interpretation, the student finds them ambiguous. In the application of affixed to nouns.



;

them, when understood, he discovers tradictions

;

many seeming

and, with every exertion of practised

he must experience the utmost

difficulty in

con-

memory,

combining rules

dispersed in apparent confusion through different portions

of Panini’s eight lectures.’

That the reader incredible brevity

matical aphorisms,

may judge

for

himself of the almost

and hopeless obscurity of these gram-

we

here present him with the closing

Sutra at the end of the eighth lecture, as follows Will

it

be believed that this

short a be held to have

now

that

we have reached

was necessary

My

its

to regard

aim has been,

it

in

is

‘ :

^a

interpreted to mean,



Let

organ of utterance contracted,

the end of the work, in which

it

as being otherwise V

the present work, to avoid the

mysticism of Indian grammarians, without ignoring the best parts of their system, and without rejecting such of their technical symbols as I

have found by experience to

be really useful in assisting the memory.

With reference

to

my

first

chapter, the student will

SECOND EDITION.

xv

doubtless be impatient of the space devoted to the expla-

Let him understand at the outset,

nation of the alphabet.

that a minute and accurate adjustment of the mutual relationship of letters

is

Sanskrit grammar.

grammar

the very hinge of the whole subject of It is

the point which distinguishes the

of this language from that of every other.

fact, Sanskrit, in its

whole structure,

is

In

an elaborate pro-

cess of combining letters according to prescribed rules.

Its

entire grammatical system, the regular formation of its

nouns and verbs from crude roots, its theory of declension and conjugation, and the arrangement of its sentences, all turn on the reciprocal relationship and interchangeableness of letters, and the laws which regulate their euphonic combination.

These laws, moreover, are the key to the

influ-

ence which this language has exercised on the study of

comparative philology. possible for a Sanskrit

and

Such being the

grammar

case, it is scarcely

to be too full, luminous,

explicit in treating of the letters, their pronunciation,

classification,

and mutual

With regard

affinities.

which contains the rules of Sandhi or euphonic combination, I have endeato the second chapter,

voured as far as possible to simplify a part of the grammar

which

is

the great impediment to the progress of beginners.

There can be

little

doubt that the necessity imposed on

early students of conquering these rules at the

ment of the grammar,

is

the cause

Why

so

commence-

many who

address themselves energetically to the study of the lan-

guage are compelled after the field dispirited, if

first

onset to retire from the

not totally discomfited.

The rules

combination and permutation of letters form, as

for the

it

were,

a mountain of difficulty to be passed at the very beginning of the journey; and the learner cannot be convinced that,

when once surmounted,

more smooth than is

the ground beyond

may

in other languages, the ingress to

comparatively easy.

My

aim has been

be

which

to facilitate the

;

PREFACE TO THE

XVI

comprehension of these

indeed by omission or

rules, not

by a perspicuous method of arrangement, and by the exhibition of every Sanskrit word with its equivalent English letters. The student must understand that there are two distinct classes of rules of Sandhi, viz. those which affect the final or initial letters of complete words in a sentence, and those which relate to the euphonic junction of roots or crude bases with affixes and terminations. Many of the latter class come first into operation in the conjugation of the more difficult verbs. In order, abbreviation, but

therefore, that the student

may

not be embarrassed with

these rules, until they are required, the consideration of

them As

is

reserved to the middle of the volume.

to the chapter on Sanskrit roots

of nominal bases, the place which

it

(See

p. 147.)

and the formation

occupies before the

chapter on declension, although unusual, scarcely calls for explanation

depending as

;

it

does on the theory that nouns

as well as verbs are derived from roots, and that the

formation of a nominal base must precede the declension of a noun, just as the formation of a verbal base must be anterior to the conjugation of a verb.

Consistency and

clearness of arrangement certainly require that an enume-

by which the bases of nouns are formed should precede their inflection. The early student,

ration of the affixes

however,

may

satisfy himself

by a cursory observation of

the eight classes under which these affixes are distributed.

Some

of the most

single words,

uncommon, which are only applicable

have been omitted.

to

Moreover, in accordance

with the practical character of the present Grammar, the servile

and indicatory

which the true lost,

letters of Indian



rich,’ is

formed by the

by matup

not altogether

affix is often concealed, if

have been discarded.

dhana-vat,

grammarians, under

For example, the adjective

considered in the following pages to be

affix vat,

and

not, as in native

and the substantive bhoj-ana,



Grammars,

food,' is consi-

;

SECOND EDITION.

xvii

dered to be formed with the affix ana, and not, as in native

Grammars, by

my

In

lyut.

explanation of the inflection of the base of both

nouns and verbs,

I

have, as before, treated both declension

and conjugation as a process of Sandhi; that is to say, junction of the crude base, (as previously formed from the with the terminations.

root,) I

have thought

But

in the present

propounded by native

general scheme of terminations

grammarians; and in the application of the base,

Grammar

expedient to lay more stress on the

it

scheme to

this

have referred more systematically to the rules

I

of euphonic combination, as essential to a sound acquaint-

ance with the principles of nominal and verbal

On

the other hand,

I

inflection.

have in the present work deviated

from the Indian system by retaining u

s as

a

final in

the

declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs, for the practical

reason of

its

being more tangible and easy to appre-

hend than the symbol Visarga or ceptible

in

changes of

pronunciation.

final

s,

p. 40.)

which

h,

is

less per-

(See the observations under

Even

in native

Grammars

those

terminations, the finals of which are afterwards changed to Visarga, are

always regarded as originally ending in

and the subsequent resolution of s into nation

is

connected with the base,

and uncertainty.

Thus

the nominative case

would according

;

is

s is said to

h,

when

the termi-

a source of confusion be the termination of

but the nominative of

to the Indian

s;

agni,

system be written

^fVrr:



fire,’

agnik,

which an Englishman would scarcely distinguish in pronunciation from the base agni. In the following pages,

and the liability explained under the

therefore, the nominative is given agnis

of agnis to become agnih and agnir

head of changes of

is

final s (at pp. 40, 41).

This plan has

also the advantage of exhibiting the resemblance

between

the system of inflection in Sanskrit and Latin and Greek.

The

difficulty

experienced in comprehending the subject

PREFACE TO THE

xviii

me to give abundant exam-

of Sanskrit conjugation has led ples of verbs conjugated at

I

full.

have of course deviated

from the Indian plan of placing the third person first. I have, moreover, deemed it advisable to exhibit the English equivalents of Sanskrit words in the principal examples

under each declension and conjugation, knowing by experience the thankfulness with which this aid

is

received by

early students, not thoroughly familiar with the Deva-

nagari character.

The numerous examples of

verbs, pri-

mitive and

derivative, will be found to include all the

most useful

in the language.

In previous

Grammars

it

has

been usual to follow the native method of giving only the

3d

pers. sing, of

each tense, with an occasional indication

The present more difficult the same time for

of any peculiarities in the other persons.

Grammar, on the other hand,

exhibits the

tenses of every verb in full, referring at

the explanation of every peculiar formation to the rule, in

the preceding pages, on which

it

depends.

This

is

especially

true of the 2d and 3d preterite (or perfect and aorist), as these constitute the chief difficulty of the Sanskrit verb;

and if

I

have constantly found that even advanced students,

required to write out these tenses, will be guilty of

inaccuracies, notwithstanding one or

may

have been given

In the chapter on

two of the persons

for their guidance.

compound words

I

have again endea-

voured, without ignoring the Indian arrangement, to dis-

embarrass

it

of

many

the whole subject

elements of perplexity, and to treat

in

a manner more in unison with

European ideas. The explanations I have given rest on actual examples selected by myself from ‘the Hitopadesa’ and other standard works in ordinary use. Indeed this chapter and that on syntax constitute the most original part of the present volume. literature as

it

In composing the syntax, the

exists has been

examples are taken from

my

only guide.

All the

classical authors, so as to serve

tlie

SECOND EDITION.

xix

purpose of an easy delectus, in which the learner

may

exercise himself before passing to continuous translation.

The

deficiency of native

ject

is

their

Grammars on

this

important sub-

only to be accounted for on the supposition that

aim was

to furnish

an elaborate analysis of the

philosophical structure of the language,

rather than a

practical guide to the study of the literature.

The exercises early student’s

and parsing,

in translation

chapter of this volume,

will,

first effort

it

is

my

last

at translation.

In regard to the general scope of the hook, state that

in the

hoped, facilitate the

aim has been

remains to

it

to minister to the

wants of I have

the earliest as well as the more advanced student. therefore employed types of

of which

is,

two

different sizes

;

the larger

of course, intended to attract the eye to

those parts of the subject to which the attention of the

may

The smaller, however, often contains important matter which is by no means to be overlooked on a second perusal. Under the conviction that the study of Sanskrit ought to possess charms for the classical scholar, independently

beginner

of

its

advantageously be confined.

wonderful literature,

I

have taken pains to introduce

most striking comparisons between this language and Latin and Greek. I am bound to acknowledge that I have drawn nearly all the materials for this important addition to the book from the English translation of

in small type the

Bopp’s ‘Comparative Grammar,’ by

my friend and colleague

Professor Eastwick.

One point more remains Index was

felt to

This omission

is

to be noticed.

be a serious defect in

now

supplied.

my

Two full

The want of an first Grammar.

Indices have been

appended to the present work, the one English, and the other Sanskrit. at once to

The

any noun,

latter will enable the student to turn

verb, affix, idiom or peculiar forma-

tion explained in the foregoing pages.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

XX

In conclusion,

I

desire to take this opportunity of ex-

pressing to the Delegates of the Oxford University Press

my

and respectful sense of the advantages the volume derives from their favour and patronage*. grateful

M. W. EAST-INDIA COLLEGE, HAILEY BURY,

January 1857.

* its

Not

the least of these advantages has been the use of a press which, in

appointments and general

efficiency, stands unrivalled.

and accuracy with which the most

intricate

printed, have excited a thankfulness in

understand who type

is

know

Deva-nagari

letters.

The judgment

my MS.

have been

mind, which those only can

when much Oriental Roman, and when a multitude of minute

the toil of correcting the press,

interspersed with the

diacritical points, dots,

my

parts of

and accents have

to be

employed to represent the

CONTENTS PAGE

Introductory remarks Chap.

I.

xxiii

— Letters

1

Pronunciation

10

Classification

13

Accentuation

17

Method

19

of writing

Chap. II.— Sandhi or euphonic permutation of letters Sect.

I.

III.

23

Changes of consonants

Sect. II.

Chap.

22

Changes of vowels

— Sanskrit

roots,

31

and the formation of the crude 48 54

bases of nouns

Formation of the base of nouns by

Chap. IV. Sect.

— Declension of nouns. I.

affixes

General observations

64

Declension of nouns whose bases end in vowels

Sect. II. Sect. III. Sect. IY.

72 85

Declension of nouns whose bases end in consonants .... Adjectives

102

Numerals

107

— Pronouns Chap. VI. — Verbs. General Chap. Y.

112

observations

120

Terminations

Summary

124 132

of the ten conjugations

Formation of the base in the four conjugational tenses

:

39 Of group I. or verbs of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes Of groups II. and III 145 The new rules of Sandhi required for group II 147 Of group II. or verbs of the second, third, and seventh classes 150 158 Of gi’oup III. or verbs of the fifth, eighth, and ninth classes 1

.

Formation of the base

in the six non-conjugational tenses

Perfect or second preterite

;

.

:

formation of the base

160

First and second future; formation of the base

170

Pules for inserting or rejecting the vowel

172

i

formation of the base

178

Precative or benedictive; formation of the base

186

Aorist or third preterite

Conditional Infinitive

;

;

;

formation of the base

formation of the base

Passive verbs; formation of the base

Causal verbs; formation of the base Desiderative verbs

;

formation of tbe base

Frequentative or intensive verbs; formation of the base

d

189

190

190 195

202 206

:

CONTENTS.

xxii

PAGE

Nominal verbs

209

Participles

212 228

Participial

nouns of agency

Examples of verbs

inflected at full

Table of verbs of the ten conjugations inflected at Table of passive verbs inflected at

full

full

Auxiliary verbs conjugated

Group

I.

Verbs of the

first class

Verbs of the fourth

conjugated

261

conjugated

class

229 238 243 244

Verbs of the sixth

class

conjugated

265

Verbs of the tenth

class conjugated

2/0 273

Group

II.

Verbs of the second

Verbs of the third

III.

conjugated

281

class conjugated

Verbs of the seventh

Group

class

Verbs of the

class conjugated fifth class

conjugated

285

290

Verbs of the eighth class conjugated

295

Verbs of the ninth

298 303 305 306 308

class

conjugated

Passive verbs conjugated

Causal verbs conjugated Desiderative verbs conjugated

Frequentative or intensive verbs conjugated

Chap. VII.

— Indeclinable words.

Adverbs

311

Conjunctions

315 316 318

Prepositions Interjections

Chap. VIII.

— Compound words. Compound nouns

Tat-purusha or dependent compounds

319 321

Dvandva or

324

Sect.

I.

copulative (aggregative)

compounds

Karma-dharaya or descriptive (determinative) compounds .... 32/

Dvigu or numeral

(collective)

compounds

Avyayi-bhava or adverbial (indeclinable) compounds Bahu-vrihi or relative compounds

Complex compounds Changes of certain words

in certain

compounds

Compound verbs III. Compound adverbs

Sect. II.

Sect.

— Syntax — Exercises

348

Chap. IX. Chap. X.

328 328 329 334 337 340 347

in

translation and parsing

381

Scheme of the more common Sanskrit metres

388

English index

393

Sanskrit index

397

List of compound or conjunct consonants

407

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. SANSKRIT which

all

is

the classical and learned language of the Hindus, in

their literature

and which bears the same

written,

is

Greek and Latin bear

tion to their vernacular dialects that

spoken dialects of Europe.

modern

philologists Arian *

derived,

is

It

common

in

one of the

is

or Indo-European

;

rela-

to the

family

called

that

to

is

by

say,

it

with the languages of Europe, from that

primeval but extinct type, once spoken by a tribe in Central Asia,

who

partly pastoral, partly agricultural,

afterwards separated into

southwards into Aryavarta or

distinct nationalities, migrating first

between Himalaya andVindhya — mountains — and then northwards and westwards Europe.

Upper India

the

the vast territory

into

In tive

all

more nearly

probability Sanskrit approaches

type than any of

its

sister-tongues

to this primi-

may

but, however this

;

comparative philology has proved beyond a donbt

its

be,

community

with Greek, Latin, Persian!, Gothic, Lithuanian, Slavonic, Keltic, and

through some of these with

French, Spanish, Portuguese,

Italian,

German, and our own mother-tongue.

The word

Sanskrit

made up of the

sanskrita

or samskrita,

= crw,

preposition sain (WT

see

con), ‘together,

6. 5

f)

is

and the

passive participle krita (wi\=factus), ‘made, 5 an euphonic s being

and

inserted (see 53. a.

pound means



of the following Grammar).

carefully constructed,

fectus, constructus). *

6. b.

More properly

In this sense

5

it



symmetrically formed 5 is

opposed

name assumed by

the race

(

con -

to Prakrit (TTTWTT

written Aryan, from the Sanskrit ^?T*T arya,

able,’ ‘venerable,’ the

The com-



noble,’

who immigrated

into



honour-

Northern

India, thence called Aryavarta, ‘the abode of the Aryans.’

t Especially old Persian.

Zand

Persian, might be added to the

list,

(or Zend),

which

is

closely connected with old

although the reality of this language as any

thing more than the vehicle of the sacred writings called Zand-Avasta (affirmed by the Parsi priests of Persia and India to be the composition of their prophet Zoroaster) has

been disputed.

Comparative philologists also add Armenian.

d

3

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

XXIV prakrita),



common,’ ‘ natural/ the name given

which gradually arose out of

now spoken

in

Upper

it,

to the vulgar dialects

and from which most of the languages

India are

more

or less directly derived.

probable that Sanskrit, although a real language

tongue of the Aryan or dominant races, and

guage of India, preserved an immense literature

in

—was

its

all

if

own

when

it

artificial

For we may reason-

this hypothesis clearer,

that, before

of

if

Roman all

the Latin of

plebeian,

much

languages have suf-

became the common speech of a vast commu-

whose separation from the educated

To make

of

most perfect and

its

day, and

Cicero differed from the spoken dialect of the

more must the most polished and

nity,

medium

the language of Addison differed from the

vulgar and provincial English of his

fered corruption

the learned lan-

still

never spoken in

It is

once the living

purity through the

systematized form by the mass of the people. ably conjecture, that



it

classes

maybe

was

far

more marked.

well to remind the reader,

the arrival of the Sanskrit-speaking immigrants, India

was inhabited by

a rude people, called

(MleiShas, Nishadas, Dasyus,

& c.) by



barbarians

5

or



outcastes

5

Sanskrit writers, but probably

the descendants of various Scythian hordes who, at a remote period,

entered India by

way

of Bilucistan * and the Indus.

The more

powerful and civilised of these aboriginal tribes appear to have retired before the

Aryans

into

Southern India, and there to have

retained their independence, and with their independence the individuality

and

Upper India

essential structure of their vernacular dialects.

the case was different.

latter

full

and powerful language

The weak and scanty

tongue gradually wasted away, until the language of the Aryans

impress of

itself

and disintegrating speech *

dialect of the

could no more withstand a conflict with the vigorous Sanskrit,

Hence the

than a puny dwarf the aggression of a giant.

like

in

There, as the Aryan race in-

creased in numbers and importance, their forced itself on the aborigines.

But

identity

became merged

leaving, however, a faint

in

and skeleton-

on the purer Sanskrit of the educated

classes,

into Prakrit, to serve the purposes of ordinary

f.

The Brahui, a

f The

it

;

its

aboriginal

dialect of Bilucistan,

cerebral letters in Sanskrit,

still

preserves

its

Scythian character.

and words containing cerebral

letters, are

probably the result of the contact of Sanskrit with the language of the Scythian

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. Prakrit, then,

XXV

was merely the natural process of change and cor-

dialect*

ruption which the refined Sanskrit underwent in adapting the exigencies of a spoken

Sanskrit of the mass of the so called, became, as

it is

itself to

It was, in fact, the provincial

*".

community

whilst Sanskrit, properly

;

to this day, the language of the

Brahmans

and the accomplishment of the learned f. This provincial Sanskrit assumed of course different modifications, according to the circumstances of the district in which the corruption took place

;

and the various modifications of Prakrit are the

intermediate links which connect Sanskrit with the dialects at present spoken by the natives of Hindustan.

They have been analyzed and

who was

grammarian,

The most or Bihar

by Vararuci, the ancient

assorted

what Panini was

to Sanskrit

grammar.

noticeable varieties were the Mdgadhi, spoken in

Magadha

;

to Prakrit

spoken in a

the Mahdrashtri,

Central to Western India

;

district

stretching from

and the Saurasem, spoken on the banks

of the Jamna, in the neighbourhood of the ancient Mathura

employed

patois modifications of Sanskrit are

the inferior characters in

tribes

and a non-Sanskrit,

:

all

the

or, as it

these dialects there

is

called, a

modern

Scythian element,

dialects of

Hindustan.

may be In

all

of

a substratum of words, foreign to Sanskrit, which can only

be referred to the aboriginal stock. * It

as the language of

Hindu dramas which have come

may be

traced with the greatest clearness in the

These

would be interesting

See the

In a book called the Lalita-vistara, the rated in pure Sanskrit.

last

note at the bottom of p. xxii.

to trace the gradual transition of Sanskrit into Prakrit.

It

is

life

and adventures of Buddha

are nar-

probably of no great antiquity, as the Buddhists

themselves deny the existence of written authorities for 400 years after Buddha's

death (about b. songs, which

But subjoined to the Sanskrit version

543).

repeat the

story in a kind of

They were probably rude

Prakrit.

current

c.

among

well as more Slwfi$ for

ballads,

mixed

are gathds or

dialect, half Sanskrit, half

which, though not written, were

the people soon after Buddha’s death.

They contain Vedic

modern formations, interspersed with Prakrit corruptions

ST^Tf,

which

is

Vedic; and wfirf for VTTVfifT, which

proving that the language was then in a transition

t The best proof of this

is,

that in the

Hindu dramas

suppose that Sanskrit would have been employed at it

Prakrit),

state. all

the higher characters

speak Sanskrit, whilst the inferior speak various forms of Prakrit.

had

is

as

(e. g.

all in

It is idle to

dramatic composition,

not been the spoken language of a section of the community.

* Arrian (ch. VIII) describes the Suraseni as inhabiting the city of Methoras.

;

INTRODUCTORY REMAR KS.

XXVI

down

some of which date

to us,

and the

them

of

first

Ceylon Buddhists*

is

b. c.,

identical with Puli, the sacred language of the

Out

.

back as the 2d century

as far

them arose Hindi (termed Hindustani

of

Urdu, when mixed with Persian and Arabic words), Marathi,

or



and Gujarathi

To

may be

these

modern

the

dialects spread widely over the country.

added, Bengali, the language of Bengal, which

bears a closer resemblance to three enumerated above

vince of Cuttack

parent, Sanskrit, than either of the

its

Uriya, the dialect of Orissa, in the pro-

;

Sindhi, that of Sindh

;

;

Panjabi, of the Pahjab

Kdsmirian, of Kasmir; and Nipdlese, of Nipalf.

The

four languages of Southern India, viz.

Andhra of Sanskrit

(the

and

or Karnataka),

4.

writers)

(),

3.

Kanarese

Malayalam (Malabar)

Tamil J,

1.

2.

Telugu

(also called

Kannadi

although

drawing

||,

largely from Sanskrit for their literature, their scientific terms, their

and

religion, their laws,

distinct

structure,

their

in

their social institutions, are

and are

proved to be

might have been

referred, as

expected from the previous account of the aborigines, to the Scythian, or, as

* Pali,

it is

which

is

sometimes termed, the Tatar or Turanian type

identical with the

Magadhi

Prakrit,

the language in which

is

Buddhist missionaries

the sacred books of the Buddhists of Ceylon are written.

from Magadha carried in India) their is

the

their religion,

and ultimately

language, into that island.

name which

Pali

(after the

(meaning

^f.

decay of Buddhism

in Singhalese ‘ancient’)

the priests of Ceylon gave to the language of the old country,

whence they received

their religion.

t For an account of some of these instructive Preface to his



dialects, see Prof.

H. H. Wilson’s very

Glossary of Indian Terms.’

J Often incorrectly written Tamul, and by earlier Europeans erroneously termed

The

Malabar. § ||

cerebral

l

at the

end has rather the sound of

Sometimes called Gentoo by the Europeans of the

A

language

fifth

is

enumerated,

viz.

rl.

last generation.

Tulu or Tuluva, which holds

a middle

position between Kanarese and Malayalam, but more nearly resembles the former. It is

spoken by only 150,000 people. Added to

this, there are

four rude and uncul-

tivated dialects spoken in various parts of Southern India, viz. the Tuda, Kota,

Gond, and

H

This

Ku is

or

Khond;

all

of which are affiliated with the Southern group.

nevertheless consistent with the theory of a remote original affinity

between these languages and Sanskrit and the other members of the Indo-European family.

The various branches

of the Scythian stock, which spread themselves in

directions westward, northward,

all

and southward, must have radiated from a common

centre with the Aryans, although the divergence of the latter took place at a

much

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. Sanskrit

which

written in various Indian characters, but the character

is

peculiarly

is

its

c.* of



XXVII

own

the Nagari or Deva-nagari,

is

The

the divine, royal, or capital city/

much

character can scarcely be traced back to a period the 3d century b.

most

perfect,

alphabets, first is

*

;

and the more modern, which

and

comprehensive,

anterior to

all

not traceable for several centuries after Christ.

is

that

one of the

is

of

philosophical

e.

i.

form of this

earliest

known The

the corrupt character of the various inscriptions which have

been discovered on

Magadhi

Prakrit,

pillars

spoken

and rocks throughout India, written

at the

time of Alexander’s invasion over a

These inscriptions are ascertained

great part of Hindustan.

in

Magadha

addresses from the Buddhist sovereigns of

to be

to the people,

enjoining the practice of social virtues and reverence for the priests.

They darsi),

are mostly in the

name

of Piya-dasi f

Sanskrit Priya-

(for

supposed to be an epithet of Asoka, who

is

known

to

have

reigned at some period between the 2d and the 3d century b. c. by his

being the grandson of Candra-gupta, probably identical with

Sandrakottus,

described

by Strabo

kings of

Magadha

(Bihar),

putra (Patna), and

monarchs

;

whose court was

who claimed

the

most powerful Raja,

the

as

He was

immediately succeeding Alexander’s death.

one of the

at Pali-bothra or Patali-

of Samrats or universal

title

not without reason, as their addresses are found in these

inscriptions at Delhi, and at

west as Gujarat, and

Kuttack

again

as

in the south,

far

north

as

and again as

the Panjab.

imperfect form of Nagari which the corrupt character exhibits

incompatible

with

orthography.

Sanskrit

It

may

therefore

far

The is

be

conjectured that a more perfect alphabet existed, which bore the

same

relation to the corrupt

later period.

It is to

form that Sanskrit bore to Prakrit.

be observed, that in the South-Indian dialects the Scythian

element constitutes the hulk of the language.

and the Sanskrit admixture to the woof. matical structure and

many

It

may

of the idioms and expressions are

the whole material and substance of the language

Sanskrit.

is

the able Introduction of the Rev. R. Caldwell to his

Dravidian or South-Indian Languages,’ * Mr.

be compared to the warp,

In the Northern dialects the gram-

James Prinsep placed the



still

See,

Scythian, but

on

this subject,

Comparative Grammar of the

lately published.

earliest

form as

t The regular Prakrit form would be Pia-dassi.

far

back as the 5th century b.c,

Probably the spoken Prakrit

of that period approached nearer to Sanskrit than the Prakrit of the plays.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

XX VI 11 Nor does

it

militate against this theory that the perfect character is

not found in any ancient inscription, as

it

is

known

well

that the

Brahmans, who alone spoke and understood the pure Sanskrit, and

who

alone would therefore need that character, never addressed the

people, never proselytized, and never cared

emerge from the

to

indolent apathy of a dignified retirement.

An

interesting table of the various modifications of the

nagari alphabet, both ancient and modern, from earliest inscriptions to the present time,

Thomas’ edition of Prinsep’s

The

perfection of the

which

in

adapts

it



modern

may be

seen in Mr.

Indian Antiquities,’

character,

*

Edward

vol. II. p.

52*.

and the admirable manner

the elaborate and symmetrical structure

itself to

of the Sanskrit language, will be apparent from the the present

Deva-

the date of the

chapter of

first

Grammar.

This table, by the kind permission of Mr. Thomas, was lent to

me by

Mr. Stephen Austin of Hertford, the printer of the above work, and inserted

my

second edition

;

but as the table

useful to the student of Sanskrit

makes space an

present volume

exhibited in Prinsep’s

is

more

grammar, and

object,

I

in

interesting to scholars generally than as the increase of matter in the

have preferred referring to the table as

Indian Antiquities.’



NOTICE TO THE STUDENT. The

publication at the

Oxford University Press of ‘the Story of Nala’ (con-

fessedly the best reading-book for beginners), as a

volume, with

full

companion

to the present

vocabulary and copious grammatical references, has almost

superseded the need for the exercises in translation and parsing appended to the previous editions of the

Grammar.

They have,

therefore,

been

much

abridged in

the following edition.

When

the Sanskrit-English Dictionary,

of the Delegates of the Oxford Press,

with such

Grammar

facilities for

will

Observe





is

now being

printed under the patronage

completed, the student

will

be supplied

translating the literature that a delectus at the end of the

be rendered unnecessary.

The Sanskrit Manual,’ by the author

of the present work, contains

a complete series of progressive exercises intended to be used in connexion with the rules in the following

Grammar, and adapted

Manual may be obtained from W.

II.

Allen

&

Co.,

to facilitate

its

study.

This

London, or any bookseller.

s

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. CHAPTER

I.

LETTERS. I

.

THE

written,

is

Deva-nagari character, in which the Sanskrit language

adapted to the expression of almost every

known

is

gradation

of sound; and every letter has a fixed and invariable pronunciation. There are fourteen vowels (or without In * thirteen) and thirtythree simple consonants.

To

called Anusvdra, and the

symbol

They

(see rule 6).

may he added

these

the nasal symbol,

for a final aspirate, called Visarga

are here exhibited in the dictionary order f.

the vowels, excepting

have two forms

a,

the

;

first is

the

All

initial,

the

^

n,

second the medial or non-initial.

VOWELS. a,

wgro,

ftm, f®$,

fM, ahs,

at, gfhn,

asm:, pnT, im:,

ip,

nZ :,

a?TPn:, gTTcTtn:

nnt,

,

n?:,

in wfagg, ,

wm, nm, ntp-

nfram,

nti*,

,

fig^, inn:,

fitn:,

wont, wg,

qn:, imp. pfint, PfiT, ntn:, TP, Tpn,

"mw, psn,

ppfin, r*tf, pip:, ni,

wro, n?, ptv:

,

|p^:,

To be turned Ada,

kaitya,

ket,

dslia,

rishi,

khalam, jetri,

tatas, tathd, trina, tushdra ,

ip;p.

into Sanskrit letters.

asa, ali, ddi, dkhu, dgas ,

uparodha, uru,

'st^,

iti,

tsah ,

ilia,

uddra , trpanishad,

eka, kakud, katu, koshah, gaura, ghat a, jhiri,

deha

,

tagara,

damara,

dhala,

daitya, dhavala, nanu,

nama ,

nayanam

,

METHOD OP WRITING. niddnam,

21

bhauma, bheshajam, marus, mahat, yuga, rush, rudhis,

pitri,

lauha, vivekas, satam, shodasan, sukhin, hridaya, tatra, adya, buddhi, arka, kratu, amsa, an-ka, an-ga, ahcala, afijana, kantha, anda, anta,

manda, sampurna.

The following story has the Sanskrit and English

letters

interlineated.

hastindpure

asti

\ bho

wnrar \ O

V3

ntwflT

i

uto\

tth

tatas

tena

msrarwrwffa

rajakendsau

vydgliratarmand

tato

durad

thj:

praShadyaranyasamipe sasyakshetre

avalokya vydghrabuddhya kshetrapa-

%?nfq

i

tayah satvaram paldyante

atha

kenapi sasyarakshakena dhusara-

kambalakritatanutranena dhanuhkdndam

TJ^TPiT

f^rf

ekante

sthitam

I

7nm tatas

trt gardabhiyamiti

rf

^

fj

sajjikritydvanatakdyena

r§l

TJTTfft

tam ta dure drishtva gardabhah pushtango

^

i

matva sabdam kurvanas tadabhimukham dhdvitah

n^ms^fpfrT

rpra W?t tatas

\

tasya garda-

durbalo mumursliur abhavat

’tibhdravdhanad

molitah

ndma rajakah

vildso

tena sasyarakshakena gardabho ’ yamiti

sITSiT

cftPPR

jhatvd

lilayaiva

II

vydpaditah.

The following story

is to

be turned into Sanskrit

Asti sriparvatamadhye brahmapurdkhyam nagaram.

Tatra saila-

ndma rdkshasah prativasatiti janapravadah sruEkadd ghantdm addya paldyamdnah kas6i6 cauro vydghrena

kikhare ghantakarno yate.

letters.

99

SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LETTERS.

ghantam anukshanam vddayanti. pratikshanam

drishtah

dito

Te vdnards tdm

Tatpdnipatitd ghanta vanaraih prdptd.

vydpdditah.

Tato nagarajanair manushyah khd-

ghantdravasta

Anantaram

sruyate.

ghantdkarnah kupito manushydn khadati ghantam 6a vddayati ityuTatah karalayd nama kuttinya

ktvdijandh sarve nagardt paldyitdh.

vimrisya markata ghantam vddayanti svayam, vijhdya raja vijhdpitah.

Deva yadi kiyaddhanopakshayah

Tato rdijhd tushtena tasyai dhanam dattam.

sddhayami. 6a

tadaham enarn ghantakarnam

kriyate

mandatary,

ganesadigauravam

tatra

kritvd

Kuttinya

svayam

darsayitva

vdnarapriyaphaldnydddya vanam pravisya phalanydkirndni.

ghantam parityajya

vanardh phalasakta

babhuvuh.

Tato

Kuttini

6a

ghantam grihitva nagaram dgata sakalalokapujydbhavat. when

Observe, that Anusvara at the end of a word, conveniently transliterated by m, and vice versa elSPJTTI3!

HUT.

Strictly,

;

a consonant follows,

thus, brahmapurdkhyam

is

most

nagaram

however, the m, being influenced by the following

n, is

equivalent in sound to n, and the two words might have been written brahmapnra-

khyan nagaram

U^TUTTWH HUT.

Similarly, pratikshanam before ghantardvas

written ufrf KITT pratikshanam, though equivalent in sound to uTn

is

pratikslia-

nan-, in consequence of the following U-

CHAPTER

II.

SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LETTERS.

We

are

changes of

accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic

Thus rego makes,

letters.

Similarly,

avyyvtofxrj

subpressus



;

iv

with Xd/x7rw,

for

;

thus

eWd/j-vrar.

grammar

;

arvv

with

;

irrogo

letters ;

for

inrogo.

if

for

is

These

the sentence “

s.

conso-

becomes

written for

inmensus ; af-

laws

collo-

for

the

are applied throughout the whole range

and

that, too, not only in uniting

parts of one word, but in combining words in

Thus,

yvca/xri

Suppressus

immensus

final

offero for obfero, but in perfect obtuli;

conloquium

euphonic junction of of Sanskrit

;

In many words a

appellatus for adpellatus

Jinitas for adfinitas

quium

initial

not regsi, but

to the hard k before the hard

g being changed veho becomes veksi (vexi).

reksi ( rexi ), the soft

nant assimilates with an

in the perfect,

Rara

avis in terris”

different

the same sentence.

were Sanskrit,

it

would

;

;

;

CHANGES OF VOWELS. by the laws of Sandhi or combination,

require,

must not be discouraged

learner

the laws of combination at

all

be written Raravir

to

and might even be joined together thus, Raravirinsterrih.

ins terrih

The

23

he

if

is

He

first.

unable to understand

is

recommended,

reading those that are printed in large type, to pass

seen

memory

to

till

number

a

of rules, the use of which

is

to

not fully

he comes to read and construct sentences must only lead ,

to a loss of time

and patience. Sect. I.— CHANGES

It

37.

once to

To attempt

the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs.

commit

at

after

is

OF VOWELS.

be observed that there are two distinct classes of

to

Those

rules of Sandhi; viz. 1.

complete words in a sentence

affecting the final or initial letters of 2.

;

Those w hich take 7

the

effect in

formation of words by the junction of roots or crude bases with

Of

terminations.

or

affixes

the

latter,

(see ride 294),

which

those

operation in the formation of verbs, are reserved

till

come

into

they are wanted

but those w hich come into immediate application in 7

the formation and declension of nouns will be explained here

amongst

changes of vowels called

these, the

should be impressed on the memory, before another step in the study of the

changed i

and

i

to

are

crease *.

wt

0,

U

e,

When

Grammar.

this is called the

changed

to

Similarly,

"g

and Vriddhi

Vriddhi WIT: dr

if ai,

w

u and

au ;

and

W

a,

Guna

ri

Observe

though

Guna

a, ai,

and Vriddhi representatives of the vowels

and 28.

*

J

JT 3TT*.

thus

6h

7TT

may

11

and ST

»T

Hence TfTT SHT may be

remain unchanged; the TT1,

he being,’



and the mark

l,

thus

'^'^TT'T

The

Final

*T

h.

Final

c.

But »T

57.

insert

or

vjT',

»T n,

final

is

Z

k

n,

So

t.



by

initial ST s

changeable to

but this

,

final *T

is

may

n

by

insert IT

t

may

or

is

say the inserted letters *T

and

may

initial 7T is

l,

Similarly, (V -f Wfj.it®

and

»T h, is



before

sh,

remains unchanged



he

= colligo.

rule.

R7

as, TTHT

;



those

rejected before terminations

is

nasality

TTHTtTf

should be written in the cerebral form

+

4-

its

(rf>'

properly written in the palatal form

and

rich people;’

or 1T«(

unchanged against the

dh,

n,

the n assimilates with

eWa.fJ.ir®', con-\-ligo

1 d,

TIT

l,

derived from n, to denote

tiT.

six.’

and

affixes

fkTT dhanin-\-bhis becomes NfdfHTT

dhanin-\-tva='Vlf’Tft dhanitva,



the state of

rich.’

As the

final of

307 and 323) b.

rule.

49. a) or

a root

it is

rejected before those terminations beginning with

consonants (excepting nasals and semivowels) which have no indicatory

a

c,

rarely

sibilant begins the

sTfT

+ lunati becomes iGTfT

n as the final of crude bases

dhanibhis,

the

t,

when any

insertion of IT between a final

often allowed to remain

before

'«T

then

s,

unchanged against the

°S

Wl; and some

beginning with consonants: thus

being

augment

of 7Trp!T, ‘a good reckoner,’

n, before TT j or flTjA,

but in practice

^T

in later Sanskrit these insertions are not usual.

pakshdn

clips the wings;’ see 7. a.

tlJTt

augment

placed over the

is

c?>TTf(T

-f-

M

+ $n:: mahan

H?rr?r

2clly,

ends a word, when the next begins with cZ

56. If

KHtflT

fri.

either TTT^ STTT (or

may be

Veda; but

in the

3!T

loc. pi.

optionally be aspirated.

common

M

s|7c:

are often left

may

n

Similarly, final

before TT

and TPT

I

thus

to ?T n;

*T?T>T

optionally insert an

next word. s.

W 31

as,

collects.’

originally the final of a

^

^CTTIT, TTT

a great hero

both cases, thus T^T'^T

in

in practice, both

Final sF

b.

a.

when

«T », x

Observe, that according to native authorities an

may

:

be combined in either of the two following ways:

written

may be changed a.

man

thus in classical Sanskrit combinations like d

:

n may be changed

rj

may be

surah

,

the peaceful

n ends a word, when the next begins with

the final

1 st,

»T

not amenable to this rule

is

kills.’

TTSTT>T

must not be written

sjrrrnr or rTTH

the

he

Rule 53 describes the only cases in which

54.

+



lianti,

word, can pass into Anusvara

»T

word,

root, or incomplete

ti is

Except, also, TT3T7H prasdn (nom. of prasam, see 179. a);

c. ‘

end of a

n at the

b.

thus

37

Also,

;

thus

when

a

+ T*P is

word ending

srfitT,

in

but is

the

+

king’s servant

;’

hi

AH

is

of the

rdjan

4-^r^T svdmin -+- artham— **4

i

^-indra=XT^^ like the master.’

last)

member

of

rdja-purusha, ‘the ‘

rajendra,

svdmyartham



Similarly, svdmin -j- vat=svdmivat,

(see

compound begins with a

rajan-\-purusha becomes

+

P

?W?T, see 654.

any but the

first (or

compound word, even though the next member

vowel: thus THTH-f-

tas

the chief of kings

;’

‘ ,

on account of the master.’

,

38

SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LETTERS. 58. If d n [not final

and having immediately

,

diphthong, or one of the consonants

one of the three cerebral

^

letters

«T

d

n,

after

in,

a simple vowel,

it

\y,\ v)

(short or long),

ri

r,

7;

same word [samana-pade), then d n must be changed

any

follows

sh, in the

it

to the cerebral

tU n,

even though a simple vowel or diphthong or any of the guttural

and

labial letters di k,

or any of the letters

d g,A jo, d h, (or their aspirates,) or Anusvara, z h, it y, d v, T n-, d in, either singly or combined

+ drrfd = fsprife dd + 37T = dddr(io7); j? + *rd==^rtir + R = srf^TT horned + ddir =

together or with any vowel, intervene:

+ RT = wit

(635); *

causing to grow ‘

fniMl'M

And d,

is

— In

M

dh

)

d

1, (viz.

or of 7Z

l

(, "Si

or of

ch,

IjFT

d j,

they do,’

s,

im-

t

p. 288.

p- 83, not first

^"TclPT.

four dental

d h, Z t,Z fh, Z d, Z dk, TU

n,

d t,

prevents the operation of this rule,

dddT

;

Even the intervention of a guttural or

‘epjrrV he shakes’ (694); (

as in

ddd

‘worship;’

‘abandoning;’

f^‘ casting

prevent this rule, as in



ri

he

satisfies

;’

UTdtfd ‘

cut’ (630);

;

In the Veda, however, H mPl

157).

some considered the more

may

palatal if conjunct with the d^ n

rijfll

is

P«i

found; and

h,



he obtains

in ;’

broken;’ THTfiTT,

fsjfCTT,

correct forms, see 541, 544.

the intervention of nasals, semivowels, or

ddd, and

TTiin

It is certain that

though conjunct with the d, do not

(157).

d w’s follow the letters causing the change, then the first alone becomes in ddd % unless the two d n s are conjunct, when they both become as in

If two

h. TIT,

ddfd,

Similarly,

di. jh,

s or of IT

d rHd )

some cases preclude any change,

ddTPT

like



playing;’ SUlIcid ‘by a jackal’ (149).



are by

word

a

;’

not so changed ; thus

as in 4r*ufd ‘roads’ (n. pi. of

d^dd



the intervention of any of the five palatal, cerebral, or

consonants at page

d th,

Sff^d

prevents the change.

word

final in a

'

a.

n,

(152);

;’

Observe

diffusive.’

mediately after

dn

fat

thus f^pt

as

TIT,

vishanna f (540).

P-4

c.

Even

in

compound words where dj,

compound, and

d

dj, d,

^

are in the first

second member, the change to

occurs in the

member

d may

of the

sometimes

take place (especially when the separate ideas inherent in each word are lost sight of in a single object denoted), and sometimes

words do not, so to speak, merge is

generally allowed, but even in these cases

rule.

The following

* Except a

word

t The whole

TdPdT

are a few examples

like

rule 58

ddldd?

d't d’.

thus expressed

guttural class ;

^

sfd.

;

When, however,

impossible to lay ‘

dd



RUT for

the

no change

down

the Ramayana,’

a precise

dnildd: an ‘

to breathe,’ with d.

two Sutras of Panini VIII.

The vowel

for the vowels, diphthongs, y,

for the labial

singly or combined.

it is

TTdPId

in the first

I

d? stands

included in T-

:

TTlfddrT redup. aorist of is

optional.

is

their individuality in a single object,

the preposition

ri is

r, v,

and h

dT

dd

;

4,

supposed to be ;

^

for the

for Anusvara,

;

CHANGES OE CONSONANTS. animal’ «1

1

heaven,’


S =hT

N»il^PT

4

a Rhinoceros’ or

a whip,' and ‘

HNHFHT

a plant



a goat,’ IsTTTO:

a mountain-stream,’ ’STT*J^T!i

the killer of a Brahman,’



d.

following

^T,

a mango-grove,’

the whole day.’

VU,

See Pan. VIII.



ffi

RT'HJT,

fbrt?T, TPP^Tf, HTtqTH)

An

provocation.’

If

59.

m

J7

(but

&c.

cerebralize a

a a

ip

%i

3

td

sp

/n|

=P

il

/m|

3|

d

a>

d

i

^ 3 ^ —

ip

I’

f>

f f ?

d3

f!

4

5P

a

3 p

a O'

O'

^Jo -4}

? p *

02

H o o 2 a

crq

as

p P

^

•a-

d r M

S

"e

-

d i d3

ill

a*

-2|

-2|

Tt>

rt

I

4

/*

/Ml

jj

a 3/ 3 d

P"

P

02

3 .

iP

|

1

iP

**?

/

JJ

JJ

d>

d>

a £j

ip

ip

s

i

3

P_

5 H S 3 a

3=

3

p-

ta

S»,

a

a

rt>

3

r M

as

3?

% /H

0-3

Af

f i

,?

4

ip ip

=J

^

a-

a

ss

2.

'H aH 3.

«

a 3 O

d W H as

ta

d r H

ax //H

MM

3| n.

p crq

P-

O

^ a r B. o'

-*

§*

P P

&

I “

s

IP

d

03

3

©N

P2

p.

P

go

P.

^

sa

d r H

a 3

53

a -$

O ^ £D

'A

^ 35

S

2

s'

rr>

3?

G 2

44

SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LETTERS. There

67.

c

tniH eshas,

and THR or soft

(220, 223), drop the

H

as,



esha patati,

63. a, are observed

he himself.’

may

remarkable agreement

why

that the reason

a.

With

final s

is



But

fill

ille, iste, ipse,

ifa: for

sa dispenses with the termination s

is,

regard to the second rule, there

may be dropped

A

considers

that this termination

as, ft ft

;

harili



hari skandati,

when an

tsarum grihnati,

nouns and

rules are



Hari grasps the

by

hilt of (his)

Similarly,

dakshus

by

and

HHH + 'STTHTfiT

64,

Observe ish

TU

as, *-ftt

s,

as the final of the

but they come equally into operation in

+ ikshate

as,

and ~3'&us:

is,

becomes

dakshur ikshate,

ush,

which

is

= mano jdndti, ‘the jTH = HHTfHTT manobhis, by minds.’

manas -\-jdndti

manas +bhis

—All nouns ending

and

compounded

dakshus-\-bhis=^"Ztffa( dakshurbhis, ‘by eyes.’

mind knows ;’ and

in

is

t

sword.’

most frequently applicable to

inflections of verbs;

65,

‘the eye sees;’

in

^T

I



and

is

frl

us

may be regarded

as ending

the form they necessarily assume in declension

before the terminations beginning with vowels (see 70, and compare 41. b ) (akshus-\-d becomes

cakshushd, ‘by the eye;’

sonants they must be treated as ending in the dental sibilant. s at

69.

the end of the

first

member

of the guttural or labial classes f^i k,

more usually

FTtHT

+ + ^TT

tejas

or their aspirates),

+

or

becomes

+ krita

divas -\-pati a.

H p,

U

kora,

either

becomes

THH-dA

'RT?’c^iiT

beginning with

^

v

and

H

See 165.

may

follow 63, but

according to 70

fTSTl'^ilL

prdduslikrita,

final

bhds+vara—VfYtSXbhdsvara, ‘radiant;’ and ‘

sh,

possessing flame.’

H

.5

is

:

thus

‘causing light;’

‘made

manifest;’

usually retained before

m, passing sometimes into

thus TTjTTr+fiqH tejas+vin becomes

arCishmat,

thus

= f^Fqfw‘ the lord of day.’

Again, in opposition to 64 and 65, a

affixes

:

but before con-

of a compound word, before hard letters

retained, passing sometimes into

prddus

initial

Hari goes.’ initial IT

substantives or adjectives, whose base or crude form ends in

is

is

In that case, the preceding

In that case, the preceding final s becomes Visarga;

The preceding

68.

cases of

a.

Compare

Bopp

an option allowed when an

is

rare exception to the first rule occurs,

frt

thus,

suit

ITR:.

0 for og.

for illus, istus, ipsus.

he 66,

sa eshah,

*T TJ'R:

up a verse or

observable here in the Greek

is

and

rules 64. a,

he also / to

tad



ga 66hati,

irarfw sa

compounded with another hard consonant.

with a sibilant.

H

Trtsfij so ’pi,

in*

derived from the pronoun sa.

sibilant

b.

pronouns

blend with a following vowel, as

also the Latin qui for quis,

itself

he does /

this (man) cooks.’

*

thus,

:



‘he/ and

sas,

:

any consonant, hard

final s before

Sometimes (but only

the metre) sa

A

sa karoti,

cfiftfir

goes /

and

exception to 6 2, 63, 64

this/ the nominative case masc. of the

citad

;

common

one

is

H sh,

according to 70

tejasvin, ‘full of light;’

+ RrT

ardis -j-rnat

:

HTH+TL

= ^Hf^ WHT

:;

45

CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. An augment

b.

is

inserted after TTW, in combination with

^ s, not final

70.

^

but

karo

+ si =

oftfafa

nfa bibharshi,

passes into

An





karoshi,

17

when preceded by any other vowel

sh

5

thou doest

+

thou bearest f

+ fa

fa*PC

;

vdk

TFT

bibhar

+ su = NT^T

+ si — fa-

vakshu,

change their

initials to

^

(or

rule, roots

in

iffaj),

and

then’ derivatives beginning with 17 will

wfa wfa,

after the prepositions

fa, fa,

Jlfa, ’TTfrT,

Tsfa ; thus wfafa5? from Ufa and fa 4, fa mil from fa and 73T

change may even be preserved though the augment with fa, ’TtunniT from

far^T

with

faV

and even

;

c.

Tire root TrTfa changes

d.

In a few roots the change

its initial

in the reduplication of

^NWIrT,

‘TTHirfaf).

W#iT.

to 71 after ^TT, as

optional, as

is

and the

;

a intervenes, as in "STfa^fW

the 2d pret., as 7HfarT¥T (but not always in either case, as

or



a.

fTffa, ^TOfa, ffatil

In accordance with this

from

deriva-

intervening Anusvara or Visarga does not prevent the operation of this

thus,

b.

its

{

See 69. and 69.

words.’

:

,

+

’Slffa

a.

and

^rr a ; also when preceded by the semivowel ^ r, or by oft k + ^ agni su becomes fafab agnishu, in fires cfifa + fa

a or

thus

rule

oji

&c.

tives, as in

wfa^i^fiT or Tjfa^^fa, ffalfairT

fa^tfa. e.

Even

affected

in

by

compounds the

initial s

name, ^rffal? ‘a frying-pan.’

So

f. In compounds formed with

changed g.

to a cerebral

The

of the 2d

member

rule 70, especially if a single object

(