A practical Chinese grammar
 9622015956

Citation preview

fi PRfiCTICfIL CHINESE GRfiMM6R Hung-nin Samuel Cheung in collaboration with Sze-yun Liu and Li-lin Shih

The Chinese University Press

C V S

© The Chinese University of Hong Kong 1994 All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from The Chinese University of Hong Kong ISBN 962-201-595-6 First edition 1994 Second printing 1996

THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Chinese University of Hong Kong SHA TIN, N.T., HONG KONG

Printed in Hong Kong by Nam Fung Printing Co., Ltd.

Contents

Introduction

X111

Lesson 1

1.

T h e A d je c tiv e as a V e rb

Lesson 2

^1. Q u e s tio n F o rm a tio n : T h e ^ —Q u e s tio n 2.

Q u e s tio n F o rm a tio n : T h e 呢一Q u e s tio n

3 •很 +

Lesson 3

A d je c tiv e

1 3 3 4

4. T h e A d v e rb 也

5

5. O m is s io n o f a S u b je c t

6

1. T h e N e g a tiv e Sentence

7

2. T h e A d v e rb 都

8

3. P ro n o u n s and T h e ir P lu ra l F o rm s

9

Lesson 4

1.

H o w to In tro d u c e a P e rson

11

Lesson 5

1.

T h e D e m o n s tra tiv e

13

2.

T h e Possessive C o n s tru c tio n

13

u 3. M o re on th e 吗—Q u e s tio n

14

Lesson 6

1.

Q u e s tio n F o rm a tio n : T h e U se o f an In te rro g a tiv e W o rd

17

Lesson 7

1.

T h e In te rro g a tiv e W o rd 什么

19

2. Lesson 8

Lesson 9

1.

T h e Im p e ra tiv e A n A c tio n Sentence

19 21

2. T h e P o lite R equest

22

3. T h e H o n o r ific P ro n o u n 您

22

4. H o w to A d d re s s a P erson

23

1. N a m in g in C hinese

25

2 •请问 “ M a y I a sk…”

26

Contents

vi

Lesson 10

Lesson 11

Lesson 12

Lesson 13

Lesson 14

Lesson 15

1. T h e V e rb 在

27

2. T h e L o c a tiv e

27

3. N u m e ra ls

28

4. T h e In te rro g a tiv e W o rd 多少

28

1. T h e D o u b le — O b je c t C o n s tru c tio n

31

2. T im e W o rd s

31

3. T h e T e n ta tiv e 一下儿

32

4. N u m e ra ls (c o n tin u e d )

33

1. T h e M o d ific a tio n

35

2. T h e M o tio n V e rb 去

35

3. T h e A d v e rb 常

36

4. T h e M u ltifu n c tio n a l 看

36

1. Q u e s tio n F o rm a tio n : T h e A ffir m a tiv e 一 N e g a tiv e Q u e s tio n

39

2. V e rb a l E x p re ssio n s in Series

42

3. P o s itio n in g o f A d v e rb s in a Sentence

44

4. T h e C o n ju n c tio n 和

46

5. A N o u n F u n c tio n in g as an A ttr ib u te

47

6. T h e U se o f 喂

48

7. H o w to A s k fo r S om eone’s N am e

48

8. T h e V e rb 介绍

48

1. T h e 有一Sentence

51

2. T h e P re p o s itio n a l C o n s tru c tio n

52

3. T h e A d v e rb 常 ( c o n tin u e d )

55

4. T h e R h e to ric a l Q u e s tio n

56

1. N u m b e rs

59

2. T h e M ea sure W o rd

59

3. T h e E x is te n c e 有

63

4. T h e D o u b le — O b je c t C o n s tru c tio n (c o n tin u e d )

64

5. T h e A d v e rb 还

66

I Contents I Lesson 16

Lesson 17

I Lesson 18

I Lesson 19

vii 1. T h e M e a su re W o rd (c o n tin u e d )

69

2. T h e N u m e ra l 两

71

3. T h e U se o f 的 in a 是 一Sentence

72

4. T h e L o c a tiv e C o n s tru c tio n

78

1. H o w to T e ll T im e

83

2. T h e T im e W o rd C o n s tru c tio n

86

3. V e rb a l E xp re ssio n s in Series (c o n tin u e d )

88

1. T h e U se o f 每 as a D e m o n s tra tiv e

93

2. T h e T im e W o rd 有时候

96

3. T h e A d je c tiv e 多

97

1. T h e A lte r n a tiv e Q u e s tio n

101

2. T h e P iv o ta l C o n s tru c tio n

105

3. A V e rb a l U n it F u n c tio n in g as an O b je c t

108

4. T h e P ro h ib itiv e 别



\ / 5 . T h e T a g Q u e s tio n Lesson 20

Lesson 21

Lesson 22

111 112

1. H o w to T e ll the D a te

115

2. H o w to In q u ire a b o u t S om eone’sA g e

123

3. T h e N o m in a l P re d ica te

124

4. T o p ic and C o m m e n t

125

5 . 知 道 v s . 认识

127

6. M o re on 以前 and 以后

129

7. H o w to M a k e an A p o lo g y and H o w to R espond to O ne

130

1. T h e R e la tiv e C lause C o n s tru c tio n

133

2. T h e A d je c tiv a l P re d ica te

138

3. T h e T ra n s itiv e Q u a lity V e rb

141

4. R e d u p lic a tio n o f V e rb s

143

5. T h e P a rtic le 吧

145

1. P o s itio n W o rd s 2. T h e L o c a tio n Sentence

147 150

Contents

V lil

3. T h e E x is te n c e Sentence

152

4. T h e Id e n tific a tio n Sentence

154

1. T h e P ro g re ssive A s p e c t

159

2. T h e P a rtic le 吧 ( c o n tin u e d )

166

3. P o s itio n W o rd s (c o n tin u e d )

167

4. R e d u p lic a tio n o f V e rb s (c o n tin u e d )

169

5. L e x ic a l D iffe re n tia tio n • 参 观 ,访 问 ,and 看

170

Lesson 24

1. T h e In d e fin ite M e a su re W o rd

173

Lesson 25

1. T h e C o m p le m e n t o f D egree

177

2. T h e A d v e rb 再

184

3. M o re on th e P a rtic le 呢

184

4. T h e H o n o r ific M e a su re ÍM

185

5. H o w to R espond to C o m p lim e n ts

186

1. T h e O p ta tiv e V e rb s

189

2. T h e A d v e rb 还 ( c o n tin u e d )

202

3. T h e C o n n e c to r 或者

204

4. T h e A d v e rb 就

205

5. A S p ecial N u m e ra l 俩

206

1. T h e P e rfe c tiv e 了

207

2. T h e A d v e rb 又

222

3. T h e C o lle c tiv e P ro n o u n 大家

224

4. T h e P re p o s itio n 为

225

1. T h e M o d a l P a rtic le 了

227

2. T h e M e a su re W o rd 双

237

1. T h e Im m in e n t A s p e c t

239

2. T h e O p ta tiv e 会

244

3. T h e P ro h ib itiv e 另1J (c o n tin u e d )

245

4. T h e S e n te n tia l P re d ic a te C o n s tru c tio n

248

Lesson 23

Lesson 26

Lesson 27

Lesson 28

Lesson 29

ix

Contents 5. A d je c tiv e —点儿

250

6. T h e C o n ju n c tio n 所以

250

1. T h e P re p o s itio n 离

253

2. T h e W o rd fo r “ S e lf ” :自己

255

1. T h e T im e — M e a su re C o m p le m e n t

257

2. A p p ro x im a te N u m b e r In d ic a to rs

265

3 •多 as a Q u e s tio n W o rd

270

4. T h e O rd in a l N u m b e r P re fix 第

271

5. P o in t o f T im e vs. P e rio d o f T im e

273

1 . 过 as an E x p e rie n c e M a rk e r

275

2. T h e A c tio n — M e a su re C o m p le m e n t

278

3. T h e T im e — M e a su re C o m p le m e n t

282

1. T h e N e w S itu a tio n 了

285

2. T h e S ubje ctless Sentence

293

3. M o re a b o u t th e W e a th e r T e rm s

296

4. M a rk e rs o f A d je c tiv a l C o m p a ris o n

299

5. T h e C o n s tru c tio n 从 ........到 ........

301

1. T h e C o n tin u o u s A s p e c t M a rk e r 着

303

2. T h e A d v e rb ia l M o d ifie r M a r k e r 地

310

3. T h e A t tr ib u t iv e 有的

315

Lesson 35

1. T h e A d v e rb 再 ( c o n tin u e d )

319

Lesson 36

1. D egrees o f C o m p a ris o n

321

2. C o u n tin g M o n e y

331

1. D egrees o f C o m p a ris o n (c o n tin u e d )

335

2. T h e Q u a n tity C o m p le m e n t

340

3. C o m p o u n d s o f A n to n y m s

344

4. T h e C o n ju n c tiv e E x p re s s io n 要不

345

Lesson 30

Lesson 31

Lesson 32

Lesson 33

Lesson 34

Lesson 37

ll ỉiii

Contents

Lesson 38

Lesson 39

Lesson 40

Lesson 41

Lesson 42

Lesson 43

5. M o re on th e U se o f 还是

346

6. T h e S e qu e ntia l U se o f 上 and 下

347

1. T h e R e s u lta tiv e C o m p le m e n ts

351

2. T h e A d v e rb 刚

360

3. T h e D ire c tio n a l 往 ,

361

4 T h e In te rro g a tiv e W o rd 怎么

362

1. T h e R e s u lta tiv e C o m p le m e n t (c o n tin u e d )

365

2. T h e L o c a tiv e C o m p le m e n t

367

3. Sentence C o n jo in in g

371

4. T h e P re p o s itio n 对

375 1

1. A d je c tiv e —极了

379

2. H o w to Read a F ra c tio n

379

1. T h e S im p le D ire c tio n a l C o m p le m e n t

381

2. T h e D e s tin a tio n E x p re s s io n w ith 到

387

3. R e d u p lic a tio n o f A d je c tiv e s

388

4. T h e C o n d itio n a l Sentence

391

5. T h e D iffe re n c e s b etw e e n 就 and 才

393

1. T h e P o te n tia l C o m p le m e n t

397

2. Id io m a tic P o te n tia l C o m p le m e n t E x p re ssio n s

407

3 . 开 as a R e s u lta tiv e C o m p le m e n t

411

4. N u m b e rs (c o n tin u e d )

412

5. T h e U se o f 这么

414

6. T h e U se o f 对

415

1. T h e C o m p le x D ire c tio n a l C o m p le m e n t

417

2. T h e R h e to ric a l Q u e s tio n (c o n tin u e d )

425

3. T h e C o n s tru c tio n 又 ........又 ........

427

4 . 有点儿 A d je c tiv e

4281

5. T w o D iffe re n t Uses o f 另1J

430 ■

6. A S pecial U se o f 来

4321

xi

i Contents

í

Lesson 44

i Lesson 45

ļ Lesson 46

1

Lesson 47

1 Lesson 48

1 Lesson 49

Lesson 50

Epilogue

1. T h e C o n s tru c tio n 是 ........的

433

2. T h e E x iste n ce Sentence (c o n tin u e d )

442

3. T h e E x c la m a to ry P a tte rn

445

4. T h e C o n d itio n a l Sentence (c o n tin u e d )

446

5. S pecial T im e E xp re ssio n s

447

1. T h e P o te n tia l C o m p le m e n t (c o n tin u e d )

449

2 . 后 来 v s . 以后

450

3. A n o th e r U se o f th e A d v e rb 又

451

1. T h e 把一C o n s tru c tio n

453

2 . 上 as a R e s u lta tiv e C o m p le m e n t

462

1. S p ecial T y p e s o f th e 把一C o n s tru c tio n

465

2. T h e C o n s tru c tio n 除了 ........ 以外

469

1. T h e Passive Sentence

473

2. T h e U se o f th e In te rro g a tiv e fo r In d e fin ite R eference

476

3. T h e C o n s tru c tio n 因为 ........所以 ........

480

4. T h e A ll- In c lu s iv e 全

482

5. T h e A s s e rtiv e P a rtic le 的

484

1. T h e Passive Sentence (c o n tin u e d )

485

2. T h e C o n s tru c tio n 不但 ........而且 ........

494

3. T h e E m p h a tic M a r k e r 连

496

4. T h e C o m p le m e n t o f E x te n t

498

1. N u m e ra l A p p ro x im a te s

501

2. R e d u p lic a tio n o f th e M e a su re W o rd

502



505

References

507

Index

509

Introduction

Ever since th e e a rly 1970s w h e n th e re -e sta b lis h m e n t o f S in o -U S re la tio n s g en er­ ated a s u rg in g in te re s t in th e s tu d y o f th e C hinese language, th e re has been an in ­ creasing dem and fo r te a ch in g m a te ria ls co m p ile d in C hin a. T h e v a rio u s series published by the B e ijin g L a n g u a g e In s titu te , w h e n co m p ared to te x ts issued overseas and especially those c o m p ile d in th e U n ite d States, are m o s t successful in a c c u ra te ly representing c u rre n t lan gu ag e use in m a in la n d C hin a. T h e ir 1981 p u b lic a tio n en­ titled Practical Chinese Reader has been re p rin te d tw ic e and rem ains th e p rim a ry choice fo r a b e g in n in g te x t a m o ng A m e ric a n colleges th a t o ffe r C hinese language training. L in g u is tic c u rre n c y and c u ltu ra l releva n ce n o tw ith s ta n d in g , one m a jo r drawback o f a ll th e B e ijin g L a n g u a g e In s titu te series is th e ina de qu a cy o f g ra m ­ matical e xplan atio n s. A s n ote d in th e in tro d u c tio n to Practical Chinese Reader (PCR), the g ra m m a r se ction in each lesson aim s a t in tro d u c in g m a jo r g ra m m a tic a l points, w ith o u t a tte m p tin g a co m p re h e n sive analysis. T h e discussions co n ce n tra te primarily on fe a tu re s w h ic h are c h a ra c te ris tic o f th e C hinese language and w h ic h may pose d if fic u lty fo r fo re ig n students. H o w e v e r, because g ra m m a tic a l p a rtic u la rs are broken d o w n b it b y b it th ro u g h o u t th e lessons and presented in a so m e w h a t illogical fa shio n, th e re s u lt is a d is a p p o in tin g ly in s u ffic ie n t g ra m m a r co m p on en t, at times fra g m e n ta ry o r even c o n fu sin g . A s is a lw a y s th e case, e v e ry te ach er has his or her o w n p h ilo s o p h y a b o u t g ra m m a r and h o w it sh o u ld be ta u g h t M a n y are ready to im p ro v is e a nsw ers d e riv e d fr o m th e ir lin g u is tic experiences w h e n a c c o u n t­ ing for w h y th e lan g u a g e behaves in a c e rta in m anner. Y e t, d espite such w illin g and ready e ffo rt to su p p le m e n t w h a t te x tb o o k s p ro v id e fo r g ra m m a tic a l e x p la n a tio n , many o f

US

in th e fie ld had hoped th a t th e B e ijin g L a n g u a g e In s titu te w o u ld p u b ­

lish a gram m ar, w h ic h w e w o u ld re a d ily use as a PC R reference. H o w e v e r, no such reference has been p ro du ced . In fa ct, co m p ared w ith o th e r languages, C hinese has suffered fro m

an u n fo rtu n a te la c k o f a d e q u a te ly pre pa re d g ra m m a r h a n d b o o k s

which we, teachers and stu de nts a lik e , co u ld c o n s u lt fo r d e ta ile d and sys te m a tic de­ scriptions o f sentence p a tte rn s and fu n c tio n a l w ords. In F a ll 1986 w h e n I assum ed re s p o n s ib ility fo r th e fir s t y e a r C hinese lan gu ag e program at B e rk e le y , I fe lt firs th a n d , and w ith m o u n tin g a n x ie ty , th e need fo r a grammar h a n d b o o k designed fo r b e g in n in g C hinese students. D u rin g th e fo llo w in g year, w ith the h e lp o f M rs . L iu S ze yun and M rs . S h ih L ilin , b o th v e te ra n in s tru c to rs

xiv

Introduction

in th e p ro g ra m , I began c o m p ilin g g ra m m a r notes to su p p le m e n t th e fir s t tw o vo lu m e s o f PCR, th e core te x t in o u r c u rric u lu m . T h e d iv is o n o f la b o r w as lik e this. M rs. L iu and M rs . S h ih to o k tu rn s g a th e rin g th e p re lim in a ry notes and examples, on th e basis o f w h ic h I w ro te th e discussions and added m ore exam ples. A f t e r the g ra m m a r w as c irc u la te d a m ong th e te a c h in g team m em bers, th e ir re m a rk s and sug­ gestions w ere in c o rp o ra te d in to th e notes w h ic h I th e n e xpanded to b o o k length. T h is g ra m m a r, e n title d Practical Chinese Reader : A Grammar Companion, w as fo r­ m a lly a dopted in F a ll 1988 as a re q u ire d te x t. A d d itio n a l changes and m o d ific a tio n s have been m ade in th e course o f its use. A s w e o rig in a lly scheduled o u r fir s t year sylla b u s to c o v e r fo rty -s e v e n o f th e f i f t y lessons in PCRy th a t g ra m m a r w as three lessons s h o rte r th a n th e te x tb o o k . I d evo ted m y sa bb atica l in S p rin g

1991 to

a n o th e r ro u n d o f re v is io n s and w ro te th e la s t th re e lessons. Because th e g ra m m a r w as in itia lly in te n d e d to be a h a n d b o o k fo r stu d e n ts us­ in g PC R as th e ir p rin c ip a l te x tb o o k , th e g ra m m a tic a l p a tte rn s have been arranged in th e o rd e r in w h ic h th e y appear in PCR. S am ple sentences, g iv e n in b o th s im p li­ fie d H a n zi

and

w pinyin, are co n s tru c te d u sin g th e n e w v o c a b u la ry o f the

lessons so as to serve as an a d d itio n a l re v ie w o f n e w w o rd s and ch aracte rs f o ī PCR readers. H o w e v e r, as m o s t lan gu ag e te x ts fo llo w a p p ro x im a te ly th e same set of g ra m m a r rules in a s im ila r o rd e r o f p re se n ta tio n , th e Grammar m a y in fa c t serve as a refe ren ce fo r those w h o are fo llo w in g o th e r te x tb o o k s . In s o fa r as o u r discussions e xam ine th e s tru c tu ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s o f th e lan gu ag e in d e ta il and in c lu d e ample illu s tra tio n s o f b o th g en eral and id io s y n c ra tic usages, th e w o r k m a y also be read on its o w n as an in tro d u c tio n to C hinese g ra m m a r fo r b e g in n in g lan gu ag e students. H ence, to b e tte r re p re se n t its m a n y fu n c tio n s , th e b o o k has n o w been re -title d A

Practical Chinese Grammar. H o w e v e r, because o f th e associatio n w ith PC R in th e fo rm a t and sequence in w h ic h g ra m m a r is in tro d u c e d , w e are som etim es lim ite d in o u r e ffo r t to p ursue an issue to its fu lle s t e xte n t. F o r exam ple , a lth o u g h w e are n o t s a tis fie d w ith th e treat­

T

le in PCR, w e have fo llo w e d th e o rd e r in w h ic h it is in tro d u c e d in the b oo k, th e p e rfe c tiv e T in Lesson 27 and th e n e w s itu a tio n 了 in Lesson 33. Such an a rra n g e m e n t m akes e x p la n a tio n o f th e tw o 了’s in Lessons 28 and 31 o r th e use I o f th e se nte nce —了 in th e p a tte rn o f im m in e n c e 要 ........ T in Lesson 29 a most m ent o f

d if fic u lt challenge. In places w h e re w e deem i t a b s o lu te ly necessary, w e have made m o d ific a tio n s , som etim es e x te n s iv e ly , b y in tro d u c in g in fo rm a tio n ahead o f th e PCR schedule so as to e lu c id a te th e discussion th a t fo llo w s . Such d ig re ssio n s are o f1 course co nd ucte d w ith c a u tio n , m in im iz in g a n y d is ru p tio n o f th e re g u la r P C R sylla­ bus. A s th e in te n t o f th is c o m p ila tio n is to p ro v id e a fir m grasp o f g ra m m a r upon w h ic h stu d e n t can d e v e lo p a co m p e te n t co m m an d o f th e language, w e have ex­ am ined each p a tte rn in d e p th , d e s c rib in g ra m ific a tio n s th a t go b e y o n d w h a t is re-: q u ire d fo r a fir s t y e a r te x tb o o k . T e a ch e rs m a y choose to a b rid g e th e in fo rm a tio n to

Introduction

XV

'suit in s tru c tio n a l needs and design. I t is a w e ll-k n o w n b u t u n fo rtu n a te fa c t th a t very fe w advanced C hinese te x tb o o k s p ay adequate a tte n tio n to g ra m m a r. F o r e x ­ ample, a lth o u g h th e fir s t tw o PC R vo lu m e s pre sen t f i f t y lessons each o f w h ic h con;tains a se ction on g ra m m a r, th e fo rm a t o f th e n e x t tw o vo lu m e s changes, g iv in g I only e x p la n a to ry notes o f g ra m m a tic a l in fo rm a tio n in th e c o n te x t o f w o rd s and phrases. T o m o st te x tb o o k w rite rs and lan gu ag e teachers, g ra m m a r fa lls u n d e r the charge o f th e b e g in n in g le ve l in s tru c tio n , a p h ilo s o p h y w ith w h ic h I do n o t neces­ sarily agree. M y p erson al v ie w on th is m a tte r is to a d o p t a c y c lic a l fo rm a t o f in tro , duction, re p e a tin g a ll th e m a jo r g ra m m a tic a l p a tte rn s o v e r a th re e -y e a r p e rio d , w ith I increasing s o p h is tic a tio n in b o th s ty le and usage. F o r e xam ple, th e p a tte rn 是 ........ I 的 w hich em braces th e V e r b —O b je c t p re d ica te

(是

v —o

in which th e O b je c t is m ove d to th e end o f th e sentence

的 ) has a v a ria n t fo rm (是 V 的 o ) • In th e ■PCI?

text, the tw o fo rm s are s im u lta n e o u s ly in tro d u c e d in Lesson 44. G ra n te d th a t the postponement w o u ld n o t n ece ssarily pose a n y g re a t ch a lle n g e to students w h o , b y this time, have a lre a d y w itn e sse d a ll sorts o f s y n ta c tic m ove m e nts, is it re a lly neces­ sary or fe asib le to teach th e m o d ifie d p a tte rn a t th e tim e w h e n stu de nts m a y s till have problem s in d is tin g u is h in g th e use o f

T

fro m th a t o f 是 ........的 ?T h e fa c t

that the v a ria n t fo rm ca rrie s its o w n g ra m m a tic a l re s tric tio n s (e.g. th e O b je c t ca n n o t be a p ro no un ) req u ire s m e m o riz a tio n o f m o re rules, th e re b y d e la y in g o r even d e te r­ ring the a c q u is itio n process. I w o u ld p re fe r to pre sen t o n ly th e basic 是 ........ 的 p a t­ tern in a b e g in n in g te x t and re in tro d u c e i t a t th e in te rm e d ia te le v e l to g e th e r w ith its stylistic v a ria tio n . S u ch a fo rm a t o f in c re m e n ta l re p e titio n n o t o n ly p ro v id e s a sys­ tematic re v ie w o f g ra m m a r a t each le ve l o f le a rn in g , b u t also re d is trib u te s th e g ra m ­ matical load in to a ll levels, a llo tin g m o re tim e to a c c o m p lis h a s o lid fo u n d a tio n . T o correct the lo p sid e d em phasis o f p u ttin g a ll g ra m m a r in to th e b e g in n in g class, th e syllabus m u st be red esig ne d so th a t stu de nts a cquire, a t a c a re fu lly -m e a s u re d pace, an e ve r-g ro w ing

k n o w le d g e

and

a p p re c ia tio n

o f th e

lin g u is tic

c o m p le x itie s

of

Chinese. H o w e v e r, w ith in th e p re sen t fra m e w o rk , w e have hoped to p ro d u ce a grammar th a t is designed fo r b e g in n e rs and w h ic h also co n ta in s in fo rm a tio n p e r­ taining to a h ig h e r le v e l o f u n d e rsta n d in g . T h e re fo re , a t tim e s w h e n th e discussion goes beyond th e co n fin e s o f a fir s t y e a r te x tb o o k , it is in a n tic ip a tio n o f w h a t s tu ­ dents w ill need in th e ir subsequent lin g u is tic p u rs u it. The Grammar is p re pa re d fo r p e d a g o g ica l use. A n d , as such, it is b o th d e s c rip ­ tive and p re s c rip tiv e b y design. I t a tte m p ts to d escribe lin g u is tic p henom ena in an admittedly sim p le fa sh io n , o fte n re p re s e n tin g co m p le x b e h a v io rs w ith a fe w p a t­ terns and parad igm s. W e are f u lly a w a re o f th e v e rs a tile n a tu re o f th e lan gu ag e and the inadequacy o f a n y set o f lin g u is tic ru le s to ca ptu re a ll s y n ta c tic fe a tu re s and en­ compass the fu ll scope o f g ra m m a tic a l and p ra g m a tic a p p lic a tio n s . In fa c t, th e m ore we study and teach th e lan gu ag e , th e m o re w e rea lize h o w little w e k n o w . In class, when a teacher is s h o rt o f e x p la n a tio n , he o r she o fte n gets o u t o f th e em barrass-

xví

Introduction

m e n t b y re s o rtin g to th ose a ll to o fa m ilia r fo rm u la ic in c a n ta tio n s su ch as “ T h a t’s th e w a y w e say it , ’,o r “ T h a t d oesn’t sound r ig h t to a n a tiv e ear.” In sp ite o f the s e lf-ju s tify in g v o ic e o f a u th o rity , w e a ll k n o w deep d o w n th a t th e re sh o u ld be better and m ore lo g ic a l reasons to a c co u n t fo r a ll th e d o ’s and d o n ’ts in th e language. Yet, w e also rea lize th a t th e process o f s e archin g fo r a c o n c lu s iv e and com prehensive a nsw er is lo n g and fo rm id a b le . R egardless o f o u r in te re s t in th e o re tic a l lin g u is tic s or in second lan gu ag e a c q u is itio n , we' are c o n fro n te d w ith th e same ta s k o f describing and e x p la in in g th e m a n y and o fte n s e e m in g ly ano m a lou s p henom ena in th e lan­ guage. T h is g ra m m a r in tro d u c e s some o f th e o bs e rv a tio n s w e have m ade in our a tte m p t to o ffe r b e g in ne rs a syste m a tic a ccou nt o f th e C hinese language. T h e book has p ro v e n q u ite successful w ith o u r stu de nts a t B e rk e le y , and w e hope o th e r read­ ers w ill fin d it ju s t as re w a rd in g . I t is w ritte n fo r an audience in th e fie ld o f lan­ guage te a ch in g , b u t w e are sure th a t m a n y o f th e c o n tro v e rs ia l issues addressed and the ric h c o lle c tio n o f sam ple sentences cite d, in c lu d in g exam ples o f u n g ra m m a tic a l usages, w ill be o f g re a t in te re s t to stu d e n ts o f lin g u is tic s . F o r th e c o m p ila tio n o f th e Grammar, I w o u ld fir s t lik e to th a n k M rs . L iu and M rs . S h ih fo r th e ir c o lla b o ra tio n o n th is p ro je c t. T h e ir a dvice and s u p p o rt have al­ w a ys been a source o f in s p ira tio n in e v e ry phase o f th e w r itin g and re v is io n o f this b oo k. T h e y have also been th e v ita l w o r k fo rc e in th e o p e ra tio n o f o u r fir s t year language p ro g ra m a t B e rk e le y . U n t il h e r re tire m e n t in N o v e m b e r 1992, M rs . Shih w as th e person w e a lw a y s tu rn e d to fo r g u id a n ce in m a tte rs p e rta in in g to language in s tru c tio n . She is m e th o d ic a l and m e tic u lo u s , even in e n fo rc in g th e tra n s c rip tio n ru le o f re m o v in g th e d o t on th e v o w e l sists on p ro d u c in g o n ly th e m o s t

w h e n th e to n e m a rk sits u p o n it. She in ­ Ue x q u is ite >,sentences. A s she r ig h t ly claims,

sam ple sentences serve n o t o n ly to illu s tra te g ra m m a tic a l p a tte rn s b u t also to create and in s till a sense o f b e a u ty, rh y th m and h u m o r. W e have d ilig e n tly a b ide d b y this p rin c ip le o f 优美 in o u r c o n s tru c tio n and se le ction o f exam ples. M rs . L iu began her te a ch in g career a t C o lu m b ia and has been on th e B e rk e le y fa c u lty since th e m id ­ seventies. She stresses c u ltu ra l o rie n ta tio n and p ra g m a tic a p p lic a tio n in language te ach ing . M a n y o f th e d iscussions in th is g ra m m a r sh o u ld indeed be c re d ite d to her astute o bse rva tio n s. S p e c ific a lly , to p ic s such as th e fo llo w in g w ere fir s t n o te d by

有 and 在 in te rm s o f o w n e rs h ip and tem por-1 我有你的书 “ I have y o u r b o o k ----- I o w n a c o p y o f y o u r b o o k ” I and 你的书在我这儿 “ I have y o u r b o o k ----- y o u r b o o k is here w ith m e ” (Lesson 1 6 ) ; th e c o n tra s t b etw e e n th e p ro g re s s iv e p a tte rn s “在 V e r b — O b je c t 呢 ” and “正

M rs . L i u :

th e d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n

a ry h o ld in g as in

V e r b —O b je c t

in h ig h lig h tin g h o w tw o action s are v ie w e d in te rm s o f th e ir in ­

te ra c tio n o r la c k o f it ( Lesson 2 3 ) ; th e

d iffe re n tia tio n

b e tw e e n



and

tb as

illu s tra te d in th e “ ty p e w r itin g ” scenario : 你 会 打 字 吗 ? v s . 你 一 分 钟 能 打 多 少 个 I 字 ? ( Lesson 2 6 ) ; th e te n d a n c y fo r th e 有 一c o m p a ris o n to be used m o re in the in te rro g a tiv e fo rm th a n in a p o s itiv e sta te m e n t : 我 有 你 _ 吗 ? (L e s s o n 3 6 ) , etc.

xvii

] Introduction

Mrs. L iu a lw a y s keeps h e rs e lf abreast o f th e latest research in second lan gu ag e in ­ struction and its im p lic a tio n s fo r and a p p lic a tio n to C hinese. R e c e n tly she has c o m ­ piled a set o f exercises, e n title d Situational Exercises ( in 39 lessons), to accom pa ny

. Practical Chinese Reader. T h e w o rk b o o k co n ta in s a v a rie ty o f c h a lle n g in g exercises I designed to p ra c tic e p a tte rn s and v o c a b u la ry in c o n te x ts th a t c lo se ly sim u la te real life experiences. I w a n t to th a n k a ll th e te a c h in g assistants w h o have c o n trib u te d to th e p ro je c t by e x p e rim e n tin g

w ith

j alphabetical o rd e r, K im

th e

They

are, in

Besio, L u c y B o ro ta , G u o Jiansheng, Jean K im ,

g ra m m a r notes in

th e ir in s tru c tio n .

S abina

Knight, Jo hn K o w a lls , L in e tte Lee, L iu L i, Sang T ze -la n , T s a o C h ih -lie n , G io v a n n i I Vitiello, Jason C h ia -c h i W a n g , Y a n g C h in g -fe n , Y a n g Y in g , Y a o D a -ju n ,

and

Grammar are

Zhang Jie. M a n y o f th e fu n exam ples and d ia log ue s in c lu d e d in th is

in fact th e ir co m p o sitio n s. I w is h to a ck n o w le d g e K im Besio, A n d re a

G o ld m a n ,

' Luo Shaodan and L in d a G. W a n g fo r th e ir m e tic u lo u s e ffo rts in p ro o fre a d in g the I manuscript and C h ris to p h e r L a u g h ru n fo r h is assistance in p re p a rin g th e In d e x . In i particular, I am in d e b te d to M a r jo r ie F le tc h e r, w h o k in d ly read the script w ith care and m ade m a n y in v a lu a b le e d ito ria l changes and

e n tire m a n u ­ suggestions. I

want to th a n k Y a o Y a o fo r ty p in g th e fir s t d ra ft o f the fir s t 47 Lessons u sin g the ! Tianma c o m p u te r p ro g ra m , a p ro je c t w h ic h th e D e p a rtm e n t o f E a st A s ia n L a n ­ guages g e n e ro u sly fu n d e d . I am g ra te fu l to M s. C e c ilia C hu , o u r second

ye a r in ­

structor, fo r g e n e ro u s ly s h a rin g w ith m e h e r co m m en ts on th e la s t th re e

lessons

and her m a n y sam ple sentences w h ic h I have used fo r lessons 48 and 49. I am also thankful to D r. N in g p in g C ha n fo r c o m m e n tin g on an e a rlie r v e rs io n o f th e Gram­ mar and to M s. Y in g Y a n g fo r p o in tin g o u t som e o f th e e rro rs in th e m a n u s c rip t. The entire p ro je c t w as indeed a c o lla b o ra tiv e e ffo rt o f m a n y hands. B u t, above a ll Ị this Grammar w as sp u rre d b y th e needs o f th e stu de nts and it w as u p o n th e ir reļ

commendation th a t w e fin a lly s o u g h t p u b lic a tio n . F in a lly , I w a n t to

express m y

gratitude to m y teacher, P ro fe sso r K u n C ha ng , w h o once said, uT h e re is less th a n three-tenths o f th e lan gu ag e w e can c la im to have some k n o w le d g e about. Be sure not to b lo w these th re e -te n th s o r to b lu ff o n th e o th e r seven-tenths.” T o th is date, these w ords re m a in m y m o tto in lan g u a g e te ach ing . I t goes w ith o u t s a y in g th a t, as primary a u th o r, I re m a in s o le ly resp o n sib le fo r a n y e rro rs and s h o rtc o m in g s in the

Grammar. C o m m e n ts and c ritic is m s are e a g e rly so lic ite d . A s e rro r-m a k in g is c ru c ia l to language le a rn in g , y o u r re m a rk s and su gg estio ns w ill be im p o rta n t in o u r e ffo rt to revise and im p ro v e th e te xt. C H E U N G , H u n g -n in Sam uel U n iv e rs ity o f C a lifo rn ia , B e rk e le y June 15, 1994

Lesson 1

1. The Adjective as a Verb The fo llo w in g d ia lo g u e 1 represents one o f th e m o s t c o m m o n w a y s o f e x c h a n g in g greetings in C hinese. T h o u g h c o n ta in in g tw o s h o rt sentences, th e d ia lo g u e in tr o ­ duces a sim p le b u t v e ry im p o rta n t g ra m m a tic a l fe a tu re o f th e C hinese language, namely, an a d je c tiv e behaves lik e a verb.

帕 兰 卡 : 古 波 ,你 好 ! P a lan ka:

G ủ bõ , n ĩ hăo! H o w are yo u , Gubo? ( = H e llo , G u bo .)

古波:

你 好 ,帕 兰 卡 !

G ubo:

N ỉ hảo, P à lán kả! H o w are yo u , Palanka? ( = H e llo , P a lan ka.)

The literal tra n s la tio n o f th e e xpressio n 你好 n ĩ hảo is uy 〇u ^ noun 你 “ y o u ” is p la ced d ire c tly b e fo re th e a d je c tiv e

0,^ w h e re th e p ro ­

好 “ fin e .” T a rz a n m a y say

“You fin e,” to Jane, b u t, in p ro p e r E n g lis h , a v e r b - t o - b e is re q u ire d b etw e e n a subject and its a d je c tiv a l p re dica te. T h u s , “ Y o u are fin e .” Such a re q u ire m e n t is, however, absent in th e C hinese language. A C hinese a d je c tiv e m a y appear a ll b y i t ­ self as a p re d ica te w ith o u t an in te rv e n in g v e rb - to - be. In th is re g a rd , i t behaves very much lik e a ve rb , w h ic h u s u a lly fo rm s th e core o f a predicate. Som e g ra m m a ­ rians refer to a d je ctive s in C hin ese as q u a lity ve rb s o r s ta tiv e verbs. H ence, th e fir s t rule to learn in C hin ese g ra m m a r is th a t adjectives are verbs. U s u a lly th e y are n o t accompanied b y a v e r b - to - b e in predicates.

.

1. Cited from Practical Chinese Reader, Vol. 1, Lesson 1.

Lesson 2

1. Question Formation: The 吗一Question A Chinese sentence g e n e ra lly consists o f a s u b je c t and a pre dica te, th e la tte r o f which, as n oted in th e la st lesson, m a y be ju s t an adjective .

Sentence

=

S u b je ct

+

P re dicate

To turn a sentence in to a q ue stion , w e m a y s im p ly a tta c h a p a rtic le

ma to the

end of the sequence w ith o u t in v o lv in g a change in w o rd o rd e r as re q u ire d b y th e English language.

A ffir m a tiv e —♦ In te rro g a tiv e

(1 )

[ S u b je c t + P re d ica te ]

- ♦ [ S u b je c t+ P re d ic a te ] + 吗 ?

你好。

你好吗?

N ĩ hảo.

N ĩ hăo ma?

Y o u are fin e .

A r e y o u fine?

( — H e llo .)

( = H o w are you?)

The sentence 你 好 吗 ? represents, th e re fo re , n o t o n ly an id io m a tic e xpressio n o f greeting in M a n d a rin b u t also a fo rm a t fo r q u e stio n fo rm a tio n in th e C hinese la n ­ guage.

2. Question Formation: The 呢一Question The second w a y o f a s k in g a q u e stio n in C hinese is th ro u g h th e use o f th e in te rro g a ­ tive particle

ne. T h e p a rtic le in d ica te s n o t o n ly an in te rro g a tio n b u t also th a t the

question its e lf is re la te d to p re ce d in g statem ents a n d /o r questions. T h e re fo re , one

4

A Practical Chinese Grammar

does n o t s ta rt o ff a d ia lo g u e b y u sin g a 呢一question.

O n ly w h e n som e s o rt o f a

ve rb a l c o n te x t has a lre a d y been e stablished in th e co n v e rs a tio n does one b e g in to use th e 呢一fo rm o f in te rro g a tio n . F o r exam ple , in th e fo llo w in g d ia lo g u e quoted fro m Lesson 2 in Practical Chinese Reader, P a la n ka m a y use ữ Jễ to fo rm h e r ques­ tio n , w h ic h is re la te d to G u b 〇Js in q u iry . B u t G u b o m a y n o t use

in h is in q u ir y be­

cause th a t is th e v e ry fir s t sentence in th e co nve rsa tion . (1)

古波:

你好吗?

G ubo:

N ĩ hảo ma? H o w are you?

帕 兰 卡 : 我 很 好 ,你 呢 ? P alanka:

w ỏ hèn hăo, n ĩ ne? I ’m fin e , and h o w a b o u t y o u

古波:

也很好。

G ubo:

Y ẽ hen hăo. I ’m also fin e.

A s d e m o n stra te d in P a la n k a ’s q u e s tio n ,呢 is o fte n atta che d to th e end o f a n o u n or p ro n o u n , w ith th e m e a n in g o f “ H o w a b o u t X ? ” T h e fo llo w in g is a n o th e r exam ple. (2 )

古 波 很 好 。帕兰ỷ 呢 ? G ũ b ỏ hẽn hảo. P à lá n kă ne? G u b o is fin e . H o w a b o u t Palanka?

3•很 + Adjective A s n ote d in th e p re v io u s lesson, an a d je c tiv e in C hinese can be used as a fu ll predi­ cate a ll b y its e lf w ith o u t th e h e lp o f a v e rb -to -b e .

In fa c t, it is g ra m m a tic a lly

in c o rre c t to p u t such a v e rb in an a d je c tiv a l sentence. ( Y o u m a y be w o n d e rin g what e x a c tly is th is ve rb -to -b e in C hinese. T h e v e rb w ill be in tro d u c e d in a la te r les­ son, and, u n til th en , y o u d o n ^ have to w o r r y a b o u t m a k in g such an e rro r.) H o w e v­

especially in an affirm ative sentence, w ith th e a d v e rb ÍS hen, w h ic h lite r a lly m eans , m a y be used e ith e r a ttr ib u tiv e ly o r predicatively, i.e. i t can stand b e fo re a n o u n as its m o d ifie r o r i t m a y c o n s titu te a p re d i­ cate a ll b y its e lf. T h e fo llo w in g is an e xa m p le o f its p re d ic a tiv e use: (1 )

他 的 书 很 多 ,也 很 新 。 T ā de shũ h ẽn d oủ , yẽ hẽn x ĩn . H is b o o ks are m a n y, and n e w too.

But, w h e n i t fu n c tio n s as an a ttrib u te , 多 behaves s o m e w h a t d iffe r e n tly fro m o th e r adjectives. F o r one th in g , i t can n e ve r app ea r alo ne to m o d ify a n ou n; i t a lw a y s re ­ quires th e presence o f som e a d v e rb such as ÍS b e fo re it. (2 )

* 多朋友 * d u õ p é n g yo u m a n y frie n d s

vs.

新朋友 x ĩn p é n g yo u n e w frie n d s

98

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(3 )

很多朋友 hen d uõ p é n g yo u m a n y frie n d s

(4 )

我们班有很多女学生。 W o m e n bān y õ u hẽn d uò n u xuésheng. T h e re are a lo t o f fe m a le students in o u r class.

(5 )

他每天喝很多咖啡。 T ā m ẽ i tiā n hẽ h ẽn d u õ k ā fe ī. H e d rin k s a lo t o f co ffe e e veryda y.

I t has been n o te d (C f. Lesson 16) th a t w h e n a m o n o s y lla b le a d je c tiv e m o d ifie s a noun, the m o d ific a tio n m a rk e r 的 is g e n e ra lly o m itte d . T h u s , 新的书— 新书 “ new b o o k.” H o w e v e r, w h e n th e a d je c tiv e is m o d ifie d b y Í 艮,th e m a rk e r resurfaces, as in th e fo llo w in g exam ple. (6 )

他没有很新的杂志。 T ā m é i y o u hen x ĩn de zázhi. H e d oesn’t have a n y n e w m agazines.

(7 )

* 他没有很新杂志。 * T ā m é i y o u hen x ĩn zázhi.

In o th e r w o rd s , 的 is re q u ire d in th e a ttrib u tiv e use o f 很 +

[很

+

A d je c tiv e ]

+



+

A d je c tiv e :

N oun

B u t, as illu s tra te d in exam ples (2) to (5), th e use o f 的 becom es o p tio n a l in th e case o f 多 ;in fa c t, its absence is m o re c o m m o n th a n its presence.

[很

+

多]

+

( 的 )

+

N oun

T h e fo llo w in g is a s u m m a ry o f th e id io s y n c ra tic b e h a v io r o f 多 as co m p a re d w ith th a t o f a re g u la r a d je c tiv e such as 新 :

99

Lesson 18

(8 )

新书

*多书

x ĩn shủ

* d u õ shū

* 很新书 * hèn x ĩn shu

;ỳ

很多书 hẽn d uỏ shu

很新的书

很 多 (的 )书

hē x in de shu

hẽn d uõ (de) shủ

shảo, th e a n to n y m o f 多 , shares th is ano m a lou s b e h a v io r. B u t, fo r some

strange e u p h e m is tic reasons, “ Í 艮少 N o u n ” is o fte n rephrased as a n e g a tiv e o f Í 艮

多 ,as illu s tra te d in th e fo llo w in g sentence. (9 )

他有很少书。

他没有很多书。

T ā y o u hen shao shu.

T a m éi y o u hen d uó shu.

H e has fe w books.

H e d oe sn ’t have m a n y books.

Lesson 19

1. The Alternative Question I

There are fo u r m a jo r typ e s o f q u e stio n fo rm a tio n in C hinese: (a) th e In te rro g a tiv e

J

Particle Q u e s tio n ,

吗 — Q u e s tio n and th e 呢 一 Q u e stio n ; (b ) th e

in c lu d in g th e

A ffirm a tiv e — N e g a tiv e Q u e s tio n ; (c) th e In te rro g a tiv e — w o r d Q u e s tio n ; and (d ) the A lte rn a tiv e Q u e stio n . T h e la st is th e su b je c t o f th is lesson. A n a lte rn a tiv e q u e stio n p ro v id e s tw o (o r m o re ) choices and asks th e addressee to m ake h is /h e r selection. F o r e xam ple , in o ffe rin g y o u r frie n d a d rin k , y o u m a y ask “ W h a t w o u ld y o u lik e ? ” o r “ W o u ld y o u lik e to have co ffe e o r tea?” T h e fo rm e r is an in te rro g a tiv e — w o rd q ue stion , th e la tte r an a lte rn a tiv e question. T o a nsw er the fir s t q u e stio n , y o u r frie n d needs to s u p p ly y o u w ith th e nam e o f a d rin k ; to .

answer th e second q ue stion , h e /s h e has to p ic k one o f th e tw o a lte rn a tiv e s sug-

I

gested. In E n g lis h , th e a lte rn a tiv e q u e stio n is m a rk e d b y th e c o n ju n c tio n “ o r.” In Chinese, th e m a rk e r is 还是 háishì.

(1 )

你来还是去?

r

N ĩ lá i h á ish ì qù? A r e y o u c o m in g o r going? (2 )

你喝茶还是喝咖啡? N ĩ hẽ chá h á ish ì hẽ kāfēi? D o y o u d rin k tea o r coffee?

• Please n o te th a t, w he re a s th e E n g lis h “ o r ” m a y be p u t d ire c tly b e fo re th e n o u n in I the second a lte rn a tiv e , as in (2) iC...〇 T c o íỉe e T \ th e C hinese 还是 has to appear be­ fore th e e n tire p re d ica te , tre a tin g th e uV e rb + O b je c ť ' as a w h o le u n it. T h e re fo re , in sentence (2), even w h e n th e ch oice is b etw é e n 茶 and 咖 啡 , w e s till need to re ­ peat th e v e rb

喝 in th e second clause. O r, to p u t i t in a n o th e r w a y , th e se le ctio n in

I Chinese is n o t b e tw e e n “ c o ffe e ” and “ tea,” b u t ra th e r b etw e en “ d rin k in g tea” and I ^drinking c o ffe e /' T h e fo llo w in g is a lis t o f a ll th e possible fo rm s o f a lte rn a tiv e c o m ­ binations, each illu s tra te d b y a sentence.

102

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( A ) C h o ice b etw e e n th e v e rb and its n e g a tiv e c o u n te rp a rt:

S u b je ct

(3 )

V e rb

你来还是不来?

还是

+

不 一V e rb?

+



N ĩ lá i h á is h ì b ù lái? A r e y o u c o m in g o r n o t com ing?

(B )

C ho ice b e tw e e n tw o verbs:

S u b je c t

(4 )

+

V e rb i

+

还是

+

V e rb 2 ?

你来还是去? N ĩ lá i h áishì qù? A r e y o u c o m in g o r going?

(C )

C h o ice b etw e e n tw o p re dica tes w ith d iffe re n t ve rb s and O b je c ts :

Subject + V erbi

(5 )

— O bject ļ + 还是 + V erb 2 — O bject 2 ?

你来学校还是回宿舍? N ĩ lá i x u é x ià o h á ish ì h u í sùshè? A r e y o u c o m in g to sch oo l o r g o in g b a ck to th e dorm ?

(D )

C h o ice b e tw e e n tw o p re dica tes w ith d iffe re n t O b je c ts :

Subject + V erb — O bject ļ + 还是 + V erb — O bject 2?

(6 )

你去图书馆还是去食堂? N ĩ qù tú s h ủ g u ả n h áishì q ù shítáng? A r e y o u g o in g to th e lib r a r y o r th e d in in g hall?

(E )

C h o ice b e tw e e n tw o p re dica tes w ith same O b je c ts b u t d iffe re n t verbs:

Subject + V erb 1 一 O bject + 还是 + V erb 2 — Object?

103

Lesson 19

你借书还是还书?

(7 )

N ĩ jiè shủ h áishì h u á n shũ? A r e y o u b o rro w in g b oo ks o r re tu rn in g books?

(F)

C hoice b e tw e e n elem ents o th e r th a n th e tw o predicates:

Subject + X i + V erb — O bject + 还 是

(8 )

X 2 + V erb — Object?

你上午上课还是下午上课? N ĩ sh á n g w u shàng kè h á ish ì x ià w ủ shàng kè? D o y o u have class in th e m o rn in g o r in th e afte rn oo n?

(G)

C hoice b e tw e e n tw o sentences o r tw o subjects w ith id e n tic a l o r d iffe re n t p re d i­

cates:

Sentence ļ

(9 )

+

还是

+

Sentence2?

你去还是我来? N ĩ qù h á ish ì w ỗ lái? A r e y o u g o in g o r am I com ing?

( 1 0 ) 你去还是我去? N ĩ qù h áishì w ỏ qù? A r e y o u g o in g o r am I going?

In any case, th e ru le to re m e m b e r is th a t th e v e rb has to be repeated in each o f th e alternatives. T h e co n n e c to r 还是 is to be placed b e fo re th e second a lte rn a tiv e . In a sentence w h e re th e choice p e rta in s to tim e , place, m an ne r, etc., o f an a c tio n ,th e ve rb still has to be repeated to co m p le te th e fo rm u la . Sentence (8), fo r e xam ple , poses a choice b e tw e e n tim e elem ents. T h e fo llo w in g are m o re exam ples o f th is n atu re : (1 1 )

你从家来还是从宿舍来?

( o r ig in )

N ĩ có ng jiā lá i h á ish ì có ng sùshè lái? A r e y o u c o m in g fr o m h om e o r fro m th e dorm ? (1 2 )

你坐车来还是走路来? N ĩ zuò chẽ lá i h á ish ì zồu lù lái? A r e y o u c o m in g b y car o r o n foot?

( conveyance)

104

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 13)

你跟你姐姐一起来还是跟你哥哥一起来?

(company)

N ĩ g ẽn n ĩ jie jie y ìq ĩ lá i h á is h ì gẽn n ĩ gẽge y ìq ĩ lái? A r e y o u c o m in g w ith y o u r s iste r o r y o u r b ro th e r?

( 1 4 ) 你用汉语介绍还是用英语介绍?

(means)

N ĩ y ò n g H à n y ủ jié s h á o h á ish ì y ò n g Y ĩn g y ủ jièshào? A r e y o u g o in g to in tro d u c e (th is ) in C hinese o r in E n g lis h ? ( 1 5 ) 你给你爱人买大衣还是给你朋友买大衣?

«

(b e n e fe c to r)

N ĩ gẽi n ĩ à ire n m ă i d à y ĩ h áishì gẽi n ĩ p é n g y o u m ă i dàyĩ? A re y o u b u y in g an o v e rc o a t fo r y o u r w ife o r fo r y o u r frie n d ? N o w , i f th e m a in ve rb in th e fo rm u la is 是 , th e n th e o re tic a lly th e a lte rn a tiv e ques­ tio n w o u ld lo o k lik e (16), w h e re th e re w o u ld be tw o

是 succeeding each other.

H o w e v e r, one is deleted in speech, y ie ld in g (17) as th e c o rre c t fo rm . In fa c t, (16) I w o u ld be co nside red lin g u is tic a lly unacceptable. (1 6 ) * 你 [ 是学生 ] 还 是 [ 是老师 ] ? N ĩ [ shì xuésheng ] h á ish ì [ shì lă o s h ĩ ] ?

>

A r e y o u a s tu d e n t o r a teacher? (1 7 )

你是学生还是老师?

f

N ĩ shì xuésheng h á ish ì lăoshĩ? (18)

这件衬衫是你的还是我的? Z hè jià n chènshãn shì n ĩ de h á is h ì w ỏ de? Is th is s h irt y o u rs o r m ine?

W h e n tw o id e n tic a l elem ents are im m e d ia te to each o th e r, th e n fu s io n in to one ele- , m e n t is q u ite a c o m m o n process in th e C hinese language. W e w ill w itn e s s m o re of th is process in th e fu tu re lessons. T h e fo llo w in g are a fe w m o re exam ples o f the [ a lte rn a tiv e q u e s tio n ty p e , w h e re th e tw o a lte rn a tiv e segm ents are a little more v a rie d in s tru c tu re . ( 1 9 ) 你回宿舍休息还是跟你女朋友一起去看电影? N ĩ h u í sùshè x iũ x i h á is h ì gẽn n ĩ n íi p é n g y o u y ìq ĩ qù k à n d ià n yĩn g ? A r e y o u g o in g b a ck to th e d o rm to re st o r are y o u g o in g to see a m o v ie to g e th e r w ith y o u r g ir l frie n d ? ( 2 0 ) 她上午来看你还是你下午去找她? T ā s h á n g w u lá i k à n n ĩ h áishì n ĩ x ià w ủ qù zhăo tá? Is she c o m in g to see y o u in th e m o rn in g o r are y o u g o in g to look fo r h e r in th e a fte rn o o n ?

105

Lesson 19

( 2 1 ) 你晚上跟我一起去图书馆看书,还是一个人在家听音乐? N í w a n sh a n g gẽn w õ y ìq ĩ qù tú s h ũ g u ă n k à n shũ, h áishì y í ge rén zài jiā tĩn g yĩn yu è ? D o y o u w a n t to go w ith m e to th e lib r a r y and s tu d y , o r do y o u w a n t to s ta y h om e and lis te n to m usic b y yo urself?

2. The Pivotal Construction 2.1

In sp ite o f its ra th e r te c h n ic a l n o m e n cla tu re , th e p iv o ta l c o n s tru c tio n is a c tu a l­

ly a v e ry sim p le sentence ty p e th a t e xists in a ll languages. F o r e xam ple, w e can see that the fo llo w in g E n g lis h sentence has a to ta l o f th re e nouns and tw o verbs. (1 )

Jo h n

in v ite d

M a r y to d r in k

beer.

[

[v j

[

[

n

/]

n

2] [

v

2]

n

3]

Nļ “ Jo hn ” is th e s u b je c t o f v \ “ in v ite ” and N 3 “ beer” is th e O b je c t o f

v 2 “ d rin k .”

How is N 2 uM a r y ,J g ra m m a tic a lly re la te d to th e tw o verbs? I t is c le a rly th e O b je c t of v \ i n v i t e d

M a ry ” ;a t th e same tim e , it is also th e s u b je c t o f V 2 “ M a r y " , to

drink.” In o th e r w o rd s , N 2 h o ld s a d u a l id e n tity , O b je c t o f the fir s t ve rb and su b je ct of the second ve rb . H ence, i t is th e p iv o t o f tw o v e rb a l u nits. A p iv o ta l sentence in Chinese is co n s tru c te d in th e same m a n n e r as in E n g lis h .

O b je c t S u b je c t +

+

V e rb i +

V e rb 2 +

O b je c t

S u b je ct

(2 )

古波请帕兰卡喝啤酒。 G ủ b õ q ln g P à lá n kă he p íjiu . G u b o in v ite s P a la n ka to d r in k beer.

(3 )

我们请老师唱中国歌儿。 W o m e n q ĩn g lă o s h l chàng Z h o n g g u ó gẽr. W e ask th e te a ch e r to sing a C hinese song.

(4 )

他不请他朋友去他家。 T ā b ù q ĩn g tā p é n g yo u qù tā jiā . H e w o u ld n ’t in v ite h is frie n d s to h is house.

(5 )

老师让学生写汉字。 L ă o s h ĩ rà n g xu ésh en g x iẽ H á n zi. T h e te a ch e r asks stu de nts to w rite C hinese characters.

106

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(6 )

大夫不让他喝咖啡。 D á ifu bú rà n g tā hè kā fēi. T h e d o c to r w o n ’t le t h im have coffee.

t 2.2

T h e re are o n ly a lim ite d n u m b e r o f ve rb s in C hinese th a t m a y appear in a I

p iv o ta l co n s tru c tio n . T w o o f th e m are in tro d u c e d here:

QỈng and i h ràng. Liter- I

a lly , 请 m eans “ to in v ite ” and 让 “ to a llo w .” T h u s , even th o u g h b o th are used for “ a skin g som eone to do s o m e th in g ,”

请 represents a m ore co u rte o u s request. Chil-

dren 请 th e ir paren ts to do s o m e th in g , b u t paren ts i t

th e ir c h ild re n to p e rfo rm a y

task. (7 )

孩子请爸爸唱一个歌儿。 H á iz i q ĩn g bàba chàng y íg e gẽr. T h e c h ild re n asked th e ir fa th e r to sing a song.

(8 )

爸爸让孩子唱一个歌儿。

L

B àba rà n g h á izi ch àn g y íg e ger. F a th e r asked th e c h ild to sing a song. O th e r p o in ts to n o te w ith re g a rd to th e use o f 请 and 让 are: ( A ) T h e p a tte rn fo r m a k in g a p o lite request, n a m e ly in + V e rb (as in Ỉ Ệ i í “ Please com e in ,” and

请喝茶

qĩng jin I

Aé c/iá “ Please have some tea.” ),is a c tu a lly a ■

tru n ca te d ve rs io n o f 请 + 你 + V e r b . T h e p iv o ta l o b je c t is o m itte d in th e p a tte rn , and f

请 is o fte n tra n s la te d as “ please.” 请问 g ín g vvẻn “ M a y I a sk” is an id io m a tic com- ■ p ou nd m a rk in g th e b e g in n in g o f a p o lite in q u iry . ( B ) 请 also m eans “ to in v ite ,” in w h ic h case its O b je c t can also be p iv o ta l in func- p tio n . F o r e xam ple , in th e fo llo w in g sentence , 你 is th e O b je c t o f 请 b u t also the I su bject o f 看 京 剧 . (9 )

我请你看京剧。

wỏ q ĩn g

n ĩ k à n jm g jù .

I in v ite y o u to see a B e ijin g O pera. In some cases, a 请 一sentence m a y be a m b ig u o u s as to w h e th e r it is an in v ita tio n I o r a request. ( 1 0 ) 我请 他 喝 咖 啡 。 W o q ĩn g tā hē kā fēi.

107

Lesson 19

This sentence c o u ld m ean e ith e r (a) a request: ul ask h im to d r in k co ffe e (and n o t doing a n y th in g else),” o r (b ) a tre a t: “ I b u y h im a co ffe e.” T h e c o n te x t in gen eral will decide w h ic h is th e in te n d e d reading. T h e re are tw o k in d s o f “ a sk ” in E n g lis h : “ to ask som eone a q u e s tio n ” and “ to



ask som eone to do so m e th in g .” T h e y co rre sp o n d to d iffe re n t verbs in C hinese as demonstrated in th e fo llo w in g p a ir o f sentences. ( 1 1 ) 我问他晚上来不来。 W o w e n tā w a n sh a n g lá i b u lái. I asked h im i f h e ’d be co m in g in th e evening. ( 1 2 ) 我请 他 晚 上 来 。

wỏ q ĩn g

tā w a n sh a n g lái.

I asked h im to com e in th e evening. 1 Sentence (13) ju xta p o se s b o th qm g and wen in th e same sentence. ( 1 3 ) 我们请他去问王老师一个语法问题。 W o m e n q ĩn g tā qù w è n W á n g lă o s h ĩ y íg e y u fa w én tí. W e asked h im to go ask T e a c h e r W a n g a g ra m m a r question.

(C)

D e p en din g o n th e c o n te x t, a i t - sentence connotes e ith e r request o r p e rm is ­

sion. Its n e g a tiv e , 不让 V e rb , h o w e v e r,is a lw a y s a p ro h ib itio n . ( 1 4 ) 老师让我用英文说。 L ă o s h ĩ rà n g w õ y ò n g Y in g w é n shuỏ. (a) T h e te ach er asked m e to speak in E n g lis h . (b ) T h e te a ch e r le t m e speak in E n g lis h . ( 1 5 ) 老师不让学生上课说英文。 L ả o s h ĩ b ú rà n g xuésheng shàng kè shuõ Y ln g w é n . T h e te a ch e r does n o t a llo w stu de nts to speak E n g lis h in class. ( 1 6 ) 妈妈不让孩子吃饭以前吃太多糖。 M á m a b ú rà n g h á izi c h i fa n y ĩq iá n c h i tà i duỏ táng. T h e m o th e r d oe sn ’t le t h e r c h ild eat to o m u c h ca n d y b e fo re meals.

We should also n o te th a t th e C hinese c o u n te rp a rt o f th e w o rd “ te ll” in E n g lis h can be either 告 诉 尽 áơsu o r i t

ràng d e p e n d in g on th e c o n te x t, a d is tin c tio n th a t is

quite e v id e n t in th e fo llo w in g exam ples.



108

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(1 7 )

她告诉我们她穿红的。

«

T ā gàosu w o m e n tā ch uā n h ó n g de. She to ld us th a t she w o u ld w e a r red. (1 8 )

她让我们穿红的。

r

T ā ràn g w o m e n ch u ā ņ h ó n g de. She to ld us to w e a r red. T h e c o n tra s t b e tw e e n

告诉 and 让 is s im ila r to th a t b e tw e e n 问 and 请 . The

fir s t m e m b e r o f each p a ir takes a w h o le sta te m e n t o r q u e s tio n as its O b je c t. O n the

.

让 and 请 are p iv o ta l verbs, re q u e s tin g som eone to p e rfo rm a v c e rta in task. L ik e e xa m p le (1 3 ),th e fo llo w in g has b o th 让 and 告诉 in th e same I

o th e r h a n d ,b o th sentence.

( 1 9 ) 乐老师让我告诉你们,他欢迎你们晚上八点以后去他家听中国音乐。 Y u è lă o s h ĩ rà n g w ỏ gàosu n ĩm e n , tā h u á n y ĩn g n ĩm e n w á n s h a n g bá- ļ d iă n y ĩh ò u qù tā jiā tin g Z h o n g g u ó y ĩn y u è . T e a c h e r Y u e asked m e to te ll y o u th a t h e ’d w e lc o m e y o u to go to

-

h is place a fte r e ig h t o ’c lo c k in th e e v e n in g to lis te n to Chinese I m usic.

3. A Verbal Unit Functioning as an Object 3.1

T h u s fa r, w e have seen o n ly a n o m in a l (a n o u n o r a p ro n o u n ) a p p e a rin g in the I

O b je c t s lo t in a sentence. (1 )

我喜欢你。

7

W õ x ĩh u a n n ĩ. I lik e you.



我很喜欢我的小妹妹。 W o hẽn x ĩh u a n w ỏ de x iả o m èim ei. I lik e m y little siste r v e ry m uch. i



你喜欢哪一个歌儿? N ĩ x ĩh u a n nả y íg e gèr? W h ic h song do y o u like?

H o w e v e r, as o ne ’s lik in g s m a y in c lu d e n o t o n ly people and th in g s b u t action s or events as w e ll, th e v e rb 喜 欢 m a y ta k e a n o th e r v e rb , a V e r b — O b je c t u n it, or even a w h o le sentence as its O b ject.



109

Lesson 19

(4 )

我喜欢学习。

wỏ x ĩh u a n

xu é xí.

I lik e to stu d y. (5 )

我喜 欢 听 音 乐 。 W ồ x ĩh u a n tĩn g y ĩn y u è . I lik e to lis te n to m usic.

(6 )

我喜欢看中国电影。 W o x ĩh u a n k á n Z h o n g g u ó d ià n y ĩn g . I lik e to see C hinese m ovies.

(7 )

你喜欢喝什么茶? N ĩ x ĩh u a n hẽ shénm e chá? W h a t k in d o f tea do y o u lik e to d rin k ?

(8 )

我喜欢去图书馆看书。 W o x ĩh u a n q ù tú s h ũ g u ă n k à n shủ. I lik e g o in g to th e lib r a r y to read.

(9 )

我不喜欢你吸烟。 W o b ù x ĩh u a n n ĩ x ĩ yãn. I d o n ’t lik e y o u to sm oke.

( 1 0 ) 帕兰卡喜欢不喜欢穿裙子? P à lá n kă x ĩh u a n b u x ĩh u a n ch uā n qúnzi? D oes P a la n ka lik e to w e a r skirts?

Please co m p are th e fo llo w in g sets o f C hinese and E n g lis h sentences:

(喜欢 (喜欢

+

(b )

我喜欢咖啡。 我喜欢喝咖啡。

+

[ V e rb + O b je c t ] )

( c )

I lik e coffee.

( lik e

+

O b je c t )

(d )

I lik e to d r in k coffee.

( lik e

+

[ V e rb + O b je c t ] )

(a )

O b je c t )

Even th o u g h these are a ll g ra m m a tic a l sentences in th e tw o languages re s p e c tiv e ly , the p re fe rre d fo rm

is (b ) in C hinese b u t (c ) in E n g lis h . In o th e r w o rd s , to the

Chinese m in d , w h a t y o u lik e is “ c o ffe e -d rin k in g ” ra th e r th a n “ c o ffe e ,” as is th e case in English.

3.2

O th e r verbs, a m o n g th e ones th a t w e have learned, th a t can ta k e a v e rb a l O b-

ject in clu d e 学 x u é “ to le a m ,” 想

“ to th in k , w a n t,” and 要 y à o “ to w a n t•”

A Practical Chinese Grammar

110

( 1 1 ) 学 : ( a ) 学 + Noun:

我学汉语。

wỏ xúe

H ànyủ.

I am s tu d y in g C hinese. ( b ) 学 + V e rb :

我 学 说 ,i 学 写 。

wỏ xué

shuỏ,

bù xué

xiẽ.

Vm le a rn in g h o w to speak ( it ) and n o t h o w to w rite (it). ( c ) 学 + [ V e rb + O b je c t ] : 我 学 写 汉 字 。 W o xué x iẽ H á n z i. I

am

le a rn in g

how

to

w rite

C hinese characters. (1 2 )想:

( a ) 想 + Noun:

我很想我爸爸。 W o hẽn x iả n g w õ bába. I m iss m y fa th e r.

( b ) 想 + [ V e rb + O b je c t ] : 我很想看中国电影。

wỏ

hèn

x iă n g

kán

Zhongguó

d ià n y ĩn g . I w a n t to see a C hinese m ovie v e ry m uch. ( c ) 想 + [ V e rb + O b je c t + X ]

你想去哪儿喝咖啡? N ĩ x iả n g qù n ả r hẽ kāfēi? W h e re

do

you

w a n t to

go

for

coffee?

Sentence (12.a) represents an id io m a tic re a d in g o f th e v e rb 想 :to th in k o f a person a lo t connotes “ m is s in g th e p erson v e ry m u c h .” ( 1 3 ) 要 :( a ) 要 + In te rro g a tiv e :

你要什么? N ĩ yào shénme? W h a t do y o u w ant?

( b ) 要 + N oun:

我要一杯咖啡。

wỏ yà o

y ìb ẽ i k ā fē i.

I w a n t a cup o f coffee. (c )要 +

[ V e rb + In te r-

ro g a tiv e ] :

你要吃什么? N ĩ yà o c h ĩ shénme? W h a t do y o u w a n t to eat?

要 / 想 + [ V e r b + ( O b j e c t ) ] ,要 g e n e ra lly in d ica te s a s tro n g e r desire th a n 想 . B u t 要 is th e id io m a tic v e rb to use W h e n fo llo w e d b y a v e rb a l u n it in th e p a tte rn

Lesson 19

111

for o rd e rin g fo o d in a re sta u ra n t; i t is used b y b o th th e w a ite r and th e custom er. The fo llo w in g d ia lo g u e illu s tra te s th is fu n c tio n o f 要 . A : 先 生 ,您 要 什 么 ?

(1 4 )

X iá n sh e n g , n ín yà o shénme? W h a t w o u ld y o u lik e to have, sir? B : 我要一瓶英国啤酒。

wỏ yào

y ìp ín g Y ĩn g g u ó p íjiu .

I ’d lik e to have an E n g lis h beer. A : 您 呢 ,小 姐 ? N ín ne, xiao jie ? W h a t a b o u t yo u, M iss? B : 我要一杯橘子水 L 你们有中国茶吗?我还要一杯花茶。 W õ yà o y ìb ẽ i jú z is h u i. N ĩm e n y ỏ u Z h o n g g u ó chá ma?

wỏ

hái

yào y ìb ẽ i huãchá. I w a n t a glass o f ora ng e ju ice . D o y o u have C hinese tea? I also w a n t a cup o f ja s m in e tea.

4. The Prohibitive 另!l Like its c o u n te rp a rt in E n g lis h , an im p e ra tiv e sentence in C hinese is o fte n “ subjectless.” ( 1

)

看 ! Kàn! Look!

(2 )

别看! B ié kà n! D o n ’t lo o k !

另 丨 j faié is th e n e g a tiv e im p e ra tiv e m a rk e r. I t is to be d is tin g u is h e d fro m 不 ,w h ic h I does n o t im p ly co m m a n d o r request. (3 )

别喝那杯桔子水。 Bié hẽ nà bẽi júzishui.



D o n ’t d r in k th a t glass o f ora ng e ju ic e ! (4 )

晚上请别听音乐。 W á n sh a n g q ĩn g bié tĩn g y ĩn y u è . Please d o n ’t lis te n to m u sic in th e evening.

I

A Practical Chinese Grammar

112

(5 )

大 夫 说 , “ 晚上睡觉以前别喝太多咖啡 。”

^

D à iíu shuỗ, uW ă n sh a n g shuì jià o y ĩq iá n b ié hē tà i d uỏ k ã íè ư T h e d o c to r said ,“ D o n ’t d r in k to o m u c h co ffe e b e fo re y o u go to

J

sleep in th e e ve n in g .” i f

In some cases, th e o m itte d s u b je c t m á y be re in tro d u c e d in to th e sentence fo r em pha­ sis, as s h o w n in th e fo llo w in g exam ples. (6 )

你来看。 N ĩ lá i kàn. C om e and lo o k !

(7 )

u

你别听他的。 N ĩ b ié tĩn g tả de. D o n ’t lis te n to h im ! (他的 tó de is a s h o rt fo rm o f 他的话 íá de Auá “ h is w o rd s .”) A■ >

5. The Tag Question A ta g q ue stio n is a s h o rt q u e s tio n a tta che d to th e end o f a Statem ent, a s k in g for

^

c o n firm a tio n . “ N ’est ce pas?” in F re n c h is a ty p ic a l e xa m p le o f th is fo rm o f inter- ■

是 as th e v e r b : ........ 是 ■ 吗 ? o r ........ 是 不 是 ? 对 “ c o rre c t” m a y also p e rfo rm in th is r o l e : ........ 对 吗 ?or 1 … …对不对? H

ro g a tive . A C hinese ta g q u e s tio n is u s u a lly fo rm e d w ith

(1 )

美国人喜欢喝咖啡,是 吗 ? M ẽ ig u ó ré n x ĩh u a n hẽ k ā fē i, shì ma? A m e ric a n people lik e to d rin k coffee, d o n ’t they?

(2 )

你 很 想 家 ,是 吗 ? N ĩ h ẽ n x iă n g jiā , shì ma? Y o u are h o m e s ic k ,a re n ’t you?

(3 )

他 不 喝 啤 酒 ,是 吗 ? T ā b ù hẽ p íjiu , shì ma? H e d oesn’t d r in k beer, does he?

(4 )

这 条 裙 子 太 大 ,是 不 是 ? Z hé tiá o q ú n zi tà i dà, shì b u shì? T h is s k irt is to o b ig , is n ’t it?

113

Lesson 19 % (5 )

你 喜 欢 喝 红 茶 ,不 喜 欢 喝 绿 茶 ,对 吗 ? N ĩ x ĩh u a n hẽ h óngchá, bù x ĩh u a n hẽ líic h á , d u ì ma? Y o u lik e b la c k tea and n o t green tea. R ig h t?

(6 )

这 不是古典音乐,对 不 对 ? Z hè b ú shì g ủ d iả n y ĩn y u è , d uì b u duì? T h is is n 't classical m usic, (is th a t) rig h t?

(7 )

白老师很喜欢唱歌儿,对 不 对 ? B á i lă o s h ĩ hẽn x ĩh u a n ch àn g gẽr, d uì bu duì?

I

T e a c h e r B a i lik e s to sing, (is n ’t th a t) rig h t? Please n o te th a t E n g lis h g e n e ra lly uses a n e g a tiv e ta g q u e s tio n fo r a p o s itiv e sen­

I

tence and a p o s itiv e ta g q u e stio n fo r a n e g a tiv e sentence, as s h o w n in th e tra n s la ­ tions fo r th e a bove sentences. B y co m p a riso n , th e ta g q u e s tio n in C hinese is m u ch

V

simpler in fo rm a tio n . I t m a tte rs little w h e th e r th e p re ce d in g sta te m e n t is p o s itiv e o r not; the q u e stio n fo rm re m a in s th e same.

Lesson 20

1. How to Tell the Date 1.1

Y e a r : ........ 年 :R ead o ff th e n u m b e r as is and p u t 年 /ỉiá n a t th e end. (1 )

一九零零年

1900:

y ĩ-jiủ -lín g -lín g -n iá n



1902:



1942:

二 } L 零二年 y ĩ-jiủ -lín g -è r-n iá n

二 Á 四二年 y ĩ-jiủ -s ì-è r-n iá n



1987:

二 Ắ 八七年



2001:

三鼙零一%

y ī-jiu -b ā -q ī-n ia n è r-lín g -lín g -y ĩ-n iá n Please n o te th a t in a ll th e above exam ples, 一 is a lw a y s p ro n o u n ce d w ith th e fir s t tone regardless o f th e fo llo w in g tone. T h e reason is th a t in th is usage th e n u m e ra l is an o rd in a l n u m b e r and o rd in a l n u m b e rs do n o t p a rtic ip a te in to ne change. A n o th e r th in g to n o te is th a t th e w o rd 年 is a m easure w o rd and can be placed directly a fte r a n u m e ra l. T h e re fo re ,

一年

“ one y e a r,”

两年 /iángTỉiáiỉ “ tw o

years,” etc. N o tic e th a t in th is case 一 is p ro n o u n c e d w ith a changed to n e (th e fo u r th tone in fr o n t o f a second to n e s y lla b le ) since i t is n o w a c a rd in a l num ber. 1.2

M o n t h : ........月 :N a m in g m o n th s is an e x tre m e ly easy ta s k in C hinese; the

twelve m o n th s are re fe rre d to b y th e ir o rd in a l num bers. H ence, 月 月

Ja nu ary:

y ĩỵ u è

( fir s t m o n th )

(n o tic e th e use o f f ir s t to n e on ^ *)

F e b ru a ry : 月月

A p r il:

三 四

M a rc h :

èryuè

(second m o n th )

sànyuè sìỵuè

( th ir d m o n th )

(n o tic e th e use o f 二 and n o t 两 )

( fo u r th m o n th )

116

A Practical Chinese Grammar 六

June:

A A + -

Ju ly : A u g u s t:

tJ J J J th :

月月月月月月一二

E J

M ay:

S eptem ber: 月月

O cto b er: N o ve m b e r: D ecem ber:

w uyué liùyuè qĩyuè bảyuè ịiủyuè shíyuè, shíyĩyuè sh í’èryuè

( f if t h m o n th ) ( s ix th m o n th ) (seve nth m o n th ) (e ig h th m o n th ) (n in th m o n th ) (te n th m o n th ) (e le v e n th m o n th )

( fir s t to n e on 一 )

( tw e lfth m o n th )

月 is a n ou n, w ho se m easure w o rd is 个 . T h e re fo re , 一个月

(6 )

y íg e yuè one m o n th

两个月

(7 )

liă n g g e yuè tw o m o n th s

十二个月

(8 )

s h ť é rg e yuè tw e lv e m o n th s

Please n o te th e fo llo w in g d ifferen ce s:

N u m e ra l



+

二月 三月

y /y tié é / y tié

+



+



N u m b e r o f M o n th s :

N a m e o f M o n th :

—月

N u m eral

“J a n u a r y ” ( 1 st to n e )

— 个 月 力 y u é (2 n d to n e ) “ 1 m o n th ”

“F e b r u a r y ”

两个月 /iá n 保 e y u é

“2 m o n t h s ”

三个月 s a n g e y u é

“3 m o n t h s ”

s a /jy u e “M a r c h ”

1.3 D ays o f th e M o n th : W h e n re fe rrin g to a d a y in a m o n th , e ith e r 日 /7' o r 号 hào is used as an in d ic a to r and placed a fte r th e a p p ro p ria te n u m b e r . 号 is more o fte n used in th e sp oke n lan gu ag e th a n 曰 .

一号 二号

y ĩ/ỉá o

“ 1st o f th e M o n th

ẻ r/ỉáo

“ 2nd o f M o n th ”

二十一号 érsA /yĩA áơ

“ 21st o f M o n th ”

( fir s t to n e on 一 )

(n e u tra l to n e o n 十 )

117

Lesson 20

三十号

1.4

sànshihào

(n e u tra l tone on 十 )

“ 3 0th o f M o n th ”

D a ys o f th e W e e k: In C hinese, a w e e k b eg in s w ith M o n d a y and ends w ith

Sunday. E x c e p t fo r S u nd a y, th e days o f th e w e e k are nam ed w ith bers. T h e re are tw o w o rd s fo r S u n d a y : 星期日 xĩngqĩrì and

o rd in a l num -

xĩngqitiân, th e

form er b e in g m o re co m m o n in w ritin g .

星期一 星期二 星期三 星期四 星期五 星期六 星期日 / 星期天

xĩngqĩyĩ x ĩn g q ĩ’èr xĩngqĩsản xĩngqĩsì xm gqiw u xĩngqĩliù x ĩn g q ĩrì/ xìngqĩtiãn

M o n d a y ( fir s t to n e on ^ ' ) Tuesday W ed ne sda y T h u rs d a y F rid a y S a tu rd a y S u nd a y

The w o rd 星期 x ĩn 幺g ĩ “ w e e k ” is also a n ou n, its m easure w o rd b e in g 个 . T h u s , —

个星期 y íể e x in 尽gữ is “ one w e e k ” and

1.5

liangge xingqi is utw o w e e k s /'

O rd e rin g o f D a te In d ic a to rs :

Year

+

M o n th

+

D ay

一九八零年五月二号 一九八七年十月十九号星期一 一九九二年二月二十九号星期六 一苎 A 苎年十三月弓十一号 二零零零年一月一号

+

D ay of W eek

M a y 2, 1980 O c to b e r 19, 1987, M o n d a y F e b ru a ry 29, 1992, S a tu rd a y D ece m b e r 31, 1999 J a n u a ry 1, 2000

The s p e c ific a tio n o f a d ate fo llo w s th e g en eral p rin c ip le described in Lesson 17: the larger u n it com es b e fo re th e sm a lle r u n it. T h e fo llo w in g e xam ple inclu de s a ll te m ­ poral elem ents a rra n g e d in th e p ro p e r o rd er. (9 )

一九八七年一月一号星期一上午十一点三十分 y ĩjiủ b â q ĩn iá n y ĩy u è y ĩh à o x ĩn g q ĩy ĩ sh á n g w u s h íy ĩd iă n sā nshifēn M o n d a y , J a n u a ry 1, 1987, a t 11:30 a.m.

118

1.6

A Practical Chinese Grammar

H o w to A s k fo r D ates: (10)

今天星期几? J īn tiā n x ln g q iji? W h a t d a y o f th e w e e k is it today?

(11)

今天几号? J īn tiā n jĩh à o ? W h a t d a y o f th e m o n th is it today?

(12)

今天几月几号? J īn tiā n jĩy u è jĩh à o ? W h a t is to d a y ’s date?

(13)

今天几月几号星期几? J īn tiā n jĩy u è jĩh à o x ĩn g q ĩjĩ? W h a t is th e date today? ( = W h a t d a y is it?)

(14)

这个月是几月? Zhè ge yu è shì jĩy u è ? W h a t m o n th is th is ?

(15)

今年是一九九几年? J īn n ia n shì y ĩjiủ jiủ jĩn iá n ? W h a t y e a r is it now ? ( = Ni ne t e e n n in e ty -w h a t? )

T h e fo llo w in g tw o q u e s tio n fo rm s are ra th e r s p e cific in reference. T h e fir s t asks for h o ro sco p ic in fo rm a tio n and th e second re fe rs to a past o r h is to ric a l event. (16)

今年是什么年? J īn n ia n shì shénm e nián? W h a t y e a r is this? ( = T h e y e a r o f th e dragon?)

(17)

那年是哪年? N à n iá n shì nả nián? W h a t y e a r w as th a t year?

1.7

H ow

to

say

“ T h is D A T E ,”

“ L a s t D A T E ,” and

“ N e x t D A T E ” in

Chinese:

T h e re are tw o w a y s o f p ro v id in g such in fo rm a tio n as su m m arized in th e fo llo w in g chart:

D

119

Lesson 20

Last D A TE

This D A TE

N ext D A TE

昨天

z u ó tiâ n

今天

jīn tiā n

明天

m ín g tià n

去年

q ù n iá n

今年

jĩn n iá n

明年

m ín g n ià n

下个月

卜-个月

以 加 客 ge 少《 è

这个月

zh è ge yu è

h 个単•期

s h à n g g e x ĩn g q ĩ

这个星期

z h è g e x ĩn g q ĩ

卜.个M期 日

•s/iówg ge võ>ỉg, (m e ta p h o ric a l usage), etc. H o w e v e r, as these exam ples illu s tra te , a m o d ify in g v e rb in E n g lis h m a y com e either b e fo re a n o u n ( “ c ry in g

+

N ” )o r a fte r it ( “ N th a t crie s” ). A n d , w h e n the

m odifying v e rb a l u n it is p u t a fte r th e n ou n, it req u ire s a special s y n ta c tic p a tte rn !

generally re fe rre d to as th e re la tiv e clause co n s tru c tio n .

a c ry in g b a b y [ M o d ifie r

+

N oun ]

=

a b a b y th a t cries [ N oun

+

M o d ifie r ]

134

A Practical Chinese Grammar

A re la tiv e clause in E n g lis h is b a s ic a lly a m o d ify in g clause th a t comes im m e d ia te ly a fte r th e n o u n it q u a lifie s and is g e n e ra lly m a rk e d b y a re la tiv e p ro n o u n , “ w h o , w h o m , w h ic h , th a t /' etc. In o th e r w o rd s , h o w to m o d ify a n o m in a l is a ra th e r c o m ­ p lica te d lin g u is tic process in E n g lis h . T h e p o s itio n in g o f a m o d ify in g u n it depends

r

on w h e th e r it ca rrie s a fu ll fin ite ve rb o r a p a rtic ip le fo rm . In c o n tra st, th e n o m in a l m o d ific a tio n in C hinese is a sim p le o r even m ech an ical m a tte r. A m o d ify in g u n it, re­ gardless o f its m a k e u p (be it a n ou n, an a d je c tiv e , a ve rb , a V e r b — O b je c t u n it, or a w h o le sentence), a lw a y s com es b e fo re the n o u n i t m o d ifie s . T h e fo llo w in g are ex­ am ples to illu s tra te th e range o f such a m o d ify in g v e rb a l u n it in C hin ese . 的 is the u b iq u ito u s m a rk e r and is n eve r deleted in such a c o n s tru c tio n .

(4 )

参加的同学 cá n jia de tó n g x u é th e classm ate w h o attends

(5 )

参加舞会的同学 cā n jia w u h u i de tó n g x u é th e classm ate w h o a ttends th e p a rty

(6 )

来参加舞会的同学 lá i cā n jiā w u h u i de tó n g x u é th e classm ate w h o comes to a tte n d th e p a rty

(7 )

今天来参加舞会的同学 jīn tiā n lá i c ā n jiā w u h u i de tó n g x u é th e classm ate w h o comes to a tte n d th e p a rty to d a y

(8 )

今天跟他一起来参加舞会的同学 jīn tiā n gēn tā y ìq ĩ lá i cā n jiā w u h u i de tó n g x u é th e classm ate w h o com es to a tte n d th e p a rty to g e th e r w ith h im

(9 )

参加的舞会 cā n jia de w ủ h u ì th e p a rty w h ic h ( X ) a tte nd ed

(1 0 )

你参加的舞会 n ĩ ca n jiá de w u h u i th e p a rty w h ic h y o u atte nd ed

(1 1 )

你去参加的舞会 n ĩ qù cā n jiā de w u h u i the p a rty w h ic h y o u w e n t to a tte nd

Ih

135

(1 2 )

你昨天去参加的舞会 n ĩ z u ó tia n qù ca n jia de w u h u i th e p a rty w h ic h y o u w e n t to a tte n d y e ste rd a y

(1 3 )

你昨天跟你同学一起去参加的舞会 n ĩ z u ó tiá n gen n ĩ tó n g x u é y ìq ĩ qù cā n jiā de w u h u i th e p a rty w h ic h y o u w e n t to a tte n d y e ste rd a y to g e th e r w ith y o u r classm ates

Now, su p p o sin g w e have a scenario o f 丁石跟朋友一起去参力n 舞会 and w e w a n t to identify th is frie n d as 古 波 ,w e need to ta k e th e fo llo w in g g ra m m a tic a l steps to produce such an id e n tific a tio n sentence. F irs t, as 朋友 w ill be the focus o f th e new sentence, w e need to set it as th e s u b je c t : ........ 朋 友 是 古 波 . T h e n , w e need to tu rn I

the rest o f th e in fo rm a tio n in to a m o d ify in g clause: “ In fo rm a tio n + 的 + 朋友 ........”



Hence, th e id e n tific a tio n w ill n o w be in th e fo rm o f (14).

( 1 4 ) 跟丁云一起去参加舞会的那个朋友是古波。 G è n D ĩn g Y ú n y ìq ĩ qù ca n jia w ủ h u ì de nà ge p é n g y o u shì G ủbo. T h e frie n d w h o w e n t to th e dance p a rty w ith D in g Y u n w as G ubo.



Or, if w e w a n t to co m m e n t o n th e p a rty b y sa yin g it w as a lo t o f fu n , w e w ill select

舞会 as th e s u b je ct and tu rn th e o th e r in fo rm a tio n in to a re la tiv e clause m o d ify in g I the head noun. H ence.

(1 5 )

丁云跟朋友一起去参加的那个舞会很有意思。 D in g Y ú n gèn p é n g yo u y ìq ĩ qù ca n jia de nà ge w ủ h u ì hen y o u yìsi. T h e p a rty th a t D in g Y u n w e n t to w ith h e r frie n d w as a lo t o f fun.

ļ

The fo llo w in g are a fe w exam ples to illu s tra te h o w to c o m b in e sentences to g e th e r to fo rm a c o m p le x re la tiv e clause co n s tru c tio n . In a ll cases, th e (a) sentences are to

I become th e m o d ify in g clauses. T h e ite m s u n d e rlin e d are to be used as th e head ļ

nouns.

(1 6 )

( a ) 那个同学从中国来。 ( b )

那个同学很想家。

( c ) 那个从中国来的同学很想家。 N à ge cóng Z h o n g g u ó lá i de tó n g x u é hẽn x iă n g jiā . T h a t stu d e n t w h o cam e fro m C h in a is re a lly hom esick.

136

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(a (b (c

你送他礼物。 礼物是什么? 你送他的礼物是什么? N ĩ sòng ta de lĩw ù shì shénme? W h a t is th e pre sen t y o u gave him ?

(18)

这个人常常来找你。 你喜欢不喜欢他? 你喜欢不喜欢这个常常来找你的人?

(a ) (b ) (c )

N ĩ x ĩh u a n b ù x ĩh u a n zhè ge ch án gch án g lá i zhảo n ĩ de rén? D o y o u lik e th is m an w h o o fte n comes to see you? (19)

老师去年在法国写这本书。 老师让我看这本书。 老师让我看他去年在法国写的这本书。

(a) ( b) (c)

L ả o s h i rà n g w ỏ k à n ta q ù n iá n zài F ag uó x iẽ de zhè bèn shu. T h e te ach er to ld m e to read th is b o o k w h ic h he w ro te i F ra n ce last year. 0 2 )

(a (b (c

我那天从中国来美国。 那天是十月三十号。 我从中国来美国的那天是十月三十号。

wỏ

cóng Z h o n g g u ó lá i M ẽ ig u ó de nà tia n shì sh íy u è san-

shihào. T h e d a y I cam e to A m e ric a fro m C h in a w as O c to b e r 30th.

N e x t are a fe w m o re exam ples o f fu ll sentences c o n ta in in g re la tiv e clauses. T he head nouns are in parentheses and th e ir m o d ify in g clauses are u n d e rlin e d .

( 2 1 ) 今天晚上跟他一起来参加舞会的(同 学 )很 多 。 J in tiá n w a n s h a n g gen tả y ìq ĩ lá i cá n jia w ú h ú i de (tó n g x u é ) hẽn duõ. S tud en ts w h o came w ith h im to (a tte n d th e d a n c in g p a rty were m any. ( = T h e r e w e re m a n y stu de nts w h o came to th e p a rty w ith him .) ( 2 2 ) 你昨天跟你同学一起去参加的(舞 会 )是 谁 的 ? N i z u o tiā n gēn n ì tó n g x u é y ìq ĩ qù cā n jia de (w ù h u ì) shỉ shéi de? T h e p a rty th a t y o u w e n t to w ith y o u r classm ates w as w hose? ( =

W h o s e p a rty w as i t th a t y o u w e n t to w ith y o u r classmates

yesterday?)



137

Lesson 21

(2 3 )

这是我 给 你 买 的 (花 儿 )。 Z hè shì w ỏ g ẻi n ĩ m ă i de (h u â r). T h e se are th e flo w e rs th a t I b o u g h t fo r you.

(2 4 )

他是教我 们 汉 语 的 ( 王 老 师 )。 T ả shì jiā o w o m e n H ả n y ủ de 〇V áng lăoshi). H e is T e a c h e r W a n g , w h o teaches

US

C hinese.

( 2 5 ) 他给我一张他 昨 天 买 的 ( 京 剧 票 )。 T a gẽi w o y iz h a n g ta zu ó tia n m á i de ( jin g jú piào). H e gave m e a B e ijin g O p e ra tic k e t w h ic h he b o u g h t yesterday. ( 2 6 ) 我们每天上汉语课的(教 室 )在二 W o m e n m ē i tiả n shàng H ả n y ù kè de (jiá o s h i) zài 222 hào. T h e classroo m w h e re w e have o u r C hinese class e v e ry d a y is R oo m

222:

Hit ( 2 7 ) 我 们 去 看 他 的 (那 天 )是 星 期 天 。 W o m e n qù kà n tã de (nà tiã n ) shì x in g q itia n . T h e d a y w h e n w e w e n t to see h im w as Sunday.

The n e x t g ro u p o f sentences d e m o n stra te th e use o f th e p a tte rn in a la rg e r d is c u r­ sive context.

(2 8 )

你 看 ,这是我在中国给你买的新年礼物。漂 亮 吗 ? N ĩ kà n, zhè shì w ỏ zài Z h o n g g u ó gẽi n ĩ m ă i de x in n iá n lĩw ù . P ià o lia n g ma? L o o k , th is is th e N e w Y e a r pre sen t th a t I b o u g h t fo r y o u in C hina. Is it p re tty ?

(2 9 )

那个给我们开门的孩子真好看。她是王老师的女儿吗? N à ge gẽi w o m e n k a i m én de h á iz i zhen hăokàn. T á shì W á n g lăo shi de n íť é r ma? T h a t c h ild w h o opened th e d o o r fo r

US

is re a lly p re tty . Is she

T e a c h e r W a n g ’s d aughter? ( 3 0 ) 我真喜欢上个星期五晚上跟我跳舞的那个年轻人。你知道他是谁吗? W ò zhēn x ĩh u ã n shàngge x in g q íw u w a n s h a n g gèn w o tià o w ủ de nà ge n iá n q ĩn g rén. N ĩ zh ld a o tā shì shéi ma? I re a lly lik e th a t y o u n g m an w h o danced w ith m e la s t F rid a y n ig h t. D o y o u k n o w w h o he is ?

.M 1

138

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 3 1 ) 上 个 星 期 ,两个从英国来的学生来找你。一 个 我 不 认 识 ,一个是去年

跟我们一起在中国学习汉语的同学。 S hàngge x in g q i, liả n g g e cóng Y in g g u ó lá i de xuésheng lá i zháo nỉ.

I

Y íg e w ỏ bú rèn sh i, y íg e shì q ù n iá n gen w o m e n y ìq ĩ zài Z h o ng g uó f x u é x í H à n y ủ de tó n g xu é . L a s t w eek, tw o students fro m E n g la n d came to lo o k fo r you. O ne I d id n ’t k n o w ,and th e o th e r w as th e classm ate w h o stu d ie d C hinese I to g e th e r w ith

in C h in a last year.

US

\

Because o f th e d iffe re n c e in w o rd o rd e r b etw e e n C hinese and E n g lis h , th e relative clause c o n s tru c tio n m a y pose c e rta in d if fic u lty fo r b e g in n in g students. I t w ill take I q u ite a b it o f p ra ctice , s w itc h in g a m o d ify in g clause fro m a p o s t-n o m in a l p o s itio n to a p re -n o m in a l p o s itio n , to a cq u ire the C hinese speech h a b it. B u t, as lo n g as y o u re- I m em be r th a t th e general p rin c ip le in C hinese is th a t a m o d ify in g e le m e n t alw ays comes b efo re w h a te v e r it m o d ifie s , y o u w ill a t least be able to c o n c e p tu a lly under- I stand the co n s tru c tio n . W h e n y o u tra n s la te e ith e r fro m E n g lis h to C hinese o r vice I versa, y o u fir s t have to decide w h a t is m o d ify in g w h a t and th e n choose th e order r a p p ro p ria te to th a t ta rg e t language.

2. The Adjectival Predicate 2.1

T h is se ction is a c tu a lly a re v ie w o f o u r p re v io u s discussion o f th e use o f an I

a djective .

W h e n an a d je c tiv e is used p re d ic a tiv e ly ,

it does n o t need a verb-to- I

be to help it c o n s titu te a predicate. (1 )

* 他今天悬高兴。 T ā jin tia n shi g ao xìng . H e is h a p p y to da y.

O n th e o th e r hand, a p re d ic a tiv e a d je c tiv e g e n e ra lly appears w ith som e k in d o f a I degree adverb.

D egree A d v e rb \— / \— / \ — / \— / 2 3 4 5 6

很大 太 小 (了 ) 真高兴 更年轻 非常好看

+

A d je c tiv e

(v e ry ) b ig " to o s m a ll” re a lly h a p p y , , even y o u n g e r” e x tre m e ly p re tty ”

\— /

139

Lesson 21

ļ (A) O f th e fiv e a d ve rb s lis te d above, Í 艮 Aé/I is th e m o s t co m m on one. In fa c t, its I presence, unless s p e c ific a lly stressed,does n o t n ece ssarily in d ic a te em phasis •他很忙 may s im p ly m ean “ H e is b u s y , ” and n o t n ece ssarily “ H e is v e ry b u s y .” 太 řái w ith ļ

an o p tio n a l

T

a t th e end o f th e sentence m a rk s “ excessiveness.”

(B) 真 zAerz,lite r a lly m e a n in g “ real, tru e , g e n u in e ,” m a y fu n c tio n as a degree a dve rb



as in 真 A d je c tiv e “ re a lly A d je c tiv e .” (7 )

她送我们的花儿真好看。 T ā sòng w o m e n de h u a r zhen hăokàn. T h e flo w e rs she gave

(8 )

US

are re a lly p re tty .

他 们 都 说 你 作 的 饭 真 好 吃 。你 什 么 时 候 请 我 们 去 你 家 吃 饭 ? T a m e n d ou shuỏ n ĩ zuò de fà n zhẻn h ăo chi. N ĩ shénm e s h íhò u q ĩn g w o m e n qù n ĩ jia c h ĩ fàn? T h e y a ll said th a t th e fo o d y o u cooked w as re a lly ta s ty . So, w h e n

(

w ill y o u in v ite

US

to y o u r house fo r dinner?

(c ) 非常 /é ic A á n g ,lite r a lly m e a n in g “ e x tra o rd in a ry ,” is g e n e ra lly used as a v e ry strong degree a d ve rb as in (9 )

常 A d je c tiv e “ e x tre m e ly A d je c tiv e .”

你 们 来 看 我 ,我 非 常 高 兴 。 N ĩm e n lá i k à n w ỏ , w ỏ fě ic h á n g g ao xìng . F m e x tre m e ly h a p p y th a t y o u came to see me.

(10)

这 两 本 书 都 是 我 朋 友 送 我 的 新 年 礼 物 ,非 常 有 意 思 。你 看 看 。 Z hè liả n g b ẽ n shu d ou shì w ỏ p é n g yo u sòng w ỏ de x ĩn n iá n lĩw ù , fě ic h á n g y o u yìsi. N ĩ kà n ka n . B o th o f these tw o b oo ks are presents w h ic h m y frie n d gave m e fo r th e N e w Y e a r. T h e y 're e x tre m e ly in te re s tin g . T a k e a lo o k.

(D )更

和 哗 ,p la ced b e fo re an a d je ctive , im p lie s some k in d o f an im p lic it co m p a ri-

son: “ even m o re A d je c tiv e .” (11)

日本车更好。 R ìb ẽ n che gèng hảo. Japanese cars are even b etter. ( Im p ly in g th a t som e o th e r cars are good b u t Japanese cars are even b e tte r.)

140

A Practical Chinese Grammar i

( 1 2 ) 白 先 生 在 银 行 工 作 ,不 太 忙 。他 儿 子 在 图 书 馆 工 作 ,每 天 十 点 上 班 ,

两 点 下 班 ,更 不 忙 。 B á i xiã n s h e n g zài y ín h á n g g on gzu ó, bú tà i m áng. T a érzi zài túshug uả n g õngzuò, m ẽ i tiã n sh íd iă n shàng ban, liả n g d iă n x ià bân, gèng ř bù m áng. M r. B a i w o rk s a t th e b a n k; (h e 5s) n o t to o busy. H is son w o rk s a t the lib ra ry ; he goes in a t ten o ’c lo c k and gets o ff a t tw o o ’c lo ck. H e, s I even less busy.

2.2

In q u e s tio n fo rm a tio n , o n ly th e

fo rm is used and n o t th e a ffirm a tiv e —

n eg a tive p a tte rn . (1 3 )

这本中文书真好看吗? Z hè bẽn Z h ó n g w é n shū zhēn h ă o k à n ma? Is th is C hinese b o o k tr u ly in te re stin g ? ( = g oo d to lo o k at)?

(14) * 这本中文书真好看不真好看? * Z h è bẽn Z h o n g w é n shủ zhèn h ả o k à n bù zhen hăokàn?

2.3

In n e g a tiv e fo rm a tio n , th e o rd e rin g o f th e n e g a tiv e m a rk e r and th e degree

a dve rb is ra th e r id io s y n c ra tic . Som e adve rb s m a y p re fe r a c e rta in sequence and, for o th e r adverbs, a d iffe re n t o rd e rin g m a y re s u lt in a c o m p le te ly d iffe re n t rea din g. (15) (16) (17)

不[很 A d je c tiv e ] 很[不 A d je c tiv e ] 不[太 A d je c tiv e ]

太[不 A d je c tiv e ] (19) * 不[真 A d je c tiv e ] ( 20 ) 真[不 A d je c tiv e ] ( 21 ) * 不[非常 A d je c tiv e ( 22 ) 非常[不 A d je c tiv e (23) * 不[更 A d je c tiv e ] (24) 更[不 A d je c tiv e ] :

too u n A d je c tiv e

太不好看了 “ too u n s ig h tly ”

tru ly u n A d je c tiv e

真不乾净

ve ry u n A d je c tiv e

(18)

2.4

n ot too A d je c tiv e

不很局兴 很不商兴 不太年轻

n ot ve ry A d je c tiv e

“ n ot v e ry happy” “ ve ry unhappy” “ n o t too young”

“ tru ly d ir ty ”

] ] : extremely unAdjective 非常不好

“ e xtre m ely bad”

even more unAdjective 更不漂亮

“even less pretty”

I f a p re d ic a tiv e a d je c tiv e appears w ith o u t th e a c c o m p a n im e n t o f a degree

adverb, it is a lw a y s a case o f im p lic it co m p arison . T h a t is to say a sentence lik e 这

141

Lesson 21

本书好 • “ T h is b o o k is g o o d .” ca rries th e fo llo w in g c o n n o ta tio n : “ T h is b o o k is good and th a t b o o k is n o t.” In o th e r w o rd s ,

th e p a tte rn

“ S u b je c t + A d je c tiv e ”

is n o t a

simple d e s c rip tio n ,as is th e case in E n g lis h . 很 is s e ld o m ly used in a c o n tra s tiv e description. (2 5 )

你 的 衬 衫 乾 净 ,裤 子 不 乾 净 。 N ĩ de chènshãn g a n jin g , k ù z i bù g ā n jin g . Y o u r s h irt is clean, b u t n o t y o u r pants.

(2 6 )

这个图书馆的书多,那个图书馆的书少。 Z hè ge tú s h ủ g u ă n de shu duõ, nà ge tú s h u g u ả n de shu shảo. T h e b o o ks o f th is lib r a r y are m an y, and th e b oo ks o f th a t lib r a r y are fe w . ( = T h i s lib r a r y has a la rg e c o lle c tio n o f b oo ks and th a t lib r a r y a sm a ll co lle c tio n .)

(2 7 )

他女 JL 年 轻 ,他儿子更年轻。 T ā n ū 'e r n iá n q ĩn g , tā érzi gèng n iá n q in g . H is d a u g h te r is y o u n g and h is son is even y o un ge r.

(2 8 )

英 国 车 好 ,日本车更好。我有三辆日本车。 Y ĩn g g u ó chẻ hảo, R ìb ẽ n che gèng hăo.

wỏ y õ u

sa nliàn g R ìb ẽ n che.

B ritis h cars are good b u t Japanese cars are even b etter. I have th re e Japanese cars.

3. The Transitive Quality Verb There are c e rta in ve rb s in C hinese th a t can be m o d ifie d b y a degree a d ve rb and, in this m anner, th e y are v e ry m u ch lik e a d je ctive s (o r status verbs). U n lik e adjectives, however, th e y ta k e O b jects. H ence, th e y are som etim es re fe rre d to as 'T r a n s itiv e Quality V e rb s ” ;“ tra n s itiv e ” because th e y ta k e O b je cts, and “ q u a lity ” because th e y behave lik e adjective s. T h e same set o f degree a dverbs th a t m o d ify a dje ctive s is also c o m p a tib le w ith th is ca te g o ry o f verbs. E x a m p le s o f tra n s itiv e q u a lity verbs are: ( A ) 喜欢 xiTiuarz “ to lik e ” : (1 )

我非常喜欢你。

wỏ fě ic h á n g

x ĩh u a n nĩ.

I am e x tre m e ly fo n d o f you.

142

A Practical Chinese Grammar J.

(2 )

我非常喜欢喝拮子水。 W o fě ic h á n g x ĩh u a n he jú z is h u i. I lik e (to d rin k ) ora ng e ju ic e a lot.

( B ) 想 x iá n g “ to w a n t/t o m iss ” : (3 )

帕兰卡在中国学习,她很想她爸爸妈妈。 P à lá n k ả zài Z h o n g g u ó x ú e x í, ta hen x ia n g ta bába m am a. P a la n ka is s tu d y in g in C hin a. She misses h e r p aren ts v e ry m uch.

(4 )

我真想去看今天晚上的京剧。 W o zhen x iă n g qù kà n jin tia n w a n sh a n g de jin g jú . I re a lly w a n t to go see to n ig h ť s B e ijin g O pera.

(c ) 象

“ to rese m b le ” : (5 )

I

你儿子太象你哥哥了。 N i é rz i tà i x ià n g n ĩ gēge le. Y o u r son lo o k s in c re d ib ly lik e y o u r b ro th e r.

(6 )

在 图 书 馆 工 作 的 王 太 太 有 一 个 非 常 漂 亮 的 女 儿 。我 们 都 说 她 真 象 妈 , 妈 。王太太很高兴。 Z ài tú s h ũ g u ă n g ó n g zu ó de W á n g tà ita i y o u y íg e fe ic h á n g p ià o lia n g de n íťé r. W õ m e n d õu shuò tā zhen x ià n g m am a. W á n g tà ita i hẽn I g â o xìn g . M rs . W a n g , w h o w o rk s at th e lib ra ry , has an e x tre m e ly b e a u tifu l d a u g h te r. W e a ll said th a t she re a lly lo o k s lik e h e r m o th e r. M rs. W a n g w as v e ry hap py.

( D ) 感谢 g á n x iẻ “ to th a n k /to be g ra te fu l ” : (7 )

我 们 感 谢 你 ,我们更感谢你太太。 W o m e n g ả n x iè n ĩ, w o m e n gèng g ả n x iè n ĩ tà ita i. W e are v e ry g ra te fu l to yo u, b u t w e are even m o re g ra te fu l to your w ife .

A s in the case o f adjective s, a q u a lity ve rb , w h e n m o d ifie d b y in an a ffirm a tiv e — n e g a tiv e q u e s tio n fo rm .

很 ,does n o t appear

143

Lesson 21

(8 )

*你女 > 很象不很象你? * N ĩ n ũ ^ r hèn x ià n g b u h ẽn x ià n g nĩ? D oes y o u r d a u g h te r lo o k lik e you?

你女 p 象 不 象 你 ?

(9 )

N ĩ n u 'ér x ià n g b u x ià n g nĩ?

你女 + 很 象 你 吗 ?

(1 0 )

N ĩ n iť é r hèn x ià n g n ĩ ma?

4. Reduplication of Verbs 4.1

A ve rb d e n o tin g an a ctio n m a y be repeated in th e fo rm o f [ V e rb + V e r b ]

to express th e m e a n in g o f “ to do it a little b it.” T h e repeated s y lla b le is a lw a y s in the n e u tra l tone. (1 )

请你想想这个问题。 Q ĩn g n ĩ x iả n g x ia n g zhè ge w è n tí. Please th in k a b o u t th is p ro b le m a little b it.

(2 )

请你给我们介绍介绍中国的民歌。 Q ĩn g n ĩ gẽi w o m e n jié sh a o jié sh a o Z h ó n g g u ó de m ínge. Please te ll

US

a little b it a b o u t C hinese fo lkso n g s.

With a tw o -s y lla b le ve rb , say A B , as in sentence (2), th e p a tte rn fo r re p e titio n is A B A B w ith th e m a in stress fa llin g on the fir s t and th e th ir d syllables.

4.2

W h e n a v e rb is re d u p lic a te d , i t in d ica te s a te n ta tiv e n o tio n , a triv ia liz a tio n o f

an action e ith e r in te rm s o f th e tim e it takes to c a rry o u t th e a c tio n o r th e consequ­ ences o f th e a ctio n . T h e p a tte rn is, th e re fo re , o fte n used fo r th e fo llo w in g purposes:

(A) T o describe a “ s h o rt” a c tio n w h ic h a person hopes o r in te n d s to u nd erta ke. (3 )

走走 zỏuzou:

,

ta k e a w a lk ( fo r tw e n ty m in u te s b u t n o t fo r tw o h o u rs ) (4 )

下 课 以 后 ,我们常常去咖啡馆坐坐,喝 喝 咖 啡 。 X ià kè y ĩh ò u , w o m e n ch án gch án g qù k ā fe ig u a n

ZU0 ZUO,

hēhe kā fēi.

A f t e r class, w e o fte n go to th e co ffe e shop (and s it th e re ) fo r a w h ile and have some coffee.

144

A Practical Chinese Grammar

T h e re d u p lic a tio n o fte n appears a fte r a n o th e r v e rb th a t represents th e e ffo r t one ex­ pends to achieve th a t u n d e rta k in g . F o r e xam ple , in sentence (4 ) , 去咖啡馆 precedes b o th v e rb a l re d u p lic a tio n s , 坐坐 and 喝喝咖啡 .

(B ) T o express th e idea o f tr y in g tp do s o m e thin g. (5 )

我 说 说 ,你听 对 不 对 。

wỏ shuỏshuo, nỉ tin g d u i bu dui. ril t r y to say th is ; lis te n and see w h e th e r (6 )

iť s co rrect.

我今天下午去找找他,看 他 在 不 在 。 W o jin tia n x ià w ủ qù zhaozhao ta, k à n tả zài bu zài.

ril (C )

go to lo o k fo r h im th is a fte rn o o n and see w h e th e r he is in.

T o s o fte n th e to n e o f a co m m an d, a request, o r a su ggestion. (7 )

老师让我们想想这个问题。 L ă o s h i rà n g w o m e n x iả n g x ia n g zhè ge w è n tí. T h e te ach er asks

(8 )

US

to th in k a b o u t th is p ro b le m a little b it.

请你开开门。 Q ĩn g n ĩ k a ik a i m én. Please open th e door.

(9 )

我用 用 你 的 词 典 ,好 吗 ?

wỏ y ò n g y o n g

n ĩ de cíd iă n , hảo ma?

M a y I use y o u r d ic tio n a ry fo r a little w h ile ? (1 0 )

他写的汉字非常漂亮。你 看 看 。 T a x iẽ de H á n z i fě ic h á n g p ià o lia n g . N ĩ k à n ka n . (T a k e a) L o o k ! T h e C hinese ch aracte rs he w ro te are extrem ely k b e a u tifu l.

( 1 1 ) 你们现 在 没 事 儿 ,来 我 家 坐 坐 ,休 息 休 息 。 N ĩm e n

xiánzái méi shìr, lái w o jiā ZU0ZUO, xiũxixiũxi.

N o w th a t y o u d o n ’t have a n y th in g to do, com e to m y house and re- ļ la x a little b it. T h e re d u p lic a tio n occurs o n ly w ith v o litio n a l a c tio n verbs, i.e. ve rb s representing I action s th a t one ca rries o u t b y in te n tio n . A d je c tiv e s , tra n s itiv e q u a lity verbs, and the I verbs 是 ,在 , and 有 do n o t u n d e rg o th is re d u p lic a tio n .

145

Lesson 21

ļ

5_ The Particle 吧

Í

The p a rtic le 吧 f c a a t t a c h e d t o t h e e n d o f a s e n t e n c e s i g n a l s a r e q u e s t o r a s u g g e s tion. Its presence also tends to so fte n th e to ne o f such a request o r suggestion. (1 )

坐 !



请 坐 ! Q ĩn g zuò!

(S it, please!)



坐 吧 ! Z u ò ba!

(W h y d o n ’t y o u s it dow n? )



请 坐 吧 !Q ĩn g zuò ba!

(W h y don’t you sit d ow n please?)



休 息 休 息 吧 ,好 吗 ?

Z uò!

(S it!)

X iũ x ix iủ x i ba, hăo ma? L e t’s re st fo r a w h ile , O K ? (6 )

你来这儿吧! N ĩ lá i zh è r ba! W h y d o n ’t y o u com e o v e r here?

(7 )

我们跳舞吧! W o m e n tià o w ủ ba! L e t’s dance!

(8 )

请你给我们说说吧。 Q ĩn g n ĩ gẽi w o m e n sh uỏ shu o ba. Please te ll

(9 )

US

a little b it a b o u t it.

妈 p 告 诉 儿 子 说 , “ 你 现 在 穿 的 衬 衫 不 乾 净 ,也 不 好 看 。别 穿 这 件 , 穿 那 件 吧 。” M a m a gàosu érzi shuó, uNi xia n z á i chuan de chènshan bù g ā n jin g , yẽ bù h ăo kàn . B ié chuan zhè jià n , chuan nà jià n ba.^ T h e m o th e r to ld h e r son (b y sa yin g ), "T h e s h irt y o u re w e a rin g n o w is n ’t clean, and i t doesn’t lo o k g oo d e ithe r. D o n ’t w e a r th is one. W e a r th a t one.”

(10)

A : 我想 请 你 跳 舞 。

-

W õ x iă n g q ĩn g n ĩ tià o w ủ. I d lik e to ask y o u to dance w ith me. B : 你 请 丁 云 跳 吧 。我现 在 没 空 儿 。 N ĩ q ĩn g D in g Y ú n tià o ba. W õ x iá n z á i m é i k ò n g r. W h y d o n ’t y o u ask D in g Y u n to dance? I ’m b u sy r ig h t n ow .

Lesson 22 二一

1. Position Words 1.1

A s th e te rm suggests, a p o s itio n w o rd specifies a lo c a tio n and th e s p e c ific a tio n

is made in refe re n ce to s o m e th in g else. In E n g lis h , fo r e xam ple, “ o u ts id e ” is a position w o rd , b u t, w ith o u t th e p ro p e r c o n te x t, th e reference p o in t is n o t clear: “ o utsid e of w ha t? ” “ O u ts id e o f a ro o m ” o r “ o u tsid e o f a b u ild in g ” ?T h e “ o u ts id e ” o f a ro o m could s till be th e “ in s id e ” o f a b u ild in g . In o th e r w o rd s , th e n o tio n o f a p o s itio n is a I

relative one and it is im p o rta n t to k n o w th e a ctua l refe ren ce p o in t. In o u r exam ple above, is i t “ th e ro o m ” o r “ th e b u ild in g ” th a t is b e in g used as th e base in re la tio n to w hich th e p o s itio n “ o u ts id e ” is established? O nce th e q ue stio n is answ ered and the reference is nam ed o r u n d e rsto o d fro m th e co n te x t, i t m a y be o m itte d fro m th e sent­ ence. T h u s , i f th e fo llo w in g sta te m e n t is m ade in sid e a classroom , th e reference point is e v id e n tly cle a r to b o th th e speaker and the addressee.

I

T h e re is a m a n w a itin g o utside, (...w a itin g o u tsid e o f th e classroom .) Som e o f th e co m m o n p o s itio n w o rd s in C hinese fo r e xpressin g sp a tia l re la tio n ­ al term s are:

右 蔡

mi hi

ě

=a Ť l '0]l'

-M

I

lībiān qiánbiản shàngbian zuobian pángbiãn zhóngjián duìmiàn

“ • •J , , in sid e

關 I

g通 迪



:^

“ fr o n t”

u,

to p

ĨĨ

“ le f t”

II

_\ •

•r

waibian hòubian xiàbiàn yòubian



_ _, _• 1_»

o utsid e

“ back” “ b o tto m ” “ r ig h t” I

“ side, fla n k ” “ m id d le ” « •. ÌĨ o pp o site

Please n o tic e th a t th e fir s t fo u r p a irs are a ll fo rm e d w ith th e s u ffix i i

bian, w h ic h

literally m eans uside.J,T h o u g h it is m a rk e d as a fir s t tone s y lla b le , it is a lw a y s p ro ­ nounced w ith a s lig h tly w ea ken ed p itc h . In

pảngbiàn.

^ ì ỉ l , h o w e v e r , 边 re ta in s its fu ll tone:

148

1.2

A Practical Chinese Grammar

T o sp e c ify th e refe ren ce p o in t in a p o s itio n a l w o rd u n it in C hinese, th e o rd e r­

in g is q u ite d iffe re n t fro m th a t in E n g lis h , as illu s tra te d in th e fo llo w in g :

C h in e se

E n g lis h

[ N o u n + P o sitio n ]

[ P o sitio n + N o u n ]



上边

o n top o f

th e b oo k

照片

下边

under

th e picture

教室

里边

inside

th e classro om

邮局

外边

o utside o f

th e p o st o ffic e

厨房

前边

in fro n t o f

th e k itch en

卧室

后边

behind

th e b ed room

桌子

左边

to th e le ft o f

th e d esk

椅子

右边

to th e righ t o f

the ch a ir

客厅

旁边

b y th e side o f

the liv in g room

洗澡间

中间

in th e m idd le o f

th e b ath ro om

学校

对面

opp o site o f

th e sch o o l

I f w e re m e m b e r th e basic p rin c ip le in C hinese s y n ta x th a t a m o d ifie r a lw a y s comes b e fo re th e n o u n i t m o d ifie s , th e n th e sequ en tial o rd e rin g in a p o s itio n a l u n it is q uite easy to und ersta nd . T h e p o s itio n w o rd serves as th e head n o u n and th e reference phrase fu n c tio n s as a m o d ifie r, te llin g

US

m o re a b o u t th e p o s itio n , n a m e ly th e p osi­

tio n in g in refe ren ce to , and n o t “ insjde B e ijin g .” F o r th e same reason, sentence (4) w o u ld be c o rre c t o n ly i f it w ere to m ean “ H e w o rk s in sid e th e b a n k and n o t on th e o u tsid e o r a t th e fr o n t.”

J

1.3

A p o s itio n w o rd m a y also be used to m o d ify a noun, in w h ic h case th e fo rm e r

w ill stand b e fo re th e la tte r in th e p a tte rn . 的 is o b lig a to ry in th is case. T h e o rd e r is the e xact o p p o site o f w h a t w e fin d in E n g lis h , as illu s tra te d in th e fo llo w in g :

1.4

C h in e s e

E n g lis h

[ P o sitio n 的 N o u n ]

[ N o u n + P o sitio n ]

上边



衬衫

th e shirt o n th e top

下边





th e letter beneath

外边



窗户

th e w in d o w s o utside

里边





th e p eo ple inside

左边



房间

th e roo m on the left

右边



花儿

th e flo w e rs on th e righ t

旁边



银行

th e b ank b y th e side

对面





th e car o n th e opp o site side

中间



花园

th e ga rd en in th e m iddle

I f w e c o m b in e th e p a tte rn in 1.2 w ith th a t in 1.3, w e have a co m p le te m o d ific a ­

tion u n it w ith a p o s itio n a l reference. T h is is d ia g ra m m e d as b elow :

[ N oun



N oun



床 书举

Ml

.‘

;M :Ť

i

# :

炀 咖撒

#

上边的 下边的 外边的 里边的 前边的 后边的

笔 w





會旣

凇f

li i

P o s itio n ]

+

th e s h irt on th e bed th e pen u n d e r th e b o o k th e p o s t o ffic e o u ts id e o f th e cam pus th e ta ble s in sid e th e d in in g h a ll th e cafe in fr o n t o f th e lib r a r y th e fie ld b e h in d th e d o rm

150

A Practical Chinese Grammar

卧室

左边的

书房

右边的

门 洗澡间 邮局和宿舍

旁边的 对面的 中间的

th e

la v a to ry

to

th e

le ft

of

i

the

b ed ro o m

客 窗 房 咖

iy ,

the liv in g ro o m to th e r ig h t o f the

I0T :]T

_洞

s tu d y the w in d o w n e x t to th e d o o r

:^



the ro o m o p p o s ite to th e b a th ro o m the cafe b e tw e e n th e p o s t o ffic e and th e d o rm

A s expected, th e w o rd o rd e r in E n g lis h is a co m p le te re ve rsa l o f th e sequence in C hinese. A n d , p re c is e ly because o f th is d ra s tic discrep a ncy, b e g in n in g stu d e n ts in e ith e r language m a y expe rie nce d if fic u lty in tra n s la tio n o r c o m p o s itio n th a t in v o lv e s the use o f a p o s itio n a l u n it. W e need to be e x tra c a re fu l w h e n e xp re ssin g p o s itio n a l in fo rm a tio n . I f n o t, w e m a y be im p a rtin g an in a ccu ra te message o r s im p ly u tte rin g a

Ļ

nonsense sentence.



学校左边

vs.

th e le ft side o f th e school



报下边的书

vs.

th e b o o k u n d e r th e p ap er



床上边的人

左边的学校 th e school o n th e le ft

书下边的报 th e p a p e r u n d e r th e b o o k

vs.

th e person in bed

*人上边的床 * th e bed on th e person

2. The Location Sentence P o s itio n a l u n its o fte n appear in th re e ty p e s o f sentences: those in d ic a tin g lo c a tio n ,

I

existence and id e n tific a tio n . T h e la tte r tw o ty p e s are discussed in S e ctions 3 and 4. A s w e have learned in an e a rlie r lesson, w e use th e fo llo w in g p a tte rn w ith the ve rb 在 to in d ic a te th e lo c a tio n o f an o b je c t o r a person, w ho se re fe ren ce is kn o w n to b o th th e speaker and th e addressee. ( In E n g lis h , such s p e cific re fe ren ce is indicated b y th e use o f th e d e fin ite a rtic le “ th e .” )

Noun

+



+

PLACE.

[ T h e N o u n is a t PLACE.]

W h a t k in d o f w o rd s m a y serve as PLACE expressions? T h e fo llo w in g is a lis t of id e n tifia b le typ e s o f elem ents th a t m a y app ea r in such a role.

I

Lesson 22

151

(A ) T h e lo c a t iv e s : 这 儿 ,那 儿 ,哪 儿 : (1 )

老师 在 这 儿 。 L ả o s h ĩ zài zhèr. T h e te a ch e r is here.

(2 )

厕所 在 哪 儿 ? C èsuỏ zài nảr? W h e re is th e b a th ro o m ?

(B) N o u n

+ 这儿/ 那 儿 : (3 )

你的裙子在你妹妹那儿。 N ĩ de q ú n zi zài n ĩ m è im e i nàr. Y o u r s k ir t is th e re w ith y o u r sister.

(4 )

我的唱片在谁那儿? W o de c h à n g p ià n zài shéi nàr? W h o has m y album ?



For a re v ie w o f th is p a tte rn , please re fe r b a ck to Lesson 16: S e ction 4.

(C) A real place w o rd such as a place nam e, a b u ild in g , o r an o rg a n iz a tio n , e t c . : ( 5)

我们现在在美国。 W o m e n x iá n z á i zài M ẽ ig u ó . W e are n o w in A m e ric a .

(6 )

他昨天晚上不在宿舍,他在我家听音乐。 T ā z u ó tiá n w a n sh a n g bú zài sùshè, tá zài w ỗ jiā tĩn g y ĩn y u è . H e w a s n 't a t th e d o rm last n ig h t. H e w as a t m y house, lis te n in g to m usic.

(D) A p o s itio n a l u n it: (7 )

图书馆在左边。

i

T ú s h ủ g u ă n zái zuobiān. T h e lib r a r y is to th e le ft. (8 )

图书馆在书店左边。 T ú s h ũ g u á n zài sh ũ d ià n zuobiān. T h e lib r a r y is to th e le ft o f th e b oo kstore .

152

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(9 )



我们去的那个电影院在一个咖啡馆旁边。 W o m e n qù de nà ge d ià n y ĩn g y u à n zài y íg e k á íẽ ig u ă n p án gb iâ n . T h e m o v ie th e a te r w e are g o in g to is r ig h t n e x t to a cafe.

3. The Existence Sentence 3.1

A n e xistence sentence te lls w h a t can be fo u n d a t a c e rta in place. T h e m ost

!

co m m on s y n ta c tic in d ic a to r o f an e xistence sentence in E n g lis h is “ T h e re is /a re ...” F o r exam ple, T h e re is a b o o k o n th e desk. O n th e desk, th e re is a b oo k.

%

T h e above tw o sentences are b a s ic a lly th e same in m e a n in g , even th o u g h the

PLACE expression appears a t th e end o f sentence (a) b u t a t th e b e g in n in g o f sen­ te nce (b). In C hinese, th e re is o n ly one o rd er:



PLACE WORD

O b je c t

[ T h e re is NOUN a t PLACE ]

(1 )

桌子上边有书。 Z h u o z i sh àn gb iả n y o u shū.

T h e p a rtic u la r v e rb used in th is p a tte rn fo r e xistence is 有 , a ve rb th a t also fu n c ­ tio n s as a possessive ve rb m e a n in g “ to h ave ” . T h is d o u b le usage o f 有 c lo s e ly re­ sem bles th a t o f



参观图书馆 cānguān tú s h ũ g u ă n v is it a lib r a r y



*参观中国 cānguān Z h o n g g u ó v is it C h in a



*参观北京 cānguān B e ijin g v is it B e ijin g



*参观朋友 cānguān p é n g yo u v is it a frie n d

访 问 ,on th e o th e r h an d, m eans to v is it and in te rv ie w a person. I t co nn ote s some k in d o f an o ffic ia l v is it and m a y n o t be used to re fe r to th e casual d ro p -b y of a frie n d . T h e re fo re . (7 )

T e d K o p p e l 想去中国访问邓小平。 T e d K o p p e l x iă n g qù Z h o n g g u ó fá n g w e n D è n g X ia o p in g . T e d K o p p e l w a n ts to go to C h in a and in te rv ie w D e n g X ia o p in g .

171

Lesson 23

(8 )

* 我想明年去中国访问我的好朋友。

*wỏ x iă n g

m ín g n iá n qù Z h o n g g u ó fa n g w é n w ỏ de hảo p én gyo u.

I w a n t to go and v is it m y g oo d frie n d in C h in a n e x t year. In a s itu a tio n lik e (8) w h e re one is v is itin g a frie n d , th e p ro p e r v e rb to use in Chinese is s im p ly 看 (9 )

“ to see, to v is it.”

我想明年去中国看我的好朋友。 W õ x iă n g m ín g n iá n qù Z h o n g g u ó k à n w ỏ de hăo p én gyo u.

In some s itu a tio n s , 访问

m a y be used w ith a place, as in sentence (10), b u t i t is

used o n ly w h e n th e g en eral p urpo se o f such a v is it is to m eet w ith , hence uto in te r ­ v ie w ,t h e o ffic ia l peo ple th ere. ( 1 0 ) 总统今年想去访问日本。 Z o n g to n g jin n iá n x iă n g qù fá n g w é n R ìbẽn. P re sid e n t hopes to v is it Japan th is year. Now, i f th e p urpo se o f a C h in a tr ip is s im p ly fo r sig h tse e in g and some sh op ping , then w h a t is th e p ro p e r w o rd to use to describe such a v is it ? 参观 is in c o rre c t since the d e s tin a tio n is n o t an in s titu tio n b u t th e c o u n try and its m a n y c itie s ;访问 is in ­ appropriate since th e v is it is n o t o ffic ia l; #

is also a w ro n g choice because th is ve rb

takes a p erson and n o t a place as its O b je ct. T h e re is a v e rb in th e C hinese le x ic o n meaning “ to ta k e a tr ip to, to to u r,” w h ic h w e w ill le a rn later. A n d , u n til th en , w e w ill be c o n te n t to use 玩儿 w á n r, lite r a lly “ to p la y ,” to re fe r to th is fu n a c tiv ity . ( 1 1 ) 我很想去中国玩儿。 W o hẽn x iă n g qù Z h o n g g u ó w á n r. I r e a lly w a n t to go and v is it C hin a.

Lesson 24

1. The Indefinite Measure Word 1.1

A m easure w o rd is re q u ire d w h e n th e n o u n is q u a lifie d b y a n u m e ra l, such as

二本书 sānfcēfl sAū “ th re e b o o ks.” I t is also re q u ire d w h e n th e n o u n is preceded b y a "s ,

dem onstrative, fo r e xa m p le ,这本书 zAè 6ẻn sAử “ th is b o o k .” In th e la tte r case, even though th e re is no n u m e ra l e x p lic itly stated, th e im p lie d n u m b e r is s in g u la r. H ence, “this b o o k ” and n o t “ these b o o ks.” T h e n , h o w do w e say “ these b o o k s ” w h e re the number is p lu ra l b u t th e refe ren ce is u n sp e cifie d o r in d e fin ite ? In C hinese, an in d e fi-

i ^

nite m easure w o rd is used fo r th is purpose. T h e in d e fin ite m easure w o rd fo r co u n ta b le n ouns is 些 xiẻ.

zh è xiẽ rén nà xiē chê nả xiē shủ

那些车 哪些书

“ these p e o ple ” “ th ose cars” “ w h ic h books?”

The in d e fin ite m easure does app ea r w ith th e n u m e ra l fo r one ( 一 ) m u c h in the same m a n n e r as th e use o f “ a” in “ a fe w o f” o r “ a b it o f” in E n g lis h .

一些朋友 一

y ìx iẻ p é n g y o u

yìx iẽ piào

“ a fe w /s o m e frie n d s ” “ a fe w /s o m e tic k e ts ”

〜 One m a in s y n ta c tic fe a tu re to n o te here is th a t, u n lik e th e use o f “ some N o u n ” in English w h ic h m a y o c c u p y th e s u b je ct p o s itio n in a sentence ( F o r e xam ple , “ Som e friends are w a itin g fo r y o u o u tsid e .” ),th e “ 一些

N o u n ” u n it nevers appears as a

subject in C hinese. (1 )

我在中国有一些朋友。

wỏ zài Z h o n g g u ó

y õ u y ìx iẽ p én gyo u.

I have a fe w frie n d s in C hina. (2 )

* — 些朋友来看你。 Y ìx iẽ p é n g y o u lá i k à n n ĩ. A fe w frie n d s came to see you.

174

A Practical Chinese Grammar

A fe w m ore sentences to illu s tra te th e use o f 些 : (3 )

老师今天给我们介绍北京,还给我们看一些中国农村的照片。 L a o s h ī jīn tiā n g ẽi w o m e n jie s h á o B ē ijīn g , h á i gẽi w o m e n k à n yìxiẽ Z h o n g g u ó n ó n g c ũ n de zhàopiàn. T o d a y th e te ach er ta lk e d to

US

a b o u t B e ijin g and sh o w e d

US

some

p ic tu re s o f C hinese villa ge s. (4 )

这 些 生 词 很 难 ,我们 都 不 太 懂 。下 课 以 后 ,我们一起去问王老师吧。 Z hè x iẽ shẽngcí hẽn nán, w o m e n dõu b ú tà i dỏng.

X ià kè yĩhòu,

w o m e n y ìq ĩ qù w è n W á n g lả o s h ĩ ba. T h e se n e w w o rd s are v e ry d if fic u lt and w e d o n ’t q u ite understand th em . L e t’s go and ask T e a c h e r W a n g to g e th e r a fte r class. (5 )

你昨天买的那些裙子都很漂亮。你穿哪一条去参加今天晚上的舞会? N i z u ó tiá n m ă i de nà x iẽ q ú n z i d õu hẽn p ià o lia n g . N ĩ ch uã n nả y ìtiá o qù cā n jiā jīn t iā n w ash an g de w u h u i? T h e s k irts y o u b o u g h t y e ste rd a y are a ll v e ry p re tty . W h ic h one w ill y o u w e a r fo r to n ig h t’s dance p arty?

1.2

A n o th e r in d e fin ite m easure w o rd in C hinese is 点儿 cřiá/ir,o fte n used fo r un- I

co u n ta b le th in g s to in d ic a te a sm all a m o un t. H en ce , — 点 儿 咖 啡 y ic f ó / ir /cá/éi for I “ some c o ffe e /a little c o ffe e .” S om etim es, — 点儿 y ic fó /ir m a y be used interchange- I a b ly w ith

一 ^ yìx iẽ to m o d ify th e same n ou n, in w h ic h case th e fo rm e r refe rs t o 、

an even sm a lle r q u a n tity th a n th e la tte r. F o r exam ple, (6 )

我有一点儿事儿请你帮助。 W o y o u y ìd iă n r s h ir q ĩn g n ĩ bāngzhu. I have s o m e th in g on w h ic h I need y o u r help.

(7 )

我有一些事儿请你帮助。 W o y o u y ìx iẽ s h ir q ĩn g n ĩ bángzhů. I have a fe w th in g s on w h ic h I need y o u r help.

O th e r exam ples are: (8 )

下星期二是古波的生日。我们一起给他买一点儿礼物,你 说 好 吗 ? X ìa x ĩn g q ĩ^ r shì G ủ b õ de shẽngrì. W o m e n y ìq ĩ g ẽi tã m ả i yìd iản r lĩw ù . N ĩ shuõ hăo ma? N e x t T u e s d a y is G u b o ’s b irth d a y . L e t’s g e t h im some g if t to gether. W h a t do y o u say?

Lesson 24

(9 )

这个酒有一点儿问题。我 们 别 喝 吧 。 Z hè ge jiủ y õ u y ìd iă n r w é n tí. W o m e n bié hẽ ba. T h e re is som e p ro b le m w ith th is w in e . L e t’s n o t d rin k it.

( 1 0 ) 这束花儿是给你的,这点儿糖是给你妹妹的。 Z hè shù h u ā r shì gẽi n ĩ de, zhè d iả n r tá n g shì gẽi n ĩ m è im e i de. T h e flo w e rs are fo r y o u and th e ca n d y is fo r y o u r sister. ( 1 1 ) 吃点儿面包吧。 C h ĩ d iả n r m ià n b ã o ba. H a v e some bread. ( 1 2 ) 你去买点儿鸡蛋。 N ĩ qù m ă i d iă n r jĩd à n . G o b u y som e eggs. In the la st tw o exam ples,

is a s h o rt fo rm o f 一 ,Í U L .

Lesson 25

1. The Complement of Degree

1.1

A co m p le m e n t re fe rs to a g ra m m a tic a l u n it, g e n e ra lly m ade up o f a v e rb a l o r

an a d je ctiva l expressio n, th a t appears a fte r th e m a in ve rb in a sentence and en­ hances its m ea nin g. T h e C hinese lan gu ag e co n ta in s v a rio u s ty p e s o f co m p le m en ts and the p a rtic u la r ty p e w e are le a rn in g in th is lesson is ca lle d “ th e C o m p le m e n t o f Degree.” F irs t, a fe w exam ples o f th is c o m p le m e n t co n s tru c tio n .

(1 )

他吃得很多。 T ā c h ī de hẽn duõ. H e ate a lot.

(2 )

他写得真好。 T ā x iẽ de zhēn hăo. H e w rite s re a lly w e ll.

(3 )

他来得很晚。 T ā lá i de hen w an. H e cam e v e ry late.

S tru ctu ra lly, th e c o m p le m e n t c o n s tru c tio n can be d ia g ra m m e d as b elow :

V e rb

+



+

C o m p le m e n t

得 is th e m a rk e r fo r th e co m p le m e n t; i t is p h o n e tic a lly id e n tic a l w ith b u t g ra p h ic a lly 的 . T h e c o m p le m e n t o f degree its e lf is

different fro m th e m o d ific a tio n m a rk e r

usually an a d je ctive , w h ic h in tu rn re q u ire s th e m o d ific a tio n o f a degree adverb. A s in the case o f a p re d ic a tiv e a d je ctive , i f no degree a d ve rb is used in th e co m p le m e n t, it im p lie s co m p arison .

178

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(4 )

j

帕兰卡唱得好听,古波唱得不好听。 P à lá n kả chàng de h ă o tĩn g , G ủ b ỏ chàng de bù h ă o tln g . P a la n k a sings w e ll and G u b o doesn’t.

S e m a n tica lly, th e c o m p le m e n t o f degree ind ica te s th e m a n n e r in w h ic h th e a c tio n is ca rrie d o u t o r th e e x te n t to w h ic h th e a c tio n generates a resu lt. In o th e r w o rd s , it focuses o u r a tte n tio n n o t so m u c h on th e a c tio n its e lf as on th e state th a t arises fro m th a t a ction . F o r e xam ple, sentence (1) te lls n o t o n ly o f th e a c tio n o f e a tin g but also, s p e c ific a lly , o f th e c o n s u m p tio n q u a n tity . Sentence (2) describes an a c tio n of w ritin g , w ith special em phasis on its q u a lity . Sentence (3) is e s s e n tia lly concerned w ith th e lateness o f th e a c tio n o f c o m in g . In a ll th re e cases, th e re s u lta tiv e states are each represented b y a s ta tiv e v e rb (a n a d je c tiv e ). H ence, w e can revise the above d ia g ra m as b e lo w :

V e rb

+



+

C o m p le m e n t D egree

1.2

A d v e rb

A d je c tiv e

Y o u m a y w a n t to ask, a t th is p o in t, w h y i t is th a t th e c o m p le m e n t u n it does I

n o t appear b e fo re th e verb. W e have m e n tio n e d m o re th a n once th a t a ll m o d ify in g I u n its in C hinese com e b e fo re th e m o d ifie d u nits. I t is o b v io u s th a t th e com plem ent ^ is fu n c tio n a lly m o d ify in g th e ve rb , and, as such, it sh o u ld o cc u p y a p re -v e rb a l rather I th a n a p o st-ve rb a l p o s itio n . T h e p la ce m e n t o f th e c o m p le m e n t a fte r th e ve rb , there- I fo re , seems to be a v io la tio n o f th is g en eral rule. I t sh o u ld be noted, h o w e v e r, that C hinese o fte n u tiliz e s w o rd o rd e r to re fle c t th e tim e sequence th a t p e rta in s to an ac- I



tio n . In o th e r w o rd s , w h a t occurs fir s t in rea l life also appears fir s t in a lin g u istic

d e scrip tio n , and w h a t happens la te r appears la te r in a sentence. T h e best exam ple to I illu s tra te th is te m p o ra l lin e a r o rd e rin g is the fo llo w in g : (5 )

他从食堂去图书馆。 T á cóng sh ítá n g qù tú sh ủ g u ă n . H e w e n t fr o m th e c a fe te ria to th e lib ra ry .

T h is sentence begins w ith th e p o in t o f o rig in , co n tin u e s w ith th e m o tio n , and con­ cludes o rd e r

w ith in

th e

w h ic h

p o in t th e

of

events

d e s tin a tio n , occur.

a lin g u is tic

sequence

th a t

p a ra lle ls the

I

T h e c o m p le m e n t s tru c tu re observes the same .

p rin c ip le . A co m p le m e n t is p rim a r ily concerned w ith th e e nsu in g o r re s u lta tiv e state I

179

Lesson 25

of action. Since re s u lt fo llo w s a ctio n , it is o n ly lo g ic a l to have a co m p le m e n t appear after a verb. H ence, V e rb — C om p le m e n t.

1.3

T h e n e g a tiv e fa lls on th e c o m p le m e n t u n it and th e a ffirm a tiv e -n e g a tiv e ques­

tion is also fo rm e d w ith in th e co m p le m en t.

+

得 +

[不 + C o m p le m e n t ]

In te rro g a tiv e : V e r b +

得 +

[ C o m p le m e n t +

N e g a tiv e :

(6 )

V erb

不 +

C o m p le m e n t]

他回答得不对。 T á h u íd á de bú duì. H e d id n ’ t a n sw e r c o rre c tly .

(7 )

古波学得认真不认真? G ủ b õ xu é de ren zhē n b u renzhēn? Does G u b o s tu d y co nscien tiou sly?

(8 )

爸爸走得很快吗? Bába zou de hen k u á i ma? Does fa th e r w a lk fast?

Sentence (8) sh ow s a q u e stio n fo rm a tio n o f th e 吗 一ty p e , and does n o t re q u ire a ny explanation. T h e re is a n o th e r in te rro g a tiv e p a tte rn w h ic h places in the co m p le m e n t slot, fo rm in g e sse n tia lly a “ H o w ? ” question.

V e rb

(9 )

+



怎么样?

+

他准备得怎么样? T ā zh u n b é i de zěnm eyáng? H o w d id he do in h is p re p a ra tio n ?

(1 0 )

A : 你工作得怎么样?



N ĩ g o n g zu ó de zenm eyáng? H o w are y o u d o in g in y o u r job? B : 我工作得彳k 好 。 W o g o n g zú o de hen hảo. T m d o in g w e ll w ith m y jo b .

zenm eyáng

180

A Practical Chinese Grammar

1.4

A v e rb m a y ta k e an O b je c t and i t also m a y be fo llo w e d b y a co m p le m e n t. In

the case w h e n it takes b o th u n its , th e re is an o rd e rin g p ro b le m : w h a t com es first? T h e a n sw e r is th a t th e O b je c t comes fir s t and th e c o m p le m e n t com es second.



H o w e v e r, th e v e rb its e lf is to be repeated, so th a t each u n it has its o w n g o v e rn in g verb. H ence,

V e rb — O b je c t

(11)

V e r b —C o m p le m e n t

他说英语说得很慢。 T ā shuò Y ĩn g y ủ shuõ de hẽn m àn. H e speaks E n g lis h s lo w ly .

(12)

他回答问题回答得非常好。 T ā h u íd á w é n tí h u íd á de fě ic h á n g hảo. H e answ ere d q uestions v e ry w e ll.

(13)

他写汉字写得很不整齐。 T ā x iẽ H à n z ì x iẽ de hẽn bù zhengqí. H e d oe sn ’ t w rite C hinese ch aracte rs n e a tly a t all.

(1 4 )

他吃饭吃得多不多? T ā c h ī fa n c h ī de duõ b u duõ? Does he eat m uch?

(15)

他整理房间整理得怎么样? T ā z h ē n g lī fa n g jiā n z h e n g lī de zěnm eyang? H o w d id he do in c le a n in g th e room ?

1.5



W h e n a co m p le m e n t e xpressio n is in tro d u c e d in to a sentence, i t becom es the

focus o f th e u tte ra n c e and needs to be h ig h lig h te d . O ne o f th e w a y s to h ig h lig h t the message is to reserve th e v e rb e x c lu s iv e ly fo r th e c o m p le m e n t u n it and re m o v e the O b je c t fro m th e v e rb a l d om ain . T o have b o th th e O b je c t and th e c o m p le m e n t clus­ tered in th e same v e rb a l u n it can re s u lt in a c o n fu s io n as to w h a t tr u ly serves as the m a in message o f th e sentence. T h e re are d iffe re n t w a y s o f d is p la c in g th e O bject, one b e in g the a fore-d escribe d m eans o f e s ta b lis h in g a n o th e r v e rb a l u n it, n a m e ly re­ p e a tin g th e v e rb fo r th e O b je c t. A n o th e r o p tio n is to m o ve th e O b je c t to th e fro n t o f th e sentence, e ith e r b e fo re th e p re d ica te o r b e fo re th e e n tire sentence. T h is m ove­ m e n t is c o m m o n ly k n o w n as to p ic a liz a tio n , a process w h ic h w e have b r ie fly discus­ sed in Lesson 20. W e m a y prepose an O b je c t i f w e decide to choose i t as th e topic o f o u r sentence o r c o n ve rsa tio n . T h e O b je c t has to re p re se n t som e k n o w n in fo rm a ­ tio n . T h e d efin iten ess m a y be e ith e r in fe rre d fro m th e c o n te x t or, as o fte n is the

^

181

Lesson 25

case, e x p lic itly m a rk e d b y a d e fin ite d e m o n s tra tiv e

( such as 这个 and 丟 |5个 ) o r a

specific m o d ify in g clause. T h e fo llo w in g is a s u m m a ry o f th e th re e p ossible arrange-

i

,

merits in a sentence th a t c o n ta in b o th an O b je c t and a co m p le m en t.

(A )

S u b je c t + V e rb + O b je c t + V e rb + C o m p le m e n t

(B )

S u b je c t + O b je c t + V e rb + C o m p le m e n t

(C )

O b je c t + S u b je ct + V e rb + C o m p le m e n t

二: 二

Please n o te th a t th e la st tw o o p tio n s do n o t re q u ire th e re p e titio n o f th e verb.

(16 .a ) 他学汉语学得很不错。 T ā xu é H à n y ũ xué de hẽn b u cuò. H e is d o in g q u ite w e ll in h is s tu d y in g o f C hinese. ( 1 6 . b ) 他汉语学彳i 很 不 错 。 T ā H à n y ủ xu é de hẽn b u cuò. (1 6 .C ) 汉语他 ‘ 得 很 不 错 。 H à n y ủ tā xu é de hẽn b u cuò. ( 1 7 . a ) 他回答那些问题回答得很快。 T ā h u íd á nà x iẽ w é n tí h u íd á de h ẽn ku à i. H e answ ere d th ose q uestions e x p e d itio u s ly . ( 1 7 . b ) 他那些问题回答得很 :决 。 T ā nà x iẽ w é n tí h u íd á de h èn ku à i. (17.C ) 那些问题他回答得很快。 N à x iẽ w é n tí tā h u íd á de hẽn ku ài. ( 1 8 . a ) 他回答老师问的问题回答得很对。 T ā h u íd á lă o s h ĩ w è n de w é n tí h uíd á de hẽn duì. H e c o rre c tly answ ered th e que stion s th e te ach er asked. ( 1 8 . b ) 他 ,老师问的问题回答得很命 。 T ā , lả o s h ĩ w è n de w é n tí h u íd á de hẽn duì. ( 1 8 .C ) 老 师 问 的 问 题 ,他回答得很对。 L ă o s h ĩ w è n de w é n tí, tā h u íd á de h en d u i.



,,

^

the usual p ra c tic e is to place it a t th e v e ry fr o n t o f th e sentence so th a t th e re s t o f the sentence m a y be u n a m b ig u o u s ly reserved fo r th e c o m p le m en t. In o th e r w o rd s , of the th re e p ossible a lte rn a tiv e s in th e la st set, (18.c) is th e best choice.

182

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(1 9 )

我们班的这些学生作练习作得不认真,生词也准备得不太好。 W o m e n bān de zhè x iẽ xuésheng zuò lià n x í zuò de b ú rénzhen, shẽngcí yẽ zh u n b é i de bú tà i hăo. T h e se stu de nts in o u r class donH do th e ir exercises d ilig e n tly . T h e y d o n ’t p re p a re th e ir n e w w o rd s w e ll e ithe r.

(2 0 )

A : 那位老师念课文念得怎么样? N à w è i lă o s h ĩ n ià n k é w é n n ià n de zenm eyáng? H o w d id th a t te ach er read th e text? B : 她念得不快也不慢,她念得很清楚。 T ã n ià n de b ú k u à i yẽ bú m àn, tá n ià n de hèn q ĩn g c h u . She read it n e ith e r q u ic k ly n o r s lo w ly . She read it v e ry c le a rly .

(2 1 )

A : 你写汉字写得真不错。 N ĩ x iẽ H à n z ì x iẽ de zhēn bú cuò. Y o u w rite C hinese ch aracte rs re a lly q u ite w e ll. B : 哪 里 。我 写得不太整齐。 N ả li.

wỏ x iẽ

de b ú tà i zhengqí.

N o t a t a ll. I d o n ’t w rite v e ry n ea tly. (2 2 )

A : 我今天作的菜怎么样? W o jīn tiā n zuò de cài zěnm eyáng? H o w are th e dishes I m ade today? B : 作得真好。 Z uò de zhēn hăo. T h e y are co oke d re a lly w e ll.

(2 3 )

A : 那个说中文说得很流利的小姑娘是谁,你 认 识 吗 ? N à ge shuỏ Z h o n g w é n shuõ de hẽn liú lì de x iă o g ủ n ia n g shì shéi, n ĩ rè n s h i ma? W h o is th a t y o u n g g ir l w h o speaks flu e n t Chinese? D o you k n o w her? B : 她是王大夫的女儿。她唱宁国歌儿也唱得非常好听。 T á shì W á n g d á ifu de n ď e r. T ā ch àn g Z h o n g g ú o g ẽ r yẽ chàng de íẽ ic h á n g h ă o tĩn g . She is D r. W a n g 5s d a u g h te r. She also sings C hinese songs very b e a u tifu lly .

In th e la st sentence w h e re th e p re d ic a te in clu d e s th e a d ve rb t i l , th e m o d ify in g ele­ m e n t is sa n d w ic h e d b e tw e e n th e V e rb — O b je c t and th e V e r b —C o m p le m e n t

units.

T h e a dve rb is in fa c t s tru c tu ra lly p a rt o f th e V e r b —C o m p le m e n t segm ent as there can be a s lig h t pause a fte r th e V e r b — O b je c t. A s described e a rlie r, th e com plem ent

183

Lesson 25

is the fo cus o f th e sentence, c o n s titu tin g th e re fo re th e im m e d ia te d o m a in o f th e adverbial m o d ific a tio n . T h e a d ve rb m a y indeed appear r ig h t b e fo re th e a d je c tiv e in ị

the co m p le m e n t expression, as s h o w n in th e fo llo w in g :

(2 4 a )*… … 他 里 整 理 房 间 整 理 得 很 乾 净 。

气..Tá ỵẽ z h ē n g lī fa n g jiā n z h e n g lī de hẽn g ā n jin g . ...He also cleans h is ro o m tid ily . (2 4 .b )… … 他 整 理 房 间 迆 整 理 得 很 乾 ì ậ 。 ...Tā z h ē n g lī fá n g jia n ỵẽ z h e n g lī de hēn g ā n jin g . (24 .c ) … … 他 整 ả 房 间 i

理得盥很乾ằ



...Tā z h e n g lī fá n g jiá n z h e n g lī de ỵ ẽ hẽn g ā n jin g .

The co m p le m e n t c o n s tru c tio n m a y be considered to be a n o th e r fo rm o f th e to p ic — comment m e ch a n ism c h a ra c te ris tic o f th e C hinese language.

T h e V e r b —O b je c t

segment can be v ie w e d as th e to p ic on w h ic h th e V e r b — C o m p le m e n t fu n c tio n s as 1

the com m ent. In sentence (23), w e are d e s c rib in g tw o d iffe re n t s k ills th a t th e y o u n g girl possesses: h e r lin g u is tic fa c ility and h e r s in g in g ta len t. S peaker A m a rve ls at her flu e n c y in C hinese and speaker B c o m p lim e n ts h e r on h e r achievem ents b y saying s o m e th in g lik e “ E v e n in s in g in g C hinese songs, she can do v e ry w e ll to o .” The fo llo w in g is a n o th e r e xa m p le to illu s tra te th is p o s itio n in g o f an a d ve rb in a com plem ent co n s tru c tio n .

(2 5 )

A : 我 现 在 身 体 不 太 好 ,每 天 吃 饭 都 吃 得 不 太 多 。 W o x iá n z á i sh ẽ n ti bú tà i hăo, m ẽi tiã n ch ỉ fà n dõu c h ĩ de bú tà i duõ. M y h e a lth is n o t to o goo d n o w . I d o n ^ eat v e ry m u ch e v e ry day. B : 睡k 呢 ? S h u i jia o ne? H o w a b o u t sleeping? A :睡得也不太好。 S h uì de yẽ b ú tà i hăo. I d o n ’t sleep to o w e ll e ith e r.

The c o n v e rs a tio n in (25) also c le a rly sh ow s th e to p ic —c o m m e n t re la tio n s h ip be­ tween th e V e r b —O b je c t 睡 觉 and th e V e r b — C o m p le m e n t 睡 得 不 好 . T h e la tte r is a response to th e q u e stio n posed in th e fo rm o f a V e r b —O b je c t u n it.

184

A Practical Chinese Grammar

2. The Adverb 再 ^

zki is an a d ve rb used to m a rk th e re p e titio n o f an a c tio n th a t has y e t to take

place. T h e m o n o s y lla b ic a d ve rb a lw a y s stands b e fo re th e v e rb i t m o d ifie s .

(1 )

你再吃一点儿吧。 N ĩ zài c h ī y ìd iă n r ba. E a t some m ore!

(2 )

你作的鱼汤真不错。我想再喝一点儿。 N ĩ zuò de y ú tā n g zhēn b ú cuò. W o x iả n g zài hẽ y ìd iă n r. T h e fis h soup y o u m ade is m arvelo us. I w a n t to have som e m ore.

(3 )

我们明年再去中国参观北京大学。 W o m e n m ín g n iá n zài qù Z h o n g g u ó cānguān B ē ijīn g D àxué. W e w ill go to C h in a a ga in n e x t y e a r to v is it B e ijin g U n iv e rs ity .



现 在 太 晚 了 ,我们明天再谈吧。 X iá n z á i tà i w a n le, w o m e n m ín g tiã n zài tá n ba. I ť s to o la te n o w . W e 5ll ta lk (a b o u t it) to m o rro w .

T h e expressio n fo r b id d in g fa re w e ll to ta ke place” :“ see y o u a g a in

záijián is c o n s tru c te d on th is n o tio n o f ťíyet

g o o d b y e .” F o r c o m p le te d events, th e re is another

a d ve rb to in d ic a te re cu rren ce , w h ic h w e w ill le a rn in a la te r lesson.

3. More on the Particle 呢 % ne is an in te rro g a tiv e p a rtic le w h ic h in d ica te s th a t th e q u e s tio n it m a rk s is re­ lated to a p re v io u s q ue stion , sta te m e nt, o r even a n o n lin g u is tic c o n te x t. T h e o re tic a l­ ly sp ea kin g, w e do n o t b e g in a c o n v e rs a tio n w ith a

q ue stion . T h e o n ly tim e this

c o n s tru c tio n is used to s ta rt a d ia lo g u e is w h e n w e ask fo r th e w h e re a b o u ts of so m e o n e /so m e th in g . Say, w h e n y o u e n te r a ro o m and see G u b o th ere, y o u may w is h to fin d o u t w h e re P a la n ka is b y a s k in g , “ 中白兰卡呢?” Since y o u saw G u b o in th e ro o m , h is lo c a tio n has been established. T h e re fo re , w h e n y o u ask fo r P a la n ka ’s lo ca tio n , th e q u e s tio n is re la te d to th is p rio r o b s e rv a tio n even th o u g h it is n o t ex­ pressed lin g u is tic a lly . In o th e r w o rd s , 呢 serves th e fu n c tio n o f m a rk in g a “ re la te d ” question.

呢 m a y be used in th e fo llo w in g typ e s o f in te rro g a tiv e s :

185

Lesson 25

(A) In te rro g a tiv e — W o rd Q uestions: T-

(1 )

1

J

他们现在回宿舍。我们去哪儿呢? T ā m e n x iá n z á i h u í sùshè. W o m e n qù n ả r ne? T h e y are g o in g b a ck to th e d o rm n o w . W h e re are w e going?

(2 )

老 师 不 懂 。我去问谁呢? L ă o s h ĩ b ù dỏng. w ỏ q ù w è n shéi ne? (E v e n ) T h e te ach er doesn’t u nd ersta nd it. W h o m s h a ll I go ask?

(B) A f fir m a t iv e — N e g a tiv e Q u estio ns: (3 )

这课语法非常难。你 是 好 学 生 。你懂不懂这课语法呢? Z hè kè y ủ fả íẽ ic h á n g nán. N ĩ shì hảo xuésheng. N ĩ d ỏ n g bu dỏn g zhè kè y ú fă ne? T h e g ra m m a r o f th is lesson is hard. Y o u V e a goo d stu de nt. D o yo u

丨⑷

u n d e rsta n d th e g ra m m a r in th is lesson? A : 他中文说得很流利。 T ā Z h o n g w é n shuỏ de hẽn liú lì. H e speaks flu e n t C hinese. B : 汉字 k ? 写得整齐不整齐呢? H à n zì ne? X iẽ de zh ěngqí b u zhengqí ne? W h a t a b o u t C hin ese characters? Does he w rite neatly?

Ấ (C) A lte rn a tiv e Q u estio ns: (5 )

你现在去还是明天去呢? N ĩ x iá n z á i q ù h áishì m ín g tiá n qù ne?



A r e y o u g o in g n o w o r to m o rro w ?



你 不 喝 咖 啡 。你喝 什 么 呢 ?喝橘子水呢还是喝茶呢? N ĩ b ù hē kā fē i. N ĩ hẽ shém e ne? H ẽ jú z is h u i ne h á ish ì hẽ chá ne? Y o u d o n ^ d r in k coffee. T h e n w h a t w ill y o u have? O ra n g e ju ic e o r tea?

4. The Honorific Measure 位 The m easure w o rd fo r a p erson is 个尽e. H o w e v e r, to s h o w respect fo r th e person addressed o r re fe rre d to , w e m a y use

wèi as a p re fe ra b le a lte rn a tiv e . H ence,

A Practical Chinese Grammar 他是一位作事非常认真的老师。 T ā shì y íw é i zuò shì fě ic h á n g renzhēn de lăoshl. H e is a te ach er w h o is v e ry co nscien tiou s a b o u t h is w o rk .

来 ,让我介绍一下儿。这位是王大夫。这位是张老师。 L á i, rà n g w o jié sh á o y íx ià r. Zhè w è i sh i W á n g d á ifu , zhè w è i shì Z h ā n g lăoshĩ. C om e, le t m e in tro d u c e you. T h is is D r. W a n g , and th is is T eacher Z hang.



喂 ,请问您是哪位? W è i, q ĩn g w è n n ín shì nả wèi? H e llo , m a y I ask w h o y o u are?

S om etim es ÍŘ m a y be used a m o ng close frie n d s in a p la y fu l to n e as a te rm o f teas­ ing, as illu s tra te d in th e fo llo w in g exam ples. G u b o to P a la n ka and D in g Y u n : (4 )

两 位 小 姐 ,来 吧 。 L ia n g w é i x ia o jie , lá i ba. Y o u tw o y o u n g ladies, com e along.

(5 )

你这位先生作的鱼汤真难喝。 N ĩ zhè w è i xiã n s h e n g zuò de y ú ta n g zhẻn nán hè. W h a t te rrib le fis h soup y o u have m ade, M is te r.

T h e m o st co m m o n s itu a tio n w h e re one w o u ld lise th e h o n o rific 位 is in a restaurant w h e n th e w a ite r a s k s , 几 位 ?

“ H o w m a n y in y o u r p a rty ? ” A c c o rd in g to the

general ru le o f lin g u is tic p ro p rie ty , one w o u ld e xp e ct th e c u s to m e r to a n s w e r the q ue stio n b y u sin g th e c o m m o n m easure ^ g e : 四个 s & e fo r, say, “ F o u r.” H ow ever, fo r some strange reasons o r ju s t as a m a tte r o f s u b s titu tio n , th e m o s t c o m m o n form o f response e m p lo y s 位 instead o f 个 ,w ith no im p lie d sense o f self-aggrandisem ent. T h is is one o f th e fe w cases w h e re p ra g m a tic s ta kes p r io r ity o v e r lin g u is tic logic.

5. How to Respond to Compliments T h e p ro p e r w a y to a c k n o w le d g e a c o m p lim e n t in C hinese is to h u m b ly d e n y w hat yo u have been p ra ise d fo r. I f som eone m akes a fla tte rin g re m a rk a b o u t w h a t you are w e a rin g : “ 你 今 天 穿 得 真 漂 亮 !” ,y o u s h o u ld resp on d b y s a y in g , w it h a h e a rtfe lt sm ile on y o u r face, th a t th e clothe s are ju s t p la in o ld rags o r th e y w e re purchased a t a b a rg a in p rice. I f y o u re tu rn th e c o m p lim e n t b y sa yin g , as y o u w o u ld in English,

187

Lesson 25

ļ “谢谢 ” o r som e o th e r co m m e n ts such as “ I lik e th e m to o , ’’ o r “ I th in k so to o ,” y o u r Chinese a d m ire r m a y be ta k e n a ba ck a t such unabashed p o m p o s ity . In fa c t, h e /s h e ļ

may th in k th a t as y o u e a g e rly agree w ith th e c o m p lim e n t, y o u have in e ffe c t d is ­ played d is ta s te fu l signs o f s e lf-co n te n tm e n t, ill-m a n n e rs , o r even arrogance. So, w hile it is p e rfe c tly a cceptable in th e W e s t to receive a c o m p lim e n t g ra c io u s ly , it is im p o rta n t in C hinese e tiq u e tte to m ake, a t least, a v e rb a l n e g a tio n o f th e c o m ­ p lim e n ta ry w o rd s. O n e u se fu l e xp re ssio n o f d e n ia l to k n o w is 明p 里 ná /人 lite r a lly

t

m eaning “ w h e re .” T h e c o n n o ta tio n is “ W h e re o n e a rth d id y o u g et such an idea?” F o r emphasis, th e e xp re ssio n m a y be repeated m ore th a n once a n d /o r used in c o n ju n c ­ tion w ith a n o th e r sta te m e n t o f denial. T h e fo llo w in g are som e exam ples. (1 )

A : 你的女 — 友真漂 亮 。 N ĩ de n ủ p é n g yo u zhẽn p ià o lia n g . Y o u r g ir lfr ie n d is re a lly a ttra c tiv e . B : 哪 里 ,哪 里 。 N ă li, n ăli. Y o u th in k so? T h a n k you.

(2 )

A •• 你这条红裙子非常好看。 N ĩ zhè tiá o h ó n g q ú n zi íè ic h á n g hảokàn. Y o u r re d s k ir t is re a lly v e ry p re tty . B : 哪 里 ,哪 里 。是一条旧裙子。 N ă li, n ă li. S hì y ìtiá o jiù qúnzi. R ea lly? I ť s ju s t an o ld s k irt.

(3 )

A : 你说汉语说得很流利。 N ĩ shuỏ H à n y ủ shuỏ de hẽn liú lì. Y o u speak v e ry flu e n t C hinese. B : 哪 里 ,我说得 ¥ 太 好 。 N ă li, w õ shuõ de b ú tà i hảo. N o , I d o n ’t speak w e ll a t all.

____________

. ứ -

Lesson 26

1. The Optative Verbs 1.1

The

w o rd

“ o p ta tiv e ”

m eans “ e xpressin g a w is h

o r d e s ire /' In

th e

In d o -

European languages, a v e rb m a y appear in an o p ta tiv e m oo d to express a w is h o r desire. In C hinese, such m o d a l m a rk in g is done b y an a u x ilia ry ve rb , o fte n re fe rre d to as a m o d a l a u x ilia r y o r an o p ta tiv e verb. A n o p ta tiv e is d iffe re n t fro m a re g u la r verb in th a t i t does n o t c a rry a su b sta n tive d e n o ta tio n o f an a ctio n ; on th e o th e r hand, i t in d ica te s th e a b ility , p o s s ib ility , in te n tio n , o r w ishe s o f c a rry in g o u t such an action. A s an a u x ilia ry , it g e n e ra lly appears in th e co m p a n y o f a verb.

P o sitive :

A u x ilia r y

N e g a tive :



Q u e stio n :

(a ) A u x ilia r y

+

+

V e rb

A u x ilia r y +

+

V e rb

V e rb

+

吗?

(b ) [ A u x ilia r y 不 A u x ilia r y ]

(1 )

+

V e rb?

我想去中国参观访问。 W o x iả n g qù Z h o n g g u ó cānguān fa n g w é n . I w a n t to go and v is it C hina.

(2 )

你不应该在教室里吸烟。 N ĩ b ù y ĩn g g ã i zài jiá o s h ili x ĩ yãn. Y o u sh o u ld n o t sm oke in th e classroom .

(3 )

他会不会游泳?

-

T ā h u ì bu h u ì y ó u yồug? D oes he k n o w h o w to sw im ?

U n lik e a re g u la r ve rb , an o p ta tiv e v e rb m a y n o t be re d u p lic a te d ( * 会 会 ) ;n o r can it be fo llo w e d b y a s u ffix such as 了 7e ( 来会了) ,a g ra m m a tic a l e le m e n t o n w h ic h w e w ill have m o re to say in th e fo llo w in g lessons.

190

A Practical Chinese Grammar

A s an a u x ilia r y is e s s e n tia lly a m a rk e r o f th e o p ta tiv e m ode o f th e fo llo w in g ve rb , its a ctua l sem antic c o n n o ta tio n s m a y v a ry in d iffe r e n t co nte xts. I t m a y c o v e r a ra th e r b ro a d ran ge o f m o d a l usages, so m u c h so th a t its fu n c tio n s m a y o v e rla p w ith those o f a n o th e r a u x ilia ry . A u x ilia rie s are g e n e ra lly ra th e r d if fic u lt to m a s te r in a fo re ig n language; ju s t th in k o f th e m u ltifa rio u s m ea nin gs and uses o f a u x ilia rie s such as “ can,” “ m a y ,” “ s h o u ld ,” etc. in E n g lis h . T h e fo llo w in g is a g en eral descriptio n o f th e b e h a v io rs o f the s ix m o s t c o m m o n a u x ilia rie s in C hinese.

想 + V e rb : Som e o f th e a u x ilia rie s are d e riv a tiv e s o f a ctua l s u b s ta n tiv e verbs, í i xiảng is one such exam ple. Its basic m e a n in g is uto th in k o f/a b o u t.>,A s an a u x ili­ 1.2

a ry, i t m a rks th e in te n tio n o r desire o f d o in g s o m e th in g , w h ic h is to say, ^ th in k in g o f d o in g it.”

(4 )

V e r b : 她想妈妈 T ā x ia n g m ām a. She’s th in k in g a b o u t h e r m o th e r. ( = She m isses h e r m o th e r.)

(5 )

A u x i l i a r y : 她想去看妈妈。 T ā x iả n g qù k à n m ām a. She’s th in k in g a b o u t g o in g to see h e r m o th e r. ( = She w a n ts to go see h e r m o th e r.)

(6 )

这个星期六你想去看电影吗? Z hè ge x ĩn g q ĩliù n ĩ x iă n g qù kà n d ià n y ĩn g ma? D o y o u w a n t to go see a m o v ie th is c o m in g S a tu rd ay?

(7 )

我不 想 去 看 电 影 ,我想 在 家 休 息 。 W õ b ù x iả n g qù k à n d ià n y ĩn g , w ỏ x iả n g zài jiā x iủ x i. I d o n 't w a n t to g o see a m o v ie ; I w a n t to re s t a t hom e.

(8 )

每个人都想找一个理想的工作,可是找一个理想的工作不容易。 M ẽ i ge ré n d ỗu x iả n g zhảo y íg e lĩx iă n g de g ỏn gzu ò, kẽ shì zhăo yíge lĩx iă n g de g ỏ n g zu ò bù ró n g y i. E v e ry one w a n ts to lo o k fo r an ide al jo b , b u t fin d in g an id e a l jo b is n o t easy.

1.3

要 +

V e rb : T h e basic m e a n in g o f 要 y á ơ is “ to d esire.” A s an o p ta tiv e verb,

it m a rk s a stro n g desire to c a rry o u t th e a c tio n as represented b y th e verb.

J

Lesson 26

191

(9 )

V e r b :孩子要牛奶。 H á iz i yào n iú n ả i. T h e c h ild w a n ts m ilk .

(1 0 )

A u x i l i a r y : 孩子要喝牛奶。 H á iz i yà o hē n iú n ả i. T h e c h ild w a n ts to d r in k m ilk .

( 1 1 ) 你明天要不要去城里看朋友? N ĩ m ín g tiã n yà o bu yào qù ch é n g li k à n péngyou? D o y o u w a n t to go in to to w n to see frie n d s to m o rro w ? ( 1 2 ) 你要去厕所吗? N ĩ yà o q ù cèsuỏ ma? D o y o u w a n t to go to th e b a th ro o m ?

The n e g a tiv e o f “要 +

V e r b ” is, h o w e v e r ,“不 想 +

V e r b ” and n o t “不要 +

Verb.” T h e la tte r m a y be acceptable in some d ia lects b u t n o t in S ta n d a rd M a n d a rin . In fact, “不要 +

V e rb ^ is th e p a tte rn to use fo r p h ra s in g a s tro n g n e g a tiv e im p e ra ­

tive, as in sentence (15).

( 1 3 ) 他 不 想 听 京 剧 ,他 要 听 民 歌 。 T ā b ù x iă n g tin g J īn g ju , tā yào ting m íngẽ. H e doesn’t w a n t to lis te n to B e ijin g O pera; he w a n ts to lis te n to fo lk songs. ( 1 4 ) 我 现 在不想喝啤酒,你 呢 ? W o x iá n z á i b ù x iă n g hē p íjiu , n ĩ ne? I d o n ’t w a n t to d r in k beer n o w . W h a t a b o u t you? ( 1 5 ) 你晚上不要开车! N ĩ w a n sh a n g b ú yào k ā i chẽ! D o n ’t d riv e a t n ig h t.

1.3.1

T h e D iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n 想 and 要 :A s b o th 想 and 要 are m a rk e rs o f in ­

tention, th e tw o are som e tim e s used in te rc h a n g e a b ly . T h e la tte r, h o w e v e r ,represents a s tro n g e r in te n tio n th a n th e fo rm e r : 想 connotes m o re o f a “ w is h ” and



more o f a “ w ill. ” 想 stresses th e w is h in g o r p la n n in g o f ta k in g an a c tio n and 要 th e urge o r d em and fo r c a rry in g it out. F o r e xam ple , o f th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences, (16)

im p lie s a m u c h s tro n g e r d e te rm in a tio n th a n (17).

A Practical Chinese Grammar

192

(1 6 )

我要学游泳。 W o yào xué y ó u yỏng. I w a n t to ta k e s w im m in g lessons.

( 1 7 ) 我想学游泳。 W o x iă n g xu é y ó u yõ ng . I, d lik e to ta k e s w im m in g lessons. A n o th e r d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e tw o o p ta tiv e s is th a t Ỉ® m a y be m o d ifie d b y a de­ gree a d ve rb and 要 m a y n ot. (1 8 )

*

我很想研究这个作家。 W o hen x ia n g y á n jiu zhé ge zuojiā. I re a lly w a n t to do research on th is w rite r.

(1 9 ) * 我很要研究中国文学。

*wỏ hẽn

yào y á n jiu Z h ó n g g u o w én xué .

I re a lly w a n t to do research on C hinese lite ra tu re .

1.3.2

T h e E xte n d e d U se o f 要 :要 m a y be also used to in d ic a te a dem and, a ne-

cessity im p ose d fro m th e e x te rn a l w o rld . In th is usage “要 +

V e r b ” m eans “ have

to V e rb ; sh o u ld V e rb .” S o m etim es th e a d ve rb 一定 y/c/ln 尽m a y be added to th e patte rn to fu rth e r u nd erscore th e im p o rta n c e o r u rg e n c y o f th e dem and: “ 一 定 要 + V e rb .” ( 2 0 ) 老师 要 认 真 教 ,学生要认真学。 L ă o s h ĩ yào renzhēn jiā o , xuésheng yà o renzhēn xué. T e a ch e rs sh o u ld be c o n scie n tio u s in te a c h in g and stu de nts should (also) be co n scie n tio u s in s tu d y in g . ( 2 1 ) 对 不 起 ,现在我要去上课。我们晚上再谈吧。 D u ì b u q ĩ, x iá n z á i w ỏ yà o qù shàng kè. W o m e n w á n sh a n g zài tán ba. S o rry , I have to g o to a class n o w . W e ^ l ta lk (a b o u t it) in the evening. ( 2 2 ) 写字一定要写得慢。 X iẽ zì y íd ìn g y à o x iẽ de m àn. Y o u d e fin ite ly have to w rite ch aracte rs s lo w ly . I t is in fa c t th is fu n c tio n o f 要 th a t w e see in th e p a tte rn o f the n e g a tiv e im p era tive

“不要 +

V e r b ” describ e d above: th e dem and o r co m m an d is to re fra in fro m doing

so m e thin g. Ju st as in E n g lis h w h e re th e n e g a tiv e o f “ sh o u ld V e r b ” is n o t “ should

193

Lesson 26

not V e r b ” b u t “ d o n ’t have to V e rb ,” “ 要 +

V e r b ” and “不 要 + V e r b ” do n o t fo rm

a n a tu ra l p a ir o f a ffirm a tio n and n eg a tio n . T h e p ro p e r n e g a tiv e c o u n te rp a rt to 要 in this usage is

bú yòng.

( 2 3 ) 老师说这九个字不用写。 L ả o s h ĩ shuò zhè jiu g e zì b ú y ò n g xiẽ. T h e te a ch e r said th a t (w e ) d id n ^ have to w rite these n in e c h a ra c ­ i

ters. (2 4 )

A : 明天要上课吗? M ín g tiả n yà o shàng kè ma? D o w e have to g o to sch oo l to m o rro w ? B : 明 天 是 星 期 天 ,苯 用 上 课 。 M ín g tiã n shì x ĩn g q ĩtiã n , bú y ò n g shàng kè. T o m o rr o w is S unday. N o need to go to school.

1.3.3

想 w ith a S e n te n tia l O b je ct: In th is co n n e ctio n , w e w ill also m e n tio n a n o th e r

use o f th e v e rb 想 th a t m a y pose c e rta in p ro b le m s fo r b e g in n in g s tu d e n t s . 想 m ay take a w h o le sentence as its O b je c t, m u ch in th e same m a n n e r as “ th in k ” in E n g lis h .

( 2 5 ) 我想他明天会来上课。

wỏ x iả n g

tā m ín g tiã n h u ì lá i shàng kè.

I th in k he w ill com e to class to m o rro w .

But, u n lik e E n g lis h , th e n e g a tio n o f th e above sentence is n o t to negate th e ve rb

想 ,as y o u w o u ld w ith “ th in k ,” b u t to negate th e v e rb in th e em bedded sentence. In other w o rd s , w e d o n ’t say in C hinese “ I d o n ’t th in k th is is th e case.” T h e id io m a tic form sh o u ld be “ I th in k th is is n o t th e case.”

(2 6 a )我想他明天不会来上课。 W õ x iả n g tā m ín g tiá n b ú h u ì lá i shàng kè. I th in k he w ill n o t com e to class to m o rro w . ( = I d o n ’t th in k h e ’ll be c o m in g to cla>6_ to m o rro w .) (2 6 .b )* 我 不 想 他 明 天 会 来 上 课 。 * W õ b ù x iả n g tā m ín g tiá n h u ì lá i shàng kè. (27* a ) 我 想 你 今 天 晚 上 不 用 来 吧 。 W õ x iả n g n ĩ jīn tiā n w a n sh a n g bú y ò n g lá i ba. I d o n ’t th in k y o u have to com e to n ig h t.

194

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(27 .b )* 我 不 想 你 今 天 晚 上 要 来 吧 。 * W ồ b ù x iả n g n ĩ jin tia n w a n sh a n g yà o lá i ba.

1.4

能 +

V e rb : T h e o p ta tiv e 能 m a rk s th e a b ility o f c a rry in g o u t an a ction.

他现在能看中文杂志。

(2 8 )

T ā x iá n z á i néng ká n Z h ó n g w é n zázhi. H e is able to read C hinese m agazines n ow . (29)

A : 你能不能翻译这本鲁迅的小说?

ļ

N ĩ néng bu néng íã n y ì zhè bẽn L ủ X ù n de x iăo shu ò? A re y o u able to tra n s la te th is s to ry b y L u Xun? B

: 我不i

wỏ bù

,我 弟 弟 能 。他在研究鲁迅卩)Ễ 。



néng, w ỏ d ìd i néng, tā zài y á n jiu L ủ X ù n ne.

I can’t, b u t m y y o u n g e r b ro th e r can. H e is w o r k in g on L u Xun

^

nów ( 3 0 ) 每 天 练 习 游 泳 ,以 后 一 定 能 游 得 很 快 。 M ẽ i tiā n lià n x í y ó u y õ n g , y ĩh ò u y íd ìn g nén g y ó u de h ẽn k u à i. I f y o u p ra ctise s w im m in g e v e ry day, y o u w ill fo r sure be able to s w im v e ry fa s t in th e fu tu re .



L ik e th e E n g lis h a u x ilia r y “ can,” 能 m a y represents tw o k in d s o f “ a b ility ,” namely, “ a b ility ” on th e p a rt o f th e p erson and “ a b ility ” c o n d itio n e d b y e x te rn a l fa cto rs. The above th re e sentences are exam ples o f th e fir s t re a d in g o f tẽ :th e a ctors e ith e r pos­ sess o r la c k th e necessary s k ills to p e rfo rm th e re sp ective tasks. T h e fo llo w in g sen­ tences illu s tra te the use o f th e Uc irc u m s ta n tia r, 肯 ẽ . (31)

我 今 天 下 午 没 有 课 ,我 能 跟 你 一 起 去 看 电 影 。 W o jīn tiā n x iá w u m é i y o u kè, w ỏ néng gẻn n ĩ y ìq ĩ qù k à n diànyìng. I d o n Jt have classes th is a fte rn o o n ; I can go see a m o v ie w ith you.

(32)

这儿能不能吸烟? Z h è r néng b u néng x ĩ yãn? C an one sm oke here? ( = I s s m o k in g a llo w e d here?)

( 3 3 ) 爸 爸 说 弟 弟 练 习 作 得 不 好 ,今 天 晚 上 不 能 看 电 视 。 Bàba shuõ d ìd i lià n x í zuò de b ù hăo, jin tiā n w a n s h a n g b ù néng kàn diànshì. M y fa th e r said th a t (sin ce) he d id n ’t do h is h o m e w o rk w e ll, my y o u n g e r b ro th e r c o u ld n ’t w a tc h T .V . to n ig h t.

»

195

Lesson 26

The n e x t p a ir o f sentences p ro v id e s a c o n tra s t b e tw e e n these tw o m eanings o f fb . Sentence (34) sh o w s th a t th e in a b ility to teach is due to o ne ’s o w n d e fic ie n c y in sw im m ing; hence, th e “ in n e r” a b ility . W h a t the speaker la cks in sentence (35), how ever, is n o t s k ill b u t tim e ; th u s th e “ c irc u m s ta n tia l” in a b ility .

I

•f

( 3 4 ) 我 不 会 游 泳 ,(所 以 )不能教你游泳。

wỏ b ú

h u ì y ó u yỏ n g , (s u ỏ y ĩ) bù néng jiā o n ĩ y ó u yỏng.

I d o n ’t s w im ; th e re fo re , I ca n ’t teach y o u to sw im . (3 5 )

我 现 在 有 事 儿 ,(所 以 )不能教你游泳。 W o x iá n z á i y o u sh ìr, (s u ỏ y ĩ) bù néng jiā o n ĩ y ó u yỏng. I ’m b u sy r ig h t n o w ; th e re fo re , I ca n ’t teach y o u to sw im .

ļ

For the use o f 会 in sentence (34), see th e n e x t section.

1.5 j

会 +

V e r b : 会 m a y be used as a re g u la r ve rb o r an o p ta tiv e a u x ilia ry , car-

rying th e same m e a n in g o f “ to k n o w h o w to .”

(36)

V e r b : 你会 英 语 吗 ? N ĩ h u ì Y in g y ủ ma? D o y o u k n o w E n glish ?

(37)

A u x i l i a r y : 你会说英语吗? N ĩ h u ì shuõ Y ĩn g y ủ ma? D o y o u k n o w h o w to speak E n glish ?

(38)

A : 你们会不会作中国饭? N ĩm e n h u ì bu h u ì zuò Z h ó n g g u ó fan? D o y o u k n o w h o w to c o o k C hinese food? B : 他 不 会 作 饭 ,我 会 。 T ā b ú h u ì zuò fa n , w õ huì. H e doesn’t k n o w h o w to c o o k ,b u t I do.

1.5.1

T h e D iffe re n c e s b e tw e e n 能 and 会 :B o th

能 and 会 m a y be tra n s la te d as

“can.” H o w e v e r , 会 co nn ote s m o re s p e c ific a lly an a c qu ire d s k ill, an “ a b ility ” th a t is



obtained th ro u g h le a rn in g . O nce y o u have m astered th a t s k ill, y o u w ill a lw a y s have it w ith yo u. B u t e x te rn a l c o n d itio n s and o th e r fa c to rs m a y p re v e n t y o u fro m

im ­

p lem enting th a t s k ill a t tim es. In o th e r w o rd s , y o u m a y a lw a y s è b u t n o t necessari­ ly ẼỀ u n d e r a ll circum stances.

196

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 3 9 ) 我 会 游 泳 ,可是今天我不舒服,所以不能去游泳。

wỏ h u ì

y ó u y õ n g , kẽshì jīn tiā n w ỏ b ù s h ū fu , s u ỏ y ĩ bù néng qù yóu

yỗ ng . I k n o w h o w to s w im ; b u t I d o n ’t feel w e ll to d a y and so I can’t go to sw im . ( 4 0 ) 他 不 会 说 日 语 ,可是他能用汉字表达他的意思。 T ã bú h uì shuõ R ìy ủ , kẽshì tã néng y ò n g H à n zì biả od á tã de yìsi. H e doesn’t (k n o w h o w to ) speak Japanese, b u t he is able to express h is ideas w ith C hinese characters. ( 4 1 ) 他 们 都 会 打 字 。丁云一分 钟 能 打 八 十 个 字 ,王大年一分钟能打五十五

个 字 。你说你用谁呢? T â m e n dỏu h u ì dă zì. D ĩn g Y ú n y ìíẽ n zh òn g néng dă bâshige zì, W á n g D à n iá n y ìfẽ n zh õn g néng da w u s h iw u g e zì. N ĩ shuỏ n ĩ yòng shéi ne? T h e y b o th can typ e . D in g Y u n can ty p e e ig h ty w o rd s p e r m inute and W a n g D a n ia n fifty - fiv e w o rd s a m in u te . W h ic h one w o u ld you say y o u w o u ld hire? Sentence (40) co n tra sts th e in a b ility (

) as a re s u lt o f n o t h a v in g had a n y prop­

er tra in in g in th e lan gu ag e w ith th e a b ility ( 會 ẽ ) to m anage a special s itu a tio n by u sin g C hinese ch aracte rs, o r th e kanji to in te ra c t w ith th e Japanese. In (41 ) , 会 te lls th e basic a b ility o f “ to k n o w h o w to ty p e ,” and 肯 ẽ m a rk s th e d iffe re n t levels of p ro fic ie n c y . G e n e ra lly sp e a k in g , 会 is m o re concerned w ith th e a c q u is itio n o f the basic s k ill w h ile

tb re fe rs m o re to th e d iffe re n t phases o f a c h ie v e m e n t o r th e va­

rio u s c o n d itio n s u n d e r w h ic h th e s k ill is im p le m e n te d .

1.5.2

T h e a u x ilia ry

会 m a y a lso be used to in d ic a te “ p o s s ib ility ” :“ I t ’s lik e ly or

p ossible th a t s o m e th in g w ill h appen.” ( 4 2 ) 明天他会来上课。 M in g tiā n tā h u ì lá i shàng kè. H e w ill com e to class to m o rro w . (4 3 )

王大年不会请我们吃晚饭吧。 W á n g D à n iá n b ú h u ì q ĩn g w o m e n c h ĩ w ả n fà n ba. It's n o t lik e ly th a t W a n g D a n ia n is g o in g to in v ite

US

to d in n e r.

T h is 会 is o fte n tra n s la te d as uw i i r , o r uis g o in g to .>, I t is, h o w e v e r, n o t to be con­ strue d as a fu tu re tense m a rk e r.

T h e d iffe re n c e b etw e e n sentence (42) and th e sen-

197

Lesson 26

tence b e lo w is th a t, w h ile sentence (44) is a sim p le sta te m e n t o f “ h is c o m in g ” to m o rrow, sentence (42) stresses th e p o s s ib ility o r lik e lih o o d o f such an event. In o th e r w o r d s , 会 is an o p ta tiv e m a rk e r and n o t a tense in d ic a to r.

( 4 4 ) 他明天来上课。 T á m ín g tiã n lá i shàng kè. H e w ill com e to class to m o rro w . ( 4 5 ) 不 会 下 雨 ,我 们 走 吧 。 B ú h u ì x ià yủ , w o m e n zỏu ba. I t ’s n o t g o in g to ra in . L e t’s go. ( 4 6 ) 你 下 午 会 不 会 在 家 ?我 能 不 能 来 看 你 ?

N ĩ x ià w ủ h u ì bu h u ì zài jiā? w ỏ néng bu néng lá i kà n nĩ? W ill y o u be h om e th is a fte rn o o n ? C an I com e to see you?

The p o s s ib ility Ố

is, o f course, to be d is tin g u is h e d fro m th e a b ility Ố , as d e m o n ­

strated b y th e fo llo w in g p a ir o f sentences.

( 4 7 ) 他 会 开 车 ,可 是 开 得 不 快 。 T ā h u i k ā i chē, kẽshì k á i de bú ku à i. H e k n o w s h o w to d riv e , b u t he d oesn’t d riv e fast. ( 4 8 ) 下午他会开车去。 X ià w ủ tā h uì k ã i chè qù. H e w ill go b y car th is a fte rn o o n .

1.6

可以 +

V e rb :可以

/céyí in its p o s itiv e fo rm is id e n tic a l w ith

能 b o th in

m eaning and in use. I t m a rk s “ in te rn a l a b ility ” as w e ll as “ c irc u m s ta n tia l p e rm is s ib ility.”

( 4 9 ) 他每天可以写五百个汉字。 T ā m ē i tiā n k ẽ y ĩ x iẽ w u b á ig e H á n z i. H e can w rite fiv e h u n d re d C hinese ch aracte rs a day. ( 5 0 ) 我 现 在 没 有 事 儿 ,可 以 来 教 你 作 鱼 汤 。 W o xiá n z á i m é i y o u s h ir, k ẽ y ĩ lá i jiā o n ĩ zuò y ú táng. T m n o t b u sy r ig h t n o w . I can com e o v e r to teach y o u h o w to m ake fis h soup.

In b o th cases, th e o p ta tiv e

可以

m a y be replaced b y

肯ẽ w ith o u t a ffe c tin g the

198

A Practical Chinese Grammar

m e a n in g o f th e sentences. H o w e v e r, in a s k in g fo r p e rm is s io n , 可以

is used m ore

o fte n th a n tb .

( 5 1 ) 我可以用一下儿您的电话吗? W õ k ẽ y ĩ y ò n g y íx ià r n ĩn de d ià n h u à ma? M a y I use y o u r phone? ( 5 2 ) 我可以进来吗?

wỏ k ẽ y ĩ jin lá i

ma?

M a y I com e in?

T h e n e g a tive o f “可以 +

V e r b ” is “不能 +

share th e same n e g a tiv e fo rm . “ 不可以 +

V e rb .” In o th e r w o rd s , 能 and 可以

V e rb ,” on th e o th e r hand, in d ic a te s “ pro-

h ib itio n .”

( 5 3 ) 我不能去。 W o bù néng qù. I can’t go. ( — Because I am sic k o r I d o n ’t k n o w th e w a y .) ( 5 4 ) 你不可以去。 N ĩ bù k ẽ y ĩ qù. Y o u ca n ’t go. ( — Y o u are n o t a llo w e d to go.)

1.7

应该 + V e rb : T h e o p ta tiv e i ì ì Ẵ

yĩnggảì m a rk s a m o ra l o b lig a tio n o r a prac­

tic a l necessity: ao u g h t to , s h o u ld .>,

( 5 5 ) 他想以后去中国访问,他现在就应该学习汉语。 T ả x iă n g y ĩh ò u qù Z h o n g g u ó fa n g w é n , tā x iá n z á i jiù y ĩn g g ã i xuéxí H ànyủ. H e w a n ts to go v is it C h in a in th e fu tu re ; he sh o u ld be stu d yin g C hinese n ow . ( 5 6 ) 睡 觉 以 前 ,应该不应该洗澡? S huì jià o y ĩq iá n , y ĩn g g ã i bu y ĩn g g a i x ĩ zăo? S h o u ld one ta k e a s h o w e r b e fo re g o in g to bed? ( 5 7 ) 你以后应该常常给我写信。 N ĩ y ĩh ò u y ĩn g g ã i ch án g ch á n g gèi w ỏ x iẽ xìn . Y o u sh o u ld w rite m e o fte n in th e fu tu re .

199

Lesson 26

There are tw o o p ta tiv e ve rb s in C hinese to describe necessity o r o b lig a tio n :要 and

应该 • G e n e ra lly sp e a kin g , th e tw o are in te rch a n g e a b le in th is usage, and th e y b o th form th e ir n e g a tive s b y a d o p tin g a d iffe re n t a u x i l ia r y : 不 用 •

(5 8 )

A : 明天要不要上课? M ín g tiã n yào bu yà o shàng kè? D o w e have to go to sch oo l to m o rro w ? B : 明 天 是 星 期 六 ,朱 用 上 课 ;可是今天应该上课。 M ín g tiã n shì x ĩn g q ĩliù , b ú y ò n g shàng kè; K ẽ s h ì jīn tiā n y ĩn g g á i shàng kè. T o m o rr o w is S a tu rd a y. Y o u d o n 't have to go to school. B u t y o u sh o u ld be g o in g to school to da y.

Like 不 要 ,th e n e g a tiv e fo rm “ 不应该 + V e r b ” in d ica te s th a t i t is an o b lig a tio n n o t to do such a th in g .

( 5 9 ) 小朋友不应该看这本杂志。 X iă o p é n g yo u b ù y ĩn g g à i kà n zhè bẽn zázhi. O u r y o u n g frie n d s sh o u ld n o t read th is m agazine. ( 6 0 ) 你 身 体 不 好 ,应 该 常 常 锻 炼 ,不应 该 吸 烟 。 N ĩ shêntí bù hảo, y ln g g ã i ch án gch án g d u à n lià n , b ù y ĩn g g a i

XI

yãn.

Y o u r h e a lth is n o t good. Y o u o u g h t to exercise m o re o fte n and yo u s h o u ld n ’t sm oke.

1.7.1

In a d d itio n to th e re a d in g o f “ o b lig a tio n ,”

应该

m a y also be used lik e

“should” in th e sense o f e xp re ssin g “ e x p e c ta tio n ” o r “ a lo g ic a l c o n c lu s io n .”

( 6 1 ) 这个句 子 不 太 难 ,他应该会翻译吧。 Z hè ge jù z i b ủ tà i nán, tã y ĩn g g ã i h u ì íâ n y ì ba. T h is sentence is n o t to o h ard. H e sh o u ld be able to tra n s la te it. ( 6 2 ) 你请丁云吃饺子吧。她 是 中 国 人 ,应该喜欢吃饺子。 N ĩ q ĩn g D ĩn g Y ú n c h ī jia o z i ba. T ā shi Z h ó n g g u ó rén, y ĩn g g ã i x ĩh u a n c h ī jia o z i. W h y d o n ’t y o u tre a t D in g Y u n to some d um p lin g s? She is C hinese and sh o u ld lik e d u m p lin g s.

200

A Practical Chinese Grammar

1.8

S u m m a ry: T h e fo llo w in g is a ta b le s u m m a riz in g th e v a rio u s uses o f th e au­

x ilia rie s w e have le a rn e d in th is lesson. A s each a u x ilia ry m a y have m o re th a n one fu n c tio n and its m e a n in g m a y change in th e n e g a tiv e fo rm , th e m a n y and co m p le x b e h a vio rs o f th is special class o f ve rb s c a n n o t be f u lly ca p tu re d b e lo w . W e w ill con­ clude o u r d iscu ssion w ith tw o lis ts o f C hinese sentences to fu rth e r p re p a re y o u for, and a le rt y o u to, th e k in d o f d if fic u lty y o u m a y e n co u n te r w h ile le a rn in g th e opta­ tiv e verbs. T h e fir s t lis t, (63) to (70), consists o f sentences u sin g d iffe re n t optatives w h ic h m a y a ll be ren de re d as “ can” in E n g lis h . T h e second g ro u p , (71) to (77), dem on strate s a m ix e d use o f th e o p ta tiv e s , som e o f w h ic h m a y even be used in com ­ b in atio ns.

N e g a tiv e

P o s itiv e A

不会

A

不会

able to V e rb

能 / 可以

不能

o u g h t to V e rb

要 / 应该

不用

w a n t to V e rb

想/要

不想

a llo w e d to V e rb

可以

w ill lik e ly V e rb k n o w h o w to V e rb

p ro h ib ite d to V e rb

不可以

sh o u ld n o t V e rb

不 要 / 不应该

(6 3 )

我 会 游 泳 ,可是我不能游得很快。

wỏ h u ì

y ó u y ỗ n g , kẽshì w õ bù néng y ó u de hẽn ku à i.

I can s w im , b u t I c a n 't s w im to o fast. (6 4 )

我 不 会 游 泳 。你能 教 我 吗 ?

wỏ bú

h u ì y ó u yỏ n g . N ĩ néng jiā o w ỏ ma?

I c a rťt s w im . C an y o u teach me?

201

Lesson 26

( 6 5 ) 你能晚上游泳吗? N ĩ nén g w a n sh a n g y ó u y o n g ma? C an y o u s w im a t n ig h t?

( 6 6 ) 这 条 河 不 乾 净 。不 可 以 在 这 儿 游 泳 。 Z hè tiá o hé b ù g ā n jin g . B ù k ẽ y ĩ zài zhèr y ó u yỏng. T h is r iv e r is p o llu te d . Y o u c a n t s w im here. ( 6 7 ) 晚 上 没 事 儿 ,我 们 可 以 去 游 泳 。 W a n sh a n g m é i s h ir, w o m e n k ẽ y ĩ qù yó u yỏng. W e w ill be fre e in th e e vening. W e can go s w im m in g .

( 6 8 ) 你 工 作 很 忙 ,不 会 去 游 泳 吧 。 N ĩ g o n g zu ó hẽn m áng, bú h u ì qù y ó u y õ n g ba. Y o u have a lo t o f w o r k to do. Y o u ca n ’t be g o in g s w im m in g ? ( 6 9 ) 我 明 天 要 上 班 ,不 能 跟 你 去 游 泳 。

wỏ m ín g tiã n

yào shàng bān, b ù néng gẽn n ĩ qù y ó u yỏng.

I have to go to w o r k to m o rro w . I can’t go s w im m in g w ith you. ( 7 0 ) 妈 妈 说 ,明 天 不 用 上 课 ,你 们 可 以 去 游 泳 。 M ã m a shuõ, m ín g tiã n bú y ò n g shàng kè, n ĩm e n k ẽ y ĩ qù y ó u yỏng. M o th e r said, “ T h e re is no school to m o rro w . Y o u can go s w im m in g .”

(7 1 )

A : 这 些 生 词 很 难 ,我 不 会 念 ,也 不 会 用 。你 能 现 在 来 帮 助 我 吗 ? Z hè x iẽ shẽngcí hẽn nán, w o b ú h u ì n ià n, yẽ bú h u ì yò ng . N ĩ nén g x ià n z à i lá i b á n g zh u w ồ ma? T h e se n e w w o rd s are d iffic u lt. I d o rť t k n o w h o w to say th e m o r h o w to use th em . C an y o u com e and h e lp m e now ? B

: 对 不 起 ,我 现 在 不 能 来 ,我 要 去 学 画 画 儿 。 D u ì b u q ĩ, w o xiá n z á i b ù néng lá i, w ỏ yà o qù xué huà huàr. S o rry , I c a n ^ com e n o w . I have to go to a p a in tin g class.

A: i

上 呶 ?

W a n sh a n g ne? W h a t a b o u t th is evening? B

•.今天晚上或者明天上午 é 可 以 。 J īn tiā n w a n sh a n g h uózhe m in g tiā n sh á n g w u d òu k ẽ y ĩ. E ith e r th is e ve n in g o r to m o rro w m o rn in g is fin e.

( 7 2 ) 我的女朋友一定要会作中国饭。 W o de n ii p é n g yo u y íd ìn g yà o h u ì zuò Z h o n g g u ó fan. M y g ir l frie n d has to k n o w h o w to c o o k C hinese food.

202

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(7 3 )

你 画 画 儿 画 得 真 不 错 ,可 是 没 有 人 买 。你应该请那位有名的作家在你 的画儿上写几个字,我想总会有一点儿帮助吧。 N ĩ huà h u à r huà de zhēn b ú cuò, kẽshì m éi y o u ré n m ải. N ĩ y ĩng gả i q ĩn g nà w è i y ỏ u m ín g de z u o jiā zài h uà rsh a n g x iẽ jĩg e zì. W õ xiăng zỏng h uì y o u y ìd iả n r b a n gzh ú ba. Y o u r p a in tin g s are re a lly n o t bad b u t th e re are no buyers. You sh o u ld ask th a t fa m o u s w r ite r to w rite a fe w w o rd s o n y o u r pic­ tures. I th in k it w o u ld c e rta in ly h e lp a little b it.

( 7 4 ) 这儿能停车吗?我想去买一点儿火腿、鸡 蛋 。明天上午要用。 Z h è r néng tin g chẽ ma?

wỏ

x iả n g qù m ă i y ìd iả n r h u õ tu ĩ, jídán.

M ín g tiă n s h á n g w u yào yò ng . C an w e p a rk here? I w a n t to go b u y some h am and eggs. I need to use th e m to m o rro w m o rn in g . (7 5 )

大 夫 说 ,你 不 应 该 吸 烟 ,不 可 以 喝 咖 啡 ,鸡 蛋 也 不 要 吃 得 太 多 。你应 该 常 常 锻 炼 。常 常 锻 炼 ,身体一定会好。 D à iíu shuỏ, n ĩ bù y ĩn g g a ĩ x i yán, bù k ẽ y ĩ hẽ k ā fē i, jíd á n yẽ b ú yào c h ĩ de tà i duõ. N ĩ y ĩn g g ã i ch án gch án g d u à n lià n . C h á n g c h á n g duànlià n , s h ẽ n tĩ y íd ìn g h u ì hảo. T h e d o c to r says th a t y o u s h o u ld n ^ sm oke and y o u c a n 't d r in k cof­ fee. Y o u shou ld nH eat to o m a n y eggs e ith e r. Y o u s h o u ld do exer­ cises re g u la rly . I f y o u do exercises re g u la rly , y o u r h e a lth w ill for sure be good.

( 7 6 ) 我明天上午不用上班,应 该 能 来 。 W õ m ín g tiả n sh á n g w u bú y ò n g shàng bān, y ĩn g g ã i nén g lái. I d o n ’t have to go to w o r k to m o rro w . I sh o u ld be able to come. ( 7 7 ) 想 当 翻 译 ,应该要会说流利的汉语和英语。 X iả n g dân g fã n y ì, y ln g g â i yào h u ì shuỏ liú lì de H à n y ủ hé Y ĩn g y ủ . I f y o u w a n t to be an in te rp re te r, y o u have to be p ro fic ie n t in both C hinese and E n g lis h .

2.

The Adverb 还 (continued )

A s illu s tra te d in th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences, th e a d ve rb

还 Aái. has b a s ic a lly tw o

m eanings: “ in a d d itio n ” and “ s till.”

(1)

我 有 四 个 姐 姐 ,还有三个妹妹。 W o y o u sìge jie jie , h á i y õ u sānge m èim ei. I have fo u r e ld e r sisters, and, in a d d itio n , th re e y o u n g e r ones.

203

Lesson 26

(2 )

他还 在 睡 觉 呢 。 T ā h á i zài shuì jià o ne. H e is s till asleep.

In Lesson 15, w e discussed th e use o f 还 in its fir s t m e a n in g and co n tra ste d its behavior w ith th a t o f 也 . Besides b e in g a m a rk e r o f th e n o tio n “ also, a d d itio n a lly ,” 还 also fu n c tio n s as a te m p o ra l adve rb , in d ic a tin g th a t uth e s itu a tio n is still th e case .>, The a ctio n o r state rep re sen te d b y th e v e rb began in th e past and c o n tin u e s in to the present. I f I used to have th re e y o u n g e r sisters and I s till have three, w ith o u t h a v ­ ing lo st a n y o v e r th e years,

I can describe m y goo d fo rtu n e in th e fo llo w in g sen­

tence, w h ic h is o f course to be d is tin g u is h e d fro m sentence (1).

(3 )

我以前有三个妹妹,现在还有三个妹妹。

wỏ y ĩq iá n

y o u sānge m è im e i, xiá n z á i h á iy ỏ u sānge m èim ei.

A few m o re exam ple s o f th is second m e a n in g o f 还 :

(4 )

我 的孩子今年三岁,可是还不会走路。 W o de h á iz i jin n iá n sãnsuì, kẽshì h á i bú h u ì zỏu lù. M y c h ild is th re e th is ye a r b u t he s till can’t w a lk .

(5 )

你作的面包真好吃,我还想再吃一点儿。可 以 吗 ? N ĩ zuò de m ià n b ã o zhēn h ăo chĩ, w õ h ái x iả n g zài c h i y ìd iả n r. K ẽ y ĩ ma? T h e b re ad y o u m ade is re a lly good. I ( s till) w a n t to have some m ore. M a y I?

(6 )

A : 我们走吧。 W o m e n zou ba. L e t’s go. B : 还早 n i ,我还要再跟丁云谈谈。 H á i zāo ne. W õ h á i yà o zài gẻn D ĩn g Y ú n tá ntan. I ť s s till e a rly. I s till need to ta lk to D in g Y u n m ore.

(7 )

他 说 汉 语 ,有 时 候 说 得 没 有 问 题 ,有 时 候 说 得 不 太 对 。我想他语法了 € 得还 不 太 瘉 楚 。 T ã sh uõ H à n y ủ , y o u s h íh ò u shuỏ de m éi y õ u w é n tí, y ỏ u s h íhò u shuỏ de b ú tà i duì.

wỏ x iả n g

tã y ủ fả lia o jie de h ái b ú tà i q ĩn g c h u .

W h e n he speaks C hinese, som etim es he speaks w ith no p ro b le m w h ile o th e r tim e s he speaks in a c c u ra te ly . I th in k he s till d oesn’t u n d e rsta n d C hin ese g ra m m a r to o c le a rly .

A Practical Chinese Grammar

204

i

3. The Connector 或者 B o th 或者 A uóz/ie and 还是 A á isiĩi' are used to jo in a lte rn a tiv e s to g e th e r. In E n glish , th e y are b o th tra n s la te d as “ o r.” In a c tu a l usage , 或者 and 还是 are q u ite d iffe re n t.

还是 is used p rim a r ily in a ch o ic e -ty p e in te rro g a tiv e w h ile 或者 is used to jo in non-

t

d is ju n c tiv e a lte rn a tiv e s to g e th e r. T h e fo llo w in g is cite d fro m Y . R. C h a 〇Js Mandarin

Primer (pp. 145 — 146) to illu s tra te such a d is tin c tio n :

T h e w ritten sen ten ce “ A r e y o u g o in g to d a y or to m o rro w ?” is a m b ig u o u s, (a) S p o k e n w ith a

*

rising in ton atio n o n “ to d a y ” ( w ith or w ith o u t a p ause) and w ith a fa llin g in ton ation on “ to m o rro w ,” it is a d isju n ctive q uestio n and th e person a n sw e rin g is ex p e cte d to m ake a ch o ice b etw ee n “ to d a y ” and “ to m o rro w .” ( b) I f th e sam e w ord s are sp o k e n w ith a gradually rising in ton ation w ith no p ause, th en it is a yes-o r-no question and th e person a n sw e rin g is exp e cted to sa y “ Y e s (I am g o in g to d a y or to m o rro w )’’ or “ N o ( I am n o t g o in g eith er today or to m o rro w ).” In C h in e s e , d ifferen t w ord s are used fo r th e tw o k in d s o f “ o r’s.” 还 是 is used in the first ca se, w h ile 或 者 is u sed in th e seco n d . T h u s ,

你要铅笔还是要钢笔? N ĩ y à o q iánbĩ h áishì y à o g ã n g b ĩ? D o y o u w a n t a pencil or a pen?

^

( = W h ic h d o y o u w ant?)

你要铅笔或者钢笔吗? N ĩ y à o q iânbĩ h u ò zh ẽ g â n g b ĩ m a? D o y o u (or d o y o u not) w a n t a p encil or a pen? N o te th a t in a s ta te m e n t----- u nless it con ta in s an in direct d isju n ctive q u e s tio n ------ “ or” w ill al-

I

w a y s b e translated b y 或 者 .



T h e fo llo w in g are m ore exam ples o f th e use o f 或 者 • Please n o te th a t since th e 或

者 expressio n lin k s tw o o r m o re a lte rn a tiv e s to g e th e r, i t is p lu ra l in reference. I f the expressio n stands b e fo re th e ve rb in a sentence as in (2) and (3), th e p re dica te is

:

u s u a lly m o d ifie d b y 都 .1

(1 )

我 不 想 当 大 夫 ,我要研究中国文学或者当翻译。

wỏ bù

x iă n g dăn g d á ifu , w ồ yào y á n jiu Z h o n g g u ó w é n x u é huózhě

dāng fa n y i. I d o n 't w a n t to be a d o c to r. I w a n t to do research in C hinese lite ra ­ tu re o r becom e an in te rp re te r.

r

Lesson 26

205

(2 )

A : 阅览室里能吸烟吗? Y u è lá n s h ìli néng x ī yā n ma? C an I sm oke in th e re a d in g room ? B : 不 可 以 。阅览室或者教室里% 不可 以 吸 烟 。 B ù k ẽ y ĩ. Y u è lă n s h ì h uózhe jiá o s h ili dõu b ù k ẽ y ĩ x ĩ yãn. N o. T h e re is no s m o k in g in re a d in g ro o m s o r in classroom s.

(3 )

你想锻炼身体,走路或者游泳都很好。 N ĩ x iă n g d u à n lià n sh ē n ti, zou lù h uózhě y ó u y ỏ n g d õu hèn hăo. I f y o u w a n t to exercise, e ith e r w a lk in g o r s w im m in g is good.

4. The Adverb 就 The a d ve rb

jiù is a te m p o ra l m a rk e r fo r a v e rb /a d je c tiv e , stressin g th e im m i­

nence o r u rg e n c y o f th e a c tio n /s ta te . I t m a y also in d ic a te th a t an e v e n t ta kes place sooner o r e a rlie r th a n expected. Please co m p are th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences: (1 )

我今年想去中国。 W o jin n iá n x iă n g qù Z ho n g g u ó .

(2 )

我今年就想去中国。 W 5 jīn n ia n jiù x iă n g qù Z ho n g g u ó .

Sentence (1) is a sim p le sta te m e n t o f o ne ’s w is h o f g o in g to C hin a. Sentence (2 ),on the o th e r hand, co n ta in s th e a d ve rb

就 ,u n d e rs c o rin g th e u rg e n c y o f th e plan.

Hence, th e sentence m eans “ I w a n t to go to C h in a as e a rly as th is y e a r.” O th e r examples are: (3 )

我八点就可以回家。 W o b ã d iă n jiù k ẽ y ĩ h u í jiā . I can re tu rn hom e as e a rly as e ig h t o ’clock.

(4 )

我现在就去。 W o x iá n z á i jiù qù. I ’ll go r ig h t aw ay.

(5 )

在 美 国 十 八 岁 就 可 以 开 车 。可 是 在 中 国 呢 ,十八岁还不可以开车。对 吗? Z à i M ẽ ig u ó shíbâsuì jiù k ẽ y ĩ k ā i chẽ. K ẽ s h ì zài Z h o n g g u ó ne, shíbãsuì h á i b ù k ẽ y ĩ k ã i chẽ. D u ì ma? T h e m in im u n age fo r d riv in g in A m e ric a is (as y o u n g as) eighteen. B u t in C h in a an e ig h te e n -ye a r-o ld person is s till n o t a llo w e d to d rive . R ig h t?

206

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(6 )

我 小 时 候 就很喜欢看小说。现在还常常去图书馆借鲁迅或者郭沫若的 小说来看。

wỏ

x iả o s h íh ò u jiù hẽn x ĩh u a n k à n xiả o sh u ỏ . X ià n z à i h á i cháng-

ch án g qù tú s h ủ g u ả n jiè L ủ X ù n h uòzhẽ G u õ M ò ru ò de x iă o s h u õ lái kàn. E v e n w h e n I w as y o u n g I lik e d to read fic tio n . I s till o fte n go to the lib r a r y to ch e ck o u t sto rie s b y L u X u n o r G u o M o ru o .

5. A Special Numera丨俩 In c o llo q u ia l M a n d a rin , 两个 t ò n 跋 e m a y be sh orten e d to 俩 t ó . T h e s h o rt fo rm is o fte n used w h e n re fe rrin g to people. (1 )

请你们俩都来。 Q ĩn g n ĩm e n liă d õu lái. B o th o f y o u are in v ite d to come.

(2 )

他们俩都是很有名的作家。 T ả m e n liă d õ u shì hẽn y ỏ u m ìn g de zuojiā. T h e y are b o th fa m o u s w rite rs .

Lesson 27

1. The Perfective 了 1.1

T

le is one o f th e m o st d if fic u lt g ra m m a tic a l fe a tu re s in th e C hinese la n ­

guage. I t serves a v a rie ty o f fu n c tio n s and m a y appear e ith e r a fte r a v e rb o r a t the end o f a sentence. In th is lesson, w e w ill e xa m in e th e use o f th e p o s t-v e rb a l 了 ,or, sim ply, th e v e rb —了 . T h e v e rb a l

T

is p rim a r ily used to m a rk th e c o m p le tio n aspect o f a verb. T h e

concept o f c o m p le tio n o f an a c tio n is to be d is tin g u is h e d fro m th e co nce pt o f a past action. A s discussed in Lesson 23,in E n g lis h “ tense” refe rs to th e tim e c o n te x t in w hich an a c tio n ta kes place; hence, th e re is a th re e -w a y d iffe re n tia tio n : th e past, the present and th e fu tu re . E n g lis h ve rb s are in fle c te d fo r the pre sen t and th e past; the future tense is expressed b y a n o th e r d evice u sin g an a u x ilia ry . F o r exam ple , ate — w ill eat,

sing — sang — w ill sing,

w a lk —w a lk e d — w ill w a lk .

e a t—

H o w e v e r,

in

each o f th e th re e tim e fram es, an a ctio n can be v ie w e d w ith an em phasis on a p a r­ ticu la r phase a lo n g th e course o f its progress. W e m a y choose to fo cus o u r a tte n tio n on its b e g in n in g , its c o n tin u a tio n , o r its co m p le tio n . In a n y case, each o f these stages is re fe rre d to as an “ aspect.” A p ast a c tio n has a ll these aspects, so does a present a c tio n and a fu tu re a ctio n . T h e re fo re , in E n g lis h , th e “ p e rfe c tiv e ,” o r th e “c o m p le tive ,” m a y app ea r in th e p re sen t tense, th e past tense o r th e fu tu re tense. P ast p e rfe ct:

I had a lre a d y a rriv e d (w h e n he called).

P re sen t p e rfe ct:

I have a lre a d y arrivec/.

F u tu re p erfect:

I shall have a rriv e d (b y e ig h t to m o rro w e ven in g).

is w h e re th e speaker is and, th e re fo re , be­ comes as th e base: ufro m here.>, T h e 离 p a tte rn in C hinese, h o w e v e r, is n o t bou nd b y such a re fe re n tia l re s tric tio n . E ith e r p o in ts m a y o c c u r as th e O b je c t o f th e co verb

离 . In fa ct, as e x e m p life d b y (7 ) and (8 ),w h ile th e re are tw o w a y s o f fo rm in g the same q u e stio n in C hinese, th e re is, h o w e v e r, o n ly one acceptable o rd e r in E n g lis h .

(7 )

>

那个图书馆离这儿有多远?我们可以走路去吗? N à ge tú s h ũ g u ả n lí zh è r y o u d uõ yuan? W o m e n k ẽ y ĩ zỏu lù qù ma? H o w fa r is th a t lib r a r y fro m here? C an w e go th e re o n foot?

(8 )

这儿离那个图书馆有多远?我们可以走路去吗?



Z h è r l ĩ nà ge tú s h ũ g u ă n y o u d uỏ yuan? W o m e n k ẽ y ĩ zỗu lù (Ịù ma? * H o w fa r is here fro m th a t lib ra ry ? C an w e go th e re on fo ot?

T h e same d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n “ fr o m ” and “ to ” is fo u n d b e tw e e n

hk cóng and 到

dào in C hinese as th e fo rm e r a lw a y s m a rk s th e p o in t o f o rig in and th e la tte r the

*

d e stin a tio n p o in t. H ence, sentence (6) m a y be rephrased o n ly in one o rd er:

( 6 . a ) 从这儿到北京还有多远啊? C ó n g zh è r dào B e ijin g h á i y o u d uó yu a n a? ( 6 .b ) * 从北京到这儿还有 i ẩ

*cỏng B e ijin g

啊?

dào zh è r h ái y ồ u d uỏ yu a n a?

?

255

Lesson 30

2. The Word for “Self” :自己 自己 z ij, is a p ro n o u n th a t can be atta che d to a ll p ersonal p ro n o u n s and nouns.

(1 )

(2 )

(3 )

我自己 你自己 他自己 她自己

我们自己 你们自己 他们自己 她们自己

w õ z ijī “ m y s e lf” n ĩ z ìjĩ

“ y o u rs e lf”

tā z Ịjĩ

“ h im s e lf”

tā z ìjĩ

“ h e rs e lf”

大夫自己 学生们自己 帕兰卡自己

w õ m e n z ỉjĩ “ ourselves” n ĩm e n z ìjĩ

“ y o u rse lve s”

tā m e n z ìjĩ

“ th em selve s”

tām en z ijī

“ th em selve s”

d á ifu z ìjĩ

“ th e d o c to r h im s e lf”

xu ésh en gm en z ìjĩ

“ th e students th em selve s”

P à lá n kả z ìjĩ

“ P a lan ka h e rs e lf”

明天我自己去看他。 M ín g tiá n w ỏ z ìjĩ qù k à n tā. I ’ll g o see h im m y s e lf to m o rro w .

(4 )

帕 兰 卡 想 给 (她 )自己买一顶帽子。 P à lá n kả x iă n g g ẽi (tā ) z ìjĩ m ả i y ìd ĩn g m áozi. P a la n ka w a n ts to b u y a h a t fo r herself.

(5 )

你应该自己去跟他说。 N ĩ y ĩn g g ã i z ìjĩ qù gên tã shuõ. Y o u sh o u ld go ta lk to h im yo u rs e lf.

(6 )

大夫不能给自己看病。 D á ifu bù n én g g ẽi z ìjĩ kà n bìng. A d o c to r c a n n o t tre a t h im se lf.

If the person al re fe ren ce is cle a r fro m th e co n te x t, as in sentences (4) to (6 ) , 自己

I I

may app ea r a ll b y its e lf as an in d e p e n d e n t u n it in a sentence. The

自己 e xp re ssio n m a y also ta ke o n a g e n itiv e fu n c tio n , in w h ic h case it m a y

be tra n sla te d as “ (o n e ’s) o w n .”

(7 )

自己的努力 z ìjĩ de n ù lì o ne ’s o w n d ilig e n c e

(8 )

古波自己的朋友 G ủ b ò z ìjĩ de p é n g yo u G u b o ’s o w n frie n d s

.

A Practical Chinese Grammar

256

(9 )

她的家就象我自己的家。 T ā de jiā jiù x ià n g w õ z ìjĩ de jiā . H e r hom e is lik e m y o w n hom e.

( 1 0 ) 我们开自己的车去吧。 W o m e n k ā i z ìjĩ de chẽ qù ba. L e t’s go in o u r o w n car. ( 1 1 ) 每个人都不愿意离开自己的孩子。 M ẽ i ge ré n dỏu b ú y u à n y ì lík ã i z ìjĩ de háizi. N o one w a n ts to leave h is /h e r o w n c h ild re n .

Lesson 31

1. The Time—Measure Complement 1.1

A tim e — m easure co m p le m e n t is an expressio n th a t denotes th e d u ra tio n o f

an action. S tru c tu ra lly , i t is placed after a verb. H o w e v e r, a tim e expression th a t tells w h e n an a c tio n ta kes place comes before a verb. T h e p o s itio n a l c o n tra s t be­ tween th e e xpressio n o f tim e when and th a t o f tim e spent is best ca p tu re d in the fo llo w in g p a ir o f sentences. (1 )

你每天几点休息? N ĩ m ẽ i tiã n jĩd iả n x ĩu x i? W h a t tim e do y o u re st e ve ry day?

(2 )

你每天休息几个小时? N ĩ m ẽ i tiā n x ĩu x i jĩg e xiảoshí? H o w m a n y h o u rs d o y o u re st e v e ry day?

1.2

W h e n w e describe a gen eral state o f a ffa irs , w h e th e r set in th e past, p re sen t

or fu tu re tim e fram e s, th e e xpressio n o f tim e -s p e n t a lw a y s appears p o s t-v e rb a lly . I f we re fe r to a sp e cific in c id e n t, fo c u s in g on its p e rfe c tiv e aspect, th e d u ra tio n a l e x ­

i

pression appears a fte r th e e n tire v e rb —T u n it. (3 )

你昨天休息了几个小时? N ĩ z u ó tia n x lu x ile jīg e xiaoshí? H o w m a n y h o u rs d id y o u re st yesterday?

(4 )

他 八 点 来 看 我 ,十二 点 离 开 。你说他在我这儿坐了几个小时? T ã b ã d iă n lá i k à n w õ , s h í^ rd iă n lík á i. N ĩ shuỏ tā zài w õ zhèr zuòle jĩg e xiăoshí? H e cam e to see m e a t e ig h t o ’clock. H e le ft a t tw e lv e o ’c lo c k . H o w m a n y h o u rs w o u ld y o u say he spent (s ittin g ) in m y place?

In th e la s t e xam ple , th e v is it began a t e ig h t o ’c lo c k and ended a t tw e lv e m id n ig h t, a

258

A Practical Chinese Grammar

fo u r-h o u r session th a t seemed to have been a b it to o lo n g fo r th e speaker-host. S up­ pose, in a s im ila r scenario, it is n o w m id n ig h t and th e g ue st w h o cam e a t e ig h t s till show s no in te n tio n o f le a v in g . H o w w o u ld th e h o s t express h is c o m p la in t? (5 )

他 八 点 来 看 我 ,现 在 已 经 十 二 点 了 。你说他在我这儿坐了几个小时 了? T ã b ã d iă n lá i k à n w ỏ, x iá n z á i y ijin g s h í^ rd iă n le. N ĩ shuỏ tá zài w õ zh èr zuòle jĩg e x iă o s h í lé? H e came to see m e a t e ig h t o ’c lo c k , and it is n o w a lre a d y tw e lv e o ’c lo ck. H o w m a n y h o u rs w o u ld y o u say he has been s ittin g in m y house?

T h e sem antic d is tin c tio n b etw e e n (4) and (5) is th a t w h ile th e fo rm e r represents a co m p le te d event, th e la tte r re fe rs to an o n g o in g s itu a tio n . G ra m m a tic a lly , sentence (4 ) co n ta in s th e v e rb a l

了 ,and sentence (5 ) b o th the

v e rb — 了 and th e se nte nce —T . T h e fu n c tio n o f th e n e w s itu a tio n p a rtic le in (5) is to p ro v id e a refe ren ce p o in t, p u n c tu a tin g th e c o n tin u o u s n a tu re o f th e v is it: as of n o w , th is state has been g o in g on fo r th is p e rio d o f tim e , and i t w ill g o on b eyond th is p o in t. T h e a d ve rb

已经

“ a lre a d y ” is o fte n used in th is p a tte rn w ith b o th

T s. T o re c a p itu la te o u r d iscu ssion o n th e use o f th e tim e — m easure c o m p le m e n t c o n s tru c tio n so fa r, th e fo llo w in g are th e th re e p a tte rn s and some m o re exam ples. Please n ote th e use o f “ th e p e rfe c t c o n tin u o u s tense” in E n g lis h ( “ have been V e rb in g ” )fo r th e d o u b le —了 c o n s tru c tio n w ith th e tim e — m easure c o m p le m en t.

G e n e ra l A c tio n :

(6 )

S u b je c t

+

V e rb

+

T im e

+

T im e

他每天学习八个小时。 T ā m ẽ i tiā n x u é x í báge xiăoshí. H e studies e ig h t h o u rs a day.

P ast A c tio n :

(7 )

S u b je c t

+

V e rb — 了

他昨天学习了八个小时。 T ā z u ó tia n x u é x íle bāge xiăo shí. H e stu d ie d fo r e ig h t h ou rs ye sterda y.

259

Lesson 31

C o n tin u in g A c tio n : S u b je ct +

(8 )

V e rb — 了 +

T im e + 了

他已经学习了八个小时了。 T ā y ijin g x u é x íle bāge x iả o sh í le. H e has a lre a d y been s tu d y in g fo r e ig h t hours.

(9 )

去年我在北京住了三个多月。明年我想去上海住几个月。 Q ù n iá n w õ zài B e ijin g zh ůle sãngeduõ yuè. M ín g n iá n w ỏ x iă n g qù S h a n g h a i zhù jĩg e yuè. I liv e d in B e ijin g fo r m o re th a n th re e m o n th s last year. N e x t year, I w a n t to go to S h a n g h a i and liv e th e re fo r a fe w m onths.

(1 0 )

A : 对 不 起 ,请你再等一会儿。王老师还在打电话呢。 D u ì bu q ĩ,

q ĩn g n ĩ zài dẽng

y ìh u ĩr.

W áng

lă o s h ĩ

hái zài dả

d ià n h u à ne. S o rry , b u t can y o u w a it fo r a fe w m o re m inutes? T e a c h e r W a n g is s till on th e phone. B : 我已经等了二 + 分 钟 了 。你还要我再等多长时间? W o y ijln g dẽn gle è rsh i fē n z h o n g le. N ĩ h ái yà o w ỏ zài dẽng duo ch án g shíjián? F ve a lre a d y been w a itin g fo r tw e n ty m in utes. H o w m u c h lo n g e r do y o u w a n t m e to w ait?

1.3

W h e n th e ve rb takes an O b je c t, th e above p a tte rn s need to be m o d ifie d . R eca ll

from an e a rlie r lesson th a t w h e n a v e rb takes b o th an O b je c t and a co m p le m e n t, the verb m a y be repeated to fo llo w th e fo rm u la : “ V e rb — O b je c t V e r b — C o m p le m e n t.” The p re d ica te co n ta in s tw o v e rb a l phrases, each ve rb g o v e rn in g its o w n g ra m m a ti­ cal co n stitu e n t. T h e same ru le app lie s here and th e fo llo w in g are m o d ific a tio n s o f the tim e — m easure p atterns.

G e n e ra l A c tio n : S u b je c t +

[V e rb

+

O b je c t]

+

[V e rb

+

( 1 1 ) 他每天学习中文学习八个小时。 T ā m é i tia n x u é x í Z h o n g w é n x u é x í bage xiăoshí. H e studies C hinese e ig h t h o u rs a day.

T im e ]



260

A Practical Chinese Grammar

P ast A c tio n : S u b je c t +

[V e rb

+

O b je c t]

+

[ V e r b —了 +

T im e ]

( 1 2 ) 他昨天学习中文学习了八个小时。 T ā zu ó tia n x u é x í Z h o n g w é n x u é x íle bage xia o sh í. H e stu d ie d C hinese fo r e ig h t h o u rs ye sterda y.

C o n tin u in g A c tio n : S u b je c t + [ V e rb + O b je c t ] + [ V e rb — 了 + T im e ] + 了

( 1 3 ) 他学习中文已经学习了八个小时了。 T ā x u é x í Z h o n g w é n y ijln g x u é x íle báge x ia o s h í le. H e has a lre a d y been s tu d y in g C hinese fo r e ig h t hours. ( 1 4 ) 你们开会已经开了一个星期了。明天还要开吗? N ĩm e n k ā i h u ì y ijln g k ā ile y íg e x in g q i le. M ín g tiả n h ái yào k á i ma? Y o u ’ve been in m ee ting s fo r a w e e k n ow . Is th e re g o in g to be a n o th e r m e e tin g to m o rro w ? ( 1 5 ) 我们坐飞机坐了十几个小时,大家都很辛苦。现在快去睡觉吧。 W o m e n zuò f ē ijī zuóle s h íjig e xiă o sh í, d à jiã d õu hen x ĩn k ủ . X iá n z á i k u à i qú sh ui jiá o ba. W e w e re on th e p la ne fo r m ore th a n te n o dd h ours. I t m u s t have been v e ry h a rd o n a ll o f us. L e t’s go ca tch some sleep n o w . (1 6 )

A : 机场离学校远不远?开车要开多久? J īc h a n g lí x u é x ià o y u a n bu yuan? K á i chẽ yào k ā i d u õ jiủ ? H o w fa r is th e a irp o rt fro m th e school? H o w lo n g does it ta k e to g e t th e re b y car? B: i 远 很 远 ,开车要开六个多小时。 H e n yu a n hen yu an , k ā i chẽ yào k ā i liù g e d u õ xiăo shí. V e ry , v e ry fa r. Y o u ’ll have to d riv e fo r m o re th a n s ix hours.

(1 7 )

A : 你学法文学了多久了?说 得 真 不 错 。 N i xué F a w é n xu éle d u õ jiu le? S h uõ de zhēn b ú cuò. H o w lo n g have y o u been s tu d y in g F rench? Y o u speak re a lly w e ll. B : 哪 里 。我学 了 两 年 多 了 ,可是说得还不很流利。 N ă li.

wỏ x u é le

liả n g n iá n d u ỏ le, kẽshì shuỏ de h ái b ù hẽn liú lì.

^

261

Lesson 31

I t ’s n o th in g . I ’ve been s tu d y in g i t fo r m o re th a n tw o years and I ’m s till n o t v e ry f lu e n t Please n o te th a t the A d v e rb 已经 appears b e fo re the second v e rb phrase in the V e rb — O b je c t V e r b —C o m p le m e n t p a ra d ig m .

1.4

A v a ria tio n o f th e above p a tte rn s is to place th e tim e and the O b je c t to g e th e r,

m aking th e fo rm e r a m o d ifie r o f th e la tte r. T h e m o d ific a tio n m a r k e r , 的 ,appears between th e tw o co n stitu e n ts. T h o u g h th e m a rk e r is n o t o b lig a to ry in th e c o n s tru c ­ tion, its presence is p re fe rre d .

G e n e ra l A c tio n : S u b je c t +

V e rb +

[ T im e +

的 +

O b je c t ]

( 1 8 ) 他每天学八个小时的中文。 T ā m ẽ itiã n xu é bāge x iă o sh í de Z ho n g w é n . H e stu die s C hinese e ig h t h o u rs a day.

P ast A c tio n : S u b je c t

+

V e rb —了 +

[ T im e +

的 O b je c t ]

( 1 9 ) 他昨天学了八个小时的中文。 T ā z u ó tia n x u é le bāge x iă o s h í de Z h o n g w é n . H e stu d ie d C hinese fo r e ig h t h o u rs yesterday.

C o n tin u in g A c tio n : S u b je ct +

V e rb —了 +

[ T im e

+ 的 + O b je c t]

+ 了

( 2 0 ) 他已经学了八个小时的中文了。 T ā y ijln g xu éle bāge x iă o sh í de Z h o n g w é n le. H e has a lre a d y been s tu d y in g C hinese fo r e ig h t hours. ( 2 1 ) 这 个 星 期 的 考 试 ,老师开了两个多小时的会。我们都希望这次的考试

不会太长。 Z hè ge x ĩn g q ĩ de kă osh ì, lă o s h ĩ k ã ile liă n g g e d u õ x iă o s h í de huì. W o m e n d ỏ u x ĩw à n g zhè cì de kă osh ì bú h u ì tà i cháng. F o r th is w e e k 's test, th e teachers m e t fo r m o re th a n tw o h ours. W e a ll hope th a t th e te s t th is tim e w o n ’t be to o lon g.

262

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 2 2 ) 昨天他看了一个上午的电视,下午又听了两个多小时的音乐。晚上我

j

让他 i 理 房 间 的 时 候 ,他 说他没有时间,他要准备考试。 Z u o tiā n tā k à n le y íg e sh á n g w u de d ià nsh ì, x ià w ủ y ò u tin g le liảngged uõ x iả o s h í de y ĩn y u è . W a n sh a n g w ỏ rà n g ta z h e n g lī fá n g jia n de sh íhò u, tã shuỏ tả m é iy ỏ u s h ijia n , tā yào z h u n b é i kảoshì. Y e s te rd a y , he spent th e e n tire m o rn in g w a tc h in g T .v . and a n o th e r tw o h o u rs in th e a fte rn o o n lis te n in g to m usic. W h e n I asked h im to clean up h is ro o m in thie e ven in g, he said he d id n ’t have tim e . He had to p re p a re fo r th e exams. ( 2 3 ) 她 九 点 多 离 开 学 校 ,九点五十五分到机场。她在路上开了四十多分钟 4

的车。 T ā jiu d ia n d u õ lík ã i x u é x ià o , jiu d ia n w u s h iw u fě n dào jīc h a n g . T á zài lù s h a n g k ā ile sìs h id u õ fẽ n zh õ n g de chẽ. She le ft th e sch oo l a fte r n in e o ’c lo c k and a rriv e d a t th e a ir p o r t at n in e fifty - fiv e .

She spend m o re th a n fo r ty m in u te s ( d r iv in g )

on

th e road. (24)

A : 你学了多长时间的音乐了? N ĩ xu é le d uò ch án g s h íjiá n de y in y u è le? H o w lo n g have y o u been s tu d y in g m usic? B : 我学了八 % 了 。# 始 的 时 候 ,á 学 唱 民 歌 。上 大 学 的 时 候 ,我开始

学 拉 小 提 琴 。我现在已经学了六年多的小提琴了。

wỏ

xu éle b ã n iá n le. K á is h ĩ de sh íhò u, w ỏ xué ch àn g m íngẽ.

S hàng dàxué de shíhòu, w ỏ k a is h ĩ xué lả x iả o tíq ín .

wỏ

xiàn zài

y ijln g x u é le liù n iá n d u õ de x iả o tíq ín le. I ť s been e ig h t years. In th e b e g in n in g , I learned h o w to sing fo lk songs. In college, I sta rte d to lea rn h o w to p la y th e v io lin . I ’ve been p la y in g th e v io lin fo r m o re th a n s ix years n ow .

O ne re s tric tio n in u sin g th is “ m o d ific a tio n ” p a tte rn is th a t its O b je c t can n e v e r be a p ersonal p ro n o u n . T h e re fo re , (25*a) 我们等你等了一刻钟。 W o m e n dēng n ĩ dẽn gle y ík è zhóng. W e w a ite d fo r y o u fo r fifte e n m inutes. (25.b 严我们等了一刻钟的你。 *W ồ m e n dẽn gle y ík è zh ó n g de nĩ. T h e m o d ific a tio n is used m o st fre q u e n tly w ith n o n -Q /Q O b jects.

W h e n a ve rb

263

Lesson 31

takes a g eneris O b je c t o r an O b je c t th a t ca rrie s no m o d ifie r o f its o w n , th e re is a strong te n d e n cy fo r tu rn in g th e d u ra tio n a l segm ent in to a tim e m o d ifie r. I f th e O b ­ ject is a c o m p le x n o u n phrase, th e p re fe rre d p a tte rn is to p ic a liz a tio n .

1.5

T o p ic a liz a tio n o ffe rs a n o th e r a lte rn a tiv e fo r s e p a ra tin g th e O b je c t fro m th e

verb—co m p le m e n t cluster. T h e O b je c t to be to p ic a liz e d has to be d e fin ite in refe ren ce and is o fte n g ra m m a tic a lly c o m p le x in s tru ctu re . T h e O b je c t phrase m a y c o n ta in a dem onstrative, an a d je ctive , a n d /o r a re la tiv e clause.

G e n e ra l A c tio n : O b je c t, S u b je c t. +

(26)

V e rb

+

T im e

中 文 ,他每天学习八个小时。 Z h ó n g w é n , tā m é i tiā n x u é x í bảge xiăoshí. H e stu die s C hinese e ig h t h o u rs a day.

P ast A c tio n : O b je c t, S u b je c t

(27)

+

V e r b —了

+

T im e

中 文 ,他昨天学习了八个小时。 Z h ó n g w é n , ta z u ó tia n x u é x íle bāge xiăoshí. H e stu d ie d C hinese fo r e ig h t h o u rs ye sterda y.

C o n tin u o u s A c tio n : O b je c t, S u b je c t + V e rb —了 + T im e + 了

( 2 8 ) 中 文 ,他已经学习了八个小时了。 Z h o n g w é n , tā y ijln g x u é x íle bāge x iă o s h í le. H e has a lre a d y been s tu d y in g C hinese fo r e ig h t hours.

( 2 9 ) 第 三 十 一 课 的 语 法 ,老师已经教了三天多了,但是我还不懂。 D ì s ã n s h iy ĩk e de y ủ fă , lă o s h ĩ y ijin g jia o le s a n tiã n d u õ le, dànshì w ỏ h ái b ù dỏng. T h e te a ch e r has a lre a d y been te a c h in g the g ra m m a r in Lesson 31 fo r m o re th a n th re e days n o w ,b u t I s till d o n ’t u nderstand.

264

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 3 0 ) 去 中 国 的 手 续 ,我 已 经 办 了 几 个 星 期 了 。不 知 道 有 什 么 问 题 ? Q ù Z h o n g g u ó de sh ỏu xù, w ỏ y ljin g bànle jĩg e x ĩn g q ĩ le. B ù zhīdao y o u shénm e w én tí? T h e fo rm a litie s fo r g o in g to C h in a -----

I have a lre a d y d e a lt w ith

th e m fo r several w eeks. I d o n ’t k n o w w h a t p ro b le m s th e re are.

(3 1 )

A : 这 个 星 期 五 的 考 试 ,你 说 要 准 备 多 长 时 间 ? Z hé ge x ln g q iw u de kăoshì, n ĩ shuò yà o z h u ņ b e i d u õ ch á n g shíjiān? H o w m u c h tim e do y o u th in k i ť l l ta k e to p re p a re fo r th e test th is F rid a y ? B : 这 个 星 期 6 考 试 不 会 太 难 ,不 用 准 备 太 久 吧 。 Z hè ge x ĩn g q ĩ de kă osh ì bú h u ì tà i nán, b ú y ò n g zh u n b é i tà i jiủ ba. T h e te st th is w e e k is p ro b a b ly n o t g o in g to be to o h ard. I d o n ^ th in k i ť l l ta k e to o lo n g to p re pa re fo r it.

( 3 2 ) 这 两 个 很 难 的 问 题 ,我 想 了 一 个 晚 上 。 Zhè liă n g g e hẽn nán de w é n tí, w ỏ x iả n g le y íg e w anshang. I spent th e e n tire e v e n in g th in k in g a b o u t these tw o d if fic u lt p ro b ­ lems.

1.6

T h e fo llo w in g ta b le sums up th e v a rio u s tim e —m easure p a tte rn s th a t we

have described in th is lesson.

P ast A ctio n

Continu ing A ctio n

Sub ject V erb — T T im e

Sub ject V erb — T T im e

General A ctio n Sub ject V erb T im e

T Sub ject V e r b — O b ject V erb Tim e Sub ject V erb T im e O b ject O b je ct, Sub ject V erb Tim e

Sub ject V e r b — O b ject V erb



了 T im e

Su b ject V erb — 了 T im e 的 O b je ct, Su b ject V erb — T

T im e

Sub ject V erb — O b je ct V e r b — 了 T im e 了 Sub ject

V e r b —了

T im e 的 O b je ct 了 O b je ct, Sub ject V erb — T

T im e T

265

Lesson 31

2. Approximate Number Indicators 2.1

T h e re are tw o m a rk e rs in C hinese to in d ic a te an a p p ro x im a te n um b e r:

/L ji

and 多 c/uó. A lth o u g h b o th appear w ith m easure w o rd s w h e n c o u n tin g th in g s , th e ir behaviors and im p lic a tio n s are n o t e x a c tly th e same.

1 -9

几个

* 多个

1 1 -1 9

十几个

* 十多个

21 -

二十几个

29

二十多个

* 一百多个

1 0 1 -1 0 9

一百零几个

1 1 1 -1 1 9

一百一十几个

一百一十多个

1 2 1 -1 2 9

一百二十几个

一百二十多个

1 0 1 -1 9 9

* 一百几个

一百多个

1 0 -9 0

几十个

* 多十个

100 -

几百个

* 多百个

900

几 can app ea r e ith e r b y its e lf ( f o r exam ple, /1*4" jige ^s e v e ra r') o r in c o m ­ b in atio n w ith a n y n u m b e rs as an a p p ro x im a tio n in d ic a to r ( f o r e x a m p le , 十 几 个 5/2/2.2

jige “ te n o d d : 11 — 19.’’) I t a lw a y s represents a n u m b e r ran ge fro m 1 to 9. W h e n placed b e fo re

十 ,JL~Ỳ jish i i t m eans a ro u n d fig u re b etw e e n 10 and 90. B y the

same to k e n , Ị\J ẵ jibai m eans a ro u n d fig u re b e tw e e n 100 and 900. O n th e o th e r h a n d ,多 m u s t app ea r a fte r a m u ltip le o f 10, re p re s e n tin g th e rem ainder o f th e fig u re . * 多 十

c/uõsAi and * 多百 c/uóbái’ are in c o rre c t because 多 n eve r

appears in th e in itia l p o s itio n o f a riu m e ric a l e xp re ssio n . 十多个 siw’c/uõ尽e is c o rre c t and it m eans th e same th in g as

十 几 个 :“ te n o dd ite m s.” In

— 百一十多个

266

A Practical Chinese Grammar V

yìbảiyìshiduògef

^

com es a fte r

十 ,hence re p re s e n tin g th e ran ge o f 1 1 1 — 119.

A g a in , as th e range o f a p p ro x im a tio n is w ith in th e scope o f te n , 几 m a y be used as a su b stitu te : ' 百 一 十 几 个 y i b á Ị ỵ ì s A i » . N o w , in th e expressio n 一 百 多 个 yìbảiduoge, 多 com es a fte r 百 and th e re fo re covers th e e n tire ran ge o f 101 — 199. T h is range is o f course n o t p ossible fo r 几 :* ■百 几 个 . F o r th e range o f 101 — 109,多 is n o t a p p lica b le , since th e a p p ro x im a tio n does n o t re p re se n t a d ig ita l range im m e d ia te ly a fte r th e 百 u n it . 几 is q u a lifie d b u t needs 零 to id e n tify th e exact d ig ita l range: 一 yibailingjige. 几 is also one o f th e tw o in te rro g a tiv e w o rd s fo r a s k in g “ h o w m a n y ,” th e o th e r one b eing 多 少 . A g a in , th e ta rg e t n u m b e r fo r 几 is s m a lle r th a n ten. T h e fo llo w in g co n ve rsa tio n d em on strate s th e tw o uses o f 几 : (1 )

A : 你在这儿几年了。你认识了几个中国朋友? N ĩ zài zh é r jin iá n le. N ĩ rè n s h ile jĩg e Z h o n g g u ó péngyou? Y o u V e been here fo r several years. H o w m a n y C hinese frie n d s do y o u kn o w ? B : 我 á 这儿没有几个朋友。星 期 六 星 期 天 ,我常常一个人在宿舍看电

视。

wỏ

zài zh è r m é iy ỗ u

jĩg e

p én gyo u.

X ĩn g q iliù

x in g q ĩtiã n ,

wỏ

ch án gch án g y íg e ré n zài sùshè k à n d iànshì. I d o n 't have m a n y frie n d s here. O n S a tu rd a ys and S undays, I o fte n w a tc h T . v . b y m y s e lf in th e d orm .

多 can also be used to in d ic a te a fra c tio n o f a m e a s u rin g u n it. F o r exam ple, w ith 月 y u è “ m o n th ” as th e re fe re n tia l p o in t, ~ '个月 is “ a m o n th ” and —个多月 is 2.3

“ a m o n th and a fra c tio n o f i t ” o r “ o v e r a m o n th b u t n o t tw o m o n th s .” T h e d iffe rence b etw e en th is fra c tio n a l use o f 多 and th e above described a p p ro x im a tio n 多 is e sse n tia lly in th e p o s itio n in g o f th e m a rk e r.

A p p r o x im a tio n

[N u m b e r + 多 + M e a su re + N o u n ]

F ra ctio n

[N u m b e r + M e a su re + 多 + N o u n ]

十多个月

十个 多 月

s h íd u ó g e y u è

s h íg e d u ó ỵ u è

ten to tw e n ty m on th s

o ver ten but not quite eleven m on th s

/

267

Lesson 31

One easy ru le to re m e m b e r is th a t 多 a lw a y s re fe rs to a fra c tio n o f w h a te v e r stands im m e diately b e fo re it. I f i t is a n u m b e r preceded b y it, as in 十多个月 ,th e n 多 is a fractio n o f th a t n u m e ric a l u n it. H e n ce , 多 represents an a p p ro x im a tio n o f w h a t comes a fte r ten, n a m e ly b etw e e n eleven and nin etee n m on ths. I f 多 fo llo w s a m ea­ sure w o rd , it represents a fra c tio n o f th e noun. In

十 个 多 月 ,th e p o s itio n in g o f 多

tells us th a t th e fra c tio n re fe rs to th e m easure, w h ic h represents 月 . T h e re fo re , “ ten months p lu s a fra c tio n o f a m o n th .” N o w co m p are the fo llo w in g tw o phrases:

(2 .a ) 十多个人 sh ídu ỏg e ren ( 2 . b ) * 十个多 1 *s h íg e d u ỏ ren

(2.a) m eans “ m o re th a n ten people : u n d e r 20.” ( 2.b) is u n g ra m m a tic a l because it would m ean ute n p lu s a fra g m e n t o f a person.>, E x c e p t in sta tistics, such a fr a g ­ m entation is n o t possible. U n lik e 多 ,几 is n e ve r used to in d ic a te fra c tio n .

星期 x m 容中 天 "á n “ day, ” fa ll in to tw o ca te g o rie s : 年 and 天 are m easure w o rd s whereas 月 and 星期 are nouns, b o th ta k in g 个 as th e ir measures. 2.4

T h e fo u r m a jo r tim e u n its , 年 n /á/2 “ y e a r, ” 月 y u ẻ “ m o n th ,”

“w eek,” and

一年 一天 一个月 一个星期

ỵìniản yìtiàn yíg e ỵu è yíg e xingqi

u

______

one ye a r

yy

“ one d a y ” “ one m o n th ” one w ee k

Because o f th is ca te g o ric a l d is tin c tio n , the fo u r te rm s behave q u ite d iffe r e n tly in both p a tte rn s o f a p p ro x im a tio n and o f fra c tio n , a s itu a tio n th a t b e g in n in g students often fin d in c o n c e iv a b le and co n fu sin g . “ T e n odd m o n th s (11 — 19)” is

十几个月,

but “ te n o dd ye ars” is 十几年 and n o t * 十 几 个 年 . 年 is a m easure w o rd b y its e lf and does n o t re q u ire a n o th e r m easure w h e n a p p e a rin g w ith a n u m e ra l : 二年 “ th re e years,” 十多年 “ te n o dd years,”

几十年 “ tens o f years.” I t also sits im m e d ia te ly be-

fore 多 in th e fra c tio n a l p a tte rn , w h ic h re q u ire s th e m a rk e r to appear a fte r a measure:十年多 and n o t 来十个多年 “ o v e r ten years.” 月 ,on th e o th e r hand, is a n o u n that ta kes its o w n m easure 个 as i t appears in 十个多月 and n o t •十月多 “ o v e r te n m onths,” and also in

十多个月 and n o t * 十多月 “ te n o dd m o n th s •” T h e fo llo w in g

is a ta b le to sum up th e d iffe re n c e s . 天 and 星期 e x h ib it th e same p a tte rn o f d is ­ sim ilarities.

268

A Practical Chinese Grammar

A p p ro x im a tio n

几个月 十几个月 几十个月

十多个月

十个多月

几年 十几年 几十年

十多年

十年多

一百零几个星期 一百一十几个星期 一百几十个星期 一百零几天 一百一十几天 一百几十天

2.5

F ra c tio n

一百一十多个星期 一百多个星期

一百一十多天 一百多天

B e lo w are m ore exam ple s to illu s tra te th e v a rio u s uses o f

w ill be g iv e n w h e n th e y m a y be used in te rc h a n g e a b ly . (3 )

一个多月 y íg e d u õ yuè 1 < X < 2 m o n th s

(4 )

一年多 y ìn iá n d u ỏ 1 < X < 2 years

(5 )

十几个大学/ 十多个大学 s h ijīg e d à x u é /s h íd u ỏ g e dàxué 10 < X < 20 u n iv e rs itie s

(6 )

两百多个国家 liả n g b ả id u ò g e g u ó jia 200 < X < 300 co u n trie s

(7 )

几个机场 jīg e jīc h a n g 1 < X < 10 a irp o rts

几 and 多 . B o th

269

L esson 31

(8 )

九百二十多张照片/ 九百二十几张照片 jiù b á i’è rsh id u ò zh â n g zh à o p ià n ( / j ĩ ) 920 < X < 930 p ictu re s

(9 )

三百几十个学生 sā n b a ijis h ig e xuésheng 300 < X < 400 fo re ig n stu de nts (in tens)

( 1 0 ) 三天多 s ã n tiá n d u ỏ 3 < X < 4 days ( 1 1 ) 八个多星期 b ág ed uỏ x ĩn g q ĩ 8 < X < 9 w ee ks (1 2 )

— 百二十多本小说 / 一百二十几本小说 y ìb ă i^ rs h id u õ b ẽ n x iả o s h u ỏ ( / j ĩ ) 120 < X < 130 n ovels

(1 3 )

A : 你坐了十几个小时的飞机,路上一定很辛苦吧。 N I zuóle s h íjig e x iă o s h í de fē iji, lù sh a n g y íd ìn g hẽn x ĩn k ủ ba. Y o u w e re on th e plane fo r m o re th a n ten odd hours. I t d e fin ite ly m u s t have been a v e ry tir in g trip . B : 谁说我坐了十多个小 4 的飞 ả ? k 从 北 京 飞 上 海 ,从 上 海 飞 日 本 ,

从 日 本 飞 美 国 ,再 从 美 国 飞 英 国 。我想我坐了几十个小时的飞机 吧! Shéi shuỏ w o zuóle shíduỏge x iả o s h í de fē ijī?

wỏ cóng

B ē ijīn g

fẽ i S h a n g h a i, cóng S h a n g h a i fẻ i R ìbẽn, có ng R ìb ẽn fẽ i M ẽ ig u ó , zài có ng M ẽ ig u ó fẽ i Y ĩn g g u ó .

wỏ x iă n g

w õ zuole jīs h ig e x iă o s h í

de fē ijī ba! W h o said th a t I w as on th e p la ne fo r some te n hours? I fle w fro m B e ijin g to S h an g ha i, fro m

S h a n g h a i to Japan, fro m

Japan to

A m e ric a , and th e n fro m A m e ric a to E n g la n d . I th in k I m u s t have been on th e pla ne fo r several tens o f hours. ( 1 4 ) 这位老华侨在美国住了三十多年了。他已经不会说中文了。 Z hè w è i lầo h uá qiaó zài M ẽ ig u ó z h ù le sã n sh id u ỏ n iá n le. T ả y ĩjĩn g b ú h u ì shuỏ Z h o n g w é n le. T h is o ld overseas C hinese g e n tle m a n has been in th e U n ite d States fo r m o re th a n t h ir t y years. H e doesn’t k n o w h o w to speak C hinese a nym ore.

A Practical Chinese Grammar

270

^

( 1 5 ) 古 波 自 己 去 商 店 买 了 几 十 条 裙 子 。帕 兰 卡 知 道 了 以 后 ,不 知 道 应 该 哭 J

还是k 该 笑 。 G ủbỏ

z ìjĩ q ù sh ã n g d ià n

m a ile jis h itiá o

qúnzi.

P à lán kả

zhīdaole

y ĩh ò u , bù z h īd a o y in g g â i k ủ h á is h i y in g g á i xiào .

^

G u b o w e n t to th e sto re b y h im s e lf and b o u g h t several dozens of s k irts . W h e n P a la n k a fo u n d o u t a b o u t it, she d id n ’t k n o w i f she sh o u ld la u g h o r cry. ( 1 6 ) 我 在 翻 译 一 本 小 说 。这 本 词 典 我 要 用 几 个 晚 上 。几 天 以 后 ,你 再 来 借 _ 。

wỏ

zài fa n y i y ìb è n xiảo shu ỏ. Zhè bẽn c íd iả n w ỏ yà o y ò n g jĩg e wăn-

shang. J itiá n y ĩh ò u , n ĩ zài lá i jiè ba. T m in th e m id d le o f tra n s la tin g a n o v e l and n i need to use th is dic­ tio n a ry fo r several evenings. W h y d on t y o u com e b a c k a fe w days la te r to b o rro w it? ( 1 7 ) 我 们 班 有 十 多 个 学 生 。你 们 班 呢 ?有 二 十 几 个 吧 ?

^

W o m e n bản y õ u sh ídu ỏg e xuésheng. N ĩm e n b an ne? Y o u e rshijīge ba? W e have m o re th a n te n stu de nts in o u r class. W h a t a b o u t yours?



M o re th a n tw e n ty , I guess? (1 8 )

A : 你复习课文复习了一个晚上吗? N ĩ fú x í k é w é n fú x íle y íg e w a n sh a n g ma? D id y o u spend th e e n tire e ve n in g re v ie w in g th e lesson? B : 没 有 。这 课 文 不 很 长 ,我 复 习 f 半 个 多 小 ^ 。你 呢 ? M é iy o u . Zhè kè k é w é n b ù hen cháng, w o fú x íle

♦ bàngeduỏ

xiảo shí. N ĩ ne? N o. T h is lesson is n o t to o lon g. I spent a little o v e r h a lf an hour to re v ie w it. H o w a b o u t you?

3•多 as a Question Word 几 m ay fu n c tio n as an in te rro g a tiv e w o rd as w e ll as an a p p ro x im a tio n indicator. S i m i la r l y , 多 p la y s several roles in th e language. I t is an a d je c tiv e m e a n in g “ m a n y ” ; it is a m a rk e r o f b o th n u m e ric a l a p p ro x im a tio n and fra c tio n . I t is also th e question w o rd fo r a skin g “ H o w A d je c tiv e ? ”



+

A d je c tiv e ?

271

Lesson 31

(1 )

多大? D u õ dà? H o w big? H o w old?

(2 )

多好看? D u ỏ hảokàn? H o w b e a u tifu l?

(3 )

多长? D u õ cháng? H o w long?

(4 )

多长时间? D u ỏ ch án g shíjian? H o w lo n g (tim e )?

(5 )

多久? D u o jiu ? H o w lo n g (tim e )?

(6 )

你等了我多长时间了?等了很久了吧? N ĩ d ẽ n gle w õ d uò ch án g s h ijiā n le? D ẽ n g le hẽn jiủ le ba? H o w lo n g have y o u been w a itin g fo r me? I t m u s t have been v e ry lo n g , rig h t?

(7 )

这个问题有多难?你们还要研究多久? Z hé ge w é n tí y o u duo nán? N ĩm e n h ái yào y á n jiu d uỏ jiủ? H o w d if fic u lt is th is question? H o w m u c h lo n g e r do y o u need to s tu d y it?

(8 )

你今年多大了?我们有多久没见面了? N i jin n iá n d uõ dà le? W o m e n y o u d uò jiủ m éi jià n m ià n le? H o w o ld are y o u now ? H o w lo n g has it been since w e la s t saw each other?

For some speakers, th e in te rro g ra tiv e

多 m a y be p ro n o u n ce d in th e second tone.

Also, please n o te th a t th e in te rro g a tiv e co m p o u n d 多少 c/uosAao “ H o w m uch? H o w many?” is n o t fo rm e d w ith

多 m o d ify in g ;p s h a o , w h ic h w o u ld have g iv e n the

m eaning “ H o w fe w !” 少 is a n e u tra l to n e s y lla b le in th e q u e s tio n fo rm .

4. The Ordinal Number Prefix 第 The fo rm % di m a y be p re fix e d to a n u m e ra l to fo rm an o rd in a l n u m b e r. W h e n the

272

A Practical Chinese Grammar



o rd in a l e xpressio n appears b e fo re a n ou n, th e p ro p e r m easure w o rd sh o u ld also appear in th e u n it.

N u m e ra l

(1)

+

M ea sure

第一课



d ìy ĩk è Lesson O ne

(2)

第二次 d ť é rc i th e second tim e

(3)

第三天

-

d is ā n tiā n th e th ir d day

(4)

这 是 你 第 一 次 回 国 。你 回 国 以 后 ,第 一 件 想 作 的 事 儿 是 什 么 事 儿 ? Z hè shì n ĩ d ìy ĩc ì h u í guó. N ĩ h uí g uó y ĩh ò u , d ìy ĩjià n x iả n g zuò de s h ìr shì shénm e shìr? T h is w as y o u r fir s t tim e o f re tu rn in g to y o u r (n a tiv e ) c o u n try . W hat w as the fir s t th in g y o u w a n te d to do w h e n y o u retu rne d?

(5)

上 个 星 期 六 我 第 一 次 去 见 我 女 朋 友 的 爸 爸 妈 妈 。我 走 的 时 候 ,她 妈 妈 • 说 ; “我 们 ¥ 望 你 以 后 常 来 玩 儿 。” S hàngge x ĩn g q ĩliù w ỏ d ìy ĩc ì q ù jià n w ỏ n íi p é n g y o u de bàba mãma. w ỏ zõu de sh ího u, tã m ãm a shuỏ, ť

你 到 这 儿 多 久 了 ?你 给 家 打 过 电 话 没 有 ?

N ĩ dào zh è r d u õ jiu le? N ĩ g ẽi jiā d ă g u o d ià n h u à m éiyou ? H o w lo n g have y o u been here? H a v e y o u ca lle d home? (8)

我 离 开 中 国 五 年 了 ,我 很 想 家 。我 希 望 明 年 能 回 北 京 看 看 家 人 。

wỏ lik ā i

1

Z h o n g g u ó w u n iá n le, w o hen x iả n g jia . W o x lw a n g m in g-

n iá n néng h u i B ē ijīn g k à n k a n jia ré n . I ť s been fiv e years since I le ft C hin a. I m iss m y fa m ily v e ry m uch. I hope I can go b a ck to B e ijin g n e x t ye a r to see m y fa m ily .

*

Lesson 33

1. The New Situation 了 1.1

T h e p rim a ry fu n c tio n o f th e sentence fin a l p a rtic le

了 is to in d ic a te a change

in situ a tio n . T h e p a rtic le appears fre q u e n tly in o rd in a ry co n v e rs a tio n and m a y p la y a v a rie ty o f ro le s in d iffe re n t speech s itu a tio n s , m o s t o f w h ic h can be tie d to th is basic rea din g. W e have a lre a d y e xa m in e d in some d e ta il its b e h a v io r in re la tio n to the v e rb a l

T

. T h e fo llo w in g are some exam ples to illu s tra te its use s o le ly as a

m arker o f a n e w situ a tio n .

[ S u b je c t

(1 )

+

P re d ica te ]

+



现在天气冷了。 X iá n z á i tiã n q ì lẽ n g le. T h e w e a th e r is co ld n ow . ( I t w a s n ’t c h illy b e fo re b u t n o w it is.)

(2 )

他现在是大学生了。 T ā x iá n z á i shì dàxu ésh ẽn g le. H e is a co lle ge stu d e n t n o w . (H e w a s n ’t in co lle ge b efo re .)

(3 )

以前他不喜欢写汉字,现在他喜欢写汉字了。 Y ĩq iá n tā bù x ĩh u a n x iẽ H á n z i, x ià n z à i tā x ĩh u a n x iẽ H à n z ì le. H e d id n ’t lik e w r itin g C hinese ch aracte rs b efo re , b u t n o w he does.

(4 )

已经三点了。 Y ijin g sānd ia n le. I t ’s a lre a d y th re e o ’clock. ( I t w a s n ’t th re e a w h ile ago.)

286

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(5 )

他明天要去日本了。 T ā m ín g tia n yào qù R ìb ẽ n le. H e is g o in g to Japan to m o rro w . ( T h is is s o m e th in g new : a n e w d ecision on h is p a rt, o r a piece o f



n e w in fo rm a tio n fo r m e a n d /o r yo u.) W h ile th e above exam ples d e m o n s tra te a change fro m “ n o t b e in g th e case” to “ now being th e case,” th e sentence —了 m a y also s ig n ify th e end o f an a ctio n . W hen



a pp e a rin g w ith a n e g a tiv e v e rb , i t in d ic a te s th a t a s itu a tio n w h ic h w as g o in g on befo re has n o w stopped.

[ S u b je c t

(6 )

+

N e g a tiv e P re d ica te ]

+



他以前喜欢写汉字,现在不喜欢写汉字了。 T ā y ĩq iá n x ĩh u a n x iẽ H á n z i, x iá n z á i bù x ĩh u a n x iẽ H à n zì le. H e used to lik e w r itin g C hinese characters, b u t n o w he doesn’t lik e d o in g it a n y m ore.

(7 )

他不去了。 T á b ú qù le. H e is n o t g o in g a n y m ore. (H e said he w as g o in g , b u t he has n o w changed h is m in d . O r, he used to go th e re a lo t b u t has n o w stopped g o in g .)

(8 )

他不去。

ļļ

T ā b ú qù. H e ’s n o t g oing . (9 )

我没有时间了。

wỏ m é i

y o u s h ijiā n le.

I d o n ’t have tim e a n y m ore.

*

( 1 0 ) 我没有时间。

wỏ m éi

y o u s h ijiā n .

I d o n ’t have tim e. T h e fu n c tio n o f

T

as a n e w s itu a tio n m a rk e r is e v id e n t in (7) and (9) w h e n the

sentences are co m p ared w ith th e ir n on — T 1.2

ve rsion s in (8) and (10).

O ne w a y to tu rn a T — sentence in to a q u e s tio n is to a tta c h th e in te rro g a tiv e

p a rtic le 吗 to th e v e ry end o f th e sentence.

287

Lesson 33

[ [ S u b je c t

+

P re d ica te ]

+

了]

+

吗?

( 1 1 ) 天气凉快了吗? T iá n q ì liá n g k u a i le ma? H as th e w e a th e r becom e cool? ( 1 2 ) 他们现在开始唱歌儿了吗? T ā m e n xiá n z á i k ã is h ĩ ch àn g g ẽ r le ma? A r e th e y g o in g to b e g in s in g in g now ? N ow co m p are th e fo llo w in g tw o n e g a tive sentences, (13) and (14), and speculate w hich is th e “ n o ” a n s w e r to (12). ( 1 3 ) 他们现在不唱歌儿了。 T ā m e n xiá n z á i bú chàng g ẽ r le. T h e y are g o in g to stop s in g in g n ow . ( 1 4 ) 他们现在还没唱歌儿呢。 T ā m e n xiá n z á i h ái m é i ch àn g g ẽ r ne. T h e y h a v e n ’t sta rte d s in g in g y e t

As the E n g lis h tra n s la tio n ind icate s, (13) re p o rts the c o n c lu sio n o f a s in g in g act and does n o t address th e q u e stio n in (12), an in q u ir y th a t p e rta in s to th e b e g in n in g o f the p erfo rm a n ce . P hrased w ith th e se n te n c e — 了 , ( 13) re p o rts a change fro m “ singing” to “ n o t s in g in g ,” a d e ve lo p m e n t th a t is o p p o s ite o f w h a t (12) suggests. T h e correct n e g a tive response to (12) is (1 4 ),w h ic h is fo rm e d w ith th e “ 还没有 V e rb

呢”

pattern, im p ly in g th a t th e s in g in g has y e t to b egin. F o r th e same reason, i t is (14) and n o t (13) th a t negates th e fo llo w in g statem ent. ( 1 5 ) 他们现在唱歌儿了。 T ā m e n x iá n z a i ch àn g g ẽ r le. T h e y are g o in g to sing n ow . Sentence (15) m a rk s co m m en cem e nt; its n e g a tiv e o r d e n ia l is o f course (14) and n o t (13), th e la tte r re la tin g th e b e g in n in g o f a d iffe re n t s itu a tio n . H ence, th e n e g a tiv e o f the sentence 一了 is n o t ‘‘ 不 ........T b u t ra th e r th e fo llo w in g :

( 还 ) +

没有 V e rb

+

O b je c t

+

( 呢)

288

A Practical Chinese Grammar

T h e se le ction o f th e 还 o p tio n depends on w h e th e r th e re is an im p lie d m e a n in g o f a change th a t m a y a lre a d y be on its w a y . R eca ll th e v a rio u s w a y s o f m a rk in g the

了 a t th e end o f th e sentence and w h ic h fo rm th e n e g a tiv e b y u sin g th e 还没有 ........ 呢 p a tte rn (L e sso n 29). T h a t fin a l p a rtic le fo r im m in e n c e is p re c is e ly th is n ew s itu a tio n 了 ,w h ic h to g e th e r w ith th e p re v e rb a l e le m e n t ( 要 ,快要 o r 就 要 )sign als th e q u ic k a p p ro a c h o f a change. H ere are a fe w m ore sentences o f th is n e w s itu a tio n 了 . im m in e n t aspect o f an a ctio n , w h ic h a lw a y s in c lu d e

( 1 6 ) 春 天 到 了 ,天 气 暖 和 了 。树 上 的 叶 子 都 绿 了 ,路旁边的花儿也都开

亍。

'

C h ū n tiā n dào le, tiã n q ì n u ă n h u o le. S h ùsh a ng de yè zi d o u lũ le, lù p á n g b iã n de h u ã r yẽ d õu k ã i le. S p rin g is here n o w and th e w e a th e r has tu rn e d w a rm . T h e leaves on th e trees have a ll tu rn e d green and th e flo w e rs b y th e ro a dsid e have a ll blossom ed. ( 1 7 ) 大 使 馆 到 了 ,请 下 车 。 D à s h ĩg u ả n dào le, q ĩn g x ià chè. H ere's th e em bassy. Y o u can g e t o ff here. ( 1 8 ) 我 以 前 有 车 ,天天去城里看朋友。现 在 没 车 了 ,朋友也没有了。

wỏ

y ĩq iá n y õ u chẽ, tiā n tiā n q ù c h é n g li k à n p é n g y o u . X ià n z à i m éi

chẽ le, p é n g y o u yẽ m é iy õ u le. W h e n I had a car, I w e n t in to the c ity e v e ry d a y to see m y friends. N o w th a t I d o n ’t have a car, I d o n ’t have frie n d s a nym ore. ( 1 9 ) 外边 下 雨 了 。学 校 的 舞 会 ,我 不 去 了 ,你自己一个人去吧。 W á ib iá n x ià y ủ le. X u é x ià o de w ủ h u ì, w ỏ b ú qù le, n ĩ z ìjĩ y íg e rén qù ba. I ť s ra in in g (o u ts id e ) n o w . T m n o t g o in g to th e school dance. W h y d o n ’t y o u go b y yo urself? ( 2 0 ) 现 在 是 冬 天 了 ,我们可以去山上滑雪了。 X iá n z á i shì d ô n g tiá n le, w o m e n k ẽ y ĩ qù shánshang huá xu ẽ le. I ť s w in te r n o w . (F o r a change,) W e can go to th e m o u n ta in s to ski. (2 1 )

A : 现 在 十 一 点 了 ,应该睡觉了吧。 X iá n z á i s h íy ĩd iă n le, y ĩn g g a i shuì jià o le ba. I t ’s eleven o ’c lo c k n ow . I t ’s tim e to go to bed. B : 我的表现在还没到十点呢。你 再 复 习 会 儿 吧 。 W õ de b iă o x iá n z á i h á i m é i dào sh íd iả n ne. N ĩ zài fù x í y ìh u ìr ba. I ť s n o t even te n y e t a c c o rd in g to m y w a tc h . S tu d y a little b it m ore.

289

ĩ .p x s ỉn n

(2 2 )

A : 你来美国已经一年多了。这儿的天气你习惯了吗? N ĩ lá i M ẽ ig u ó y ijln g y ìn iá n d u ỏ le. Z h è r de tiã n q ì n ĩ x íg u à n le ma?

%

Y o u V e been in th e States fo r m o re th a n a year. A re y o u used to th e w e a th e r here now ? B : 还 没 有 呢 。我 很 怕 冷 ,这儿的冬天常常刮风,有 时 候 还 下 雪 。真不

习惯。 H á i m é iy o u ne.

t-

wỏ

hẽn pà lẽng. Z h è r de d ỏ n g tiã n chán gch án g

guã fẽ ng , y õ u sh íh ò u h á i x ià xuẽ. Z hẽ n b ù xíg uà n. N o , n o t yet. I d o n 't lik e th e c o ld w ea th er. I t is a lw a y s w in d y in th e w in te r and som etim es i t even snow s. I ť s re a lly d if fic u lt to g et accustom ed to such w ea th er.

V 1.3

T h is se nte nce -fina l T

is o f course to be d is tin g u is h e d fro m th e v e rb -fin a l 了 ,

w hich is th e m a rk e r o f the p e rfe c tiv e aspect. T h e fo llo w in g ta b le com pares th e be­ haviors o f these tw o h o m o p h o n o u s fo rm s. T h e se nte nce -fina l

了 w ill be spelled as

LE and th e s u ffix fo rm as le.

Completion le

New Situation LE

我们开始了。

我们开始了。

Verb—/e H- L E . (We have begun.)

V erb + L E . (We now begin.)

我 们 吃 了 饭 ,就 ……

我 们 吃 了 饭 ,就 …… 了 。

Verb—/e Object, V." After we eat, then... (Projected)

Verb—/e Object, Verb... H- L E . After we ate, then... (Completed)

我 们 吃 ( 了 )饭 了 。 Verb- (/e) Object H- L E . We have eaten.

我们吃饭了。

Verb Object + LE. We will be eating.

我们吃了三碗饭。

我们吃了三碗饭了。

Verb—/e Q /Q —Object. We ate three bowls of rice.

Verb- 7e Q /Q —Object LE. We’ve finished three bowls of rice and are still eating.

290

1.3.1

A Practical Chinese Grammar

T h e tw o

了 ’s are d is tin g u is h a b le b y th e p o s itio n s th e y o c c u p y in a s e n te n c e :)

— le a fte r th e ve rb and L E a t th e end o f a sentence. Because th e g en eral m ea nin g o f L E is to in d ic a te a n e w s itu a tio n , it is o fte n used as a refe ren ce p o in t fo r the p e rfe c tiv e le.

In fa c t as has been p o in te d o u t,

a /e — sentence sh o u ld a lw a y s be

^

accom panied b y L E , unless th e v e rb is fo llo w e d b y a Q / Q O b je c t. H o w e v e r, w hen the tw o

了, s are b o th present, one o f th e m m a y disappear. T h e fir s t se ction in the

above ta ble illu s tra te s th is c o n tra s t b etw e e n th e p a rtic le L E and its fu s io n w ith le. T h e fo llo w in g sentence m a y m ean e ith e r (a) o r (b ) d e p e n d in g on w h e th e r

了 is

a fused fo rm .



( 2 3 ) 他们 出 发 了 。 T a m e n c h ū fā le. (a) le + L E : T h e y a lre a d y le ft. (b ) L E : T h e y are n o w le a v in g .

J

1.3.2



T h e th ird se ction in th e ta b le p ro v id e s a n o th e r case th a t m a y g enerate a m b i­

n

g u ity as a re s u lt o f tru n c a tio n . T h e fo llo w in g sentence (24.a) c o n ta in s b o th

了’s, the

fir s t o f w h ic h m a y be o p tio n a lly deleted, th e re b y y ie ld in g (24.b). O n th e surface, (24.b) is id e n tic a l in s tru c tu re w ith (25), w h ic h ca rrie s o n ly one 了 . ( 2 4 .a ) 我们听了录音了。 W o m e n tin g le lù y ĩn L E . W e ’ve lis te n d to th e re c o rd in g . ( 2 4 .b ) 我 们 听 (

)录 音 了 。

W o m e n tīn g (

) lù y ĩn L E .

( 2 5 ) 我们听录音了。 W o m e n tin g lù y in L E . W e ’ll n o w lis te n to th e re c o rd in g . W ith o u t a g iv e n c o n te x t, b o th sentences (24.a) and (25) are u n c le a r as to w h a t the in ten de d messages are. O nce p ro p e rly c o n te x tu a liz e d , h o w e v e r, th e d e liv e ry is never am b ig iou s. (2 6 )

A : 你们昨天作什么了? N ĩm e n z u ó tiá n zuò shènm e le? W h a t d id y o u do yesterday? B : 我们听 录 音 了 。 W o m e n tin g lù y ĩn le. W e lis te n e d to th e re co rd in g .



291

Lesson 33

( 2 7 ) 别 说 话 了 ,我们听录音了。 B ié shuo huà le, w o m e n tĩn g lù y ĩn le. S to p ta lk in g . W e ’ll n o w lis te n to th e re co rd in g .

1.3.3

T h e fo u r th se ction c o n tra s t th e tw o

了’s in c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e use o f a

quantifier. In Lesson 3 1 , w e n ote d th e d is tin c tio n b etw e en p la c in g a tim e —m easure com plem ent in th e “ V e r b —/e” p a tte rn and p la c in g it in th e “ V e rb —

f or m.

The fo rm e r represents a past a c tio n ( 他 睡 了 二 个 小 时 :“ H e s le p t fo r th re e h o u rs .”) and the la tte r a c o n tin u in g s itu a tio n (他睡 了二个/J、 日寸了: “ H e ’s been sleeping fo r th re e hours.’’)T h is d iffe re n tia tio n is observed in a ll cases o f q u a n tifie d O b jects. W ith tw o

了’s, a sentence lik e (28) a lw a y s im p lie s an o n g o in g action. ( 2 8 ) 我们已经学了三十三课了。我们下星期学第三十四课。 W o m e n y ỉjĩn g xu é le sãnshisankè le. W o m e n x ià x in g q ĩ xu é dìsảnshisìkè. W e V e a lre a d y fin is h e d th irty -th re e lessons. W eUl be le a rn in g Lesson 34 n e x t w eek. In co ntrast, sentence (29) w h ic h relates an a b o rte d e ffo rt in th e past is m a rk e d b y only one

了 ,th e p e rfe c tiv e /e. ( 2 9 ) 我以前学汉语的时候,用 过 这 本 书 。我们学了三十三课。

wỏ

y ĩq iá n xué H à n y ủ de shíhòu, y ò n g g u o zhè bẽn shũ. W o m e n

xu é le sãnshisãnkè. I used th is b o o k w h e n I stu d ie d C hinese before. W e fin is h e d th irty th re e lessons.

1.3.4

T h e second se ction in th e above ta b le is concerned w ith the s e qu en tial o rd e r­

ing o f tw o actions, one fin is h e d b e fo re th e o th e r begins. T h e fin is h e d a c tio n is readily m a rk e d b y le. I f th e e n tire scenario is set in th e past, th e n LE is called into p la y to set th e p re sen t m o m e n t as th e refe ren ce p o in t fo r th e c h a in o f past events. T h e fo llo w in g are tw o exam ples to illu s tra te th is d ifferen ce . ( 3 0 ) 你 的 胃 不 好 ,你不应该每天晚上吃了饭就上楼去睡觉。 N ĩ de w è i bù hảo, n ĩ bù y ĩn g g ã i m èi tiâ n w a n sh a n g c h ile fà n jiù shàng ló u qù shuì jià o . Y o u have a sto m a ch p ro b le m . Y o u sh o u ld n o t go u p sta irs and sleep im m e d ia te ly a fte r y o u eat e ve ry n ig h t.

292

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 3 1 ) 我昨天晚上吃了三十多个饺子就上楼去看书了。睡 觉 的 时 候 ,胃 很 不 》

舒服。

wỏ zu ó tia n

w a n s h a n g c h īle sānshiduoge jia o z i jiù shàng ló u qù kàn

/

shu l e . S huì jià o de shíhòu, w è i hẽn bù shufu. L a s t n ig h t r ig h t a fte r I had eaten m o re th a n t h ir t y d u m p lin g s , I w e n t u p s ta irs to stu d y. B y th e tim e I w e n t to bed, m y sto m a ch was

^

c h u rn in g .

1.4

H ere are some exam ples th a t co m b in e th e tw o

了’s in v a rio u s s itu a tio n a l con­

texts. ( 3 2 ) 今 天 真 冷 ,零 下 十 度 了 。明天怎么样?你听天气预报了吗? J īn tiā n zhèn lẽn g, lin g x ià sh íd ù le. M ín g tiã n zenm eyáng? N ĩ tĩn g tĩa n q ì y ù b à o le ma? I ť s re a lly c o ld to d a y ----- ten degrees b e lo w zero n o w . W h a t about to m o rro w ? D id y o u h ea r th e w e a th e r forecast? ( 3 3 ) 昨 天 下 午 两 点 ,风 小 了 ,雪 也 停 了 。我和哥 哥 去 公 园 走 了 走 。我们走

得 很 慢 ,走了一个半小时。 Z u ó tia n x ià w ủ liả n g d iả n , fè n g x iả o le, xu é yẽ tín g le. W õ hé gẽge qù g ỏ n g y u á n zoule zõu. W o m e n zỏu de hẽn m àn, zỏu le y íg eb àn

?

xiảoshí. B y tw o o ’c lo c k y e s te rd a y a fte rn o o n , th e w in d had die d d o w n and the s n o w had stopped too. M y b ro th e r and I w e n t to th e p a rk fo r a w a lk . W e w a lk e d v e ry s lo w ly fo r an h o u r and a h a lf. ( 3 4 ) 下了一个多星期的雨了,今天又是阴天。明天会晴了吧。 X ià le y íg e d u õ x ĩn g q ĩ de y ủ le, jīn tiā n y ò u shì y ĩn tiã n . M ín g tiã n h uì q ín g le ba. I ť s been ra in in g fo r m o re th a n a w e e k n o w , and to d a y is again overcast. L e t’s hope i t ’ll be clear to m o rro w . (3 5 )

A : 时 候 不 早 了 ,我 应 该 走 了 。 S h íh ò u b ù zăo le, w õ y ĩn g g ã i zỏu le. I ť s g e ttin g late. IV e g o t to go n o w . B : 再坐二会兀吧。 Zài zuò y ìh u ĩr ba. S ta y a little lon ge r. A : 不 :我已经坐了很久了。 B ù, w o y ijln g zuóle hẽn jiu le. N o , I have stayed lo n g enough.



I

293

Lesson 33

( 3 6 ) 那 首 古 诗 ,我 以 前 看 过 几 十 遍 ,可 是 诗 里 的 意 思 ,我 总 是 不 太 了 解 。

他 Í 吴¥ 给跟我谈了一下儿,我 就 懂 了 。 N à shỏu g ủ shi, w ỏ y ĩq iá n k à n g u o jīs h ib ia n , kẽshì s h ỉli de y ìsi, w ỏ zo n g sh i bú tà i lia o jie . T ā zu ó tiá n lá i gèn w ỏ tá n le y íx ià r, w ỏ jiù d ỏ n g le. I had read th a t o ld poem m a n y tim e s b e fo re b u t I n e ve r c o u ld fig u re o u t its m ea nin g. Y e s te rd a y he cam e and w e n t o v e r it w ith me b rie f­ ly , and I u n d e rsto o d it. (3 7 )

A : 你已经病了十多天了。看过大夫没有? N i y ijm g b ìn g le s h íd u õ tiá n le. K à n g u o d à iíu m éiyỏu? Y o u V e been sick fo r m o re th a n ten days n ow . H a v e y o u seen a doctor? B : 我今天觉得好点儿了。我想不用去看大夫了。 W o jin tia n ju é d e hăo d iả n r le.

wỏ x iă n g

b ú y ò n g qù kà n d à ifu le.

I fe e l a b it b e tte r to d a y. I d o n 't th in k I need to go see a d octo r.

2. The Subjectless Sentence It is a co m m o n p ra c tic e in C hinese to leave o u t th e su bject if th e a ge nt o f th e a c tio n is clear fro m th e c o n te xt. F o r e xam ple , in a n s w e rin g th e q u e s tio n “ 你 来 吗 ?” one can s im p ly say “ 来 , ’ and n o t n ece ssarily “ 我 来 S tric tly sp ea kin g, “来 ” is n o t a sentence w ith o u t a su bject; th e s u b je ct is m e re ly o m itte d in th e surface fo rm and can a lw a y s re su rfa ce i f necessary. T h e re are, h o w e v e r, some sentence typ es th a t can tru ly be describ e d as “ subjectless.” (A ) Sentences th a t describe n a tu ra l phenom ena. (1 )

下雨了。 X ià y ủ le. I t ’s ra in in g n o w .

(2 )

外边刮风了吗? W á ib ia n guā fē n g le m a ? Is i t n o w w in d y outside?

(3 )

现 在 还 没 下 雪 ,可是天气已经很冷了。 X iá n z á i h á i m é i x ià xuẽ, kẽshì tiâ n q ì y ijin g hẻn lẽn g le. I t h asn ’t b e g u n to sn o w b u t th e w e a th e r is a lre a d y v e ry cold.

M o st o f th e w e a th e r te rm s in C hinese are e xpressions w ith o u t subjects. T h e y in-

294

A Practical Chinese Grammar

elude 下雨 Xiá y ứ “ i t ra in s ,”

刮风 g uá

“ i t ’s w in d y ,”

下雪 x iá x u é “ it sn o w s,”

and 下 雾 ; óá w ù “ I t ’s fo g g y , th e fo g is c o m in g in .” Please n ote th a t m e te o ro lo g ic a l e xpressions in E n g lis h are o fte n fo rm e d w ith “ i t ” as in “ I t ’s c o ld ,” o r “ I t ’s h a ilin g .” T h e re is no a ctua l refe ren ce fo r “ it,” w h ic h is in essence a d u m m y elem ent, s im p ly to f i l l th e su b je c t s lo t in a sentence. In o th e r w o rd s , “ I t ’s ra in in g ” is ju s t as m uch w ith o u t a re fe re n tia l s u b je c t as “下雨了 ’’ is w ith o u t a g ra m m a tic a l s u b je c t I t is, in fact, a co m m on p ra c tic e a m o ng languages to u tiliz e th e “ subjectle ss” p a ra d ig m to describe n a tu ra l and c lim a tic phenom ena. Please com pare th e fo llo w in g tw o sen­ tences:

(4 )

今天早上刮风了。 J īn tiā n zaoshang guā fē n g le. I t w as w in d y th is m o rn in g .

(5 )

风刮 得 很 大 。 F ē n g guả de hẽn dà. T h e w in d w as stron g.

In sentence ( 4 ) 风 is th e g en eric O b je c t o f 刮 • T o g e th e r w ith th e v e rb , i t fo rm s a general m e te o ro lo g ic a l expressio n to describe a w in d y w e a th e r c o n d itio n . In sen­ tence (5), h o w e v e r , 风 is the s u b je c t o f th e same ve rb , n o w re fe rrin g to a sp ecific w in d s to rm . (N o tic e th e use o f “ th e ” in th e E n g lis h tra n s la tio n .) A l l m e te o ro lo g ic a l te rm s can behave w ith th is s p lit ro le , as s h o w n in th e fo llo w in g sentences.

(6 )

昨天晚上下雪了,可是雪下得不很大。 Z u ó tia n w a n s h a n g x ià xuẽ le, kẽshì xuẽ x ià de bù hẽn dà. I t sn ow ed last n ig h t, b u t it d id n ’t sn ow h e a v ily .

(7 )

有 雾 的 天 ,开车最好别开得太快。 Y õ u w ù de tiā n , k ā i chẽ zu i hăo b ié k a i de tà i ku ài. W h e n it is fo g g y , iť s best n o t to d riv e to o fast.

(8 )

今 天 雾 很 大 ,我们最好不要开车。 J īn tiā n w ù hẽn dà, w o m e n zuì hảo bú yào k ã i chẽ. T h e fo g is re a lly h e a v y to d a y. W e 'd b e tte r n o t d riv e .

(9 )

雨 停 了 ,我们可以去老张家玩儿了。 Y u tin g le, w o m e n k ẽ y ĩ qù L ă o Z h ā n g jia w á n r le. T h e ra in has stopped. W e can n o w g o to O ld Z h a n g ’s place ( fo r fu n ).

( 1 0 ) 已经下了几天的雨了。天气预报说什么时候会天晴? Y ijln g x ià le jītiā n de y ủ le. T iá n q ì y ù b à o shuõ shénm e s h íh ò u h u ì tiã n qíng? I ť s been ra in in g fo r a fe w days. D id th e w e a th e r fo re c a s t say w h e n i t w o u ld becom e clear? ( 1 1 ) 明天要 刮 大 风 ,天气会很冷。你要多穿点儿衣服。 M ín g tiã n yào guá dà fẽ ng , tiá n q ì h u ì hẽn lẽng. N ĩ yào d uỏ chuan d iả n r y ĩfu . I ť s g o in g to be v e ry w in d y and co ld to m o rro w . Y o u sh o u ld p u t on m o re la ye rs o f c lo th in g . In the la s t se n te n ce , 刮大风, lit. “ b lo w b ig w in d , ” co n ta in s th e a d je c tiv e 大 ,an in te n sifier th a t can m o d ify a ll w e a th e r te rm s cast in th e subjectless m od e : 下大雨 “ to ra in hard,” 下 大 雪 “ to s n o w h e a v ily ,” 下 大 雾 “ a h e a v y fo g .” O n th e o th e r h an d, its a n to n y m , 小 ,m a y app ea r w ith a ll te rm s w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f 刮 风 :下小雨

“ it

íạins lig h tly ,” b u t * 刮小风 “ th e w in d is lig h t.” T h e lite ra l m e a n in g o f 刮 “ to b la s t” excludes 小 as a possible a ttrib u tiv e cand id ate, unless th e c o m b in a tio n is in ten de d to be an o x y m o ro n . (B) Sentences th a t in d ic a te existence, co rre s p o n d in g to uth e re is /a re ...,> in E n g lis h are cast in th e su bjectless m ode. T h e se sentences a ll b e g in w ith 有 ( o r 、 没有 fo r the negative), fo llo w e d b y th e n o m in a l in focus. T h e p a tte rn m a y also in c lu d e a ve rb specifying th e a c tio n p e rfo rm e d b y th a t someone.

有 人 +

V e rb

S o m e o n e /T h e re

is

Hh

som eone

V e rb

( 1 2 ) 有人在 唱 歌 儿 。 Y o u ré n zài ch àn g gẽr. Som eone is sin g in g . ( 1 3 ) 有人找你。 Y õ u ré n zhảo n ĩ. T h e re is som eone lo o k in g fo r you. (1 4 )

“ 听 ,有 人 在 敲 门 。” 我 问 : “ 谁 啊 ?” 可是没有人回答。 “ nn—

/

、•

• -

Í

1 m g, y o u ré n zai qia o m en.

,, IT T :

\

W o w en,

ťťo i

/ •

_

0 ,,

bhei a r

T,

: _ 1_ \

L'

__r

L 一

rveshi m ei y o u ren

h uida .

r囑

____________________________________________ ^ ________________

295

Lesson 33

“ L is te n , som eone is k n o c k in g a t th e d o o r.” I asked, “ W h o is th ere? ” /1

B u t no one answ ered.



A Practical Chinese Grammar

296

( 1 5 ) 他说没人喜欢他,所以他常常哭。



T ã shuỗ m éi ré n x ĩh u a n tā, s u ỏ y ĩ tā ch án gch án g kũ. H e says no one lik e s h im , and so he cries a lot. ( 1 6 ) 昨天有人来过吗? Z u ó tia n y õ u ré n lá ig u o ma? D id a nyo ne com e yesterday? ( 1 7 ) 昨天医务所里有人来过吗? Z u ó tiá n y lw ú s u o li y o u rén lá ig u o ma?

r

D id a nyo ne com e to th e c lin ic yesterday? A lth o u g h th e la s t tw o sentences b e g in w ith a tim e w o rd a n d /o r a place expression,

^

th e y are b a s ic a lly subjectless in s tru c tu re , fo llo w in g th e p a tte rn described above. N o w com pare th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences: ( 1 8 ) 有学生来找你了。



I

Y o u xuésh en g lá i zhao n ĩ le. T h e re are some stu de nts w h o have com e to see you. ( 1 9 ) 学生来找你了。



X u é sh e n g lá i zhảo n ĩ le. T h e stu de nts have com e to see you. I t is tru e th a t 学生 is th e s u b je c t o f 来找你 in b o th sentences, b u t o n ly in (19) 4s it the su b je ct o f th e e n tire sentence. In (18) it also serves as th e O b je c t o f 有 ,w h ic h carries no su b je c t o f its o w n . In o th e r w o rd s , sentence (18) is a p iv o ta l sentence,

学生 fu n c tio n in g as b o th s u b je c t and O b je c t a t th e same tim e . S e m a n tica lly, 学生 in (19) is d e fin ite in refe ren ce: “ th e stu de nts,” w hereas th e re fe ren ce o f 学生 in (18) is unclear: “ some stu de nts.” O r, to p u t i t in a d iffe re n t w a y , 学生 represents w ith

o ld in fo rm a tio n in (19) b u t a n e w message in (18). In C hinese, n e w in fo rm a tio n is ra re ly placed in th e s u b je c t p o s itio n o f a sentence. H ence, w e o p t fo r th e subjectless c o n s tru c tio n w h e n w e say “ T h e re is s o m e o n e /th e re is n ’t a n y one...”

3. More about the Weather Terms 3.1

G ra m m a tic a lly , th e re are fo u r g ro u p s o f w e a th e r te rm s, in c lu d in g nam es fo r

th e seasons, th a t w e w ill describe b e lo w . ( A ) N o m in ā ls : 春天 cA ũ/ư iá/ỉ “ s p rin g ,” tu m n , ” and

夏天 x iá řiá /j “ su m m e r,” 秋天 g iú řiá /2 “ au冬天 c/õ/ỉếtián “ w in te r.” T h e se seasonal te rm s m a y serve as subjects,

B

297

Lesson 33

Objects, m o d ifie rs , and th e y m a y also fo rm n o m in a l pre dica tes w ith o u t ê . (1 )

已经五月了,夏天快要到了。 Y ljin g w ủ y u è le, x ià tia n k u à i yào dào le. I ť s a lre a d y M a y n o w , and su m m e r w ill be here soon.

(2 )

这儿秋天的天气怎么样? Z h è r q iủ tiã n de tiã n q ì zenm eyáng? W h a t is th e fa ll w e a th e r lik e here?

(3 )

我不习惯这儿的冬天。 w ỏ b ù x íg u à n zh è r de d ỏ n g tiã n . I am n o t used to th e w in te r here.

(4 )

现 在 (是 )春 天 了 ,花儿 都 开 了 。 X iá n z á i (s h ì) c h ū n tia n le, h u ā r dõu k a i le. I t is s p rin g n o w , and th e flo w e rs have com e in to blo om .

(B) A d je c tiv a ls : 冷 tó n g “ c o ld ,”

热 rẻ “ h o t,” ỈS1、快 /iá n g icu a i “ co o l,” and

暖和

/2uá/lAuo “ w a rm .” (5 )

这儿春 天 很 暖 和 ,秋天不冷也不热。 Z h è r c h ū n tiā n hẽn n u ă n h u o , q iũ tiả n b ù lẽn g yẽ bú rè. I ť s w a rm here in th e s p rin g ; in th e fa ll, iť s n e ith e r c o ld n o r hot.

(6 )

去 年 这 个 时 候 ,天气已经很凉快了。 Q ù n iá n zhè ge sh íhò u, tiá n q ì y ijin g hẽn liá n g k u a i le. B y th is tim e la st year, th e w e a th e r w as a lre a d y q u ite cool.

( c ) V e rb — O b je c t E x p re s s io n s : 下雨 x iá y ứ ,刮风 g uá /é /^,下雪 Xiá xué, and

下雾 x iá VVÙ. A s describ e d in S e ctio n 2, th e O b je c ts in these e xpressions m a y be turned in to subjects, d e p e n d in g on th e co n te xt.

(D) S e n te n tia l U n i t s : 天 晴 " á n g i/2g “ d e a r s k y ” and

天阴 íiá /ỉ y /n “ o v e rc a s t•” S tru c tu ra lly these u n its co n sist o f a s u b je ct and an a d je c tiv a l p re d ic a te . 晴 and 阴 are n o t v e rs a tile in b e h a v io r; th e y appear o n ly w ith 天 ,th e re b y e x p la in in g w h y (9) is n o t acceptable. (7 )

今天天晴。 J īn tiā n tiā n qíng. T h e s k y is cle a r to da y.

A Practical Chinese Grammar

298

下午 天 阴 了 。

(8 )

X ia w u tiā n y ĩn le. I t becam e o vercast in th e a fte rn o o n . (9 )

* 今天很晴。 J īn tiā n hẽn qíng.

B o th

天晴 and 天阴 m a y be reversed to create 晴天 and 阴 天 ,w h ic h are also

v e ry lim ite d in usage. ( 1 0 ) 昨 天 是 晴 天 ,今 天 是 阴 天 。 Z u o tiā n shì q ín g tiâ n , jin tiā n shì y in tia n . I t w as a su n n y d a y ye ste rd a y, b u t a c lo u d y d a y to da y.

(E ) T h e m easure w o rd fo r “ degree” is 度 dù, as in (1 1 )

八十多度 b ã s h id u ỏ dù o v e r e ig h ty degrees

(1 2 )

零下十五度了。 L in g x ià s h íw u d ů le. I ť s n o w fifte e n degrees b e lo w zero.

( 1 3 ) 今天多少度?有七 十 度 吗 ? J īn tiā n duỏshaodù? Y ỏ ụ q is h id ù ma? W h a t is th e te m p e ra tu re to da y? A ro u n d se ve n ty degrees? (1 4 )

我们这儿夏天很热,天天都一百多度。 W o m e n zh è r x ià tiá n hẻn rè, tia n tia n d ou y ìb ă id u ỏ d ù . I ť s v e ry h o t here in th e sum m er. O v e r a h u n d re d degrees e ve ryd a y.

( 1 5 ) 这 儿最冷的时候,到过零下二十度。 Z h è r zuì lẽ n g de sh íh ò u , d à o g u o lín g x ià èrsh id ù . A t th e co ld e s t p o in t, it reached tw e n ty degrees b e lo w zero here.

3.2

T h e fo llo w in g ta b le is a s u m m a ry o f th e d iffe re n t w a ys to te ll w ea th er. I f we

w a n t to re p o rt a change in th e w e a th e r c o n d itio n s , w e use th e p a rtic le

T

. I f we

w is h to em phasize th e c o n tin u a tio n o f a c e rta in c o n d itio n , w e use th e a d v e rb 还 . I f w e are s im p ly d e s c rib in g th e s itu a tio n as is, w e use n e ith e r.

299

Lesson 33

Q u e stio n

P o s itiv e

N e g a tiv e

D e s c rip tiv e

下雨吗? 雨大吗?

下雨。 雨很大。

不下雨。 雨不大。

C ha ng e o f

下雨了吗? 雨小 了 吗 ?

下雨了。 雨小了。

没下雨。 雨还没小。 雨还很大。

S itu a tio n

C o n tin u a tio n

还下雨。 还下 雨 吗 ? 雨还很大吗? 雨 还 很 大 。

不下雨了。 雨不大了。

Please n o te th a t w h ile 很 is re q u ire d in an a d je c tiv a l p re d ica te ( 雨很大 ),th e in te n sifie r is g e n e ra lly d ro p p e d w h e n th e a d je c tiv e appears in th e n e w s itu a tio n p a tte rn

(雨大

4. Markers of Adjectival Comparison It has been n ote d th a t w h e n an a d je c tiv e is used a ll b y its e lf w ith o u t 很 ,it re p re ­ sents an im p lic it co m p a riso n . F o r e xam ple , the d iffe re n c e b etw e en th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences is th a t w h ile (1) is d e s c rip tiv e , (2) is co m p a ra tive . (1 )

这个 学 生 很 好 。 Z hè ge xu ésh en g hên hăo. T h is s tu d e n t is good.

(2 )

这个学生好。 Z hè ge xu ésh en g hảo. (B y c o m p a riso n ,) T h is stu d e n t is good. = T h is stu d e n t is g oo d (an d th a t one is n ’t.)

W hile th e s tu d e n t in (1 ) is u n q u e s tio n a b ly a g oo d p u p il, th e one in (2) is n o t neces­ sarily a m o d e l student. O n ly w h e n he is p u t in c o n tra s t w ith som eone else is he co n ­ sidered ữ . H ence, an u n m a rk e d a d je c tiv e ca rrie s a c o n tra s tiv e c o n n o ta tio n . T o e x ­ p lic itly m a rk a co m p a riso n , w e can use e ith e r sp ecific p a tte rn s w h ic h w e w ill le a rn in a la te r lesson o r degree adve rb s such as th e fo llo w in g tw o fo rm s: M gèng and

最z u i.

300

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(3 )

他 个 子 高 ,他 哥哥个子更高,他爸爸个子最高。 T ā gèzi gāo, tā gẽge gèzi gèng gāo, tā bába gézi zu i gāo. H e (h is b u ild ) is ta ll, h is b ro th e r is even ta lle r, and h is fa th e r th e ta l­ lest.

I::

(4 )

北京的冬天时间最长,从 十 二 月 开 始 ,有 四 个 多 月 。 B e ijin g de d ỏ n g tiả n s h ijiā n z u i cháng, cóng s h í^ ry u è k ả is h ĩ, yỏ u sìgeduỏ yuè. T h e w in te r is th e lo n g e s t season in B e ijin g . I t b egins in D ecem ber and lasts fo r m o re th a n fo u r m on ths.

Ê

(5 )

你 说 上 海 冷 ,北 京 更 冷 。我在那儿住过一个冬天,我 知 道 。 N ĩ shuõ S h a n g h a i len g, B e ijin g gèng lẽng. W õ zài n à r z h ú g u o yìge d õ n g tiá n , w õ zhīdao. Y o u said th a t it w as c o ld in Shanghai? I t is even m o re so in B e ijin g . I spent a w in te r there. I k n o w .

(6 )

他 以 前 上 大 学 的 时 候 ,汉语已 经 说 得 很 不 错 。现 在 在 中 国 住 了 几 年 , 应该说得更流利了吧。 T ã y ĩq iá n shàng d àxu é de sh íhò u, H à n y ủ y ijln g shuò de hẽn bú cuò. X ià n z à i zài Z h o n g g u ó z h ů le jin iá n , y ln g g â i shuỏ de gèng líu lì le ba. W h e n he w as in college, h is C hinese w as a lre a d y q u ite good. N o w th a t he has been liv in g in C h in a fo r a fe w years, he s h o u ld be even m o re flu e n t.

(7 )

你们谁开车开得最快? N ĩm e n shéi k ã i chè k á i de zuì kuài? W h ic h one o f y o u d riv e s th e fastest?

In th e la st tw o sentences, th e degree a dverbs appear in th e c o m p le m e n t c o n s tru c ­ tio n .

301

Lesson 33

5. The Construction 从...... 到....... To in d ica te th e d istance b etw e e n tw o p o in ts, e ith e r te m p o ra lly o r s p a tia lly , the f o l­ low ing p a tte rn is used. X and Y m a y o f course be e ith e r place w o rd s o r tim e w ords.



X



Y

[ fro m X to Y ]

(1 )

请 问 ,从这儿到学校有多远? Q ĩn g w èn , cóng zh èr dào x u é x ià o y o u d uỏ yuán? E xcu se m e, h o w fa r is it fro m here to th e campus?

(2 )

他从一九八五年十月到一九八九年一月在中国学习。 T ã có ng 1985 n iá n sh íyu è dào 1989 n iá n y ĩy u è zài Z h o n g g u ó xu é xí. F ro m O c to b e r 1985 to J a n u a ry 1989, he w as s tu d y in g in C hina.

(3 )

从第一课到第十三课,我们都没有语法问题。 C ó n g d ìy ĩk è dào dìshísãn kè, w o m e n dou m é i y õ u y ủ fă w é n tí. W e d o n ’t have a n y g ra m m a r p ro b le m s on Lessons 1 th ro u g h 13.

(4 )

你们每天从几点到几点上中文课? N ĩm e n m ẽ i tiả n cóng jīd ia n dào jīd ia n shàng Z h ó n g w é n kè? W h e n is y o u r C hinese class e veryday? (F ro m w h a t h o u r to w h a t h ou r? )

Lesson 34

1. The Continuous Aspect Marker 着 1.1

T h e re are tw o typ e s o f co n tin u o u s tense in E n g lis h , b o th fo rm e d w ith th e

v e rb -to -b e and an -in g fo rm o f th e verb: (a) H e is s ittin g d o w n in th e room . (b ) H e is s ittin g in th e room . Sentence (a) m eans he is in th e m id d le o f s ittin g d o w n , i.e. an a c tio n is b e in g ca rried out at th e v e ry m o m e n t o f utte ra nce . Sentence (b), on th e o th e r hand, in d ica te s th a t the person is in the state o f b e in g seated, w h ic h is the re s u lta tiv e state o f h is h a v in g sat d o w n . B o th re p re se n t th e c o n tin u a tio n o f an a ction , b u t w h ile th e fo rm e r stres­ ses the d y n a m ic n a tu re o f th e a ctio n , th e la tte r d ep icts it in a s ta tic m ode. In Chinese, w e have tw o d iffe re n t, b u t related , p a tte rn s to express these tw o messages. F irs t, th e a ctive aspect, o r th e p ro g re ssiv e aspect as it is g e n e ra lly k n o w n in g ra m m atica l studies, is represented b y th e fo llo w in g p a tte rn :



+

V e rb

+

O b je c t

In a d d itio n , w e can m o d ify th e p a tte rn b y p la c in g IE zhéng b e fo re the v e rb , after th e ve rb , a n d /o r

S u b je c t +



zhe

ne a t th e end. F o r deta ils, see Lesson 23. ( 正 )在 +

V e rb ( 着 ) +

O b je c t +

( 呢 )

Now, th e sta tic aspect, h e re a fte r re fe rre d to as th e c o n tin u o u s aspect, is s o le ly re ­ presented b y a p o s t-v e rb a l 着 .

P o sitive :

V e rb —着

Please co m p are th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences:

O b je c t

A Practical Chinese Grammar

304

(1 )

他在穿衣服呢。 T ā zài ch u ā n y īf u ne. H e is p u ttin g on h is clothes.

他穿着一件红衬衫。

.

I.

(2 )

T ā chuānzhe y íjiá n h ó n g chènshãn.

L

H e is w e a rin g a red s h ir t

Sentence (1) te lls w h a t th e person is d o in g w h ile sentence (2) describes h is appear­ ance. T h e y in fa c t a n sw e r d iffe re n t questions, one p e rta in in g to a c tio n and the o the r, d e scrip tio n . (3 )

他在作什么呢? T ā zài zuò shénm e ne? W h a t is he doing?

(4 )

他穿着什么? T ā chuānzhe shénme? W h a t is he w e a rin g? ( = W h a t does he have on?)

T h e y m a y be used in d iffe re n t c o n te xts, aga in stressing e ith e r th e a c tiv e m od e o r the d e s c rip tiv e aspect o f th e s itu a tio n . (5 )

请 你 等 一 下 儿 ,他在穿衣服呢。 Q ĩn g n ĩ dẽng y íx ià r, tā zài ch uā n y īfu ne. Please w a it. H e is g e ttin g dressed.

(6 )

他穿着一件红衬衫,非 常 好 看 。 T ā chuánzhe y íjiá n h ó n g chènshán, íẽ ic h á n g hảokàn. H e is w e a rin g a red s h irt, lo o k in g e x tre m e ly handsom e.

M o re exam ples o f th is d e s c rip tiv e 着 : (7 )

他在椅子上坐着。 T á zài y iz is h a n g zuózhe. H e is s ittin g in a ch air.



门开着。 T h e d o o r is open.

r

M é n kāizhe.

305

Lesson 34

(9 )

他手里拿着书。 T á s h o u li názhe shū. H e is h o ld in g a b o o k in h is hand.

The n e g a tive and in te rro g a tiv e are fo rm e d in th e fo llo w in g m anners:

N e g a t i v e : 没 (有 )

V e r b —着

O b je c t

( 1 0 ) 窗 户 开 着 ,门 没 (有 )开 着 。 C h u ā n g h u kā izh e, m én m éi (y o u ) kāizhe. T h e w in d o w s are open, th e d o o r is not. ( 1 1 ) 车 上 没 (有 )放 着 行 李 。 C hẽshang m éi (y o u ) fá ng zhe x ín g li. T h e re is no lu g g a g e (p la ce d ) in th e car.

In te rro g a tiv e :

V e rb —着

O b je c t



V e r b —着

O b je c t

没有?



( 1 2 ) 电视开着没有? D ià n s h i kā izh e m éiyou? Is th e T .V . on? ( 1 3 ) 她今天穿着一件黑衬衫吗? T ā jīn tiā n chuánzhe y íjiá n h ēi chènshân ma? Is she w e a rin g a b la c k b louse today?

1.2 1.2.1

W h e n to use th is c o n tin u o u s 着 ? W e use th e p a tte rn to describe th e state in w h ic h w e fin d a person. O n ly

certain ve rb s are q u a lifie d fo r th is p a tte rn , in c lu d in g 站 zAá/2 “ s ta n d , ” 坐 zuỏ “ s it,”

穿 c/ĩuá/1 “ w e a r,” 拿 ná “ h o ld ,” etc. ( 1 4 ) 客人都在客厅里坐着。 K e re n d ỏu zài k è tĩn g li zuózhe. T h e guests are a ll s ittin g in th e liv in g room .

306

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 1 5 ) 照片里坐着的是王老师,站着的是她爱人。 Z h á o p iá n li zuózhe de shì W á n g lả o sh i, zhánzhe de shì tā àiren. In th e p ic tu re , th e one w h o is s ittin g is T e a c h e r W a n g and th e one w h o is s ta n d in g is h e r husband. ( 1 6 ) 你手里拿着什么? N ĩ s h ỏ u li názhe shénme? W h a t are y o u h o ld in g in y o u r hand? ( 1 7 ) 她昨天来看我的时候,穿着一条白裙子,一 件 白 大 衣 。 T ā zu ó tia n lá i k à n w õ de sh ího ù, chuanzhe y ìtiá o bái q ún zi, y íjiá n bái d à yi. She w as w e a rin g a w h ite s k irt and a w h ite o v e rc o a t w h e n she came to see m e ye sterda y.

1.2.2

W e use th e p a tte rn to describe th e state in w h ic h w e fin d an object. T his

w o u ld in c lu d e cases such as a m ach in e b e in g on o r o ff ( T .V ., ra d io , lig h ts , etc.), the o p e n in g /c lo s in g o f a d o o r o r a w in d o w , etc. N o tic e , JF kải is used fo r b o th k in d s of “ o p e n in g ” :“ o p e n in g a d o o r” and “ tu rn in g on a s w itc h .” ( 1 8 ) 外边 有 人 敲 门 ,请 你 去 开 门 。 W á ib ia n y o u rén q iã o m én, q ĩn g n ĩ qù k a i mén. Som eone is k n o c k in g on the d o o r outside. Please go open th e door. ( 1 9 ) 门 开 着 ,请 进 来 。 M é n kā izh e, q ĩn g jin lá i.



: ĪĪIL



.一



T h e ve rb 开 is used as a sim p le a c tio n v e rb in (18) b u t w ith th e c o n tin u o u s m arker in (19). T h e fo llo w in g are m ore exam ples o f th is c o n tin u o u s 开 .

( 2 0 ) 房 间 里 没 有 人 ,为什么灯都开着? F á n g jia n li m éi y õ u rén, w éish én m e dẻng dòu kāizhe? T h e re is n o b o d y in th e roo m . H o w com e a ll th e lig h ts are on? ( 2 1 ) 收 音 机 开 着 ,可是我没在听。我在跟他们谈话呢。 S h o u y in jI kā izh e, kẽshì w ỏ m éi zài tin g . W õ zài gẽn tã m e n tá n huà ne. T h e ra d io w as o n b u t I w a s n 't lis te n in g . I w as c h a ttin g w ith them .

%

307

Lesson 34

( 2 2 ) 客厅里的灯和电视都没开着,他们一定不在家。 K è tĩn g li de dẽng hé d ià n sh ì d õu m é i kāizhe, ta m e n y íd ìn g bú zài jiā . N e ith e r th e lig h ts n o r th e T . v . w e re on in th e liv in g room . T h e y m u s t n o t be hom e.

1.2.3

W e use th e p a tte rn to describe th e state in w h ic h an o b je c t is fo u n d a t a c e r­

tain place. F o r e xam ple , i f w e fin d som e p ictu re s on a w a ll, w e m a y re p o rt w h a t w e see b y sa yin g, ( 2 3 ) 墙上有几张画儿。 Q iá n g sh a n g y o u jīz h ā n g huàr. T h e re are a fe w p ic tu re s on th e w a ll. Sentence (23) is c o n stru cte d w ith th e e x is te n tia l 有 ,a p a tte rn w e learned in Lesson

IIỈ

+ 有 + X . I f w e w a n t to in c lu d e m o re in fo rm a tio n in o u r re p o rt such as

15: Place

the p ictu re s b e in g h u n g o n th e w a ll ra th e r th a n g lu e d o n to it, w e can replace 有 w ith a co ncrete v e rb lik e

挂 g uá “ h a n g ” and set it in th e c o n tin u o u s o r d e s c rip tiv e

_

mode.

0

Place

+

V e rb —着

+

X

( 2 4 ) 墙上挂着几张画儿。 Q iá n g sh a n g guázhe jīz h ā n g huàr. T h e re are several p ic tu re s h a n g in g on th e w a ll.

The v e rb

挂 o f course represents th e a ctu a l a c tio n o f “ h a n g in g ,” h a v in g been

accom plished b y som eone p re vio u s to th e m o m e n t o f o b se rva tio n . T h e em phasis o f the sentence is, h o w e v e r, n o t o n “ h a n g in g th e p ic tu re s ” b u t, ra th e r,th e re s u lta tiv e state o f such an a ctio n . I t does n o t m a tte r w h o h u n g th e p ic tu re s there, w h e n it was done, h o w i t w as done, o r w h y it w as done; th e message o f th e sentence is w h a t one fin d s on th e w a ll, n a m e ly, p a in tin g s h a n g in g on it. Sentences (23) and (24) are essentially d e s c rib in g th e same o b s e rv a tio n ; b y s u b s titu tin g

有 w ith a s u b sta n tia l

action ve rb , (24) is m o re d e s c rip tiv e and v iv id in its n a rra tiv e effe ct. H e re are m ore examples o f th is p a tte rn to in d ic a te e xistence o r presence o f s o m e th in g /s o m e o n e at a location.

308

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 2 5 ) 牌 子 上 写 着 “ 请 不 要 吸 烟 。” P á izish a n g xiězhe “ Q ĩn g b ú yà o



yā n.”

O n th e s ig n b o a rd , iť s w ritte n “ N o s m o k in g !” [ s ig n b o a rd

+

w rite

+

“ N o s m o k in g ” ]

( 2 6 ) 信封上没写着名字。 X in fě n g s h a n g m é i xiězh e m íng zi. T h e re is no nam e w r itte n on th e envelope. ( 2 7 ) 楼上住着三个人。 L ó u s h a n g zhůzhe sānge rén. T h e re are th re e people liv in g upstairs. [ u p sta irs

+

liv e

+

th re e persons ]

( 2 8 ) 书 房 不 大 ,墙 上 挂 着 两 张 照 片 。窗户下边放着一张桌子和四把椅子。

桌子上放着一些明信片。 S h ũ íá n g bú dà, q iả ng sha n g guázhe lia n g z h ā n g zháopián. C hu ān gh u x ià b iâ n fá ng zhe y iz h á n g z h u o zi hé siba y iz i. Z h u o zish a n g fángzhe y ìx iẽ m ín g x ìn p ià n . T h e s tu d y is n o t b ig . T h e re are tw o p ic tu re s h a n g in g on the w all. U n d e r th e w in d o w , th e re is a desk w ith in fo u r chairs. O n th e desk, th e re are som e postcards. ( 2 9 ) 桌子上放着一封信,信封上只写着收信人的姓名,没有写着地址。 Z h u ó zish a n g fá ng zhe y ifě n g x in , x in fě n g s h a n g z h ĩ xiězh e shoũxìnré n de x ìn g m ín g , m é iy o u xiezhe d iz h l. O n th e desk th e re is a le tte r. O n ly th e re c e iv e r’s nam e is w ritte n on th e envelope; th e re is no address w ritte n on it.

1.2.4

W e use th e p a tte rn to d escribe th e state o r m a n n e r in w h ic h an a c tio n is car­

rie d out. M o re s p e c ific a lly , th e p a tte rn in v o lv e s tw o v e rb a l u n its , th e fir s t o f w h ic h m o d ifie s the e x e c u tio n o f th e fo llo w in g a c tio n •着 appears in th e m o d ify in g seg­ m ent.

[ V e rb — 着 ( O b je c t) ] J

[ V e rb — (O b je c t) ] 2

( 3 0 ) 他坐着打电话。 T ā zuózhe dă d iànhuà. H e is te le p h o n in g w h ile s ittin g d o w n .

309

Lesson 34

( 3 1 ) 古波拿着表去看大夫。 G ủ b õ názhe b iả o qù k a ň d á ifu . G u b o w e n t to see th e d o cto r, h o ld in g th e fo rm s in h is hand.

The m a in a c tio n in (30) is 打 电 话 ,and th e fir s t ve rb phrase

坐着 describes the

physical p o s itio n o f th e person w h ile he is m a k in g th e call. S im ila rly , (31) is p rim a řily conce rn ed w ith w h e re G u b o is g oing . T h e graphic d e p ic tio n b y te llin g

US

着 — e xpressio n d ra w s a m ore

w h a t he carries, p erhaps th e m e d ica l c h a rts o r th e in ­

surance fo rm s , as he goes to the p h y s ic ia n ^ o ffic e . T h e secon da ry o r a ttrib u tiv e sta­ tus o f th e

拿 e xpressio n m a y be co n tra ste d w ith th e fo llo w in g sentence in w h ic h

拿 ,in its p ro g re ssive fo rm , fu n c tio n s as a fu ll verb. ( 3 2 ) 古波在拿表呢。

Gủbõ zài ná biăo ne. G u b o is g e ttin g th e fo rm s.

T he fo llo w in g are m o re exam ples o f th is p a tte rn :

( 3 3 ) 他们笑着谈话。 T ā m e n xiá o zh e tá n huà. T h e y are c h a ttin g s m ilin g ly . ( 3 4 ) 他拿着一张照片来找我。 T ā názhe y iz h a n g zh áo pián lá i zhăo w õ. H e cam e to lo o k fo r me, h o ld in g a p ic tu re in h is hand. ( 3 5 ) 他指 着 椅 子 问 我 , “ 你为什么不坐着听音乐 ?” T ā zh īzh e y ĩz i w è n w ỏ , “ N ĩ w éish én m e bú zuózhe tín g y in y u è ? ” P o in tin g to th e ch a ir, he asked me, “ W h y d o n ’t y o u lis te n to the m usic s ittin g d o w n ? ” ( 3 6 ) 老 师 站 着 讲 ,学生们都坐着听。 L ả o s h ĩ zhánzhe jiả n g , xuésh en gm en dôu zuózhe tīn g . T h e te a ch e r le c tu re d sta n d in g up, and th e students listen ed s ittin g dow n. ( 3 7 ) 我们都在等着买票。 W o m e n d õu zài dēngzhe m ả i piaò. W e are a ll w a itin g to b u y tic k e ts .

310

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 3 8 ) 我不喜欢开着灯睡觉。

wỏ bù

x ĩh u a n kā izh e dēng shuì jiao .

I d o n 't lik e to sleep w ith th e lig h ts on.

1.3

H o w do w e d is tin g u is h th e c o n tin u o u s fro m th e progressive? G ra m m a tic a lly ,

the c o n tin u o u s aspect in v o lv e s o n ly a p o s t-v e rb a l aspect co u ld in v o lv e up to fo u r elem ents, in c lu d in g

着 ,w hereas th e p ro gressive 着 . S e m a n tic a lly ,on th e o th e r

hand, the co n tin u o u s aspect relates m o re to a state w hereas th e p ro g re ssive aspect relates m o re to an a c tiv ity . A s described above, th e re are fo u r w a ys in w h ic h the co n tin u o u s

着 can be used. T h e fir s t tw o p a tte rn s are re s tric te d to c e rta in verbs

and expressions, w h ic h need to be learned one b y one. T h e la s t tw o are m o re p ro ­ d u c tiv e in speech, b u t th e y are s till q u ite id io m a tic in usage. Id io m a c y e xists in all languages. C f. th e fo llo w in g sentences in w h ic h th e v e rb fo r “ to s it” m a y be used b o th lite r a lly and fig u r a tiv e ly in E n g lis h b u t n o t so in C hinese. A s is a lw a y s the case, w e have to be c a re fu l w ith w h a t w e say and to le a rn fro m o u r errors. (3 9 )

T h e re are a fe w stu de nts s ittin g in th e classroom .

教室里坐着几个学生。 J iá o s h ili zuózhe jlg e xuésheng. (4 0 ) Y o u can ta k e these chairs. T h e y ’re ju s t s ittin g here in th e classroom . * 教室里坐着几把椅子。 *J ià o s h ìli zuozhe jĩb ă yĩz i. ( 4 1 ) 教室里放着几把椅子。 J iá o s h ili fá ng zhe jĩb ả y ĩz i.

2. The Adverbial Modifier Marker 地 2.1

A n a d ve rb is a fo rm th a t m o d ifie s a verb. O f th e adve rb s w e have learned,

th e re are adve rb s o f n e g a t i o n : 不 ,没 有 , 另 丨 J ; adverbs o f s c o p e : 也 ,都 ,还 ,只 , etc.; a dverbs o f f r e q u e n c y : 再 ,又 , 常 常 ,etc.;

a dverbs o f d e g r e e : 很 ,太 ,最 , 非 常 ,etc.; adve rb s o f c o n tin g e n c y : — 定 ,就 ,etc. A n o th e r im p o rta n t c a te g o ry of

adverbs is th e m a n n e r a d v e rb ia l, o fte n fo rm e d w ith an a d je c tiv e and m a rk e d b y an a d v e rb ia l e n d in g , 地 c/e.

A d v e rb ia l [ A d je c tiv e

+

+

地]

V e rb

311

Lesson 34

( 1

)

他很局 兴 。

( A d je c tiv e )

T ā hen gâoxìng. H e is happy. (2 )

他很高兴地告诉我, “ 我今天不用上课 。”

( A d v e rb )

T ā hẽn gảoxìng de gàosu w ỏ, uW õ jīn tiā n bú yòng shàng ké.^ H e h a p p ily to ld me, “ I d on ’t have to go to school today.” (3)

他说话很大声。

(A d je c tiv e )

T ã shuỏ huà hẽn dàshéng. H e is ve ry loud w hen he speaks. (4 )

他大声地问我, “ 你去不去 ?”

(A d v e rb )

T ā dàshẽng de w èn w ỏ, uN ĩ qù bu qù? He asked me lo u d ly, “ A re you going?” (5 )

他是一个很热情的人。

(A d je c tiv e )

T ã shì yíge hẽn rèqíng de rén. H e is a ve ry w arm person. (6 )

他很热情地回答我的问题。

(A d v e rb )

T ā hẽn rèqíng de huídá w ỏ de w èntí. He eagerly answered m y question.

2.2

N o tic e th a t th e re are th re e h o m o p h o n o u s d e ’s in th e C hinese language; g ra p h i-

cally, h o w e v e r, th e y are a ll d iffe re n t.

/ (A ) A s m a rk e r o f th e n o u n m o d ific a tio n : 的 c/e:

M o d ifie r

姑书!

很我

7 8



+

N oun

(a b e a u tifu l g ir l) (o u r b oo ks)

: i书

i

fữM iDM

9

ž l (1 0

+

(th e classm ate w h o has gone on th e fie ld tr ip ) (th e b o o k w h ic h I gave y o u )

(B) A s m a rk e r o f th e “ degree c o m p le m e n t ” :得 c/e:

[ V e rb — O b je c t] [ V e r b — 得 一 C o m p le m e n t ]

312

A Practical Chinese Grammar

写 汉 字 写 得 ( 1 2 ) 学习 得 (1 1 )

Í 艮 好 看 (to w rite ch aracte rs w e ll)

很快

( to le a rn fa s t)

(C ) A s m a rk e r o f the v e rb m o d ific a tio n : 地 c/e:

[ A d je c tiv e ř — 说 唱听

地地地



4

j声 i意



3 1±

+

V e rb

(to speak h a p p ily ) (to sing lo u d ly )

S

5 1±

±;

地]

(to lis te n a tte n tiv e ly )

T h e fo llo w in g is a m in im a l set o f sentences c o n tra s tin g and illu s tra tin g th e d iffe ­ re n t usages o f these th re e c/e s: ( 1 6 ) 他是一个很认真的学生。

V

T ā shì y íg e hẽn renzhēn de xuésheng. H e is a co n scie n tio u s student.

(N o u n M o d ific a tio n )

( 1 7 ) 他学习课文学习得很认真。 T ā x u é x í k é w é n x u é x í de hen rénzhen H e studies h is lessons c o n s c ie n tio u s ly .

(V e rb C o m p le m e n t)

( 1 8 ) 请认真地练习生词。 Q ĩn g renzhēn de lià n x í shèngcí Please p ra c tic e th e n e w w o rd s co n s c ie n tio u s ly .

2.3

(V e rb M o d ific a tio n )

H o w do w e d is tin g u is h th e use o f a c o m p le m e n t expressio n as in (17) fro m

th a t o f an a d v e rb ia l e xpressio n as in (18)? B o th can be ren de re d w ith an a d ve rb ia l fo rm in E n g lis h (as w ith “ c o n s c ie n tio u s ly ” ). O ne m a jo r d iffe re n c e is th a t a com plem ent

e xpressio n

is

m ost

o fte n

used in

c o n n e c tio n

w ith

an

a c tio n

th a t

has

a lre a d y ta k e n place o r th a t fre q u e n tly occurs, w hereas an a d v e rb ia l m o d ifie r m ay re fe r to an a ctio n th a t has y e t to happen. In o th e r w o rd s , th e c o m p le m e n t express­ io n stresses th e re s u lt o f an a cco m p lish e d act, b u t th e a d v e rb ia l e xpressio n describes the m a n n e r in w h ic h an a c tio n is to be u n d e rta ke n . ( 1 9 ) 你以前学习得不很努力。 N ĩ y ĩq iá n x u é x í de b ù h en n u ll. Y o u d id n ’t s tu d y d ilig e n tly before.

,

Lesson 34

( 2 0 ) 你以后应该很努力地学习。 N ĩ y ĩh ò u y ĩn g g ã i hen n u ll de xu é xì. F ro m n o w on, y o u sh o u ld s tu d y d ilig e n tly . ( 2 1 ) 昨 天 放 假 ,我们玩儿得很高兴。 Z u o tiā n fa n g jià . W o m e n w á n r de hèn g ảo xìng . Y e s te rd a y w as a h o lid a y . W e p la y e d h a p p ily . ( = W e had a g re a t tim e .) ( 2 2 ) 明 天 放 假 ,我们要高高兴兴地玩儿。 M ín g tiã n fa n g jià , w o m e n yà o g a o g a o x ìn g x ìn g de w á n r. T o m o rr o w is a h o lid a y . W e sh a ll p la y h a p p ily . ( = W e sh o u ld have g re a t fu n .) ( 2 3 ) 他说得很大声。 T ā shuõ de hẽn dàshéng. H e sp oke lo u d ly . ( 2 4 ) 他很大声地说。 T ā hẽn dàshẻng de shuõ. H e sp oke lo u d ly . In the la st p a ir o f sentences, (23) re p o rts th e re s u lt o f th e speech act, n a m e ly, the d elivery w as lo u d and cle a r and w e can a ll hear h im v e ry w e ll. ever,

te lls

us

th e

makes a sp e cific concerned w ith

w ay

he

speaks;

it

is

a lm o s t lik e

Sentence (24), h o w ­

s a y in g

th a t the speaker

e ffo rt to raise h is voice as he ta lk s , b u t th e sentence is n o t w h e th e r w e can h ea r h im o r not. A g a in , th e p re v e rb a l m o d ifie r

(A d je ctive —地 +

V e rb ) s im p ly describes th e m anner, n o t n e ce ssarily g u a ra n te e in g

the re su lt; b u t th e p o s t-v e rb a l co m p le m e n t ( V e r b - 得 +

A d je c tiv e ) h ig h lig h ts th e

consequence. A n o th e r p a ir o f sentences fo r illu s tra tio n is: ( 2 5 ) 她说 得 很 快 。 T ã shuỏ de hẽn ku à i. She spoke fast. ( 2 6 ) 她 很 快 地 说 ........ T ā hẽn k u à i de shuỏ, ... She q u ic k ly said, ...

*

W hile sentence (25) ch a racte rize s th e speed w ith w h ic h she speaks ( f o r e xam ple , 50 words to a second), (26) em phasizes th e tim e ly response she m akes. T h e re fo re , 快 in sentence (26) re fe rs n o t to th e consequence o f th e speech act b u t ra th e r to the manner in w h ic h th e speaker b egins one.

314

A Practical Chinese Grammar

Because o f th is sem antic d iffe re n c e b etw e e n the tw o c o n s tru c tio n s , th e re are c e rta in a d je ctive s th a t m a y n o t be used as a d v e rb ia l m o d ifie rs . F o r e xam ple , w he n w e describe som eone h a v in g n e a tly cleaned up a roo m , w e are in fa c t re p o rtin g the re s u lt o f th e sp ru c in g e ffo rt. H ence,

gānjing m a y o n ly appear as a c o m p le m e n t

and n e ve r as an a d v e rb ia l. ( 2 7 ) 他整理房间整理得很乾净。 T ā z h e n g lī fá n g jia n z h e n g li de hen g a n jin g . H e s tra ig h te n e d o u t h is ro o m n ea tly. * 他很乾净地整理房间。

(2 8 )

T a hèn g ā n jin g de z h e n g lī fá n g jia n . A n o th e r e xam ple is s u lta tiv e state. W e m a y set it in a c o m p le m e n t c o n s tru c tio n to state th e consequence o f hard w o rk , b u t, in o rd e r to describe th e la b o rio u s m a n n e r in w h ic h th e w o r k is le, W w e( need to use a n o th e r w o rd such as 努 力 . done, ( 2 9 ) 他每天都很努力地作他的工作。 T ā m ē i tiā n d ỏu hen n u ll de

ZUÓ tã

de gongzuó.

E v e ry d a y he a ttends to h is w o r k d ilig e n tly . ( 3 0 ) 他每天都作得非常累。 T ā m è i tiā n d õu zuò de íè ic h á n g lèi. E v e ry d a y , he feels exha uste d a fte r w o rk . O th e r a d je ctive s th a t c a n n o t be used in an a d v e rb ia l p o s itio n in c lu d e É í ř “ n e a tly ,”

zhengqi

有 意 思 y õ u y ìs / “ in te re s tin g ly ,” etc. T h e re are also some a d je c tiv e s that

ca n n o t o ccu r in th e c o m p le m e n t c o n s tru c tio n . O n e is 着急 zAáọ/7 “ a n x io u s .” ( 3 1 ) 他 很着急地问我 ,… … T ā hen z h ā o ji de w è n w ỏ , ... H e a n x io u s ly asked m e, ... (3 2 ) * 他问我问得很着急。 * T ā w e n w o w e n de hen z h ā o ji (3 3 )

他很注意地听我说话。 T ā hen z h ú y i de tin g w o shuô huà. H e lis te n e d to m e a tte n tiv e ly as I spoke.

In th e la st sentence , 注意 z A ú y i is b a s ic a lly a ve rb m e a n in g “ to p a y a tte n tio n t o ” and can n e ve r be used as a c o m p le m en t. L e a rn in g w h ic h a d je ctive s m a y o c c u r as

315

Lesson 34

adverbial m o d ifie rs and w h ic h m a y n o t is a v e ry im p o rta n t and d e m a n d in g ta s k fo r beginning students. In a d d itio n ,

students m u s t le a rn to d is tin g u is h th e d iffe re n t

meanings and usages fo r those a dje ctive s th a t can appear in b o th c o m p le m e n t and m o d ifica tio n p atterns.

3. The Attributive 有的 3.1

P la c in g th e e xp re ssio n 有的 yỏuc/e b e fo re a n o u n as its m o d ifie r gives the

reading o f “ some + (1 )

N o u n .”

有 的 人 喝 咖 啡 ,有 的 人 喝 茶 。 Y ỏ u d e ré n hẽ k ā fē i, yỏ u d e rén hē chá. Som e d r in k co ffe e and some d r in k tea.

(2 )

有 的 学 生 很 努 力 ,有 的 不 努 力 。 Y ỏ u d e xu ésh en g hen n u ll, y o u de bù n u ll. Som e stu de nts are d ilig e n t, and som e a re n ’t.

Please n o tice th a t in sentence (2 ),th e second 有的

clause does n o t c a rry a noun.

As its re fe ren ce is th e same as th a t fo r th e fir s t u n it, th e n o u n m a y be o p tio n a lly de­ leted in th e repeated segm ent. T h e fo llo w in g are m o re exam ples: (3 )

邮局里人很多,有 的 坐 着 写 信 ,有的等着寄东西。 Y ó u jú li ré n hẽn duò, yỏ u d e

zuózhe x iẽ

x ìn , yỏ u d e dengzhe jì

d õ n g x i. T h e re are m a n y people in th e p ost o ffic e . Som e are s ittin g , w ritin g le tte rs, and som e are w a itin g to m a il th in g s. (4 )

他 生 病 了 。朋 友 知 道 了 都 很 着 急 。有 的 给 他 写 信 ,有 的 给 他 打 电 话 , 还买了花儿来 i 他 。 T ā shēng b in g le. P ẽ n g yo u z h īd a o le d ỏu hẽn z h ā o ji. Y õ u d e gẽi tá x iẽ x ìn , y õ u de gẽi tā dă d ià n h u à , yỏ u d e h ái m ă ile h u á r lá i k à n tã. H e becam e ill. H is frie n d s a ll fe lt concerned w h e n th e y lea rn e d ab­ o u t it. Som e w ro te to h im , some te lep ho ne d, and some even b o u g h t flo w e rs to com e see h im .

(5 )

有 的纸上写着汉字,有的纸上写着英文。 Y ỏ u d e zh īsh a n g xie zh e H á n z i, yo u d e zh ish an g xiezhe Y in g w é n . Som e sheets have C hinese ch aracte rs w ritte n on th em , some have E n g lis h w r itte n on th em .

316

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(6 )

我看 过 很 多 小 说 ,有 的非常有意思,有的写得不太好。

wỏ

k à n g u o hẽn d uõ x iả o s h u õ , y ỏ u d e íẽ ic h á n g y o u y ìs i, y ỏ u d e xiẽ

de b ú tà i hảo. I have read a g re a t m a n y novels. Som e are e x tre m e ly in te re s tin g , and some are n o t v e ry w e ll-w ritte n .

3.1

The “ 有 的 ( N o u n )” e xpressio n can n e v e r appear a fte r a ve rb in a sentence. If

it is th e O b je c t th a t th e e xpressio n m o d ifie s , th e n th e e n tire u n it w ill have to be to pica lize d. (7 )

有的字我还不认识。 Y õ u d e zì w õ h á i b ú rèn shi. T h e re are s till ch aracte rs th a t I d o n ’t k n o w .

(8 )

这 些 电 影 ,我 都 看 过 。有的我 很 不 喜 欢 ,有的我还想再看一遍。 Z hè x iè d ià n y ĩn g , w õ d òu k à ng uo . Y ỏ u d e w ố hẽn b ù x ĩh u a n , yỏude w ỏ h á i x iă n g zài k à n yíb ià n . I have seen a ll these m ovies. Som e I d is lik e v e ry m uch, b u t some I

ř

w o u ld lik e to see again. 3.2

T h e ,a lw a y s re fe rs to a segm ent o f an e n tire e n tity o r to m em ­

bers o f a g ro up . A s such, th e e xpressions are o fte n used in succession, in d ic a tin g v a ria tio n s w ith in th e to ta l p ic tu re . (9 )

g 们 班 的 学 生 ,有 的 人 喜 欢 看 京 剧 ,有 的 喜 欢 看 电 影 ,有 的 喜 欢 听 音 ’

乐。 W o m e n bān de xuésheng, y ỏ u d e ré n x ĩh u a n kà n J ĩn g jù , y õ u d e xĩhua n k à n d ià n y ĩn g , y ỏ u d e x ĩh u a n tĩn g y ĩn y u è . A m o n g th e students in o u r class, some lik e th e B e ijin g O pera, some lik e m ovies, and some lik e lis te n in g to m usic. ( 1 0 ) 他 的 邮 票 很 多 ,有 的 是 中 国 的 ,有 的 是 外 国 的 ,有 的 是 最 新 的 ,有的

是一九三几年的。 T ã de y ó u p ià o hẽn duỏ, yỗ u d e shì Z h o n g g u o de, y õ u d e shì w á ig u o de, yỏ u d e shì zuì x ĩn de, yỏ u d e shì y ìjiủ s ã n jĩn iá n de. H e has a lo t o f stam ps. Som e are C hinese stam ps, some are fro m fo re ig n co un trie s. Som e are th e m o s t re ce n t ones, and som e are fro m th e 1930s. In th is re g a rd th e fo llo w in g tw o p a tte rn s are q u ite d iffe re n t in usage, th e second o f w h ic h w as in tro d u c e d in th e la s t lesson.

317

Lesson 34

有的人 有人

+

+

V e rb

V e rb

A lth o u g h b o th p a tte rn s m a y be tra n s la te d w ith “ som e..., ” th e fir s t p a tte rn p o in ts to members o f a k n o w n g ro u p , w h ile th e second refe rs to an u n sp e cifie d person o r p e r­ sons. T h e re fo re , w h e n n o tin g th a t som eone is s in g in g in th e p a rk , w e have to use

有人 to re fe r to th is c e rta in singer. ( 1 1 ) 公园里有人在唱歌儿。 G ỏ n g y u á n li y ò u ré n zài chàng gèr. Som eone is s in g in g in th e p a rk . On th e o th e r hand, i f w e fin d th e p a rk-g o e rs engaged in d iffe re n t a c tiv itie s , some singing and o th e rs re a d in g , w e m a y describe th e b u s tlin g scene b y u sin g 有 的 人 . ( 1 2 ) 公 园 里 人 很 多 ,有 的 在 唱 歌 儿 ,有 的 在 看 书 。 G õ n g y u á n li ré n hẽn duõ, yỏ u d e zài chang gẽr, yỏ ud e zài kà n shủ. T h e re are a lo t o f people in th e p a rk . Som e are s in g in g songs and some are re a d in g books. The e xpressio n fo r “ so m e tim e s” is 有时候 y ỏ u sh/Aou, a sh orten e d v e rs io n o f 有的

yỗude shíhòu, used in th e same m anner. ( 1 3 ) 他 们 有 (的 )时候 上 午 开 会 ,有 (的 )时候下午开会。 T ā m e n y o u (de) s h íh ò u sh á n g w u k ā i h u i, y o u (de ) s h íh ò u x ià w ủ k ā i huì. T h e y h o ld th e ir m ee ting s som etim es in th e m o rn in g and som etim es in th e a fte rn o o n .

Lesson 35

1. The Adverb 再 ( continued ) The basic fu n c tio n o f th e a d ve rb

s

zaiy as p re v io u s ly described, is to in d ic ia te a

projected “ repeated a c tio n ,” a re p e titio n th a t has y e t to ta k e place. A n e xtended use of 再 is to m a rk th e p o stp o n e m e n t o f an a ctio n to a la te r tim e . In o th e r w o rd s , it is not the p h y s ic a l act th a t is to be repeated b u t ra th e r th e idea o f im p le m e n tin g it that w ill be e n te rta in e d again. H ence, th e re p e titio n in th o u g h t o r in te n tio n ju s tifie s the use o f 再 • F o r e xam ple, i f I p la n to v is it th e lib r a r y in the m o rn in g (上午去图 书馆),b u t, because o f p o o r w e a th e r c o n d itio n s , I h ave to w a it u n til th e a fte rn o o n , I can use 再 to ch a ra cte rize th is change in itin e ra ry .

(1)

我下午再去图书馆。 W o x ià w ủ zài qù tú shù gu ả n. I ll go to th e lib r a r y in th e a fte rn o o n .

O ut o f co n te x t, th e sentence m a y o f course m ean

un i

go to th e lib r a r y a ga in in th e

afternoon.>, B u t, g iv e n th e s itu a tio n as stated above, i t is n o t a m a tte r o f a ctua l re ­ p e titio n b u t in fa c t a d e la y in c a rry in g o u t th e plan. T h e d e la y m a y be u n til a speci­ fic tim e ( lik e

in th e above sentence) o r th e a c tio n m a y o c c u r a fte r th e c o n c lu ­

sion o f a n o th e r a c tio n o r event, as in th e fo llo w in g sentences:

(2)

我吃了饭再去图书馆。 W o c h ile fa n zài qù tú sh ủ g u ả n . I ’l l go to th e lib r a r y a fte r I eat.

(3)

雨 停 了 ,我再 去 图 书 馆 。 Y u tin g le , w ỏ zài qù tú shủ gu ả n. I w o n ’t g o to th e lib r a r y u n til th e ra in has stopped.

(4)

我先去食堂再去图书馆。

w ỏ x iá n ril go to

qù sh ítá n g zài qú tú sh ủ g u ă n . th e ca fe te ria fir s t and th e n the lib ra ry .

320

A Practical Chinese Grammar

In sentence (4), w h e n tw o a ction s are ju x ta p o s e d a c c o rd in g to a te m p o ra l o rd e rin g , th e y are m a rke d b y

xiản and s

zai re s p e c tiv e ly .

先 A c tio n i , 再 A c tio n 2 first...,

th e n …

T h e fo llo w in g are m o re exam ples o f th is use o f 再 : (5 )

今 天没有时间了,明天再回答大家的问题吧。 J īn tiā n m éi y ỏ u s h íjiá n le, m ín g tia n zài h u íd á d a jiā de w é n tí ba. W e ’re o u t o f tim e to da y. I ’ll a n sw e r y o u r q uestions to m o rro w .

(6 )

现 在 还 早 ,我们八点再去。 X iá n z á i h á i zao, w o m e n b ã d iả n zài qù. I t ’s s till to o e a rly n o w . W e ’ll go a t eig ht.

(7 )

我们上午先准备准备,下午 再 开 会 。 W o m e n sh á n g w u x iã n z h ú n b e izh u n b e i, x iá w u zài k ã i h u i. W e 11 fir s t do some p re p a ra tio n in th e m o rn in g and th e n w e w ill have th e m e e tin g in th e a fte rn o o n .

(8 )

我们先喝点儿酒再吃饭。 W o m e n x iã n hẽ d iă n r jiủ zài c h ĩ fàn. W e Jll have some w in e fir s t b e fo re th e meal.

(9 )

我们今天先学生词,以后有时间再谈语法的问题。 W o m e n jīn tiā n x iã n xu é shẽngcí, y ĩh ò u y õ u s h íjiá n zài tá n y ủ fả de w è n tí. W e ’ll s tu d y th e n e w w o rd s to d a y and w e ’ll address th e g ra m m a r p ro b le m s in th e fu tu re w h e n w e have tim e.

Lesson 36

1. Degrees of Comparison A n u n m a rk e d a d je c tiv e in C hinese im p lie s a c o n tra s t o r co m p a ris o n b e tw e e n ob-

I



jects, as in sentence (1). Som e adverbs, in c lu d in g those in sentences (2) to (4 ), m ay e x p lic itly la b e l th e d iffe re n t degrees o f com parison.

我的 自 行 车 好 。(你 的 不 好 。)

(1 )

w ỏ de z ix ín g c h ě hăo. ( n ĩ de b ù hảo.) M y b ik e is good, (y o u rs is n ’t.)

我的自行车比较好。

(2 )

w ỏ de z ix ín g c h ě b ījia o hảo. M y b ik e is c o m p a ra tiv e ly b etter.

他的自行车更好。

(3 )

T ā de z ix ín g c h é gèng hảo. H is b ik e is even b etter.

帕兰卡的自行车最好。

(4 )

P à lá n kả de z ix ín g c h ě zuì hăo. P a la n k a ’s b ik e is th e best.

ỊỊ

,

_____________ ______

In none o f th e above exam ples, h o w e ve r, do w e fin d an o b je c t b e in g set side b y side w ith a n o th e r fo r co m p arison . T o do so, w e need to use th e ve rb

比 fai “ to c o m ­

pare” to c o n s tru c t a c o m p a ra tiv e sentence. T h e re are d iffe re n t ty p e s o f c o m p a ra tiv e sentences, som e o f w h ic h w e w ill be e x a m in in g in th is lesson.

1.1

T h e S u p e rio r D egree: A > B

P a tte rn :

A

比 B

X

322

A Practical Chinese Grammar

T h is p a tte rn m eans th a t UA is m ore X th a n B.^ G ra m m a tic a lly , X m a y be an a d je c ­ tiv e o r a verb. T h e p a tte rn m a y also be set in a co m p le m e n t co n s tru c tio n .

1.1.1

W h e n th e X e le m e n t in th e fo rm u la is an a d je ctive , th e p a tte rn re q u ire s little

m o d ific a tio n .

比 B

A

A d je c tiv e

[ A is m o re A d je c tiv e th a n B ]

(5 )

我比你高。 W o b ĩ n ī gāo. I am ta lle r th a n you.

T h e re are several fa c to rs to re m e m b e r a b o u t th is sim p le p a tte rn . F irs t, as th e a djec­ tiv e is n o w set in th e c o m p a ra tiv e m ode, i t a u to m a tic a lly excludes th e use o f de­ s c rip tiv e o r in te n s iv e a dverbs such as 很 ,太 ,非 常 ,etc. (6 )

* 我比你很高。 * W õ b ĩ n ĩ hẽn gáo.

Second, sentence (5) m akes no e x p lic it m e n tio n as to w h e th e r e ith e r one o f the candidates is ta ll. B o th can be u n d e r fiv e feet, b u t as lo n g as one is a b it ta lle r th an the o th e r, th e p a tte rn m a y be u tiliz e d to ch ara cte rize th e co m p arison . I f b o th are o ve r six feet, w e m a y q u a lify th e p a tte rn b y u sin g th e a d v e rb M gèng ueven m ore so.”

A

比 B



A d je c tiv e

[ A is even m o re A d je c tiv e th a n B ]

(7 )

我比你更高。

wỏ b ĩ

n ĩ gèng gão.

I am even ta lle r th a n you. L ik e its c o u n te rp a rt in E n g lis h , th e s u p e rla tiv e th is p a tte rn .



“ th e m o s t” n e ve r appears in

323

Lesson 36

(8 )

* 我比 你 们 最 高 。

*wỏ b ĩ (9 )

n ĩm e n zuì gáo.

我最高。

wỏ zuì

gāo.

I am th e tallest.

T h ird , th e n e g a tive is fo rm e d b y p la c in g

不 b e fo re 比 ,and th e in te rro g a tiv e has

only one f o r m : 吗 . ( 1 0 ) 帕兰卡比丁云高吗? P à lá n kả b ĩ D in g Y ú n gāo ma? Is P a la n ka ta lle r th a n D in g Y u n? ( 1 1 ) 帕兰卡不比丁云高。 P à lá n kả bù b ĩ D ĩn g Y ú n gão. P a la n ka is n o t ta lle r th a n D in g Y u n . A fe w m o re exam ples: ( 1 2 ) 这个问题比那个问题难。 Z hè ge w é n tí b ĩ nà ge w è n tí nán. T h is q u e stio n is m o re d if fic u lt th a n th a t one. ( 1 3 ) 这套历史书比那套贵,为什么你不买那套? Z hè tà o lìs h ĩ shũ b ĩ nà tà o g u ì, w éish én m e n ĩ b ù m ải nà tào? T h is set o f h is to ry b o o ks is m o re expensive th a n th a t set. W h y d o n ^ y o u g e t th a t set? ( 1 4 ) 弟弟的脚比我们的都大,很 难 买 鞋 。 D ìd i de jia o b ĩ w o m e n de d ỏu dà, hẽn nán m ả i xié. M y y o u n g e r b ro th e r has b ig g e r fe e t th a n a ll o f

U S.

I ť s d if fic u lt fo r

h im to b u y shoes. ( 1 5 ) 他考试的成绩总比我好。 T ā kả o sh ì de c h é n g jí zỏng b ĩ w ồ hảo. H is e xam re su lts are a lw a y s b e tte r th a n m ine.

In the la st sentence, th e lite ra l tra n s la tio n w o u ld be uH is exam re su lts are b e tte r than n2e .,> W h ile i t is p ossible to rep hrase (15) as (16) o r (17), it is n o t necessary to repeat 考试成绩 o r even to in c lu d e 的 in th e second u n it T h e c o m p a ris o n is m ade between tw o people in te rm s o f th e ir te st perform an ces. A s lo n g as th is refe ren ce is

324

A Practical Chinese Grammar

c le a rly established in th e b e g in n in g o f th e sentence, it is lin g u is tic a lly e x p e d ie n t and econ om ical to o m it th e re p e titio n w h e n th e s u b je c t m a tte r recu rs in th e co nve rsa ­ tio n. (1 6 )

他考试的成绩总比我考试的成绩好。 T à kả o sh ì de c h é n g jl zong b ĩ w ỏ kă osh ì de c h é n g jl hảo.

(1 7 )

他考试的成绩总比我的好。 T a kả osh ì de c h é n g ji zỏng b ĩ w ỏ de hảo.

1.1.2

A s w e k n o w , c e rta in tra n s itiv e q u a lity ve rb s in C hinese are d e s c rip tiv e in na­

tu re and, th e re fo re , a llo w co m p arison . O ne such e xam ple is 喜欢 x iA u a /2 “ to lik e , be fo n d o f.” O f th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences, th e fir s t one is d e s c rip tiv e and the second is co n tra stive . (1 8 )

我很喜欢帕兰卡。 W o hen x ĩh u a n P àlánkă. I lik e P alanka.

(1 9 )

我喜欢帕兰卡。

wỏ x ĩh u a n

P àlánkả.

I lik e P alanka. (Im p ly in g : “ I d o n ’t lik e G u b o .” o r “ Y o u d o n ’t lik e P a la n k a .” ) T ra n s itiv e q u a lity verbs m ay, o f course, app ea r in a c o m p a ra tiv e c o n s tru c tio n .

A

比 B

V e rb

[ A is m o re so th a n B in d o in g V e rb ]

(2 0 )

我比你喜欢看电影。 W o b ĩ n ĩ x ĩh u a n k à n d ià n y ĩn g . I lik e m ovies m o re th a n y o u do.

(2 1 )

你 爱 说 话 ,他比你更爱说话。 N ĩ ài shuõ huà, tā b ĩ n ĩ gèng ài shuo huà. Y o u lo v e to ta lk . H e loves to ta lk even m o re th a n y o u do.

( 2 2 ) 没有人比他更了解中国的情况。 M é i y ỏ u ré n b ĩ tả gèng lia o jie Z h o n g g u ó de q ín g k u à n g . N o one u nd ersta nd s th e s itu a tio n in C h in a b e tte r th a n he.

325

Lesson 36

( 2 3 ) 帕兰卡比古波更想家吗? P à lá n kă b ĩ G ủ b ò gèng x iả n g jiā ma? Is P a la n ka m o re h o m e sick th a n Gubo? It is in te re s tin g to n o te th a t in cases lik e (22) and (23), th e c o m p a ra tiv e p a tte rn often takes 更 • U n lik e

高 ,fo r exam ple, w h ic h is in fa c t n e u tra l in te rm s o f h e ig h t

(either ta ll o r s h o rt) w h e n i t enters a c o m p a ra tiv e c o n s tru c tio n , a V e rb — O b je c t ex-

想家 “ h o m e s ic k ” ca rrie s o n ly one re a d in g , n a m e ly “ h o m e s ic k ,” and th e re fo re re q u ire s 更 to h ig h lig h t th e com parison. pression such as

1.1.3

In a co m p le m e n t o f degree c o n s tru c tio n , th e co m p le m e n t its e lf is m ade up o f

a d e scrip tive elem ent, w h ic h m a y re a d ily o cc u r in a co m p a ris o n scheme. T h e c o m ­ plete schem a is as fo llo w s :

A (V e rb — O b je c t) V e rb —得 比 B V e rb —得 C o m p le m e n t

As tw o occurences o f v e r b —得 appear in th e sequence, one o f th e m m a y be de­ leted, th e re b y p ro d u c in g th e fo llo w in g tw o v a ria tio n s w h ic h are th e p atte rn s w e use in speech:

A (V e rb — O b je c t) V e rb _ 得 比 A (V e rb — O b je c t)

B

C o m p le m e n t

比 B V e rb —得 C o m p le m e n t

( 2 4 .a ) 我走得比你 □ 快 。 W o zou de b ĩ n ĩ ku à i. I w a lk fa ste r th a n you. ( 2 4 . b ) 我 □ 比你走得快。

wỏ b ĩ

n ĩ zỏu de ku à i.

( 2 5 . a ) 我吃饭吃得比你 □ 多 。

wỏ c h ī

fa n c h ī de b ĩ n ĩ duõ.

I eat m o re (ric e ) th a n y o u do. ( 2 5 . b ) 我吃饭 □ 比你吃得多。 W o c h i fa n b ĩ n ĩ c h ĩ de duõ. As the n e g a tive m a rk e r 不 a lw a y s appears b e fo re th e c o m p a ra tiv e v e rb are again tw o possible n e g a tive patterns:

比 ,th ere

326

A Practical Chinese Grammar

A ( V e r b — O b je c t) V e rb —得 不 比 A ( V e r b — O b je c t)

B

C o m p le m e n t

不比 B V e rb —得 C o m p le m e n t

( 2 6 .a ) 我作菜作得不比你 □ 好 ,。

wỏ zuò

cài zuò de b ù b ĩ n ĩ hăo.

I d o n ’t c o o k b e tte r th a n y o u do. ( 2 6 .b ) 我作菜 □ 不比你作得好。

wỏ zuò

cài bù b ĩ n ì zuò de hăo.

T h e in te rro g a tiv e is fo rm e d b y p la c in g

吗 a t th e end o f th e sentence. H e re are

some m o re sentences o f th is c o m p le m e n t fo rm in co m p arison . (2 7 )

我爸爸是一个大学教授,可是他挣钱挣得不比一个售货员多。

wỏ bàba

shì yíg e d àxu é jiá o s h ó u , kẽshì tā zhéng q iá n zhéng de bù

b ĩ y íg e s h ò u h u ò y u á n duỏ. M y fa th e r is a c o lle ge p ro fesso r, and y e t he doesn t earn a n y m ore th a n a sales c le rk . (2 8 )

我 说 汉 语 说 得 比 她 好 ,作 中 国 菜 也 比 她 作 得 好 ,可是她比我喜欢中 国。 W õ shuõ H à n y ủ shuõ de b ĩ tá hảo, zuò Z h ó n g g u ó cài yẽ b ĩ tã zuò de hảo, kẽshì tã b ĩ w ỏ x ĩh u a n Z hó n g g u ó . I speak C hinese b e tte r th a n she does, and I c o o k C hinese fo o d b et­ te r th a n she too. B u t she lik e s C h in a m o re th a n I do.

(2 9 )

我姐 姐 比 我 漂 亮 ,念书也比我念得好,可是我挣钱比她挣得多。 W o jie jie b ĩ w õ p ià o lia n g , n ià n shū yẽ b ĩ w ỏ n ià n de hảo, kẽshì wỏ zhèng q iá n b ĩ tã zhèng de duõ. M y e ld e r s iste r is p re ttie r th a n I and she also d id b e tte r in school th a n I. B u t I m a ke m o re m o n e y th a n she does.

(3 0 )

你昨天走得比他晚吗?为什么他比你先到家? N ī z u ó tia n zỏu de b ĩ tā w a n ma? W é ishé nm e tā b ĩ n ĩ x iã n dào jiā? D id y o u leave la te r th a n he d id yesterday? W h y d id he g e t home e a rlie r th a n you?

1.2

T h e E q u a lin g D egree: A = B: T o say th a t “ A is as X as Y , ” th e p a tte rn in

C hinese is :

327

Lesson 36

A



那 么 X

B

As in E n g lis h , B is pre-set as th e sta n d a rd and A is m easured a ga in st B. In th e p o s i­ tive p a tte rn , A

is a p p ro a c h in g o r equal to B in te rm s o f th e m easurem ent o r

achievem ent o f X . V a ria tio n s o f th e p a tte rn are g iv e n b elow :



A

那么

B

A d je c tiv e

( 3 1 ) 我有你那么高。 W o y o u n ĩ nam e gao. I am as ta ll as y o u are.

A



B

那 么 V e rb

( 3 2 ) 我有他那么喜欢看电视。 W o y o u ta nam e x ĩh u a n k à n d iànshì. I lik e to w a tc h T . v . as m u c h as he does.

A V e r b — O b je c t V e rb —得 有 B A V e rb — O b je c t

那么 C o m p le m e n t

有 B V e rb — 得 那 么 C o m p le m e n t

( 3 3 .a ) 我看电视看得有他那么 多 。

wỏ k à n

d ià nsh ì k à n de y o u ta nam e duo.

I w a tc h T . v . as m u ch as he does. ( 3 3 . b ) 我看电视有他看得那么多。

wỏ k à n

d ià n sh ì y o u tá k à n de nàm e duỏ.

Several th in g s to n o te a b o u t th is p a tte rn . F irs t, th e w o rd

那么 name, lite ra lly . uin

that m a n n e r,” m a y be s u b s titu te d b y 男 |ỉ 样 nàyàng, w ith th e same m ea nin g. A s M

么 and 那样 b o th c o n ta in 那 “ th a t,” i t w o u ld be in a p p ro p ria te to use e ith e r w h e n the pre-set sta n d a rd ite m , n a m e ly B in th e p a tte rn , is a fir s t person p ro n o u n o r m odified b y

这 “ th is .” T o a vo id such in c o n g ru ity betw een, sa y , 这个 and 那 样 ,the , p ro n o u n ce d e ith e r as zhém e o r zem e o r zhéyáng

pattern m a y o p t fo r as replacem ent.

328

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 3 4 ) 那件衬衫有这件这样厚。 N à jià n chènshản y o u zhè jià n zh èyà ng hòu. T h a t s h irt is as th ic k /h e a v y as th is one. (3 5 )

弟弟快有我这么高了。 D ìd i k u à i y õ u w ồ z h è m e /zè m e gảo le. M y y o u n g e r b ro th e r w ill soon be as ta ll as I.

(3 6 )

那儿有这儿这么热吗? N à r y o u zh ér zhém e rè ma? Is it as h o t th e re as here?

Second, th is p a tte rn is used m o re fre q u e n tly in its n e g a tiv e and in te rro g a tiv e v e r­ sions th a n its p o s itiv e c o u n te rp a rt. In th e in te rro g a tiv e p a tte rn , th e a d v e rb ia l m o d i­ fie r,

etc., m a y be o m itte d . (3 7 )

他 有 你 (这 么 )会说 话 吗 ? T ả y õ u n ĩ (zhém e) h uì shuỏ huà ma? Is he as a rtic u la te as y o u are?

(3 8 )

妈 妈 ,我什么时候会有你高? M ã m a , w ỏ shénm e s h íh ò u h u ì y o u n ĩ gào? M o m , w h e n w ill I be as ta ll as you?

( 3 9 ) 你考试有他考得好吗? N ĩ kả o shì y o u tā k ả o de hăo ma? D id y o u do as w e ll as he d id in th e test? T h ir d , fo r th e n e g a tiv e p a tte rn , see th e n e x t section.

1.3

T h e In fe r io r D egree: A < B: T h e n e g a tiv e o f th e e q u a lin g degree is a case o f

“ in fe r io r degree,” represented b y th e fo llo w in g p a tte rn :

A

没 有 B

( 那么)

X

I f A is n o t as X as B, th e n A is o f course less X th an , o r in fe r io r to, B. ( 4 0 ) 帕兰卡没有古波(那 么 )忙 。 P à lá n kả m é iy o u G ủ b o (nà m e ) m áng. P a lan ka is n o t as b u sy as G ubo.

329

Lesson 36

H o w is sentence (40) d iffe re n t fro m th e fo llo w in g , w h ic h is the n e g a tiv e o f a 比一 sentence? ( 4 1 ) 帕兰卡不比古波忙。 P à lá n kả bù b ĩ G ủ b õ m áng. P a la n ka is n o t b u s ie r th a n G ubo.

Sentence (41) ca rrie s tw o possible readings: (a) P a la n ka m a y n o t be b u sie r th a n G u bo , b u t she can be ju s t as b u s y as he. (b) P a lan ka is n o t b u s ie r th a n G u b o and, in fa c t, she is less b usy th a n G ubo.

In o th e r w o rd s , th e n e g a tive o f A 〉 B im p lie s e ith e r A = B o r A 〈 B. T h e fir s t reading is a case o f th e “ e q u a lin g degree” and the second an e xam ple o f th e “ infe rio r degree.” T h e tw o in te rp re ta tio n s can be p araphrased as th e fo llo w in g : ( 4 2 ) 帕兰卡不比古波忙,但是她也有古波那么忙。 P à lá n kả b ù b ĩ G ủ b õ m áng, dànshì ta yè y õ u G ủ b o nàm e m áng. ( 4 3 ) 帕兰卡不比古波忙,她也没有古波那么忙。 P à lá n kă bù b ĩ G ủ b õ m áng, tả yẽ m é iy o u G ủ b o nàm e m áng.

M ore exam ples o f th e in fe r io r degree p a tte rn :

330

A Practical Chinese Grammar

C om pa red w ith w h e re y o u are, i t is n o t as h o t here in th e sum m er, n o r as c o ld in th e w in te r. So, none o f

US

is w illin g to go w o r k there.

( 4 6 ) 我 比 你 吃 得 多 ,可是身体没有你好。 W



b ĩ n ĩ c h i de duò, kẽ shì s h e n tĩ m é iy o u n ĩ hảo.

I eat m o re th a n y o u d o ' b u t m y h e a lth is n o t as goo d as yours.

A

(4 7 )

没 有 B

( 那 么 ) V e rb

我没有你那么会说话,也没有你那么爱说话。 w ỏ m é iy o u n ĩ nàm e h uì shuõ huà, yẽ m é iy o u n ĩ nàm e ài shuó huà. I am n o t as a rtic u la te as y o u are, n o r am I as ta lk a tiv e as you.

(4 8 )

我没有你这么会学外语。 w ỏ m é iy o u n ĩ zhém e h u ì xu é w à iy ủ . I am n o t as capable as y o u are in le a rn in g a fo re ig n language.

A V e r b — O b je c t V e rb — 得 没 有 B A V e rb — O b je c t

(那么) C o m p le m e n t

没有 B V e rb — 得 ( 那么 ) C o m p le m e n t

( 4 9 .a ) 我朋友订报订得没有我多。

w ỏ p é n g y o u d in g bào d in g de m é iy o u w õ duỏ. M y frie n d does n o t su bscrib e to as m a n y papers as I. ( 4 9 .b ) 我朋友订报没有我订得多。

w ỏ p é n g y o u d in g bào m é iy o u w ỏ d ìn g de duò. (5 0 )

我说中文没有你说得流利,也没有你说得清楚。 w ỏ shuò Z h o n g w é n m é iy o u n ĩ shuõ de liú lì, yẽ m é iy o u n ĩ shuỏ de q ĩn g c h u . I d o n 't speak C hinese as flu e n tly o r as c le a rly as you.

( 5 1 ) 我 又 没 有 他 考 得 好 ,真 奇 怪 !他 不 比 我 努 力 ,可是他的成绩总是比我

好。 w ỏ y ò u m é iy o u tā kă o de hăo, zhēn q íg u à i! T á bù b ĩ w õ n ủ lì, kẽshì tā de c h é n g j! z o n g s h i b ĩ w ỏ hăo. A g a in I d id n 't te st as w e ll as he. I ť s re a lly strange. H e is n o t any m o re d ilig e n t th a n I, b u t h is scores are a lw a y s b e tte r th a n m ine.

331

Lesson 36

( 5 2 ) 他比他妹妹喜欢画画儿,可是没有他妹妹画得那么好。 T ã b ĩ tá m è im e i x ĩh u a n huà h uà r, kẽshì m é iy o u tã m è im e i huà de nàm e hăo. H e lik e s to d ra w m o re th a n h is sister, b u t he doesn’t d ra w as w e ll.

1.4

S u m m a ry:

N egative

Positive A > B

A 比 B X 吗 ?

A 不 比 BX

A 比 B X

Interrogative

A V e r b —O b je ct V erb A V erb —O b je ct V erb A V e rb —O b je ct V e rb 得 比 B Com ple得 不 比 B C o m p le得 比 B Com plem ent ment m ent 吗 ? A V erb — O b je ct

A = B

A



A V erb — O b je ct

A V e r b - O b je ct



B V erb Í# C o m p le ­

不 比 B V erb得

B V erb 得 Com ple-

ment

Com plem ent

ment 吗 ?



A 有 B ( 那 么 )x 吗 ?

B 那 么 X

A V e r b —O b je ct V erb 得



B

A V e r b —O b je ct V erb 得 有 B (那 么 )

那 么

Com plem ent

Com plem ent 吗 ?

A V e rb _ O b je ct 有 B V erb

é

A V erb — O b je ct

那么

Com plem ent

A < B



B V e r b 得 (那 么 ) Com plem ent 吗 ?

A 没 有 B ( 那 么 )x A V e r b —O b je ct V erb 得 没 有 B

(那 么 )

Co m plem ent A V e r b —O b je ct 没 有 BVerb

Í# ( 那 么 )

Com plem ent

2. Counting Money 2.1

T h e basic m o n e ta ry u n its in C hin ese are 块 icuáy “ d o lla r,” 毛 m á o “ dim e, ten

cents,” and 分 /é /2 “ ce nt.” E a ch o f these u n its is g ra m m a tic a lly a m easure w o rd , its

332

A Practical Chinese Grammar

n ou n b eing , o f course , 钱 qián In sequ en tial o rd e rin g , th e y app ea r lik e this:

块 iu á i 1

\/ —

4

\/ —

5

$ 0.55 $ 0.60

分 /é/2

(钱 giá/2 )



3

\/ .— / —

2

$32.22

两块 五块 三十二块

毛 毛 毛 tè É正

\— /

$ 2.00 $ 5.20

毛 m áo

:€

A-

g

\/ —

6

$ 0.05

C om pa red w ith

th e A m e ric a n system , th e re is an a d d itio n a l m o n e ta ry u n it in

C hinese, n a m e ly

毛 fo r te n cents. T w e n ty cents is th e re fo re 两 毛 钱 • A s in the

case o f c o u n tin g n um bers, w h e n e v e r i t is p ossible w e a lw a y s g o to th e n e x t h ig h e r u nit. W h ile 1,200 m a y be e ith e r “ tw e lv e h u n d re d ” o r “ a th ou san d and tw o h u n d re d ” in E n g lis h , it is a lw a y s 一千二百 in C hinese. S im ila rly , tw e lv e cents is a lw a y s 一毛

二分 and n e ve r 十 二 分 . 2.2

W h e n th e m o n e ta ry fig u re in v o lv e s o n ly one m o n e ta ry u n it , 钱 qián u s u a lly

appears a t th e end o f th e e xpression. I f th e re is m o re th a n one u n it, th e use o f 钱 becomes o p tio n a l.

0 3

9

2.3

5



8

ẻ é- ẻ é

7

3.. 0 3.. 3 . ;3 . .3

三块钱 三 块 三 毛 (钱 ) 三块三毛三分(钱 )

W h e n a fig u re in v o lv e s m ore th a n one m o n e ta ry u n it in successive o rd e rin g ,

the last u n it m a y be u nnam ed in speech. I f so, th e n o u n 钱 is also o m itte d . 0

$26.37 1 2

$ 8 .2 0 $ 0.54

2.4



VS.

二十六块三毛七(分 ) 八 块 二 (毛 ) 五 毛 四 (分 )

两 :In a s trin g o f n u m b e rs and u n its th a t in v o lv e s “ tw o ” w e alw ays 二 ,and use e ith e r 两 OI■二 in betw een.

sta rt th e c o u n tin g w ith 两 and end w ith (1 3 )

$

2.20

(1 4 )

$

2.22

两块二毛 两块二 i 二

or

两块两毛二

333

Lesson 36

(1 5 )

$

222.22

两百二十二块两毛二

or

两百二十二块二毛二

(1 6 )

$ 2,222.20

两千二百二十二块二

〇r

两千两百二十二块二

There is h o w e v e r o n ly one w a y o f sa yin g th e n u m b e r “ tw e n ty -tw o ,” n a m e ly “二十

二 •” H ence, in (15) and (1 6 ),a th ird v a ria tio n is n o t possible. 2.5

T h e use o f ^

$

10.50

)/ \

$

10.05

$

108.05

\ —/

3.20

1/ \

3 zl \

$

2

n/ \

-

$

1

V 2 -

\ —/

-

0

-2

$

9

/\

)/ \

-

$

L

8

)/ \

1

7

/\— /2 : 2 ;

ling uzero” in c o u n tin g m oney: 100.50 100.05 3.02

一百块零五毛 一百块零五分 三块零二分 三块二 十块零五毛 十块零五分 一百零八块零五分

Each tim e a u n it o r a d ig it is s k ip p e d , 零 has to be in se rte d to in d ic a te a gap in th e figure. H o w e v e r, w h e n tw o om ission s o ccu r in a ro w , as in (18) and (22), o n ly one

零 is needed. 2.6

T h e w o rd

半 òá/2 “ h a lf” m ạ y o ccu r in a m o n e ta ry expression. A d o lla r f i f t y

may be e ith e r 一 块 五 (毛 (钱 ) ) o r — 块 半 (钱 )• S im ila rly , fifte e n cents m a y be either 一 毛 五 (分 ) o r ~^^毛 半 ;i t is, h o w e v e r, n e v e r * 十 五 分 . W ith o th e r m ea­

半 m a y stand in th e in itia l p o s itio n in a “ N u m e ra l + M e a s u re ” e x ­ 半 个 / j 、时 x iá o s /}/ “ h a lf an h o u r•” W ith m o n e ta ry term s, however , 半 n e v e r occupies th e in itia l p o s itio n . T h e re fo re , “ h a lf a d o lla r” is 五毛钱 and never * 半 块 钱 • In B e ijin g , 半 is n o t p re fe rre d in c o u n tin g m oney. H ence, 一 块五 “ a d o lla r f i f t y ” sounds m o re id io m a tic th a n — 块 半 •

sure w o rd s,

pression, as in

2.7

T h e q u e stio n w o rd fo r a s k in g fo r a p rice is 多少钱 duỏshao qián. I f w e w is h

to be sp e cific a b o u t th e co st p e r ite m , w e m a y p u t “一 +

M e a s u re " e ith e r b e fo re o r

after th e cost. T h e fo llo w in g are a fe w exam ples o f th e use o f m o n e ta ry te rm s in various b u y in g and s e llin g scenarios. ( 2 4 ) 这种帽子六块两毛五一顶。您 要 四 顶 ,一共二十五块钱。 Z hé

zh o n g

m áo zi liù k u à i liả n g m á o w ủ

y ìd ĩn g . N ín

yà o

sìd ĩng ,

y íg ò n g è rs h iw ủ k u à i. T h e se hats are s ix tw e n ty -fiv e each. Y o u w a n t fo u r o f th em . T h e to ta l is tw e n ty -fiv e d ollars.

334

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 2 5 ) 这种自行车一辆多少钱?我 买 两 辆 ,可以便宜一点儿吗? Z hé zh o n g z ix ín g c h ě y ílià n g duỏshaoqián? w ỏ m ă i liâ n g lià n g , k ẽ y ĩ p iá n y i y ìd iả n r ma? H o w m u c h do these b icycle s cost? I f I b u y tw o , can it be a ny cheaper? (2 6 )

A : 十个信 封 一 块 五 ,五套明信片六块二。一共 是 七 块 七 。您给了我七

块 钱 ,还 差 七 毛 钱 / S híge x ìn íẽ n g y ík u à i w ủ , w ủ tà o m ín g x ìn p ià n liù k u à i èr. Y íg ò n g shì q ĩk u à i qĩ. N ín g ẽile w ỏ q ĩk u à i q iá n, h á i chà q ĩm á o qián. T e n envelopes are a d o lla r f if t y , fiv e sets o f p ostca rd s are six tw e n ty . T h e to ta l is seven seventy. Y o u gave m e seven d ollars, and i t is s till se ve n ty cents sh ort. B : 对 不 起 ,我 没 零 钱 了 。我 给 你 一 块 钱 ,好 吗 ? D u ì b u q ĩ, w ỏ m é i lín g q iá n le. w ỏ gẽi n ĩ y ík u à i qián, hăo ma? S o rry , I d o n Jt have a n y sm a ll change. W ill it be a lr ig h t i f I g ive y o u a d o llar? A : 没 关 系 。我找您三毛钱。

M é i g u á n x i. w ỏ zhao n ín sãnm áo qián. N o p ro b le m , (2 7 )

ril

g iv e y o u t h ir t y cents as y o u r change.

— 张 京 剧 票 十 五 块 五 ,一张电影票也是十五块五。京剧票不比电影票 贵。 Y iz h a n g jīn g jii p ià o s h íw u k u á i w ủ , y iz h a n g d ià n y ĩn g pià o yẽ shì s h íw u k u á i w ủ . J īn g jii p ià o b ù b ĩ d ià n y ĩn g p ià o guì. B e ijin g O p era tic k e ts are fifte e n f i f t y each and m o v ie tic k e ts are also fifte e n f i f t y each. O p era tic k e ts are n o t a n y m o re expensive th a n m o v ie tic k e ts .

( 2 8 ) 你 们 那 儿 东 西 太 贵 了 。喝 一 杯 咖 啡 要 三 块 钱 ,坐一 次 车 要 两 块 五 毛 。

有机会你来我们这儿看看,这儿东西便宜。 N ĩm e n n à r d õ n g x i tà i g u ì le. H ẽ y ìb ẽ i k ā fē i yào sá n ku à i q iá n, zuò y íc ì chẽ yà o liă n g k u à i w ủ m á o . Y ỏ u jīh u i n ĩ là i w o m e n zh è r kà nka n, zh è r d õ n g x i p iá n y i. T h in g s are to o e xpe nsive w h e re y o u are. I t costs th re e d o lla rs to have a cup o f co ffe e and tw o f i f t y to rid e a bus. W h e n th e re is a chance, y o u s h o u ld com e to o u r place and ta k e a lo o k . T h in g s are cheaper here.

4

Lesson 37

1.

Degrees of Comparison (continued )

1.1

1.1.1

T h e Id e n tic a l D egree: A = B

T o in d ic a te th a t tw o th in g s are id e n tic a l, th e fo llo w in g p a tte rn is used:

A



B —样

A is th e same as B.

The n e g a tive and th e in te rro g a tiv e p a tte rn s are as fo llo w s :

The p re d ica te is c o n s titu te d o f o n ly one w o rd : 一 # yíyàng. L ite r a lly m e a n in g uth e same,” 一样 re q u ire s m o re th a n one e n tity as its s u b je c t T h e s u b je c t c o u ld be in the form o f

“A 跟 B”

o r it can s im p ly be a p lu ra l n o u n phrase. In th e la tte r case , 都

needs to appear b e fo re — # (1 )

to u nd erscore th e p lu ra lity . 1

这本书跟那本书一样。 Z hè bẽn shủ gẽn nà bẽn shủ y íyà n g . T h is b o o k and th a t one are th e same.

336

A Practical Chinese Grammar



这些书都一样。 Z hè x iẽ shũ d õ u y íy à n g . T h e se b o o k s are a ll th e same.



他们用的书都一样。 T ả m e n y ò n g de shủ d ỏu y íy à n g . T h e b o o k s th e y use are a ll th e same.



古波穿了棉祆就跟中国人一样。 G ủ b ỏ chuā nle m iá n ^ o jiù gẽn Z h o n g g u ó ré n y íy à n g . W h e n G u b o p uts on a C hinese ja c k e t, he lo o k s ju s t lik e a C hinese.

(5 )

你这件毛衣跟我上次买的那件一样,都 是 灰 的 。

ļ

N ĩ zhè jià n m á o y ĩ gẽn w ỏ shàng cì m á i de nà jià n y íy à n g , d ò u shì h u ĩ de. Y o u r sw e a te r is s im ila r to th e one I b o u g h t la s t tim e . T h e y are b o th



g re y in co lo r. || In sentence (5), th e id e n tic a l fe a tu re , n a m e ly th e c o lo r “ g re y ,” is n o te d in th e second ř



clause. A n o th e r w a y o f s p e c ify in g th e id e n tic a l fe a tu re is to place i t as th e second su b je ct im m e d ia te ly b e fo re th e pre dica te. T h e fo llo w in g are som e exam ples.

(6 )

这两个碗大小厚薄都一样,但是价钱不一样。 Z hè liả n g g e w á n d à x iả o h ò u bá o d õu y íy à n g , dànshì jiá q iá n bù

>

y íy à n g . T he se tw o b o w ls are th e same in size and th ickn e ss, b u t th e ir prices

I ■

are d iffe re n t. (7 )

这两件雨衣一样不一样?大 小 长 短 都 一 样 ,但 是 颜 色 不 一 样 。一 件 是 % 蓝 的 ,一 件 是 绿 的 。 Z hé

lia n g jiá n

yùyĩ

y íy à n g



yíyà ng ?

D à x iả o

ch á n g d u ả n

dỏu

I

y íy à n g , dànshì yánsè b ù y íy à n g . Y íjiá n shì lán de, y íjiá n shi lù de. A r e these tw o ra in c o a ts th e same? T h e y are id e n tic a l in size and le n g th , b u t n o t so in co lo r. O ne is b lu e and one is green. (8 )

我想买一辆跟你那辆颜色一样的汽车,可是我不想花太多钱。

wỏ x iă n g

m ả i y ílià n g gẽn n ĩ nà lià n g yánsè y íy à n g de qìchẽ, kẽshì



w õ bù x iă n g huã tà i d u ỏ qián. I w a n t to b u y a ca r th a t is e x a c tly lik e y o u rs in c o lo r, and y e t I d o n ’t w a n t to spend to o m u c h m o n e y o n it.

I

337

Lesson 37

(9 )

有人说男人结婚以前跟结婚以后很不一样。你 说 呢 ? Y õ u ré n shuõ n á n ré n jié h ủ n y ĩq iá n gẽn jié h ủ n y ĩh ò u hẽn bù yíy à n g . N ĩ shuò ne? I t is said th a t m en, a fte r m a rria g e , are q u ite d iffe re n t fro m w h a t th e y used to be b e fo re m a rria g e . W h a t do y o u say?

1.1.2

A n o th e r w a y o f s ta tin g th e fe a tu re o r q u a lity th a t th e ite m s share is to a d o p t

the fo llo w in g p a tte rn , p la c in g th e p e rtin e n t a d je c tiv e a fte r ~ 1样 .

s艮 B

P o s itiv e : A

—样

A d je c tiv e

( 1 0 ) 他跟我一样忙。 T ā gẽn w ỏ y íy à n g m áng. H e is ju s t as b u sy as I am. ( 1 1 ) 很长时间没见了。你还跟以前一样年轻。 H ẽ n ch án g s h ijiā n m é i jià n le. N ĩ h ái gẽn y ĩq iá n y íy à n g n iá n q ĩn g . I h a v e n ^ seen y o u fo r a lo n g tim e , b u t y o u s till lo o k ju s t as y o u n g as before.

哪 聊

The n e g a tive and in te rro g a tiv e p a tte rn s are:

A

不跟

B

—样

A d je c tiv e

A



B

不一样

A d je c tiv e

……吗? A



B

—样不一样

A d je c tiv e ?

( 1 2 ) 你的毛衣跟我的毛衣不一样大,也不 一 样 长 。 N ĩ de m á o y ĩ gẽn w õ de m á o y ĩ b ù y íy à n g dà, yẽ bù y íy à n g cháng. Y o u r sw e a te r and m in e are n o t th e same size o r len g th . ( 1 3 ) 我朋友跟我不一样高,可是跟我一样胖。 W õ p é n g y o u gẽn w ỏ bù y íy à n g gāo, k ē s h i gēn w ỏ y íy à n g pàng. M y frie n d and I are n o t th e same h e ig h t, b u t he is ju s t as p lu m p as I am.

338

A Practical Chinese Grammar

L

( 1 4 ) 陈先生跟陈太太年纪一样大吗?不 ,陈太太比陈先生大两岁。 C hé n x iã n s h e n g gẽn C hé n tà ita i n iá n ji y íy à n g dà ma? B ù, C hén tà ita i b ĩ C hé n x iá n s h e n g dà liản gsu ì. A re M r. and M rs . C he n th e same age? N o , M rs . C he n is o ld e r than M r. C he n b y tw o years. ( 1 5 ) 你 看 ,这束用布作的花儿跟真花儿一样好看。 N ĩ kà n, zhè shù y ò n g b ù zuò de h u ā r gẽn zhẽn h u ã r y íy à n g hăokàn. L o o k , th is b u n c h o f flo w e rs m ade o f c lo th lo o k s ju s t as p re tty as real flo w e rs .

W h a t is th e d is tin c tio n b e tw e e n th e id e n tic a l degree ( A

跟 B — 样 A d je c tiv e ) and 有 B 那么 A d je c tiv e )? I

th e e q u a lin g degree in tro d u c e d in th e p re v io u s lesson ( A

T h e tw o p a tte rn s are v e ry close in m e a n in g and m a y o fte n be tra n s la te d th e same w a y in E n g lis h . H o w e v e r, w h ile th e e q u a lin g degree im p lie s th a t th e B e le m e n t is

i

used as th e sta nd ard a g a in st w h ic h th e A e le m e n t is m easured, th e re is no such pre­ set sta nd ard in th e id e n tic a l degree co m p arison . T h e re fo re , in th e fo llo w in g sentence, “ 我 ”

is p u t in co m p a ris o n w ith

“ 他”

and equals th e la tte r in s o fa r as h e ig h t is

concerned. ( 1 6 ) 我有他 那 么 高 。 W o y o u tā nam e gāo. I am ju s t as ta ll as he is.

O n th e o th e r hand, as th e id e n tic a l degree is m o re n e u tra l in th is re g a rd and does n o t sp e c ify th a t A o r B is pre-set as th e sta nd ard , th e fo llo w in g sentence is s im p ly sa yin g th a t th e tw o are e q u a lly ta ll. ( 1 7 ) 我跟他一样高。 W o gēn tā y íy à n g gāo. H e and I are th e same h e ig h t.

1.1.3

T h e id e n tic a l degree c o n s tru c tio n can, again, appear w ith ve rb s and also in

the c o m p le m e n t sentence.

A



B

—样

V e rb

»

339

Lesson 37

A V e rb — O b je c t V e rb —得 跟

—样 C o m p le m e n t

B

跟 B V e r b —得一样 C o m p le m e n t

A V e rb — O b je c t

( 1 8 ) 我跟以前一样爱你。

wỏ

gẽn y ĩq iá n y íy à n g ài nỉ.

I lo v e y o u ju s t th e same as before. ( 1 9 ) 他说汉语说得跟中国人一样好。 T ā shuõ H à n y ủ shuỏ de gẽn Z h o n g g u ó rén y íy à n g hăo. H e speaks C hinese as w e ll as a C hinese person. ( 2 0 ) 白先生已经七十多岁了,可是他骑自行车骑得跟年轻人一样快。 B á i xiã n sh e n g y ijin g q ĩs h id u ỏ s u ì le, kẽshì tá qí z ix ín g c h ě qí de gen n iá n q ln g ré n y íy à n g ku ài. M r. B a i is o v e r se ven ty years o ld , b u t he s till rid es a b ik e as fa s t as a yo u n g ste r. ( 2 1 ) 我的工作跟小王一样忙,可是我们挣钱挣得不一样多。

wỏ

de g ó n g zu ó gèn X iả o W á n g y íy à n g m áng, kẽshì w o m e n zhéng

q iá n zhéng de b ù y íy à n g duõ. M y w o r k is ju s t as b u sy as L it tle W a n g s, b u t w e don t earn the same a m o u n t o f m oney.

1.2

A ll c o m p a ra tiv e expressions, in c lu d in g th e ones in tro d u c e d in the last lesson,

can appear as m o d ifie rs as illu s tra te d in th e fo llo w in g sentences. ( 2 2 ) 我 要 买 一 辆 [ 跟你那辆一样 ]

wỏ

yà o m ả i y ílià n g

的自行车。

[ gēn n ĩ nà lià n g y íy à n g ]

de z ixín g ch e .

I w a n t to b u y a b ic y c le th a t is id e n tic a l to yours. ( 2 3 ) 我 要 买 一 辆 [ 跟你那辆一样好 ]

wỏ

yà o m ả i y ílià n g

的自 行 车 。

[ gẽn n ĩ nà lià n g y íy à n g hào ]

de zixín gch ě.

I w a n t to b u y a b ic y c le th a t is ju s t as goo d as yours. ( 2 4 ) 我 要 买 一 辆 [ 比你那辆更好]

wỏ

yào m ả i y ílià n g

的自行车。

[ b ĩ n ĩ nà lià n g gèng hảo ]

de zìxín g chẻ .

I w a n t to b u y a b ic y c le th a t is even b e tte r th a n yours. ( 2 5 ) 我 要 买 一 辆 [ 没有你那辆那么贵 ]

wỏ

yà o m ả i y ílià n g

的自行车。

[ m é iy o u n ĩ nà lià n g nàm e g uì ]

de zixín gch é.

I w a n t to b u y a b ic y c le th a t is n o t as expensive as yours.

340

A Practical Chinese Grammar

2.

The Quantity Complement

2.1

In a co m p a ris o n c o n s tru c tio n , th e e xa ct d iffe re n c e b etw e e n tw o elem ents m ay

be sp ecified in th e sentence. I t u s u a lly appears in th e fo rm o f a n u m e ra l—m easure co m p le m e n t placed a t th e end o f th e predicate.

A

(1 )

比 B

A d je c tiv e Q u a n tity

他比我小三岁。 T ā b ĩ w ỏ x iă o sãnsuì. H e is y o u n g e r th a n I b y th re e years.

(2 )

这个班比那个班多五 个 学 生 。 Z hè ge bāri b ĩ nà ge bān d uõ w ủ g e xuésheng. T h is class has fiv e stu de nts m ore th a n th a t class.

(3 )

这件衬衫比你穿的大一号。 Zhè jià n chènshãn b ĩ n ĩ chuăn de dà yíhào. T h is s h irt is la rg e r th a n th e one y o u are w e a rin g b y one size.

(4 )

航空信比平信贵多 少 钱 ? H á n g k õ n g x ìn b ĩ p ín g x ìn g u ì duõshao qián? H o w m u c h m o re expensive is a irm a il th a n surface m ail?

(5 )

为什么你的表比我们的都快三个小时?你一定还在用纽约的时间。 W é ishé nm e n ĩ de biă o b ĩ w o m e n de d õu k u à i sãnge xiảoshí? N ĩ yíd ìn g h ái zài y ò n g N iủ y u ẽ de s h ijiā n . W h y is i t th a t y o u r w a tc h is th re e h ou rs ahead o f ours? Y o u m ust be s till on N e w Y o r k tim e.

2.2

T h e d iffe re n c e b etw e e n tw o ite m s u n d e r co m p a ris o n m a y be phrased in im ­

p re ssio n istic o r im p re cise term s. T h e y m a y be v e ry d iffe re n t o r ju s t s lig h tly d issim i­ lar. T o express such a ro u g h e s tim a tio n , w e m a y use th e fo llo w in g p atterns:

( A ) “ a little b it m o re so” :

... A d je c tiv e +

—点儿

or

... A d je c tiv e +

一些

341

Lesson 37

(6 )

这张桌子比那张大一些。 Z he zhāng zh uo zi b ĩ nà zhāng dà y ìx iè . T h is ta b le is a little b ig g e r th a n th a t one.

(7 )

这课比那课难一点儿。 Z hè kè b ĩ nà kè nán y ìd iă n r. T h is lesson is a little h a rd e r th a n th a t one.

(8 )

我这件蓝衣服比你那件旧一点儿,料子也没有你的好。 w ỏ zhè jiá n lá n y lfu b ĩ n ĩ nà jià n jiù y ìd iả n r, liá o z i yẽ m é iy o u n ĩ de hảo. T h is b lu e g a rm e n t o f m in e is a b it o ld e r th a n ( th a t one o f) yours. T h e m a te ria l is n o t as g oo d as y o u rs e ither.

(B) “ m u ch m ore so” :

得多

or

…A d je c tiv e +

多了

i

…A d je c tiv e +



ỉr ĩlr (9 )

他比我年轻得多。 T ā b ĩ w ỏ n iá n q ln g de duỏ. H e is m u c h y o u n g e r th a n I.

( 1 0 ) 真 奇 怪 ,我跟他吃得一样多,可是我比他胖多了。 Z hẽ n q íg u à i, w ỏ gēn tā c h ī de y íy à n g duõ, kẽshì w ỏ b ĩ tá pàng duõ le. I ť s re a lly strange. I eat ju s t as m u c h as he does, b u t I am m u c h fa t­ te r th a n he. (1 1 )

A : 好 久 不 见 ,你比以前瘦一点儿。 H ả o jiủ bú jià n , n ĩ b ĩ y íq iá n shòu y ìd iă n r. H a v e n ’t seen y o u fo r a lo n g tim e. Y o u lo o k a little b it th in n e r th a n before. B : 是 吗 ?你还跟五年以前一样年轻。 S hì ma? N ĩ h á i gèn w ủ n iậ n y ĩq iá n y íy à n g n iá n q in g . Is th a t rig h t? Y o u s till lo o k ju s t as y o u n g as fiv e years ago. A : 哪s

,我比以前老多了。

N ả li, w ỏ b ĩ y ĩq iá n lảo d u ỏ le. N o t re a lly . I lo o k m u c h o ld e r th a n before.

342

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 12 )

你定作的那件棉祆比我这件漂亮一些,料子也比我的好得多。 N ĩ d in g zuò de nà jià n m ián^ảo b ĩ w õ zhè jià n p ià o ỉia n g y ìx iẽ , liá o z i yẽ b ĩ w ỏ de hăo de duõ. T h e C hinese ja c k e t y o u have had custom -m ade is (a little b it) p re t­ tie r th a n m in e, and the m a te ria l is a lo t b e tte r too.

2.3

T h e q u a n tity c o m p le m e n t m a y also be used in c o n ju n c tio n w ith th e Í # — p a t­

te rn set in a c o m p a ra tiv e m ode. T h e q u a n tity s p e c ific a tio n fo llo w s th e ^ — express­ ion, d e sc rib in g th e d iffe re n c e in degree b etw e e n achievem ents.

比 B

A

(13 )

V e rb —得

C o m p le m e n t

_

W o b ĩ n ĩ pảo de k u à i de duõ.

L

m\

I ra n m u c h fa s te r th a n y o u did. (1 4 )

IK

你笑得比我好看一点儿。 N ĩ x ià o de b ĩ w ó h ă o k à n y ìd iă n r.

| i Ķ

Q u a n tity

我比你跑得快得多。



II F

+

Y o u s m ile m o re c h a rm in g ly th a n I. s !

(15)

他考试考得比你好多了。 T ā k ả o shì kă o de b ĩ n ĩ hăo d uõ le. H e does m u c h b e tte r th a n y o u o n exams.

H o w e v e r, w h e n 多 c/uõ ,少 s A á o , 早

and 晚

appear in a c o m p a ris o n construe-

tio n w ith a q u a n tity c o m p le m e n t, th e w o rd o rd e r does n o t fo llo w th e usual p attern. In ste ad o f fu n c tio n in g as co m p le m en ts, these fo u r w o rd s o c c u r b e fo re th e verb, se rvin g as a d v e rb ia l m o d ifie rs .

T ā b ĩ w o zao lá i s h ifē n zhong. H e came te n m in u te s e a rlie r th a n I.

Qu

.an

y

( 1 6 ) 他比我早来十分钟。

+

e

+

Vi

b

b

I 多少早晚

+

B



A

Ad

343

Lesson 37

( 1 7 ) 你 先 走 吧 ,我想晚走十分钟。 N ĩ x iã n zồu ba, w õ x iă n g w a n zõu s h ífě n zhóng. Y o u go firs t, I w a n t to leave te n m in u te s la te r (th a n planned). ( 1 8 ) 我比你多买了三本书。

wỏ b ĩ

n ĩ d uõ m ă ile sãnbẽn shủ.

I b o u g h t th re e m o re b o o ks th a n you. ( 1 9 ) 他比我少回答了一个问题。 T ā b ĩ w õ shảo h u íd á le yíg e w è n tí. H e answ ere d one less q ue stio n th a n I. ( 2 0 ) 他少买了一张电影票,我 不 去 了 。 T ā sháo m a ile y iz h a n g d ià n y ĩn g p ià o, w õ b ú qù le. H e b o u g h t one tic k e t less th a n needed. T m n o t g oing. ( 2 1 ) 骑 车 比 走 路 快 ,所以他比你早到了十五分钟。 Q ĩ chẽ b ĩ zỏu lù k u à i, s u ỏ y ĩ tá b ĩ n ĩ zăo dàole s h íw u fě n zhõng. R id in g a b ik e is fa s te r th a n w a lk in g . So he a rriv e d fifte e n m in u te s e a rlie r th a n you. ( 2 2 ) 在 我 们 学 校 ,外国学生跟美国学生交钱交得不一样多。外国学生要比

美国学生多交两千八百块钱。 Z a i w o m e n xu é xià o , w á ig u ó xuésheng gẽn M ẽ ig u ó xu ésh en g jiá o q iá n jiā o

de b ù

y íy à n g

duỏ. W á ig u ó

xuésheng

yào b ĩ M ẽ ig u ó

xuésheng d uõ jiā o liă n g q iâ n b ã b ă ik u à i qián. A t o u r school, fo re ig n students do n o t p a y th e same a m o u n t o f fees

as

th e

A m e ric a n

students.

F o re ig n

students

have

to

pay

tw o th o u sa n d and e ig h t h u n d re d d o lla rs m o re th a n th e A m e ric a n s tu ­ dents. In (17) and (20), even th o u g h th e e x p lic it m a rk in g o f 比 is la c k in g , th e sentences nonetheless co n n o te co m p arison . In (2 2 ),th e ve rb 交 is a tra n s itiv e ve rb and takes 钱 as its O b je ct. W h e n set in a c o m p a riso n p a tte rn w ith one o f th e above fo u r adverbs, the O b je ct m u s t be o m itte d , and i t m a y n o t o c c u r in a “ V e rb — O b je c t V e rb — 得 ’’ pattern. H ence, in th e fo llo w in g sentence, b o th ve rb s 睡 and 起 w o u ld have to fo re g o their re g u la r O b je c ts (睡觉 and 起床 )in o rd e r to q u a lify fo r the use o f th e adverbs

晚 and 早 in a co m p a ris o n p a tte rn . ( 2 a a ) 他 每 天 都 比 我 晚 睡 一 个 小 时 ,早 起 一 个 小 时 。你说我每天晚上比他多 S 多少 + 小 时 ? T ã m ẽ i tiā n d õu b ĩ w ỏ w ả n shuì y íg e xiả o sh í, zăo q ĩ y íg e xiảo shí. N ĩ shuõ w õ m ẽ i tiá n w a n sh a n g b ĩ tã d uỏ shuì duõshao ge xiảoshí?

344

A Practical Chinese Grammar

E v e ry d a y he goes to bed la te r th a n I b y one b o u ř and gets u p ear­ lie r b y one h o u r. H o w m a n y m o re h o u rs o f sleep do y o u say I have o v e r h im e v e ry nig ht? (2 3 .b )* 他每天都比我 & 睡i

一 个 小 时 ,早起床一个小时 ,… …

* T ā m ẽ i tiā n d õu b ĩ w ồ w ă n shuì jià o y íg e x iă o s h í, zăo q ĩ chuáng y íg e xiăoshí...

,

3. Compounds of Antonyms W h e n a d je ctive s o f o p p o site q u a litie s are ju x ta p o s e d , th e c o m b in a tio n s fo rm new com p ou nd s th a t re p re sen t g en eral concepts o f m easurem ent.



大dà

+



快k ù a i

+

高gāo

+



长cháng “1 , , lo n g

+

厚h òu

+

肥fé i

矮 ãi

-►

短d uả n 薄báo

+

快慢 k u à im à n ‘‘speed ’ , 高 矮 gāo’ āi “ h e ig h t, s ta tu re ”



•Ř fe ch án gd uă n “ le n g th ”



“ th in ”

“ fa t”



—►

“ s h o rt”

“ th ic k , ,



慢m àn

大 小 d à x iă o “ size”

“ s h o rt”

“ ta ll”



—►

s lo w

"fa s t"



小 x iã o “ s m a ll”

b ig

瘦 shòu — ‘7th in , ,

厚 薄 hòu bá o “ th ic k n e s s ( o f su rfa ces)”

肥瘦 fé is h ó u “ g irth , size o f c lo th e s”

这件蓝的长短合适:,可是太瘦了 ; 这 件 灰 的 肥 痩 合 适 ,可 是 太 长 了 。 这件长短肥瘦都合适,可是我不喜欢这个颜色。 Z hè jià n lán de c h á n g d u ă n héshì, kẽshì tà i shòu le; zhè jià n h u ī de

I

íé is h ò u héshì, kẽ shì tà i cháng le. Zhè jià n c h á n g d u ả n íé is h ò u dou héshì, kẽshì w ỏ bù x ĩh u a n zhè ge yánsè.

_

'

T h is b lu e one is r ig h t in le n g th , b u t it is to o tig h t. T h is g re y one is r ig h t in size, b u t i t is to o lon g. T h is one is r ig h t in b o th size and le n g th , b u t I d o n ’t lik e th e co lo r.

A n to n y m o u s c o m p o u n d in g is n o t a process to be a p p lie d to a n y p a ir o f o pposite w o rd s a t w ill. T h e p ro d u c ts are id io m a tic in n a tu re and need to be lea rn e d one by one. F o r exam ple, a lth o u g h 胖

“ fa t” and 瘦 sAóu “ th in ” are d ire c t o pp osite s of

each o th e r, th e y do n o t p a ir to g e th e r n a tu ra lly to fo rm a n e w c o m p o u n d * 胖瘦

^

345

Lesson 37

m eaning “ w e ig h t.” A n o th e r case is 大小 w h ic h o n ly m eans “ size” even th o u g h b o th

大 and 小 m a y be in d iv id u a lly used to re fe r to age •多少 c/uósAao is used m o s tly as an in te rro g a tiv e w o rd m e a nin g “ h o w m any? h o w m uch?” T h e re are m a n y o th e r examples o f a n to n y m o u s co m p ou nd s, w h ic h are n o t nece ssarily lim ite d to adjectives. Even ve rb s m a y be co m b in e d in lik e m anner. F o r instan ce , 买 m a i “ to b u y ” + 卖 mả/ “ to se ll” —► 买卖 m á im 犯• “ business, tra d e .”

4. The Conjunctive Expression 要不 The c o n ju n c tiv e expressio n 要不 y á o òủ, lite r a lly m e a n in g “ i f n o t,” is o fte n used to join tw o sentences to g e th e r, m a rk in g a sem antic re la tio n s h ip o f “ i f n o t A , th e n B .” (1 )

应 该 写 信 了 。要 不 ,妈妈会很不放心。 Y ĩn g g ả i x iẽ x ìn le; yào bù, m ám a h uì hẽn b ú íà n g x ĩn . It's tim e to w rite hom e. O r else, m o m w ill g e t w o rrie d .

(2 )

可以打电话去问他。要 不 ,你就自己去找他。 K ẽ y ĩ dă d ià n h u à qù w è n tā. Y à o bù, n ĩ jiù z ìjĩ qù zhảo tã. Y o u can ca ll h im o n th e phone. O r else, y o u can go and ask h im (in person).

(3 )

这双袜子一定是蓝的。要 不 ,就 是 黑 的 。 Z hè shuāng w à zi y íd ìn g shì lá n de. Y à o bù, jiù shì hẽi de. T h is p a ir o f socks m u s t be blue. I f n o t, th e y are b la ck.

(4 )

你下午三点一定要到这儿。要 不 ,我 就 走 了 。 N ĩ x ià w ủ sã nd iả n y íd ìn g y à o dào zhèr. Y à o bù, w ỏ jiù zõu le. Y o u have to be here b y th re e in th e a fte rn o o n . I f not,

(5 )

ril be gone.

你一定是不爱我了。要 不 ,你怎么忘了我的生日? N ĩ y íd ìn g shì b ú ài w ỏ le. Y à o bù, n ĩ zenm e w a n g le w ỏ de shẽngri? Y o u m u s t have stopped lo v in g me. O r else, h o w c o u ld y o u have fo r ­ g o tte n m y b irth d a y ?

(6 )

对 不 起 ,您 要 的 袜 子 ,现 在 没 有 了 。您 下 星 期 再 来 看 看 ,好 吗 ?要 不 ,您先打个电话来问问。 , D u ì b u q ĩ, n ín yào de w à zi, xià n z à i m éi y o u le. N ín x ià x ĩn g q ĩ zài lá i kà n k a n , hăo ma? Y à o bù, n ín x iã n dă ge d ià n h u à lá i w én w en . S o rry , th e socks y o u w a n t----- w e d o n ’t have th e m a n y m o re (w e are o u t o f th e m ). W o u ld y o u w a n t to com e b a ck n e x t w e e k and see? O r, y o u can ca ll f ir s t to ask a b o u t it.

346

A Practical Chinese Grammar

5. More on the Use of 还是 A s described in Lesson 19, 还是 A á/shì m a y serve as an a lte rn a tiv e q u e s tio n m a rk e r, in d ic a tin g a se le ctio n b etw e e n tw o o r m o re choices. W h e n used in a sta te m e n t , 还是 underscores a selected ch oice o r a p re fe ra b le su gg estio n in th e sense th a t “ i t ’d be b e tte r to...”

(1 )

^



今 天 太 冷 ,你还是多穿点儿衣服吧。 ,

J īn tiā n tà i lẽn g, n ĩ h á is h ì d uõ ch uâ n d iă n r y ĩfu ba. I t is v e ry c o ld to d a y. Y o u ^ b e tte r p u t on m o re clothes. (2 )

还 是 你 来 吧 。我 在 家 等 你 。 H á is h ì n ĩ lá i ba.

Iťd be b e tte r (3 )

wỏ zài jiā

i f y o u come,

dẽng nĩ.

ril

w a it fo r y o u a t hom e.

定作比买合适多了,还是 定 作 吧 。 D in g z u ó b ĩ m ă i héshì d uõ le, h áishì d in g z u ó ba. O ne th a t is m ade to o rd e r w ill f i t m u c h b e tte r th a n one th a t is

I

b o u g h t. Y o u ’d b e tte r have one made. (4 )

A : 你想给你儿子买一辆什么车?买日本车还是买美国车?

P

N ĩ x iả n g g ẽi n ĩ é rzĩ m á i y ílià n g shénm e chẽ? M ả i R ìb ẽ n chẽ h á ish ì m ă i M ẽ ig u ó chẽ? W h a t k in d o f a ca r do y o u w a n t to g et fo r y o u r son? D o you w a n t to b u y a Japanese c a r o r an A m e ric a n car? B : 给 年 轻 人 买 车 ,g 是别买太好的车。 G ẽ i n iá n q ĩn g ré n m ă i chẽ, h á is h ì b ié m ă i tà i h ảo de chẽ. B u y in g a ca r fo r a y o u n g s te r ----- i t ’s b e tte r n o t to b u y to o good a car. (5 )

我 看 了 很 久 ,我想还是买红的好。我穿红的比较好看。

wỏ k à n le

hẽn jiủ ,w ỏ x iă n g háishì m ă i h ó n g de hảo.

wỏ ch u ã n

hóng

de b ĩjià o h ăokàn. T ve lo o k e d fo r a lo n g tim e . I th in k r d b e tte r b u y th e red one. I look b e tte r in red.

T h e re are tw o cases o f

in sentence (4), th e fir s t m a rk in g a ch oice ty p e ques­

tio n and the second a d e cisio n th a t is m ade a fte r som e d e lib e ra tio n . T h e re is s till a n o th e r use o f 还 是 ,w h ic h is to in d ic a te “ s till th e case,” as in th e fo llo w in g sen­ tence.



347

Lesson 37

(6 )

我们已经分开很久了,但是我还是跟以前一样爱你。 W o m e n y ijin g fē n k ā i hen jiu le, dàn shì w o h á is h ì gẽn y ĩq iá n y íy à n g ài nĩ. W e V e been separated fo r a lo n g tim e b u t I s till lo v e y o u the same w a y as before.

The fo llo w in g sentence illu s tra te s a c o m b in a tio n o f a ll th re e uses o f 还 是 . (7 )

我 上 哪 个 学 校 好 呢 ?上 B e r k e l e y 还 是 上 H a rv a rd ? 我 很 想 上 H a r v a r d ,因 为 这 个 学 校 比 B e r k e le y 更 有 名 。我 爸 爸 说 B e r k e le y 比 较 便 宜 ,还 是 上 B e r k e l e y 吧 。我 想 了 很 久 ,我 还 是 要 去 H a r v a r d 。 我女 朋 友 在 B o s to n 那 儿 工 作 。 W õ shàng nă ge x u é x ià o hăo ne? S hàng B e rk e le y h áishì shàng H a r ­ vard?

wỏ hẽn

x iă n g shàng H a rv a rd , y ĩn w è i zhè ge x u é x ià o b ĩ B e r­

k e le y gèng y õ u m ín g . W õ bàba shuõ B e rk e le y b ījia o p iá n y i, háishì shàng B e rk e le y ba. W õ x iă n g le hẽn jiủ , w ỏ h áishì yào qù H a rv a rd .

wỏ de

n ủ p é n g yo u zài B o sto n n à r gõngzuò.

W h ic h sch oo l sh o u ld I go to? B e rk e le y o r H a rv a rd ? I re a lly w a n t to go to H a rv a rd , because i t is even m ore fa m o us th a n B e rk e le y . M y fa th e r said th a t since B e rk e le y is cheaper, i t ’d be b e tte r to go there. I ’ve th o u g h t a b o u t i t fo r a lo n g tim e , and I s till in s is t on g o in g to H a rv a rd . M y g ir l frie n d w o rk s in B oston.

6. The Sequential Use of 上 and 下 6.1

W e have le a rn e d in an e a rlie r lesson th a t JLsháng and T x i à m a y be used to

indicate “ la s t” and “ n e x t,” as in 上个月 s/ĩá/1容尽e y u ẻ “ la s t m o n th ” and 下个星期 Xiá ge xĩngqĩ ť 会 (to be a b le ),看 见 ( to s e e ) ,听 见 ( to hear) Others:

访 问 ( to v isit),欢 迎 (to welcome)

1.5 The 把 —construction is one of the most difficult grammatical features in the Chinese language. In fact, 把 and T are two linguistic phenomena that seem to

mmmwm .

Lesson 46

461

< I defy a n y a tte m p t o f syste m a tic c h a ra cte riza tio n . T h e y c o n tin u e to b e w ild e r scholars I and lan gu ag e stu d e n ts w ith a p le n tifu l s u p p ly o f m u ltifa rio u s b e h a v io ra l p atterns I and a nom alous exam ples. W e w ill le a rn m o re a b o u t th e c o m p le x ity o f th e 把 一cons

struction in th e fu tu re , b u t fo r th e tim e b e in g please re m em be r

(a) S e m a n tic a lly , th e c o n s tru c tio n in d ica te s “ d isp o sa l, ” and (b ) S y n ta c tic a lly : ( i) th e O b je c t n o u n has to be d e fin ite in reference, ( ii) th e V e rb a l c o m p le x sh o u ld such as

T

co n ta in one e x tra elem ent,

, a co m p le m e n t, etc.

We shall co n clu d e th is se ctio n on 把 w ith a fe w m o re exam ples:

( 3 7 ) 母 亲 对 孩 子 说 , “ 只 有 你 把 练 习 作 完 ,我才会带你去动物园。要 不 ,

你只能留在家里 。 ” M ủ q ĩn d u i h á izi shuõ, “ Z h ĩ y õ u n ĩ bă lià n x í zu ów án ,

cái h u ỉ dài

n ĩ q ù d ò n g w ù y u á n . Y à o bù, n ĩ z h ĩ néng liú zài j iã li .>, T h e m o th e r said to th e c h ild , ť*O n ly w h e n y o u have fin is h e d y o u r exercises w ill I ta k e y o u to th e zoo. O th e rw is e , y o u w ill have to stay hom e.” ( 3 8 ) 大 夫 小 声 地 对 护 士 说 , “ 请你立刻把这瓶药送到二〇一 号 病 房 去 ,把

我刚给病人的药拿回来 。 ” D à iíu xiă o sh ẽ n g de d uì h ù sh ì shuỗ, uQ ĩn g n ĩ lik e bả zhè p in g yào sòng dào è rlín g y ĩh à o b in g fá n g qù, bă w ỏ găng gẽi b ìn g ré n de yào n á h u íỉá i. T h e d o c to r said to th e nurse in a lo w voice, ^Please ta ke th is b o ttle o f m e d icin e to W a rd 201 im m e d ia te ly and b rin g b a ck th e m ed icin e th a t I ju s t gave to th e p a tie n t.” ( 3 9 ) 请先把窗户关上。等我把衣服穿好再开开。 Q ĩn g x iâ n bă ch u ā n g h u guānshang. D ẽ n g w ỏ bả y ĩfu chuã nh ăo zài k ā ik ā i. Please close th e w in d o w fo r n o w . W a it t i l l I have p u t on m y clothes and th e n y o u can open it. ( 4 0 ) 等你把这课的录音听完以后,就应该把录音机还回录音室去。 D ẽ n g n ĩ bă zhè kè de lù y ĩn tm g w á n y ĩh ò u , jiù y ĩn g g ã i bả lū y īn jī h u á n h u í lù y ĩn s h ì qù. W h e n y o u have fin is h e d lis te n in g to th e re c o rd in g o f th is lesson, y o u sh o u ld re tu rn th e ta pe re co rd e r to th e re c o rd in g room .

462

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 4 1 ) 古 波 住 院 了 。帕 兰 卡 来 电 话 说 , “ 你觉 得 怎 么 样 ?我已经把你的情况

告 老 师 了 。请 放 心 。我明天会把你的汉字练习本带来 。 ” G ủ b õ zhù yu à n le. P à lá n kă lá i d ià n h u à shuỏ, uNì ju é d e zenmeyáng? W o y ijln g bă n ĩ de q ín g k u à n g gàosu W á n g lă o s h ĩ le . Q ĩn g fà n g xĩn.

wỏ m ín g tiã n

h u ì bă n ĩ de H à n z ì lià n x íb ẽ n d à ilá i .>,

G u b o w as h o s p ita lize d . P a la n ka ca lle d and said, “ H o w

are you

doing? I have a lre a d y e x p la in e d to T e a c h e r W a n g a b o u t y o u r situa­ tio n . D o n ’t w o rry . I w ill b rin g y o u th e ch a ra c te r exercise book to m o rro w .”

2. 上 as a Resultative Complement A s discussed in a p re v io u s lesson, th e m o tio n ve rb _h shàng ťťto a sce n ď ,m a y fu nc­ tio n as a d ire c tio n a l co m p le m e n t, as in (1). (1 )

别让小孩儿爬上树上去玩儿。 B ié rà n g x iă o h á ir páshàng shùshang qù w á n r. D o n ’t le t th e k id s c ra w l up th e trees and p la y.

上 m a y also serve as a re s u lta tiv e c o m p le m e n t w ith th e g en eral m e a n in g o f “ returnin g s o m e th in g to th e p o s itio n w h e re i t n o rm a lly is” o r “ b rin g in g th in g s to g e th e r.” (2 )

请把门关上。 Q ĩn g bă m én guảnshàng. Please close th e door.

(3 )

收 音 机 ,我 们 现 在 不 听 ,请 关 上 吧 。 o h o u y in ji, w o m e n x ia n z a i bu tin g , q in g g uā nsh an g ba. W e are n o t lis te n in g to th e ra d io . Please tu rn i t o ff.

In sentence (2) w h e re th e m a in v e rb is 关 “ to close,” th e c o m p le m e n t 上 specifies the re s u lt o f re tu rn in g th e d o o r to its n o rm a l s h u t p o s itio n , m a k in g th e d o o r and the fra m e m eet. Y o u m a y re c a ll th a t th e e xpressio n fo r “ to ope n” a d o o r is 开 开 ,where th e second

开 serves as a c o m p le m e n t m a rk in g th e m o v in g a w a y (o r b e in g m oved

a w a y ) fro m th e o rig in a l p o s itio n . T h e presence o f 上 in sentence (3) m a y be s im ila rly accou nte d fo r. U n t il one presses th e b u tto n o r tu rn s th e k n o b , a ra d io is a s ile n t sound b ox. T h u s , th e action o f tu rn in g o ff th e b ro a d c a s tin g is to b rin g th e ra d io b a ck to its n o rm a l soundless state. H ence, th e use o f 上 as th e re s u lta tiv e co m p le m en t.



463

Lesson 46

ị B o th sentences (2) and (3) c o n ta in th e ve rb 关 and, i f based on th is association alone, i t w o u ld be q u ite easy and lo g ic a l to co nstrue 上 as an re s u lta tiv e com plement m a rk in g th e success o f “ s h u ttin g ” o r “ tu rn in g o ff.” H o w e v e r, w h e n o th e r sent、 ences such as (4) to (6) are ta k e n in to co n sid e ra tio n , th e fu n c tio n o f

上 becomes

Ị apparent: i t h ig h lig h ts th e success o f b rin g in g so m e th in g to a p o s itio n o r state where i t sh o u ld be.

(4 ) s

外边儿有点儿冷,你还是穿上这件毛衣吧。 W á ib ia n r y o u d iă n r lẽng, ní h áishì ch uãnshàng zhè jià n m á o y ĩ ba. I t ’s a b it c o ld o utsid e, Y o u ’d b e tte r p u t on th is sw eater.

(5 )

我们说的话你都录上了没有? W o m e n shuõ de huà n ĩ d ỏu lù sh à n g le m éiyou? H as e v e ry th in g w e said been recorded?

(6 )

请你在这儿写上你的名字。 Q ĩn g n ĩ zài zhèr xiẽ sh à n g n ĩ de m íng zi. Please w rite y o u r nam e here.

In sentence (4), clothe s are m ade to be w o rn ; 穿 is th e a c tio n th a t b rin g s clothe s to the body, and _h m a rk s th e resu lt. In sentence (5), th e purpose o f 录音 is to b rin g sounds in to th e re c o rd in g m a ch in e and _h in d ica te s th e success. In sentence (6 ) , 写

上emphasizes th e a tta c h m e n t o f w o rd s to p ap er th ro u g h th e a c tio n o f w ritin g . In a ll three exam ples, w e see th e presence o f 上 in a ssociation w ith th e sem antic n o tio n of “ b rin g in g to g e th e r” ra th e r th a n th a t o f “ c lo s in g ” as it m ig h t appear to be in sentences (2) and (3). T h e use o f J l as an re s u lta tiv e c o m p le m e n t is a h ig h ly id io m a tic matter, re q u irin g th e re fo re c a re fu l o b s e rv a tio n and im ita tio n o f th e n a tiv e speaker’s habits. T h e e x p la n a tio n s p ro v id e d above m a y h e lp y o u to a n tic ip a te and c o m p re ­ hend its use in o th e r situ a tio n s. T h e fo llo w in g are a fe w m o re exam ples o f th e re s u lta tiv e 上 .

(7 )

今天可能会下雨。你出去以前别忘了把窗户关上。 J īn tiā n kẽ né ng h u ì x ià yủ. N ĩ ch ũ q ù y ĩq iá n b ié w a n g le bả ch u ã n g h u guãnshàng. I t p ro b a b ly w ill ra in to d a y. Please d o n ^ fo rg e t to close th e w in d o w s b e fo re y o u leave.

(8 )

我一定要戴上眼镜才看得见书里的小字。

wỏ y íd ìn g

yào d à ish à n g y a n jin g cái k à n de jià n s h ủ li de x iă o zì.

I have to p u t on m y glasses b e fo re I can read th e sm a ll p rin ts in th e b oo k.

464

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(9 )

要是能在花园里种上一些花儿,就一定会更好看了。 Y à o s h ì néng zài h u ã y u á n li zh ón gsh án g y ìx iẽ h uā r, jiù y íd ìn g huì , gèng h ả o k à n le. I f y o u can g ro w som e flo w e rs in th e garden, it w ill d e fin ite ly look ^ even m o re b e a u tifu l.

( 1 0 ) 这个门不知道为什么总是关不上。 Z hè ge m én b ù zh īd a o w éish én m e zong shi g u ā n bu shàng.

-

I d o n ’t k n o w w h y th is d o o r can n e v e r be closed.

I

b.

Lesson 47

1. Special Types of the 把-Construction ļ

The tw o m a jo r c o n d itio n s fo r u sin g th e disp osa l c o n s tru c tio n are ( i) th e d e fin ite ­ ness o f th e O b je c t n o u n phrase, and ( ii) th e c o m p le x ity o f th e v e rb phrase. T h is lesson co nce ntra tes o n th e second c o n d itio n and presents c e rta in sentence typ es w hich, because o f th e ir v e rb a l c o m p le x itie s , re q u ire th e use o f th e ỈC — fo rm .

In

other w o rd s , u n lik e th e sentences presented in Lesson 46 w h e re fo r each Í E — sent(

ence th e re is a lw a y s a n o n -把 ve rsio n , th e use o f 把 is o b lig a to ry in th e fo llo w in g sentence types.

1.1

T h e Í E — p a tte rn is c o m p u ls o ry w h e n th e ve rb is fo llo w e d b y a lo c a tiv e c o m ­

plement, in d ic a tin g p la ce m e n t o r re lo c a tio n o f a th in g o r a person as a re s u lt o f the disposal a ction . A s described in Lesson 39, a lo c a tiv e c o m p le m e n t is m ade u p o f 在 or 到 ,fo llo w e d b y a place w o rd . W h e n a d isposal ve rb takes b o th an O b je c t and a locative co m p le m e n t, th e O b je c t m u s t be preposed, le a v in g th e v e rb and th e com plement to fo rm one closed v e rb a l u n it, as represented b y th e fo llo w in g p a tte rn . T h e locative co m p le m e n t te lls w h e re th e O b je c t is m ove d v ia th e d isposal verb.



(1 )

O b je c t

+

V e rb

在/ 到

Place

我把那些树种在院子里了。

wỏ bả

nà x iẽ shủ zh òn g zài y u á n z ili le.

I have p la n te d those trees in th e yard.

Please co m p are sentence (1) w ith th e fo llo w in g sentence:

(2 )

我在院子里种了一些树。 W õ zài y u á n z ili zh ó n g le y ìx iẽ shù. I have p la n te d some trees in th e yard.

466

A Practical Chinese Grammar

G ra m m a tic a lly ,

(1) is a

把 一sentence w ith a lo c a tiv e c o m p le m e n t (i.e. V e rb +

Place), w hereas in (2) th e lo c a tiv e appears b efo re th e v e rb and th e O b je c t rem ains



in its re g u la r p o s itio n a fte r th e ve rb (i.e. Place + V e rb ). M o re im p o rta n tly , th e re is a I sem antic d iffe re n c e b etw e e n th e tw o sentences th a t necessitates such a s tru c tu ra l



d iffe re n tia tio n . Sentence (2) describes w h a t th e speaker d id in the b a c k y a rd , nam ely p la n tin g some trees, p erhaps in a p la n te r. T h e p re v e rb a l lo c a tiv e sp ecifies w h e re the

I

a ctio n takes place and th e in d e fin ite m a rk e r 一些 “ som e” p re ven ts th e O b je c t from b e in g to p ica lize d . Sentence (1), o n th e o th e r hand, te lls w h a t th e speaker d id to the trees, n a m e ly p la n tin g th e m in th e b a c k y a rd . 院子

is w h e re he a c tu a lly p u t the

.

trees in to th e so il, hence a n e w lo c a tio n fo r th e trees, and n o t th e site w h e re he

I ,

w o rk e d as in (2 ) . 在院子里 is a lo c a tiv e c o m p le m e n t in (1), and fo r th is reason the

I

O b je c t has to be m ove d o u t o f th e v e rb a l scope v ia th e 把 一 co n s tru c tio n . T h e fo llo w in g are m o re exam ples o f th e use o f 把 in sentences w ith locative com plem ents.





你把自行车放在哪儿了? N ĩ bă z ix ín g c h ě fa n g zài n ả r le? W h e re d id y o u p u t th e bike?



她把老师说的话都写在这个本子上。 T ã bả lă o s h ĩ shuỏ de huà d ỏu x iẽ zài zhè ge benzishang. She w ro te d o w n e v e ry th in g th a t th e te ach er said in th is n ote bo o k.



老师说鲁迅是一位伟大的文学家。所 以 下 课 以 后 ,我去买了一本鲁迅 写 的 书 。我把它放在书架上,准备以后有空儿的时候看。 L ă o s h ĩ shuõ L ủ X ù n shì y íw é i w ẽ id à de w é n x u é jia . S u ỏ y ĩ x ià kè y ĩh ò u , w ố qù m a ile y ìb ẽ n L ủ X ù n x iẽ de xĩa o sh u ỏ .

wỏ bả tá fàng

zài sh ū jia sh a n g , zh u n b é i y ĩh ò u y õ u k ò n g r de s h íh o u kàn. T h e te ach er said th a t L u X u n w as a g re a t w rite r. So, a fte r class I w e n t and b o u g h t a b o o k th a t L u X u n w ro te . I p u t it on th e b oo kshe lf and I p la n to read it in th e fu tu re w h e n I have tim e.



我已经把那把椅子搬到楼上去了。 W o y ijln g bả nà bă y ĩz i bãn dào ló u s h a n g qù le. I have a lre a d y m o ve d th a t c h a ir upstairs.



我们快把这个病人送到医院去吧。 W o m e n k u à i bă zhè ge b ìn g ré n sòng dào y ĩy u à n qù ba. L e ť s q u ic k ly send th is p a tie n t to th e h o sp ita l.





飞机是八点半起飞的。是我七点十分开车把他们送到机场的。 F ē ijī shì b ã d iả n b à n q ĩfẽ i de. S hì w ỏ q ĩd iả n s h ifē n k ā i chẽ bă tāmen sòng dào jīc h a n g de.

467

Lesson 47

T h e p la ne le ft a t 8:30. I t w as I w h o d ro v e th e m to th e a irp o rt at ten (m in u te s ) p ast seven.

1.2

The

ÍE — c o n s tru c tio n is c o m p u ls o ry w h e n th e ve rb is fo llo w e d b y a c o m p le ­

ment e xpressio n d e s c rib in g th e tra n s fo rm a tio n o f th e O b je c t v ia th e d isposal verb. The c o m p le m e n t in th is case is m a rk e d b y

chéng o r f ķ zuòy b o th m e a nin g uto

become,” fo llo w e d b y th e n o u n re p re se n tin g w h a t th e O b je c t has been changed into.



(9 )

O b je c t

+

V e rb

成/ 作

N oun

他想把这本书翻译成英文。 T ā x iả n g bă zhè bẽn shủ fa n y i chéng Y m g w é n . H e w a n ts to tra n s la te th is b o o k in to E n g lis h .

( 1 0 ) 他 把 “ 大 夫 ” 两个字念成了 “ d a fu ” 。 T ā bă “ d á ifu ” liă n g g e zì n ià n ch én g le “ d à fu ” . H e read th e w o rd “ 大 夫 ” as “ d à fu .” ( 1 1 ) 你 写 错 了 ,你 把 “ 北 边 ” 写 成 “ 比边 ” 。 N ĩ xiẽ c u ò le ,n ĩ bă “ b ẽ ib iâ n ” x iẽ chéng “ b ĩb iá n .” Y o u w ro te in c o rre c tly . Y o u w ro te

匕边 as 比 边 .

( 1 2 ) 我想请人把我的花园设计成日本花园。你觉得怎么样? w ỏ x iả n g q ln g ré n bả w ỏ de h u ã y u á n shèjì chéng R ìb ẽn huảyuán. N ĩ ju é d e zenm eyáng? I w a n t to h ire som eone to re d esig n m y garde n in to a Japanese g a r­ den. W h a t do y o u th in k ? ( 1 3 ) 他们把她看作家里人。 T ā m e n bă tá k à n zuò jiā li rén. T h e y tre a te d h e r as a m e m b e r o f th e fa m ily . ( 1 4 ) 上 海人把 “ 喝茶”

叫 作 “ 吃茶” 。

S h a n g h a i ré n bă “ hẽ chá” jià o zuò “ c h ĩ chá.” T h e S h a n g h a i people re fe r to “ te a -d rin k in g ” as “ te a -e a tin g •”

1.3

T h e ỉ c — c o n s tru c tio n is c o m p u s o ry w h e n th e v e rb is fo llo w e d b y a c o m p le ­

ment e xpressio n w h ic h co n ta in s an in d ire c t O b je c t, re p re s e n tin g th e re c ip ie n t o f something o r som eone, th ro u g h th e disp osa l a ction . Please re c a ll fro m th e p re v io u s

A Practical Chinese Grammar

468

lesson th a t w h e n used w ith th e v e rb Én , th e ÍC — c o n s tru c tio n is an o p tio n as illu s ­ tra te d in th e fo llo w in g p a ir o f exam ples:

( 1 5 . a ) 我给了王老师这本书。

wỏ g ěile

W á n g lă o s h ĩ zhè bẽn shù.

I gave T e a c h e r W a n g th is b oo k.

(I 5.b ) 我把这本书给了王老 é 。

wỏ bă

zhè bẽn shũ g ẽile W á n g L ả o sh ĩ.

T h e m a in v e rb in b o th sentences is 给 ,w h ic h ta kes tw o O b je cts: th e d ire c t O bject

书 and th e in d ire c t O b je c t 王 老 师 • T h e tw o O b je c ts m a y be a rra n g e d e ith e r as “给 + In d ire c t O b je c t — D ire c t O b je c t” o r “把 D ire c t O b je c t + 给 In d ire c t O bject.” H o w e v e r,

w h e n o th e r ve rb s ta k e

appears as a c o m p le m e n t c a rry in g

tw o

O b je cts,

th e in d ire c t O b je c t g en erally

给 as th e m a rk e r: “ V e rb + 给 In d ire c t O bject”

T h e d ire c t O b je c t, o n th e o th e r hand, is preposed th ro u g h th e h e lp o f 把 . Verbs th a t re q u ire s th e use o f th e

留 líu

to save, rese rve ,

把 一c o n s tru c tio n in c lu d e 交 “ to h an d in , subm it,” 送 s ó /iể “ to g iv e as a p re sen t,” 还 “ to re tu tn ,” 拿

ná “ tò h o ld ,” 介绍 jié s h á o “ to in tro d u c e ,” etc.



D ire c t O b je c t

+

V e rb



In d ire c t O b je c t

( 1 6 ) 我把钱交给我母亲了。 W õ bă q iá n jiā o g ẽi w ồ m ủ q ĩn le. I have g iv e n (ha nd ed o v e r) th e m o n e y to m y m o th e r. (1 7 )

你 说 ,你把我的照片送给谁了? N ĩ shuõ, n ĩ bă w õ de zh á o p ia n sòng gẽi shéi le? T e ll me, to w h o m have y o u g iv e n m y p icture?

(1 8 )

请你把桌子上的那篇文章拿给我看看。 Q ĩn g n ĩ bả zh uo zish an g de nà p iā n w é n zh a n g ná gẽi w ỏ kà nka n. Please hand m e th a t a rtic le on th e desk so th a t I can ta k e a lo o k at it.

(1 9 )

你明天去医院看古波的时候,能不能请你把这封信带给他? N ĩ m ín g tiã n qù y ĩy u à n k à n G ủ b ỏ de sh ího ù, néng b u néng q ĩn g nĩ bả zhè fẽ n g x ìn d ài g ẽi tã? W h e n y o u go to see G u b o a t th e h o s p ita l to m o rro w , can y o u take th is le tte r to him ?

、 Lesson 47

469

( 2 0 ) 几 个 月 以 前 ,我把小红介绍给张先生张太太。他 们 非 常 喜 欢 她 ,把她

看作自己的女儿。 Jĩg e yuè y ĩq iá n , w ỏ bả x iả o H ó n g jié s h á o gẽi Z h ā n g xián she ng Z h ā n g tà ita i. T ā m e n fē ic h a n g x ĩh u a n tā, bả tā kà n zuò z ìjĩ de n ď é r. S everal m o n th s ago, I in tro d u c e d L it tle

H o n g to M r. and M rs.

Z hang. T h e y lik e d h e r v e ry m uch. T h e y tre a te d h e r as th e ir o w n d a u g h te r.

2. The Construction 除了...... 以外 ' The basic m e a n in g o f th e v e rb 除 cAú is “ to e lim in a te , e xclu de .” Its in fle c te d fo rm , I 除了 chúle, m a y app ea r in th e fo llo w in g c o n s tru c tio n and p ro je c ts tw o p ossible

I

I readings:

除了 … … 以 外 ,… … cAú/e".yíwái,…

The p a tte rn can m ean e ith e r “ w ith th e e xc e p tio n of...” o r “ in a d d itio n to ..•, ” a d iffe rence th a t m a y be re a d ily re so lve d b y se le cting an a p p ro p ria te a d ve rb fo r th e ensuing clause. In e ith e r re a d in g , 以夕卜is o p tio n a l to th e p attern.

2.1

W h e n th e a cco m p a n y in g a d ve rb is 都 ,as in th e fo llo w in g p a tte rn ,除了 in d i­

cates “ w ith th e e x c e p tio n of...”

除了 X ( 以 外 ),都 V e rb chúle X yỉw àiy dou V e rb This p a tte rn expresses an e x p lic it e xclu s io n o f X b e fo re m a k in g a gen eral state­ m ent In o th e r w o rd s , th e v e rb represents a gen eral tr u th w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f X . The gen eral tr u th is h ig h lig h te d b y 都 ,and the e x c e p tio n is m a rk e d b y 除 了 ........ ( 以外 ) . E x a m p le o f th is e x c lu s iv e use o f 除了 are:1 (1 )

除 了 翻 译 (以 外 ),别的练习他都作了。 C h ú le íã n y ì ( y ĩw à i) , biéde lià n x í tā d ỏu zuóle. E x c e p t fo r th e tra n s la tio n , he d id a ll th e (o th e r) exercises.

A Practical Chinese Grammar

470

C f. (2 )

他没 作 翻 译 。别的练习他都作了。 T ā m éi zuó fa n y i. B iéde lià n x í tā d õu zuò le. H e d id n ’t do th e tra n s la tio n . H e d id a ll th e o th e r exercises.

T h e tw o u tterances are e s s e n tia lly th e same in m ea nin g, b u t (2) describes th e situa­ tio n in tw o separate sentences w he re a s (1) jo in s th e tw o statem ents to g e th e r in a m ore condensed o r concise fo rm .

(3 )

除 了 晚 上 (以 外 ),别的时候他都不在家。 C h ú le w a n s h a n g (y ĩw à i) , biéde s h íh ò u tā d õu b ú zài jiá . H e is n o t h om e a t a n y tim e w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f evenings. (Except fo r evenings, he is n e ve r a t h om e.)

(4 )

除了他骑自行车去(以 外 ),我们都坐公共汽车去。 C h ú le tā qí z ix ín g c h ě qù (y lw á i) , w o m e n d ỏu zuò g õ n g g o n g qìchè qù. W e are a ll g o in g b y bus, e xcep t fo r h im w h o is g o in g b y b ike .

(5 )

除了他们两个人,同学们都把帕兰卡当作自己的妹妹。 C h ú le tā m e n liả n g g e rén, tó n g x u é m e n d òu bả P à lá n kă d àn g zuò zìjĩ de m èim ei, E x c e p t fo r those tw o , a ll th e classm ates lo o k u p o n P a la n k a as their o w n sister.

2.2

W h e n th e a c c o m p a n y in g a d ve rb is 也 o r 还 ,as in th e fo llo w in g p a tte rn , 除了

m eans “ in a d d itio n to ." ”

除了 X ( 以 外 ),也 / 还 V e rb chúle X (yĩwài), y e /h ả i V e rb

T h is p a tte rn sh ow s th a t, even a fte r th e e x c lu s io n o f X , th e gen eral tr u th s till (也 / 还 )holds. B o th X and th e o th e r elem ents are a ll covered b y th e same tru th . Therefo re , th is is th e “ in c lu s iv e ” use o f 除 了 .

(6 )

除 了 翻 译 (以 外 ),别的练习他也作了。 C h ú le íã n y ì y ĩw à i, biéde lià n x í tā yẽ zuóle. Besides th e tra n s la tio n , he also d id th e o th e r exercises.

471

Lesson 47

If w e co m p are (6) w ith (1), th e d is tin c tio n b etw e e n th e in c lu s iv e and e x c lu s iv e uses I of

除了

is s e lf-e vid e n t. T h e sem antic d iffe re n tia tio n depends p rim a r ily o n the

a ppropriate a d v e rb ia l m a rk in g : (6) is m a rk e d b y 也 and (1) b y 都 . N o w , com pare (6)

w ith th e fo llo w in g sentence.

(7 )

翻译和别的练习,他 都 作 了 。 F ả n y ì hé b ié de lià n x í, tả dỏu zuole. H e d id th e tra n s la tio n and th e o th e r exercises.



Again, sentences (6) and (7) are re p o rtin g th e same event, w ith a s lig h t d iffe re n c e in emphasis. W h ile (7) describes th e d ilig e n c e in te rm s o f w h a t th e s tu d e n t d id (nam ely,b o th 翻译 and 别 的 练 习 ) ,⑹ p uts m o re em phasis on 别 的 练 习 ,a lm o s t as i f saying “ Besides th e tra n s la tio n w h ic h e veryon e w as expected to do, he also d id the other exercises, w h ic h w as tr u ly re m a rk a b le .” H e re are a fe w m o re exam ples o f the

'

inclusive use o f 除 了 :

(8 )

除 了 晚 上 (以 外 ),下午他也在家。 C h ú le w a n sh a n g (y ĩw à i) , x iá w u tā yẽ zài jiā . Besides e venings, he is also a t h om e in th e afte rn oo ns.

(9 )

除 了 他 (以 外 ),那两个同学也觉得不舒服。 C h ú le tā (y ĩw à i) , nà liă n g g e tó n g x u é yé ju e d e b ù shūfu. Besides h im , those tw o students also fe lt sick.

( 1 0 ) 校园里除了一座小山(以 外 ),还有一个小湖。 X ià o y u á n li c h ú le y ízu ó x iả o shan (y iw a i), h á i y o u yíg e x iả o hú. A s id e fro m a s m a ll h ill, th e re is also a sm all la k e on the cam pus. ( 1 1 ) 昨天下午除了游泳(以 外 ),他还 钓 鱼 了 。 Z u ó tia n x ià w ủ ch ú le y ó u y ồ n g y ĩw à i, tā h á i d ià o y ú le. Besides s w im m in g , he also d id some fis h in g ye s te rd a y a fte rn o o n . ( 1 2 ) 这位护士除了工作认真(以 外 ),生活也很俭朴。 Z hè w è i h ù s h i ch ú le g o n gzu ó ren zhē n (y ĩw à i), shèn gh uó yẽ hẽn jia n p u . T h is nurse, aside fo rm b e in g co nscien tiou s at w o rk , also leads a s im ­ p le life . The fo llo w in g sentences fu rth e r c o n tra s t th e tw o 除了 patterns: (1 3 .a ) 除了 A s p i r i n 以 外 ,别的药他都吃了。 C h ú le A s p ir in y ĩw à i, biéde yào tā d õu c h īle

(E x c lu s iv e )

472

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 1 3 . b ) 除了 A s p i r i n 以 外 ,别 的 药 他 也 吃 了 。

(In c lu s iv e )

C h ú le A s p ir in y ĩw à i, biéde yà o tā ye chile. ( 1 4 . a ) 除 了 他 以 外 ,我 们 都 会 说 中 国 话 。

(E x c lu s iv e )

C h ú le tā y ĩw à i, w o m e n d õ u h u ì shuõ Z h o n g g u ó huà (1 4 .b )除 了 他 以 k

,我 们 也 会 说 中 国 话 。

(In c lu s iv e )

C h ú le tā y lw a i, w o m e n yẽ h u ì shuõ Z h o n g g u ó huà. (1 5 )

A : 这 个 孩 子 ,除了 H a m b u r g e r 以 外 ,还 吃 什 么 ? Z hé ge h áizi, c h ú le H a m b u rg e r y iw á i, h ái c h ī shénme? Besides H a m b u rg e r, w h a t else does th is k id eat? B : 除了 H a m b u r g e r 以 外 ,别 的 东 西 他 都 不 吃 。 C h ú le H a m b u rg e r y ĩw à i, biéde d ỗ n g x i tā d õu b ù chī. Besides H a m b u rg e r, he does’t eat a n y th in g .

( 1 6 ) 昨 天 老 师 对 我 说 , “除 了 你 ,别 的 同 学 都 知 道 鲁 迅 是 中 国 一 位 伟 大 的

文 学 家 。”我 听 了 以 后 ,觉 得 很 不 好 意 思 。所 以 下 课 以 后 ,我 就 去 书 店 买 书 。除 了 鲁 迅 的 小 说 和 诗 以 外 ,我 还 买 了 一 本 写 他 在 日 本 生 活 的 书 。非 常 有 意 思 。 Z u o tiā n lă o s h ĩ d u ì w ỏ shuõ, aC h ú le n ĩ, biéde tó n g x u é d õu zh ld a o Lủ X ù n shì Z h o n g g u ó y íw é i w e id a de w é n x u é jiả .>, w ỏ tĩn g le yĩhò u, ju é d e hẽn bù hăo yìsi. S u õ y ĩ x ià kè y ĩh ò u , w ỏ jiù qù s h ủ d ià n mải shũ. C h ú le L ủ X ù n de x iă o s h u õ hé s h ĩ y ĩw à i, w ỏ h ái m ă ile y ìb ẽ n xiẽ tã zài R ìb è n sh ẽn gh uó de shủ. F ě ic h á n g y õ u yìsi. T h e te ach er said to m e ye sterda y, ^ E x c e p t fo r y o u , e v e ry o n e else in th e class k n o w s th a t L u X u n w as a g re a t C hinese w rite r .” I felt em barrassed w h e n I h e a rd th is. So, a fte r class, I w e n t to th e b oo k­ store to b u y books. A s id e fro m L u X unťs sto rie s and p o e try , I also b o u g h t a b o o k a b o u t h is life in Japan. I t w as v e ry in te re s tin g .

Lesson 48

1. The Passive Sentence If a v e rb represents an a c tio n th a t in v o lv e s tw o p a rtic ip a n ts , an a c to r and a re c i­ pient, th e lin g u is tic re p re s e n ta tio n o f such an e ve n t o fte n appears in th e fo llo w in g order:

A c to r

+

A c tio n

S u b je ct

(1 )

+

R e c ip ie n t

T

V e rb

O b je c t

I h it h im .

我打他。 W o da tā.

Í The a c to r u n it occupies th e place o f su b je ct in th e sentence and the re c ip ie n t occu,

pies the O b je c t slot, an a rra n g e m e n t c o m m o n ly re fe rre d to in lin g u is tic s as th e ac­ tive c o n s tru c tio n . L ik e E n g lis h and m a n y o th e r languages, C hinese relies h e a v ily on the use o f th e a c tiv e c o n s tru c tio n , w ith th e d ire c tio n o f th e a c tio n e x te n d in g fro m the s u b je ct to th e O b je c t In fa c t, m o st o f th e sentences w e have e xam in e d so fa r in this b o o k are cast in th e a ctive m ode. A passive sentence is a sentence in w h ic h the I

direction o f th e a c tio n is reversed and th e re c ip ie n t o f th e a c tio n occurs in th e sub­ ject p o sitio n . T h e fo llo w in g d em on strate s h o w th e passive is co n s tru c te d in E n g lis h .

R e c ip ie n t 1 1 S u b je c t

(2 )

H e w as h it b y me.

+ +

A c tio n 1 V e rb

+

A c to r 1 O b je c t

474

A Practical Chinese Grammar

N o w co n sid e r th e fo llo w in g C hinese sentence:

(3 )

鱼吃了。 Y ú c h ī le.

T h e sentence co n ta in s o n ly one n o m in a l elem ent, n a m e ly 鱼 y ú “ fis h ,” in th e subject p o sitio n . A s an a c tiv e sentence ,鱼 is c le a rly th e a ctor, and th e d ire c tio n o f th e action extends o u tw a rd fro m th e subject. H ence, an e q u iv a le n t sentence in E n g lis h is (3.a).

(3.a)

T h e fis h has eaten.

In a d iffe re n t co n te x t, h o w e v e r, th e C hinese sentence m a y also m ean

(3 .b )

T h e fis h has been eaten.

In th is second re a d in g , â is n o lo n g e r th e a c to r b u t ra th e r th e o b je c t o f consum p­ tio n , even th o u g h it s till occupies th e s u b je c t p o s itio n . S uch a re ve rsa l o f semantic roles, fro m a ctiv e to passive, is g ra m m a tic a lly m a rk e d in E n g lis h b y th e use o f the passive co n s tru c tio n . H ence, th e re is th e p a ra d ig m a tic d is tin c tio n b etw e en “ has eaten” and “ has been eaten•” U n lik e E n g lis h , such g ra m m a tic a l m a rk in g is absent in Chinese: the v e rb rem ain s in ta c t as 吃• T h e a m b ig u ity o f th e sentence m a y, o f c o u rse ,be re a d ily reso lve d once th e p ro p e r c o n te x t is g ive n , as in th e fo llo w in g situ a tio n s :



鱼 吃 了 ,你不用再喂了。 Y ú c h i le, n ĩ bú y ò n g zài w è i le. T h e fis h has eaten. Y o u d o n 't have to feed it again.



鱼 吃 了 ,菜 还 没 吃 。 Y ủ c h ĩ le, cài h á i m é i ch ĩ. T h e fis h has been eaten, b u t n o t th e vegetable.

I t is q u ite cle a r fro m th e la s t sentence (5) th a t 鱼 is p u t in c o n tra s t w ith 菜 in terms of, say, d ie ta ry preference. A s n ote d in e a rlie r lessons, th e su b je c t in a C hinese sen­ tence o fte n fu n c tio n s as th e to p ic o f th e discourse; and in such to p ic a l ca p a city, the su bject m a y be th e a c to r o r th e re c ip ie n t o f an a c tio n d e p e n d in g s o le ly on contex­ tu a l in te rp re ta tio n . Sentence (3) m a y e ith e r be an a c tiv e o r a passive sentence w ith no o v e rt sp e cific a tio n . A s w e w ill le a rn in th e n e x t lesson, o v e rt m a rk in g fo r the passive c o n s tru c tio n is a v a ila b le in C hinese, b u t its use is q u ite in fre q u e n t as com­ pared w ith th e e m p lo y m e n t o f th e ^ - c o n s t r u c t io n in E n g lis h . W h e n a sentence stands passive in m e a n in g b u t u n m a rk e d in s tru c tu re , it m a y be described as

f

475

r Lesson 48

'n o tio n a lly p a s s iv e /' T h e fo llo w in g are a fe w m o re exam ples o f th is passive usage.

J

c

The passive su bjects are a ll u n d e rlin e d .

(6 )

饭菜都准备好了。 F án cái d õu z h ủ n b è ih ả o le. T h e m eal has been prepared.

(7 )

电视机还 没 关 上 呢 。 D ia n s h ijī h ái m éi guã nsh àn g ne. The

(8 )

T.v.

hasn’t been tu rn e d o ff.

太 晚 了 ,过年要用的东西都 买 不 到 了 。 T à i w a n le, g uỏ n iá n yảo y ỏ n g de d ỏ n g x i d ỏu m ă i bu dào le. I ť s to o late n o w . N o n e o f th e th in g s needed fo r th e N e w Y e a r can be p urchased (is a va ila b le ).

(9 )

桌 子 摆 好 了 ,外边的朋友现在都可以请进来了。 Z h u o zi b á ih ả o le, w á ib iá n de p é n g y o u x iá n z á i d ỏu k ẽ y ĩ q m g jin lá i le. T h e ta b le has been set; and th e frie n d s o u tsid e can a ll be asked to com e in n ow .

( 1 0 ) 鲁迅写的小说都翻译成英文了。 L ủ X ù n x iẽ de xiă o sh u ỏ d ỏ u fã n y ì chéng Y m g w é n le. A l l o f L u X u n ^ sto rie s have been tra n s la te d in to E n g lis h . ( 1 1 ) 我已经找了他们来帮忙了。所以你们就不麻烦了。 W o y ijin g z h a o le tā m e n lá i b ãn g m á n g le. S u ỏ y ĩ n ĩm e n jiù bù m á fá n le. I have a lre a d y asked th e m to com e and help. So, I d o n ’t need to b o th e r you. ( 1 2 ) 兔子准备好了。 T ú z i z h u n b e ih a o le. T h e ra b b it has been p ro p e rly prepared. O r : T h e ra b b it has p ro p e rly p re pa re d itse lf.

It is in te re s tin g to n o te th a t w h ile sentences (6) and (12) share th e same v e rb a l predicate ( 准 备 好 ),o n ly th e la tte r m a y have tw o re a d in g s ,th e second o f w h ic h is an active in te rp re ta tio n w e m ig h t fin d in a fa ble . T h e reason fo r th is d is s im ila rity is actually v e ry sim ple. T h e n o m in a l su b je ct in (1 2 ) ,兔子 ,is an a n im a te b eing , th e re b y q u a lify in g it to be e ith e r th e p re p a rin g a ge nt o r th e pre pa re d object. O n th e o th e r hand, b y v irtu e o f its ina n im a te n e ss ,饭菜 in (6) can o n ly be w h a t is prepared. In fact, m o st o f th e n o tio n a l passive sentences in the above exam ples are o f th is

A Practical Chinese Grammar

476

second typ e . Y o u sh ou ld , h o w e v e r, be p re pa re d to e n co u n te r th e fu ll ran ge o f ap­ p lic a tio n in th e fu tu re . Please n o te th a t since th e passive s u b je c t is e s s e n tia lly a d is c u rs iv e to p ic o f the co m m e n t th a t fo llo w s , i t has to be s o m e th in g o f w h ic h b o th th e sp ea ker and the addressee are aw are. In o th e r w o rd s , i t has to be d e fin ite in reference. U n lik e its e q u iv a le n t in E n g lis h , th e fo llo w in g C hinese sentence is in c o rre c t since its su bject is m a rke d w ith —个 and is an in d e fin ite n o m in a l. (1 3 )

* — 个礼物给你了。 * Y íg e lĩw ù g ẽi n ĩ le. A p re sen t w as g iv e n to you.

C f . ( 1 4 ) 那件礼物给你了。 N à jià n lĩw ù g ẽi n ĩ le. T h a t p re sen t w as g iv e n to you.

2. The Use of the Interrogative for Indefinite Reference 2.1

In te rro g a tiv e w o rd s such as 谁 sAé/ “ w h o ,”

什么 s/ié m n e “ w h a t,”

哪儿 /ỉár

“ w h e re ,” etc., are p rim a r ily used fo r fo rm in g questions. (1 )

谁会 作 灯 笼 ? S héi h u ì zuò dẻnglóng? W h o k n o w s h o w to m a ke a lantern?



哪儿有爆竹卖? N ă r y õ u báozhu mài? W h e re do y o u fin d fire c ra c k e rs fo r sale?



你买了些什么东西? N ĩ m ă ile x iẽ shénm e d õn gxi? W h a t (th in g s ) have y o u purchased?

In a n sw e rin g th e above sentences, one can p ro v id e e ith e r v e ry s p e c ific in fo rm a tio n , lik e (4) in response to (1), o r a re p ly th a t p e rta in s to an a ll-in c lu s iv e b u t ind efin ite reference as in (5). (4 )

李老师的儿子会作灯笼。 L ĩ lă o s h ĩ de érzi h u ì zuò dẽn glón g . T e a c h e r L i ’s son k n o w s h o w to m a ke a la n te rn .

-

\

Lesson 48

477

(5 )

谁都 会 作 灯 笼 。 S héi d õ u h u ì zuò d ẽn glón g . E v e ry o n e k n o w s h o w to m a ke a lan te rn .

G ra m m a tic a lly sp e a kin g , th e a ll-in c lu s iv e sentence (5) is v e ry s im ila r to th e q ue stio n from (1) in th a t i t also ca rrie s th e in te rro g a tiv e w o rd

谁 . T h e o n ly d iffe re n c e is

that (5) co n ta in s th e a d ve rb 都 ,a le x ic a l m a rk e r o f all-in clusive ne ss. S im ila rly , an all- in c lu s iv e a n sw e r to (2) m a y also be phrased in th e fo llo w in g p attern.

In te rro g a tiv e W o rd

(6 )

+



哪儿都有爆竹卖。 N ă r d õu y õ u b áozhu m ài. E v e ry place ca rrie s fire cra cke rs.

£ A n e g a tive a n sw e r m a y use th e same p a tte rn w ith a n e g a tiv e ve rb , as in (7)



(7 )

哪儿都没有爆竹卖。 N ă r d òu m é iy o u báo zhu m ài. N o place ca rrie s fire cra cke rs.

ļ

T o a n sw e r th e q u e s tio n in (3), th e w o rd o rd e r is s o m e w h a t d iffe re n t fro m th a t in

^

the q u e stio n fo rm .

(8 )

我什么都买了。 W o shénm e d ỗu m ă i le. I have b o u g h t e v e ry th in g .

As a q u e stio n w o r d fu n c tio n in g as th e O b je c t o f th e v e rb 买 in (3 ),什么 o ccurs in its regular O b je c t p o s itio n ; h o w e v e r, its ro le as an a ll-in c lu s iv e te rm in th e a nsw er (8) demands a n e w p la ce m e n t r ig h t b e fo re th e verb. T h e fo rw a rd m o v e m e n t fro m a post-verbal to a p re -v e rb a l p o s itio n is trig g e re d b y th e presence o f 都 ,an a d v e rb ia l that m a rk s th e gen eral refe ren ce o f th e n o u n th a t appears b e fo re it. Since an allinclusive te rm is b y n a tu re p lu ra l in reference, it has to o ccu r b e fo re the re in fo rc in g

都 . T h e fo llo w in g are a fe w m o re sentences to illu s tra te th is in c lu s iv e o r in d e fin ite use o f th e th e in te rro g a tiv e .

478

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(9 )

那个挂在公园门口的大灯笼,谁见了都会喜欢。 N à ge guà zài g ó n g y u á n m é n k õ u de dà d ẽ n g ló n g , shéi jiá n le dỏu huì x ĩh u a n . T h a t b ig la n te rn th a ť s h a n g in g b y th e p a rk entrance, anyo ne who sees it w ill lik e it.

( 1 0 ) 哪个国家都有自己的节日。 N ă ge g u ó jiá dõu y ố u .zìjĩ de jié ri. E v e ry c o u n try has its o w n fe stiva ls. ( 1 1 ) 除了圣诞节那天以外,我哪天都可以来看你。 C h ú le S h é n g d á n jié nà tiá n y ĩw à i, w ỏ nă tià n d õu k ẽ y ĩ lá i k à n nĩ. E x c e p t fo r th e C h ris ttn a s day, I can com e to see y o u a n y day. (

12 )

你什么时候去找他,他都在 写文章。 N ỉ shénm e s h íh ò u qù zhao tā, tā d õ u zài x iẽ w énzháng. W h e n e v e r y o u go to see h im , he is a lw a y s w r itin g (a rtic le s ).

(13)

阳 阳 哭 了 ,因 为 他 的 小 兔 子 不 见 了 。他 找 了 三 天 ,可是哪儿都找不 到。 Y á n g y a n g k ū le, y m w é i tā de x iă o tù z i b ú jiá n le . T ā zhaole sāntiān, kẽshì n ă r d õu zhăo bu dào. Y a n g y a n g began to c ry , as h is r a b b it had disappeared. H e looked fo r th re e days, b u t c o u ld n ’t fin d i t a n yw h e re .

(14 )

因为他刚刚吃完年夜饭,所以他现在什么都吃不下了。 Y in w e i tā g ā n g g ā n g c h i w a n m an ye tan, s u o y i tā x ia n z a i shenme d õu c h ĩ b u x ià le A s he has ju s t fin is h e d th e N e w Y e a ^ s E v e d in n e r, he c a n 't eat any­ th in g n o w .

( 1 5 ) 你送 我 什 么 礼 物 ,我 都 很 高 兴 。 N ĩ sòng w õ shénm e lĩw ù , w ỏ d õu hẽn g ão xìng . W h a te v e r p re sen t y o u g iv e me, (1 6 )

ril

be v e ry h ap p y.

A : 你想把房间设计成什么样子? N ĩ x iă n g bă fá n g jia n s h é ji chéng shénm e yángzi? H o w do y o u w a n t to design y o u r room ? B :什 么 样 子 可 以 。 S hénm e y á n g z i d ỏu k ẽ y ĩ. A n y d esign w ill do.

A s a p o in t fo r co m p a riso n , E n g lis h e x h ib its a s im ila r use o f th e in te rro g a tiv e in its

ř Lesson 48

479

fo rm a tio n o f an in d e fin ite expression. F o r exam ple, “ w h o : w h o e v e r,” “ w h a t: w h a te v -

, er, ” “ w he n: w h e n e v e r,” “ w he re : w h e re v e r,” etc. i

I

2.2

A v a ria tio n o f th e in d e fin ite use o f th e in te rro g a tiv e is to have 也 instead o f

都 as th e a c co m p a n yin g adverb. F o r e xam ple, th e second h a lf o f sentence (14) can be rephrased as:

.

( 1 4 . a ) … … 所以他现在什么也吃不下了。 ...suõ yĩ tā x iá n z á i shénm e yě c h ī b u x ià le. W hile th e re is no d is tin c tio n in m e a n in g o r in s ty le b etw e en (14) and (14.a), th e use ;

of tfe in th is c a p a c ity is g e n e ra lly re s tric te d to n e g a tiv e sentences. H ence, re p h ra s ­ ing the a n sw e r p o rtio n in sentence (16) w ith

也 w ill y ie ld an unacceptable i f n o t

u tte rly u n g ra m m a tic a l sentence.

ị ( 1 6 . a ) … … 什么样子也可以。 ...shénm e yá n g z i yẽ k ẽ y ĩ. As a lw a y s is th e case, th e re are e xce p tio n s to th is general rule. Y e t, u n til y o u have , acquired th e s k ill to d e te rm in e w h ic h sounds b e tte r, y o u m a y w is h to abide b y th is I restriction.

1 2.3 W ith th e e x c e p tio n o f 为 什 么 ,a ll C hinese in te rro g a tiv e s m a y re a d ily p a rtic iị pate in th is in d e fin ite p a tte rn . L ik e w is e , th e E n g lis h p a ra lle l “ w h y ” has no corres. ponding “ -e ve r” fo rm fo r th e in d e fin ite usage.

.2.4

In s o fa r as E n g lis h tra n s la tio n is concerned, th e use o f 怎么 m a y pose d iffic u lty

for b e g in n in g students. W h ile th e in d e fin ite use o f o th e r in te rro g a tiv e w o rd s m a y be 1 quite easily rendered as “ anyone/everyone/w hoever,” “ a nyw he re/e veryw he re/w h ereve r,” “any tim e /e v e r y tim e /w h e n e v e r,” e tc” th e usage o f 怎么 som etim es re q u ire s paraphrasing in E n g lis h . ( 1 7 ) 我怎么也打不开那个箱子。 W o zenm e yẽ da b u k ā i nà ge x ia n g z i. N o m a tte r h o w h a rd I trie d , I w a s n ’t able to open th a t box.

怎么 ,as a q u e stio n w o rd , asks fo r th e m a n n e r in w h ic h o r b y m eans o f w h ic h an action is c a rrie d o u t. H ence, th e in d e fin ite use o f 怎么 a m o un ts to s a yin g

b y w h a t-

480

A Practical Chinese Grammar

ever m eans” o r “ h o w e v e r” one a tte m p ts th e a ction. B u t as E n g lis h la c k s a ready e q u iva le n t fo r the in d e fin tie

, students c a n n o t a lw a y s re ly o n in tu itiv e k n o w ­

ledge o f E n g lis h to p re d ic t its use in C hinese. T h e fo llo w in g are m o re exam ples:

( 1 8 ) 因为他没作过灯笼,所以怎么也作不好。 Y in w é i tā m é i zu óg uó d ẽ n g ló n g , s u õ y ĩ zēnm e yẽ zuò bu hảo. A s he had n e v e r m ade a la n te rn before, he c o u ld n ^ do a good job no m a tte r w h a t. ( = N o m a tte r h o w he trie d , he c o u ld n ’t do a g oo d job...) ( 1 9 ) 明 天 的 会 ,我怎么忙都要去开。 M ín g tiã n de h u ì, w ố zēnm e m án g d õu yào qù kải. N o m a tte r h o w

b u sy I am, I w ill fo r sure a tte n d th e meeting

to m o rro w .

3. The Construction 因为...... 所以....... T o m a rk th e cause and e ffe c t re la tio n s h ip b e tw e e n tw o events, w e use th e paired co rre la tiv e s

因为 and 所 以 ,each s ittin g b e fo re its a p p ro p ria te clause. A s in the

case o f o th e r c o rre la tiv e s in tro d u c e d e a rlie r, even th o u g h one o f th e tw o connectors m a y be o m itte d , th e p a ire d usage is a lw a y s p re fe rre d .

(1 )

她因为身体不舒服,所以今天晚上不出去玩儿了。 T ā y m w é i s h ẽ n tĩ b ù s h ū fu , s u ỏ y ĩ jīn tiā n w a n s h a n g b ù c h ủ q ù wánr le. Because she is n o t fe e lin g w e ll, she is n o t g o in g o u t to n ig h t.

(2 )

过 年 的 时 候 ,他 因 为 病 了 ,所以哪儿都没去拜年。 G u ò n iá n de sh íhò u, tā y m w é i b ìn g le , s u õ y ĩ n ă r d õu m é i qù b à i nián. Because he w as s ic k d u rin g the N e w Y e a r, he d id n ’t go a n y w h e re to m ake N e w Y e a r calls.

(3 )

A : 你为什么决定不去旅行了? N ĩ w è i shénm e ju é d in g b ú qù lù x ín g le? W h y have y o u decided n o t to go on th e trip ? B : 因为快考试了,所以我想还是留在家里多准 à 准 备 。 Y m w é i k u à i kă o shì le, s u õ y ĩ w ỏ x iă n g h á is h ì liú zài jiā li duõ zh u n b e i zhunbei. Because exam s are c o m in g , I th in k F d b e tte r sta y h om e and pre­ pare.

481

Lesson 48

因 为 春 节 快 到 了 ,她 还 没 收 拾 屋 子 ,所 以 她 想 这几天不去工作,在家 整理7

(4 )

Y ln w é i c h u n jié k u à i dào le, tá h ái m éi sh õu shi w ủ z i, s u õ y ĩ tã x iă n g zhè jītiā n b ú qù g ỏn gzu ò, zài jiā zh en glī. Because th e N e w Y e a r is a lm o s t here and she s till hasn’t sta rted cle a n in g h e r house, she has decided to ta k e a fe w days o ff to do the cleanup. ( 5

)

( 因为 ) 他 没 学 过 汉 语 ,所以他听不懂你说的话。 ( Y m w é i) T ā m é i x u é g u o H à n y ủ , s u ỏ y ĩ tá tĩn g b u d õ n g n ĩ shuõ de huà. H e has n e ve r stu d ie d C hinese, and so he ca n ’t u nd ersta nd w h a t y o u ’re saying.

(6 )

因为你说过没有问题,(所 以 )我们才决定不去。 Y ĩn w è i n ĩ sh uõ gu o m é iy o u w é n tí, (s u õ y ĩ) w o m e n cái ju é d in g bú qù. A s y o u said i t w o u ld be a lrig h t, w e have decided n o t to go.

The o rd e rin g o f th e 因为 clause b e fo re th e 所以 clause is a re fle c tio n o f th e n a tu ra l sequence fro m ca u se /re a so n to re su lt. Som etim es, th e the end o f a sentence,

因为 segm ent m a y appear at

a lm o s t as i f i t is an a fte rth o u g h t.

In th is case,

th e co nse ­

quence clause is n e ve r m a rk e d w ith 所 以 . (7 )

我把全家人的圣诞礼物都寄到妹妹家去了— — 因为今年大家都在妹妹家 过~ p 。 >-1— t- f-

W o bả quá n jiā ré n de S h èn g dà n lĩw ù dõu jì dào m è im e i jiā qù le ----- y ĩn w è i jīn n ia n d a jiā d õ u zài m è im e i jiā g uò jié. I have sent th e C h ris tm a s presents fo r th e e n tire fa m ily to m y y o u n g ­ er s is te rs h o u s e ----- since th e y w ill a ll be c e le b ra tin g th e h o lid a y a t h e r hom e. L ike 虽然 ........ 但是 ........ in tro d u c e d in Lesson 39, th e p a ire d usage o f 因为 and 所以 may seem re d u n d a n t w h e n tra n s la te d lite r a lly in to E n g lis h : “ b ecause...therefore."” Rem em ber, h o w e v e r, i t is th e n o rm in C hinese to use th e c o rre la tiv e s in pairs. A ls o , when th e tw o clauses share th e same subject, th e s u b je c t m a y appear b e fo re e ith e r the fir s t o r th e second clause, b u t n o t b e fo re b o th , as in (8.a) and (8.b). I f th e sub­ jects are d iffe re n t, th e c o rre la tiv e s appear a t-th e b e g in n in g o f th e ir o w n clauses, as in (9). ( 8 . a ) 她因为打了一天的球,所以觉得很累。 T ā y m w e i dale y ìtiá n de q iú , s u ỏ y ĩ ju é d e hẽn lèi. A s she p la ye d b a ll fo r th e w h o le day, she fe lt v e ry tire d .

482

A Practical Chinese Grammar

( 8 . b ) 因为打了一天的球,所以她觉得很累。 Y ln w e i dale y ìtiã n de q iú , s u ỏ y ĩ tã ju é d e hẽn lèi. (9 )

因为熊猫很可爱,所以去看的人很多。 Y ln w é i x ió n g m á o hèn k ẽ ^ i, s u ỏ y ĩ qù k à n de ré n hẽn duõ. Because the pandas are cute, m a n y people go to see th em .

I n a ll cases, M

has to appear bef 〇 re .He s u b ject o f th e co n SeqUence clause, a r.

q u ire m e n t th a t e x p la in s w h y th e fo llo w in g sentence seems less acceptable th a n its c o rre sp o n d in g v e rs io n in (8.b). ( 8 . C ) 打 了 一 天 的 球 ,她所以觉得很累。 D a le y ìtiã n de q iú , tā s u ỏ y ĩ ju é d e hẽn lèi.

4. The All-Inclusive ^ 4.1

L ik e th e a d ve rb 都 w h ic h m a rk s th e scope o f a c tio n “ a ll, in a ll cases,” 全 quái!

is a n o th e r fo rm th a t d ire c ts th e a ll-in clu sive n e ss o f th e a c tio n to th e p re c e d in g noun.

全 is m o re e m p h a tic in c o n n o ta tio n th a n 都 ,and th e tw o m a y som etim es dou ble up (全 + 都 )to fu rth e r enhance th e idea o f to ta lity . (1 )

这些礼物全是她带来给孩子的。 Z hè x iẽ lĩw ù q u á n shì tã d à ilá i g ẽ i h á iz i de. She b ro u g h t a ll o f these g ifts fo r th e c h ild re n .

(2 )

还 没 过 年 ,你怎么把爆竹全放了? H á i m é i g uò n iá n, n ĩ zenm e bă b áozhu quán fa n g le? T h e N e w Y e a r is n o t here yet. H o w com e y o u have fire d o ff a ll the fire c ra c k e rs ?

(3 )

我把他说的话全都记下来了。 W õ bă tā shuỏ de huà quán d õu jix iá lá i le. I jo tte d d o w n e v e ry w o rd he said.

U n lik e 都 ,h o w e v e r , 全 is seldom used in th e p a tte rn o f th e in te rro g a tiv e w o rd for in d e fin ite reference. ( 4 . a ) 中 国 饭 ,谁 都 爱 吃 。 Z h o n g g u ó fan, shéi d õu ài chī. E v e ry o n e is fo n d o f th e C hinese food.

Lesson 48

483

1

( 4 . b ) * 中 国 饭 ,谁 全 爱 吃 。 *Z h ỏ n g g ú o fan, shéi q uá n ài chĩ. 4.2

A n o th e r d iffe re n c e b etw e e n 都 and 全 is th a t o n ly the la tte r m a y fu n c tio n as

an a djective . I t m a y appear d ire c tly b e fo re th e n o u n phrase i t m o d ifie s , as in sen­ tences (5) and (6). O r, th o u g h less fre q u e n tly , it m a y be used as a p re dica te, as in (7).

(5 )

春节是全家人团聚的节日。 C h ū n jie shì quá n jiā rén tu á n jú de jié r i. T h e S p rin g F e s tiv a l is th e occasion fo r the e n tire fa m ily to g et to g e th e r.

(6 )

请你把全篇文章都翻译成日文。 Q ĩn g n ĩ bả quán p iá n w é n zh a n g d ỏu fa n y i chéng R iw é n . Please tra n s la te the e n tire a rtic le in to Japanese.

(7 )

你想研究鲁迅的小说一 我们图书馆的书不很全。 N ĩ x iă n g y á n jiu L ủ X ù n de x iă o s h u õ ----- w o m e n tú s h ũ g u ă n de shũ bù hẽn quán. Y o u w a n t to w o r k on L u X u n ’s f ic t io n ----- o u r lib r a r y c o lle c tio n (o n th e to p ic ) is n o t v e ry com plete.

(8 )

今年我们全家都没有生病。 J īn n ia n w o m e n quán jiā d õu m é iy o u shēng b in g . N o one in o u r e n tire fa m ily fe ll s ic k th is year.

Sentence 1

(8 )

d is p la y s th e c o n tra s t in status b etw e e n 全 and 都 ,th e fo rm e r as an

adjectiva l m o d ifie r fo r 家 and th e la tte r th e a d v e rb ia l m o d ifie r fo r 没 有 生 病 . A s an a djective , 全 m a y appear d ir e c tly b e fo re a nou n, o r p re fe ra b ly b e fo re th e m easure w ord o f th e nou n. In fa ct, re p h ra s in g (6) w ith o u t th e in te rv e n in g m easure w ill y ie ld an u n g ra m m a tic a l sentence.

( 6 . a ) * 请你把全文章都翻译成日文。 * Q ĩn g n ĩ bả q uá n w é n zh a n g d ỗu fa n y i chéng R iw é n .

O n ly in som e special co m b in a tio n s do w e fin d a “全 +

N o u n ” sequence, and these

we w ill have to le a rn one b y one.

(9 )

今 天 是 D r. K i n g 的 生 日 ,全国都放假吗? J īn tiā n shì D r. K in g de s h ē n g ri, quá n g u ó d õ u fa n g jià ma? T o d a y is D r. K in g ’s b irth d a y . Is i t a h o lid a y fo r th e e n tire c o un try?

A Practical Chinese Grammar

484

5. The Assertive Particle 的 C hinese co n ta in s a h o s t o f sentence fin a l p a rtic le s th a t speakers m a y use to m o d ify statem ents w ith some k in d o f personal, e m o tio n a l o r m o d a l o verton e . F o r example, the fo llo w in g th re e sentences a ll express th e e x p e c ta tio n th a t som eone w ill come th e n e x t day. (1 )

他明天会来。 T á m ín g tiả n h u ì lái. H e ’s c o m in g to m o rro w .

(2 )

他明天会来吧。 T ã m ín g tiả n h u ì lá i ba. H e ’s c o m in g to m o rro w , I guess.

(3 )

他明天会来的。 T ā m ín g tiâ n h u ì lá i de. H e ’s c o m in g to m o rro w , I k n o w .

T h e sentences d iffe r, h o w e v e r, in th e degree o f c e rta in ty d isp laye d. T h e differences are m a rke d b y th e absence o r presence o f a sentence p a rtic le . Sentence (1), not q u a lifie d b y a n y m o d a l p a rtic le , is s im p ly a p ro je c tio n . I t becom es m o re speculative and less c o m m ita l in (2) w h e n th e su gg estio n p a rtic le 吧 is added to th e end. A n d , w h e n th e p a rtic le changes to 的 in (3 ),th e sta te m e n t im p lie s a sense o f assertion. T h e fo llo w in g are a fe w m ore sentences to illu s tra te th is a ssertive use o f 的. (4 )

熊 猫 真 可 爱 ,谁见了都会喜欢的。 X ió n g m ã o zhēn k ẽ 5ài, shéi jiá n le d ỏu h u ì x ĩh u a n de. T h e panda is re a lly cute. A n y o n e w h o sees it w ill d e fin ite ly lik e it.

(5 )

这 么要紧的事儿,你应该先问问她的。 Zhém e y á o jln de sh ìr, n ĩ y ĩn g g ã i x iã n w é n w é n tā de. F o r such an im p o rta n t a ffa ir, y o u sh o u ld have co n su lte d h e r firs t.

(6 )

你常常帮助他母亲,他一定会非常感谢你的。 N ĩ ch án gch án g b ā n g zh u tā m ủ q ĩn , tā y íd ìn g h u i fě ic h á n g g ản xiè nĩ de. Y o u a lw a y s h e lp h is m o th e r. H e c e rta in ly is v e ry g ra te fu l.

A s y o u m a y have a lre a d y n o tic e d , th e n e u tra l to n e w o rd 的 can serve a v a rie ty oi g ra m m a tic a l fu n c tio n s . T h e assertive use is ju s t a n o th e r a d d itio n to th a t list.

Lesson 49

1. 1.1

The Passive Sentence

( c o n t in u e d )

A passive sentence in E n g lis h has tw o fo rm a l m arkers. F irs t, th e ve rb phrase

^ contains th e a u x ilia ry v e rb -to -b e . Second, th e “ a c to r n o m in a r,appears in th e O b ­ ject p o s itio n and ca rrie s a p re p o s itio n a l m a rk e r by. A n e xam ple is :

(1 )

H e w as h it b y me.

We have lea rn e d fro m th e p re v io u s lesson th a t a passive sentence in C hinese reI quires no m o d ific a tio n o f th e v e rb fo rm . W e have, h o w e v e r, m ade no m e n tio n o f the m a rkin g o f th e a c to r status o f th e O b je c t n o m in a l. In fa ct, w e m ade a d e lib e ra te I e ffo rt to a v o id in c lu d in g a n y passive sentence th a t w o u ld co n ta in an a c to r n o m in a l. The p rim a ry "concern in th is lesson is h o w to m a rk th e passive O b je c t in C hinese. The fo llo w in g is th e C hinese e q u iv a le n t to the above sentence ( 1 ) :

(2 )

他被我打了。 T ā b èi w o dale. H e w as h it b y me.

^

bèi is a p re p o s itio n w ho se p rim a ry fu n c tio n is to in d ic a te a passive c o n s tru c tio n .

It is p laced d ire c tly b e fo re th e a c to r O b je c t, and the e n tire O b je c t expression appears b e tw e e n th e s u b je ct and th e verb. T h e re ve rsa l o f w o rd o rd e r b etw e e n the 1 active and th e passive is d e m o n stra te d as fo llo w s .

A c tiv e

S u b je ct

+

V e rb

+

[R e c ip ie n t]

[A c to r ] Passive

l

S u b je ct

O b je c t

+

[R e c ip ie n t]

被 一O b j ect [A c to r ]

+

V e rb

486

A Practical Chinese Grammar

N o w , re ca ll th e a m b ig u ity o f th e fo llo w in g sentence:

(3 )

鱼吃了。 Y ú c h ī le. A c tiv e : T h e fis h has eaten. Passive: T h e fis h has been eaten.

T h e passive re a d in g is te rm e d as “ n o tio n a lly passive,” since g ra m m a tic a lly i t shares th e same s tru c tu re as th e a c tiv e fo rm . T h e g ra m m a tic a l s u b je c t Ô is th e a c to r in the a ctive re a d in g and th e re c ip ie n t in th e passive sentence. C o n te x t d ete rm in e s which message is th e in te n d e d rea din g. H o w e v e r, th e a m b ig u ity is re a d ily reso lve d once the 被一 segm ent is in tro d u c e d . Sentence (4) is u n e q u iv o c a lly passive in fo rm as well as in m eaning.

(4 )

鱼被邻居的孩子吃了。 Y ú b èi lin jū de h á iz i ch īle . T h e fis h has been eaten b y th e n e ig h b o r’s c h ild .

H ence, in c o n tra s t w ith th e n o tio n a l passive w h ic h is g ra m m a tic a lly u n m a rke d , th t passive p ro p e r, w h ic h w e address in th is lesson,

is o fte n re fe rre d to as s im p ly the

S — sentence. T h e fo llo w in g are a fe w m o re exam ples to illu s tra te th e tra n sfo rm a ­ tio n b etw e e n th e a c tiv e and th e passive sentences and th e d iffe re n t w o rd orders re­ q u ire d th e re in . O n ly th e a c tiv e v e rs io n is g iv e n an E n g lis h tra n s la tio n .

(5 )

A : 报上说那个坏人杀了茶馆的掌柜。 B à oshang shuỏ nà ge h u à i rén shále chág uả n de zh án gg ui. T h e p ap er says th a t sco un drel k ille d th e teahouse keeper. R 报上 à ả 馆的 * Ě 被那个坏人杀了。 B àoshang shuõ chág uả n de z h á n g g u i bèi nà ge h u à i rén shále.

(6 )

A : 她把我的汽车开走了。 T ā bả w ỏ de qìchẻ kā izo ule . She d ro v e m y c a r aw ay. ( = She d ro v e a w a y in m y car.) p : 我的汽车被她开走 V 。 W õ de qìchẽ bèi tā kā izo ule .

(7 )

A : 他没把那个镜子打破。 T ả m éi bả nà ge jin g z i dảpò. H e d id n ’t b re a k th a t m irro r.

487

* Lesson 49

p : 那个镜子没被他打破。 N à ge jin g z i m é i bèi tā dăpò. (8 )

A : 她把我的照片送给别人了吗? T á bả w ỏ de zh áo pián sòng gẽi b ié ré n le ma? D id she g iv e m y p ic tu re to som eone else? R 我的照片i

wỏ de

她送给别人了吗?

zh á o p iá n b èi tā sòng g ēi b ié ré n le ma?

’ It is e v id e n t fro m sentences (7 ) and (8) th a t th e n e g a tiv e m a rk e r precedes M and I that th e in te rro g a tiv e is fo rm e d w ith 吗.

1.2

A ffir m a tiv e

R e c ip ie n t + 被 一O b je c t + A c tio n

N e g a tiv e

R ecip ie nt + N eg ative + 被一O b je ct + A c tio n

In te rro g a tiv e

R e c ip ie n t + 被 一O b je c t + A c tio n +

吗?

L ik e th e 把 一sentence w e lea rn e d in Lessons 46 and 47,th e 被一 p a tte rn re-

I quires its v e rb phrase to c o n ta in som e e x tra ele m e n t in a d d itio n to th e ve rb itse lf. The e x tra e le m e n t m a y be as sim p le as th e p e rfe c tiv e m a rk e r T , o r i t m a y in v o lv e a ^ com plem ent o r a n o th e r O b je ct. N e ith e r a 把 一sentence o r a 被 一 sentence ends w ith , a verb a ll b y its e lf. G e n e ra lly sp ea kin g, th is a d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n in d ica te s th e re ­ sult o r e x te n t o f th e a c tio n and represents th e fo c u s o f th e message.

(A) T h e p e rfe c tiv e 了: (9 )

你被谁踢了? N ĩ bèi shéi tĩle? Y o u g o t k ic k e d b y w hom ?

I (B) T h e in d ire c t O b je ct: ( 1 0 ) 老师被学生问了三个问题,他都不会回答。 L ă o s h i bèi xu ésh en g w é n le sảnge w é n tí, ta d ou bú h u i huídá. T h e te a ch e r w as asked th re e q uestions b y the students, none o f w h ic h he co u ld answ er.

488

A Practical Chinese Grammar

(C ) T h e re s u lta tiv e c o m p le m en t: ( 1 1 ) 自行车被他修坏了。 Z ix ín g c h ě bèi tá x iũ h u à ile . T h e b ik e w as b ro k e n b y h im w h ile he trie d to f ix it.

(D ) T h e d ire c tio n a l c o m p le m en t: ( 1 2 ) 我要的书被他借去了。

wỏ

yà o de shũ bèi tã jiè q ù le .

T h e b o o k I w a n t w as checked o u t b y h im .

(E )

T h e c o m p le x d ire c tio n a l c o m p le m en t: ( 1 3 ) 墙上的画儿被风刮下来了。 Q iá n g s h a n g de h u à r bèi fē n g g u â x ià lá i le. T h e p ic tu re on th e w a ll w as b lo w n d o w n b y the w in d .

(F )

T h e c o m p le m e n t o f e xten t: ( 1 4 ) 他被坏人打得站不起来。 T á b èi h u à i ré n dă de zhàn b u q ĩlá i. H e g o t so b a d ly beaten b y th e sco un drels th a t he c o u ld n ’t g e t up.

Sentence (14) in v o lv e s th e use o f a special ty p e o f c o m p le m e n t w h ic h w e w ill dis­ cuss la te r in th is lesson.

1.3

U n lik e its e q u iv a le n t passive in E n g lis h w h e re th e re is o n ly one p repositional

m a rk e r b y , th e C hinese 被 一sentence has fo u r fu n c tio n in g ca nd id ates : 被 6ẻ 人让 rá 嗯 口 H jiá o , and 给 ểẻi.

( 1 5 .a ) 买来的冰棍儿都被孩子们吃完了。 M ả ilá i de b in g g ù n r d ỏu bèi h á iz im e n c h iw á n le. A l l th e popsicles th a t w e had b o u g h t w ere eaten b y th e c h ild re n . ( 1 5 .b ) 买 来 的 儿 都 让 孩 子 们 吃 完 了 。 M ả ilá i de b ĩn g g ù n r d õu rà n g h á iz im e n c h iw á n le. (1 5 .C ) 买 来 的 冰 棍 儿 叫 孩 子 们 吃 堯 了 。 M ă ilá i de b ln g g ù n r d õu jià o h á izim e n c h iw á n le. ( 1 5 . d ) 买来的冰棍儿 i i 给孩子们吃: 完 了 。 M ả ilá i de b in g g ù n r dõu gèi h á iz im e n c h iw á n le.

ế Lesson 49

489

Of the fo u r m a rk e rs ,被 is th e o n ly one used e x c lu s iv e ly fo r th e passive co n s tru c tio n . r The re m a in in g th re e serve o th e r g ra m m a tic a l fu n c tio n s as w e ll. F o r e xam ple, the fo llo w in g sentence is a m b ig io u s as 让 m a y s ig n ify e ith e r passive as in (16.a) o r per^ mission as in (16.c).

f a (16. —

也 踢 了 :脚 。 …

W o rà n g tā tile y ijia o . ( i ) I w as k ic k e d b y h im . ( ii) I le t h im (g iv e a) k ic k .

( 1 6 .b H 也真利害。我 Ồ 他 骂 了 几 句 ,还让他踢了一 脚 。 T a zhèn lìh a i.

wỏ

bèi ta m àle jĩjù , h ái ràn g ta t ile y ijia o .

H e is re a lly fierce. I w as ye lle d a t and also g o t k ic k e d b y him . ( 1 6 .C ) 他不会踢 í é ,但是我还是 i i 他踢 了 一 脚 。 T á b ú h u ì tĩ q iú , dànshì w ỏ h áishì rà n g ta tile y ijia o . H e doesn’t k n o w h o w to p la y b a ll, y e t I s till le t h im g iv e th e b a ll a k ic k .

S ty lis tic a lly M others

is th e p ro p e r and fo rm a l m a rk e r m o s t p re fe rre d in w ritin g , th o u g h

are o fte n used in te rc h a n g e a b ly w ith 被 in c o n v e r s a tio n . 给,on th e o th e r

hand, is a v e ry co m m o n passive m a rk e r in c o llo q u ia l speech. T h e fo llo w in g are more sentences to illu s tra te th e use o f these v a ria n ts in th e passive c o n s tru c tio n .

( 1 7 ) 那本旧杂志没让人拿走。 N à bẽn jiù zázhi m é i rà n g rén nazóu. T h a t o ld m agazine w a s n ’t ta k e n a w a y b y anyone. ( 1 8 ) 王掌柜的孩子教他逼死了。 W á n g z h a n g g u i de h á iz i jiá o tā b ĩs ĩ le. S to re ke e p e r W a n g ’s son w as d riv e n to d eath b y h im . ( 1 9 ) 我的花瓶给谁打破了?

wỏ de

h u â p ín g gẽi shéi dảpòle?

B y w h o m w as m y vase broken?

To fu rth e r enhance th e m a rk in g o f th e passive, some speakers m a y o p t fo r th e fo llowing pattern with an additional 给 before the verb, even when the preposition it-

self is 给 • Sentences (20) and (21) are illustrations of this optional variation.

R e c ip ie n t



+

被/让/ 叫/ 给 - A c t o r

+ ( 给 )一V e rb

A Practical Chinese Grammar 1

490

( 2 0 ) 我借给他的自行车叫他(给 )卖 了 。 W õ jiè g ẽi tā de z ix ín g c h ě jiá o tā (g ẽ i) m àile. T h e b ik e th a t I had le n t h im , ----- he sold it. ( 2 1 ) 在这 个 话 剧 里 ,那个伟大的艺术家让坏人(给 )杀 死 了 。 Z ài zhè ge h u á ju li, nà ge w e id á de y is h u jiá rà n g h u à iré n (g ẽ i) shà-



sĩle.

1.4

In th is p la y , th a t g re a t a rtis t w as m u rd e re d b y th e v illa in s .

I

O th e r th a n s ty lis tic d is tin c tio n s , 被 d iffe rs fro m 口 H and 让 in th a t 被 m a y be used

I

d ire c tly w ith th e ve rb w ith o u t th e O b je c t. W h e n th e re is no need to s p e c ify the per­ fo rm e r o f th e a ctio n , th e a c to r n o m in a l m a y be o m itte d as in the fo llo w in g schema:

Passive:

S u b je c t

+

被一V e rb

[R e c ip ie n t]

T h e p re p o s itio n 给 m a y also p a rtic ip a te in th is tru n c a te d fo rm o f passive, b u t not 叫 f o r 让. ( 2 2 * a ) 他被踢了一脚。 T ā bèi tīle y ijia o . H e g o t k ic k e d once. ( 2 2 . b ) 他给踢了一脚。 1 ā gel tile y ijia o . (22.C) * 他 ì ô i 了 一 脚 。 * T ā rà n g tile y ijia o . (2 2 .d )* 他叫踢了一脚。 * T ā jiá o tile y ijia o . ( 2 3 ) 箱 子 给 打 开 了 ,可是里边的东西没被拿走。 X ia n g z i gẽi d ă k ã ile , kẽshì lĩb iâ n de d õ n g x i m é i bèi názỏu. T h e suitcase w as opened, b u t th e th in g s in sid e w e re n o t taken

I

aw ay. A n o th e r g ra m m a tic a l id io s y n c ra c y o f th e p re p o s itio n 被 is th a t i t m a y fo rm special expressions w ith c e rta in ve rb s th a t are n o t a llo w e d fo r th e o th e r passive markers. F o r e xa m p le , 被抓 fcéi zAuá “ to be a rrested .” I f th e m a rk e r is 给,the ve rb phrase has to co n ta in an e x tra e le m e n t such as an aspect m a r k e r : 给抓了 . I f th e m a rk e r is 叫 or I 让 ,th e ve rb phrase has to have b o th th e e x tra e le m ent and th e O b je c t : 叫/让人抓了.

j

T h e fo llo w in g ta b le sums up th e d iffe re n c e s a m o ng these fo u r m arkers:

* Lesson 49

491

% S u b je c t + P rep o stition

S u b je c t + P rep o sition +

S u b je c t + P rep o sition +

O b je c t + V e r b + X

V erb — X

V erb











叫 让

1.5

A s y o u m a y have n o tice d b y n o w , m a n y o f th e passive sentences g iv e n above

sounded v e ry stran ge in E n g lis h w h e n re n de re d w ith th e b y -c o n s tru c tio n . In o th e r

\ words, even th o u g h b o th languages have a passive c o n s tru c tio n , th e usage is n o t alJ ways th e same. E n g lis h lan gu ag e teachers fre q u e n tly te ll th e ir students to re fra in I from u sin g th e passive w h e n th e same sentence can be phrased in th e a c tiv e m ode.

9 The e m p lo y m e n t o f th e E n g lis h passive som etim es serves a s p e cific purpose, such as s h iftin g th e fo cu s o f th e sentence to th e re c ip ie n t o f th e a ction. F o r exam ple, V compare th e fo llo w in g tw o sentences w h ic h re la te the same h is to ric a l event.

(24.a) T h e k in g sent A n n B o ly n to th e e x e c u tio n g ro un d. (2 4 .b ) A n n B o ly n w as sent to th e e x e c u tio n g ro u n d (b y th e k in g ).

I w řlile th e em phasis o f (24.a) is o n K in g H e n ry V I I I and w h a t he d id , th e a tte n tio n j in the passive fo rm (24.b) is d ra w n to A n n B o ly n and h e r u n fo rtu n a te death. T h e re -

ị fore, even th o u g h th e sentences b a s ic a lly say th e same th in g , th e em phasis is q u ite • different. I t is p erhaps because o f th is c h a ra c te ris tic s h ift o f fo cus in a passive sent­ ence th a t w e w o u ld say ťťT h e glass g o t b r o k e n , in s t e a d o f ul b ro k e th e glass, I when w e w a n t to a v o id re s p o n s ib ility . B y o p tin g fo r th e passive p a tte rn , w e have not o n ly re p o rte d w h a t has happened b u t have also, in fa c t, disassociated ourselves from a p o te n tia lly in c rim in a tin g in cid e n t. In C hin ese ,th e use o f th e 被 一sentence serves a p a rtic u la r sem antic fu n c tio n , namely re p o rtin g so m e th in g u n fa v o ra b le , u n d e sira b le o r u n fo rtu n a te . T h is p e jo ra ­ tive re a d in g o f th e ® — c o n s tru c tio n sh o u ld be e v id e n t fro m m o s t o f th e above e x ­ amples. E v e n a s e e m in g ly ť, in E n g lis h .

不但

Sentence 1 ’ 而且

Sentence 2 0

495

• Lesson 49

(1 )

你不但是我的好老师,而且也是我的好朋友。 N ĩ b ú d à n shì w ỏ de hăo lăo shĩ, é rq iẽ yẽ shì w õ de hăo péngyou. N o t o n ly are y o u m y g oo d teacher, y o u are also m y good frie n d .

(2 )

不但我说你是一个好老师,而且别的老师也都认为你教得很成功。 B ú d à n w õ shuò n ĩ shì yíg e hăo lăo shĩ, é rqiẽ biéde lă o s h ĩ yẽ d õu rènw é i n ĩ jiā o de hẽn chénggỏng. N o t o n ly do I say y o u are a good teacher, b u t th e o th e r in s tru c to rs also c la im th a t y o u teach e ffe c tiv e ly .

I W hen th e tw o clauses share th e same subject, i ķ in th e case o f sentence (1), th e sub­ ject sits a t th e v e ry b e g in n in g o f th e e n tire sequence. I f th e ir subjects are d iffe re n t as in (2), th e c o rre la tiv e s g e n e ra lly s ta rt o ff th e clauses. A ls o , th e second clause m a y often c o n ta in an a d ve rb 也 o r 还 to fu rth e r u nderscore th e association. T h e fo llo w in g 1 are m o re illu s tra tio n s . (3 )

这本书不但丰富了我的历史知识,而且也加深了我对新中国的了解。 Z hè bẽn shủ b ú d à n fē n g fu le w ỏ de lìs h ĩ zh īs h i, é rqiẽ yè jiā s h ē n le w o d uì x ĩn Z h o n g g u ó de lia o jie . T h is b o o k has n o t o n ly e n rich e d m y k n o w le d g e o f h is to ry , b u t also deepened m y u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e n e w C hina.