A Pattern of Pseudo-Naturalism: Lynd, Mead, and Farrell

501 11 17MB

English Pages 253

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

A Pattern of Pseudo-Naturalism: Lynd, Mead, and Farrell

Citation preview

A

OF P3!OTQ~NATXJJiALISM LYHD, M tA lf AMD FARHELL

by D avid H ow ell Owen

A d i s s e r t a t i o n s u b m itte d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r t h e d e g re e o f l o o t e r o f P h ilo s o p h y , i n t h e l e p a r tm e n t o f i & g lls h i n t h e G ra d u a te C o lle g e o f t h e S t a t e T J n iv e r s ity o f Iow a F e b ru a ry 1950 State University of Iowa

LIBRARY

ProQuest Number: 10902182

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10902182 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

A0W OVi(LTOMOTS

I am s i n c e r e l y g r a t e f u l , t o H a n fo rd Kuhn f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and k in d n e s s i n m aking many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s w h ile t h i s p a p e r was i n p ro g ress#

W ith o u t t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n s I r e c e i v e d from ■ Jki"

G u s ta v Bergmanm X s h o u ld n o t h a r e b e e n a b le t o w r i t e i t ? t o Mm 1 am t h a n k f u l#

I am in d e b te d t o A le x a n d e r K e rn ,

my a d v i s o r , f o r h i s h u m a n ity and g e n e r o s i t y i n d i r e c t i n g my g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s and t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s p a p e r*

j

11

(hnrmvvs page In tro d u c tio n

............................

1

C h a p te r I * P s e u d o - f f a tu r a lis m 1n S o c i a l T h a e ry

* *

C h a p te r I I . F s e u d o -H a tu r a l l am i n S o c i a l P h ilo s o p h y

* *

9

« * 62

C h a p te r I I I , P s e u d o - N a tu r a lis m i n L i t e r a r y t h e o r y : The D ecay o f t h e M id d le - C la s s . • • • , .

91

C h a p te r I T . The S e a rc h f o r a S e l f ! The M id d le -C la s s as M o le s e e n t * * * * • * * * • # • « • •

128

C h a p te r V* The S e l f Met Found!

Voting Man • « . •

The M id d le -C la s s a s

.....................

163

C h a p te r V I. D e a th I n L i f e ! t h e M id d le - C la s s a s D ying Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

206

C h a p te r T i l *

C o n c lu s io n • . * « « • . • • • * * • • »

283

B ib lio g r a p h y

• • • * *

*

. . . . . . .

111

.2 4 3

1

In tro d u c tio n f e b e c o n s id e r e d I n t h i s p a p e r a r e some forms o f a c o n f u s io n w h ich h a s b e e n w id e s p r e a d i n w e s te r n th o u g h t s i n c e Iftame show ed t h a t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o rld v ie w , a s o r t

S t r a t l o n a l i a t i e - e m p i r i c i s m , c o u ld n o t w i t h s t a n d c l o s e a n a l ­ y s is ,

t h i s w o rld v ie w was e m p i r i c a l i n t h a t t h e s o u r c e o f

K now ledge was assum ed t o h e s e n s e - d a t a c a u s e d hy a n o b je e * t i v e w o rld a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e ,

The

r a t i o n a l i s t i c e le m e n t was t h e e m p h a sis on r e a s o n , a q u a l i t y o f b o th t h e o b j e c t i v e w o rld an d t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e rie n c e . . T h e re w a s, a s i t w e re , a o n e - to - o n e c o rr e s p o n d e n c e b e tw e e n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m ind and t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i t s o b j e c t s , s c t h a t t h e la w s o f t h e m ind w ere t h e same a s t h e law s o f n a tu re ,

H a tu re and man w ere b o th r a t i o n a l ; t h e c o n n e c tio n s

b e tw e e n t h e s e n s e - d a t a w ere l o g i c a l ,

Hame*s a n a l y s i s show ed

t h a t t h i s a s s u m p tio n c o u ld n o t b e m ade, t h a t t h e s e eonnee* t I o n s , t h e c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r ld , w ere n o t l o g i c a l n o r i n t r i n s i c , n o r n e c e s s a r y , n o r i n t e l ­ lig ib le ,

C a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a c c o rd in g t o Hume, a l l a r e

no m ore t h a n r e g u l a r i t i e s t o b e s t a t e d i n t h e fo rm , w h en ev er A, t h e n 1 ; and t h e o n ly know ledge p o s s i b l e a b o u t t h e o b j e c ­ t i v e w o rld i s o f t h i s k i n d .

The com bined f a i l u r e t o s e e

t h i s i s p a r t o f t h e e e u f u e io n t o b e lo o k e d a t .

I f p re m is e

a n d c o n c lu s io n a r e c o n fu s e d w ith c a u s e and e f f e c t , t h e

2

e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n m e ta p h y s ic a l s p e c u l a t i o n and e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e I s b e in g l o s t * f h e e m p h a sis on s e n s e - d a t a made t h e e i g h t e e n t h C e n tu ry w o rld v ie w p o t e n t i a l l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c * t h e s t r u c t u r e o f n a t u r e waa r a t i o n a l * w ere th o u g h t o f a s m a t e r i a l*

A lth o u g h

i t s b a s i c elem ent®

A f t e r t h e Humean a n a l y s i s *

many o f t h o s e who i n s i s t e d on m a i n t a i n in g t h e r a t i o n a l ­ i s t i c s t r u c t u r e te n d e d to w a rd t h e P l a t o n i c b i a s o f t h e n o n - r e a l i t y o f m a t t e r ; su c h i s t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n o f n i n e ­ t e e n t h c e n t u r y i d e a l i s t i c th o u g h t*

The c o u n te r t r e n d

i n s i s t e d on t h e p h y s i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t e n t e r e d i n t h e w h e n e v e r-th e n s ta te m e n ts *

Our p r e s e n t - d a y

c o n c e p tio n o f s c i e n c e s t a n d s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h i s l a t t e r tr e n d *

I n t h e d ev elo p m e n t o f t h e n a t u r a l s c ie n c e s *

t h e p ro b le m o f t h e h i n d o f v a r i a b l e s was n o t b o th e rs o m e s l n e e t h e n a t u r a l s c ie n c e s * i n t h e i d e a l i s t i c view * w ere c o n c e rn e d w ith t h e w o rld o f a p p e a ra n c e s* a c c e p t th e p h y s ic a l v a r ia b le s .

I d e a l i s t s c o u ld

However* when t h e m etho­

d o lo g y o f s c i e n c e b e g a n t o b e a p p li e d t o t h e b e h a v io r o f human b e in g s * a g re em e n t on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s c ea sed * w ith t h e i d e a l i s t s i n s i s t i n g on human v a r i a b l e s o f a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r fro m t h e p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f t h e n a t u r a l s c ie n c e s *

A s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d o lo g y r e s t s on t h e

O b s e r v a b i l i t y o f t h e v a r i a b l e s and t h e s e m ust be

5

s u s c e p t i b l e t o b e in g re d u c e d t o p h y s i c a l terms*

I t th e re

I s t o b e k n o w led g e o f t h e law s o f man’ s b e h a v i o r w i t h i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e , i t m ust h e i n p h y s i c a l te rm s*

An a tte m p t w i l l h e made t o p o i n t o u t c e r t a i n

m is c o n c e p tio n s a r i s i n g fro m l a c k o f c l a r i t y on t h i s a s p e c t o f s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d o lo g y a s i t a p p l i e s t o human b e h a v io r * W ith in t h e fra m e o f s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d , man i s a p h y s i c a l t h i n g i n a l a w f u l w o rld *

W hatever may seem t h e

d i s o r d e r i n t h e s o c i a l e n v iro n m e n t d o e s n o t w eaken su c h a s ta te m e n tt th e d is o r d e r o fte n a t t r ib u t e d to s o c ie ty I s o f

a d i f f e r e n t k in d *

G e n e r a lly s t a t e d , i t m eans t h a t s o c i e t y

i s n o t w hat man w a n ts i t t o has

j u s t a s when one w a n ts t o

go on a p i c n i c w h ich h a s t o h e c a l l e d o f f b e c a u s e o f a th u n d e r s to r m , t h e r e i s d i s o r d e r I n t h e s e n s e t h a t w hat one w a n ts and w hat t r a n s p i r e s a r e n o t t h e same*

The la w ­

f u l n e s s o f man’ s b e h a v i o r i s t o b e c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f w h e th e r h e i s a c h ie v in g t h e g o a l s he w an ts*

W hether man w i l l g e t t h e k in d o f s o c i a l

w o rld he w a n ts i s a q u e s t io n t o b e a sk e d f r u i t f u l l y when t h e r e i s a s o c i a l s c i e n c e w h ic h p r e d i c t s human b e h a v io r o n t h e b a s i s o f e m p i r i c a l la w s j w ith t h i s k in d o f know­ le d g e t h e q u e s t io n becom es m e a n in g fu l*

W hether h e i s

4

l i v i n g i n s u c h a w o rld i® a m e a n in g fu l q u e s t i o n a s k e d o v e r and o v e r a g a i n b y t h e l i t e r a r y a r t i s t *

L ite ra tu re i s in

one s e n s e a r e s o r t o f t h e ways t h i s q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n an sw ered* t h e m eth o d o lo g y o f l i t e r a t u r e i s f i r s t t o b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d fro m t h a t o f s e le n o e by t h e v a r i a b l e s w hich a r e e o n s i t e r ed s l g n i f l e a n t *

W ith in t h e l i t e r a r y fra m e o f

r e f e r e n c e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e v a l u e s o r p u rp o s e s *

As

s u c h t h e y a r e s u b j e c t i v e * and w i t h i n l i t e r a r y m e th o d o lo g y a r e n o n - r e d u c i b le t o t h e te r m s o f o b j e c t i v e s c i e n c e , t h a t i s , u l t i m a t e l y an d i n p r i n c i p l e , t h e te rm s o f p h y s ic s * t h i s s u g g e s t s a more o r l e s s p r e c i s e m ean in g f o r o b j e c ­ tiv e c o rre la tiv e {

a te rm o n t h e l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l t h i n g s

an d t h e i r p a t t e r n s and r e l a t i o n s h a s b e e n " r a i s e d " t o a s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l when i t i s a n o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e . J u s t a s we c a n i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c fram e o f r e f e r e n c e r e ­ d u c e t h e te r m , p u r p o s e , t o t h e m a t e r i a l l e v e l i n o r d e r t o s t a t e e m p i r i c a l la w s w i t h o u t , b y d o in g t h a t , d e n y in g t h a t we h a v e g o a l s an d p u r p o s e s ; so t h e te r m , t r e e , i s w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a r y fra m e s t i l l t h e name o f a n o b j e c t i n t h e p h y s i c a l w o rld e v e n a f t e r " t h e r a i s e " h a s b e e n made*

The

r a i s e I s made I n o r d e r t o make s t a te m e n t s a b o u t s u b j e c ­ t i v e e x p e rie n c e .

B u t, i f t h e y a r e t h u s b r o u g h t i n t o

5

l i t e r a r y u s a g e * p h y s i c a l te rm s becom e m eans f o r e x p r e s s in g f e e l i n g s , p u r p o s e s , v a l u e s w h ic h human 'b e in g s h a r e . th e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n i n s e le n e e I s s t a t e d I n th e fo r m , w h e n e v e r 4 , t h e n B , w h e re b o th A and B r e f e r t o o b j e c t l y e g iv e n n e s s e s *

I n l i t e r a r y m e th o d o lo g y , w hat

m ig h t r o u g h ly p a r a l l e l t h e s c i e n t i f i c s t a te m e n t o f c a u s a l r e l a t i o n w o u ld b e w h en ev er A, t h e n B , w here A r e f e r s t o v a l u e s , end S , o b j e c t i v e g l v e n n e s s e s , I s r a i s e d t o a sub-* 3e n t i r e o r v a lu e l e v e l * I s t o b e n o te d #

H ow ever, t h i s im p o r ta n t d i f f e r e n c e

I n s e l e n e e t h e r e d u e t i o n i s made a s a

f i r s t s t e p s o t h a t r e g u l a r i t i e s c a n b e o b s e rv e d s , t h e p r o c e d u r e o f s e l e n e e I s r e c o r d i n g w hat t h e la w s a re # L i t e r a t u r e , on t h e e t h e r h a n d , I s t h e p r o c e s s o f r a i s i n g a l l te rm s t o a v a lu e l e v e l *

A m ore p r e c i s e f o r m u la ti o n i s

t h a t l i t e r a t u r e i s th e , a tte m p t t o make t h e r a i s e c o m p le te so t h a t , A ( p h y s i c a l te rm ) becom es B { s u b j e c t i v e t e r m ) , t h e r e f e r e n t 1© s h i f t e d fro m t h e o b j e c t i v e t o t h e s u b j e c ­ t i v e , and a t h e o r y o f l i t e r a t u r e w o u ld , i n p a r t , s y s te m ­ a t i c a l l y w ork o u t la w s w h ich w ould p r e d i c t when t h e s h i f t t a k e s /p la c e , how w ords a r e moved fro m t h e s e m a n t ic a l t o t h e p r a g m a ti c a l l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e , from t h e f a c t u a l t o t h e e x p re s s iv e * When t h e l i t e r a r y a n d s c i e n t i f i c fra m e s o f r e f e r e n c e a r e n o t k e p t d i s t i n c t l y a p a r t , g r e a t c o n f u s io n

6

r e s u l t s i f l i b e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c v a r i a b l e s a r e m ixed i n w henever»»then sta te m e n t® * tie e d in th is paper i m

The s p e c i f i c fo rm t o tie »o* w h e n ev e r A ( n o n -re d u c e d v a lu e

t e r m s ) § t h e n B ( p h y s i c a l t e r m s )» and t h e n t o su p p o s e t h a t t h i s s t a te m e n t 1© s c i e n t i f i c *

T h is h in d o f c o n f u s io n

g i v e s r i s e t o t h e m is ta k e n n o tio n ® t h a t l i t e r a t u r e i s k n o w led g e ( i n t h e s c l e n t i f i e s e n s e ) an d t h a t human v alue® make s c i e n t i f i c s tu d y o f human b e h a v io r e s s e n t i a l l y & lf f e r e n t fro m n a t u r a l s e l e n e e I n m etho d o lo g y *

In s tru c tu re

t h e c o n f u s io n i s t h e same one Iftxme p o i n t e d o u t I n t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c - e m p i r i e i s t i e p a t t e r n ; v a lu e s o r f e e l i n g s a r e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r r e a s o n i n t h e m odern v e r s i o n o f t h e fo rm u la * One o f t h e v e r b a l p u s s i e s t h a t h a s alw ay s I n t r i g u e d men h a s b e e n t h a t o f o p p o s i t e s ; p a ir® o f w ords su c h a s g e o d - s v i l f one-m any h a v e a f a s c i n a t i o n w hich when i t becom es g r e a t enough l e a d s men t o a tte m p t t o r e s o l v e t h e p a i r s so t h a t t h e ,,e e n i r a d i e t i o m ,, seem s t o d is a p p e a r* H e g e l and Marx a r e name® a s s o c i a t e d w ith r e s o l v i n g co n ­ t r a d i c t i o n s by t h e t h e s i s - a n t i t h e s i s - s y n t h e s i s m ethod* A n o th e r name f o r t h i s p r o c e s s 1© t h e n e g a t i o n o f t h e n e ­ g a tio n *

A w id e s p re a d c o n f u s io n h a s r e s u l t e d from m aking

t h e A*s i n e m p i r i c a l whem ever- th e n s t a te m e n t s t h e t h e s i s a n t l t h e s l s - s y n t h e s i © p r o c e s s so t h a t i t a p p e a rs t o b e

9

km©wledg© i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c s e n s e t h a t la w s o f t h e o b je c ­ t i v e w o rld a r e t h o s e o f r e s o l v i n g t h e s i s - a n t i t h e s i s i n t o s y n th e s is * T h is p a t t e r n g e t s i n t o l i t e r a t u r e fey p u t t i n g human p u r p o s e s o r v a l u e s l a te rm s o f t h e e l s - a n t i t h e s i s * AS a l i t e r a r y d e v ic e i t I s f r u i t f u l s i n c e i t m a le s i t p o s ­ s i b l e t© fe u ild u p te n s io n ® t h a t a r e u e e d t o i n d i c a t e c h a r a c t e r m o ti v a ti o n s i n t h e n o v e l and t o s e t t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e k i n d o f p o e t r y known a s m e ta p h y s ic a l*

So s t r o n g i s

t h i s H e g e lia n I n f l u e n c e t h a t many c o n te m p o ra ry l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s eeem t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s t h e o n ly k in d o f l i t e r a t u r e p o s s ib l e * To p u t v a lu e s o r p u r p o s e s i n t o t h e s i s - a n t i t h e s l s fo rm i s on e m eaning o f i r r a t i o n a l i t y *

The H e g e lia n

p a t t e r n i s c o m p le te d when i n t e l l i g e n c e i s s e t up a s t h e s y n t h e s i z e r o f t h i s t h e s l s - a n t i t h e s i s r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n p u rp o s e s *

When l i t e r a r y a n d s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d o lo g ie s a r e

n o t r i g o r o u s l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d * a c o n f u s io n a r i s e s from m aking t h e A*® o f w henever - t h e n s t a t e m e n t s I n t h e p a t t e r n o f I r r a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s feeing s y n t h e s i z e d fey i n t e l l i g e n c e ! s o t h a t e m p i r i c a l la w s seem t o fee s t a te m e n t s o f e n d s -m e a n s . f h l » i s a b r i e f g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f w hat m ig h t fee c a l l e d i n s t r u m e n t a l p ra g m a tism a s i t i s o f some A m erican f i c t i o n l a b e ll e d n a t u r a l i s t i c o r s o c io lo g ic a l*

8

T h is p a p e r I s a b e g in n in g o f a lo n g tim e stu d y g a s s u c h I t a o u t e r a on t h e w r i t i n g o f w hat m ig h t h e c o n ­ s i d e r e d t h r o e t y p i c a l au th o r® I n t h e p s e u d o - n a t u r a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o u tlin e d i n t h i s In tro d u c tio n *

O nly t h a t p o r ­

t i o n o f t h e i r w orks W hich a p p e a re d i n t h e p e r i o d 1930 t o 1 9 4 0 | f o r t h e m ost p a r t * a r e u se d *

t h e y a r e H e b e rt S*

Xynd* G eo rg e H e r b e r t Head* and dames T* F a r r e l l *

Xgrnd

d i r e c t e d a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f a m id w e s te ra c i t y ; Mead t a u g h t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C hicago % and F a r r e l l was b o r a a n d r a i s e d i n C hicago*

T h ese a r e t h e s p a c e - tim e l i m i t s

o f t h e stu d y * The p r o c e d u r e t o b e f o llo w e d i s Q u ite s im p le i n t h a t i t m e re ly s e e k s t o f i n d a s i m i l a r i t y o f p a t t e r n I n t h e w ork o f a s o c i o l o g i s t * a p h ilo s o p h e r * and a n o v e l i s t i n s o f a r a s t h e c o n f u s io n s s u g g e s te d above a r e t o b e fo u n d i n t h e i r w r i t in g *

The c o n f u s io n s a l l seem t o r e ­

v o lv e a ro u n d t h e p ro b le m o f th e r e d u c t i o n o f v a lu e te rm s t o a n o b j e c t i v e l e v e l , o r s t a t e d o t h e r w i s e , a ro u n d t h e p ro b le m o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s o c i a l s c ie n c e * T h is p ro b le m o f f e r s a c o n v e n ie n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e a d v a n c e d by H e b e rt 3* Xynd*

9

C h a p te r I MmMHVAmJUUESK IK SOCIAL THEOHT b e l i e f I n c c l s n c e a s an y e a r s and

J3% ^y¥g^^

fb lS appeal to y e l e n l f as ^ In lfrtu ^ g y na ' I a n e * l i e n o r ' e r l ¥ e r 1^ n ^ rf ',>'r i k E ¥ '" S K ~e x p e a T e n e e ,

|p|& £ $Igs |a d as t i n e d to tra n s fo rm

2£ p r »^ a p ^ i*a-gas

t h e w hole t e n o r o r t h e p u l® f f i p a ^ r a m w a a r ” to w a rd s o c i a l r e o o n e tr u e tT o n , x

The s c i e n t i s t work® w ith su c h t h i n g s a s m e t e r s , gauge® , th e r m o m e te r s , m ic r o s c o p e s , te le s c o p e ® , and o t h e r p h y s ic a l o b je c ts ,

I h e n one t a l k s a b o u t s e l e n e e , h e a s*

sum es t h a t * we know t h e m eaning o f s u c h s t a te m e n t s a s f S h o re a r e s e r e n t e e n c h a i r s i n t h i s room 15 'T h e p o i n t e r o f t h i s I n s tr u m e n t i s a t r e s t o r h a s j u s t m ored t o t h e s c a le p o in t in s c r ib e d

The s c i e n t i s t a l s o w orks

w i t h a b s t r a c t i o n s su c h a® e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d s , w hich a r e n o n ~ th in g s « P h y s i c i s t s s a y t h a t a c o n d u c to r , t h a t i s a c e r t a i n p h y s ic a l th in g , g e n e ra te s an e l e c t r i c a l 1* L , It* B e rn a rd an d J . S* B e rn a r d , O r ig in s o f A m erican ^ p p , 4 4 -4 S , I t a l i c s mim3. 2 , G u s ta v B ergm ann, "An i& n p ir ie ts t'© System o f t h e S c i e n c e s ," The S c i e n t i f i c M onthly I I I (A u g u s t, 1 9 4 4 ), p « 141,

f i e l d i f , and o n ly I f # u n d e r s p e c i f i a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , so m e th in g d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b le h a p p e n s t o o t h e r p h y s i c a l 'th in g © l a it® n e ig h b o r h o o d , t h e e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t , l a t u r n , I s r e e o g m tz e d , a s one u s u a l l y s a y s , e i t h e r b y t h e m crcm eat o f a m a g n e tie n e e d le l a i t s n e ig h b o r h o o d , o r b y t h e h e a t i n g o f a r e s i s t a n c e | o r by t h e s e d i m e n ta t io n o f a s o l i d s u b s ta n c e c u t o f a s o * o a ll© d e l e c t r o l y t l o a l s o l u t i o n . C u s to m a r ily one s p e a k s o f t h e s e t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e , Im m e d ia te ly o b s e r v a b le e v e n ts a s e f f e c t s b y w h ic h t h e p r e s e n c e o f th e e l e e t r i e c u rr e n t i s re c o g n iz e d $ l o g i c a l l y , h o w e v e r, t h i s i s p u t t i n g t h e c a r t b e f o r e t h e h o r s e a n d one s h o u ld r a t h e r s a y t h a t w hat i s m eant by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t i n a w ir e I s , f i r s t , t h a t w h en ev er one o f t h e t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e m e a s u rin g I n s t r u m e n t s , mag* n e t l e , t h e r m i c , o r c h e m ic a l, i s p u t i n t o i t s c i r c u i t , t h e c o rr e s p o n d in g phenom enon w i l l be o b s e r v e d , a n d , s e c o n d , t h a t w h en ev er one o f t h e s e t e s t s comes o u t p o s i t i v e , t h e n t h e - o t h e r tw o w i l l a l s o show t h e e x p e c te d ch an g e s.® K hat t h e a u t h o r o f t h e above q u o t a t i o n h a s done i s r e * duoed a n a b s t r a c t te rm t o a " p h y s i c a l i s t i c v e r i f i c a t i o n b a s i s "4 o r d e f i n e d i t o p e r a t i o n a l l y * and t h e m eaning o f t h e a b s t r a c t t e r m , e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d , i s known b e c a u s e i t h a s b e e n r e d u c e d t o te rm s w hich d e n o te im m e d ia te ly o b s e r v a b le t h i n g s . L anguage c a n be c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g t h r e e d im e n s io n s o r a s p e c t s s p ra g m a tic a l.

t h e s y n t a c t i c a l , s e m a n t i c a l , and

At t h i s p o i n t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r

3# I b i d . , P . 1 4 8 . 4 , I b id ., p . 142.

11 o n ly t h e s e m a n t ic a l d im e n s io n w h ich i s t h a t o f t h e r e l a ­ t i o n b e tw e e n w ords an d t h e i r o b j e c t i v e r e f e r e n t s , r e l a t i o n i s on© o f p o i n t i n g . p o i n t a t n o n - t h ln g s ?

T h is

B ut w hat a b o u t w ords t h a t

T hese w ords* a s was show n, c a n be

d e f i n e d i n te r m s o f t h i n g s a n d r e l a t i o n s w h ich a r e im m e d ia te ly p e r c e i v e d , 1,© ,, t h e y c a n be re d u c e d t o an o b j e c t i v e b a s i s , and I t was ta k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t I t i s known w hat w ords on t h i s l e v e l m ean,

The r e d u c t i o n o #

a b s t r a c t te r m s t o a p h y s i c a l l e v e l may seem t o im p ly t h a t t h e o n ly r e a l t h i n g s a r e p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s su c h a s t a b l e s , c h a irs , ro o k s, p o in te rs , e tc .

T h is i s n o t so sine©

P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y s p e a k in g , t h e r e a r e n o t o n ly t h i n g s i n t h e w o rld b u t a l s o t h e i r m a n ifo ld p a t t e r n s , s t r u c t u r e s , and r e l a t i o n s , S p e a k in g i n te r m s o f p h y s i c a l s e l e n e e t h i s m eans t h a t f o r c e s , e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d s , and e l a s t i c i t y eo* e f f i c i e n t s a re as r e a l as th e p h y s ic a l o b je c ts w hich • « * fo rm $h© o p e r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r th e ir d e fin itio n s .5 S ta te m e n ts w h ic h c o n t a i n t h i n g te rm s and a b s t r a c t te rm s a r e m e a n i n g f u l ,. t h e n , b e c a u s e t h e r e f e r e n t s c a n be r e d u c e d to a p h y s ic a l l e v e l .

The r e f e r e n t s a r e n o t c r e a t e d by t h e

a u t h o r o f a s t a t e m e n t j t h e s ta te m e n t i s t r u e o r f a l s e r e g a r d l e s s o f who © aid i t o r w here o r when i t was m ade. A ll a b s t r a c t te rm s u s e d by a s c i e n t i s t m ust be d e fin e d o p e r a tio n a lly , 5 , I b i d , , p , 145

red u c ed to a p h y s ic a l

12 v e r if ic a tio n ta e ls *

However n o t a l l a b s t r a c t te rm s

( e m p iric a l c o n s tr u c ts ) a re f r u i t f u l f o r th e s c i e n t i s t * F o r ex am p les A p e r s o n * s w e ig h t m u l t i p l i e d b y t h e num ber o f h i e h a i r s and d i v id e d by t h e t h i r d pow er o f h i s b lo o d e o u n t i s a c o r r e c t l y d e f i n e d e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t | and s t i l l one c a n s a f e l y p r e d i c t t h a t i t w i l l n e v e r r e c e i v e any a t t e n t i o n i n s c i e n c e • * ♦ A c o n c e p t a p p e a rs q u e s t io n a b le t o u s i f * and o n ly i f * t h e r e a r e no known la w s a b o u t it* ® Laws a r e " t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n t h e c o n c e p ts o r^ a s one a l s o sa y s* v a r i a b l e s d e f in e d * " ^

T hese

f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e e m p i r i c a l i n t h a t t h e y a re f o r m u la te d on t h e b a s i s o f o b s e rv e d r e g u l a r i t i e s and a r e h y p o t h e t i c a l i n t h a t t h e r e i s no p h i l o s o p h i c a l n e c e s s i t y ab o u t th e r e g u la r ity *

What t h e s c i e n t i s t s e e k s t o do i s

f i n d la w s w hich a r e a lw ay s i n t h e f o l lo w in g form s th e n B ,# o r r a th e r *

w* I f A

*W henever A t h e n Bt * t h e o n ly r e q u i r e *

a e n t b e in g t h a t a l l t h e e x p r e s s io n s w h ich o c c u r i n *Af and *B* a r e o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d *”8 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o f o r m u la te any num ber o f o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s * b u t o n ly t h o s e w hich a r e f r u i t f u l i n f o r m u la ti n g la w s a r e u s e f u l #

In t h i s sen se th e s c ie n ­

t i s t m akes a s e l e c t i o n * 1* e « , he s e l e c t s th o s e c o n c e p ts i b i d # * p# 143* 7* Ib id * * p* 143* 8 * I b i d # * p# 143*

IB

try w h ic h h e e x p e c ts t o f i n d law s*

"iB jcpeciatiom s o f t h i s

k i n d a r e t o f c o u rs e * n o t h in g a b s o l u t e h u t m e re ly a r a t h e r g e n e r a l fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e o r a th o u g h t h a h i t d e p e n d e n t u p o n law® a c t u a l l y known a t a n y g iv e n moment i n t h e h i s ­ t o r y o f selenee***^ f h e r e i s one m ore s t e p i n t h e m e th o d o lo g ic a l s t r u c t u r e w hich c h a r a c t e r i s e s s e le n e e *

"A s c i e n t i f i c

t h e o r y ( h ig h o r d e r e x p l a n a t i o n ) c a n he d e s c r i b e d a s t h e l o g ! s a l I n t e g r a t i o n o f a w hole body o f e m p i r i c a l laws**-® an d w ith t h e t h e o r y i t I s p o s s i b l e * te p r e d i c t e m p i r i c a l 11 laws® w h ic h , o f c o u r s e # a r c s u b j e c t t o t h e same k in d o f v e r i f i c a t i o n I n f a c t t h a t any la w is * i n o b s e r v a t i o n on t h e m a t t e r o f s e l e c t i o n i s t h a t t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l la w s may i n v o lv e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p ts n o t b e f o r e f o r m u la te d o r f o r m u la te d b u t f o r w hich no u s e was a p p a r e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e s t a t e o f a d v an c e i n s c ie n c e *

A secon d o b s e rv a tio n

i s t h a t t h e w hole s t r u c t u r e o f s c i e n c e d o es n o t s h i f t fro m i t s b a s e o f p h y s i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n } t h e s t a te m e n t o f t h e m ost c o m p lic a te d o p e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t and la w c o u ld * a lth o u g h t h e Jo b w ould b e e x tr e m e ly c o m p lic a te d , be 9* I b i d #* P . 14$ 1 0 . , Xbi&.,, p* .144 11. . 1 b id * * p* 144

14

r e d u c e d t o s t a t e m e n t s I n w hich, t h e te rm s w ere im m e d ia te ly v e rifia b le ,

A t h i r d o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t no m ind g e n e r ­

a t e s o u t o f I t s e l f t h e r e f e r e n t s o f t h e c o n c e p ts *

The

s e l e c t i o n t h e s c i e n t i s t makes h a s a n e m p i r i c a l d e te r m in a n t w h ic h m akes i t I r r e l e v a n t t o r a i s e t h e i s s u e o f e p is te m o l o g i c a l Id e a lis m ,

In s h o r tt th e s c i e n t i s t re c o rd s in

e m p i r i c a l law® w h at h e o b s e r v e s ; h e d o e s n o t c r e a t e o u t o f h i s m ind t h e p a t t e r n and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e law s*

The

t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p ts a r e s t a te m e n t s o f how la w s c a n be com bined! i t i s a m a t t e r o f e m p i r i c a l f a c t t h a t la w s com­ b i n e i n t h e m anner p r e s c r ib e d * The i s s u e now i s w h e th e r t h o s e s t u d i e s w hich e o n e e rn men c a n b e s c i e n c e s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e m etho­ d o lo g y o f s c i e n c e i s a t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e one f o r th e m . The s o c i a l s c i e n c e s o r b e h a v io r s c i e n c e s a r e t h o s e w hich lo o k f o r t h e la w s o f man’ s b e h a v i o r , and " a r e u n d e r s to o d t o s e v e r su c h a w ide ra n g e o f r e l a t i v e c o m p le x ity a s , a t one e n d , t h e b e h a v io r o f a n im a ls i n a l e a r n i n g e x p e rim e n t a n d , a t t h e o t h e r , t h e s o o i o p B y c h o lo g ie a l phenom ena o f man and s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e a r t s and b © l l e - l e t t r e s * w^

Iflh&t t h e m eth o d o lo g y o f

s c i e n c e i s h a s b e e n s k e t c h e d , and i n g e n e r a l , a s a p p li e d I S , I b i d * § p* 141

15

t o mam1» b e h a v i o r , i t mean© t h a t a n y © ta te m e n ts a b o u t smmf8 b e h a v i o r c a n i n p r i n c i p l e b e re d u c e d t o a p h y s i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n b a s i s , t h a t e m p iric a l c o n s tr u c ts can be f o r m u la te d , and t h a t r e g u l a r i t i e s c a n be o b s e rv e d b e* tw e e n them *

l i t s h o r t , t h a t la w s a b o u t t h e b e h a v io r o f

man c a n be f o u n d .

T h at t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e a s y e t i n

a n e a r l y f o r m a t iv e s t a g e and t h a t t h e r e a r e g r e a t p r a c ­ t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t o b e overcom e i s n o t d e n i e d , , b u t t h e o r e t i c a l l y a s o c i a l s c ie n c e i s p o s s ib le . The b a s i c s c i e n c e i n t h e c l u s t e r o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s p s y c h o lo g y , w hich I s t o s a y t h a t t h e s t a t e * m e a ts made I n a l l t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o u ld b e r e d u c e d t o e q u i v a l e n t s t a te m e n t s i n p s y c h o lo g y , £•«&*> s& Q io lo g ic a l la w s c o u ld b e r e d u c e d t o p s y c h o lo g ­ i c a l law s*

P r a c t i c a l l y , a s in th e p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e s ,

t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r y sine® t h e r e c a n be r e l e v a n t v a r i ­ a b le s ( e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s ) on v a r i o u s l e v e l s , e , _g.# la w s i n w h ic h t h e 3|®tlevant v a r i a b l e s a r e g ro u p s o f men; t h o s e w h ich In v o lv e ©mb i n d i v i d u a l ; t h o s e w hich in v o lv e m u sc le t w i t c h e s ; e t c ,

T h ere n e e d be no s t r u c t u r a l

s i m i l a r i t y b e tw e e n t h e f i e l d , _©. g . , s o c io lo g y and th® f i e l l d t o w hich i t c o u ld t h e o r e t i c a l l y be r e d u e e d , e . p s y c h o lo g y .

,

H ow ever, t h e o r i e s m ig h t be f o r m u la te d w hich

w o uld com bine t h e la w s o f two o r more f i e l d s .

The

16 u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e t h e o r i e s w ould h e t h a t la w s n o t fo u n d by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e tw o f i e l d s s e p a r a t e l y c o u ld b e fo u n d and r e v e a l t h a t la w s h e r e t o f o r e f o r m u la te d w ere o n ly a p p ro x im a tio n s *

As t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s c i e n c e i s b u i l t up*

t h e r e i s p o s s i b l e a g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n i n t h e s t a te m e n t o f law s#

As u n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s c i e n c e s ta lc e s p l a c e i n t h i s

s e n s e * s o c i a l s c ie n c e * b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e , and p h y s i c a l s e l e n e e move to w a rd becom ing one s c i e n c e ,

T h is i s a

th e o r e ti c a l p o s s i b i l i t y becau se o f th e in s ig h t th a t th e common b a s i s o f a l l s c i e n c e i s t h e e m p i r ic a l c o n s t r u c t w h ich i s a lw a y s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , i , , c i t . * p . 1 9 3 , 32* I b i d . * p . 194*

3 3 . Ib id .* P. 194.

26 f

o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l gro w th #

The d o l l a r mm* ho

d e v a l u a t e d and t h e r e m ust h e a n I n f l a t i o n o f human v a l u e s . I n t h e t h i r d p la o e , t h e c r a v i n g f o r a s e n s e of * f a i r l y im m e d ia te m ea n in g "®4 from t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w hleh h e i s e n g a g e d i e a p e r s i s t i n g a t t r i b u t e o f man#

To p u t t e r

and t i n k e r away o n e * s l i f e , u n l e s s f o r t h e s h e e r f u n o f d o in g so* i s n o t n a t u r a l ; t h e r e m ust h e a se n se # e v o lv in g

from w h at h e i s d o in g # of movement to w a rd a known an d a c h i e v a b l e g o a l#

I n a c u l t u r e w hich fo rce® men t o do

" h i g h l y s p e c i a l i s e d # sem lm eehanlssed# and r o u t i n e t a s k s w h leh we u n d e r ta k e p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s h e e r a v a i l a b i l i t y and Incom e y i e l d # r a t h e r t h a n b e c a u s e t h e y a r e p e c u l i a r l y a d a p te d t o u s #"®5 Lynd s e e s f r u s t r a t i o n a s t h e common outcom e# The f o u r t h b a s i c c r a v in g f o r " p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y "®5 i s b e s t p o i n te d o u t i n c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e f i f t h # c u r i t i e s *"37

" th e r i g h t to e x e r c is e • • # o p tio n a l in s e ­

T hese two a r e m e re ly e x te n s i o n s o f t h e f i r s t

an d seem t o mean no more t h a n t h a t t h e r e a r e tim e s when one 54# I b i d ** p* 194# 55* I b i d . , p . 194# 36* I b i d .# p# 195# 37* I b id * * p* 195*

/ .

want© i© t a k e a c h a n c e a n t o t h e r tin e © when one want© M tw rity a n t c e rta in ty #

I f one I s I n a c h a n c c - t a k i n g

m ood, h e fe e l© f r u s t r a t e s , when t h e r e a r e no a v e n u e s f o r h i s d o in g s o ; i f h e w a n ts s e c u r i t y , h© f e e l s l o s t and un* h a p p y I f h e 1© f o r c e d t o t a k e a c h a n c e .

ly n d p u t i t ,

f h e s h e e r f a s t o f l i v i n g a h e a d I n t o new e x p e r ie n e e i n e v i t a b l y e n t a i l s r i s k * B u t, when su e h n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e r i s k I s c o m p lic a te d by a m ass o f a v o id a b le h a& ard s c r e a t e d by t h e c ru d e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c u l t u r e , by o v e r-d e p e n d e n c e u p o n I n d i v i d u a l r a t i o n a l i t y * and b y l a c k o f p o p u l a r d i f f u s i o n o f r e l e v a n t k n o w le d g e , e n e rg y i s in e v ita b ly d iv e r te d to th e s e n e e d le s s r i s k s t h a t s h o u ld go i n t o t h e e x h i l a r a t i n g r i s k s o f c r e a t i v e l i v i n g *38 Human b e in g s c r a v e n o v e l t y , b u t th e y w ant I t on t h e i r own t e r m s , h e d g e d w ith c o n s i d e r a b l e s e c u r i t y *

I t m ust be

p la n n e d n o v e lty * A n o th e r c r a v in g I s " t h e e x p r e s s io n o f i t s

Lth©

human p e r s o n a l i t y ] c a p a c i t i e s th ro u g h r i v a l r y and comp©* t i t i o n , w ith r e s u l t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f s t a t u s #"®9

As i n

t h e c a s e o f n o v e l t y , r i v a l r y and c o m p e titio n a r e n o t t o b e im posed on one*

He w a n ts t o e x p e r ie n c e t h e " s h a r in g o f

p u r p o s e s , f e e l i h g , and a c t i o n w ith o t h e r s . T h e

m ain

d i f f i c u l t y o f c o n tiim o u s c o m p e titio n i s t h a t i t l e a d s t o 3 8 , I b i d . , p p . 195-96* I b id *, p . 196. 4 0 , I b i d . , p . 196#

S3 ”9& y«l«aX w

p sy tsh o lo ^ iffia l is o la tio n * * i n w h ic h t h e indi**

r U u a l r a f f « r s f r o # a l««fc o f “ sy m p ath y \w h io h ] I s

n o rm a l

t o I t ."41 t h e f i n a l p a i r o f c ra v in g ® a r e a sum m ation o f a l l t h e o th e r® , a n d h e r o i t i s w e l l t o l e t ly n d s p e a k f o r h im s e lf * £he human p e r s o n a l i t y c r a v e s o o h e re n o e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n and m ean in g o f t h e b e h a v io r t o Whleh i t e n tr u s t® i t s e l f i n t h e same o r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f i t s e x p e r ie n c e * C o n tra d ic tio n ® an d un~ r e c e iv e d e o n f l l c t e w ith in th e r u l e s i t le a r n s fro m t h e c u l t u r e c r e a t e t e n s i o n s and h i n d e r fu n c tio n a l s a tis fa c tio n * H are i s t h e p o i n t a t w h ich s u c h a s p e c t s o f o u r c u l t u r e a s t h e d u a l a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y v a lu e s o f a g g r e s s i v e d o m inance and o f g e n t l e n e s s and m u tu a lity * * • * th ro w u s c o n t i n u a l l y i n t o t e n s io n # B ut t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y a ls o c r a v e s a s e n s e o f fre e d o m a n d d i v e r s i t y i n l i v i n g t h a t g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n t o i t s many a r e a s o f s p o n t a n e i t y w ith o u t s a c r i f i c i n g u n d u ly i t s c o rr e s p o n d in g need f o r a b a s ic in te g r a tio n o f c o n tin u itie s * I t c ra v e s a c u lt u r a l s e t ti n g th a t o f f e r s a c tiv e e n co u rag e m en t t o c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n te rm s o f t h e w h o le r a n g e o f o n e 1® p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s an d u n iq u e n e s s e s * And* c o n v e rs e ly * i t d i s l i k e s m onotony* r o u t i n e * and c o e r c i o n t h a t cram p and f l a t t e n o u t t h e rh y th m s o f l i v i n g and f o r c e a e a n a l i s a t 1o n .o f e n e rg y e x p e n d itu r e t h a t deaden® s p o n t a n e i t y *4'8 fh e c o n tra s tin g p a ir s o f c ra v in g s , d r iv e s , o r u rg e s a re to bo th o u g h t o f i n te rm s o f a s p e c tru m w here e ach p o lo i s l a a s e n s e t h e en d o f a c o n tin u u m , whoso o t h e r end i s t h e 41# i b i d * * p* l t d * 42* I b i d ** P* 1 9 7 .

29 o p p o s i t e p o le *

i l l t h e p a i r s ©an be c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r one

g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , th o s e c r a v i n g s w hich a r e p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n i t s unlgu© a s p e c t s and t h o s e w h ich a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n i t s b e in g one o f a g r o u p , ©# £ * , t h e n a t u ­ r a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s an d t h e n e e d f o r m u tu a l, s y m p a th e tic a c t i o n , t h e n e e d f o r im m e d ia te s a t i s f a c t i o n ® and t h a t f o r t h o s e lo n g te rm s a t i s f a c t i o n s w hich a r e d e p e n d e n t on g ro u p a c t i v i t y , t h e n e e d f o r n o v e l t y o r c h a n c e - ta k in g and t h a t f o r s e c u rity * A go o d s o c i e t y w ould he one in w hich e a c h i n d i ­ v i d u a l w ould he a b le t o sw ing b a c k and f o r t h a lo n g t h e c o n tin u u m o f t h e c o n t r a s t i n g d r i v e s , hi® movement d e p e n d in g o n t h e n a t u r a l r e l e a s e and b u i l d i n g u p o f e n e rg y ; th e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a s o c i e t y , b e in g e x t e r n a l i s a t i o n s o f t h e s e d r i v e s , m ust b e s o p a t t e r n e d t h a t t h e r e i s f r e e e x p r e s s io n o f t h e s e b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y d riv e ? *

I t e a s i l y f o llo w s t h a t

a s o c i e t y i s n o t good t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y e n e rg y b u i l d s up t o a b n o rm a lly h ig h p o t e n t i a l s w hich r e ­ s u l t , i n a w id e s p r e a d b lo w in g o f human f u s e s , t o th© e x t e n t t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n s a r e s e t u p , f o r w hich t h e i n ­ s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f f e r s no way o f r e s o l u t i o n n o r r e l e a s e * A good s o c i e t y i s one w h ic h i s p a t t e r n e d on n a t u r a l rh y th m s o f t h e human b e in g *

Her© a g a in i s t h e b r i d g e w hich t i e s

t h e n a t u r a l an d th® good t o make them synonym ous*

30

Sfeemld i t fee v a l i d t o reduc® a s o c i e t y t o th® o a c t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r d r i v e s * and i f t h e d r i v e s a r « n a t u r a l and g o o d , t h e n i t w ould seem t h a t t h e s o c i e t y w o u ld a l s o fee n a t u r a l and good i f t h e b r i d g e b e tw e e n good an d n a t u r a l e a n b e a r any w e ig h t#

i

T h at t h e A m erican s o c i e t y

o f t h e t h i r t i e s was n o t g o o d , a s ly n d saw i t *

seem s t o fee

t h e p r im a r y r e a s o n f o r h i s w r i t i n g K now ledge f o r Mi a t ? # Somehow, a n u n n a t u r a l b a r r i e r m ust hav e a p p e a re d b e tw e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and th© s o c i e t y ; t h e p a s s a g e s q u o te d above m e n tio n two a s p e c t s o f t h i s b a r r i e r , m ac h in e s and money# Sine® t h e s e a r e tw o o f th e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c a p i ­ ta lis tic about it*

i n d u s t r i a l i s m , t h e r e m ust be so m e th in g u n n a t u r a l T h is p o i n t w i l l fee d e v e lo p e d a t l e n g t h l a t e r f

h e r e i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e c a l l t h a t t h i s i s t h e same k i n d o f u n n a t u r a l e le m e n t t h a t W ordsw orth o b j e c te d t o i n e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g la n d , and h i s n o t i o n o f th e n a t u r a l * n e s s an d g o o d n e ss o f human d r i v e s i n a s t a t e o f n a t u r e seem s t o h a v e much i n common w ith t h i s p a r t o f Lyndf s th in k in g #

One o f t h e p o i n t s t o be d e v e lo p e d l a t e r i s t h a t

t h e g e n e r a l th o u g h t p a t t e r n o f t h e t h r e e men t r e a t e d i n t h i s p a p e r h a s s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y t o a r a t h e r m arked d e ­ g r e e w ith t h a t w h ich m ig h t be g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s rom an­ t i c , an d t h a t t h e way i n w hich e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n tu r y r o m a n t i c i s t s , e# &#* W ordsw orth and B aers o n , b o th a c c e p te d

an d p e l e e t e d t h e E n lig h te n m e n t c a n h e com pared w i t h t h e way e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e i s h a t h r e j e c t e d and a c c e p te d by Mead an d L y n d , t o g i v e them s t r o n g k i n s h i p w ith a l i t e r a r y r a t h e r t h a n a s c i e n t i f i c way o f th in k in g * I t h a s b e e n shown i n t h i s s e a t i o n t h a t t h e v a r i ­ a b l e s b y w h leh Lynd s e e k s t o e s t a b l i s h a s o c i a l se le m e e a r e V a lu e s w h le h a r e n o n - r e d u c i b l e t o a p h y s i c a l l e v e l* th e y a r e t h e um itm e f a c t o r s i n human b e in g s *

T hese v a r i a b l e s

a r e p u t i n t o a p a t t e r n w hich s u g g e s t s t h e s i s * a n t i t h e s i s , s y n th e s is *

S in c e t h e y a r e n o t r e d u c i b l e t o p h y s i c a l t e r m s ,

t h e y a r e somehow i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i n g s on a p h y s i c a l l e v e l , i d e n t i f i e d b y ly n d a s m a c h in e s a n d money i n A m erican c u ltu re *

I n t h e f o l lo w in g s e c t i o n i t w i l l b e shown t h a t

Lyn&’ s a n a l y s i s o f t h e p a t t e r n o f A m erican c u l t u r e earn b e c h a ra c te ris e d as l it e r a r y ,

4

The c o n t r a d i c t o r y p a i r s o f d r i v e s , e a c h p o le o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n dem anding t o b e s a t i s f i e d , p o s e a d i f f i ­ c u l t p ro b le m o f o r g a n i s a t i o n o r p a t t e r n i n g on a n i n s t i t u ­ t i o n a l le v e l*

A m erican s o c i e t y h a s i t s r o o t s I n t h e

e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; l i k e w i s e w hat i s g e n e r a l l y te rm e d t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n had i t s b e g in n in g s i n t h a t p e rio d *

m &B ty iid s e e s i t , t h e p re d o m in a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ©f t h e p e r i o d s t a r t i n g in t h e e i g h t e e n t h © em tury end t e © lo se i n t h e t w e n t i e t h was " t h e q u e s t f o r t h e e o n d i t i o n s o f I n d i v i d t a l l i b e r t y * ”^®

T h is t u e s t te n d e d t© h e t h e m ain s h a p in g

f e r e s i n t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f A m erican i n s t i t u t i o n ® #

The

i n d i v i d u a l , a g g r e s s i v e s i d e o f p e r s o n a l i t y p o l a r i t y was b u i l t i n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a t t h e e x p e n se o f t h e com­ m unal w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t i n t h e r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n p e r s o n s an d I n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e te n d e d t o u p s e t , th r o u g h e o e i a l e o n d i t i o n l n g , t h e n a t u r a l rh y th m s o f p e r s o n a l i t y * The e m p h a sis on i n d i v i d u a l i s m was c o n c u r r e n t w ith ^ m a t e r i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l g ro w th ” and l e d t o much o v e r-e m p h a s is on "m awim lBtng p r o d u c t i o n ” a t t h e same tim e t h a t * a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s t r u c t u r i n g h a s d e v e lo p e d a ro u n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f p r o p e r t y # ”^ So i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n c e rn e d ■iiy i$ £ li t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f good® an d t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y te n d e d t o assum e s u c h a n im p o r ta n t p l a c e i n t h e t o t a l p a t t e r n o f s o c i e t y t h a t a l l o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , e* g # , th C f a m i l y , t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a t e , becam e m ere app en d ag es* A m erican s o c i e t y becam e a n i n d u s t r i a l b u s i n e s s s t a t e , and men becam e b u s in e s s -m e n Or w o rk e rs h i r e d by b u sin e ss-m e n * 43. I b id ., p . 87. 44* I b i d . , p . 68•

m I n te r m s o f t h e b a s i c c r a v in g s * i n d i v i d u a l i s m c a n >6 a b a t e d w ith t h e d e s i r e s f o r p e r s o n a l pow er* eom petltlo n *

and e h a n e e -ta fc tn g *

t h e s e a r e a g g r e s s i v e an d a n t i *

s o c i a l * and when t h e y become e x t e r n a l i z e d a t t h e e x p e n se ©f o t h e r © raw ing# an d so becom e s t i m u l a t e d w h ile t h e o t h e r s a r e r e p r e s s e d , t h e r e s u l t i s man i n a d i s t o r t e d r o l e " a s a n a g g r e s s i v e - d e f e n s i v e a g e n t* " 4 ®

C o n s e q u e n tly , a c c o rd in g t o

She p a t t e r n o f t h e c u l t u r e a ty e # R e s i n d i v i d u a l c o m p e ti t iv e a g g r e s s iv e n e s s a g a i n s t on& ls f e l l o w s %§ t h # b a s i s £fi? p e r s o n a l an d c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r ­ i t y . Each man m ust s t a n d on h i s own f e e t and f i g h t f o r w hat h e g e t s — so r u n s t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f t h e c u l t u r e — and I n t h i s way t h e common w e l­ f a r e th r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e c u l t u r e i s h o s t a c h i e v e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o thU® e x p la in i n g aWay t h e o b v io u s c r u d i t i e s o f a g g r e s s io n b y i d e n t i ­ f y i n g th© l a t t e r w i t h t h e common g o o d , s h e e r a n a rc h y i s p r e v e n te d by c e r t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s o f co m b at*46 S he h i g h e s t s t a t u s i n su c h a s o c i e t y g o e s t o t h e m ost r e l e n t l e s s f i g h t e r , and " t h e d w e l le r i n a l a r g e A m erican c i t y t e n d s t o b e a h i g h l y d e v e lo p e d r o v in g p r e d a t o r y a n im a l*"47

f h e " q u e s t f o r l i b e r t y " h a s come t o f r u i t i o n

i n a s o c i e t y w h ic h m ost r e s e m b le s a g r e a t p a c k o f w o lv e s e a c h t r y i n g t o e l i m i n a t e t h e o th e r* 4 5 . I b i d . * p . 90* 46* i b i d * .

p.

n*

4 7 . J M d * * P . 79*

34

The f i g h t i n g i n A m erican c u l t u r e i s t o am ass th # m o st money*

Lynd I s e m p h a tic i n m aking th® d i s t i n c t i o n

b e tw e e n m aking money and m aking th in g s * The d e v e lo p m e n t an d p e r v a s i v e s p r e a d o f m oney, a s a n im p e r s o n a l medium o f ex ch a n g e fey w hleh w ork i s m e a s u re d , h a s d i s l o c a t e d work from "m aking t h i n g s " t o "m aking money#" H id in g t h e t i d e o f t h i s s u p e r - m o t i v a t i o n o f m oney-m aking, t h e ma­ c h in e p r o c e s s e n t e r e d o u r c u l t u r e , a n d , u n d e r l a i s s e s - f a l r e > was s e i z e d u p o n and u t i l i z e d "by tE e s t r o n g e r m oney-m akers p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r own ends**® The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y n o t i o n o f p r o p e r t y feeing m a t e r i a l t h i n g s c h a n g e d th r o u g h e x p e n d itu r e o f la fe o r was m etam or* p h o se d i n t o p r o p e r t y m eaning pow er th r o u g h t h e c o n t r o l o f money*

As lo n g a s t h e e m p h a sis was on th© m aking o f

t h i n g s , t o ©q.u&t© t h e l i b e r t y t o p ro d u c e w e a lth o r p ro p ­ e r t y a s c o n t r i b u t i n g i© t h e p u b l i c good h a d v a l i d i t y ; h o w e v e r, a s Vefelen h a s show n, p r o d u c t i o n i s o n ly a s e c o n d 49 a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th© b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e * In A m erican c u l t u r e t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y n o t i o n comes t o m ean, a c c o r d in g t o l y n d , t h a t W e lfa re i s a more o r l e s s a u to m a tic b y - p r o d u c t o f m oney-m aking; and i f men w i l l b u t a p p ly th e m s e lv e s t o t h e I n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y o f e a r n in g m ore and more m oney, t h a t i s t h e b e e t an d s u r e s t way t o a c h ie v e t h e q u a l i t a t i v e ends o f l i v i n g we a r e a l l a f t e r *®0 43* I b i d ** p« 4 3 , »# 49# T h o r s t e i n V efelen, The T heory o f t h e B u s in e s s S f a t e r p r i s e , 50* l y n d , o p * c l t *, p* 99*

m A Jo b a s a m eans t o w in t h e b a t t l e f o r money I® t h e f u lc ru m on w h le h A m ertcan c u l t u r e r e s t s * I n d i v i d u a l s te n d * e o n tlim e d Lyna* t o h e I d e n t i c f l e d b y t h e J o h t h e y have* an d t h e s o c i a l w o rth o f t h e J o b l a m e a su re d b y how many d o lla r ® p e r y e a r I t b r in g s *

A man

l a r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s w e a lth * a n d a c q u i r i n g I t e n t a i l s h i s b e i n g t h e h a r d - b o i l e d f i g h t e r who I s a b l e t o ws t i c k o u t h i s c h e s t* s q u a r e h i s Jaw* and f o r c e th o s e a b o u t him t o y i e l d him w hat h e w a n ts * " 5*

C om m unities o f e u e h f i g h t e r s

f i n d th e m s e lv e s l i v i n g by s lo g a n s s u c h a s wW hatf s good f o r b u s i n e s s i s good f o r y o u r f a m ily " and b e in g g o o d h e a rte d and c iv ic - m in d e d when t h e y m eet c n e e a week a t a s o - c a l l e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e c lu b w here...j. _■t h■*e y c a l l e a c h o t h e r b y t h e i r f i r s t nam es an d s i n g song® t o s e t t h e a tm o sp h e re f o r d i s ­ c u s s i n g e l v i e p ro b le m s*

The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e

a n sw e rs t o s u c h p ro b le m s i s a lw ay s t h a t b u s i n e s s w i l l h e b e t t e r ^ a u n i v e r s i t y i s good f o r a tow n b e c a u s e m ore money w i l l b e s p e n t i n th© s t o r e s and more o l d h o u se s c a n b e made p r o f i t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n s * e v e r y t h in g i s bad*

I f b u s i n e s s i s n o t good*

She s e c u r i t y o f A m ericans* p h y s i c a l

an d p s y c h o lo g ic a l* depend® on f in a n c e s *

Says Lynd

I t 1® t h i s s t r u c t u r a l d i s t o r t i o n , w ith t h e elem ent® s o u n e q u a l and o u t o f b a la n c e t h a t 81* I b i d ** p* 72*

36

t h * e h a e r p r s s e r v e r ti o n o f t h e g o in g ( e a p l t a l l a i s y s te m becom es a m o n o p o liz in g p r e o c c u p a t io n , t h a t p r e s e n t s one o f th® m ost s t r i k i n g a sp ec t® o f o u r c u ltu re * The s t r u g g l e t o &jake m ore money and th® i n s i s t e n c e t h a t n o t h in g b e done t o c h an g e t h e s o c i a l e n v iro n m e n t so t h a t n e n - a g r e s s l v e e le m e n ts o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l be s tim u ­ l a t e d * a c c o r d in g t o ly n d * a r e m a jo r f a u l t s o f t h e A m erican c u l t u r a l p a tte rn * H ow ever s u p p r e s s e d t h e m ore s o c i a l s i d e o f t h e s e l f * t h e c r a v i n g s f o r c o m p a n io n sh ip and sym pathy w i l l i n s i s t u p o n some k in d o f s a t i s f a c t i o n *

Men n e e d o t h e r s e -

c u r l t i e s t h a n t h o s e o f f e r e d by t h e i r Jobs* and i n an e c o n ­ omy c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y r e c u r r e n t d ip s i n t h e b u s i n e s s c y c le * t h e n e e d i s e s p e c i a l l y g r e a t*

The p e t p h ra s e s * "S ave f o r

a r a i n y d a y ," " When I'm s i x t y - f i v e , I ’ m g o in g t o r e t i r e an d do a l l t h e th in g ® I ’v e w an ted t o do*" and "We’r e r e a l l y g o in g t o f o r g e t e v e r y t h in g and h a v e a good t i m e ," a r e Amer­ i c a n a n sw e rs t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e s e c u r i t y w h ich t h e c u l t u r e h o ld s ae n e v e r - f a l l i n g * H e r b e r t H o o v er’ s* "A m erican b u s i n e s s i s b a s i c a l l y s o u n d ," when m i l l i o n s w ere e c o n o m ic a lly d e s p e r a t e was i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o rre c t*

B ut m ore im p o r ta n t i n t h e s e a r c h f o r p e r s o n a l

s a t i s f a c t i o n i s t h e A m erican n o t i o n t h a t lo v e and t h e home make l i f e re a l& y w o rth l i v i n g * 6S* I b i d * * p* 70*

A good* w e l l - d r e s s e d w if e

ST an d t h e p a t t e r o f l i t t l e

f o o t a r e somehow su p p o se d t o g iv e

e v e r y © loud a s i l v e r l i n i n g #

A good in co m e, a n i c e h o u se

l a a good n e ig h b o rh o o d * a l o v i n g fa m ily * and a 1*11t i e good e l e a a f,h e l l - r a i s i n g " when t h e p r e s s o f b u s i n e s s w i l l a llo w • rh

,

i t a r e im p o r ta n t i n g r e d i e n t s I n Jo h n Q* P ublic*© n o t i o n o f a w e ll s p e n t l i f e *

ly n d sum m arizeds

The h e av y I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n of o u r own e u l t u r e a ro u n d p e r s o n a l e o m p e titlv e p r e d a t i o n and r i s k g i v e s t o t h e p a t t e r n c o m p e n sa to ry e x a g g e r a tio n s o f t h e im p o rta n c e o f p r o p e r t y a s t h e s o u r c e o f s e c u r i t y and o f s e x a s t h e s o u r c e o f a f f e c t i o n , a n d m u tu a lity * The r e g i m e n t a ti o n s and d e f e r r e d co n su m m atio n s w h ich t h e c u l t u r e e n f o r c e s on i n d i v i d u a l s a ls o t h r u s t up c o m p e n sa tin g em phases u p o n s e c u r i n g t h e s e n s e o f im m e d ia te m eaning t h r o u g h su c h s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n g s a s e x p lo s iv e h u r s t s of r e c r e a t i o n * a s s e r t i n g o n e* s s u p e r i ­ o r i t y * b e in g one o f t h e f i r s t t o w ear a new s p r i n g s t y l e * o r m oving t o a m ore s o c i a l l y e lo q u e n t a d d r e s s . 5,5 The Jo b g i v e s s t a t u s an d c a l l s f o r t h e e x p r e s s io n o f th o s e d r i v e s c e n t e r e d a ro u n d th© p o le o f a g g r e s s iv e p e r s o n a l i t y tra its *

and t h e home I s t h e p rim a ry i n s t i t u t i o n w hich i s

s u p p o s e d t o s a t i s f y th© s o c i a l © ravings* Xn a v e r y r e a l s e n s e * a c c o rd in g t o ly n d * t h e r e i s no v i t a l com m unity l i f e

i n A m erican e u l t u r e a s a r e s u l t o f

t h e u n d u e e m p h a sis p la c e d on t h e f a m ily a s t h e s o u r c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n s r a t h e r t h e n o n t h e community*

S tro n g

n a t i o n a l i s t i c f e e l i n g s w hipped up by t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i ­ t i e s # e s p e c i a l l y d u r in g w a r s , o r o t h e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s a r e , m*

I b i d #. p p . i s a - 9 9 *

3S

f o r t h e m oat p a r t , t h e o n ly o u tle t© f o r s t r o n g e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e ® e m i* a ta rv c d s o c i a l d r i v e s o u t s i d e t h e lim it® s e t by fa m ily r e l a ti o n s *

f h e r e a r e t m o re o v e r, f a c t o r s w i t h i n

th e m a trix o f s o c ie ty , e s p e c ia lly t h a t in th e in c r e a s in g ly d o m in a n t u r b a n p a r t , w h leh te n d t o w eaken th© home* S in c e s t a t u s i s a c h ie v e d p r i m a r i l y th r o u g h eee n o m le e n d e a v o r, women h a v e s t r u g g l e d r a t h e r s u c c e s s * f u l l y t o b r e a k i n t o jo b s and p r o f e s s i o n s .

H ow ever, t h e i r

s u c c e s s h a s m eant " l e a s t h e m erg in g o f t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e tw o s e x e s t h a n t h e a d o p tio n o f a d i f f i c u l t d u a l p a t t e r n ”54 dem anding fro m women e x tre m e s e l f * a s s e r t i v © b e h a V io r i n t h e i r J o b s w h ile a® women th e y a r e su p p o se d t o embody o n ly " sy m p a th y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , m u t u a l i t y , g e n t l e n e s s , t r e a t i n g §5 p e r s o n s a s p e r s o n s , c o o p e r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a g g r e s s io n * ” I n a e u l t u r e w h ic h place® su c h h ig h prem ium s on t h e home a s t h e m ain p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t f o r men who a r e e m o tio n a lly s t a r v e d i n a c t i v i t i e s t a k i n g p la c e o u t s i d e , t h e movement i n t o t h e w o rld o f jo b s by women i s a f a c t o r i n t h e g r a d u a l b reakdow n o f t h e c u l t u r e and c r e a t e s p s y c h o l o g ic a l t e n s i o n s i n b o th men an d women f o r w hich t h e c u l t u r e makes any so * l u t i o n w e l l n ig h im p o s s ib le * R educed a s h e 1® by th© i n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n t o « i. 1

Mil

I

. , . . 1 . ,, , ,





54* I b i d * , p* 95* 5 5 . I b i d * , ...

.

..I . ..-

...-

..-

I - .,,.. . . .

.r n .itm m m - m ~ .~ m m ,

t h e r o l e o f g o o d p r e r i d e r , and h a v in g n e i t h e r t h e tim e n o r e n e r g y f o r a n y th in g e l s e , t h e man i n A m erican s o c i e t y f i n d s h i m s e l f i n c o m p e ti t io n t o a l a r g e d e g re e w i t h th o s e f o r whom, a e e o r d in g t o t h e i d e o l o g y , he o u g h t t o p ro v id e * O f te n tim e s h e c a n n o t b y h i m s e l f he t h e good p r o v i d e r ) t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s s e e i n g women i n p o s itio n © o f h ig h e co n o m ic and jo b s t a t u s , m akes f o r f r u s t r a t i o n s i n c e t h e s o c i a l l y c o r r e c t s i t u a t i o n i s one o f t h e m a le ’ s b e in g a g g r e s s iv e and d o m in e e rin g an d t h e f e m a le ’ s b e in g s o f t and s y m p a th e tic *

H ow ever, e v e n i n h i s home l i f e , i t i s n o t

enough t h a t h© b e m e re ly t h e good p r o v i d e r ) Lynd p o i n te d out th a t I n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r a w a re n e ss o f t h e Im p o rta n c e o f g o o d , p o s i t i v e s e x u a l - a d ju s tm e n t — an aw are* n e s s h e ig h te n e d by t h e r e l a x i n g o f r e l i g i o u s c o n d e m n a tio n s o f s e x , t h e r i s e o f m e n ta l h y g ie n e , f i c t i o n w r i t t e n u n d e r t h e F r e u d ia n i n f l u e n c e , an d t h e g r e a t l o v e r s on th© cin em a s c r e e n —h a s s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e demand on t h e m ale t h a t he p la y a n e m o t i o n a l ly m ore s u b t l e r o l e a s h u sb a n d and lo v e r * L ik e w is e , new k now ledge i s m aking f r e s h dem ands o f him t o be a n a c t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e p e rs o n a s a p a r e n t j w hich demands n e i t h e r h i s t r a i n i n g n o r h i s tim e and e n e rg y r e s o u r c e s h e lp him t o m e e t*56 AS a d e fe n s e a g a i n s t a g ro w in g s e n s e o f i n f e r i o r i t y , m a r r ie d men demand o f women t h a t th e y b e good m o th e rs an d S ta n d f o r t h e " f i n e r ” t h i n g s o f l i f e ev en th o u g h many o f them c a n n o t l i v e w ith o u t t h e a d d ed incom e a w ife I s a b le

40

t o p ro v id e #

Vho r o l e s o f "both men an d women a r e i n c r e a s ­

i n g l y d i f f i c u l t I n m a r r i e d l i f e b e c a u s e t h e e u l t u r e dem ands s o much fro m t h e home w h ile o f f e r i n g l i t t l e s tre n g th e n i t#

su p p o rt to

I»ifce t h e n o t i o n s o f l i b e r t y and p r o p e r ty *

t h e home h a s b e e n s u b j e e t e d t o s t r a i n s w hich a s im p le r u r a l way o f l i f e d i d n o t p l a c e u p o n i t #

F o r t h e m ost p a r t

t h e r u r a l fa m ily -h o m e was a f u n c t i o n i n g e c o n o m ic - c u l t u r a l u n i t I n a s o c i e t y w hose id e o lo g y i n a h i g h l y com plex u r b a n e n v iro n m e n t I s s t i l l s u p p o s e d t o h e a g u id e t o p s y c h o lo g i­ c a l and p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y * From a r u r a l s o c i e t y h a s b e e n i n h e r i t e d t h e b e ­ l i e f i n t h e e q u a l i t y o f a l l men*

V et i t i s e x tre m e ly

d i f f i c u l t f o r a n o b s e r v e r t o f i n d i n A m erican s o c i e t y much e v id e n c e f o r i t *

I n t h e t h i r t i e s h e c o u ld f i n d s u p p o s e d ly

• f r e e and e q u a l" men s l e e p i n g on p a r k b e n c h e s th r o u g h no c h o ic e o f t h e i r own* w ide d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n incom es o f th o s e who d i d h a v e lo b s * and t h e u s u a l c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s o f p a t t e r n o f t h e A m erican c i t y from slum t o g o ld c o a s t* E q u a l i t y i n a s o c i e t y w hich m e a su re s s t a t u s i n money w ould h a v e t o b e econom ic* t o h a v e any r e a l m eaning#

In o rd e r to

make e q u a l i t y seem a f a c t # a c c o r d in g t o ly n d * two r a t i o n a l ­ i z a t i o n s a r e em ployed! (a ) f h e d i s p a r i t i e s a t any g iv e n moment a r e r e g a r d e d e i t h e r a s b u t te m p o ra ry d i f f e r e n c e s i n a g e n e r a l p r o g r e s s i n w hich ^tom orrow can

41 be d i f f e r e n t . " o r as due t o th e d e lib e r a te v o l i t i o n o f t h e p a r t i e s e c m e e m e d — i , e « . one h a s w o rk ed h a r d e r , o r s a v e d h a r d e r * ~ o r ~ e le c te d t o h e w ore e n t e r p r i s i n g an d f a r s i g h t e d t h a n t h e o th e r . B o ls te r in g su eh e x p la n a t i o n i s th e r e l a t e d f o r m u la w h le h e q u a te s c l o s e l y t h e am ount o f o n e ’ s p e r s o n a l w e a lth (a n d po w er) w ith t h e assum ed a n te c e d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h a t much w e l f a r e t o t h e comm unity* * * (b ) The s e c o n d f o r m u la in v o k e d t o J u s t i f y a s p e c i a l b u t e r u c l a l d i s p a r i t y I n s i z e and power* i* a** t h a t b e tw e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e c o r ­ p o r a t i o n i s t h e o o n v e n le n t l e g a l f i c t i o n w hich V iew s t h e c o r p o r a t i o n a s a p e r s o n *57 E q u a l i t y i s e x p e r i e n c e d by A m ericans i n th e form o f b e in g e x p l o i t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e y o r by im p e r s o n a l a g e n c ie s i n t h e form o f huge b u s i n e s s c o r p o r a ­ t i o n s w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t m ost men* a c c e p t in g t h e id e o lo g y h a v e t o a d m it t h a t t h e y a r e f a i l u r e s b u t somehow b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e r e a l l y a r e no f a i l u r e s and t r y t o a c t a s i f t h e r e w e re i n f a e t e q u a l i t y .

T h is k in d o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n

w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n te n d s t o i n t e r n a l i z e i t s e l f w i t h i n I n d i v i d u a l s t o make f o r a h i g h l y n e u r o t i c c o n d itio n * The e q u a l l t a r l a n dream o f t h e E n lig h te n m e n t h a d t u r n e d t o a s h e s f o r m ost m en, and w ith i t w ent a n o th e r dream a b o u t t h e m s e lv e s , t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y . The human p e r s o n a l i t y , f u n c t i o n i n g i n te rm s o f t h e p o l a r i t y o f c r a v i n g s o r d r iv e s * i s s u b j e c t t o t h e b u i l d i n g u p o f n e u r o t i c t e n s i o n s u n l e s s t h e rh y th m s 5 7 « *bl& . , PP. 7 6 -7 7 .

42

n a t u r a l t o i t a r e b u i l t i n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v iro n m e n t# R a t i o n a l m ig h t b e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a p e r s o n a l i t y i n w hich t h e t e n s i o n s w ere c o m p le te ly r e s o l v e d and a s o c i a l p a t t e r n w h le h w as s o p a t t e r n e d and o r d e r e d t h a t t h e r e s o l u t i o n was a lw a y s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y *

H ow ever, enough

h a s h e e n i n d i c a t e d a b o u t A m erican e u l t u r e t o make c l e a r t h a t to d e s c rib e th e in d iv id u a ls i n i t as r a t i o n a l i s to I n d u lg e I n fa n c y *

S a id ly n d

We new know man t o h e b a s i c a l l y e m o tio n a l i n h i s m o ti v a ti o n s a n d o n ly s p o r a d i c a l l y a b le t o s u s t a i n t h e t e n s i o n s in v o lv e d i n t a k i n g th o u g h t i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t h i s a c tio n s * 5® Were i t p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n s t i t u ­ tio n a l l if e

a s e t o f s t i m u l i t h a t w ould p ro v o k e r e s p o n s e s

f r e e fro m p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e n s i o n s i n t h e I n d i v i d u a l s l i v ­ i n g b y t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e n i t w ould b e p o s s i b l e t o s a y t h a t man i s r a t i o n a l *

R a th e r t h a n b e in g a c h a r a c t e r (

i s t l c o f manf s b e h a v i o r , r a t i o n a l i t y i s a g o a l to w a rd w h ic h s o c i a l s c i e n c e o u g h t t o le a d *

B e ca u se i d e o l o g i c a l l y ,

A m ericans a r e co m m itted t o a b e l i e f i n t h e i n n a t e r a t i o n a l ­ i t y o f m an, " o u r p e r s o n a l an d c u l t u r a l dilem m as to d a y a r e h e a v i l y t r a c e a b l e t o t h e I r r a t i o n a l i t y o f b e h a v io r a ro u n d a l l e g e d l y r a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , wS^

So £ y n d , h a v in g d e s ­

c r i b e d t h e s e l f a s b a s i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y and t h e c u l t u r a l 58* I b i d ** p * 254* 59* I b i d *

m p a t t e r n a s a n e x t e r n a l l a a t i o n o f t h a t s e l f t was a b le t o a s c rib e th e c o n tra d ic to ry p a tt e r n o f M o ri can s o c ie ty to " I n d i v i d u a l i s m and l& t® ® e e * fa lre w and t o © a ll on t h e s o c i a l s c ie n c e s to b u ild in to th e in s titu tio n ®

an o r d e r

an d o o h e re n e e t h a t w ould make human r a t i o n a l i t y a f a c t * What C a r l B e c k e r e a l l e d wf h e H eav en ly C ity "61 h a d t u r n e d o u t t o b e r e a l l y a h in d o f h e l l f u l l o f n e u ro * t i e p e o p l e , who a r e su c h p r i m a r i l y b e e a u s e t h e y a r e t r y i n g t o l i v e i n a c u l t u r e p a t t e r n i n w hich t h e r e i s no p l a n f o r t h e l i v i n g o f human being® w h ile t h e m a t e r i a l w o rld a b o u t them i s e l a b o r a t e l y p la n n e d I n huge u n i t e t o f o s t e r t h e m aking o f money r a t h e r t h a n men*

The p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s

h a v e b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e l a b o r a t e w o rld o f i n t r i c a t e te c h n o lo g y c o n t r o l l e d b y h u g e c o r p o r a t i o n s t o w h ich t h e g o v e rn m e n ta l a g e n c ie s a r e w i l l i n g s e r v a n t s i

a t t h e same

t i m e , t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s hav e a llo w e d man t o becom e, a s i t w e re , t h e v i c t i m o f t h e s o c i a l p r o d u c ts o f p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e a s i t h a s b e e n u s e d i n a s o c i e t y whose s o c i a l t h e o r y h a s n o t d e v e lo p e d b eyond t h a t f o r m u la te d i n a r e l a t i v e l y p re ~ s c i e n t i f i c age*

f h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h e n , m ust i n tr o d u c e

i n t o t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e p la n n i n g t o a d e g re e com m ensurate w ith t h a t e v o lv e d from p h y s i c a l s c ie n c e *

S c ie n c e i s

6l« C a r l 1# B e c k e r , ffike H e av e n ly C ity o f th e C e n tu ry P h i l o s o p h e r s ,

u b a s i c a l l y m ankind m aking a w o rld * and t h a t p a r t o f I t w hich h a s t o do w i t h w an1® s e a r c h f o r h a p p in e s s h a s n o t b e e n p e r * f o r m in g it® p r o p e r f u n c t i o n a s w o rld -m a k e r*

Jam es T* F a r*

r o l l c a lled one o f h i e n o v e ls a b o u t m odern u r b a n l i v i n g * A i f r f I d J f e v e r Made s t h i s t i t l e A m erican e u l t u r e l y n d o u t li n e d *

a p tly fit® th e p ie tu r e o f it© I d e n t i f y i n g t a g i s

f i n a n e e - o & p it a ll e r a and o f i t ly n d com m ented: I n a c u l t u r e 113c© o u rs* m arked by g r e a t and c o n tin u o u s p e r s o n a l I n s e c u r i t y , t h e a g g r e s s i v e n e s s e n c o u ra g e d b y t h e s t r u g g l e t o g e t and t o k e e p " a 1l y i n g " I s c o n s t a n t l y b e in g d i s p l a c e d o n to o t h e r a r e a s o f l i v i n g . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e d i s o r g a n i s i n g c o n f u s io n s o f c a p i t a l i s m o v e r ­ f lo w t h e m ore s t r i c t l y econom ic a r e a s o f b e h a v io r an d t e n d t o c o e r c e t h e w hole p a t t e r n o f t h e c u l ­ tu re * They a p p e a r i n t h e u n b a la n c e d s t r u c t u r e , I n t h e m a r s h a lle d r e s i s t a n c e t o i n t e l l i g e n t * n e e d e d ehange* i n t h e l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l o r g a n is a tio n * in th e f a l t e r i n g c h a r a c te r o f o u r p o l i t i c a l dem ocracy* i n t h e e l a b o r a t e and c o s t l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f war* and i n o t h e r s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n a l c r u d i t i e s o f o u r c u l t u r e p a t t e r n ,®2 I n t h i s s e c t i o n * i t h a s b e e n shown t h a t l y n d 1© a n a l y s i s o f A m erican c u l t u r e i s i n te rm s o f a m eth o d o lo g y w h ic h h a s b e e n c a l l e d l i t e r a r y I n t h i s p a p e r .

The k e y

te r m s i n h i s d r a m a tic t r e a t m e n t o f t h e way A m ericans l i v e a re p u rp o ses o r v a lu e s *

The t e n s i o n i n th e s t o r y i s s u p ­

p l i e d b y t h e c o u p lin g o f purpose© eo t h a t th e y fo rm c o n t r a ­ d ic tio n © * and t h e w o rk in g o u t o f t h e t s n s i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s e n d s i n a k in d o f f i n a l c a t a s t r o p h e f o r t h e h e ro * 62+ ly n d * o p , o i t , p . 220.

m t h e c o l l e c t i v e A m erican*

E n v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s a r e n e e d

a s o b j e c t i v e .O o y f e la t iv e s t o e x p r e s s t h e in n e r* s u b j e c t i v e e x p e rie n c e s o f th e p r o ta g o n is t,

th e v i l l a i n i n th e tra g e d y

I n C a p ita lis m # s i n c e I t m akes im p o s s ib le t h e s y n t h e s i s o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n * w h ic h w ould g iv e t h e s t o r y a h appy en d in g * The h e r e I n h i s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t g r e a t odds f i n a l l y s e e s t h a t c a p i t a l i s m m ust b e r e p l a c e d b y a new o rd e r#

T h is i s

t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n and m ethod o f t h e s o c i a l p r o t e s t n o v e l­ i s t s o f th e t h i r t i e s # F a rre ll*

Bos B asso s# S te in b e c k # W right and

I n t h e c o n c lu d in g c h a p te r s * t h i s p a t t e r n w i l l b e

s e t f o r t h i n d e t a i l b y a n a ly s in g F a r r e ll* ® S tu d s L o n lg a n trilo g y * l y n d s u g g e s t s s o c i a l s c i e n c e a s t h e way o u t o f t h e u n h a p p y s t a t e o f A m ericans* they® i s no q u a r r e l#

W ith t h i s s u g g e s tio n #

However* l y n d ’ s m ethod r u n s c o u n te r

to th a t of a s o c ia l s c ie n tis t*

As i t h a s t h u s f a r b e e n

o b se rv e d * i t i d e n t i f i e s th e s ig n if ic a n t v a r ia b le s as v a l u e s o r p u r p o s e s an d t h i s # a s h a s b e e n shown# c a n n o t b e done w i t h i n a s c i e n t i f i c m ethodology*

I n s t e a d o f r e d u c in g

v a lu e te r m s t o a p h y s i c a l l e v e l # h e a tt e m p t s t o r a i s e a l l te r m s t o a v a lu e l e v e l *

I t i s f o r th is rea so n th a t h is

t r e a t m e n t i s l i t e r a r y * t h a t I t e x p r e s s e s i n t h e way t h e d a t a a r e h a n d le d * L y n d ’ e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith A m erican s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n o f f e r i n g t h e d a t a i n l e g i t i m a t e te rm s w i t h i n a

46 s c i e n t i f i c fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e so t h a t t h e y c o u ld be u s e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l la w s . By w o rk in g w i t h i n a l i t e r a r y r a t h e r t h a n a e e i e m t i f i e m e th o d o lo g y , and u s i n g t h e d e v ic e o f e o n tr a d io * t i o n , ly n d w o rk s h i s way i n t o a r a t i o n a l i s t i c r a t h e r t h a n a s o i e n t i f i e a l l y e o r r e e t e m p iric a l p o s i t io n .

I t i s to t h i s

t r e n d i n I y n d f s a n a l y s i s t h a t a t t e n t i o n i s now d i r e c t e d * l y n d 's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e A m erican c u l t u r e o f t h e t

t h i r t i e s c e n t e r e d o n , i n d i c a t i n g how c e r t a i n key w ords i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y th o u g h t had c o n tin u e d a s c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e A m erican id e o lo g y :

l i b e r t y , p ro p e rty ,

e q u a l i t y c r a t i o n a l i t y , and th e b a s i c s o e ia l* e e o n o m io u n i t , th e fa m ily ,

The fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e i n w hich t h e e i g h t e e n t h

c e n t u r y d e f i n e d t h e s e te rm s was n a t u r a l la w ; a c c o rd in g t o t h i s v ie w , t h e w o rld w as a la w f u l one and b y o b s e r v in g t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l phenom ena, t h e la w s c o u ld be fo rm u la te d * The m echanism w h le h made i t p o s s i b l e f o r man t o know su c h la w s was h i s f a c u l t y o f r e a s o n w hich was a m icrocosm o f t h e o u t s i d e m acrocosm a s f a r a s t h e m anner i n w hich phenom ena w ere r e l a t e d was c o n c e r n e d .

By o b s e r v in g t h e o u t s i d e w o r ld ,

a llo w in g o n e s e l f t o a b s o rb i t th r o u g h th© s e n s e s , one c o u ld , b y r e a s o n , p a t t e r n t h e s e n s e - d a t a i n th e same way th e y e x i s t e d i n n a t u r e , and t h e r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n th o s e p a t t e r n s w ere t h e n a t u r a l la w s ,

The fram e o f r e f e r e n c e was b o th

e m p i r i c a l and r a t i o n a l i s t i c .

47 T h is k in d o f r a t i o n a l i s t i e - ’e m p irie ls m f o r m u la te d t h e 1 mm o f human b e h a v i o r I n te r m s o f t h e k e y w o rd s , l i t * e r t y , e q u a l i t y , p r o p e r t y , and t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f man*

It

was n a t u r a l an d l a w f u l f o r men t o he f r e e and e q u a l and t o own p r o p e r t y , a c c o r d in g t o t h e la w s o f free d o m and e q u a l i t y , sim e e e a e h man was a r e a s o n a b l e c r e a t u r e l i v i n g I n a w o rld w h ich was b o t h l a w f u l and r e a s o n a b le *

f h e f a m ily was t h e

n a t u r a l u n i t o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and a com m unity made up o f f r e e f a m i l i e s o f r e a s o n a b l e men was t h e p o l i t i c a l id e a l*

Each man p u r s u i n g h i s own e n d s , s i n c e t h e w o rld

was a l a w f u l an d o r d e r e d o n e , w ould make f o r communal harm ony* K a tu re was m a t e r i a l and t h e la w s o f m a t t e r w ere s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n m a t e r i a l u n i t s * B etw een t h e m a t e r i a l u n i t s t h e r e was n e v e r t e n s i o n n o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c e e a c h u n i t was p a r t o f a p e r f e c t l y f u n c t i o n i n g w hole*

H an, t o o , was a m a t e r i a l u n i t and s o ,

i n t h e r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n m en, when t h e y l i v e d a c c o r d in g t o t h e n a t u r a l la w s w h ich w ere s e l f - e v i d e n t on th e b a s i s o f e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e r e c o u ld b e no c o n t r a d i c t o r y fe a tu re s *

B etw een man and n a t u r e t h e r e was a o n e - to - o n e

c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , a n d so b y s tu d y in g h i m s e l f ( i n t r o s p e c t i o n ) an d s tu d y in g n a t u r e ( e m p ir ic is m ) h e c o u ld f i n d b o th t h e la w s o f n a t u r e and t h e la w s o f man w hich com plem ented e ac h

43

o t h e r I n a r a t i o n a l w o rld #

th e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p la n o f th e

”H«av«m ly C i t y ” was fcnownj t h e r e was n e e d o n ly t o b u i l d I t a c c o r d in g t o t h e p l a n w h ich was i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s and t h e m ind o f wan#

W ith in t h e r a t i o n a l w o rld #

t h e s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e fo rm u la c o u ld wor3c p e r f e c t l y # s i n c e e v e ry s t i m u l u s came fro m a h arm o n io u s w hole and © very r e s p o n s e was r e a s o n a b l e and made f o r a c o m p le te man p a t ­ te rn e d a f t e r a r a t i o n a l n a tu re ,

The e x t e r n a l w o rld and

t h e i n t e r n a l human b e in g w ere i n te r c h a n g e a b le # and t h e i n t e r n a l i s a t i o n o f n a t u r e was t h e e x t e m a i l s ; a t io n o f t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y ,

T o g e th e r th e y form ed a p e r f e c t w hole#

M a te r ia lis m # e m p iric ism # r a t i o n a l i s m # n a t u r a l i s m te n d e d t o b e e q u i v a l e n t te rm s*

T h is i s t h e p a t t e r n o u t o f w hich#

p resu m ab ly # Lynd saw t h e id e o lo g y o f .American c u l t u r e T h is p a t t e r n o f r & t i o n a l i s t i e - e m p l r i c i s m was one w h ich was d e l i c a t e l y b a la n c e d # and to o much s t r e s s on .E it h e r s i d e o f t h e fo r m u la was f a t a l ,

T here was no p r o ­

v i s i o n i n i t f o r change and movement# and t h e n i n e t e e n t h an d t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s a r e n o t a b l e f o r change*

The ways

o f i n t r o d u c i n g t h e f a c t o r o f p r o c e s s o r movement i n t o t h e f o rm u la w ere# i n g e n e r a l# two# and b o th te n d e d t o s p l i t t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c from t h e e m p i r i c a l . On t h e r a t i o n a l i s t a id e # t h e r e was t h e lo n g t r a ­ d i t i o n o f l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n # and by s t r e s s i n g t h e

e o n tra & i© t ©ry n a t u r e o f th o u g h t an d s u p e rim p o s in g th o u g h t p a t t e r n s i n v o l v i n g o p p o s i t e s o n to t h e m a t e r i a l w o r ld , t h e r e w o u ld t h e n seem t o h e a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f movement i n t h e m a t e r i a l w o r ld f

The n o t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s # w o rk in g

th e m s e lv e s o u t i n t h e m a t e r i a l w o rld o r c o n c r e t i s i n g them * s e l v e s b ecam e, i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a v e r y im p o r ta n t one* H e g e l’ s p a t t e r n o f t h e s i s , a n t i t h e s i s and sy n * t h e s i s i s i n one s e n s e an a tte m p t t o s e e t h e w o rld I n te rm s ©f a th o u g h t p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n ; t h e s t r u g g l e b e tw e e n o p p o s i t e s r e s u l t i n g i n a s y n t h e s i s o f o p p o s ite ® , w h ic h g av e r i s e t o a new p a i r o f o p p o s i t e s , k e p t t h i n g s , t h e e o n e r e t i s a t i o n o f t h e th o u g h t p r o c e s s , i n m o tio n *

The g o a l to w a rd w hich t h e p r o c e s s was m oving w a s,

o f c o u rs e , th e f i n a l r e s o lu tio n o f a l l c o n tr a d ic tio n s in an a b s o lu te s y n th e s is *

The e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y "H e av e n ly C ity "

was p u sh e d i n t o t h e f u t u r e , b u t i t w ould e v e n t u a l l y b© b u i l t a c c o r d in g t o a p l a n i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a t u r e o f th o u g h t* P r o g r e s s was i n e v i t a b l e s

th e r e s o lu tio n o f c o n tr a d ic tio n s

mad© f i n a l l y f o r a w o rld i n w hich t h e r e was no s t r u g g l e , a p e r f e c t s t a t e o f e q u ilib r iu m * Two m a jo r v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e change f o r m u la i n t h e r a t i o n a l i s t t r a d i t i o n w ere w orked o u t s

one w hich m ig h t be

r o u g h ly © ailed, d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a li s m c e n t e r e d t h e l o c u s

50

o f til© d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s I n th© m a t e r i a l w o rld ; t h e o t h e r | a b s o l u t e id e a lis m * s t r e s s e d t h e t r a d i t i o n o f deny* in g t h e r e a l i t y o f m a tte r *

I n b o t h , how ever* t h e la w s w ere

t h o s e o f th o u g h t an d c o u ld b e known at p r i o r i *

Im p ir ic ls m

w as m e r e ly a m ethod o f s e e i n g how t h e d i a l e e t l e h a d eon** e re tls e d Its e lf *

f h i s is * to o * i n g e n e r a l* p a r t o f t h e

p a t t e r n o f fcynd’ s m eth odology* I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e in g * I»ynd f i n d s t h e l o e u s o f t h e e o n t r a d l e t o r y p r o c e s s i n t h e polar** i t y o f b a s i s © ra v in g s* w hich* th o u g h t h e y a r e somehow p a r t o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l man* a r e w hat make him u n i q u e l y human* I t ean n o t b e s a id t h a t th e y a re m a te r ia l o r r a tio n a l* y e t t h e i r b e in g i n a s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m i s t h e g o a l o f r a t i o n a l i t y o r i n t e l l i g e n c e i n human a c t i v i t y #

In te lli­

g en ce* th e n * i s t h e s y n t h e s i s i n g o f th© e o n t r a d l e t o r y u rg e s*

I t f i n d s ways o f im p o sin g a p a t t e r n o f r a t i o n a l i t y

on t h e b a s i c a l l y im p u ls iv e n a t u r e o f t h e human b e i n g . S in c e s o c i e t y i s th© e x t e r n a l ! s a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r u rg e s * t h e h e a r t o f t h e w h o le s o c i a l p r o c e s s i s th© i n n e r c o n t r a ­ d i c t o r y p r o c e s s a n d t h e n a t u r a l rh y th m s a re * i n s t r u c t u r e * o f t h e sam e p a t t e r n a s t h e p r o c e s s * t h e s i s * a n t i t h e s i s # and s y n t h e s i s *

S o c i e t y t h e n becom es t h i s p r o e e s s on t h e

I n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l * and i n b o th t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y t h e p r o c e s s i s n a t u r a l and good when s y n t h e s i s i n g i s g o in g

01 fo rw a rd w ith o u t u n n a tu r a l o b s tr u c tio n .

The n a t u r a l becom es

t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e r a t i o n a l a s w e ll a s t h e good* and 000i a l a e ie n o e i s t h e m ethod o f s o l v i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w hich a r e im p e d in g t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e "H e av e n ly C ity * " Lynd i d e n t i f i e d c a p i t a l i s m a s t h e im p o r ta n t u n ­ n a tu r a l fa c to r*

I n s t e a d o f t h e r e b e in g s y n t h e s i s g o in g on

i n a c a p i t a l i s t i e s o c i e t y * o n ly one s i d e o f t h e t h e s i s a n t i t h e s i s p e r s o n a l i t y I s a b le t o g e t e x p r e s s io n an d so e x te rn a lis e d in in s titu tio n s *

In a c a p i t a l i s t i c s o c ie ty *

a n i n d i v i d u a l human b e in g h a s t o t r y t o l i v e i n a w o rld w h ich a llo w s him t o e x p r e s s o n ly h a l f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y ! how ever, s i n c e t h e b a s i c c r a v i n g s a r e a l l p r e s e n t i n him* t h e r e i s a wedge I n t r o d u c e d t h a t mafces i t im p o s s ib le f o r s y n t h e s i s t o t a k e p la c e *

The r e s u l t i s a n e u r o t i c p e rs o n ­

a l i t y f u l l o f a l l h in d s o f t e n s i o n s and an I n s t i t u t i o n a l p a tt e r n f u l l o f u n re s o lv e d c o n tra d ic tio n s *

The wedge* a s

h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t* i s money o r p r o p e r t y i n a m ach in e te c h n o lo g y * b o t h o f w h ic h a r e n o n - p e r s o n a l*

In s te a d o f a

n e g a t i n g o f a n e g a t i o n ( n o n - p e r s o n a l money o r p r o p e r ty * m a t e r i a l i s m ) c a p i t a l i s m f o r c e s t h e p r o c e s s t o becom e one o f p o s i t i v e e m p h a sis on a n e g a tio n *

C o n se q u e n tly * i n te rm s o f

t h e human p e r s o n a l i t y * c a p i t a l i s m i s a sy ste m w h ic h d e ­ p r i v e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f p s y c h o l o g ic a l s e c u r i t y * and i n e x tre m e e a s e s o f l i f e .

B ut i t i s by t h e n e g a t in g o f

m n e g a t i o n s t h a t l i f e m ores fo r w a r d i n t h e l e g a l ! am schem e *

f he m a t e r i a l i s t s e M a s , a s ly n d saw i t , o f A m erican c u l t u r e made i t p re d o m in a n tly a n t inhuman*

I t is

t h i s w h ie h h a s d i s t o r t e d t h e n o t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m fro m I t s p r o p e r m e a n in g , t h e f o l l y i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t o t h e A m erican h a lf m a n , i n whom t h e s o c i a l c r a v i n g s a r e e i t h e r su p p re ssed o r d is to rte d *

$e l i b e r t y h a s become

11 s e n s e t o e x p l o i t ; o n ly t h e a g g r e s s i v e f i g h t e r s h a v e free** dom, w h ic h i s n a rr o w ly d e f i n e d I n a f u n c t i o n a l s e n s e a s " f r e e e n t e r p r i s e ,*1 I n t h e com m unity o f f i g h t e r s , e q u a l i t y h a s becom e a m e a n in g le s s te rm s i n c e t h e s o c i e t y i s p a t t e r n e d o n a s t a t u s l a d d e r o n t h e ru n g s o f w hich one s t a n d s ae~ c o r d in g t o how w e l l h e c a n f i g h t f o r money*

A m erican e u l -

t u r e h a s b e e n t w i s t e d I n t o a n u n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n b y th e m a t e r i a l i s t i c I n t e r f e r e n c e w ith t h e w o rk in g o u t o f t h e t h e s i s - * a n t i t h e s i s - s y n t h o s i s p r o c e s s i n i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g s , w ith r e s u l t i n g n e u r o t i c i s m , and i n a c u l t u r e w hose I d e o lo g y i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y ; t h e p r o c e s s by w h ic h t h e r e s o l u ­ t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e h a v in g sto p p e d *

Mien

l i f e , i n t h e fo rm o f t h e n o t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n ,? w a s i n tr o d u c e d I n t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y e m p i r i c a l - r a t i o n a l ­ i s t 1© f o r m u la , t h e fo rm u la w ent t o p i e c e s a s a n I d e o lo g y t h a t made f o r l i f e * The q u a r r e l h e r e I s n o t w ith Zyn&'s d a t a o f

53

A m erican s o c i e t y ; t h e d u a r r e l i s w ith h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e m a tu re ©f s o c i a l s c i e n e e and t h e r o l e o f t h e s c i e n t i s t * One a s p e c t o f t h i s h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t l a t h i s s e c t i o n * t h e a m tl^ e m p lr io a l* r a t i o n a l i s t i c fram e o f r e f e r e n c e i n w h ich t h e A m erican c u l t u r e o f t h e t h i r t i e s i s e x p la in e d b y ly n d #

5

I n t h i s s e c t i o n a t t e n t i o n w i l l h e d i r e c t e d t o two a s p e c t s o f Igrad1® c o n f u s io n c o n c e rn in g s o c i a l s c i e n c e t b o th r e s u l t i n g fro m h i s f a i l u r e t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n a n e m p i r i c a l la w and a n e c e s s a r y e a u s e - e f f e o t r e l a t i o n s h i p ; i n s h o r t f fro m h i s r a t i o n a l i s t i c b ia s * I t h a s b e e n show n t h a t i n l y n d 9s schem e o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l human b e in g and c u l t u r e * c u l t u r e i s t h e e x t e m a i l s a t io n o f t h e b a s i c c r a v in g s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l 9 and t h a t t h e s e b a s i c © ra v in g s a r e t o be i d e n t i ­ f i e d w ith v a l u e s .

S o c ie ty i n t h e t h i r t i e s was a p a t t e r n o f

c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n s t i t u t i o n s w hich c o u ld n o t b e r e s o l v e d b e c a u s e o f a " m a t e r i a l i s t " b ia s *

A new p a t t e r n o f s o c i e t y

w h ich w ould b e t h e e x t e m a i l s a t i o n o f t h e r e s o l v e d c o n t r a ­ d i c t o r y human c o re * t h e r e f o r e * s e t s t h e t a s k o f s o c i a l s c ie n c e * an d d e f i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e .

u fh© f o u n d a t i o n o f X ynd1© m e th o d o lo g y 1© th© human c o re ,

S a id h o i Stud© I t 1© human being© t h a t b u l l ! c u l t u r e and mafce I t go* t h e s o c i a l © d e n t i s t f © c r i t e r i a o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c a n n o t ©top s h o r t o f t h o s e human b ein g © 1 c r i t e r i a o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t . The value© o f human being© l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e i r d e e p e r en d m ore p e r s i s t e n t p u rp o s e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t « i d e n t i f l e s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s o c i a l s c ie n c e *

The c r u c i a l p o i n t h e r e i s t h a t f a c c o r d in g t o t h i s view * th e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r ia b le s a re lim ite d to th e e o n tr a d le to ry c r a v i n g s I n human b e in g s *

A s ig n if ic a n t v a ria b le in

s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d o lo g y i s one w hich I s u s e f u l i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a n e m p i r i c a l la w , and i t i s assum ed t h a t t h e r e a r e s u c h la w s t o b e fo rm u la te d *

The law s a r e ob­

s e r v e d r e g u l a r i t i e s w hich a r e s t a t e d i n t h e form * w henever A, t h e n Bv a n d t h e r e i s no p re s u m p tio n o f any b u t a n em­ p i r i c a l c o n n e c tio n b e tw e e n A and B* th e

To i d e n t i f y

and l i m i t

A1© t o " d e e p e r and m ore p e r s i s t e n t p u rp o s e s " i s one o f

t h e b a s i c c o n fu sio n © i n L yndf s th in & in g *

Bergmann h a s

c l a r i f i e d t h i s p o i n ts The e x p l o r a t i o n o f w h a te v e r c a n b e © aid a b o u t t h e p u rp o s e o f N a tu re t h e s c i e n t i s t a s w e ll a s t h e e m p t r l'e i s ? may s a f e l y le a v e t o t h e o l d s t y l e m e ta p h y s ic ia n , b u t t h e y w i l l c e r t a i n l y h a v e t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f p u rp o s e in n a tu re ; t h a t i s , f o r th e g o a l-d ire c te d b e h a v i o r o f t h o s e p h y s i c a l o b i a c t s w hich we 63* I b id * * P . 189*

c a l l o rg an ism © , X vezyone e v e n © l i g h t l y f a m i l i a r w ith m o d em p s y c h o lo g y knows t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t s t a g e o f o u r k n o w led g e t h e m oot d i r e c t way t o , t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s f i e l d lead© th r o u g h t h e s y s t e m a t i c s tu d y o f th© l e a r n i n g proses© *- T h e re one f i n d s , on t h e ©©mmon-sense l e v e l , s u e h s t a t e m e n t s a s t h a t o rg a n is m s l e a r n o r a e t p u r p o s i v e l y to w a rd t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a g o a l , i f , a n d o n ly i f , t h e i r m o ti v a ti o n i s d i r e c t e d t o ­ w a rd s t h a t g o a l . B ut l e t u s a s k o u r s e l v e s w h e th e r t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n , t h e way i t s t a n d s , i s a n e m p i r i c a l l a w , o r , t o p u t t h e same t h i n g d i f ­ f e r e n t l y , w h e th e r i t h a s an y p r e d i c t i v e v a lu e * A ll i t s a y s , i t seem s t o me, i s t h i s : w h en ev er t h e o rg a n is m d o e s show c e r t a i n k in d s o f o b j e c t t i v e l y d e s e r l b a b l e b e h a v i o r to w a rd s c e r t a i n o b je c tiv e ly d e s e rib a b ly s t a t e s o f a f f a i r s o r o b j e c t s , t h e n we s a y t h a t i t h a s b e e n a p p r o p r i ­ a t e l y m o ti v a te d ; i f n o t , n o t . B ut t h i s i s e l e a r l y no m ore t h a n a d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t, i n e m p a th e tic t e r m s , o f w hat ha® h a p p e n e d , a f t e r i t ha© h a p p e n e d , n o t a p r e d i c t i o n o f w h a F I T g o in g t o happen* What t h e s c i e n t i s t t r i e s t o f i n d , i n o r d e r u l t i m a t e l y t o c o n t r o l th e m , a r e , t h e r e f o r e , j u s t th o s e o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n t h e organism *© p a s t an d p r e s e n t e n v iro n m e n t w hich e l i c i t t h a t b e h a v i o r w hich we t h e n , i n p r e ­ s e t c u t i f i e la n g u a g e , c a l l p u r p o s iv e o r a s c r i b e t o t h e organism *© m o tiv a tio n * O nly on t h e b ael© o f s u c h know ledge c a n one p r e d i c t ; t h a t i s , a f t e r t h e s e f a c t o r s h a v e b e e n f o u n d , la w s ©an b e f o r m u la te d an d t h i s w ith o u t any u s e o f s u c h term© a s *purpose* o r • m o tiv a tio n * 64 I n t h i s p a s s a g e , a ©Shame h a s b e e n g iv e n f o r t h e way a s o c i a l © e l e n t i e t , t a k i n g a c c o u n t o f w hat a r e l o o s e l y c a l l e d p u r p o s e s , c a n s e t a b o u t f i n d i n g la w s o f human b e h a v io r ; t h e k e y re q u ire m e n t© a r e t h a t t h e m ethod b e e m p i r i c a l , t h a t t h e d a t a b e o b s e r v a b le and d e s e r l b a b l e .

The r e s u l t w i l l be

la w s w hich w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t 6 4 , B ergm ann, l o c . c i t * , p» 1 4 7 .

u to m m b e h a v i o r ,

S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r th© s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t

w eans f r n o l a l i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f l a w s , and t h e f a c t o r s t h a t h a r e s u c h s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e t o h e fo u n d " i n t h e o rg a n * i« ® f ® P e a t a n d p r e s e n t e n v iro n m e n t* "

The g e n e r a l s t a t e *

w ent ©f s u c h l a v a w i l l b e , w h en ev er s t i m u l u s A, t h e n r e s p o n s e B$ A an d B w i l l no d o u b t h e c o m b in a tio n s o f v e r y c o m p lic a te d e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , h u t w h a te v e r t h e e o m p llo a tio n , th e y w i l l t h e o r e t i c a l l y he r e d u e ih le to a p h y s ic a l b a s i s , 1 , ei* , t© o b s e r v a b le phenomena*

©n t h e s o e i o l o g -

l e a l l e v e l t h e i r c o m p lic a tio n p r o b a b ly w ould h e v e r y g r e a t in d e e d * The s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t ' s m e th o d o lo g ic a l s t a r t i n g p o in t I s th e e m p iric a l c o n s tr u c t, an d , as su c h , i s to he fo u n d i n t h e o b s e r v a b le e n v iro n m e n t o f t h e human b e in g s a b o u t w hose b e h a v i o r h e i s t r y i n g t o f o r m u la te law s*

To

h a v e a n y s i g n i f i c a n c e a s v a r i a b l e s i n b e h a v i o r la w s , t h e p u r p o s e s o r v a l u e s i d e n t i f i e d b y ly n d a s t h e b a s i s ©f a s o c i a l s e i e n e e , w ould h a v e t o he re d u c e d i n t h e m aim er shown ab o v e t o e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n t h e e n v iro n m e n t o f t h e o rg an ism *

They w ould h av e t o b e t r a n s l a t e d , i n

s h o r t , t o n o n - p u r p o s iv e te r m s w i t h i n a m e c h a n is tic fra m e o f refe ren c e*

M e c h a n is tic i s h e r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e

p a t t e r n o f e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s w h ich a r e p h y s i c a l and ob­ s e r v a b l e i n t h e r e l a t i o n w h en ev er A, t h e n B w here t h e r e i s

m l o g i c a l l y n e c e s s a r y c o im e o tio n b e tw e e n A and » , t h e o n ly r e l a t i o n b e in g t h a t w h ic h i s e m p i r i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , a n o b se rv ed , r e g u l a r i t y *

T h is d e e s n o t mean t h a t men do n o t

s u b j e c t i v e l y h a v e t h e e x p e r ie n c e o f s t r i v i n g f o r g o a l s and t h a t t h e y do n o t d e s i r e one t h i n g o r a n o th e r ? i t d o e s m ean, h o w e v e r, t h a t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s I n t e r e s t e d o n ly i n " t h e s e o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n t h e o r g a n is m 's p a s t a n d p r e s e n t e n v iro n m e n t w h ic h e l l e l t t h a t b e h a v i o r w h ic h w e ,t h e n , l a p r e s c i e n t I f l e la n g u a g e , c a l l p u r p o s iv e o r a s c r i b e t o th e o r g a n i s m 's m o tiv a tio n * " W ith in t h e m e c h a n i s t l e fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e * a h y p o th e s is i s a hunch ab o u t e m p iric a l c o n s tr u c ts in a w h e n e v e r* t h e n r e l a t i o n w h ic h , I f i t i s a v a l i d h y p o t h e s i s , h o ld s e m p i r ic a ll y *

I n a s e n s e , o f c o u r s e , t h e w hole

s t r u c t u r e o f s c i e n c e i s a h y p o t h e s is s i n c e a l l t h a t oan b e s a i d e f i t i s t h a t t h e la w s h a v e b e e n o b s e rv e d r e g u l a r l y t o f o l lo w t h e w h e n e v e r, t h e n p a t t e r n w i t h no r a t i o n a l n e c e s ­ s i t y f o r t h e i r c o n ti n u i n g t o do so*

A h y p o t h e s is d o e s n o t

do a n y th in g o r c r e a t e so m e th in g w h ic h was n o t a l r e a d y t h e r e ? i t i s m e re ly a h y p o t h e t i c a l s ta te m e n t W hich, u p o n b e in g e x p e r i m e n t a l ly t r i e d , becom es a s t a te m e n t o f a la w , s h o u ld t h e r e l a t i o n w h e n e v e r, t h e n b e fo u n d r e g u l a r l y t o o ccu r* I t i s now p o s s i b l e t o show a n o th e r b r i d g e o v e r w h ich ly n d w a lk e d t o h i s c o n f u s io n a b o u t s o c i a l s c i e n c e .

He assu m e d t h a t t h e p e c u l i a r l y u n d e f in e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f - t h e human b e in g a r e b a s t e c r a v i n g s ,, p u r p o s e s , . o r, v a lu e s ( u n d e f i n e d i s h e re - u s e d i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e h i n d o f r e * a u c t i o n i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , o f te rm s e u e h a s p u rp o s e , c a n n o t b e made}#

I n t h e i r » o n -re d u o e d s t a t e t h e y a r e t h e s i g n i f i ­

c a n t v a r ia b le s o f a s o c i a l s c ie n c e , and, as e u eh , s e t up a human fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e w h ic h I s n o t m e c h a n is tic *

A

h y p o t h e s i s , t h e n , i s a p r e l e c t i o n o f p u rp o s e i n t o n a t u r e o r t h e w o rld w h ic h I s rem ade s o t h a t t h e o r d e r o f t h e w o rld becom es t h e o r d e r o f t h e b a s i c human p u rp o s e s *

So a c ­

c o r d in g t o ly n d t I f s o c i a l s c i e n c e i s t o b e s c i e n c e , i t m ust d ie * c o v e r o r d e r and se q u e n c e w h e re v e r t h e y e x i s t , b u t t h e r e i t s t a s k o n ly b e g in s * I t m ust d i s c r i m i ­ n a t e b e tw e e n t h e b in d o f o r d e r l i n e s s t h a t e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e b i o l o g i c a l A lf e v p r e e e s s e * w i t h i n th e i n d i v i d u a l o rg a n is m an d t h a t w h ich c u l t u r e ex* M b i t s * F o r when t h e s e b i o l o g i c a l l l f o - p r o e e s a e s I n t e r a c t w ith t h e com plex an d u n e v e n t h i n g t h a t a c u lt u r a l s e t ti n g i s , o rd e r fa n s out in to d is ­ o rd e r* t o b e s u r e , e a c h g o in g c u l t u r e e x h i b i t s a minimum p a t t e r n o f o r d e r o f some s o r t , b e c a u s e some b i n d o f modus op eran & l among I t s u n e v e n ly h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n S J tlo n e d p a r t s i s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c o n tin u a n c e o f human l i f e * B ut t h e r e i s no b a s i s f o r a ssu m in g t h a t any g iv e n c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a com plex and c a s u a l l y d e v e lo p e d one l i k e o u r own, h a s a fu n d a m e n ta l o r d e r l i n e s s o r e x h i b i t s a d e g re e o f o r d e r l i n e s s t h a t i s e i t h e r r a t i o n a l o r hum anly m ost s e r v i c e a b l e # I f su c h order i s t o e x i s t i n c u l t u r e , i t m ust b e b u i l t i n t e „ i t by s c ie n c e * a n d n o t m e re ly d i s c o v e r e d i n

S ^ 5 -



59 t h e b r i d g e s w in g s a lo n g way* s o f a r t h a t ly n d I n s e e k in g f o r s o c i a l s o le n o s t d e n ie s i t s p o s s ib i l i ty *

H is p o s i t i o n

i s i m t t ^ e m p l r i c a l an d a n t i ~ m e c h a n l s t i e and w ith o u t t h e s e m e th o d o lo g ie a ! c o r n e r s t o n e s * t h e r e c a n h e mo s c ie n c e *

He

w en t © re* a b r i d g e t h a t l e d him t o a l i t e r a r y r a t h e r t h a n a s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d o lo g y * . He f e l l i n t o t h e t r a p o f n o t s e e i n g t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s i n s c i e n c e m ust b e re d u c e d t o a p h y s i c a l v e r i f i ~ c a t i o n b a s i s t a n t s e t c o n fu s e d w h en ev er A ( p h y s i c a l ) * t h e n B ( p h y s i c a l ) w ith t h e n o n * * s e ie n tifi© and l i t e r a r y f o r m u l a t i o n w h en ev er A ( v a l u e s )» t h e n B ( p h y s i c a l e le m e n ts

SSL

c o r r e l a t i v e s f o r v a l u e s )*

I n h i s a n v i e t y t o make men

happy* h e f u r t h e r e d t h e c o n f u s io n t o B ( a p h y s i c a l w o rld made by v a l u e s )* s o t h a t l i t e r a t u r e seem s know ledge o f a k in d t o b e fo u n d o n ly i n e m p i r i c a l w h e n e v e r* t h e n s t a t e * m e n ts « T h ro u g h o u t t h e a n a l y s i s o f h i s p o s i t i o n * i t h a s b e e n s t r e s s e d t h a t I y n d 's m e th o d o lo g ic a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ste m fro m a s e m a n t i c a l s o u r c e * t h a t l e v e l s o f m eaning h a v e n o t b e e n c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d * w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t v a lu e te rm s w ere u s e d on t h e sam e l e v e l a s t h i n g w ords*

The

b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e tw o m e th o d o lo g ie s s e t up i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s p a p e r i s t h a t t h e y a r e on d if f e r - * e n t s e m a n tic a l le v e ls *

I n s c i e n t i f i c m ethodology* a l l

te r m s a r e d e f i n e d on t h e p h y s i c a l * o b j e c t i v e l e v e l ? w hat m ig h t b e C a l l e d d e f i n i t i o n s i n l i t e r a r y m e th o d o lo g y a r e a l l i n s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e te r m s a s h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d by t h e a c t io n o f an o b je c tiv e c o r r e la tiv e *

l a s c ie n c e * know ing

t r u t h i s verify in g r e g u l a r i t i e s v e r b a l i s e d i n s t a te m e n t s i n w h ic h a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e s e m a n t i c a l l y on t h e p h y s i c a l le v e l* A ro u g h p a r a l l e l m ig h t b e c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t k n o w in g w i t h i n l i t e r a r y m eth o d o lo g y w ould r e f e r t o em pathy r e s u l t i n g fro m t h e u s e o f s t a te m e n t s i n w hich p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s (im a g e s ) w e re d e f in e d o r r a i s e d t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e V a lu e l e v e l s o t h a t on r e a d i n g s u c h a s e t o f s t a te m e n t s one f e e l s t h a t t h e y a r e t r u e *

l i t e r a r y im a g in a tio n * th e n *

i s h a v in g s k i l l i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s u c h s ta te m e n ts * A p a r a l l e l f o r l i t e r a r y im a g in a tio n i n a s c i e n t i s t m ig h t r

b e a b i l i t y t o moke h y p o t h e t i c a l w h e n e v e r* t h e n s t a te m e n t s I n v o lv in g new c o m b in a tio n s o f p r e v i o u s l y f r u i t f u l e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o r f o r m u l a t i n g new c o n s t r u c t s * w hich w ould b r i n g t o l i g h t r e g u l a r i t i e s n o t h e r e t o f o r e o b s e rv e d * 6® W ith t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e m ean in g s o f l i t e r a r y an d s c i e n t i f i c im a g in a tio n * i t i s p o s s i b l e t o show m ore c l e a r l y w hat l y n d ’s s e m a n t ic a l c o n f u s io n does*

When

66* F o r a c l e a r a n a l y s i s o f t h i s a s p e c t o f s c ie n c e * se© G u s ta v Bergmann* nHolism * H i s t o r i c i s ® , and I b ie rg e n e e ,” P h ilo s o p h y o f S c ie n c e » XI ( O cto b er* 1 9 4 4 ), p p . £09-221*

61 h e s a i d t h a t o r d e r "m u st b e b u i l t I n t o i t

[th e w orld} b y

s c i e n c e and n o t m e re ly d i s c o v e r e d I n i t #M ho was c o n f u s in g t h e meamiwgs o f im a g in a tio n *

f h e l i t e r a r y man i m a g i n a t i v e l y

p r o j e c t s t h e o r d e r o f h i e v a l u e s on t h e p h y e l e e l w o rld when h e u s e a l t a s an o b je c tiv e c o r r e la tiv e *

I t l e w ith t h i s

p r o j e c t i o n t h a t ly n d c o n fu s e d s c i e n t i f i c I m a g in a tio n w h ic h f i n d s o r d e r a l r e a d y l a t h e w o rld *

He d o e s s o b e c a u s e ho

f a i l e d t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e s e m a n t ic a l d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n s c i e n t i f i c an d l i t e r a r y m etho d o lo g y * f h e d i s t i n c t io n b e tw e e n m ean in g s o f t r u t h i s a l s o h e l p f u l * f o r i t c l a r i f i e s L y ad fs m is ta k e n n o t i o n o f s c i e n c e f s re m a k in g t h e w orld*

th e t r u t h o f a p ie c e o f

l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t v a lu e s a re so s k i l l f u l l y e x p re ss e d in

»

o b je c tiv e c o r r e la tiv e s t h a t th e i l l u s i o n i s c re a te d t h a t t h e o r d e r o f v a l u e s i s t h e o r d e r o f t h e p h y s i c a l w orld* f h e l i t e r a r y a r t i s t i s a s k i l l e d w o rk e r i n r a i s i n g te rm s fro m a p h y s i c a l t o a v a lu e l e v e l s c t h a t i t seem s t h e w o rld W hich h e d e p i c t s t o e x p r e s s v a lu e s i s t h e w o rld w hich a c tu a lly e x is ts *

Bf c o n fu s in g t h e m eanings o f t r u t h * Lynd

m is ta k e n ly b e l i e v e d t h a t s c i e n c e i s a c t u a l l y a b le t o c r e a t e a w o rld i n t h e way a l i t e r a r y a r t i s t c r e a t e s an o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e t o e x p r e s s v a lu e s *

62

C hapter 11

.

p s fflx m -^ k y r m a m sm i s s q c x a i p e ilo s o p h t 2® j>gjA®™ y ® y 23*5 t h o m g h t. t o t a l l eye t h a t S m ~ M jS S . Private heart Is

g*?® fo r a l l men, —that Is genius. apeojc your lafon f^ oiyT oH on , anfl l t ^ h a l l ho the xwiyereal sensej f*j» the In m ostin due iimebaeomes the outmost. 6 V 1--------------------

* l a t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f ly n d # i t was shown t h a t h i s

c o n f u s io n r e s t e d i n l a r g e p a r t on a m is u n d e r s ta n d in g o f s e m a n t i c a l l e v e l s ; e o n s e g r e a t l y h e was l e d t o a p o s i t i o n t h a t i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s m akes a s o c i a l s c i e n c e im p o s s ib le and h a s much i n common w ith w h at h a s b e e n h e r e c a l l e d t h e l i t e r a r y m eth o d o lo g y #

W ith in t h i s m eth o d o lo g y t h e b a s i c

v a r i a b l e s a r e v a l u e s # and t h e m ethod i s one o f r a i s i n g a l l o t h e r te rm s t o t h e s e m a n t ic a l l e v e l o f t h e v a r i a b l e s *

In

t h i s c h a p t e r i t w i l l b e shown how c o n fu s in g t h i s m e th o d o l­ ogy w ith t h a t o f s

o

l

s

e

e

m

t h a t sym bols# t h e

c o in o f t h e l i t e r a r y a r t i s t , c r e a t e t h e p h y s i c a l w o rld o f t h e s c i e n t i s t so t h a t s c i e n c e i s n o t o n ly a d e s c r i p t i o n b u t an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e m eaning o f t h e w orld*

F u r th e r #

s i n c e somehow s c i e n c e c r e a t e s a s c i e n t i f i c w o rld and s i n c e t h e w o rld i s a p r o j e c t i o n o f v a lu e s # th e la w s o f t h e w o rld a r e th o s e o f v a lu e s *

I n l i t e r a r y m ethodology# t h e w o rld

67* B a lp h Waldo Emerson# E s s a y s * F i r s t S e r i e s * p* 46* I t a l i c s m in e .

i s u s e d , f i g u r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , t o e x p r e s s v a lu e s by m aking a a e n m iitio a l s h i f t i n l e v e l s s o t h a t i t seem s t h a t t h e v e r b a l c r e a t i o n i s t h e w o rld #

Thus t h e c e n t r a l c o n f u s io n

i s one o f s o n a n t l e a l l e v e l s #

One a s p e c t o f G eo rg e H e r b e r t

M e a d 's M ind# S e l f an d S o c i e t y , t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f -* m e a n in g , c o n v e n ie n tly in c lu d e s t h i s la c k o f c l a r i t y . As s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , Mead was c o n c e rn e d " w ith t h e a d ju s tm e n t t o one a n o th e r o f t h e a c t s o f d i f f e r e n t human i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e human s o c i a l p r o c e s s . "

He

c la im e d t h a t " t h e c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n su c h a d ju s tm e n t i s 'm e a n in g ? • "

So i t I s much t o t h e p o i n t t o s e e w hat s o r t o f

t h i n g "m eaning* i s . M eaning a r i s e s a n d l i e s w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e g e s t u r e o f a g iv e n human o rg a n is m and t h e s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v io r o f t h i s o rg a n is m a s i n d i c a t e d t o a n o th e r human o rg a n is m b y t h a t g e s tu r e * I f t h a t g e s t u r e d o e s so i n d i ­ c a t e t o a n o th e r o rg a n is m t h e s u b s e q u e n t ( o r r e s u l t a n t ) b e h a v i o r o f t h e g iv e n o rg a n is m , t h e n I t h a s m e a n in g . I n o t h e r w o rd s , t h e r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p b e tw e e n a g iv e n s t i m u l u s — a s a g e s t u r e — an d t h e l a t e r p h a s e s o f t h e s o c i a l a e t o f w h ich i t i s an e a r l y ( i f n o t t h e I n i t i a l ) p h a se co n ­ s t i t u t e s t h e f i e l d w i t h i n Which m eaning o r i g i ­ n a t e s an d e x i s t s * M eaning I s t h u s a d ev elo p m e n t o f s o m e th in g o b j e c t i v e l y t h e r e a s a r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f th e s o c i a l a o t . bS f h e a d ju s tm e n t t a k e s p l a e e b e tw e e n human o rg a n ism s th r o u g h c o m m u n ic a tio n , an d so t h e g e s t u r e s a r e , i n p a r t , w o rd s , w h ich a r e e l a b o r a t e g e s t u r e s f u n c t i o n i n g a s sym bols* 6 8 . G eorge H* M ead, M ind, S e l f and S o c i e t y , p p . ? 5 - ? 6 .

For

64

example*, A b y a g e s t u r e i n d i c a t e s t o B t h a t t h e r e i s g o in g t o h e a c o m p le te d a c t* 0*

I t l e c o n v e n ie n t t o n e e a s im p le

ex am p le o f a e h lc k e m and a c h ic k *

The © luek o f a h e n , t h e

hem *s g e s t u r e , i n d i c a t e s t o t h e c h ic k t h a t t h e r e i s g o in g t o h e fo o d *

The © hick g e t s t h e fo o d ? so t h e c lu c k means

f o o d t o t h e c h ic k *

The h « n , s © luek i s a sym bol f o r £ a a 4 .

1« t h e • l u l v a l o n t o f , eltn d c m eans f o o d .

Snt th is is not

© o r re e t s i n c e t h e © luck i s m ore t h a n m ore sy m b o l? i t i s p a r t o f w hat i s m eant b y fo o d *

I n o t h e r w ords , t h e r e c o u ld

b e no f o o d w ith o u t t h e ©lueJc# and t o t h i s e x t e n t t h e c lu c k c r e a t e s fo o d *

m eaning i s somehow and t o some e x t e n t i d e n ­

t i f i e d w i t h m aking o r c r e a t i n g *

Mead im p lie d t h i s c r e a t i v e

a s p e c t o f m eaning i n t h e f o l lo w in g i The s o c i a l p r o c e s s * a s in v o lv i n g com m unication* i s i n a s e n s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a p p e a ra n c e o f new o b j e c t s i n t h e f i e l d o f e x p e r ie n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o rg a n is m s i m p l i c a t e d i n t h a t p r o c e s s . O rg a n ic p r o c e s s e s o r r e s p o n s e s i n a w onse c o n s t i ­ t u t e t h e o b j e c t s t o w hieh th e y a r e r e s p o n s e s ; t h a t i s t o sa y * any g iv e n b i o l o g i c a l o rg a n ism i s i n a way r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e ( i n t h e s e n s e o f t h e m ean in g s t h e y hav e f o r i t ) o f th© o b j e c t s t o w h ie h i t p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y and ©hemic* a l l y re s p o n d s * T h e re w ould* f o r e x a m p le , b e no f o o d — no e d i b l e o b j e c t s — i f t h e r e w ere no o rg a n is m s w h ich c o u ld d i g e s t i t . And s i m i l a r l y * t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s i n a sens© c o n s t i t u t e s t h e o b j e c t s t o w h ich I t r e s p o n d s , o r t o w h ich i t i s an a d ju s tm e n t , T h a t i s t o s a y , o b j e c t s a r e c o n s t i t u t e d i n te rm s o f m ean in g s w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s o f e x p e r ie n c e an d b e h a v io r th r o u g h t h e m u tu a l a d ju s tm e n t t o one a n o th e r o f th© r e s ­ p o n s e s o r s e t i o n s o f th© v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l o r ­ g a n ism s i n v o lv e d i n t h a t p r o c e s s * *** a d ju s tm e n t made p o s s i b l e b y means o f a co m m u n ica tio n w hich

65

ta3 km. th© fo rm o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n o f g e s t u r e s i n t h e e a r l i e r e v o l u t i o n a r y sta g e© o f t h a t A p ro e e e ® * a n d o f la n g u a g e i n it® l a t e r s t a g e s * 69 O rg a n !e p r o c e s s e s a r e r e s p o n s e s ; f o o d tu rn © o u t t o he p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d c h e m ic a l p r o c e s s e s in v o lv e d i n e a tin g *

Stated I n i t s ©rudest form * fo o d i s e a tin g *

To g e t h a c k

t o t h e c h ic k e n * i t m ig h t h e s a i d t h a t t h e c lu c k i s a n o i s e S h i eh s y m b o lis e s t h a t e a t i n g w i l l t a k e p la c e * and t h e m ean in g o f f o o d i s t h a t e a t i n g w i l l t a k e p la c e *

So f a r th e n *

t h e r e l e p r o c e s s c a n d t o s a y fo o d i s t o make a p r e d i e t io n t h a t t h e r e w i l l h e a c o m p le te d p ro c e s s * h a v in g e a te n *

The

p reeee® t e a tin g * g o e s on i n t h e o rg a n is m ; fo o d i s a ls o p r o c e s s * s a y o f c o rn *

When c o m i s e a t e n , w hat h a p p e n s l a

t h a t p r o c e s s * c o rn * I s a b s o rb e d i n t o t h e o rg a n ism t o eomp l e t e t h e p r o c e s s * e a tin g *

W ithout t h i s t r a n s f e r o f p ro *

sees* c o rn * t o t h e I n s i d e o f t h e o rganism * t h e p ro c e s s * e a tin g * i s in c o m p le te ; s o t h e p r o c e s s e a t i n g makes c o rn t o c o m p le te i t s e l f *

M eaning d e n o te s t h i s p r o c e s s o f m aking*

S o c i a l p r o c e s s , a© u n d e rs to o d h y Mead* in c lu d e ® n o t o n ly t h e s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s b u t a l s o i t p r e d i c t s , I* e* * i t p r e d i c t s t h e m ean in g s e v o lv e d b y th© i n t e r a c t i n g p a rtic ip a n ts .

N e i th e r A n o r B s e p a r a t e l y nor t o g e t h e r a r e

a c o m p le te p r o c e s s *

" S o c i a l p r o c e s s ” in c l u d e s m ore t h a n

A an d B# #*** i t i s p r o c e s s a s a whole* 69* I b i d * , p* 7 7 .

So t h e statement

66 t h a t " s o c i a l p r o c e s s I n a s e n s e c o n s t it u t e ® t h e o n s e t s t o w h ich i t re s p o n d s * o r t o w h ich i t i s a n a d ju s tm e n t" a p p a r ­ e n t l y means* t h e r e i s a p r o c e s s w i t h i n p ro c e s s * j u s t a s f o o d l e e a tin g *

When Mead s a y s " o b j e c t s a r e c o n s t i t u t e d

i n te r m s o f m ea n in g s w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s o f e x p e r t* e n e e a n d b e h a v io r * " I t i s l i k e l y t h a t h e m eans no m ore t h a n t h a t o b je c t® a r e c o m p le te d a c t s * i , e » * t h a t p r o c e s s i n s i d e t h e o rg a n is m now i n c l u d e s p r o c e s s w hich was o u t s i d e b u t i n t h e c o m p le tio n o f t h e a c t h a s b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d i n s i d e * When t h i s t r a n s f e r ha® b e e n made* a n o b j e c t i s s a i d t o e x is t*

A p e n m eans w r i t in g * and t h e c o m p le te d a c t* w r i t i n g ,

m akes a pen*

A w ord i s a p r e d i c t i o n t h a t a p r o c e s s w i l l be

c o m p le te d ; t h e w o rd , p e n * i s a sym bol f o r t h e th in g * p e n , i s t h e e g .u iv a le n t o f , p e n : m akes p en i n so f a r a s t h e p ro # c e s s * w r i t i n g , i s co m p leted * i s th e e q u iv a le n t o f s

The s ta te m e n t* t h e r e i s a p e n *

W ritin g i s t o b e d o n e ; m eans f o r

w r i t i n g a r e t o b e ta k e n I n t o th e o rg a n ism ( p r o c e s s i n s i d e i s t o t a k e i n p r o c e s s from o u t s i d e ) ; w r i t i n g w i l l b e com* p l e t e d i f t r a n s f e r tepees p l a c e * d e s c rib e d m i

The s i t u a t i o n m ig h t be

A m akes a g e s t u r e w hich i n d i c a t e s t h a t h e

ha® i n him a n ln c o m p le te d a c t , w r itin g * w h ich h e i s g o in g t o c o m p le te *

B respond® t o t h e g e s t u r e by I n d i c a t i n g t h a t

h e w i l l s t a n d b y and w a tch A g e t t h e o u t s i d e - p r o c e s s i n t o A* A c o m p le te s t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g , and B h a s l e a r n e d t h a t t h e

g e s t u r e A made l e t h e way t o p r e d i e t t h a t w r i t i n g w i l l he c o m p le te d *

B h a s l e a r n e d t h e m eaning o f pen*

By wB ratus!

a d ju s tm e n t ** Head w ould seem t o im p ly t h a t t h e g e s t u r e * pen* w o u ld s e t I n m o tio n i n B* th© p o t e n t i a l a c t* w r i t i n g , and so he* to o * w o u ld h e aa h l© t o f o l lo w th© p r o o e s s o f i n t a k i n g o f p r o o e s s t o c o m p le tio n *

T h is I s m e re ly s a y in g t h a t t h e

s o t o f c r e a t i n g o b j e c t s I s a com m unicable on© so t h a t A and B c a n c r e a t e common o b j e c ts * 1* e** i f B w a n ts a p e n W ill know how t o go a b o u t c r e a t i n g one*

he

T h is* how ever*

Is

n o t w hat Mead w is h e d t o p o i n t ou t* B d o e s n o t s t a n d by a s a p a s s i v e o b s e r v e r ;

he I s

i n v o lv e d i n t h e taking*.A n p r o c e s s * A g e s t u r e on t h e p a r t o f one o rg a n ism i n any g iv e n s o c i a l a c t c a l l s o u t a r e s p o n s e on t h e p a r t o f a n o th e r o rg a n is m w h ie h I s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a e t i o n o f t h e f i r s t o rg a n ism and i t s outcom e; and a g e s t u r e I s a sym bol o f t h e r e s u l t o f th© g i v e n s o c i a l a c t o f one o rg a n is m ( t h e o rg a n is m m aking I t ) i n s o f a r a s i t i s re s p o n d e d t o by a n o th e r o rg a n is m ( t h e r e b y a l s o in v o lv e d i n t h a t a c t) as in d ic a tin g th a t re s u lt* The m echanism o f m ean in g i s t h u s p r e s e n t i n t h e s o c i a l a c t b e f o r e t h e em erg en ce o f c o n s c io u s n e s s o r a w a re n e s s o f m ean in g o o o u rs* ffee a c t o r a d j u s t i v e r e s p o n s e o f t h e s e c o n d o rg a n is m g i v e s t o t h e g e s t u r e o f th© f i r s t o rg a n is m th© m eaning w h ich i t h a s * 70 f h e r o l e o f B I s a d e c i s i v e on© I n t h a t Bf s r e s p o n s e t o Af s g e s t u r e i s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f th© p ro c e s s * t h a t i t m ust o c c u r f o r A*s g e s t u r e t o becom e endowed w ith m eaning* e i t h e r f o r A o r f o r B.

I t i s a p p a r e n t l y t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e a c t 4

w r i t i n g * s e t u p I n B b y t h e g e s t u r e A m ak e st t h a t g iv e s t h e sym bol* fe n * m e a n in g ,

W ithoug Bf ® r e s p o n s e * A w ould

n e v e r know t h a t t h e im e o m p le te d a o t* w r i t in g * h a s b e e n c o m p le te d b y t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f a s l i c e o f o u t s i d e - p r o c e s s * pen* I n t o h i m s e l f .

The o n ly s e n s e t h a t one can make o f

t h i s i s t h a t A m akes a g e s t u r e * a sound* a s t h e p ro c e s s * w r i t i n g * b e g in s i n h im ,

B m akes a g e s t u r e , and n o t i c e s

t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e c o m p le te d a o t ,

B c o n n e c ts t h e

g e s t u r e h e h a s mad® w ith t h e c o m p le tio n o f t h e a c t .

So

A*® an d B*s g e s t u r e s somehow a r e p r e d i c t i o n s t h a t t h e r e w i l l h e a c o m p le te d a c t* t h a t a p e n w i l l h e made t o comp le te th e a c t o f w r itin g , Xt h a s b e e n re m a rk e d t h a t a p e n i s w r i t in g * t h a t a s l i c e o f f lu x * p r o c e s s , o r w hat y o u w i l l * becom es a p e n by b e in g a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e a c t* w r i t i n g , S y m b o liz a tio n c o n s t i t u t e s o b j e c t s n o t c o n s t i ­ t u t e d b e f o r e * o b j e c t s w hich w ould n o t e x i s t e x c e p t f o r t h e c o n te x t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h e r e in s y m b o l iz a t i o n o c c u rs* L anguage d o e s n o t s im p ly s y m b o liz e a s i t u a t i o n o r o b j e c t w hich i s a l r e a d y t h e r e i n a d v a n c e ; i t makes p o s s i b l e t h e e x i s t e n c e ©r t h e a p p e a ra n c e o f t h a t s i t u a ­ t i o n o r o b je c t* f o r i t i s a p a r t o f t h e m echanism w hereby t h a t s i t u a t i o n o r o b j e c t i s c r e a t e d . The s o c i a l p r o c e s s r e l a t e d t h e r e s p o n s e s o f on© i n d i v i d u a l t o th® g e s t u r e s o f a n o th e r* a s t h e m ean in g s o f t h e l a t t e r * an d l e th u s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r i s e an d e x i s t e n c e o f new o b j e c t s I n t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n * o b j e c t s d e p e n d e n t up o n o r c o n s t i t u t e d b y t h e s e m eanings* 71, Ib id *, P, 78.

69

*#• t i n t sentence seeme to rafer to an obvious phonossJ•' ©Wn* t h a t la n g u a g e I s s y m b o lic and t h a t t h e o b j e c ts * t h e sy m b o ls w h ie h a r e t h e body o f t h e la n g u a g e , w ould n o t e x i s t i f t h e r e w ere m ot men who co m m unicated w ith e a c h o th e r #

tense

T h a t I s n o t* how ever % w hat Mead i n te n d e d t h e se n * to eayy

He I m p lie s t h a t t h e a n im a ls d i d n o t w a lk

b y Adam a n d r e c e i v e t h e i r nam es $ Adam s a i d t h e names and t h e a n im a ls a p p e a re d *

P re su m a b ly t h e r e was a l o t o f f lu x *

r e a l i t y w i t h o u t fo rm ; and a s Adam s a i d t h e names* t h e a n im a ls w e re fo rm ed o u t o f t h e f l u x a s i t becam e i n s i d e * p r o c e s s i n Adam*

One o t h e r c o n d i t i o n was n e c e s s a r y :

Sve

h a d t o b e t h e r e t o g iv e t h e c r e a t i o n by w o rd * say in g # m eaning*

T r a n s l a t e d i n t o m odem te r m s I t m ig h t be s t a t e d :

g i v e tw o men a t y p e w r i t e r an d t h e y c a n c r e a t e a w o r ld . I n m ore t e c h n i c a l la n g u a g e * t h e sym bol d o e s n o t d e n o te t h e r e f e r e n t ; i t c r e a t e s t h e r e f e r e n t * and i t i n t u r n 1® c r e a t e d b y man i n a s o c i a l m a trix *

Man c r e a t e s t h e w o rld

b y m aking g e s t u r e s * t h e g e s tu re ® h av e m eanings* so by m eanings* man m akes th in g s * By i n t e r r e l a t i n g t h e s e m eanings* one b i g m eaning e m erg es and t h a t m eaning c r e a t e d t h e w o r ld .

The one b i g

m eaning d e te r m in e s t h a t th© I n t e r r e l a t i o n o f meaning© h a s u n i t y o f m eaning#

Each tim e so m e th in g i s c r e a t e d by man#

a s l i c e o f p r o c e s s i s to k e n i n t o h i s o rg a n ism and c o m p le te s

?0 t h e b e g in n in g o f a p r o c e s s i n t h e o rg a n is m ; a m ean in g i s t r a n s f e r r e d fro m n a t u r e t o him* N a tu re h a s m eaning and I m p l i c a t i o n h u t n o t i n d i c a t i o n b y s y m b o ls . The sym bol i s d ie * t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h e m eaning i t r e f e r s t o . M ean in g s a r e I n n a t u r e , h u t sy m b o ls a r e t h e h e r i t a g e o f man * r* When man h y g e s t u r e ^ s y m h o l - e r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y melees an o b j e c t , h e im p o r ts w ith t h e s l i c e o f p r o c e s s , a s l i c e o f m ean in g fro m n a t u r e . m e a n in g .

The sym bol r e f e r s t o t h i s s l i c e o f

T h is i s t h e same a s s a y in g t h a t t h e sym bol ©reb­

a t e s t h e r e f e r e n t s i n c e t h e sym bol i s a c a r r i e r o f m eaning w h ieh was t r a n s f e r r e d fro m n a t u r e , w hich i s t o t a l m e a n in g . Thus a s y s te m o f m ean in g s i s v e r b a l l y tr a n s f o r m e d , f i r s t i n t o a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f a w o r ld , a n d , e v e n t u a l l y , i n t o t h e o n t o l o g i c a l e s s e n c e o f t h e w o r ld . A s y s te m o f m ean in g s i s t h e n e c e s s a r y p re e o n d i* t l o a o f t h e w o r ld .

The s o c i a l p r o c e s s i s t h e a g e n t th r o u g h

w h ich t h e s e m ean in g s become i n t e l l i g i b l e t o man? s o t h e y a r e made f l e s h b y t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s , w h ic h , i n t u r n , m akes c o m m u n ica tio n p o s s i b l e and so t r a n s f e r s th© t a s k o f m aking t h e w o rld t o m en.

T h is i s t h e b a s i c i d e a l i s t p a t*

t e r n ; h o w e v e r, and i m p o r t a n t l y , l e a d d id n o t b e l i e v e he w as r e s t a t i n g i t .

He made t h e same k in d o f r e v e r s a l t h a t

Can b e fo u n d i n M ary, ? £ , I b i d . , P*

n 13.

71

But th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f g e s tu r e s i s n o t, b a s i c a l l y , a p r o c e s s g o in g on I n a m in t a s s u c h , o r one n e c e e a a r i l y i n v o l v i n g a m ind; i t i s an e x te r n a l., o v e r t, p h y s ic a l, o r p h y s io lo g ic a l p ro ­ c e s s g o in g on i n t h e a c t u a l f i e l d o f s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , M eaning c a n h e d e s c r i b e d , a c c o u n te d f o r . o r s t a t e d i n te rm s o f sym bols o r la n g u a g e a t i t e h i g h e s t and m ost com plex stag © o f d e v e lo p * m eat ( t h e s t a g e i t r e a c h e s i n human e x p e r ie n c e ) h u t la n g u a g e s im p ly l i f t s o u t o f t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s a s i t u a t i o n w h ic h i s l o g i c a l l y o r im­ p l i c i t l y t h e r e a lr e a d y # The la n g u a g e sym bol i s s im p ly a s i g n i f i c a n t o r c o n s c io u s g e s t u r e * 73 The r e v e r s a l i s a c c o m p lis h e d by t r a n s f e r r i n g m ean in g s fro m an. i d e a l s y s te m t o a p h y s i c a l b a s e w hich i s t h e n c a l l e d th e s o c i a l p ro ce ss*

T h is i s th® same s h i f t Marx made when

d i a l e c t i c a l i d e a l i s m becom es d i a l e c t i c a l m a te r ia lis m # When Mead s p e a k s o f * a n a t u r a l t e l e o l o g y , i n harm ony w ith a m e c h a n ic a l s t a t e m e n t , " 7^ i t i s a c lu e t o h i s k i n s h i p w ith t h e d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t i c p o s i t io n *

The i n d i v i d u a l a t

t h e l e v e l o f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s becom es t h e d i a l e c t i c a l a g e n t who c o n t r o l s th© p r o c e s s , a s o c l a l * p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s , t o c r e a t e a w o rld # The k e y t o c r e a t i o n i s la n g u a g e , com m unication# T h a t p r o c e s s ( s o c i a l p r o c e s s ] c a n g iv e r i s e t o t h e s e new o b j e c t s i n n a t u r e o n ly i n so f a r a s i t makes p o s s i b l e co m m u n icatio n among t h e i n d i v i d u a l o rg a n is m s in v o lv e d i n i t # And t h e s e n s e i n w hich i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e — in d e e d f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e w h o le w o rld o f commom^sense 7 3 . I b i d *, p . 79# 7d* I b i d *i p* 6 , n 5#

o b j e c t s —I t t h e s e n s e i n w h ic h i t d e te r m in e s , c o n d i t i o n s , and m akes p o s s i b l e t h e i r a h s t r a c ­ t i o n fro m t h e t o t a l s t r u c t u r e o f e v e n ts * a® i d e n t i t i e s w h ic h a r e r e l e v a n t f o r e v e ry d a y s o c i a l b e h a v io r} and i n t h a t s e n s e , o r a s h a v in g t h a t m e a n in g , t h e y a r e e x i s t e n t o n ly r e l a t i v e t o t h a t b c h a v to r * YD H ere t h e e m p h a sis n n t h e d i a l e c t i c a s t h e c r e a t i v e a g e n t i s c le a r*

W ith t h e r i s e o f la n g u a g e , t h e p r o c e s s i n f l u x

i s made i n t o eom m on-sense o b j e c t s by " t h e i r a b s t r a c t i o n from t h e t o t a l s t r u c t u r e o f e v e n ts " and th e r e a s o n f o r com m on-sense o b j e c t s ' h a v in g b e e n c r e a t e d i s t h a t t h e y s a t ­ i s f y human w an ts* ogy*

N a t u r a l t e l e o l o g y becom es human t e l e o l ­

F u r th e r * m eaning i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f m eans; a t h i n g

h a s m ea n in g when i t i s a means f o r s a t i s f y i n g human ends* The w o rld o f ooram on-sense o b j e c t s i s c r e a t e d o u t o f proees® w h ich i s p re s u m a b ly p h y s i c a l , th r o u g h t h e c o m m u n icatio n e f human b e in g s e x p r e s s in g t h e i r p u r p o s e s , i^* £ * , t h e w o rld i s c r e a t e d t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r human V a lu e s t o b e a t ­ ta in e d *

The i n i t i a l g e s t u r e i s th e e x p r e s s io n o f a v a lu e }

t h e r e s p o n d in g g e s t u r e b y a n o th e r o rg a n ism i s an a d ju s tm e n t t o t h a t v a lu e ; t h e a c t i n p r o c e s s i s a s e l e c t i o n o f m eans, i * £.*, a s l i c e o f m eaning w hich i s i n n a t u r e , t o c r e a t e a n o b j e c t t o s a t i s f y t h e v a lu e ; t h e c o m p le te d a e t i s v a lu e s a tis fie d *

So t h e p e n i s w r i t i n g ; fo o d i s e a t i n g ; t h e

70* I b i d * , PP* 7 9 - 8 0 .

73

w erl& l a on a c t o f p u r p o s e ,

T h e re I s o n ly p u rp o s e s a t i s *

ty in g i t s e l f , S c ie n c e I s a way o f s p e e d in g u p and r e f i n i n g c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y s o t h a t a s c i e n t i f i c w o rld c a n b e c r e a t e d . I n t h e s a n e w ay , a t a l a t e r , m ore a d v a n c e d s t a g e o f i t s d e v e lo p m e n t, c o m m u n ica tio n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e w hole re a lm o f e e l e n t l * f i e o b je c t® a s w e ll a s i d e n t i t i e s a b s t r a c t e d fro m t h e t o t a l s t r u c t u r e o f e v e n ts by v i r t u e o f t h e i r re le v a n c e f o r s c i e n t i f i c p u rp o se s. lEhen t h e t a l k i n g a d v a n e e s t o in c l u d e s c i e n t i f i c t e r m s , l o f a s c i e n t i f i c w o rld a p p e a rs t o s a t i s f y ^ s c i e n t i f i c p u r p o s e s ,,, S c ie n c e i s d i a l e c t i c a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e w o rld m ust b e a® idae t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f s c i e n c e dem ands; t h e w o rld a u e t be su ch s in c e i t i s by t h i s p la n , a t th e s c i e n t i f i c s t a g e o f human d e v e lo p m e n t, t h a t i t h a s b e e n c r e a t e d . S c ie n c e I s n o t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w o rld ; i t i s t h e m a s te r p l a n f o r t h e r e i f i c a t i o n o f v a l u e s ; i t i s p u rp o s e i n d i a ­ l e c t i c a l f o r a c r e a t i n g a w o rld t o s a t i s f y human w an ts* So f a r the discussion of Mead1© position show® t h a t i t c a n be stated in the form, whenever a system of v a l u e s . t h e n a physical world t o satisfy these values. H ere i s t h e sam e s e m a n t ic a l c o n f u s io n n o t i c e d i n t h e & is* c u e s io n o f ly n d ; t h e l e v e l s o f m eaning a r e n o t d i s t i n ­ g u is h e d w ith t h e r e s u l t t h a t e x p r e s s in g v a lu e s i n te rm s * b l d * . p* 8 0 ,

o f o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s , c r e a t i n g a w o rld t o p r o v id e f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f v a l u e s * and d e s c r i b i n g t h e w o rld i n s c i e n t i f i c s t a t e m e n t s a l l s e e m in g ly mean t h e same th in g * f h e d l s t i n o t i o n b e tw e e n l i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d o lo g y n e e d s o n ly t o be r e c a l l e d t o c l e a r t h e w a te r s o f t h i s s t a g n a n t p o o l*

L i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h a r e two < iuite

d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s w h ich Mead u t t e r l y c o n fu s e d so t h a t a l i t e r a r y o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e i s t h e w o rld and a n a u th o r a Mind o f a n th ro p o m o rp h ic god c r e a t i n g t h e w orld*

Xt I s t o

a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s a u th o r - g o d t h a t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n I s m oving* f h e p r a c t i c a l p ro b lem f o r t h e a u th o r i s t o make t h e o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e © g iv e e x p r e s s io n t o t h e v a lu e s w ith w h ic h h e i s c o n c e rn e d so t h a t a r e a d e r w i l l r e a c t e m p a t h e t i c a l l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he f e e l s a© t h e a u th o r d o e s a b o u t th o s e v a lu e s *

a u th o r * s w ork i s c o m p le te ly

s u c c e s s f u l w hen t h e e x p r e s s io n i s su c h t h a t any r e a d e r w i l l a c c e p t th e v a lu e s as tru e *

S h o u ld t h e s e c o n d it i o n s be m et*

t h e v a lu e s m ig h t be c a l l e d , u n iv e r s a l© and o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a ­ t i v e s w h ich e x p r e s s su c h v a lu e s m ig h t be s a i d t o h av e a u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t y w ith in , a l i t e r a r y fram e o f r e f e r e n c e * f h i s i s t o b e ta k e n a s © p e c u la tio n «Hnce t h e c o n d itio n © a r e s u c h t h a t t o v e r i f y w h e th e r any p ie c e o f w r i t i n g m e e ts them seem s w e l l n ig h im p o s s ib le *

Xt i s s u g g e s te d her© t o

75 i n t r o d u c e a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f M e a d 's u s e ©f t h e tear® u n iv e rs a l*

I t m u st f i r s t h e r e c a l l e d t h a t v a r i a b l e s I n

s c i e n c e w e e m p i r i c a l e e n e t r u e t s on t h e p h y s i c a l level# As s u c h a l l t h e tear®* n e e d i n a s c i e n i l f l © la n g u a g e ©an h e d e f i n e d i n te r m s ©f u n d e f in e d d e s c r i p t i v e p r e d i c a t e s # i* ©*# s e n s e d a t a t e r n s i n W hich a l l e t h e r te rm s a r e d e f i n e d 5 f o r e x a m p le t e e l o r p a t e h e s an d to n e s *

T h ese © o n s tr u e ts a r e

a l e e s u e h t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n a l te r m s a r e r e d u c i b l e t e b a s i c r e l a t i o n s # e* g . t b e f o r e # up# i n f r o n t of#

T hese a r e t h e

u n i v e r s a l e o f a s e i e n t i f i e la n g u a g e and ©11 w h e n e v e r# t h e n s t a t e m e n t s ©an b e t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e d u c e d t o eueh u n d e f in e d term s# Any p a r t i c u l a r s l i c e o f Im p o rte d p r o c e s s h a s a u n i v e r s a l g u a l l t y # a c c o r d in g t o Mead* I n so f a r a s i t c a n b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r o t h e r s l i c e s I n t h e c o m p le tio n o f a n ineom * p l a t e d a c t#

C re a tin g an o b i a c t i s th e im p o rta tio n in to th e

o rg a n is m o f a s l i c e o f o u t s i d e ^ p r o c e s s t o c o m p le te a p r o c e s s w hose b e g in n in g i s i n s i d e #

T h is p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n h a s

b e e n g o in g on a lo n g tim e} *sy m b o ls a r e t h e h e r i t a g e o f man#* and t h e r e a r e many o b je c ts *

T h is i s a n o th e r way o f

s a y i n g t h a t much i e now known a b o u t t h e w o rld o r# i n s e i e n t i f i e la n g u a g e # t h a t many e m p i r ic a l w h e n e v e r# th e n r e g u l a r i t i e s h a v e b e e n found*

I n M eadian term s# how ever#

t h e s t a t e m e n t m eans t h a t much i s known a b o u t how t o



c o m p le te . I M i M * * t h a t a x e n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t p u r p o s e s w h ic h

h ave* * * « on e h a s a n a i l t o d r i v e t h e r e a c h e s f o x t h e hammer a n d fin d ® i t g o n e , an d h e d o e s n o t a t e # t o lo o k f o x i t * h u t rea eh e ® f o r so m e th in g e l s e h e e a n n e e , a b r i c k ox a s t o n e , a n y th in g h a v in g t h e n e c e s s a r y w e ig h t t o g iv e momentum t o t h e blew # A n y th in g t h a t h e e a n g e t h o ld o f t h a t w i l l s e r v e t h e p u rp o s e w i l l h e a hammer* T h a t s o r t o f r e s p o n s e w h ie h i n v o lv e s t h e g r a s p in g o f a heavy o b je c t i s a u n iv e rs a l* I f th e o b je c t d o e s s a i l o u t t h a t r e s p o n s e , no m a t t e r w hat i t s p a r t i c u l a r ' c h a r a c t e r may be* one c a n s a y t h a t I t h a s a u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r * 77

T h ere i s a n I n i t i a l p r o c e s s i n a n o rg a n ism w hich h a s a c h o ic e b e tw e e n a num ber o f c r e a t e d o b j e c t s w hich w i l l a llo w i t t o c o m p le te a n a c t*

Of c o u r s e t i t may c r e a t e

a new one s h o u ld t h o s e a v a i l a b l e p ro v e I n a d e q u a te .

I t is

t h e i n i t i a l p r o c e s s i n t h e o rg a n ism t h a t i s t h e d e te r m in in g f a c t o r a s t o w hat s h a l l be a u n i v e r s a l } * * * i n s o f a r a s t h e r e s p o n s e I s one t h a t c a n t a k e p l a c e w ith r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b r ic k * a s t o n e , a ham m er, t h e r e i s a u n i v e r s a l i n t h e fo r® o f t h e r e s p o n s e t h a t a n sw e rs t o a w hole s e t o f p a r t i c u ­ l a r s , an d t h e p a r t i c u l a r s may be i n d e f i n i t e In n um ber, p r o v id e d o n ly t h e y h av e c e r t a i n c h a ra c * t o r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e re s p o n s e * D I n t h e l i t e r a r y m e th o d o lo g y , t h e u n d e f in e d te rm s a r e p u r p o s e s o r v a lu e ® , and i t i s t o t h e s e t h a t u n i v e r s a l r e f e r s i n Head* 77* I b i d * , p* 83* 78* I b i d * , p. 84*

The o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s a r e u s e d t o

n M qpM M V a lu e s , w h ic h a r e t h e n by Mead made e t e r n a l and a b s o lu te * T h in k in g t a k e s p l a c e i n te r m s o f c u l v e r s e l s , an d a u n i v e r s a l I s an e n t i t y t h a t I s d i s t i n ­ g u i s h a b l e fro m t h e o b j e c t b y m eans o f w hich we t h i n k i t * . * t h e y a r e i r r e l e v a n t t o tim e _ an d may b e c a l l e d e t e r n a l o b j e c t s o r e n t i t i e s # 79 t h i s p o s i t i o n c a n now b e f o r m u la te d ?

w h en ev er e t e r n a l

v a l u e s o r p u r p o s e s * t h e n a c c n e r c t l a s t i o n o f t h o s e v a lu e s i n a p h y s i c a l w o r ld .

Thus M ead1® k i n s h i p w ith t h e a b s o l u t e

I d e a l is m o f H e g el seem s c l e a r *

A l i t e r a r y m eth o d o lo g y

c o n fu s e d w ith a s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d o lo g y I s made a v e h i c l e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a w o r ld , an d a l i t e r a r y a r t i s t t a k e s on t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s a t t r i b u t e d t o a god i n a n th ro p o m o rp h ic r e lig io n s *

The q u e s t io n o f how a n a u th o r knows t h a t t h e

v a l u e s h e e x p r e s s e s a r e t h e u n i v e r s a l a b s o l u t e v a lu e s re m a in s t o b e d is c u s s e d * When a ' s l i c e o f p r o c e s s i s im p o rte d i n t o t h e o rg a n is m , n o t o n ly i s a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t c r e a t e d , b u t a m eaning i s t r a n s f e r r e d from o u t s i d e t o i n s i d e *

T h is

m eaning I s t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f u n i v e r s a l * s o e a c h o b j e c t c r e a t e d i s a w o rk in g o u t o f t h e t o t a l m eaning o f n a t u r e i n t h e w o rld o f t h in g s *

S i n c e , a s was p o i n te d o u t b e f o r e ,

th e s o c i a l p ro c e s s i s th e a g en t f o r " n a tu r a l te le o lo g y " i n t h e w o rk in g o u t o f i t s p l a n , Mead comes b a c k t o t h a t ?S* I b i d ** p* 88*

78 p r o c e s s i n M s d i s c u s s i o n o f u n i v e r s a l ® $ " I s u p p o s e we c a n ©ay i n c u r r e n t te r m in o lo g y t h a t m ean in g s h av e em erged i n s o c i a l w s® « 1 « m w .» ® 0

By t h i n k i n g I n t e r s e o f n n l r e r s a l B ,

i * ©*t v a l u e s | a man i s a b le t o c a r r y fo rw a rd t h e " n a t u r a l te le o lo g y * *

fh i® seem s m e re ly a way o f s a y in g t h a t when

v a l u e s a r e c o n c r e t i s e d by t h e e e m a n tle a l s h i f t i n g o f te rm s fro m t h e p h y s i c a l t o t h e v a lu e l e v e l * o b j e c t i v e o o r r e l a t i v e o h a v e o f f e s t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d v a lu e s *

By c o n f u s in g t h e

l e v e l s * Mead w as a b le t o f i n d a p u rp o s e o f t h e w o r ld , " n a t u r a l t e l e o l o g y * " b e in g w orked o u t i n t h e s o e l a l m a trix * I n th e d is c u s s io n o f th e c r e a tio n o f p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c ts * Mead r e f e r r e d t o t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e r e b e in g a t l e a s t tw o i n d i v i d u a l s in v o lv e d i n t h e p r o c e s s * and a t t h e tim e i t was d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s ta n d why t h e r e h a d t o be two*

The r o l e o f t h e se c o n d b e c o m e s C l e a r e r now t h a t t h e

p a r t i c u l a r h a s b e e n shown t o em an ate from th e t o t a l i t y o f m eaning*

The p a r t i c u l a r m ust b e a c r e a t i o n o f a t l e a s t

two o rg a n is m s t o g i v e I t i t s u n i v e r s a l fin a lity * b e c a u s e i t i s t h e s o e l a l p r o c e s s t h a t makes I t * M eaning a s s u c h , i* e * , t h e o b j e c t o f th o u g h t* a r i s e s i n e x p e r ie n c e th r o u g h t h e I n d i v i d u a l s tim u la tin g h im s e lf to ta k e th e a t t i t u d e o f th e o t h e r i n h i s r e a c t i o n to w a rd t h e o b je c t* Mean­ i n g I s t h a t w hich earn b e i n d i c a t e d t o o t h e r s w h ile I t i s b y t h e same p r o c e s s i n d i c a t e d t o th e 8©* I b i d * , p , 88*

n

ta ft& e a tin g i n d i v i d u a l , In so f a r as th e in d iv id ­ u a l i n d ic a te s i t to h im s e lf in th e r o l e o f th e e th e r # h e i s o c c u p y in g h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , and a s h e i s i n d i c a t i n g i t t o t h e o t h e r fro m h i s own p e r ­ s p e c t i v e , a n d a s t h a t w h le h i s s o i n d i c a t e d i s i d e n t i c a l , i t m ast h e t h a t w h ich earn h e i n d i f ­ f e r e n t p e rs p e c tiv e s * i t m ust t h e r e f o r e h e a u n i v e r s a l , a t l e a s t i n t h e i d e n t i t y w h ich b e lo n g s t o t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s w hioh a r e o r g a n iz e d i n t h e s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e , and i n s o f a r a s t h e p r i n c i p l e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s one w h leh a d m its o f o th e r p e rs p e c tiv e s th a n th e s e a c tu a lly p r e s e n t, t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y may h e l o g i c a l l y i n d e f i n i t e l y e x te n d e d . I t s u n i v e r s a l i t y i n c o n d u c t, h o w e v e r, am ounts o n ly t o t h e i r r e l e v a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r ­ e n ce s o f th e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c tiv e s to th e c h a r a c t e r s w h ic h a r e i n d i c a t e d b y t h e s i g n i f i ­ c a n t sy m b o ls i n u s e , i , e * , t h e g e s t u r e s w h ich I n d i c a t e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who useO them w hat t h e y i n d i c a t e t o o t h e r s , f o r whom t h e y s e r v e a s a p p r o p r i a t e s t i m u l i i n t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s * 81 At t h e hum an l e v e l t h e d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s I s c a r r i e d f o r w a rd b y I n d i v i d u a l s who Can com m unicate w ith e a c h e t h e r , f h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s g i v e s r i s e t o la n g u a g e s y m b o ls, and t h e sy m b ols c r e a t e t h e r e f e r e n t s , t h e p h y s i c a l t h i n g s o r s itu a tio n s *

fh e o b je c t

o f th o u g h t I s t h e s y m b o l, t h e

sp o k e n g e s t u r e ; i t i s a p r e d i c t i o n t h a t an o b j e c t i s t o c re a te d .

In o rd e r th a t

be

t h e m eaning o f t h e sym bol b e u n i ­

v e r s a l , t h e r e m ust be a g re em e n t b e tw e e n two o r m ore i n d i v i d ­ u a l s t h a t i t p r e d i c t s th e em erg en ce o f th e same o b j e c t , F u r t h e r , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s m ust b e a b le t o change p l a c e s w ith one a n o th e r s o t h a t t h e y c a n know t h a t i t i s t h e same o b j e c t f e r b o th o f th e m . 61, Ib id , * p , 89,

I n t h e i r b e in g a b le t o change

p l a c e s t h e y a r c t h e s o c i a l - p r o c e s s w hich i s w o rk in g i t s e l f c u t i n t h e w o r ld .

T hey a r e t h e a g e n ts f o r t h e word*®

beco m in g f l e s h . I t i s w e ll t o r e c a l l h e r e t h a t a s c i e n t i f i c la w i s a n o b s e r v e d r e g u l a r i t y i n w h ic h a l l t h e c o n s tru c t® a r c s u c h t h a t w h a te v e r te r m s t h e y i n c l u d e c a n b e re d u c e d t o th e p h y s ic a l l e v e l, s e n s e -d a ta te rm s ,

On t h i s l e v e l t h e u n d e f in e d te r m s a r e An o b j e c t may b e d e f i n e d a s a b u n d le o f

s e n s e - d a t a o c c u r r i n g r e g u l a r l y and w hat i s known a b o u t o b j e c t s i s t h i s b u n d le #

Sc s t a te m e n t s made a b o u t o b j e c t s

a r e t h o s e w hose te r m s a r e a l l r e d u c i b l e t o t h e u n d e f in e d r e l a t i o n a l and d e s c r i p t i v e s e n s e - d a t a t e r m s .

W ith in

s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d o lo g y , man i s t r e a t e d a© an o b j e c t w hich Can b e d e s c r i b e d i n s u c h te rm s $

by so d e s c r i b i n g m an,

s c i e n t i s t s c a n e s t a b l i s h o b s e r v a b le r e g u l a r i t i e s a b o u t human b e h a v i o r ,

A s o c i a l s c i e n c e i s alw ay s t t h e r e f o r e ,

about th e o th e r fe llo w .

I t m ig h t b e o b j e c te d t h a t su c h a

m e th o d o lo g y l i m i t s s e v e r e l y w hat c a n be known a b o u t t h e m ean in g o f t h e w o rld and m en, t h a t t h e r e i s so m e th in g m ore b e h in d t h e s e n s e - d a t a and i t i s t h i s w h ich i s t h e m ean in g t h a t men w ant t o know .

W ith t h i s m eaning i s

u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d t h e n o t i o n o f t h e p u rp o s e o f l i f e t h e w o r ld , t h e u l t i m a t e d e s t i n y o f man*

W ith t h e s e

q u e s t io n s s c i e n c e h a s n o t h in g t o do; i t s m e th o d o lo g y ,

and

grounded m the senee-data allows It to describe men and the world in terms of observed regularities as these can ' be established within the limits set by the senses* Science is a factual description of the world and men# and Is met concerned with ultimate values and meanings* Mead1# "eternal objects or entitles**1 the univereals* indicate his unscientific bias# since hie concern seems to be t© show how these are the creative forces in the world* 1 * e*# they give meaning to the world and this meaning can be known since* as has been shown "natural teleology" has become human purposes or values with the rise of language symbols*

In order to be sure that this

transfer has taken place* he has to construct a way for men to change places with each other, so that they can know each ether*s subjective selves*

these selves must finally be

shewn to have values or purposes which are in total the "eternal objects or entities" so,that the world can be created as a kind of objective correlative for them*

Mere

is the literary methodology become a cosmic affair and knowing in term® of this methodology really is to know, to get beyond the limits of scientific knowledge#

It is

the symbol whose roots are In subjective values and pur­ poses that gives this knowledge*

The way in which Mead

generalises or universalizes this knowledge is the next consideration.

82

the waiver© allby of the symbol comes of ene#s hearing it m m he utter© it#

m en he hears hlmeelf* it is

me If he were another person*

this other person is extended

by Head into what he ©hlls the "generalised other*”®®

It

hm been noted that Inside proems®* value. absorbs outside proems®, velum

nature or absolute value* «he ©eeond

individual*© role is that of verifier that whatever is absorbed ha© universal value*

fhis is another way of say*

lug that the created world is one of eommen-sense objects and on a wore refined level a world of seientifie objects* fit© same objects must of necessity exist for all Individ* uals* because one individual is all individuals* or* equally, all Individuals are one individual*

Because one

man hear himself talk* he takes into himself all Individ# u&l®, and a© thinker of universal meanings* he is all other Individuals# fhe very universality and impersonality of thought and reason i© from the behavioristic fgjcl standpoint, the result of the given individual taking the attitudes of other® toward himself* and of his finally crystallising all these particular attitudes into a single atti# tudm or standpoint [which include© his own since ho has assumed the role® of all others toward himselfj Which may be called that of the "generalised other*”8®

82* I b i d #* p# 90* I b i d , , p* 90#

There Is* however, the difficulty of ©elf-observatlom* always has to look at Mmeelf with himself#

One

The trick is

to get outside uheself so that one1® self eon become an object to r observation#

Quite simply, according ,to Mead,

one does so by besoming some one else# The individual experiences himself as such, not directly, but only indirectly, from the partis# ular standpoints of other individual members of the same social ©roup* or from the generalised standpoint of the social group as a whole to which he belongs* For he enters hie own experi­ ence as a self or individual, hot directly or Immediately, not by becoming a subject to him# self, but only in so far as he first becomes an object to himself just as other individuals are objects to him or in hie experience; and he becomes an object to himself only by taking the attitudes of other Individuals toward himself within a soelal environment or context of ex* peri cnee and behavior in which both he and they are involved It has already been pointed out how a physical object is created*

Here the act of creating a ©elf

follows thesame

pattern*

The key word in thie passage is

attitudes,i*©*,

tendencies to act*

laeh human organism has certain ten­

dencies to act and these tendencies are such that the individual organism by itself cannot complete the act*

In

order to complete prooeBS-inside* the organism absorbs a part of outsi&e-process» in this case, another individual. In the completion of an aet, ©* &#, the sexual act, two

I b id # * p • 138*

S4

Individuals* separata processes* become on# process*

The

r#ep«etiv« tendencies to act in each are completed* Although in the completion of the aet* there i® synthesis in the sense that both organisms become parts of one process* at the completion of the act, process separates into two processes* whleh contain both initial processes* However* once synthesis has been accomplished* it Is pos­ sible for the Individual to see himself because of the respossse of the second individual which he now contains, 1*

je** a whole aet can be comprehended and the elements

identified*

The response of the eeoond individual is what

gives meaning* i* e,, it is a means to the completion of the aet* to the initial tendency of the first individual* Because he still holds the response of the second Individual in himself* he can respond to himself and thereby become aware of himself* The self does not create itself; it is created by a second self* which in turn has been created* » • Since each absorbtion tafces In what has been created in the on-going process* social process* the self contains the total of the selves* The unity and structure of the complete self reflects the unity and structure of the social process as a whole; and each of the elementary selves of which it is composed reflects the unity and structure of one of the various aspects of that process in which the individual is

85

implicated* In other words * the various eleven* tary aclvec whleh const1 tate* or are organised into* a complete self are the various aspects of the structure of that complete self answering to the various aspects of the structure of the soelal process as a whole; the structure of the complete self is thus a reflection of the com* plots social process,, The organisation and unification of a social group is identical with the organisation and unification of any one of the selves arising within the social process In which that group is engaged* or which it is carrying on*®*5 In order for a complete self to he or appear* there must he cooperative activity,

Selves are not developed through

c o m p e ti t io n and struggle* and a completely competitive

society would malt© for the complete negation of human personality*

To develop themselves, men must extend the

cooperative process* for there is a direct ratio between self^development and cooperative social development.

When

and only when each self holds within itself all the other selves can there he a complete self* The mechanism by which the individual can include within himself the totality of th© social process is language*

At th© prehuman stage where natural teleology

has not yet become human purpose* there is merely coopera** tivc activity without individual and self-consciousness as created and maintained by language.

85, Ib id *, p. 144.

First of all there 1 ® the conversation of ges­ tures between animals involving some sort of co-operative activity* There the beginning of the aet of one is a stimulus to the other to respond In a certain way* while th© beginning of this response becomes again a stimulus to the first to adjust his action to th© oncoming response* Such is the preparation for the completed aet. and ultimately it leads up to the conduct which is the outcome of this preparation*06 This situation could be described by an observer in terms of stiarulus-responee reactions. observable to a witness.

The gestures are all

This is possible as long as

there is not self^consciousness» As soon as language is developed* the gestures are internalized and the stimulusresponse reactions are hidden.

By language the process

which on a prehuman level is observable is internalised and so becomes invisible. The symbol is a prediction of how the beginning of an act will be completed; jU £** the symbol contains within itself the equivalent of a statement of a necessary relation* if A then B,

The claim has been made in this

paper that in Mead’s position, the symbol creates the referent; it is the necessary relationship expressed in the predictive symbol that is the epistemologic&l correlate of this claim.

3 6 , I b i d , . pp, 1 4 4 -4 5 ,

8?

In the relationship of eauso and effect there is the relation of the responses to each, other in the sense of dependence, involving the adjustment of the steps to he taften with reference to the thing to he carried out# Th© arrangement which may appear at on® time in terms of means and end appears at another time in terms of cause and effect# We have here a relationship of depen*, dense of one response on another, a necessary relation that lies inside of a larger system# It depends upon what we are going to do whether we edlcet this means or another one, oh© causal series or another*37 fhifc is the point towards which this discussion has been slowly moving#

Scientific laws which contain only empirl**

cal constructs reducible to a physical level are made the equivalent of me axis-ends relationships which contain a logically necessary relation*

The scientific, whenever A,

then B is completely confused with the literary, whenever A11 then B f where A and B are empirical construct*^ and A1

is values and B f is objective correlatives which express those values.

Th© confusion is made worse by introducing

into these relationship® the notion of logical dependence 80

that empirical and literary statements are th© ©guiva*

lent© of a logical statement, e# £•, either it is raining or not raining, which says nothing about the world but is & Statement about th© grammar of language#

All this

confusion results In a statement, whenever A (values), then necessarily B (a world whose laws are values)• I b i d * , p* 186#

m A eelemtlst* & novelist and a logician are essentially the sane if this confusion eon he accepted*

One other passage previously quoted m et he recalled here* Hatnre has nooning and implication hut not indication by symbols, * * Meanings are in a(3 nature* hut symbols are the heritage of man* Mead's statement* Whenever A* then B* means not only that it has been observed up to the moment of making the state* ment that* whenever A# there la Bj- it means that there is a relation of neeosg&ry dependence between A and B*

This

dependence is necessary because the end to be achieved determines the relation* so, whenever A* then B is a necessary relation in nature* which is presumably the "larger system.1* The response gives meaning to the symbol* i* e*» the response is the means by Which the end* which the symbol predicts* is achieved* system of responses*

This response is part of a

Bine© mature Is a teleelogleal pro-*

sees* the end of nature* the system of responses* determines that all the ends and so all the means and so all the symbols hang together in a necessary relation*

If one

start® at the symbol end of the progression* one can say that the symbol contains within Itself a necessary rela­ tion* if A, then B* and that this symbol necessarily 88* I b i d ** p* 78* m 1 3 .

implies all other symbol® whith collectively are a pre~ dietisn of the end toward which nature i® moving* On the human level the initial attitude# the tendency to aet# i® the beginning of an aet whleh ha® eoemie implications} and language# which predict® the completion of the aet# is the factor which transfer® natural teleology from nature to man in the social process * fhe social process# by language# is internalised in the ©elf# and as the self carries on am internalised convert sat1 cm with it®elf*-lt is the world moving toward fulfill-** meat* fhe internalised social process is a form of conversation between two aspects of the self# the *1 * and the "me#1* fhe **men includes everything that is not "I." It is possible for inanimate objects, no less then for other human organisms, to form parts of the generalised and organised— ►the completely socialised— other for any given human individual# in so far as he responds to such object® socially or in a social fashion (by means of the mechanism of thought* the internalised conversation of gesture®). Anything--any object or set of objects* whether animate or Inanimate, human or animal# or merely phycrloal— toward which he acts, or to which ho respond®, socially* is an element in what for him is the generalised other5 by talcing the attitudes of which toward himself he becomes sonsclous of himself as an object or individual# and thus develops a self or personality. 09 ®9* I b i d . . p . 1 5 4 n 7*

90

8# th# Mlt contains th# whole world i f It is eomplete? seiOnce 1# not th# way to taowledgef introspection 1# th# method by whioh on# comes to th# taowlodg# that scientists mi*b*&#»ly look for outside themselves* Finally it 1# clear that for lead th# methodology

Of aoienoe is completely unnecessary. There 1® no need for empirically finding the law# aim## the symbol as creative agent hold# within itself all law# whleh are deduelble from it#

Th# baste symbols are those of value and #o the world

1# th# objective correlative for values#

The literary

methodology is th# way to truth about man and the world* Th# artist shilled in shifting terms from a physical level to a subjective level In the on# whose work really embodies truth*

He expresses values and this for Mead is the

equivalent of seientifie truth#

lynd and Mead are in the

same pattern and a quotation from the former provides a transition t# the consideration of the novelist# Farrell# There are numerous evidences already of the sense of community between the two groups Csooial soienees and the humanities) * Moralists* artists, and poets provide valid Insights into our culture that go beyond the ©autious general*, imatloas of social science and open up signifi­ cant hypotheses for study*30 90# Hobart 3* Lynd, Knowledge for W hat?* p* 178*

91

C hapter i l l

xn l i t e r a r t

theory:

THE DECAT OF THE MIDDLE-CLASS Tli# confusion betwem what might roughly ho Called th© methodologies of fast and of fiction has been diecussod in th# writing of a sociologist and a socialphilosopher.

On# night hop© that th# masters of literature

would not have h##n so tangled in the same weeds; however, they, to a large extent, walk in th# same intellectually uncultivated patch.

Many of them helieve their fiction

tells th# truth ahout man and the world in th# same sense that science does,

Wordsworth, Emerson, Whitman, Henry

dames, Dreiser, Howells, all of them fall into this trap. It is possible that in an age when science has great prestige, literary men for s o c i o l o g i c a l reasons want to insist that either their truth is the same as seientifie truth or that it is better,

The kind of confusion to be

pointed out in James f* Farrell is not unique with him. He has been ehosen because he wrote during the same deeade as Lynd and Mead and because the parallelism between them and him is very close, Farrell states what might be called the core of his theory of literature in a chapter called "Growth and Decay in Literature” in A Mote on Literary Criticism.

In

98

it he defines literature as "a reproduction and re-creation ©£ a sense of elements from life that interest man*” Be elaborated this definitions » * • the reproduction of life must hare some meaning* The meaning I might suggest is thisu the reference must he true* fundamentally* in terms of the structure or pattern of events* In other words* the connections within the work mast have consistency one with the other, and this consistency must he on© that is plausibly the same kind that we find in real life*** Here Farrell is pointing out that th© objective correlatives must be so arranged in a novel that the Illusory world built by the author is one that ©an be accepted by the reader as being convincing*

With this there is no quarrel*

However, he insists that the illusion must be one in whleh "the structure and pattern of events" must be the same as In "real life*"

By "real life" it is obvious that he does

aet refer to the subjective level of values on whleh lit­ erary methodology works*

His reference is to the objective

world* and so the "connections within th® work" are those in the objective world and are presumably empirical laws within the scientific frame of reference*

A novel of the

kind Farrell insists on would presuppose that there was already a social science since It "must be true, funda­ mentally, in terms of the structure or pattern of events*" 91* Jam es T* F a r r e l l , A Hot© on L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m * p* 1 9 6 .

93

Thus

truth and scientific truth are the same hind

and the significant variable® in the novel are identical with th# significant variables in science*

If the- die**

tinetiene between literary and seientifie methodology set up in this paper are valid, then, according to Farrell, the empirical whenever^ then statements of science are equivalent to statements which arc objective correlatives for the oppression of values*

Xt is important, therefore#

to examine the variables and the relation between them as described by Farrell. The frame of reference in which he is worbrlng, Farrell insisted# Is "materialistic and monistic5" so it follows that all terms used In statements made in this frame of reference are presumably those on the physical level, and as such are scientific variables which are the equivalent of literary symbols* In all causal relationships there are essential causes and non-essential factors, 0ur“proiTei7 in a deterministic apprehension of the universe, Is to find the essential factors and understand the way in which they are essential— the degree of their essentlalness# We know that BtegbXs (and Hegel before him) defined freedom as the recog­ nition of necessity# and necessity means What is necessary in the development from antecedent but essential cafeses* The application of this con­ cept in the realm of literary criticism and literature, then, means that within the pattern and structure ofIevents of a literary work necessity flows but of the essential factors of etrrlrohskent, situation# milieu, characters—

94

the whole « m $ U * background of relationships which Is there implied and described* Symbolism to literature, following the dictates of meets-* sitar| west hare essential reference to what It ayttbcllsses, and erltieiera must consider litera* „ ture i» the light of this concept of necessity#92 The relation between the variables Is obviously not an empirical one; it Is one of logical necessity in the thesis-antithesisr synthesis pattern of Hegel*

Instead

of seientifie whenever* then statements, Farrell has reference to physical variables on which has been Imposed a rationalistic form so that the connection between

Variables is not the result of empirical observation but of logical necessity*

Thus by confusing syntactical and

semantical levels, he made it seem that social science is merely fitting physical variables into the Hegelian logic#

A novel is, for him, a "reproduction of life" because "the structure and pattern of events" is one of logical necessity Into which objective correlatives merely need to be fitted*

Symboilssatiom as used by Farrell, is the process

of moving physical terms fro® the semantical level to th© syntactical, where in the Hegelian system thesis-antithesicsynthesis is the grammars eo that it seems— not recognising the shift-*the resulting statements are descriptive state* ments about the world# 92* I b i d * * p p . 1 9 7*98#

These statements are presumed to

U im M X . m m m *

he true hath in the

It la clear that Farrell*® frame of reference la aet materialistic ia a seientifie sense and that he shares the same idealistic bias pointed out la discussing Mead end X*ynd*

fhe pattern in the work of these three men oan

he stated somewhat m followsi

Talus statements (pragmat-*

leal) expressing subjective hopes and desires* put in the form of syntactical statements* are made the equivalents of empirical statements on the semantical level of language* so that logical* literary* and scientific truth are one and the seme*

Xt remains to he shown that this is the pattern

of Farrell’s novels hy analysing the trilogy ^tu&a Louisan since it is typical*

However* in order to see Farrell and

lynd more clearly as reflections of the same patterns an attempt will he made first to construct from Farrell*® worfc® his notion of middloveless ideology*

2

- '

" I l s a a jp o b U j- & tsa& aflz t o s e a a ac js M & t"

A pattern of middle-class Ideology constructed from abatements mads by characters in Farrell’s works is bhe topis of this section,

These are business men* large

and small* salesmen* lawyers and the women associated with them#

They had reached maturity by the time of World War 1

and the statements are made between that time and the beginning of World War 11* Mike McGuire was an insurance salesman*

His

nephew*. Dopey* refused to stick to any of a large number of jobs#

Dopey* unemployed* argued with M s uncle* *Mos%of

the jobs I ’ve had were useless ones,” Mike replied* "There isn’t any work in a good office that’s useless* unless It9a politics* 1 run an office and 1 know* I know business and business men* They aren’t dumb* The fellows who have risen to be heads of corporations have their jobs for one reason only— they’re smart as whips* If they weren’t* they wouldn’t be at the top of the ladder* They know economics because that’s their business* And they know that according to eoonomic: law everything that isn’t useful and profitable is naturally eliminated* because it has 93* James T* Farrell* Judgment, ftayf in Sftujjs. Lonlgan, p# 164 Italics mine*

to bo £y the law of supply and demand*94 Thus the bttslneas^nan la the mld aible#

His success is directly traceable to the operation

of natural law In a world in which the only significant variables are economic and his goodness is equated with the profitable which Is also the useful*

Although there may he

periods when It seems that, the businessrman has lost his con­ trol Over the variables with the result that there are de» presalons and business failures, these are rationalised to mean not failure but greater opportunity#

A& hero, the busi-

neas^man is somehow at his. best when he is riding out a depression from which he brings prosperity*

According to

Larry Hcbinson, (a big buslneasrman in lumber}% "Times got to pick up* business cycle is a matter of ups and downs, action and reaction* X*m swinging these deals now, when things are down, and when the reaction comes, and they go up, X collect*"95 The smart businessman is not able to lose*

He plays along

with the business cycle and makes the big money* With money a man can make th e world dance to the tune he plays; so businessmen fight for money since money 94* Fames T* Farrell, "Saturday Flight," S M m » £ m S S E iM * PP* 9 2 -9 3 .

Life Adventnrom

95. fames V* Parrell, 4 WQ£i& 1 Sa£9£L Mada. P. ?8-

90

fights for the mm who has it* ’•Many a time I’ve been without a nickel, but X don’t hate the world* I use It* X taught it, and X won* So now It fights for w e*?p *

*

*

wWe mm make the world something ourselves* I’m getting my hands tight on the one thing that enables you to make the0world anything you want to make it* Money!*y’ Money is power and authority*

The habit of the

business man Is authority that comes with ownership and the token of ownership is money*

This is the principle that

runs throughout the business man’s credo as Farrell puts it i’

into the mouths of middle-class characters* The raw power basis of the actions of the moneyed man is brought out in a scene between Larry Robinson and Margaret Q*Flaherty, his mistress*

Boblnaon has been des­

cribing the big deals he has under way and f the motivation for them*

rtX’m going to be big*

I’m going to have power*

Fewer!1* and then follows, *Qhe staggered Into his arms*

He

kissed her, and then be began roughly to disrobe hcr.n9S Socially power is amsrfced by money; and it is the strong man 96* S M k t P* 299* 97- Ibid# * p* 298* 98 * IJatiilL** -P* 91*

99 who knows what he wants that gets money*

h m U

Indicates

this through the interweaving at the social and biologic and this kind of interweaving la characteristic of Farrell*© methodjas in Mead and Lynd, the basic metaphor la the b i o l o g i c a l o rg a n ism #

In another context Farrell uses the same tech** ntq.ue to indicate how, in a civilisation whoa© thinking la In terms of the buslness-man’s thought pattern, a person accepts, at great coat to himself, the authority which money gives#

Sadie, a cousin of Margaret G*Flaherty, la

describing why she has broken the sexual code of the res* peetable middle-class#

B a r parents had forbidden her going

out with boys and she explains her revolt as follows:

nX Just determined and made up my mind that I didn#t care what would happen# I would do things Just to spite them# I went and got boys, and when I was doing it I would think of my father and mother and think of myself sinning just to spite them# Margaret O’Flaherty recalls on another occasion that her older brother, AX$ beat her in a fit of temper because she did not obey him, as I live,

*1*11 never forget that beating as long

Mot that X hold It against AX*”100

who support6$ the family#

Likewise Sadie refers to her

.99# James f* Farrell, g& 3 M & M M « James

It was AX

P« 394*

Farrell,' 4 World I j t o x Sftfib

231#

100

fattier and mother* her economic support at the time of her revoIt, as "such dears*"10*

Margaret submitted willingly

to Robinson, did not resent 41*a beating her* and Sadie felt no speelal animosity toward her parents* although* according to her# "bhey ruined my life*

the authority of economic

power as suoh is not questioned $ its rights are upheld even by those who have been hurt by it* Faddy Lonigan* a painting oontractor, has a sonin-law who operates a gambling Joint from which he mn&ea a handsome profit during the depression*

Lonlgan’s wife*

Mary* wishes that Phillip* the son-in-law, would find a "more refined business*" "Well* Mary* all business Is much the same these days* dog eat dog* and when everything Is said and done* the thing that counts la getting ahead* fhe boy*a doing that*"*®* the value of money takes precedence over human friendships built up over a long period of time*

Lonigan has had

working for him ever since he started his business a man by the name of Mart* who* because of a sense of loyalty to Lonigan, works harder than he needs to*

How that Mort was

old and Lonlgan was feeling the pinch of the depression* 101* Fames f* Farrell* g& St^ar

P* 394*

102* Ibid** p* 394* 103* Fames f. Farrell* £u&@§n& gUUJfr 307*

101

L o a ig a n r e f l e c t e d " t h a t M o rt w as to o o ld and to o slo w t o do much w o rk f o r him *

He Had t o u s e y o u n g e r m en, who c o u ld d o

t h e w o rk q u ic k ly * rt:i0/*

L o n ig a n w i l l p l a y t h e "dog e a t d o g ”

game b e c a u s e t h a t I s t h e way t o g e t a h e a d i n a b u s i n e s s maa** w o rld an d M ary c a n t a k e e a r s o f th e f i n e r t h i n g s I n l i f e s u c h m r e l i g i o n and w h a te v e r s o c i a l l i f e t h e L o n ig a n s h av e*

AX 0 f F l a h e r t y , a t t h e tim e o f t h e f i r s t World War* w as a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l t r a v e l l i n g s a le s m a n , who p r i d e d him* s e l f o n b e in g a g e n tle m a n who r e a d good b o o h s and f a i t h f u l l y c a r r ie d o u t h i s C h r is tia n o b lig a tio n s *

He n o t i c e d t h a t w ith

t h e w a r h a d come a g r e a t w ave o f p r o s p e r i t y * lu s i n e s s n u e n 105 w e re o p t i m i s t i c and h o p e fu l* H is comment w a s: " I t ’ s a shame that we have t o get a l l this b u s i n e s s b e c a u s e t h e r e ’ s a w ar* B ut I su p p o s e i t e a n , t b e h e lp e d # We didn’t make it# and th e r e you a r e • L ik e F ad d y L o n lg a n ’ s w ife # AX w ish e d t h e r e m ig h t b e a m ore r e f i n e d way f o r t h e b u s i n e s s w o rld t o k e e p i t s p r o f i t s h ig h * F u s t a s F ad d y L o n lg a n c o u ld l e t M o rt go t o j o i n t h e unem­ p lo y e d I n h i s o ld age# s o 1 1 c o u ld s i g h b e c a u s e th o u s a n d s o f meh w e re b u tc h e re d # b u t "X#m e x p e c ti n g t h i s t o be o n e o f Y b l l *r-p'*''4S 2*

' 'M f1' ' “ “1,1 "' f ' "",V'rVITI11" " 'r""”LLjr' 'J"""‘11"'"m'"rrr'"rr",'T1'ft"'TrTH'll'l.'.lIULltU.'IJlIJ'I'fllfll

105* Fames T. Farrell, g& St^r Is Lost* p* 490* 104* I b i d ,* p .

102

the best year® I*w® over had. *207 Mor® outspoken and to the paint was the retired Amarioan bunlnoasfbui® vacationing in Paris in 1931*

He was

concerned because it was becoming more and more difficult to find m tm w high-paying investments for hi© ever mounting fortune#

He was greatly disturbed over the program of

social security In England* and the dole was in his mind an outrage against humanity, and more specifically against him#

He proposed a remedy for England: "How here*® my remedy for this troubleEngland finds herself In# «Tust take a matching gun and go through London and mow down about a million of these here cockneys* X believe in giving every men his right to live# After all* 2 % an American# but these her® English cockneys ' are no good# no damned good# fhevftwonH work# and all they are is # * # ISffl#*’

Every man has a right to live as long as his living does not Interfere with the investments of the moneyed man# and implicit in the remedy is the authority to wipe out ruth* lessly such interference* enterprise to be saved?

But how is the world of business Faddy Xonigan was ready with

CTXf we had a man like Mussolini over here for two months# he*d straighten out a lot of people and put them where they belong# behind the bars 107# I b i d * * p . 4 9 0 .

108# JTamea $*. Farrell* "Paris Scene," When Boyhood Breama Come true# p* 258.

against the wall*"209 Mike MeOnire9® statement about businessmen# "they1re smart as whips*" becomes literally tame when the concept of the authority of money is concretised in the lives of pee** pie I and "they know according to economic law everything that isnft useful and profitable is naturally eliminated11 would seem to equate the natural with the sinister* Certainly the notion of human dignity and the worth of the Individual is relegated to a place far down on the scale of this kind of business world9® values#

Teblen has remarked:

When the predatory habit of life has been settled upon the group by long habituation# It becomes the able bodied man’s accredited office in the social economy to kill# to destroy such competitors in ‘the struggle for existence as attempt to resist or elude him# to Overcome and reduce to subservience those alien forces that assert themselves refractorily in the environment* Besides power and authority# respectability also comes with money# and sometimes respectability makes the getting of money easier*

Faddy Lonigan on the night of

Studs9s graduation from grade school in 1916 takes account O f himself*

As he smokes m after supper cigar on the back

porch of the flat building which he owns# he is impressed 109* Barnes f* Farrell# ffud&ment Day, p. 307* 110* Thoratein Veblen* The T h e o r y of the leisure Class, pp. 14*15*

204 with the monay*reapaatabllity formulas l i f e w as a funny t h in g * b u t ha *4 f o u g h t h i s

up t o a s t a t i o n w h e re t h e r e w e r e n H no r e a l

my

s e r i o u s p ro b le m s life® p o v e r t y * and h e s i t s t h e r e a n d i s c o m f o r ta b le and c o n te n t and p a t i e n t * b e c a u s e h e Knows h e h a s b e e n a good C a t h o l i c # and a g o j |^ i m e r l o a h * a good f a t h e r , and a good jrtKSt*

Lonlgan is so confident of his essential goodness that he is ready, if necessary, to let Cod call him to the Heavenly throne this very minute and he could Ieoh God square in the eye and say he had done his duty* and he had been* and wee* a good father*!12 His being a good father and husband meant that he was r sending his children to Catholic school, had seen to it that they had gone to Mass and confession, had given them money for the collection* and* in general* had been a "good provider*"

$he accomplishment that Paddy really took pride

in was **we paid their way"i 1 *5Oust as money gives power* it gives respectability*

So as Paddy contemplates his son*a

going to high school* he asks* thinking of better educated men than himself t "Maybe he might have a little more book larnin* than 2 but what does that mean? look here* nows 121* f m m T* Ferrell* Yaum LotiXfmn* in gftuftapp* 17*18* ! ! 2* m & * * P* &U

U 3 t Ibid*, p* 25*

Is tie a better end more conscientious father? Dona he pay hie bills more regularly? .Has he get a bigger bank account then I got?wlle the men with the biggest bank account la not without his responsibilities5 he must set an example for those beneath him*

Paddy cautions Studs that late hours* for example*

are not a good thing*

One might expect that It was because

Studs was not getting enough sleep; however* "Ton see* Bill* you’re stayIn* out pretty late, and you know* well* It*a as your mother says* the neighbors will be -thinkin* things* wenderla1 If we* the landlords here* set a good example for our children* and live decently* an* If w© a r e takln* hh# right sort ofcare of our chil­ dren* I’m the owner of thishere building* you see* and I got to have a family that sets the right kind of an example* A1 0*Flaherty daydreams of a career In law for his nephew* Dancy O’Neill* and m m him as "tall# straight* and wel2rgroome&' wall dressed but with nothing flashy or kike in his sartorial make-up. "216

Ths conservatively but richly

dressed Danny will go to "some swell high school* one like University High School on the Midway* where you can make the right contacts with the right kind of fellows. 114. Ibid.. p. 5 8 , 115. Ibid.. p* 102, 116 ,

Fames T» Farrell* £ World I Merer Made, p. 1 2 ,

117, Fames T* Farrell* fffafthar and Sqh„ p, 1C2*

1 06

Studs l&a&mn la to bo groomed by his father to talc® over the painting business! and to be successful, to build up »the biggest bonk account** he must make the right kind of contests*

Hie sister* Fran* belongs to a sorority which la

having a formal dance at one of the big Chicago hotels# Faddy advises Studss MYou donf t vent to be a 0 tlck#dn~the~mud • And there you might meet some fellows oho oan be valuable to you* You know* meeting the right kind of friends* useful ones* Is what counts In this world# Am the fellows who will be there* now they9re the kind that will count later on* they*11 be having their homes* their businesses* their buildings# You111 know them and when they they1!! want a decorating Job* right away they*11 think* Xfll let Bill lonlgan do this for me.****® Bines most of Farrell*® characters are Catholic, the successful business man is usually a decent if not devout Catholic*

Respectability, economic success* and strict

adherence to the forms of religion are interwoven in the life of Andrew ff» Hyland, Hr*, fen o9clock Mass was Just over at the church of Mary Magdalen on the south east side of Chicago* Yhe crowd had begun be dwindle when Andrew F* Byland* 3r** loomed in the center doorway with his two daughters and his son beside him. He glowed Inwardly with that sense of pleasure that only the good man oan experience when he has done his duty* Andrew* 3r>* knew that he was one of 118. Xamea *, Farrell, $£&. Tgaaa j M t e M 2£ § & & £ fegB&gaa t a g ia S a 5 saA ssa.

p

* 25a,

10?

the leading members o f the parish ana he accepted. «.« an obligation, the responsibility of fulfill­ ing all his religious duties without laxity* ■Be received the sacraments regularly* Be strove* In every possible way* to be a model Catholic layman* And for years he had required his t®m» ily to remain kneeling for -a few moments after Mass | saying extra prayers while others hastened and Shuffled out of church, *19 A1 Q*Flaherty, who shares Hyland*s enthusiasm for respecta­ bility* makes the connection between business and religios­ ity by thinking Be would have to pray and light a few holy can* dies for the special intention that he would have a good season* Be*d have M s mother and Xdaz pray for that* too**120 However* there are limits beyond which the businessman .. -

-

^ *

will not go.

The typical businessmans wife Is fired with

the ambition of having at least one of her sons administer the sacraments to her*

The man* however* attempts to dis­

suade any boy who thinks he has a "vocation**

The argument

Is the one Baddy Lonlgan advances when his wife tries to convince Studs

"to ask Clod if you have a vocation or not. and next month start la and make the nine first iX id a y s * *

"Bow* Mary* you know the boy hasn*t a vocation* Y0 U*re putting things In his head*

119* Barnes % F a r r e l l . "The H y la ad f a m i l y " , i n M az SaagfflgB m & m s s . m sx 3 m * » • 73.

I h n p Xtr

l&fl* I s m s f* F a r r e l l , 4 l s u $ 4 I H ^ y er M ade, p . 15*

108

yoh#H go and make a priests of him Ttfhea £*11 he needing hi m # " ™ !%e limits beyond which religiosity cannot go are clearly defined when It begins to trespass on the rights of business rather than uphold them* When respectability Is properly used, it effect* Italy indicates economic power which la the index of per* , sexual worth*

Banny O’Neill is bothered by the fact that he

always has to wear a fresh white waist to school*, but his playmate, Pcro* explains why a white shirt is very Important s "That1# why he wears black waists to school*

A janitor’s son can* t wear white waists to school because his father can’t afford to buy them, and washing them makes the laundry bill too high* My mother, now* she wouldn’t let me wear black w a is ts



No doubt Fere could give good reasons for the decline in the use of the black bloomer* too*

the white waist becomes the

white collar* WX*& like to be a motorman and run an ele­ vated train when I grow up* But when I said that* my mother said t ought to want to be some­ thing else because that would be just being a , workingman* and I ought to want to be something better than a working man* The gentleman in the white collar is the successful 121* James T* Farrell, Young 122# James Y, Farrell* JJ& 123* Ibid ** p. 4l&*

Mn&mxk* p* 161. Is

P« 412.

business mm whose bastes like M s shirt are refined.and set M m off from other men* who, because they do not hate as much money, are common* ,' S ta tu e , r e s p e c t a b ilit y , and ijtoaey a l l r e in fo r c e mm

an o th er, and thoae th a t have not th e th ird are w ithou t

the f i r s t two* Had© A X was h arin g Mother g ir o f iv e d o lla r s in th e c o lle c tio n * Shat woaM t so bad, h ot i f , th ey were r ic h e r , th ey could g ir o more* HosXya’a fa th e r alw ays gave f i f t y or a hundred d o lla r s to th e OhrXsia&as and le a te r c o lle c tio n s * he won­ dered what Papa and Mama were giv in g* He was • ashamed th a t th ey oouldn, t a ffo rd to g iv e much, Juab a s h efd been ashamed because th ere wasnf t a lib e r t y Bond sig n hanging, in P©pa*s windows# Xh the church calendar n ext month, under the *1t e** -W4 m nowks. **»■?«Vil* feu*’ $x.uu. nix line nxas wcuxa ?te 0 tM«iil*s one-dollar contribution would be proof that he was only a teamster, and as such "Bis habits were * • . common, that was the word”*2^ according to his brother-inlaw, Ml 0*Flaherty*

The same AX reflects on a whore he had

been with the night before: Foot girl! lovely little girl, tool Soft and white, and she had been so lordly to him# Yes, a man sometime® did have a nice experience with even girls like that* She had innate refinement, and when she did It with him, there was no coarseness about her* She had done it refined* 124*

12$*

lames Tm Farrell, FatfoCff § M Iffi* P* 87*

f* F a r r e ll,.A World. 1

MMa *, p* 14*

HO And when he had left, aha had said he was a gentleman,-and well, ho did try to be a l e n b l m a n * 12^

The retained whore passed muster, but Jim 0 Weill* teamster, did not-* Others, like Jim, are also not so fortunate# "look at your aunt out there In the kitchen now, cooking your supper# She*ft getting old, and this building la all she has in the world# $hat are the niggers doing to Its value? ‘ They*re trying to come into a good white man*# neighborhood, spoiling and degrading property values# fhey*re robbing your aunt of the value of her building, and ib*s her bread and butter* Just to love niggers X suppose you*d even see her in the poor house*"i27 When property values are in danger, the respectable people get panicky*

The money-respectabilifcy formula must

never be allowed to plot a descending curve since money in a businessman*® world is the barometer of the strength and power and allows the- surface of respectability#

If the

curve shows signs of moving downward, then all the forces at the command of money are brought to bear on the var­ iable with the downward pull# Mr# O’Brien, a businessman, knows, as the retired American businessman in Paris did in the case of the Cock­ neys, what to do# "But these northern bucks are dangerous# 126.

They

I b id * , p# 9 2 *

127* Jamas T* Farrell, "All Things Are Nothing to Me," Stoog* SAprlaa or Jaaas Jlayr.ajl, p. 151.

getting too spry hcfe in Chicago, and one of these days we’re gonna have a m m riot,, and then all the Irish from back of the yards will m into the bleak belt, and there’ll be a lot of niggers strung up on lampposts with their g i n s a r d s e u t o u t . "1 2 8

However, complications arise because money sometimes' gets Into the hands of those without refinement and status, and this gives them power*

’ ibis Is the kind of strength

the respectable businessman cannot seem to oppose with any success as far as the preservation of respectability is ooneerned* ‘•had, they’re coming in here, aren’t they?" said Studs* "Yeah, a shine offered the highest price for the building, so I let it go* But he paid, the black almhk*s**9 In the showdown, If it is a struggle between the force of money and respectability, money wins, but it must appear that the formula has not broken down once the business transaction has been completed* "Well, they can have it, only I hat© to see how this building and neighborhood will leek in about sir more months," said Lonigan* "Yeah#, I guess the damn niggers arc dirty," said Studs* "I know it* Bid you ever look out the win­ dow of the elevated train when you go downtown 12$* James T* Farrell, Yoim^ 129* James T* Farrell, P. 375*

P* 100#

t bung Manhood

of BtMi.

112

and a#« what kind of piaoaa they live la*

aod^

almighty* auoh d irt tad f l M fw said Lonigan* 1 ^ 0

la retrospect* when a respectable party to a disrespectable transaction looks back on it * ho must bo able to m * ®wm reason oatsIda himself for its haring taken place*. the way la which one identifies auoh m outsside force 1® relatively simple*

'Because he has succumbed

to a force having more power than he* the rea&on for the formula rs breaking down becomes raw m oney power or the desire for it*

Heapeetability i© the latex of how well

the raw power basis of the ideology is kept out of sight* When It becomes clear to a party to a disrespectable transaction that raw money power is the foundation of his behavior pattern and that he does not have the maximum amount and so sacrificed respectability in an effort to reach that amount* he shifts the basis for the id e o lo g y , 1*

&•* to money is power and power with or without

respectability is the highest good* or he stigmatises la terms of a lack of respectability those who operate on the raw power basis of money*

la short* he moves toward a pro**

gram of using power in any form to protect his money or toward a reform position which will bring respectability back into the formula* S titt* t P* 375*

If the shift is to money is power and power most be used to protect money* those to whom power is applied arc those who lack money and those who have too much* in t h i s ©as# the Negroes who are bad because they are poor*

and Jews who are bad because they have too much money# Loaigan goes through the thought process of identifying the enemy: It was the Jew all over again, he told himself with grumbling, morbid pleasure* The Jews queered everything they put their hands on. m i s neighborhood* for instance, had been a good neighborhood* with decent, good people in it* Th© Jews had come in, and then that meant that th© Irish and th© other whit© peo­ ple had had to clear out, Because the Jews hadn*t been satisfied by themselves, but they had sold their property to the niggers* Trickery, Jew trickery, had ruined this neigh­ borhood, And the trickery of the Jew bankers was causing the depression and ruining him*i3i So larry lohman, an insurance salesman, nods with approval as he looks to Germany, *Bub I think this fellow Hitler*® going to be a good thing* By putting th© Jews in their places over there In Germany, he*s gornia make the Jews over her© see that they oan*t be gettin* too forward* n 132 The money-respectablllty formula is one that easily breaks down into a money-powor formula 5 when the economy is 13&* James £* Farrell, Judgment % v . P* 425. 132* James T* Farrell, "Whoopee for'the New Beal,” i^OQO, a ffa s g s M §&6s £ S l a t i s s . p - i i v *

expanding and healthy and the olasses other than the middle~el®s& know their place* the'formula follows the re# apeotsbility curve, but whoa".tlihgiT are tight, there is social unreat, and the Glass Hues are stretched taut, the formula loses Its veneer and becomes:

money justifies the

use of force to protect itself* When the middle-class is prosperous and feels safe, it does so because the laborer knows his place, X* c*» he does nothing to interfere with the authority of the middle class as the seat of power and respectability* t

r

As

*

long as Mort* the painter, worked hard, did not ask for more wages than lonigan wanted to pay, raised no questions about whose interest should be dominant in the determine— tion of policy, h© was a good worker*

The good worker ac­

cepts middle-class rule with a smile* Paddy Lonigan* one day during the depression, decided to go back to the old neighborhood, where Negroes and low-paid white workers now lived* for the most part unemployed*

Many of them were being evicted and forced

into the depression jungle camps*

The day Paddy went back*

there was a parade of these unemployed* who* wanting to advene© their cause* carried banners with the usual leftwing slogans*

Jim Doyle* a policeman* explained to Faddy

the motivation for the parade*

115

"Moat of, them are just poor people*

That*o the reason a lot of thorn are in the parade* Xt*a being out of work and having no money that makes Communists oat of many of them," Jim aaid* "Bdt look* Doyle," Lonigan said with a perplexed store, nthe?/*re inciting the poor people around here to revolution* 1 saw a poor family down a few blocks being put out on the street, and if these people get to a poor man like that, they might make him des­ perate* .Why, there was nearly a riot as X p a s s e d * " 1^

lenigan could not understand why the poor and unemployed should be allowed to parade or do anything to protest their lot*

He was especially bitter at Doyle1® saying that

the police ought not to use their clubs on men because they

were making a protest* "They ought to be dabbed until they get some sense knocked into their heads*, This is America, not Eussia, and the sooner we teach them so, the better#w*54 When lonlgan heard of a case where the police actually did seme clubbing and one of the policemen got hurt, he was moved to say: "The oops arenft even safe with them any more* X tell you, there ought to be a law against ’em, and they ought to be put at, hard labor on an Island like Devil1® Island the French got*”13* 133, James T* Farrell, Jpftflftant Dgx, p* 438# 134* B I& m P* 4 3 9 . 135* $&M> # P* 9d*

Tb# worker Is supposed to work} that is his natural func­ tion*

He i® to take what the middle class is willing to

give him# end if there is nothin® to give,, he ought to crawl into m hole and die*' Property is of more value than human life and any threat to property must he met with concentration camps# Hot even the mild American Federation of Labor unions escape* Studs asked Andy when his old man was going to wash his whiskers* Andy said his old man was the best old man in the world* Had said he eouldnH be* because he belonged to a labor union. Bed said his old man was a police ser­ geant* and he was always saying labor unions were a disturbance of the peace* because they destroyed property* "That*a what my old man* and what High.Gollars always says,” Btuds interrupted* ■*•3° Depressions are the fault of workers, ©specially is this so if they belong to unions; this makes them automatically radicals*

Moreover, Just being a worker is enough to con­

demn one in times of depression*

The rationalization

sews to be that it is the businessman#s right to make money in the largest amount possible g a condition he enjoys when everybody is working*

If business is not prosperous,

it must be the fault of the people who are not working*

136* James T# Farrell, Young Louisan* p* 1?6*

ix? then Paddy Lonigan m t f t m reverses in hJsbusi* ness, it must be the worker's fault because they eye not wording*, ftw way back to prosperity is eaayi "America wee a fine country* And all those foreigners Lthe working class] same here to bake jobs away from Americans who hare a right to then* And now we got too many men for the jobs we got* Well* t know what we ought to do* Put all the foreigners we got taking jobs away frost Americans, pack them in boats* and say be them* #How, see here* America belongs to Am@r«* loans* Tou go baok where you belong* 1 And if we did that, we wouldn't have these Reds here agitating to overthrow the government* Say, you know what those dirty Beds are doing now? They're exciting the Negroes down in the Blank Belt* telling them they’re as good as white men and they oan have white women. 1 tell you* Bill, some day the American people have got to wake up and take things in their own hands* wl37 Paddy is not as bloodthirsty as the retired businessman in Paris but the pattern of his thinking is from the same mould*

When lb Is a question of choosing between people

and money, the choice is clear*

People, when they are not

money-makers for the businessman, are a menace and, as such, deserve to be wiped out in one way or another* Hot only are non-middle-class people the victims of moneys the businessman himself Is eliminated as a person by the very thing to which he has devoted his life. for him, too, money Is the death-dealer.

137. Jaaaa T. Farrell, jfafifflMBft 2§X» »• 3°®*

Morb, a salesman, reflects "A gey*» get to work. But what does he get? Bet moll* Be don't never have much t m like he had when he wee a kid*"!?® Whenever he trios to be happy ant carefree In his adult life.,, he is frustrated*

The only real pleasure he has is

in the memory of hla childhood, when his values were not middle-clasa values,

Avery Jfeent# like Mart, does not find

any substance In his success as a businessman*

Be had

worked hard so that he could retire and enjoy himself, but Sver since he had sold out, leaving himself comfortably fixed, for the rest of his life, he hadn't known what to do with himself. Beating the newspapers, playing golf, going to baseball 11 games hadn’t seemed so muon fun after he found himself with the time to do anything he wanted* Then everything just got to be dull and empty* And he*d felt that this trip to -Europe would give him the hoM^on himself and the interests that he needed*1™ 4k* J t

fe te W -

M

i i ,

n i iK i M

a fa T i.

* f lr * ilt* a «

t to t.a f lf a B *

.M .

a A ^ * M .* M * A lk

Hot only is Kent bored and unhappy, he is filled with a great loneliness*

Ho one seems to know Avery Kent, and

most of the time he feels as though he were all by himself in the world*

for years he had been married, and like

himself, his wife is unhappy; always she complains of aches and pains and seeks vainly for remedies from doctors, 13B# Fames T. Farrell, "Nostalgia,« Fames T* Farrell, p* 2 3 6 .

m m . SSHiM M

139* Fames T* Farrell, "Counting the Waves," |100Q. & I§S& and Cipher Storieq. p* 176*

medical a M spiritual*

An Kent looks at her candidly, he

realizes he''does mot even know her, there she m n with that miserable smile on her ' face* Hie wife* and she mo actually a total stranger to him* Moat of the time he knew what she would do or say to him# and yet she was a total stranger* She didaH know what went on ii0 In his mind* He dldn*t know what went on in hefl* Money sometimes breeds respectability} at other times it breeds hatred* violence# and death*

Always it breeds

loneliness and boredom} when one gives himself completely to the fight to possess more and more ofi it* he is merely not realising how lonely he is* 11

O'&Uherty* on reaching his thirty-eighth

birthday* realised that he was successful*

He felt that

* * * he had come along somewhat In life* come along on the power of his own ambition* And he was still olimbing up the ladder* It was a wonderful feeling# knowing that yon were climb­ ing up the ladder* And yet * * * there was now a choke of sadnsfj In him* It came from the music* slow^altz-tlm© music, with each note seeming to trickle through him# and each trickle to touch off these memories and these feelings* Ah* olden* golden* memories* Somehow he felt cheated now* * « , « » He felt chested* And the music seamed like a flow coming from a beautiful world where there was no cheating* St seemed to emphasize la him the feeling that despite everything good In life that he had won* and was winning* he was being cheated .#*** _ _ 1 40 *

ail** P* 188*

141. James T, Farrell, 4 World I Mffff. Mgfla, p. 83.

120 8 peelfIoalXy

Ml m o thinking about Horoh, who had jilted

Mfflf but Horah is mmh m m then Just the girl ho did not Merry*

She I® the symbol for whatever there is in life#

besides money and the kind of respectability it gives*

In

a mlddl«**elass society# there is nothing else* As Baddy Lonlgan watched the unemployed parading* he Suddenly realized how sterile his life had been*

He

had been successful according to business standards* worth about a hundred thousand dollars* but with the depression he had lost much of it* and without it he realized he was nothing#

Looking at the people in the parade* he Kshook

his head in bewilderment* and repeated tc himself that these people were

h a p p y *

m3*42

He just couldn’t make anything out any more* too many things had been happening to him* He couldn’t piece them together* and he felt that the world had passed him by and he was no longer able to deal with it*143 An ideology is a pattern of Ideas that makes it possible for a man to deal with the world* to make sense of it} to use as an Instrument for making judgments about a course of action that will make for his feeling a sense of personal fulfillment*

As Baddy looked at the happy

people* who denied the values by which he lived # he was 142* lam es ^ F a r r e l l * 143* S&Mm P* 443*

SMmmt

gi£* P* 441*

eaeperienoing Che shattering of an ideology; it wan his hut he did hot realize it.

Wien this happens, it Means

the end of the authority of the class that holds the ideology#

Alee Mobray, a ■wealthy lawyer, concluded

"the world ia in a hell of a shape* X know that* But 1 doufb know What yon and X can do about it* Wefre just not the people to do it#****. Xhus, the pattern of American ideology as found in Farrell is the same as that indicated by Xynd*

It sets

each man against the other and in doing so makes each man his owe. enemy as well#

fhe "materialism" of a money

culture does not allow for the externallaation of the basic urges identified by Lynd as peculiarly human# 144# James f* FUrreXX* "The Hobrsy Family,* Wh^>n Boyhood Breams.'Come ffms# p# 313#

C h a p te r IT TOE SEARCH TOR A SELF!

TOR MIDDLB-OLASS AS ADOLESCENT

gtada ssalfiaa f iH

as&

'

coma SSXSSSSm

MI

§s& m M M & i M i a l a p p M M s . l a i. j E f c j B bl M M T S tlift* 1M oMx M i M i a ' (jSTSf* M f i society is e a r a m &£.

to

t e i . r o

in m k p p , w m m &&. su m s

an m

flin t *

l il y . w

a* *

m

MM anas upon t h e

i n

IE £ S U

II

- „ ^ § s te E

as such* m e values of the middle-*class have been sketched la a general way as they appear la the body of Farrell^ fiction*

One of the characters who gave voice to these

values was Faddy Lonlgan, the father of Studs*

The three

following chapters will deal with the story of studs**#* 145* «fataem T* Farrell, Studs LoaiRan» p. xiv.

Italics mine.

* George H« Mead* Mind, Self find Society* ad. Charles W* Morris, pp* 3 O0-0 7 * Italics mine.

12>

II story# eascnfcially* of the education of a middle-class boy a»i hla early manhood within the framework of the ideology of hie class*

As- a kind of descant to his story

is another ideological pattern which is suggested but newer becomes a force in his life#

In general# studs*a

life is a barometer of the health of middle-class thought patterns as Farrell sees them# and his death la symbolic of the death of those patterns as a frame of reference within which constructive thought can take place#

studs

contains within hlmf in Meadlan terms, the businessman culture in its essential form without its outer trimming of respectability*

He dies of dry rot within himself# but

he Is the child of his culture and has absorbed what he is fTcm it*

It was on the day of his death that Faddy

Xionlgaa saw the communist inspired parade of happy people full of vitality and hope#

Hfeat Is a descant while studs

lives becomes a major chord with his death.

Studs Lonl^ah.

then# is a story of a boy and also the story of the death of a culture#

To the dying culture much attention Is paid;

to the new culture there are only references but the im­ plication Of these is clear#

The values of the new world

are life-giving and are fch** opposite of the business-world values#

The structure of the story Is dialecticals

the

thesis# the social process; the antithesis# middle-class

124

ideology; the synthesis# the social process as a developer of human selves in harmony with each other* Iflttliaaft begins on a June night in 1916, graduation night for studs Lonigan at St. Fatrick*®

Grammar School*

Appropriately the introduction is a long

reverie by studs*s father who estimated that If his real estate and business were converted Into cash he would have approximately #100,000*

Looking back over hi® life, Lon-

igan was impressed with his success and his goodness; he 147 was satisfied that he had "put his shoulder to the wheel" and was a good provider for his family* As a boy Lonigan had known extreme poverty* father was a "pauperised green horn"3^

His

from Ireland; his

mother often had to take in washing, especially those weeks when the pay envelope had been spent in the saloon*

Bleak

as his boyhood had been In terms of middle-class values, Lonigan reflected that * » . now that they were over, there was some­ thing missing, something gone from a fellow1® life* He*d give anything to live back a day of those times around Blue Island, and Archer Avenue*

147* James T. Farrell, Jams. Lonlgoji. gjijfla JfiM&m, P. 18. 1 4 8 . ££&&*' P . 1 3 .

449. Ibid.

These ware exciting days) now as he set on his hack porch end reflected on his success* the present seemed a little dull,

But the future was going to he something else* Studs would take over the business in a few

years# and Lonigan and his wife, Mary# would go for a trip to Ireland*

This summer he would take Mary "to Hivervlew

Park and have a day of our own* like we planned for so loag*”3^® lonigan was frequently to make such promises to himself and his wife* but never did he carry them out# Instead he had a tendency to relive in memory the exciting days of his boyhood#

Although he continued to push ahead

the time when he would enjoy himself further and further into the future* he was vaguely conscious that there were limits beyond which there was no pushing* Suddenly* he experienced* like an unexpected blow* a sharp fear of growing old. and dying* and he knew a moment of terror* He saved himself from this terror by transferring his hopes to his children#

Studs would be a successful businessman;

Martin would become wa lawyer or professional man of some kind;" Frances "was going to be a beautiful girl who*d 150* Ibid.# p* 24. 151# IM S b * P» I s

attract mom rich and sensible young fellow*"

Of this he

wee ewe, "there w^.s going to he no.hitches in the future of his JdWs*"152 Looking back over his life, Lonigan compared M e own fortune with that of those with whom he played as a boy*

One of his brothers disappeared and was never heard

from again; another was a .street^oer conductor with a large family that kept him always poor; his sister, Catherine, became a prostitute and nothing was known of her*

One of

M s boyhood chums was In the penitentiary; one drank him­ self to death; another was on the bum* goodf

Some of them made

one had become a priest, another a lawyer and poli­

tician#

Lonigan accounted for his own success:

Well* Fat Lonigan had gone through the mill, and he had pulled himself up by his own boot­ straps, and while he was not exactly sitting in the plush on Easy Street, he was a boss painter, and had his own business# and pretty soon maybe he *4 even be worth a cool hundred thousand berries•**” He had "fought his way" and made good; the measure of his goodness was the hundred thousand dollars* Success comes to the fighter in the business world*

His childhood had been full of fights, and he had

152* Ibid*, p. 19* 153* SSM* # P* *7#

127

***& a tough guy who could bake care of himself.

Pulling

"hiraaelf up by hi® own bootstraps" had meant steering the tough guy from saloon brawl® and alloy fight® to fighting for the dollar,

fhe tough kid became the respectable man

W making hi® fighting respectable; ho became the economic mm with a tough guy mentality* ,Reapecbability la the reward for successful fighting so long as the fighting is for money* Money is the medium of respectability#

when

Stud® and his sister started a family brawl over the use of the bathroom* Lonigan pacified Studs by slipping him * • « a buck as a graduation present• Studs felt good over getting the buck* and went to his bedroom to pat on the white ti© he hated to wear* but had to*^^ Lonigan* full of the glow of his children's graduation* was proud that he was giving them the best in education* but more important was that "we paid their way*"1^ When studs protested that he did not want to go to high school Mrs* Lonigan kept wondering out loud what the neighbors would think* because it would look like they were too ©heap, or else couldn't afford to send their boy to high school* She repeated, several times, that she would be ashamed to put her head In St* Patrick's Ohurch again or to look rather Gllhooley or any of 154* IMS** P* 24* 155* iS£gU* P. 25.

128

IlMV&ftlsters in the face if their hey were sent otkt into the cold world to work# with' only & gyiaamar school education* when-Sll hie class* mates wont on to high school*X>D 4

tts ho iNispscbable Is to ho able to pay

on©1a way,and tho

noro one can pay#, the mora respectable he la* Education la something that la both m opportunity and a danger*

lonigan felt that

* . * a lot of this education was nothing hut booklearnlng, nothing hut hunk* ** It was pretty true that in a way knowledge was power and a person could never team too much# aa long as he was right-thinking*^? the heat indication of what the Lonigan© want education to do for their children is their insistence on "good dictions* When Studs said# "ain’t”, " F a t h e r an d m o th e r cautioned him on the use of the word* tioa.*3^

It was not polite, or good die**.:

like lace curtains, the way la which a person,

speaks is cue more index of how much money he has*

If one

Is "right-thinking ,n he can always answer negatively to: "Maybe he might have a little more hook Icarnin* then X# hut what does that mean? look here now: Is he a better and more conscientious father? Doe® he pay his hills more regularly? fas he got a bigger bank account than I got?WJ*->9 156* m & ** P* 59* 157# IUA*# P* 6 0 * 158* I b i d * f p* 24*

159* IMS,** P* 58*

i& t

Education is good as long as It nurtures the economl© mm end puts a polish of respectability m him; beyond that -it muatnob go.

Its function Is to direst the energies of

youth to compete for the top rung of the economic ladder and to put the polish of the gentlemen on them* lonigan was a Kfclght of Columbus,

sine# he had

risen in the economic world# it occurred to him that # 4 * he would have to he taking his fourth degree, and then at functions he could be all dolled up with a plume in his hat and a sword at his aide that would be attached to a red band strung across his front* And then he’d get a a* The b i g s h o t im age* I t s e l f a c o m p e n sa tio n * k e p t lo o k in g i n v a i n f o r a n e n v iro n m e n t t h a t w ould s u s t a i n i t and h a d t o c r e a t e a n o t h e r c o m p e n sa to ry im age*’ t h e d ream g i r l * who w ould a l l o w i t t o f u l f i l i t s e l f *

The i r o n y I s o b v io u s :

t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s id e o lo g y s t r i p p e d o f a l l b u t i t s c o r e I d e a p ro d u c e s th e i n d i v i d u a l i s t who d e p e n d s on no o n e ; how ever* t h e s o c i a l e n v iro n m e n t m akes t h i s s o r t o f p e rs o n ­ a l i t y i m p o s s ib le e x c e p t i n a w o rld o f f a n ta s y *

The I n d i a n ,

v i d u a l i s t c re d o * w h ic h s u p p o s e d ly i s t h e g u id e t o t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l * I n s t e a d p r o d u c e s a S tu d s l o n i g a n who h a s t o e s c a p e i n t o f a n ta s y *

The c re d o i s

s e l f d e f e a t i n g * and S tu d s i s e n c lo s e d i n a v i c i o u s c i r c l e o u t o f w hi eh h e c a n n o t e sc a p e * B u te t h i s c i r c l e S t u d s 's f a t h e r t r i e d t o pene­ tra te *

He f i n a l l y t o l d S tu d s t h a t be had to go t o work#

The a u t h o r i t y w h ic h h i s f a t h e r e x e r t e d how ever* was one o f

252* Ib id ** p. 50

17#

the factors rsapoBslbla for the tough guy image being so i m p o r t a n t f o r S t u d s p s y c h o l o g ic a l l y *

P a r t h e f a t h e r to

b r e a k i n w i t h a n a s s e r t i o n t h a t h i s ■ s tre n g th w as g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e s e l f S tu d s h a d c a r e f u l l y b u i l t a s a d e ­ f e n s e m ech an ism s e w e d o n l y to e a X lu u p a l l t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s a g a i n s t w h ic h t h a t s e l f w as a d e fe n s e *

To t h i s s o r t o f

r e s p o n s e on t h e p a r t o f t h e f a th e r * t h e r e c o u ld b e o n ly one a n s w e r u n l e s s S t u d s 's p e r s o n a l i t y w e re to d i s i n t e g r a t e c o m p le te ly ; f e a r f o r t h e p r o t e c t i v e im age l e d t o d e f ia n c e * " F o r o n e s , y on do w hat X s a y I I n t h e m orn­ i n g , y o u s t a r t t u r n i n g o v e r a new l e a f * * * And* y e s* y o u m ig h t a s w e l l s t a y i n t o n i g h t s o 'a t o g e t a good n i g h t ' s s le e p * Y o u 'l l n e e d i t i n t h e m o rn in g * "

•I'm my own b o s s ! " "Why, y o u goddamn l i t t l e

. «

A r e d f l u s h fro m t h e s l a p h e g o t a p p e a re d on S tu d s * * l e f t cheek* U n c o n tr o lle d t e a r s w e lle d f o r t h * He w a n ted to h i t back* He was a f r a i d o f h i s f a t h e r * 2^ He d e c id e d t o l e a v e home an d become a h o ld - u p man*

T h is

w as th e r i g h t move b e c a u s e t h e c o m p le te ly s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t p e r s o n I s c o m p le te ly o u t s i d e th e s o c i a l p r o c e s s ; h i s r o l e i s to p r e y upon s o c i e t y * T h a t n i g h t a s h e roam ed i n la c k s o n B a rk , t h e s e l f w h ic h S tu d s had b u i l t w as c o m p le te ly e x p o se d and i s o l a t e d * 253 * £hM * » P* 54*

Actually slu es Studs had been taken ear# of

by

h it fam ily,

I t was only in fantasy that he was "the great stud a Loni&&■**

and i t would be only by becoming Insane that the

fantasy could be maintained now that the props of family cere removed* But studs was not Insanej throughout h is life he 'had wanted to fe e l that ha was a part of the so cia l

order, although a completely independent part# He had, however, accepted the basis premise o f the ideology without q u an tisation , the completely se lf-su ffic ie n t Individual! consequently he was pushed to the extreme lim its of indi­ vidualism* H e c o u l d n 't rem em ber e v e r h a v in g f e l t l i k e h e d id now* w i t h o n ly h i s f e e l i n g o f b e in g a l o n e , a s if a l l t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f t h e n i g h t and t h e sk y w e re I n s i d e o f h im , c r u s h i n g m y e v e r y t h in g e ls e * [Hot© t h e M ead lan p r o c e s s o f a b s o rp tio n * } * , * He h ad b u rn e d a l l h i s b r i d g e s , and gone fro m e v e r y t h i n g , a n d h e was a man a lo n e f o r c e d t o f i g h t b y h i m s e l f * a n enemy o f s o c i e t y , a b u r g l a r an d r o b b e r — w e l l , h e w o u ld be on e a f t e r h e p u l l e d o f f h i s f i r s t sfc lo k -a p * ^ ? * Bo h e t r i e d t o h o ld a man u p ,

The man r e c o g n is e d how

s o a r e d h e w as and la u g h e d a t him*

A t two o 'c l o c k i n th e

m o rn in g h i s f a t h e r fo u n d him and to o k him home*

" S tu d s

w as g la d to b e g o in g home" an d t o w ork f o r h i s f a t h e r t h e n e x t m o rn in g * 2 ^

N o t e v e n t h e man he t r i e d t o h o ld up had

254* I b i d *. P* 57*

a55«.3tUM p* 60#

mo m%M p m p * v lf t o a ll o w fito ft* t o be t h e s e l f h e b to u g h t he w a n te d t o to * h a v in g a Jo b s o lv e d i n l a r g e p a r t t h e c o n f l i c t b e tw e e n S tu d s e n d h i e f a m ily * n o t l a t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e r e

mm m m tta ^ l e r s t a a a i a g t w b a t mm S tu d s c o u ld a f f o r d to p a y o n ly a s much a t t e n t i o n t o them a s h e w ish e d * •So w as e a r n i n g h i s own l i v i n g * m ak in g good dough* an d hi® o l d man h ad ch an g ed h i s a t t i t u d e to w a rd s him* He r e a l l y w a s n 't s o bad* an d h e * d o n l y b e e n s a y i n g t h e t r u t h i n t h a t s c r a p t h e y 'd had* g r e a t * a l l r i g h t * t o be e a r n in g y o u r own dough* He

now h a d t h e fre e d o m t o go t o th e p o o lro o m a s o f t e n m

he

W e e d and s t a y a s lo n g a s h e w an ted *

s t r e n g t h e n e d th e p u l l o f t h e poolroom *

M o th e r in c id e n t On t h e n i g h t o f h i s

f i r s t p a y -d a y * h e n o t i c e d t h a t Lucy S c a n lo n ’ s f a m i ly h ad moved fro m t h e n e ig h b o rh o o d * lie w a lk e d on to w a rd s t h e poolroom * w is h in g h e was g o in g o u t w ith Lucy* a g i r l . Maybe t h e y 'd a l l go to a c a n J a o u a e • He web a f r a i d t o do t h a t ; me* h e w a s n 't * 4 > f E v e ry w h e re e l s e t h e e n v iro n m e n t h a d a c t e d t o f r u s t r a t e him ; t h e p o o lro o m w as t h e p la n e w h ere to u g h g u y s g a th e r e d and d i d th in g s *

t h e r e w as t h e p ro m is e o f s e x and e x c i te m e n t ,

o f fu lfillm e n t*

s tu d s * a f t e r s t a n d i n g a ro u n d t h e p o o lro o m

f o r a w h ile * h a v in g h e a rd t a l k o f two t h i n g s , s a x an d 2 5 6 , %Md» f p* 6 3 * 257*

66*

m d r in k * w a n te d s o m e th in g t o h appen* say*

do sowbhla®#*2'^

O ver and o v e r h a l a t o

that night the only thing he

d i d 'n a n g e t d ru n k * l a f e l t p ro u d o f h a v in g b e e n d ru n k * and so rry * , end r o t t e n # » * (When h e g o t hom ej He q u i c k l y tu m b le d i n t o bed* i n t o i t s s o f t w h ite n e s s * p r o t e c t i o n fro m h i s h e a d a c h e * a n d th o u g h ts * and e v e r y th in g # 2? 9

A% l e a s t g e t t i n g d ru n k w as seas© th in g * one a c t had b e e n com­ p le te d *

S t i l l t h e r e w e re th o u g h ts o f Lucy and many o t h e r

u n f u lf ille d d e s ire s *

Xn h i s d ru n k e n n e ss * t h e bed seem ed t o

o f f e r t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e d ream g i r l w ould s h o u ld h e o v e r f i n d h e r*

M ore a n d m ore S tu d s f b l t t h a t h e m u st

f i n d h e r# One o f t h e p o o lro o m g an g w as F a u l i e H a g g erty * who h a d t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n * a c c o r d in g t o p o o lro o m s t a n d a r d s * o f b e in g m a rr ie d *

One n i g h t S tu d s w alk ed

.

th r o u g h J a c k s o n P a r k w i t h F a u ll© and h i s w i f e . S tu d s e n v ie d him* b e c a u s e s h e was h i s g i r l * h i s women* a n d s h e s l e p t w ith him* u n d re s s e d I n f r o n t o f him * and h e c o u ld do w h a te v e r h e w an ted w ith h e r b o d y * ,n Xfe w as so m e th in g * h a v in g a woman a l l t h e tim e * 860 th r o u g h h i s m ind r a c e d th o u g h ts o f L ucy and th e y w ere th o u g h ts o f p o s s e s s io n # 251$ * Xb i d * * .p * ,6g# 2 5 9 # f i t t & r r P r 72#

260 • 1M-4# * p* 75*

The to u g h guy d o e s n o t lo v e a

182 woman $ h e p o s s e s s e s h e r*

S he i s h i s to u s e a s h e p le a s e s *

a u d i t i s 1a one way r e l a t i o n s h i p #

.S e e s a t u d s l e f t F a u l t s

and, M s w i f e an d w a n d e re d a b o u t t h e p a r k a l o n e * ' By c h an c e h e m e t K lia a b e b h B u r n s , a f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d g i r l , who h a d f o r n i c a t e d w i t h m o st o f t h e p o o lro o m gang* Be w a lk ed h e r a ro u n d t h e s o u th bend o f t h e l a g o o n , and o v e r t h e s t o n e b r i d g e t o t h e wooded i s l a n d , * * S he d t d n H o f f e r him a n y r e s i s t a n c e * @o a n o th e r Im p u ls e t o s o t w as made w hole th ro u g h t h e mm sp o u ses o f a fo u rte e n -y e a r-o ld s lu t* B o rin g t h i s p e r io d o f S t u d s f a l i f e o c c u r r e d t h e C h ica g o r a c e r i o t s *

R e fe r e n c e h a s b een made t o how s t u d s

w as i n o n t h e h e a t i n g o f S t e i n , th e J e w is h b o y , and t h a t t h i s s e t w as h i s o n ly p o s i t i v e on e d u r i n g t h e w a r p e rio d * The r a e e r i o t s g a v e th e g an g a c h a n c e t o i n d i c a t e I t s s o c i a l c o n s c io u s n e s s *

They, p ro w led t h e s t r e e t s i n s a f e

a r e a s , l o o k in g f o r H eg ro es*

261* Ib id ** p* Bl# 2 6 2 * Ib id % * p* 7h-+

183 Such w ere t h e y e a r s 1 9 1 7 , 1 9 1 8 , and 1919 f o r S tu d s I* e n ig a n , y e a r s o f f r u s t r a t i o n , o f l i v i n g i n a w o rld o f f a n t a s y t o make up f o r a n e n v iro n m e n t t h a t o f f e r e d p r a c ­ t i c a l l y no o u t l e t s f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e k in d o f p e r ­ s o n a l i t y p r e s c r i b e d by t h e id e o lo g y #

The p o s i t i v e accom ­

p l is h m e n t s c a n b e c o u n te d on t h e f i n g e r s o f one h a n d :

Studs

h e lp e d t o b e a t u p tw o b o y s u n d e r tw e lv e y e a r s o l d , one a Jew a n d one a N egro; h e s t a r t e d t o w ork f o r h i s f a t h e r ; he g o t d r u n k , an d h e f o r n i c a t e d w ith a f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d nym phom aniac *

T h is was t h e a s s e t s i d e o f t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s

le d g e r as i t re c o rd e d th e l i f e t e e n t o n in e te e n *

o f S tu d s L o n lg a n , ag e s i x ­

H is f a t h e r was w o rth a lm o s t a h u n d re d

th o u s a n d d o l l a r s , and h i s f a m i ly b e lo n g e d t o one o f t h e m ost p r o s p e r o u s and r e s p e c t a b l e p a r i s h e s i n t h e c i t y . S e c t i o n tw o o f The Young Manhood o f S tu d s L o n lg a n c o v e r s t h e y e a r 1922*

S lu g Mason s e t s t h e te rm s o f t h i s

s e c t i o n w i t h wf J e s u s , was we a l l co ck e y ed l a s f n ig h t*

* *

b u t s a y , M ik e, I fix e © t h e l a d s w ith some fla m in g j a z z b a b l e s . fn 2 6 2 a

P a u l i e H a g g e rty was a b o u t t o d i e .

" C la p , g o n o r r h e a l rh e u m a tis m , h i s h e a r t i s s h o t , h i s l u n g s a r e g o n e , and he h a s u l c e r s o f t h e s to m a c h . The guy hag j u s t d ru n k and ja z z e d h i m s e l f t o d e a t h . ” 26® 262a* I b i d . § p . 87* 263#

I b i d * . p# 98#

104 When mmm o f Fault© *® d e a t h m m t o t h e p o o lro o m , one com-

m a t m& n*Wm ©anH be dead* l i v e d * 1*

264

Why he was 00 young, he never

F o r P a u li© and t h e r e s t o f them th e s t a t e m e n t

was t r u e I n a f a r m ore p ro fo u n d s e n s e t h a n t h e y knew*

The

d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n them and P a u l i e w as t h a t th e y war© I n t h e lim b© w h e re one i s n e i t h e r a l i v e n o r dead* f i f t y - e i g h t h and P r a i r i e w as a p la n e w here many l i v e s w ere ©heap*

J o e M oonan, a p l a i n - c l o t h e s p o lic e m a n ,

who f r e q u e n t e d t h e poolroom * had e m b a rra s s e d th e d e p a r t * m eet b y s h o o t i n g a c h il d * wl t s u r e c a u se d a s t i n k * d l d n H i t ? anyway* 1 % g la d t h e y e x o n e r a te d you*”

But

" I t was a l l a c c id e n t* And w hat th e h e l l * t h e h i d was j u s t a goddamn a l l a y - r a t * I don*jL see why t h e r e w as s o much t r o u b l e a b o u t i t * n4?°5 The p o o lro o m a t t i t u d e to w a rd t h e v a lu e o f human w o rth and d i g n i t y ©ones o u t c l e a r l y i n t h e e a s e o f Sadi© P r e v o s t . . * . ”1 know a d o c to r * X f i x e d up S a d ie P r o v o s t w i t h h im when sh e w as knocked up by a l l y o u guys* S he*a a l l r i g h t * o n ly to r a i s e th e dough s h e had t o g o o u t an d h u s t l e * She d i d so w e l l h u s t l i n g t h a t s h e * a l a t h e b u s i n e s s f o r good now* S tu d s lo n lg a n * © comment on t h i n g s i n g e n e r a l was wtM ost 267 t h i n g s a r e j u s t p l a i n c r a p t o m©*’ " 264* I b i d . -* p* 102* $MSU * F* 96* 266* $614** F« 94* 267# I b i d * . p . 8 9 .

m B a u li e H a g g e rty * s d e a t h b r o u g h t bo‘ t h e s u r f a c e o f S tu d s * # m ind h i d o b l i g a t i o n s a s a O a t h o l l o , and w i t h them OOM th o u g h ts o f h i s own d e a th #

Be was d i s t u r b e d b y r e a ­

l i s i n g t h a t h o f r e q u e n t l y fo u n d h i m s e l f s u d d e n ly w a n tin g t o a t o p i n f r o n t o f f a s t m oving tr u c k s #

On h i s way t o con­

f e s s i o n i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r th e f o o t b a l l game h e w as t o play* t h e f o l l o w i n g Sunday* "He had a c r a z y im p u ls e t h a t h e c o u ld n * t u n d e r s ta n d * t o d iv e i n f r o n t o f t h e tru c k * ”

One

t h i n g h e d i d u n d e r s ta n d was t h a t "he w as lo n e so m e . n2^

A

q u ic k s o l u t i o n t o h i s Ion© sam eness w ould h a v e b e e n t o f d l l o w h i s Im p u lse #

However * he was v e r y much a f r a i d o f

d y in g a n d h a r d l y l e s s o f g e t t i n g h u r t#

So h e w an ted to

make a good c o n f e s s i o n b e f o r e th e gams t o I n s u r e th e w e l l ­ b e in g o f " I r o n Man L en fg a n # ,i2^

b u t o n c e i n s i d e t h e c h u rc h ,

h e fo u n d t h a t " f e e l i n g c o n t r i t i o n w as h a rd * " 2? 0

H la lo n e ­

l i n e s s p u sh e d him t o t h e poolroom w here h e d ra n k an d fro m w h ic h ho w e n t t o w hore# a r e a l to u g h guy#

B ut th e r e a l

to u g h g u y was a l s o th e i r o n man who d id w onders on t h e f o o tb a ll fie ld #

To p r o t e c t t h e i r o n man h e had to f e e l

c o n t r i t i o n w h ich was q u i t e f o r e i g n to th e p s y c h o l o g ic a l s e t o f t h e to u g h g u y - i r o n mans ..,w » n .w

.r

u i . » Ll i i i ! . w > » i M . i . M

..—

268. Ib id . . p . 110. ' 269* Ibid. 1 p. 1X6 . 2 7 0 i I b l d i . pi l l l i

t o be a r e a l to u g h guy i n t h e

........................................................

■ ■ ■

186 ^6N9h(Li8NSN98B WUSS bo tear down the "body the iron man needed« S tu d s w as a mass of contradictions* and the impulse which he did

m t understand

was a psychological compulsion

quickly to solve the contradictions by ®©lf*desbrnebi©a# Actually Studs was following the impulse# but by the long# drawn-out poolroom process*

Tk® football

gams was a chance for the Idealise*

tion Studs had of his self to complete itself# If only an hour#

mt

fhere was the crowd which would admire him#

"People in the crowd might notice how collected he seemed to be*^** when he made a tackle. *£he thrill of leering his feet# rushing through the air# hitting him# dragging him down m nicely# lingered# He wanted to do it again# But

the game broke up in a

the team could get no more

riot in the second quaytor#and games because they had fouleda

man so badly there was a question of whether he would live# The

mm

was if©wish,

That night Studs thought

That game and fight now# it had been swell* But there was something more he wanted then the glory of it# and he didaH know whet it was. funny-that he kept coming back to thoughts like this* ^ 271* Ibid** p* 124*

27$,

Ibid.. p. 126.

273. Ibid... P . 132.

Wt Ttie gams# a s t h e C a r d i n a l s p la y e d i t # was a k in d o f e le v e n

m n p r i a a d o n n a show w h e re e a c h o n e t r i e d t o im p re s s t h e crow d w i t h how good h e w e st i t m a a p i c t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l

order

eon t r o l l e d b y t h e I n d i v i d u a l i s t id e o lo g y draw n bo

t h e d im e n s io n s o f t h e f o o t b a l l f i e l d #

S tu d s s e n s e d t h a t

t h e r e w as s o m e th in g l a c k i n g b u t c o u ld n o t know w hat l b was* M et e v e n t h e gam® had l a s t e d a f u l l f o u r q u a r t e r s * T h ese th o u g h ts o f how m e a n in g le s s hi® l i f e w as l e d S tu d s to rem em ber th e Lucy o f t h e a f t e r n o o n i n th e p ark * E v e ry tim e h e w en t t o a m o v ie t h e h e r o i n e was huey and he w as t h e h e ro #

The m o v ie s p o r t r a y e d t h e l i v e s o f p e o p le

who w e re n o t f r u s t r a t e d a s h e was# The p i c t u r e made him w an t t h i n g s l i k e t h a t # b ig d o u g h , t r a v e l # b ro a d s a s g o rg e o u s a s G lo ria * T he t h i n g s h e d id # had no c o m p a ris o n w ith s u c h a l i f e ; h a n g in g a ro u n d th e poolroom # now a n d th e n a s m a lltim e c r a p game o r ro u n d o f p o k e r; b e n d e r s on S a tu r d a y n i g h t# an d maybe a c o u p le o f tim e s d u r i n g th e w eek) so m etim es a c a n house.

If

l u e y w ould b e h i s g i r l # l i f e w ould t a k e on m eaning# and

s h e w ould l e a d him t o t h e p ro m ise d la n d *

T h at n i g h t a f t e r

s e e i n g th e m ovie# h e d re a m t o f G lo ria -L u c y # who * * * w ould b e a w a i t in g h e r l o v e r s t u d s lo n ig a n # i n a l i t t l e A la sk a lo v e n e s t * She w ould be p r e ­ p a re d f o r him# w ith o u t a s t r i p o n , and sh e w ould . g iv e h e r s e l f u n to him# body and s o u l# u n t i l l b h u r t * Then s h e w ould show him w here th e g o ld was I n them t h e r e A la s k a h i l l s # and he w ould become

274* Ibid-* * P* 146*

l&B a b illio n a ire * ^

In h i a d re a m S tu d s h ad c o n s t r u s t ad th e b a s i c o u t l i n e o f A m erican m id d l o - o l a s a g o a ls # m oney a n d th e woman who m akes t h e man h a p p y a i d r e s p e c t a b l e i n h i s r o l e o f good p r o v id e r * T h is i s

t h e to e a m t h a t c a n n o t com© t r u e f o r S tu d s L onigan* The re m a in in g c h a p t e r s o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e book

h a v e t o do w i t h t h e h o l i d a y s e a s o n o f 1922*

A lth o u g h h e

h a d j u s t r e c o v e r e d fro m a s e v e r e a t t a c k o f I n f l u e n z a # S tu d s m s v e r y d ru n k by e a r l y e v e n in g of C h ris tm a s Eve# an d M e

276 g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e w as e x p re s s e d by "E very b o d y *a a b a s t a r d * " When by a c c id e n t# F ra n # h i s s i s t e r # saw him and u rg e d him t o go home a n d s o b e r up# h e p ro c e e d e d to i n s u l t h e r and h e r e s c o rt#

By t h e tim e h e g o t t o t h e poolroom # t h e g an g was

r e a d y t o m ake a n i g h t o f i t an d d e c id e d t h e p l a c e to c e l e ­ b r a t e w as t h e Cannon B a l l Inn# a c o m b in a tio n w hore h o u se an d s p e a k - e a s y *

s t u d s g o t heme when h i s f a m ily was p r e ­

p a r i n g t o go t o C h r is tm a s Maos* When h e came i n th e h o u se # h e "was t i r e d and pooped*

H is h e a d ached*

u p fro m h i s g u t s * "

He c o u ld t a s t e v o m it a l l t h e way

H is s i s t e r # f r a n # g r e e t e d him w i t h

277 " T i l l my d y in g d a y 1*11 hat© y o u . * * y o u . * , you b ru t© * " 275* i U & *f P* 1 5 2 . 2 7 6 . I b i d . . p* 1 7 2 . 277# I M iU . p* 137*

m HI© m o th e r w e p t and c r i e d , w«F©ausf M ary , and *Toa©ph# d i d S a t a n d© t o my ©© a t1*

w het

3h© w o r r i e d , " I ' l l n e v e r a g a in

b® ©bl© t o s a t f o o t l a S t* P a t r i c k * b c h u ra h w i t h my h e a d up***

% a n f a s t r o n g f e e l i n g came o f h e x ©ana© o f b e in g 278 "sham ed a n d d i s g r a c e d b e f o r e M i c h a e l .M B o th women wax©

w o r r ie d a b o u t t h e i r s t a t u s # Paddy L o n lg a n was " p r e c i p i t a t e d i n t o n o s t a l g i c m em o ries o f how h e had gone on b e n d e rs i n h i s own day** and la m e n te d t h e q u a l i t y o f p r o h i b i t i o n liq u o r * saw a " r e a l l o n l g a n .

i n S tu d s h e

t h e o t h e r s to o k m ore a f t e r t h e i r

m o th e r* * 2^

He d e c id e d t o a s k S tu d s to be m ore c a r e f u l I n

th e fu tu re #

I n t h e m ire d r e a c t i o n s o f t h e m em bers o f h i s

f a m i l y , S tu d s w as s u b j e c t e d t o c o n f l i c t i n g n o t i o n s o f s t a t u s ; t h e w o m an-chureh n o t i o n and th© m an-poolroom con­ c e p t.

D u rin g th e n i g h t h e h a d b e e n a man i n a w o rld of

men and w h o re s ; a s so o n a s h e s o b e re d up a l i t t l e an d g o t c le a n e d u p , h e w en t t o C h ris tm a s H igh M ass t o pay h i s re** 3p a c t s t o t h e Son o f a P u re V i r g i n . , I n c i d e n t a l l y , i t I© I n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h a t m ost o f D a r r e l l 4© women c h a ra c te r © h a v e a g r e a t e n v y f o r t h e v i r g i n - m o t h e r and th e men a r e a little

b o re d w i t h t h e i r v i r g i n - a d m i r i n g w iv e s . D u rin g M a ss, th o u g h ts o f t h e n i g h t b e f o r e earn®

27% 3&MU* P* 186* 279* Ibid *, p* 180.

190 and w ent in T h e re Med b e e n t h a t r a i d * ffeses ?©tt«K C h r i s t * he*d b e e n a f r a i d * H efd b e e n m goddamn s h a k y t h a t h©f d Jumped fro m t h e B© cond~sto£y window* s p r a i n i n g h i e a n k le * I t h u r t now* B ut he wan p ro u d of h i s s t u n t * © a ea p ih g fro m th e Law* per*-, h a p s b e in g t h e o n ly one who had* I t was some­ t h i n g t h e y * ! rem em ber aro u n d th e p o o lro o m an d t h e c o r n e r f o r a lo n g w h ile * 280 He e x p e r ie n c e d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on th e Maes* Hoxfe to him s a t a g i r l who a t t r a c t e d h i s a t t e n ­ t i o n , and "he w ish e d t h a t t h e r e was one more p e r s o n i n t h e pew s o t h a t h e and s h e w ould be sq u e e z e d to g e th e r * When h e r t h i g h p r e s s e d a g a i n s t h i s f o r a moment*

A n e rv o u s tr e m o r s i g n a l l e d th ro u g h him* an ©xul*

t a t i o n flo w e d fro m n e r v e t o n e r v e , and t h a t p r e s s u r e * l i k e a d e f t f i n g e r * made him f e e l a s I f h e w e re on th© v e r g e o f g r e a t h a p p in e s s and e x c ite m e n t* The p r e s s u r e r e l a x e d and a Aa©nse o f s i n came I n t o h i s th o u g h ts l i k e v o m it

And b e tw e e n t h e s e t h r e e f e e l i n g s h e bounced w h ile th e p r i e s t w e n t th r o u g h th© M ass*

T hese t h r o e f e e l i n g s a r e a n

I n d e x t o th e th o u g h t p a t t e r n o f th e c l a s s S tu d s r e f l e c t s * t h a t t h e re w a rd s th© s o c i e t y h a s t o o f f e r go t o th© m o st d a r i n g o f th© s t r o n g m en; t h a t woman i s th© b r i n g e r o f h a p p in e s s and c o n te n tm e n t t o th© s t r o n g m an; t h a t s u c c e s s 280*

* P* 192*

281* I b i d * * p . 194* 282* I b i d , . p* 196*

191 ©ad h a p p in e s s a r e s i n f u l and o n e m u st e x p e r ie n c e g u i l t * f e e l i n g s a b o u t h a v in g them* When S tu d s d i d p a y a t t e n t i o n t o th e M ass i t was t o th e p e rso n o f th e p r i e s t t h a t he gave h i s b e a t a t t e n t i o n . Envy f l a s h e d i n h i s t h o u g h t s , a n d h e w ish e d t h a t h e w e re i n F a t h e r B onnagant a p lan © , c e l e b r a t i n g t h e M a ss , e x e r c i s i n g t h e g r e a t e s t an d m o st mys­ t e r i o u s p o w e rs t h a t man c o u ld h a v e* 28-? T h ese th o u g h ts c a r r i e d him b a c k to h i s b o y h o o d , f o r th e n S tu d s L o n lg a n h a d b e en th e b e s t f i g h t e r i n t h e n e ig h b o rh o o d and h ad p o w er and p r e s t i g e * He was s a d b e c a u s e h e h a d grown u p , a n d b e c a u s e t h e y e a r s p a s s e d l i k e a r i v e r t h a t n o man c o u ld sh o p * 28** d a d S tu d s w as l o n e l y i n a w o rld t h a t , when h e f a c e d up to I t , h a d o f f e r e d h im , s i n c e h e h a d c e a s e d t o be a b o y , o n ly fru s tra tio n *

S h o u ld t h e g i r l a t h i s s i d e l e t him t a k e h e r

o u t and be h i s g i r l " s h e w ould know h im , t h e r e a l S tu d s L o n lg a n t h a t nobody h a d e v e r k n o w n * H e

lo o k e d f o r h e r

a f t e r M a ss , b u t s h e h ad gone* I n t h e l i f e o f S tu d s a t t h e en d o f h i s tw e n ty s e c o n d y e a r i t i s im p o s s ib le t o add to th e l e d g e r #s a s s e t s — s t i l l o n ly g e t t i n g d ru n k and w horing* 283* I b id * f p* 198* 284* I b i d * * p* 199# 285* I b i d * f p* 2 0 1 .

I n t h e poo lro o m

w h e re human l i f e m® c o n s id e r e d v e ry * v e r y c h e a p , t h e o d d s w e re a l l a g a i n s t much more*

In c re a s in g ly

s t u d s i e c o n s c io u s o f some g r e e t l e e k I n M e l i f e , b u t h e © enact p u t M e f i n g e r on I t *

The o n ly s o l u t i o n , h e t h i n k s ,

i s a d ream g i r l , a L u cy , who w i l l coma a lo n g t o make a com­ p l e t e p e r s o n o f h im .

with

h i s g ro w in g s e n s e o f th e f u t i l ­

i t y o f M s l i f e , h e i s g iv e n t o f r e q u e n t n o s t a l g i c ' m em ories o f h i s boyhood when t h i n g s w orked o u t t o s a t i s f y th e I d e a l ­ i z a t i o n t h a t w as S tu d s L o n lg a n I n h i s mind*

L ucy S c a n lo n

h a d aw akened a d i f f e r e n t s t u d s a n d h a d f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e I t . One© aw ak e n ed , I t s t r o v e f e e b l y w i t h t h e to u g h guy f o r m a s t e r y , b u t n o t h in g f e d i t e x c e p t t h e w o rld o f f a n ta s y # I t n e e d e d m ore s u b s t a n t i a l f o o d , b u t th e d r i e d f i e l d s o f F i f t y - e i g h t h S t r e e t g re w o n ly b i t t e r g r a p e s t h a t s e t th e t e e t h o n edge*

H o t w in e b u t- p r o h i b i t i o n b o o ze w as t h e f a r e

o f S tu d s L o n ig a a .

I n th e w o rld I n w h ic h h e l i v e d , men g o t

d r u n k and w e n t w h o rin g t o g e t h e r ; t h a t w as t h e l i m i t o f t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e l i f e f t h a t w as t h e l i m i t o f t h e s e l f ’ s d e v e lo p m e n t* Ton w e re calm and s o b e r , and w an ted so m e th in g t o d o , e x c i t e m e n t , w an ted t o c u t lo o s e * s o you warmed y o u r b e l l y up w i t h a few d r i n k s , and i t made y o u f h e a d a l i t t l e giddy# B v e ry th in g seem ed s u d d e n ly r o s y o r f u n n y , you w e re h a p p y , you f o r ­ g o t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t w as b o t h e r i n g you* P e o p le la u g h e d a t w h a t y o u s a i d , and y o u la u g h e d a t y o u r own J o k e s ' to o * E v ery b o d y lo o k e d a t y o u . You w e re p ro u d o f y o u r s e l f , p ro u d b e c a u s e y o u c o u ld n ’ t e v e n w a lk s t r a i g h t * You w e re n ’ t a f r a i d

m

©Y an y s o n o f a b l t e h and hi® b r o t h e r — som etim e® , n o t « v « a o f Jo h n n y Law* You d i d n ’t ear® w hat y o u d i d , t o l d e v e ry b o d y w hat you th o u g h t o f h im , k i c k e d I n window®, r a i s e d a l l h o ly h e l l * I t was a g l o r i o u s f e e l i n g , b u t y o u k e p t w a n tin g w ore t o d r i n k , a n d k e p t w a n tin g t o t a l k more and t e l l t h e w o rld who y o u w e re and w h at a g r e a t g a y you w e r e , make e v e ry b o d y J u s t p a y a t t e n t i o n t o you* M s o o n , t h e l i g h t s w ent o u t* E v e ry th in g was b l a c k , a n d a l l y o u knew a b o u t was a k i n d o f to r m e n t th© sam e a® when y o u w ent u n d e r g a s t o h a v e a t o o t h p u l le d * You a c t e d l i k e a e lo w n , becam e so h e l p ­ l e s s t h a t y o u e o n l& n ’t w a lk , p u k e d , so m etim es g o t p u k e | | | o v e r y o u r s e l f , made a p i g o u t o f y o u r So S tu d s saw h i m s e l f i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 2 4 . F a r t t h r e e o f ffihe Young Manhood o f S tu d s L o n ig a n c o v e r s t h e y e a r 1984 and S tu d s ’ s a tte m p t t o b e b o m a g a i n . S u d d e n ly , h e s e n s e d t h a t s p r i n g was i n t h e a i r * He c o u ld s m e ll I t # He b r e a t h e d d e e p l y , c h a n g e d h i s s lo u o h y w alk I n t o a b r i s k o n e , and lo o k e d a b o u t him a t t h e d a r k shadow®, t h e n a k e d s h r u b b e r y an d t r e e s * He c r o s s e d t h e p a r k d r i v e , and w a lk e d a ro u n d t h e p a tc h o f s h r u b b e ry ©a t h e r i g h t - h a n d B id e o f t h e w a lk t h a t c u rv e d t o th e b o a th o u s e * Ho c o u ld s e e t h e la g o o n , s t e e l y , d a r k , g l i t t e r i n g h e r e an d t h e r e w ith t h e moon an d s t a r s * The w o r ld , t h e n i g h t , t h e p a r k , s p r i n g t h a t was g o in g t o come* i t w as a l l new* Ho f e l t a s i f h e w ere d i s c o v e r i n g them f o r t h e f i r s t tim e i n h i s l i f e , a® I f t h e s e n s e o f bud­ d in g t h i n g s , o f l e a v e s com ing o u t on t h e b r a n ­ c h e s , t h e g r a d u a l w arm ing and l a z i n e s s i n t h e a i r , th© g r a s s b u r s t i n g g r e e n th ro u g h t h e c o ld # h a r d , w i n t r y e a r t h , a s I f a l l t h e s e w ere i n s i d e o f him* He w ish e d t h a t i t w ere s p r i n g a lre a d y * He d e te r m in e d t h a t I t was g o in g t o be a d i f f e r e n t s p r i n g a n d summer f o r him* He was f e d up w ith th© o l d s t u f f , and h e h a d l e t h i m s e l f go f a r m ©

I b id * . p . 808.

194

en o u g h a l r e a d y TM© S tu d s t h a t nobody know w as g o in g t o t a k e f l a s h and t h e c a t a l y t i c a g e n t t h a t w ould b r i n g a b o u t th® now I l f ® w as to b® th® g i r l who s a t n e x t t o him a t Mas® C h ris tm a s m o rn in g tw o y ear® b e f o r e * 2 ^

H® mad# th # f i r s t s t o p h i m s e l f by

g o in g hum® e a r l y and s p e n d in g th e e v e n in g t a l k i n g b u s i n e s s w ith M s fa th e r*

I n th # o o u rs # o f t h e c o n v e r s a t io n "h e

p ro m ise d t o g o t o t h e W ednesday e v e n in g l e n t e n s e r v i c e s a t S t , P a t r i c k ’ s n e x t W ednesday* I n a d d i t i o n t o n a t u r e and t h o u g h ts o f t h e d ream g i r l , a m ore c o n c r e t e m o t i v a t i o n f o r r e f o r m w as th e d e a t h o f A rn o ld S h e e h a n , on# o f s t u d s ’® p a ls *

I n A rn o ld ’ s d e a t h

h e s e n s e d i n a n e g a t i v e way and on t h e m o st e le m e n ta r y l e v e l t h e im p lie d t h e s i s o f th # h i s t o r y o f h i s l i f e * The f i n a l i t y o f A rn o ld ’ s l i f e mad# a su d d e n g a s h u p o n S t u d s 1b th o u g h ts * He w an ted t o t a l k t o A r n o ld , t o g e t t o know him b e t t e r th a n h e h a d , t a k e i n a show w i t h M m ; and know ing t h a t h# c o u ld n e v e r do t h e s e t h i n g s , h e had th e v a g u e s t k in d o f f e e l i n g t h a t w h e n e v e r anyone you knew an d d i e d , a p a r t o f y o u r s e l f d ie d w ith A l l hi® l i f e S tu d s h a s b e e n t r y i n g t o g e t t o know som eone, 287* M & * * P* 2°9* 238* I b i d # » p* 211# 289* I b i d . . p* 213* 290* I b id . * pp* 2 1 6 -1 7 #

m t o f e e l t h a t he b e lo n g e d »

I t w as to o l a t e t o know A rn o ld ,

b u t somehow h e had t o f i n d so m eo n e, s e t h e Im p o rta n c e o f t h e m ir a g e o f th e dream g i r l #

I n a s o c i e t y w h ich p o s e s

t h e r e l a t i o n s o f man t o man a s one of f i g h t e r t o f i g h t e r # t h e d rea m o f a f a i r woman i s su p p o se d t o f i l l i n t h e g a p w h ic h th e man to man r e l a t i o n s l e a v e w ide open*

As a r e ­

s u l t o f A rn o ld ’ s d e a t h I t i s i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t t h a t S tu d s d e c id e d t o b u i l d u p h i a b o d y ; h e th o u g h t o f h i m s e l f now a s "K# 0* L o n ig a n " i n t r a i n i n g * 2 ^1

He d e c id e d t o j o i n

t h e MY ." Of t h e men a t t h e "Y ", S tu d s f e l t " t h e r e w a sn ’ t 292 a man o r a r e g u l a r guy am ongst th e m ," b u t th e "Y" h ad a swim m ing p o o l*

As a boy S tu d s had f e l t b e s t when h e was i n

th e w a t e r b y h i m s e l f .

I n t h e ”Y" p o o l

The w a t e r w as j u s t r i g h t * lukew arm # and h e to o k r h y th m ic s t r o k e s * g a i n i n g a c o n fid e n c e i n h i s p h y s i c a l pow ers* f e e l i n g rem oved fro m t h e w o rld * c le a n # I t was l i k e l o s i n g a l l ^ t h e g r i p e s t h a t hod b e e n p i l i n g up w i t h i n h lm .293 Xha e m p h a s is on an a c t i v i t y re s to re d f ro s t t h e world, o f men

a . being the only r e a lly eatie tying one for Studs i s algr n lfic a n t.

She w a t e r i s a sym bol f o r d e a t h I n F a r r e l l }

291* I b i d . . p . 2 3 0 . 298. M

- . P» 2 3 2 .

293. i b i d . . p . 235.

196

t h e s o c i e t y o f men* I n w h ic h stud® l iv e d * d ro v e him beyond

it® h e r d e r s t o f i n d p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n *

T h is s a 1 1 s f a c ­

t i o n l a n o t a d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e B e lt; I t i® l i k e d y in g *

A f te r t h e swim " s t u d # lo o k e d up* a® I f h© war© j u s t aw aken* la g * " fis h *

294

Huts man demand® a s o c i e t y o f men— h© i s n o t a

stu d ® d i d n o t g o to t h e "Y" a g a in * A t e w n i g h t s l a t e r s t u d s w en t w i t h l a d K e lly t o

a n o r g a n ! n a t i o n a l m e e tin g o f th e young p e o p le o f S t# P a t r i c k ’ s p a ris h *

Had K e l ly h a d p o l i t i c a l a m b itio n s and s t u d s

hop ed t h a t h e w ould m ee t t h e d ream g i r l *

The p u rp o s e o f

t h e m e e tin g w as t o g e t th e young p e o p le i n t e r e s t e d i n r a i s i n g money f o r a new c h u rc h b u ild in g *

I t is in te re s tin g

t o n o t e t h a t Bed K e lly w as n o t u n aw are o f t h e c o n n e c tio n b e tw e e n t h e c h u rc h an d p r o p e r t y v a lu e s * rtS t* P a t r i c k ’ s i s a com ing p a r i s h # S tu d s* And t h e new c h u rc h i s g o in g t o make i t * I t ’s g o in g t o a t o p a l l t h i s w i l d t a l k a b o u t t h e j l g g a m oving a ro u n d her© and r u n n in g th© n e ig h b o rh o o d * O i l l y Cth® p r i e s t i n c h a r g e ] 1* « s m a r t man# and w hat h e s a i d l a s t Sunday i n church, i s t h e goods* M ic h ig a n Avenue i s g o in g to be made a b o u le v a rd * P r o p e r t y v a l u e s a ro u n d h e r e w i l l s k y r o c k e t . The new c h u rc h w i l l c l i n c h th e ma t t e r * You w atch# i t ’ l l make p e o p le s t a y h e re # apd th© new o n e s o f th e r i g h t k in d w i t h m oney w i l l move i n and buy p r o p e r ty * G i l l y know® h i s s t u f f * " 2" ? The c h u r c h i n a money c u l t u r e p e rfo rm s i t s r i g h t f u l 294* I b id * * p* 2 3 6 .

395* Ib id . . p* 240*

197 f u n c t i o n o f l e n d i n g I t s p r e s t i g e t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e v a lu e o f p r o p e r t y f a t h e r t h a n human d i g n i t y «*&$ w o rth y and a s s u c h I t w as w o r t h l e s s I n th e a tt e m p t a t r e f o r m w h ic h 3ft u d s

was making* The dream g i r l was a t t h e m e e tin g b u t when t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t p e r i o d s t a r t e d and S tu d s a sk e d h e r t o d a n c e , sh e re fu se d *

S tu d s l e f t an d w e n t t o m e e t t h e gang*

S tu d s c h ip p e d i n w ith th em , 3hey b o u g h t p a r e g o r i c I n t h e d r u g s t o r e and d r a n k I t * fh ey fo rm ed a d ru g g e d and s t u p e f i e d l i n e a g a i n s t th e s i d e o f t h e d r u g s t o r e b u ild in g * S tu d s w as m n, h e l p l e s s t h a t Bed K e l ly had t o t a k e him h e m e ,296 S p r in g w as o v e r , new l i f e had d ie d b e in g born*

Mot q u i t e ,

f o r one m ore a tt e m p t w as t o b e made by S tu d s* B i s s i s t e r , f r a n , b e lo n g e d t o a s o r o r i t y , and a s c h a irm a n o f t h e d a n c e o m & itb e e s h e s o l d a t i c k e t t o s t u d s . He had d e c id e d t h a t I t w ould b e w o rth a tr y *

The b o y s

a ro u n d t h e p o o lro o m w ould t h i n k h e w as g e t t i n g q u e e r , b u t t h a t w as a l l f i g h t s i n c e wth « y w ould n e v e r be a n y th in g b u t h o o d s*

IJhey w e re a l l r i g h t , b u t h a w as o u t o u t f o r b e t t e r

s t u f f t h a n b e in g a h o o d * "2^

She p e o p le who w ould be a t

t h e d a n c e w e re ^ b e t t e r s tu f f ,* * c o l l e g e b o y s , r e s p e c t a b l e s o n s o f s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s man* 2 9 6 , Ibl-d*.. p* 254* 297* I b i d . * p# 2 5 9 .

One m ore a tte m p t was t o

be iMde to start over, to pick up w hore ha had left o f f the a f t e r n o o n i n t h e p a r k w i t h Lucy*

He c a l l e d h e r and s h e

a c c e p t e d th e I n v i t a t i o n , The d a n c e wee h e ld a t one o f t h e “lo o p 1* h o t e l s , w i t h a " p i l l a r e d lo b b y t h a t p o s s e s s e d a n I n d e f i n a b l e at** m o sp h e re o f l a o y e r m te n o n s *

as

t h e e v e n in g w ore on

an d S tu d s f e l t m ore and m ore I l l - a t - e a s e , h a t h o u g h t, B e l l , I t w as a l l a r t i f i c i a l * They w ere a l l t r y ­ i n g t o p u t on t h e dog* show t h a t t h e y w ere l a c e c u r t a i n I r i s h and l i v e d i n s te a m h e a§ * 4^ A t t h e end o f t h e e v e n in g h e r e a l i z e d f,th© p e o p le w e re n H h i s k i n d , and h e w as g la d t o be away and a lo n e w i t h Lucy a t l a s t ,"300 • oar t b s men h e m et a t t h e d a n c e h e d e c id e d T hey a l l lo o k e d a l i k e , and t a l k e d a l i k e , and sh o o k h a n d s i n t h e same d'oe C o lle g e way* . . They w ere a l l l i k e a w a lk in g bo o k o f e t i q u e t t e , a n d t h e o n ly t h i n g t h e y n e e d e d w as a good h a rd m ash I n t h e p u sa * ^ U i f o r S tu d s th e r e s p e c t a b i l i t y e le m e n t o f t h e fo rm u la w as a f a k e an d a s su o h h e c o u ld n o t be ta k e n I n b y i t *

The b a c k -

s l a p p i n g k in d o f b r o th e r h o o d o f th e f r a t e r n i t i e s w as n o t w h a t S tu d s L o n ig a n c o u ld u s e t o make a s e l f ; i t n eed e d to be o f s t e r n e r s tu f f * 298* $MSk*# P* 281* 299* i M i . i l p» 2 3 2 . 300* I b i d . * p* 292. 3d*

I b i d * ■ P* 2 8 1 .

199 L ucy w as m ors th a n ho h a d a n t i c i p a t e d *

ah® ”tao w

haw t o d r o o s ^ ^ a a d Sh® knew a l l a b o u t w h ic h f r a t e r n i t i e s r a te d a t th e v a rio u s Chie a s e u n iv e r s itie s * w h ic h g i r l® r a t e d s

She a l s o knew

a. c e r t a i n C a th e r in e Mari©*® ,Tt f a t h e r

w ee e b r o k e r on La S a l l e s t r e e t , and s h e r a t e d * ***303 s t u d s r e a lia s e d t h a t t h e r e war© b a r r i e r s b e tw ee n L ucy and him* T hey h a d b e e n b u i l t b y th e m o n e y - r e s p e c ta b lX I ty f o r m u la , t h e seme fo r m u la h e had h e a r d Had K e lly e l a b o r a t e I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t th e new c h u rc h *

H ow ever, t h e m em ories o f

t h e g i r l , L u c y , and t h e s e x u a l a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e woman, L u c y , made h im w an t h e r i n s p it® o f th e b a r r i e r s *

On th e

way home i n a t a x i , when th e g l i t t e r o f th e h o t e l a tm o a p h e r e d id n o t i n h i b i t h im , h e t r i e d t o i n d i c a t e a g a in h i s f e e l i n g f o r h e r and made a d v a n c e s t o h e r* t o h i s k i e s e s an d p ro m ise d m o rei g e t home* ,w^ ° k

She re s p o n d e d

wtp l e a s e , w a it t i l l we

t>he e n t r a n c e t o th e a p a rtm e n t h o u s e ,

s h e slammed t h e d o o r i n h i s fa c e *

W ith L u cy , S tu d s w as

r e e d y t o b e l e d i n t o t h e e n v iro n m e n t o f th e money** r e s p e c t a b i l i t y f o r m u la , b u t w ith th e slam m ing o f th e d o o r , t h a t becam e im p o s s ib le *

T h ere w as a f e n c e w hich bounded

t h e p o o lro o m an d beyond t h i s he c o u ld n o t go* 3 0 2 . I b j d * » P# 303* I b i d * . p* 288* 304* i m * * p* 293*

H is

stfcanpfcs a t m l f r e f o r m f l a s M

o u t , a M so b u c k to t h e

mm* ft*© ®fi*ngf I n a a a ro h f o r e x c i te m e n t , fo u n d I t s e l f l i s t e n i n g one e v e n in g t o t h e so s p ^ b o x o r a t o r s o f t h e Bug C lu b I n la c k a o n F ark *

B a r H e r I n th e e v e n in g , b o th 3 tu d s

and Red K e l ly h a d b e e n o u t-b o x e d i n im p ro v is e d m a tc h e s by y o u n g e r , l e s s to u g h f e llo w s *

S tu d s knew i t and h a te d I t ;

I t t h r e a t e n e d c o m p le te l e a s o f w h at p e r s o n a l i t y he had* Red K e l ly fo u n d c o m p e n sa tio n b y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e gang e l e a r t h e p a r k o f " P o la o k a and D agoes and

R

i g

g

e r s *

It

w as l a a mood o f h a v in g t o s a v e f a c e t h a t th e y a p p ro a c h e d t h e Bug Club* Red K e l ly d id th e t a l k i n g f o r t h e gang and d i ­ r e c te d th e gang*s a c t i v i t i e s *

A t f i r s t ha was a l l f o r

b r e a k i n g up th e m e e tin g u n t i l I t becam e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e w e re s p e a k e r s

who w e re b i g an d g a v e e v id e n c e o f b e in g a b le

t o t a k e e a r s o f th e m s e lv e s *

fh e th in g s th e sp e a k e rs

s a i d (a n d t h e y d i s c u s s e d s u c h t h i n g s a s th© r a c e p ro b le m , t h e s t a t u s o f th e w o rk in g man i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y ) 11*w e re o v e r t h e h e a d o f th e human r a c e *w a c c o r d in g to t h * 8 « g C lub o f f e r e d no e x c ite m e n t f o r t h e g a n g ; t h e r e w ere 3 0 5 . m tk * * P . 3 0 6 . 306. I b i d . . p . 3 1 3 . 3 0 7 . | b l d . . p . 307’,

201

t m many b i g f e l l o w s I n t h e o p p o s itio n *

They w ont M ole t o

I l f ty * o lg h th S tre e t* Whan th e y g o t t i r e d o f h a n g in g a ro u n d F i f t y e i g h t h S t r e e t w i t h n o t h i n g t o d o * t h e y g o t d ru n k o n ta m a le s g in g e r * f h o i r d ru n k e n a t t e n t i o n wan n a u g h t by a p a s s i n g M egro hot~ tam ale~ m an * t h e y s lu g g e d n is i an d to o k t h e wagon* l a d w h eeled i t a n d t h e y m arched down t h e s t r e e t to w a rd s t h e p a rk * t h e y e a c h h ad a h o t ta m a le end d e b a te d w h a t t o do w i t h t h e r e s t * Bed n a u g h t a p a s s i n g s h in e * They t o s s e d him I n t o t h e f o u n t a i n by t h e c u rv e i n th e b o a th o u s e p a th * He s t r u g g l e d t o g e t o u t o f th e s l i p p e r y f o u n t a i n * and w as sh o v e d oa* b a c k , and p e l t e d a s lo n g a s th e y h ad h o t ta m a le s* S tu d s h a d t o b e c a r r i e d home and w as l e f t o n t h e b ack p o rc h pe d le e p i t o ff*

He w as b a c k w h ere h e had s t a r t e d * a to u g h

g u y w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p o o lro o m crowd* B ack i n t h e g an g h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s w ere n o l e s s t h a n when h e a tte m p te d s e l f - r e f arm*

Th® b o x in g m atch con*

v in o e d him t h a t h e w as a " h a s - b e e n " a s a r e a l to u g h guy* b u t a s a member o f th e g ang h e c o u ld n o t a c c e p t t h i s know­ le d g e o f h im s e lf *

He knew h e c o u ld n o t i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f

w i t h p e o p le o u t s i d e th© gang* and I n s e l f d e f e n s e h e t u r n e d o n th© weak* t h e Few© and M egroes* t o b o l s t e r hi® c o n v ic t t l o n t h a t ho w as s t i l l to u g h .

He r e j e e t b d th e r e s t o f

s o c i e t y b e c a u s e h e f e l t h e h ad b een r e j e c t e d by th o s e who w o re ab o v e him * Lucy and t h o s e he m et a t th© dance* and c o u ld n o t i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w ith th o s e h e c o n s id e r e d b elo w

30S. Ibid.. p* 315 *

202 him *

B o th t h o s e abev© and b elo w h e c o n s id e r e d w e a k , b u t h e

a t t a c k e d o n ly t h o s e b e lo w . B e c a u se h e l a l o n e l y and h a t e s h i s l o n e l i n e s s * h e c o n s t a n t l y s e e k s c o m p a n io n sh ip *

He f i n d s I t among th o s e

who h a v e I n v e r t e d th o s e a c t i v i t i e s * w h o rin g and d r i n k i n g w h ic h w eaken them * I n t o m a rk s o f s t r e n g t h #

Thus h i s w h o le

l i f e I s o n e o f s e l f - d e f e a t * and I t I s I r o n i c a l l y so b e c a u s e t h e g u i d in g i d e a h a s b e en t h a t o f t h e in d e p e n d e n t* s e l f s u f f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l who f i g h t s h i s way t o th e to p * S t u d s *s a t t e m p t s a t s e l f r e fo r m h a v in g f a i l e d * F a r r e l l n e x t d e s c r i b e d t h e a tte m p t o f th e c h u rc h t o r e f o r m t h e F i f t y - e i g h t h s t r e e t orowd*

J u s t a s Stud® had h i s p r i ­

v a t e w o rld o f f a n t a s y * s o th e gang h ad it® f a n t a s y * c r e a t e d by t h e c h u rc h *

The m is s io n c o n d u c te d a t S t* P a t r i c k 9®

C h u rch s e r v e d t o l e t t h e g an g p r e te n d f o r a w eek t h a t th e y w e re d e c e n t* u p s t a n d in g m em bers o f s o c ie ty * o f f a® C a th o lic ® fro m l e s s e r men*

F a t h e r Shannon* who con­

d u c te d t h e m i s s i o n t p re a c h e d f o r f i v e n i g h t s * h e a r d Mm e a c h n i g h t#

I t s e t them

The g an g

B ald Bed K e lly a f t e r on© o f h i s

s e rm o n s : " I f ws had a p a s t o r l i k e F a th e r S hannon, i n s t e a d o f 'd i l l y * t h a t m ig h tn ’ s have h a p p e n e d # {A few H c g ro e s had become p a r i s h io n e r s * ) He w o u ld n H b e th e k in d t o b u i l d a b e a u t i f u l new c h u r c h , and th e n l e t h i s p a r i s h go to th e dogs# H e’d h a v e s e e n t o i t t h a t t h e good p a r i s h i o n e r s s t a y e d , end t h a t t h e n ig g er® w ere k e p t o u t* H efd h a v e

203 o r g a n i s e d t h i n g s I l k a v i g i l a n c e c o m m itte e s b e p r e v e n t i t . *309 Te w h at O ld F a t h e r S hannon d i r e c t th® a t t e n t i o n o f t h e

readypaade v i g i l a n c e c o m m itte e , th© F i f t y - e i g h t h S t r e e t

gang?

He pointed to * • * * th o s e s e a t s o f th e 0 M ie & s--fc b e u n i v e r s i ­ t i e s — th o s e I n i q u i t o u s i n c u b a t o r s o f v i c e , c h e a p ­ n e s s and t r a s h —‘t h e m o v ie s ; * * • t h o s e i m i t a t i o n A n t i - C h r i s t a , m o d em a u t h o r s w hose bo o h s p erfu m e t h e v i l e s t or sino^-how a l l t h e s e t a k e t h e i r t o l l i n l i v e s , i n s o u l s * w^ i 0

AM h e p r e s c r i b e d % * « t h e r e i s o n ly one w ay , one m e th o d , o f f i g h t i n g t h i s r u i n and c o n ta m in a tio n * T h e re i s o n ly on© hop© f o r A m erica* 33aafe hope l i e s i n t h e C a th o l i c young m en, t h e C a th o l i c g i r l s o f t h i s n a tio n * They m ust o f f e r th® s t r o n g e s t r©» sisb a n c © t o s i n and blasphem y* They m u st f i g h t t h e u n t r u t h s s p r e a d by t h o s e c h e a p , l i t t l e h a l f b a k e d , s e c o n d - r a t e a n t i - C h r i s t s * ^ Xi‘ The g a n g to o k h i s a d v ic e * l a th e G re ek r e s t a u r a n t , w h ic h t h e y p a t r o n i s e d , w orked th© w a i t e r , C h r is ty *

He had d e c id e d t h a t m id d le -

c l a s s c u l t u r e w as a bad t h i n g , t h a t % * * t h e f i n e t h i n g s i n l i f e , t h e y a r e o b sc u re d i n A m erica b e c a u s e o f g re e d * I n A m erica you h a v e g r e e d , c a p i ta l is m # T h ere a r e , b o y , two c o u n t r i e s i n th e w o r ld , G re ec e and R u ssia * G re e c e i s t h e w o r ld ’ s p a s t , R u s s ia th® f u t u r e 309* X bM ** p* 34?# 310* I bi d* $ p* 351# 311* m&*-* p* 3 5 5 .

,

of the world*"312

On F riday o f th e m issio n week Hod K elly r e fle c te d "X t h i n k wa o u g h t to b o y c o t t th® r e s t a u r a n t u n t i l p . 7 0 .

215

He h a d b e e n l o o k in g « t a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f h i m s e l f and had se e n * a lt h o u g h h e d i d n o t r e a l i s e i t * had to be k ille d *

t h a t J o e y G a l la g h e r

As sym bol f o r t h e m id d le c l a s s * s tu d s *

l i k e J o e y G a lla g h e r * c o u ld h a v e o n l y a "Boomed V ic to r y " s i n c e , F a r r e l l i s I n s i s t i n g * th e id e o lo g y by w h ic h he l i v e d l e o n e o f m en1© f i g h t i n g e a c h o t h e r a n d t h i s way l i e s ex** b in e felon*

l b i s o n l y a s men a i d one a n o th e r I n communal

a c t i v i t y t h a t th e y c a n s u r v i v e and r e a l s e lf h o o d be a c h ie v e d . S tu d s made a g e s t u r e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n b y d e c id e i n g t o j o i n th e K n ig h ts o f Columbus* b ro th e rh o o d o f C ath­ o l i c men*

He was aw are t h a t h i s h e a l t h was s h o t and th e

K n ig h ts h a d a n I n s u r a n c e p l a n t h a t a c c e p te d one w ith o u t a p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n .

I t m s m o s tly t o g e t th e in s u r a n c e

p o l i c y t h a t S tu d s d e c id e d t o J o i n ; i t w as a l s o th e t h i n g f o r a young C a t h o l i c t o do s i n c e i t w ould h e lp him i n h ia b u s i n e s s and p r o v id e Mm e n te r ta i n m e n t *

At th e I n i t i a t i o n

i t w as so m e th in g l i k e b e in g w ith th© o ld gang a ro u n d F i f t y e i g h t h S t r e e t ; a l l t h e i n i t i a t e s lo o k e d fo rw a rd t o th© ex­ c it e m e n t o f " g o in g th r o u g h * "

F o r S tu d s i t w ould be m

o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e n o t i c e d and to ta k e a l e a d i n g p a r t* A c t u a l l y h e w as c a l l e d " sh rim p " and rtr u n t . M^ 2 332* IM & t * p* 136*

He saw a

216 « f e l l o w naoiad M cC arthy g a t a l l th© g l o r y by o f f e r i n g him ­ s e l f ©a © b lo o d ©©©riflo©*

A® he J o in e d t h e c h e e r s f o r

M®Oarthyt th© th o u g h t r a n th r o u g h h i s h e a d , "And t h e s e m ig h t h a v e b e e n f o r S tu d s L o n l g a n , " '^

H ow ever, h e h a d f o r

© few h o u r s f e l t t h a t h e knew th© men w i t h whom ho w ent th r o u g h t h e i n i t i a t i o n , i n th© s e n s e , a t l e a s t , t h a t t h e y ©11 b e l i e v e d ©s h e b e lie v e d *

Once th e cerem ony was o v e r ,

i t tu r n e d o u t t h a t nobody w as g o in g i n S t u d s 1a d i r e c t i o n ! h e g o t on a s t r e e t c a r a lo n e an d was l o n e l y a g a in *

H is

l o n e l i n e s s w as v e r y g r e a t s i n c e an I n c i d e n t a s h o r t w h ile b e f o r e h a d c o m p le te ly k i l l e d S tu d s L o n ig a n , to u g h guy* On© n i g h t a t s u p p e r , M a r t i n , h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r whom h e c o n s id e r e d a p u n k , had t e a s e d S tu d s ©bout becom ing a good boy*

t h e r e was a f i g h t and M a r tin had g iv e n s t u d s

a v e r y th o ro u g h b e a t i n g ! " S tu d s f e l t a l l i n , j u s t l i k e a h a s - b e e n * *334

^

c o n s id e r e d w hat had h a p p en e d to him

h e to o k r e f u g e i n d a y d ream ing* C h r i s t , b u t h e h a te d M a rtin * He saw h im s e lf p u n c h in g t h e h o ly l i v i n g J e s u s o u t o f h im , b a t t e r i n g him w ith o u t m ercy i n t o s w o lle n and b lo o d y u n c o n s c io u s n e s s * He knew h e s h o u ld n ’ t h a v e s u c h f e e l i n g s , and h e s h o u ld t r y t o p u t him­ s e l f i n t o a r i g h t mood f o r c o n f e s s i o n , -And no m a t t e r w h a t had j u s t h a p p e n e d . S tu d s L o n ig an w ould go on l i v i n g * B u t h i s k id b r o t h e r had 333* f tb ld * , p* 1 4 7 . 334* ijb ld * * p* 12 6*

b e a t e n Him* and h e im a g in e d him r e v e n g in g t h a t l i a i s i n g , ttftd in g l n | g .M a r t i n , p e n c ilin g w i t h r i g h t , B u t t h i s w as s m a ll c o m f o r t5 h e know h e had b e en l i c k e d , t h a t ©ha o f t h e fe w t h i n g s h o , S tu d s L o n ig a n , c o u ld t a k e p r i d e i n h a d b e e n ta k e n away fro m him*

t h e i n i t i a t i o n ex*

p e r i e n o o h a d r o im p r e s s e d on him how l i t t l e

h e c o u n te d •

B in e # t h e r e w as no w ork t o be h a d S tu d s s p e n t m any d a y s J u s t l o a f i n g i n t h e p a r k , a b s o r b in g s u n s h in e i n t h e h o p e t h a t h i s s t r e n g t h w ould come back*

W andering

a b o u t t h e p a r k , h e w ould h e a r s n a t c h e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s e g p e o p le p a s s e d him* He th o u g h t o f how when y o u w e n t o u t and l i s t e n e d t o w h a t p e o p le s a i d , y o u h e a rd a l l k in d s o f t h i n g s , p e o p le w a s h in g t h e i r d i r t y l i n e n i n p u b l i c , t a l k i n g a b o u t f r i e n d s and b u s i n e s s a n d , g a s h , and i t made him t h i n k o f how t h e w o rld m u st b e , a t e v e r y m in u t e , s o f u l l o f p e o p le f i g h t i n g , and j a z z i n g , and d y i n g , and w o rk in g , and l o s i n g j o b s , an d i t w as a fu n n y w o r ld , a l l r i g h t , f u l l o f fu n n y p e o p l e , m i l l i o n s o f them* And h e was o n ly one o u t o f a l l t h e s e m i l l i o n s o f p e o p le , an d th e y w e re a l l t r y i n g t o g e t a lo n g , and many o f them h ad g o t t e n f a r t h e r t h a n he* H e l l , w hat r i g h t d i d h e h a v e t o e x p e c t t o g e t anyw here w ith a l l t h e s e m i l l i o n s and m i l l i o n s i n th e same gam e, w i t h f e l l o w s s t a r t i n g o u t w ith dough and a n ©do­ n a t i o n , and b e t t e r h e a l t h th a n h e had ? He f e l t s m a ll and a l i t t l e g o o f y * 33® S lo w ly S tu d s w as b e g in n in g t o r e a l i z e how s m a ll h e was and how d i f f i c u l t t h e w o rld w as when nobody knew o r c a re d w hat 335 * i b i d *, p* 127# 336* I b i d * * p p . 194-95*

2 18

t h e o t h e r f a l l o w w as *|o in g o r th in k in g *

m a t p e o p le w o re ,

f o r t h e m o st p a rt# - a l l t r y i n g %p do th© same t h i n g s , t o s a t i s f y t h e sam e u r g e s an d t h a t m o st o f them w e re b e in g f r u s t r a t e d w as a l s o s e n s e d by s tu d s *

He t r i e d

t o h av e eon**

v e r n a t i o n s w i t h p e o p le h e m et by c h a n c e j th e y n e v e r m anaged t o c o m m u n ic a te .

I t w as a w o rld i n w h ich t h e b e s t he c o u ld

d o w as g e t s n a t c h e s a s p e o p le w a lk ed by him*

He d id n o t

l i v e t o s e e th e p a ra d e o f unem ployed Who w ere a l l g o in g i n t h e sam e d i r e c t i o n and who sp o k e a common la n g u a g e t h a t k n i t them t o g e t h e r *

They i n d i v i d u a l l y w ere much w orse' o f f

th a n S t u d s , b u t t h e y knew e a c h o t h e r and jo in e d t h e i r f o r c e s s o t h a t F ad d y L o n ig a n w as im p re s s e d w i t h kow h appy an d how s t r o n g t h e y w e r e ,

s t u d s s e n s e d th e p ro b le m b u t n o t

c l e a r l y e n o u g h t o s e e a s o l u t i o n f o r h i s own t r o u b le s *

A

s o l u t i o n f o r h i s i n d i v i d u a l t r o u b l e s im p lie d t h a t n o t o n ly h i s t r o u b l e s b u t everyone*® t r o u b l e s b e e li m in a te d th ro u g h c o lle c tiv e s tre n g th . S t u d s 1® w o rld w as on© o f men p i t t e d a g a i n s t e ac h o t h e r s w h a te v e r f e e l i n g o f b e in g I n v o lv e d i n a common a c ­ t i v i t y , e x c e p t a s th© g a n g had b e a t e n up N eg ro es and Jew s and on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e i n w a r , had to be fo u n d i n t h e r e ­ l a t i o n s b e tw een t h e s e x e s *

S in c e S tu d s had become engaged

t o C a t h e r i n e , he had g iv e n up h i s e x p e d i t i o n s t o th e w hore h o u s e s | h i s s e x u a l u rg e s # w h ic h had n e v e r b e e n s u b lim a te d ,

2X9 mm

d em an d in g

mm

and m ore o f m s a t t e n t i o n .

C a th e r in e

was i n th e c a t e g o r y o f pur© C a th o l i c womanhoods o n ly I n m a r r i a g e c o u ld h e f i n d an o u t l e t f o r h i e s e x u a l u r g e s w ith h e r* I n o r d e r t o h a s t e n t h e d a t e o f t h e i r m a r r ia g e i n a tim e w hen h i s f a t h e r c o u ld g iv e him n o w ork and hi® h e a l t h was had* h e I n v e s t e d h i s s a v i n g s i n e i g h t y s h a r e s o f Xmhray a to o k *

t h e p r o p h e t s on th e r a d i o w ere a l l s u r e t h e

d e p r e s s i o n was o v e r th e hump and t h a t s t o c k s w ere g o in g t o go up* tig e *

I n C h ic a g o t h e name o f Im b ray c a r r i e d g r e a t p r e s ­ However* t h e m a rk e t k e p t g o in g down © very d a y ;

S t u d s 1® s t o c k s f e l l fro m two th o u sa n d d o l l a r s t o e i g h t hun­ d red d o lla r s *

m i s was a c o n s t a n t w o rry t o S tu d s* b u t

a lw a y s w i t h h i s e y e on t h e f u t u r e * h e lo o k e d f o r a r i s e I n t h e m a rk e t* W ith w o r r i e s a b o u t s t o c k s i n th e f o r e f r o n t o f h i s m ind* h e h ad a b s e n t- m in d e d ly f o r g o t t e n t o h e l p Gather-* In© w i t h h e r c o a t and h a d s e t down b e f o r e h e r a s th e y w ere a b o u t to h a v e ”o o ff© e -a n d " one n ig h t*

B e fo re h e knew

e x a c t l y w hat h ad h a p p en e d th e y w ere q u a r r e l in g *

She a c ­

c u se d him o f b e in g " c o n c e l t e d 1* ^ ^ and t h i s aw akened th e to u g h guy im age I n w h ic h h e had f o r so lo n g p r id e d h i m s e l f . I t made him a w are o f how f a n t a s t i c th e im age had become

337. IMJU , p*

202•

zm tout a t th© ©am© tim e to u c h e d him w h ere h e was weak#

The

u p s h o t o f t h e q u a r r e l was t h a t C a th e r in e w ent home a lo n e # S tu d s r e a l i s e d t h a t i t was b e c a u s e *he was a f r a i d t o seem w eak t o h e r n$ a ® t h a t h e h a d a llo w e d t h e q u a r r e l t o go on# He h a d won t h e q u a r r e l toy l e a v i n g h e r a lo n e a t n ig h t# s o b b in g i n t h e s t r e e t # and I t was a v i c t o r y w h ic h now im p re s s e d him a s n o t h a v in g b e e n w o rth t h e w in n in g # He c o u ld t e l l anyone a b o u t i t # a n d s t a n d b e f o r e them a s one who h a d n 't b o o k ed down# o r t a k e n any cra p * And h e l i k e d t h e i d e a o f p e o p le s e e i n g him a s t h a t k in d o f a guy# And y e t , h e h a d t o p ay th© c o s t o f i t now# h e h a d t o t h i n k o f h e r c ry in g # w a lk in g home a lo n e # n e v e r s e e i n g h e r a g a in # T h a t was m i d e a h e d i d n 't l i k e s o w e ll.* ® 9 Th© i n d i v i d u a l i s t who to o k "no s a s s fro m anyone" was won** d e r i n g a b o u t t h e v a lu e o f toeing c o m p le te ly in d e p e n d e n t# The p r i c e i n l o n e l i n e s s was to o g r e a t .

He r e c o g n iz e d t h a t

h e had l o s t th e o p p o rtu n ity o f f e e l in g a se n se o f to g e th e r ­ n e s s i n t h e o n ly way t h a t t h e th o u g h t p a t t e r n o f h i s c l a s s a llo w e d #

F o r a w h ile h e h a d a c c e p te d t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s

f o r m u la o f s e x b e in g i n t i m a t e l y and a lm o s t e x c l u s i v e l y J o in e d t o a f f e c t i o n .

H av in g q u a r r e l e d w ith C a th e rin e # h e

s a v e d h i s ego b y r e j e c t i n g t h i s fo rm u la f o r t h e to u g h guy fo r m u la o f s e x w ith o u t a f f e c t i o n #

A© h e t o s s e d s l e e p l e s s l y

a b o u t# h e r e f l e c t e d # " B ro th e r# X w ant a woman, . . * 538, I b id , , p , 204, 5 3 9 , I b i d , , p p , 2 0 4 -0 5 ,

SSI

tblttktae time/ 4 0

how h e h a d n 't h a d a woman I n one h e l l o f a lo n g

B a i l H o lf e , S tu d s * 8 b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , r a n a gam­ b l i n g j o i n t w h ic h g a v e him a n e x c e l l e n t incom e#

H o st o f t

t h e p a t r o n s w e re m a r r ie d women whot a c c o r d in g t o H o lf e t " s t a r t e d com ing h e r e t o p i c k u p a l i t t l e c a u s e o f h a r d tim e s * w^ 4^

e x t r a dough b e ­

He a l s o t o l d S tu d s , who h a p p e n e d

i n t o t h e j o i n t , t h a t t h e y a lw a y s l o s t i n t h e lo n g run* One o f t h e s e women S tu d s h a d n o t i c e d a s b e in g v e ry a t t r a c ­ tiv e #

A f t e r one o f t h e r a c e s , s h e s u d d e n ly came u p t o h im ,

* I fv e l o s t a l l my h o u se money* * • You’ v e b e e n g i v in g me t h e e y e a l l a f te r n o o n *

W e ll, am X w o rth two and a h a l f ? ^ 42

W ith t h r e e o t h e r men S tu d s w ent t o h e r a p a r tm e n t, and a s h e w a lk ed a lo n g i t o c c u r r e d t o h im , "w o u ld n ’ t t h i s b e some 243: e x p e r ie n c e t o t a l k a b o u t I* H ere was t h e o ld S tu d s a g a i n . The n e x t day h e w ent b a c k t o h e r a p a rtm e n t a lo n e * H er g r e e t i n g was h o s t i l e , an d s h e t h r e a t e n e d t o c a l l t h e p o lic e *

As s h e made i t c l e a r t h a t h e was n o t w elcom e, sh e

p o i n t e d l y t o l d him h e h a d n o t s a t i s f i e d h e r s e x u a lly * ^ 44 340* I b i d ** p« 2 0 8 . 341* I b i d * , P* 229* 3 4 2 . I b i d # , p* 221* 343* I b i d * , p . 236* 344* I b i d * , P . 2 3 1 .

222 S tu d s h a d t h r e e a c c o m p lis h m e n ts i n h i s l i f e 8 f i g h t i n g an d s l e e p i n g w i t h women*

d r in k in g *

H is b r o t h e r , M a r t in ,

h a d l i c k e d him and h e knew t h a t a s a f i g h t e r lie was th r o u g h . H is h e a l t h was s u c h t h a t h e c o u ld no l o n g e r d r i n k .

How

t h i s woman h a d t o l d him t h a t h e was a f a i l u r e a t sear*

He

s a i l e d C a t h e r i n e , who w as a v i r g i n ; s h e i n v i t e d him to d in n e r *

w'M o th e r and

Had a r e g o in g t o be o u t t o a s u p p e r

an d b r i d g e p a r t y # *”345 I t m ade him a p p r e c i a t e how d e c e n t a g i r l C a th e r ­ i n e w a s* and i t a l l w ent t o show how when a guy g o t a g i r l who was p u re g o ld l i k e C a t h e r i n e , h e s h o u ld h o ld o n t o h e r* 3 4 o

That n i g h t S t u d s 1a s e l f r e s p e c t w as o n ly p a r t i a l l y r e ­ s t o r e d ; C a th e r in e had

h e r f i r s t s e x e x p e rie n c e *

A f te r I t

w as o v e r , h e r e a l i s e d t h a t th e woman a t P h i l B o l f e 's gamb l l n g j o i n t h ad b e en r i g h t a lth o u g h he w as p le a s e d w ith th e i d e a o f C a t h e r i n e 's b e lo n g in g c o m p le te ly t o him* S h e 's my woman now , h e t o l d h i m s e l f w ith p r id e * And a g a i n h e rem em bered t h e a c t , v i s u a l * ifc in g h i m s e l f l i k e a goddamn b u ll* And a l l t h e m ess i t w e e, to o * tfgh* He had h u r t h e r , d o n e sem etfef ng t o h e r t h a t c o u ld n e v e r be undone* I t h a d n o t p l e a s e d him* I t h ad b een p a in t o h e r , a m ess to him,**1" The i d e a t h a t w as u p p e rm o st i n h i s mind was t h a t h e was I.— !■»

... » p —

■ « « . . . ■< . . » I . . — . M » ...................................... ...............

3 4 5 , 2M &.*« p» 253» 3 4 6 , 1 S M > . V* 2 5 2 . 3 4 7 , 3 & U ., P* 262*

W .m .L

I.. I f f . .

■' «

T*

1r

""

a g S in « s t r o n g man a n a t h a t h a h ad lo n g y e a r s ah©od o f s a t ­ i s f y i n g s e x u a l e x p e r ie n c e s #

H is f o a l i n g f o r C a th e r in e i n

t h e s e n s e t h a t h e h ad h u r t h e r en d w as s o r r y was c o m p le te ly f o r g o t t e n i n t h e r e i n s t a t e m e n t o f th e im age w h ic h th e woman a t H o l f e ’ s h ad t o r n down*

He h ad p o s s e s s e d C a th e r in e and

h i s ©go w as s a v e d , w h at t h e r e w as o f i t # He th o u g h t how * a f t e r l a s t n i g h t , h e had begun t o h a v e a f e e l i n g o f r e a l l y b e in g a b le to ^ s a y t o h i m s e l f t h a t h e had a woman who was h i s own, h i s o n ly * He h a d n e v e r th o u g h t o f lo v e i n t h a t w a y , o f how i t g a v e a guy t h a t h in d o f f e e l i n g , made him f e e l p r o u d , i m p o r t a n t , c o n f i d e n t Al n h i m s e l f when he w a lk ed down t h e s t r e e t * B u t h e h a d h ad j u s t s u c h a n o t!c m t h e n i g h t a lo n g tim e ago when h e w a lk e d I n J a c k s o n P a rk w ith P a u li® H a g g e rty and M s w ife .

I t w as t h e same n o t i o n o f p o s s e s s i o n , o f d o m in a tio n ,

t r * " 1”‘

w



* ” *“ • *•

n o t w i t h C a th e r in e b u t w ith

* » , th o u s a n d s o f g u y s w ith t h e i r women, and now h e w as g o in g t o b e one w ith them and i t was g o in g t o b e damn d iff e r e n fc ^ fr o m th e way i t was w i t h w h o re s and b i t c h e s v&© w h o re s d i d n o t re s p o n d t h e way C a th e r in e d l d j sh e w as | l n lo v e w i t h him*

He w as i n lo v e w ith h i m s e l f and a n t i c i ­

p a te d e x p o r le n o e s w i t h h e r w hioh w ould be I n c r e a s i n g l y s a t i s f y i n g , s e x u a lly * He te m p e re d t h i s p o s s e s s i v e »’""»■ —»—" ■» 348,

»? z 70 .

m * IMS** Pt 271,

d o m in a tio n a t G a th e r in © , h o w e v e r, w i t h a c e r t a i n k in d n e s s # I n t h i s r e s p e c t h i s r e s p o n s e to w a rd h e r w as n o t t h e m m a s h a d b e a n M s r e s p o n s e to w a rd t h e w h o re s * He h a d n e v e r f e l t t h e same w a y -w ith a g i r l , n o t e v e n w ith Lucy# S u re o f h i m s e l f , and o f C a t h e r i n e , a f e e l i n g t h a t h e was t h e b o s s and n o t sh e # a f e e l i n g t h a t h e c o u ld do w h at h e l i k e d / w i t h h e r w i t h o u t b e in g th e l o s e r # and s t i l l # a ls o # a f e e l i n g to w a rd h e r o f k in d n e s s # a w a n tin g t o p e t h e r and M s s h e r and s t r o k e h e r h a n d s# h e r r a c e , and h e r b r e a s t s and h e r body# and t o m ake up t o h e r w i t h k in d n e s s f o r th e way h e h a d h a r t h e r l a s t m i& hb*^® m o n e w ay S tu d s l o n l g a n was a b le to f e e l t h a t "h e w as b e a s t * h e knew t h a t C a th e r in e had s u b m itte d and w ould sub** m it t o him* h e r*

F o r t h i s h e w as g r a t e f u l ; h e w ould be k in d t o

$ h ls i s a s f a r a s th e p e r s o n a lity o f s tu d s o v er

d e v e lo p e d *

M o r a lly

a puny l i t t l e i s c le a r*

s e lf*

t h i s was t h e p e a k i n h i s l i f e * H is w as i s a sym bol f o r h i s c l a s s # t h e

a n a lo g y

X t I s t h e sem e a t t i t u d e t h a t t h e b u sin e ssm e n

v a c a t i o n i n g i n F a r i a had to w a rd t h e l a g l l s h co ck n ey s*

Jim

lo n g a s t h e y s u b m itte d and w orked f o r t h e i r s u p e r i o r s , h e b e l i e v e d i n t h e i r r i g h t s and c o u ld a c c e p t them w ith k in d n e s s # C a th e r in e # who w as "common#* c o u ld n o t s a v e S t u d s i he c o u ld be sa v e d by no one*

M few d a y s b e f o r e h i s

d e a th # h e a n d C a th e r in e w e n t swimming*

35©* £HUU»

P* * r r *

Long ago h e had

225 s e n s e d t h a t h e w as h a p p y o n ly whm h e was c o m p le te ly i s o * I s t e d fro m men} f o r t h i s k in d o f I n d i v i d u a llsfc # d e a th I s t h e o n l y a n s w e r b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no man h ap p y and a l i v e w hen h e i s c o m p le te ly I s o l a t e d * He lo o k e d w i s t f u l l y o v e r th e l a k e a t th e h o r i z o n , w h e re t h e m e rg in g o f sk y and w a te r w as l i k e some m y s te r y . He was s t r u c k w ith th e d e­ s i r e t o swim o u t t o i t and r e a c h t h e c e n t e r o f w h e re t h e s k y f e l l i n t o th e w a t e r , and h e knew t h e r e w as no s u c h p la c e # and i f h e swam o u t# he w ould f i n a l l y j u s t s in k # and t h i s w ish was l i k e s o many o t h e r s t h a t h e h a d h ad e l l a lo n g * Be was l i k e a swimmer g o in g o h t and o u t# and th e f a r t h e r h e swam, bha mage t i r e d he g o t a n d t h e h a r d e r h e h ad t o swim*35* F o r S tu d s t h e r e w as no l i f e }

S tu d s Lonigem# I n d i v id u a l#

who h a d t o b e p i t t e d a lo n e a g a i n s t t h e u n iv e r s e # fo u n d h e h ad n o t b e e n a b l e t o make one o f h i s dream s come t r u e * He lo o k e d c o v e r t l y a t C a th e r in e and a h o r r o r l i k e a c o ld sw e a t came o v e r him* He saw h e r a g a i n a s i t sh e war© a s t r a n g e r * Ha d i d n H know h e r* D i& nH know w hat w ent m i n h e r head* Be d l d n H f e e l t h a t h e w ould e v e r know her.**** So f o r S t u d s , a t t h e e n d , I t was a l l a m ess* , * . w h at a b i g p l a c e th e w o rld was a f t e r a l l # and h e w as s o r t o f l o s t i n lb * He f e l t t h a t h e h a d a lw a y s b e en l i k e t h i s * H ver s i n c e h e had b e e n a fc ld , h e h a d w ish e d and w a ite d , a n d _t h e r e h a d b e e n no c h a n g e e x c e p t f o r th e w o r s t ■*«*•>•*

351* £ m * » P* 331* 352* I b i d , » p* 333* 353# I b i d , * p# 335*

226

e,m hod J u s t madia a m m o f e v e r y damn th in g P ^ P ad d y L o n ig a n , on th e d a y S tu d s w as t o d i e , w ant b o o k t o t h e o l d n e ig h b o rh o o d i n w h ic h h a h ad b e an r a i s e d #

Ha saw p o o r p e o p l e , unem ployed p e o p le l i v i n g i n th e w o r s t h in d o f p o v e rty *

He saw a f a m i l y th ro w n o u t on t h e s t r e e t

w i t h n o p la n e t o go#

He a m a l s o a p a ra d e o f t h e s e v e ry

unem ployed and i n i t w e re p e o p le o f a l l c o l o r s and n a ti o n * o l lf c ie s *

He r e a d l e f t - w i n g s l o g a n s w r i t t e n on b a n n e rs*

Here w e re s t u d e n t s fro m t h e u n i v e r s i t y and I r i s h w ith o u t la c e c u rta in s #

Her© w ere th e v e r y p e o p le who b e li e v e d a l l

t h a t F a t h e r S hannon h a d l a b e l l e d a s b e in g e v i l , o f t h e d e v il#

F ad d y was h i g h l y in c e n s e d *

t h e y o u g h t t o b e c lu b b e d u n t i l t h e y g e t some c e n s e k n o ck ed I n t o t h e i r h e a d s# This i s A m erica* n o t R u s s i a ,,a n d th e s o o n e r we t e a c h them s o , t h e b e t t e r * ^ 5? As h e w a tc h e d them m arch b y , s o m e th in g hap p en ed t o him# S u d d e n ly , l i k e a mm maiding m I n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o v e r y , L o n ig an r e a l i n e d t h a t t h e s e p e o p le war® happy* He c o u ld s e e them lau g h * -He c o u ld s e a how , b e tw ee n t h e i r y e l l s and c r i e s , th e y g r in n e d f an d t h e i r f a c e d seem ed a l i v e # * * He w ondered how t h e y c o u ld be Reds and a n a r c h i s t s , s o d a n g e r o u s and p e r v e r t e d th a t th e y ev en mad© i n n o c e n t l i t t l e c h i l d r e n i n t o a t h e i s t s * He s h o c k h i s h e a d i n b e w ild e rm e n t, and r e p e a t e d to 3 5 4 . £ 5 1 3 ... P . 3 8 6 . 3 5 5 . M i * . V* 4 3 9 .

22? h im self that thaaa people wara happy. 356 L o n lg a n knew t h a t t h a a a p e o p le c o m p le te ly r e ­ j e c t e d t h e I d e o l o g y , w h ic h had g u id e d t h e l i f e w h ic h he h a d s o c o n t e n t e d l y c o n te m p la te d m h i s h a c k p o rc h th e n i g h t S tu d s g r a d u a te d fro m grad© s c h o o l*

He knew , t o o , t h a t h e

h a d l o s t h i s a p a r tm e n t b u i l d i n g and h i s b u s i n e s s was on th e ro c k s# little happy*

Hi® f a v o r i t e so n w as a t t h e p o i n t o f d e a th *

He had

l e f t o f w hat had g iv e n h i s l i f e m eaning} h e was un­ ® hese p e o p le h ad l e s s t h a n h e ; th e y w ere happy#

knew n o n e o f them ; t h e y knew and t r u s t e d e a c h o th e r #

He

They

w e re © com m unity o f s e lv e s * He j u s t c o u ld n ’ t make a n y th in g o u t anymore* l o o many t h i n g s h a d b e e n h a p p e n in g t o him* Be c o u ld n ’ t p i e c e them t o g e t h e r , a n d he f e l t t h a t t h e w o rld h a d p a s s e d him b y , and h e was no lo n g e r a b le to d e a l w ith it* * * / The m i d d l e - c l a s s w o rld had c ra s h e d } i t , l i k e S tu d s , was t o d ie *

Paddy l o n i g a n w as lo o k in g a t t h e new w o rld b e in g

b o rn } t h i s w o rld w as t o d raw men t o g e t h e r w here h i s h a d s e t them a g a i n s t e a c h o th e r * s e lf* 356. a i a , , p s . 440-41*

357* Ifrld* * pp* 443**44#

I n t h i s w o rld one c o u ld f i n d h i s

ags 2 I t l a now p o s s i b l e to I n d i c a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f 2&ySS I & a t o m t r i l o g y *

A t t h e b e g in n in g o f You^g L o n l-

SS&s C a r r o l l f o r m u l a t e s two s e t s o f v a l u e s i n t h e s o l i l o q u y o f P ad d y L o n lg o n and th e © ra tio n commencement e x e r c i s e s *

o f t h e p r i e s t a t th e

f h e s e , when s e t a g a i n s t e a c h o th e r ,

c o r r e s p o n d t o ly n d ^ s p a t t e r n o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y human v a l u e s a n d M eadf s a t t i t u d e s *

I n n e i t h e r Paddy L o n ig a n , r e p r e s e n *

b a t i v e o f s u c c e s s f u l A m erican b u s in e s s * n o r i n th e C a th o l i c C h u rch a r e t h e p a t t e r n s I n p u re form$ P ad d y f s r a t i o n a l ! z a * t i o n s and t h e s u b m is s io n o f t h e c h u rc h and f a m i ly to b u a i n e s s v a l u e s i n d i c a t e th e d i a l e c t i c o f t h e m id d le * c la s s m o n e y - r e s p e o t a b i l i t y fo rm u la * f i g h t i n g i n P addy L o n ig an and

F a r r e l l * h a v in g shown t h a t i n th e re m a rk s o f th e

p r i e s t a r e d o m in a n t v a lu e s * s i m p l i f i e s t h e m o n e y -re s p e o ta ~ b l l l t y fo rm u la i n t o one o f a g g r e s s ! o n - a f f e c t i o n *

S tu d s

L en lg an * who h a s tw o b a s i c u rg e s* t o d o m in a te and t o lo v e * I s t h e o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e f o r th e s i m p l i f i e d fo rm u la * I n t h e l i v e o f S tu d s t h e p r o c e s s o f f c h e a i s - a n b i th e s i s b e tw e e n t h e s e tw o u r g e s i s fo llo w e d t o d i s i n t e g r a t i o n * I d f e i s * a c c o r d in g t o F a r r e l l , d i a l e c t i c © ! and th e c o n d i­ t i o n o f l i f e i s t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s j c o n s e q u e n tly v e r y e a r l y i n th e s t o r y t h e r e I s bh© f i r s t

229

m i m i n g i n c i d e n t b e i n d i c a t e t h e d e a t h m o tiv e and fco c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e d e a t h i n l i f e s t a t e o f S tu d s* f * 0* I l i o t f s "W hat* l e n d ” and E tu d e , L o n i^ a n a r e d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s t o e x p r e s s t h e same v a lu e s *

S l l o t ' e M@ ivef s y m p a th iz e * c o n t r o l ” a r e t h e e q u iv ­

a l e n t s o f F a r r e l l * © ' " a f f e c t i o n / 1and t h e s t e r i l i t y o f th e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d and c o m m e rc ia liz e d w a s t e l a n d s e n b e e q u a te d w i t h F a r r e l l * s d e a t h - d e a l i n g a g g r e s s io n *

F v en th e d e a t h toy

w a t e r o f th e P h o e n ic ia n s a i l o r w h ich b r i n g s th e r a i n and life

t o t h e a r i d w a s t e - l a n d i n B l i o t 9s poem i s v e ry s i m i l a r

t o t h e s a c r i f i c i a l d e a t h o f S tu d s* w h ich was c a u s e d m o st d i r e c t l y by h i s g o in g swimming an d g e t t i n g preu m o n ia from m i k i n g a l l d a y i n a dow npour*

B o th d e a t h s a r e sy m b o lic o f

t h e b i r t h o f a new p e o p le m a rc h in g i n t h e s p i r i t o f " g iv e * s y m p a th iz e and c o n t r o l *19 F o r B l i o t #s d i a l e c t i c o f sin** v ir tu © o n e Can s u b s t i t u t e F a r r e l l * s a g g r e o s i o n - a f f e c t i o n . One c a n g e n e r a l i z e f u r t h e r t h a t th e v a l u e s e x p re s s e d by b o t h a u t h o r s a r e th o s e w h ic h M annheim i n d i c a t e s by th e te rm u t o p i a n a s u se d i n r e l a t i o n t o w e s te r n th o u g h t i n feh® e r a 1920 t o 1940* Th© b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e b etw een B l i o t ’ s poem;sand F a rre ll* s novel i s t

B l i o t u s e s a v e r y c o m p lic a te d p a t t e r n

o f o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s g le a n e d from l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s $ F a r r e l l c o n s t r u c t s a com plex o f o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s fro m

t h e memory o f M s l i f e on C h ic a g o 's S o u th S id e *

W ith in t h e

l i t e r a r y m e th o d o lo g y t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s 1© t o e x p r e s s v a lu e s *

t h e c o m p a ris o n b e tw e e n F a r r e l l and B l i o t

I s m ade i n o r d e r t o p u t Sfrudia, Loai& an i n i t s p r o p e r fra m e o f re fe re n c e as lite ra tu re *

t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e book i s

l i t e r a r y and n o m ore th a n i n a n y o t h e r p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e d o t h e s t a t e m e n t s I n i t h a v e a s t h e i r r e f e r e n t t h e o b je c ­ t i v e w o rld *

On t h e l a s t p a g e o f

01 §£g. F a r r e l l h a s t h e

h e r o t who i s o b v i o u s l y h i m s e l f * say*

Ste w h o le me a n in g &£ ISC b r l p h e r e w as t h a t X w as jfia p ife w ant to be a w r ite r *

p p M i W y& si i X lim g t t o know and d i s c o v e r

ffltjsa» fiam SjSnt € f X M I S 5|fe§CSpM« m M ¥ f r e e *^>e

m

I s s ik ^ M

l i m ix m s £ m

S tu d s L o n ig a n w as a n e x e r c i s e i n s e l f d i s c o v e r y a s a l l o f F a r r e l l ' s n o v e l s seem t o be*

t h e g e n e s is o f th e n o v e l i s

t h e s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s o f t h e a u th o r*

X hese v a l u e s i n

s t a t e s o f t e n s i o n e x p r e s s e d by o b j e c t i f y i n g them th ro u g h te r m s b e in g c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t e d fro m t h e s e m a n t ic a l t o th e p r a g m a t i c a l l e v e l o f la n g u a g e i s t h e n o v e l*

So, f o r

F a r r e l l , w r i t i n g i s a way o f r e s o l v i n g p s y c h o l o g ic a l t e n s i o n s $ o f a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a s e l f c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 35 8 .

Samaa T. JarraXX, Bftp^a,y.j 22&£&> P*

36 ?.

231

« pattern o f values in ten sio n s! equilibrium .

In the

a ld d le o f the Studs tr ilo g y he says a t h is a lia s , Danny o * H eill,

a o a T ^ l a i l a f f e r .

K M

M

a

ISP**

S tu d s L a n k a n i s t h e f i r s t of a lo n g s e r i e s i n w h ich t h e p r o c e s s e s o f o b j e c t i f y i n g M s r e j e c t i o n of w hat a r e f o r M m c o n t r a d i c t o r y m i d d l e - o l a s s v a lu e s an d h i s aee©pfccmc© o f c o h e r e n t M a r x is t v a l u e s go on* ULieewls© ar© E l i o t t s p o m s a p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y o f M s a tt e m p t t o o r d e r M s s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e s l a a c c o rd w ith w h at h e c o n s id e r e d t h e v a l u e s o f C h r i s t i a n dogma*

The

h i g h e s t v a lu e i n t h e C h r i s t i a n d o g aa i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y t h a t t h e s e l f a t t h e p o i n t o f h i g h e s t d e v e lo p m e n t i s c o m p le te ly s e lfle s s *

t h i s s u b je c tiv e s t a t e o f s e lf le s s n e s s E lio t

a p p a r e n t l y i s t r y i n g t o ach ieve and p o e t r y f o r h im , liie© th is s e lf* th e re fo re i s

359* fames * . Farrell*

TM . ¥ p m &

i n ffbd&i X# a l g a f t f P* 3 7 i T ^

360. IMA* * P* 372*

&BteS& PX HM& ftmteMU

232 • » » n e t a t u r n i n g l o o s e o f em otion* b u t a n e s c a p e fro m e m o tio n | i t l a s o t t h e e x p r e s s io n o f p e rs o n a lity * b u t m escap e f r m p e r s o n a lity * B ut* o f c o u rs e # o n ly th orn who h a v e p e r s o n a l i t y an d e m o tio n s know w h a t i t .m a a n s t o w an t t o e s c a p e fro m t h o s e t h i n g s * ^ 0* H aro l a t h o sam e s e a r c h f o r s u b j e c t i v e t o n s l o n a l e q u i l i b ­ r iu m p o i n te d o u t I n F a r r e l l * t h e same s e a r c h f o r a p e rs o n ­ a l i t y w h ic h i s d e f i n e d b y E l i o t i n te rm s o f p a ra d o x #

lik e

F a r r e l l * he* to o * i s a tt e m p t in g t o " d r i v e t h i s n e ig h b o rh o o d a n d a l l h i s m em o ries o f i t o u t o f h i s c o n s c io u s n e s s *" th e n e ig h b o rh o o d o f s i n s o t h a t h e o a n l i v e I n t h e n e ig h b o rh o o d o f v i r t u e w h e re t h e s e l f I s s e l f l e s s * And t h e p o e t c a n n o t r e a c h t h i s i m p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h o u t s u r r e n d e r i n g h i m s e l f w h o lly t o t h e w ork t o b e done* And h e I s n o t l i k e l y t o know w hat i s t o be d o n e u n l e s s h e l i v e s i n w h at i s n o t m e r e ly t h e p r e s e n t * b u t th e p r e s e n t moment o f t h e p a s t * u n l e s s h e i s c o n s c io u s * n o tAo f w h at I s dead * b u t o f w h a t i s a l r e a d y liv in g * -* 0’* H e re a r e t h e e t e r n a l u n iv e r s a l® o f Mead w o rk in g th e m s e lv e s o u t i n o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s c o n s t r u c t e d b y a u t h o r s o f th e p a s t*

B u t s i n c e t h e v a l u e s e x p r e s s e d a r e " l i v i n g , " th e

p o e t musts* th r o u g h c o n te m p la tio n o f t h e s e c o r r e l a t i v e s * f i n d im p e r s o n a l v a lu e % w h ic h a r e I n t h e n a t u r e o f th in g s * i n o r d e r t o becom e t h e i r a g e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g new o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s * 361* r* &.' m i o t # m m M 36 2 * 2 M&+# p* 1 1 *

f h u s h e becom es t h e s e l f l e s s

mmm

pp.

s e l f w hen h i s v a lu e ® a r e e t e r n a l o n e s b e in g c o n c r e t i s e d i n a m e n t® o f tim e en d s p a c e *

H a v in g t h e s e v a lu e ® , t h e p o e t

e x p r e s s e s them i n o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e ® and sin e© t h e y a r e e t e r n a l # th e n t h e p o e t* a s s e l f l e s s s e l f * speak® th e t r u t h about l i f e

and t h e w o rld *

Thus* **A p u r e l y ;*s c i e n t i f i c 1

p h i lo s o p h y e n d s by d e n y in g w h at we know t o b e b ru e* "3 6 3 T h is same p a t t e r n i s t o b e fo u n d i n F a r r e l l * to o * i n s i s t s o n t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f th e a u th o r#

He*

Xb h a s

a l r e a d y b e e n shown t h a t * a c c o r d in g t o him* a n o v e l m u st b e s o s t r u c t u r e d t h a t " t h e c o n n e c tio n s w i t h i n t h e w ork m ust h a v e c o n s i s t e n c y one w i t h a n o th e r * an d t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y m u st b e o n e t h a t I s p l a u s i b l y t h e sam e k in d t h a t we f i n d i n T h ese " c o n n e c tio n s " a r e th o s e o f n e c e s s i t y t

r e a l l i f e * " '^

n e c e s s i t y l a w h a t m u st n e c e s s a r i l y flo w a s e v e n t and i m p l i c a t i o n fro m w hat h a s a l r e a d y b e en pro* s e a t e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f e v e n ts * I f i t d o e s o o t f l o w n e c e s s a r i l y and e s s e n t i a l l y * i t r e p r e ­ se n t® t h e s u b j e c t i v e i m p o s it i o n o f t a p a u t h o r *a w is h e s o n to a n o b j e c t i v e s tr u c tu r e * - * 0* I t m u st be r o c © lie d h e r e t h a t w hat i s known s c i e n t i f i c a l l y o f r e a l l i f e i s t o b e fo u n d i n s t a te m e n t s i n w h ich t h e c o n n e c tio n ® b e tw e e n t h e p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s e r e e m p i r i c a l l y e s ta b lis h e d * numujiu.in rim

T h is i s n o t t o w hat F a r r e l l I s r e f e r r i n g

i « - r —irrn—'u n r r ,m Y i r -

.rrrr~"Tjnirnuirnn irmrrrr jn J irrr-r-|- ;-

'f

►mu m h w «■ ■■

imumim m iw uhh i nniri*Mi#wiW«ii»*.nH»n»

363 * i b id * * p* 3 » 3 6 4 . ranusa t . P a rr ell, # Koto 3 6 5 . S £M «» P . 199*

o& M&UBgZ

P* 196.

234

sin e ® t h a c o n n e c ti o n s it© h m in m ind m o th o s e o f n e c e s ­ sity #

B e h in d an d a b o v e e m p ir ic s 1 phenom ena t h e r e I s * f o r

h 3m* a p a t t e r n o f n e c e s s i t y * t h e a b s o l u t e i d e a o f t h e s i s # a n t i t h e s i s * an d s y n t h e s i s #

The i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f th e a u th o r

co sies o f h i s a c c e p ta n c e o f t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e w o rld i s t h e e o n c r e t l z a t l o n o f t h i s " l i v i n g " id e a *

He i s m e re ly t h e

a g e n t o f th e i d e a and f o r t h i s r e a s o n i s a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t h i s o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s s o t h a t t h e y a r e o f t h e same k in d a s I s t h e r e a l w o rld * F a r r e l l h a s s a i d t h a t h© w ro te S tu d s L o n in a n w ith "an i d e a l o f th e s t r i c t e s t p o s s ib le o b j e c t i v i t y * * ^

3& ls

w o u ld seem to b e a s t a te m e n t m ean t t o i d e n t i f y F e r r e l l w i t h w h a t a s c i e n t i s t d o e s§ how ever* i n t h e l i g h t o f th e n o t i o n

o f t o e t o p o r s o a a l a u t h o r i t meune o n ly t h a t f a r r e l X h a s w r i t t e n h i s book a c c o r d in g t o w hat h e t h i n k s i s good M a rx is t d o c tr in e *

, n***

T h is c o n fu s io n b e tw ee n d i a l e c t i c a l m a te ­

r i a l i s m a n d s c i e n c e i s f u r t h e r shown when F a r r e l l w r i t e s $ X saw i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f S tu d s L o n ig a n a num ber o f t e n d e n c i e s a t w ork I n a s e c t i o n o f A m erican l i f e w h ic h X h a p p en e d t o know b e c a u s e i t h ad b e e n p a r t o f isy own e d u c a tio n i n l i v i n g * X b e g an t o s e e S tu d s * n o t o n ly a s a c h a r a c t e r f o r Im ag in ­ a ti v e f i c t io n # b u t a ls o a s a s o c i a l m a n ife s ts -

366* Jam es T* F a r r e l l , 367* IM il*

Im M m * P* ^ i*

m The t e n d e n c i e s a r e p re s u m a b ly d i a l e c t i c a l and a r e t h o s e M M - l a t h e a n a l y s i s o r t h e n o v e l*

t h e m id d le c l a s s h a s

e e a s e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s and s o i s d i e i n t e g r a t i n g and m u st r e l i n q u i s h p o l i t i c a l pow er t o t h e r is in g p ro le ta ria t*

fh u a S tu d s , a s an o b je c tiv e o o r r e la -

t i r e o f t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s i n t h e i r u n a d o rn e d s t a t e * 1# t h e a c t u a l m id d le c l a s s , a ^ s o c i a l m a n i f e s ta t io n * ■" F a r r e l l , t h e im p e r s o n a l a g e n t f o r t h e d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s , by o b j e c t i f y i n g h i s s u b j e c t i v e e x p e rie n c e ;,: th o u g h t h e w as a b l e t o i n d i c a t e i n h i s n o v e l t h e t r u e s t a t e o f th e o b j e c t t i v e w o rld *

t h u s h e th o u g h t h e w as n o v e l i s t and s c l e n t 1 s t

a t t h e sam e tim e # When F a r r e l l w r i t e s o f h i m s e l f a s e x p e r ie n c in g t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s e n v iro n m e n t o f C h ic a g o , lie i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t erne mm w h ic h f r u s t r a t e d him*

I n s t e a d o f b e in g a b l e t o

f e e l r i g h t # h e fo u n d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n w as s u c h t h a t i t made him f e e l d e s p o n d e n t, a n g ry en d r e b e l l i o u s *

H is

g r e a t e s t d e s i r e was t o d e s t r o y th e w h o le t h i n g and r e p l a c e I t by a n e n v iro n m e n t t h a t w ould a llo w f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a h e a l t h y human p e r s o n a l i t y *

Th® f r u s t r a t i o n s w h ic h h e

I m a g i n a t i v e l y e x p e r ie n c e d {and t o a m e e x t e n t a c t u a l l y d id e x p e r ie n c e } h e a s c r i b e s t o t h e e n v iro n m e n t:

th u s w h e n ev e r

a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v iro n m e n t, s u c h a s t h e C h ica g o h e ex* p e r i o n c e d , 'jfcftMt a p e r s o n a l i t y l i k e S tu d s L o n ig a n , a

d e f e a t e d , m i s e r a b l e , un h ap p y and unw holesom e l i f e *

He h a s

I n d i c a t e d t h a t S tu d s m n a n o rm a l bo y ; and s i n c e w hat h a p ­ p e n e d t o S tu d s l a w h a t h a p p e n s to n o rm al b o y s , h e b e l i e v e s i t l a h i g h tim e t h a t s u c h a c o n d i t i o n be re fo rm e d m t h a t a n o rm a l boy w i l l b e h e a l t h y , h a p p y , and c o n te n te d *

H ow ever,

I t n e e d s t o b e e m p h a siz e d t h a t t h e e n v iro n m e n t I n th e n o v e l i s m e r e ly a n o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e c r e a t e d b y F a r r e l l t o e x p r e s s c e r t a i n v a l u e s and a s s u c h i s n o t t o b e m is ta k e n

>

f o r t h e r e a l w o rld * He lo o k e d a b o u t an d fo u n d t h e p e o p le w hose p u r* p o s e , h e t h i n k s , w as t o ch an g e C h icag o s o t h e r e w ould b e n o m ore S tu d s L o n ig a n s*

T h ese w e re th e p e o p le who b e li e v e d I n

a c o l l e c t i v i s t o s o p p o se d t o th e i n d i v i d u a l i s t v a lu e s to w h ic h h e a s c r i b e s t h e r e a s o n f o r Chicago*© b e in g w hat I t was*

Be g o t h o p e fro m w h at seem ed t o him a f a c t , t h a t t h i s

I d e o lo g y w ould becom e t h e d o m in a n t one and s o r e c r e a t e C hi­ cag o *

Time and d e s t i n y w ere on t h e s i d e o f th o s e who be­

l i e v e d t h i s id e o lo g y *

When t h i s r e - c r e a t i o n to o k p l a c e

F e r r e l l w ould no l o n g e r bo t h e a r t i s t a l i e n a t e d from. Am eri­ c a n u rb a n s o c i e t y and c o n s e q u e n tly u n h ap p y ; h© w ould b e a n in te g ra l p a rt of it*

As a w r i t e r h e a l r e a d y f e l t t h a t h e

b e lo n g e d w i t h t h o s e who em bodied th e new way o f l i f e *

As

o n e o f t h e s e h e h a d w ith h i s p en h e lp e d t o d e s t r o y t h e o ld c i t y and t o make r e a d y t h e a d v e n t o f th e new*

By show ing

s t u d s d y in g o f p h y s i c a l and m o r a l r o t t e n n e s s , h e h a d d e s ­ t r o y e d m i d d l e - c l a s s C h ic a g o , s i n c e i t and S tu d s w ere p r o d u c t s o f t h e seme t h i n g , m i d d l e - c l a s s v a lu e s *

He

t h o u g h t h o w as t h e a r t i s t - s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t a n n o u n c in g a b a s i c la w o f human b e h a v i o r t

w h en ev er men f i g h t e a c h o t h e r

a s m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s f o r c e them t o d o , th e n th e y d i e w i t h o u t h a v in g l iv e d *

T h is i s t h e s t o r y o f ab o d e Xionigan*

B u t men w a n t t o l i v e an d t h e y s h a l l l i v e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p ta n c e o f new v a l u e s w h ic h w i l l c r e a t e new U f a * W henever men g e t t o g e t h e r t o r e a c h common e n d s , th e y l i v e k n o w in g t h a t t h o s e e n d s w i l l b e a c h ie v e d *

T hese, f o r

F a r r e l l , a r e n a t u r a l la w s ; t h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o s a y i n g , w h e n e v e r A ( v a l u e s ) , them B ( a w o rld c r e a t e d by v a lu e s ) * T h is i s a s t a t e m e n t c o n t a i n i n g a b a s i c s e m a n t ic a l c o n fu s io n *

2m C h a p te r 111 CONCLUSION N a t u r a l la w i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h e e n t u r y was th o u g h t t o h e b o t h e m p i r i c a l and r a t i o n a l *

A f t e r Jfome t h i s n o t i o n

o f n a t u r a l la w e o u ld n o t s t a n d and t h e r e d e v e lo p e d two m ain w a r r a n ts * t h e s e l e n t l f l c and t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c * t o g e t h e r w ith nu m ero u s a tt e m p t s t o J o i n a g a in w hat Hume h a d t o r n a p a rt*

^

The p a t t e r n w i t h w hich t h i s p a p e r i s c o n c e rn e d r e - ,

f l e e t s one way o f m aking t h i s a tte m p t a s fo u n d I n t h e s o c i o l ­ o g i s t * l y n d , t h e p h l l o s o p h e r - p s y c h o l o g i s t * Mead* and t h e n o v e lis t * F a rre ll* I n t h e e a s e o f F a r r e l l * a n e f f o r t h a s b e e n made t o show t h a t I n i t s e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f h i s n o v e l a n d h i e t h i n k i n g a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e p o e t* H i o t * t h i s h a s b e e n done t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t b o th c a n b e s t b e t h o u g h t o f a s b e in g i n t h e t r a d i t i o n w hleh i n a g e n e r a l way c a n b e l a b e l l e d ro m a n tic and t o c l e a r up a co n ­ f u s i o n i n t h e u s e o f t h e te rm n a t u r a l i s t i c a s u s e d t o c h a r a c t e r i s e a w ork o f f i c t i o n . A p i e c e o f w r i t i n g i s n a t u r a l i s t i c i f , an d o n ly i f , *>i i t h e s t a t e m e n t s made i n i t ©an b e shown t o b e e q u i v a l e n t s o f w h e n ev e r A, t h e n B s t a te m e n t s I n w hich A and B a r e te rm s w hose d e f i n i t i o n s t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n t a i n o n ly u n d e f in e d d e ­ s c r i p t i v e p r e d i c a t e s on a p h y s i c a l l e v e l and o b s e r v a b le

zm r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e s e p r e d i c a t e s .

I n o t h e r w ords# t h e

r e f e r e n t * o f a l l te r n * i n n a t u r a l i s t i c w r itin g a re o b je c tiv e , a n d i n t h i s s e n s e o n ly one l e v e l o f la n g u a g e i s c o n s i s t e n t l y used # th e s e m a n tic a l o r th e f a c tu a l*

A p ie c e o f w r itin g i s

l i t e r a r y i f an d o n ly i f a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s made i n i t a r e on t h e p r a g m a t i c a l e r e x p r e s s i v e l e v e l o f la n g u a g e *

A ll t h e -----

v a r i a b l e s a r e s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s o r s t a t e s o f f e e l i n g , and a re e x p re s s e d i n s ta te m e n ts c o n ta in in g o b je c tiv e c o r r e l a t i v e s b y w h ic h a r e m ean t te rm s w hose r e f e r e n t s on th e se a a n ~ r

t l e a l l e v e l a r e o b j e c t i v e b u t h a v e becom e s u b j e c t i v e th r o u g h r

b e in g moved fro m t h e s e m a n t ic a l t o t h e p r a g m a t i c a l l e v e l o f la n g u a g e *

E s s e n t i a l l y # t h i s m eans t h a t t h e la n g u a g e o f

l i t e r a t u r e i s m e t a p h o r i c a l r a t h e r t h a n f a c t u a l ; a s m e ta p h o r­ i c a l la n g u a g e t h e b a s i c f o rm u la f o r l i t e r a t u r e c a n h e con­ v e n i e n t l y s t a t e d # w h e n ev e r A, t h e n B, when A i s s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s o r v a lu e s and B I s an o b je c tiv e c o r r e l a t iv e ex ­ p re s s in g s u b je c tiv e s t a t e s o r v a lu e s . f h e s y n t a c t i c a l l e v e l o f la n g u a g e i s t h a t o f t h e l o g i c o r gram m ar o f la n g u a g e *

On t h i s l e v e l o c c u r su c h

s t r u c t u r a l te r m s a s i s # n o t * a l l * a n d * t h i s le v e l a re a n a ly tic a l, i . e * ,

S ta te m e n ts made on

t h e y do n o t n e e d t o b e

v e r i f i e d b e c a u s e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e la n g u a g e m a le s f o r th e ir tr u th or fa ls ity *

Thus t h e s ta te m e n ts

e ith e r i t is

r a i n i n g o r n o t r a i n i n g i s an a n a l y t i c a l s t a te m e n t and say®

S40 n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e o b j e c t i v e w orld*, in s p e c tio n *

I t I s t r u e o r f a l s a on

t r u t h s on t h i s l e v e l o f la n g u a g e a r e l o g i c a l

a n d s t r u c t u r a l an d do n o t n e e d t o h e v e r i f i e d e m p i r ic a ll y * I t I s on t h i s l e v e l o f la n g u a g e t h a t a b s t r a c t i o n s a r e t o h e t a l k e d a b o u t; t h e Q u e s tio n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h e* tw e e n a b s t r a c t i o n s i s s y n t a c t i c a l *

The r o c k b o tto m o f

la n g u a g e i s t h e u n d e f in e d p r e d i c a t e s s u c h a s g r e e n and re d * I f t h e s e a r e c o n s id e r e d a s on one l e v e l # t h e n su c h a te rm a s c o l o r m u st h e c o n s id e r e d a s on th e n e x t h i g h e r l e v e l o f a b s tra c tio n ,

A s e n te n c e i s made up o f p r e d i c a t e s fro ®

l e v e l s w h ic h s t a n d n e x t t o e a c h o th e r * and t h e s e p r e d i c a t e s a r e J o in e d b y t h e i s o f p r e d i c a t i o n * e* g * , g r e e n i s a o d o r*

I n a c o m p le te gram m ar o f la n g u a g e * t h e c l a s s i f i c a ­

t i o n o f l e v e l s w ould b e c o m p le te and t h e r e w ould b e no a m b ig u ity c o n c e rn in g w h e th e r a s e n te n c e w e re s y n t a c t i c a l l y c o r r e c t * 1* e»» w h e th e r t h e i s o f p r e d i c a t i o n w ere u s e d t o J o i n c o n c e p ts w h ich w ere on l e v e l s n o t n e x t t o e a c h o th e r * I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t s c i e n t i f i c law s a r e w h e n e v e r* t h e n s t a te m e n t s i n w hich a l l t h e te rm s u l t i m a t e l y a r e r e d u c i b l e t o u n d e f in e d d e s c r i p t i v e c o n c e p ts on t h e p h y s i c a l l e v e l and t h e r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e te rm s a r e ob­ se rv e d r e g u l a r i t i e s ,

T hese c o n c e p ts u l t i m a t e l y r e f e r t o

g i v e n s o r s e n s e d a t a o f e x p e r ie n c e and a r e n o t d e f i n a b l e i n o t h e r te rm s* and a s su c h t h e r e f e r e n t s m ust b e e x p e rie n c e d *

841 A8 f a r a s t h e u n d e f in e d term ® a r e c o n c e rn e d * t h e r e i s no n o v e l t y i n t h e s e n s e o f t h e em ergence o f new ones*

Bergm&nn

h a s p o i n t e d o a t t h a t oueh em erg en ce w ould h e a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a n in g o f n o v e lty * a n d T h a t t h e r e a o t u a l l y i e no n o v e l t y p r o p e r seem s t o h e a h a s l o f a e t u a l f e a t u r e o f t h e w o rld we know* I f t h e r e w ere n o v e l t y p r o p e r o r* a t l e a s t * i f t h e r e w e re oueh n o v e l t y i n a r a d i c a l m anner* i t w o u ld e n t a i l c h a n g in g c a t e g o r i e s and t h e r e f o r e a c h a n g e d s t r u c t u r e o r t h e S e lf * 3 ®8 The c l a s s i f l e a t i o n o f o o n e e p ts i n a s y n t a c t i c a l l y c o r r e c t way i s made t o c l a r i f y l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n * t h e way e o n * e e p t a o n one l e v e l i n c l u d e t h o s e on t h e l e v e l b e lo w .

T h e re

a r e no new u n d e f in e d o o n e e p ts and t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s one o f d e f i n i t i o n s so t h a t s e n t e n c e s c a n h e c o n s t r u c t e d w hich a re lo g ic a lly c o rre c t.

T h is d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e s t a t e ­

m e n ts w ould he* when l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t * e m p i r i c a l l y t r u e * e . g * # q u a d r u p l i o i t y d r i n k s p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n i s f o r m a l ly a l l r i g h t h u t e m p i r i c a l l y n o n se n se # I t i s p o s s i b l e now t o make a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e •fhi« n n o t i o n o f t h e o i s - a m t i t h e s i s - s y f c t h e s i s . S t a t e d s im p ly A4 4 m eans t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o c e s s w h ich r e s o l v e s a c o n c e p t and i t s c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n t o a new c o n c e p t w hich i s n o t r e d u c i b l e t o t h e p r e v io u s c o n c e p ts .

T h is i s th e e q u iv a le n t o f s a y in g

t h a t w i t h i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p tu a l le v e l® t h e r e 348# G u sta v Bergmann* "H olism * H is to r ic is m * and Baergene® ** p p . 8 1 0 - E ll*

242 a p p e a r on t h o s e l e v e l s h i g h e r t h a n t h e s e n s e - d a t a l e v e l now u n d e f i n e d d e s c r i p t i v e o o n e e p ts *

S in c e t h e t h e s i s - a n t i r

t h e s i s - s y n t h e s i s p r o c e s s i s n o t o n ly a l o g i c a l n o t i o n h u t a l e e d e s c r i b e s t h e e m p i r i e a l o b j e c t i v e w o rld * t h e r e I s n o v e lty i n a s i g n i f i e a n t sen se*

% c o n f u s in g t h e e y n t a e -

t i o a l an d s e m a n t i c a l l e v e l s o f la n g u a g e i t i s made t o seem t h a t t h e r e a r e n e c e s s a r y l o g i e a l e o n n e e tio n s b e tw e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s i n w henever* t h e n s t a t e m e n t s and t h a t w i t h i n t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f n e c e s s i t y * t h e r e a p p e a r new u n d e ­ f i n e d d e s c r i p t i v e o o n e e p ts *

To assum e t h a t t h i s i s s o i s

t o assum e t h a t t h e r e w i l l h e ” a rc h a n g e d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e S e lf *

S u b j e c t i v e l y s t a t e d * t h e s i t u a t i o n w ould n o t h e d ie *

s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e c o n g e n i t a l l y b l i n d who g a in s v is io n .* ^ 9 I t i s t h e s e a r c h f o r t h i s new s e l f t h a t ehar& e* t e r l s e & t h e p a t t e r n o f th o u g h t I n Mead* ly n d * an d F a r r e l l * I n S tu d s L o n ig a n i t h a s b e e n shown t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l i s s u c h t h a t one h in d o f s e l f i s d e s t r o y e d and r e p l a c e d b y a new an d d i f f e r e n t h in d *

M u d s* a s a m id d le -

e l a s s s e l f * i s shown t o he doomed b e c a u s e o f t h e n e c e s s a r y a n d l o g i c a l c o n n e c tio n s w hich p re s u m a b ly e r i s t I n t h e ob­ j e c t i v e w o rld and t h e s e c o n n e c tio n s i n e v i t a b l y make f o r t h e em erg en ce o f new p r o l e t a r i a t s e l v e s *

So i n E l i o t t h e

s e a r c h i s sms f o r a mow C h r i s t i a n s e l f w h ich i s s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t fro m t h e w o r ld ly e m o tio n a l one H i e t I s a tt e m p t in g t o escape#

T h is i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f J o n a th a n E dw ards1e

m o tio n o f c o n v e r s io n I n w h ich t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e l f was s o c h a n g e d t h a t one a u t o m a t i c a l l y was v i r t u o u s a s a r e s u l t o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p e rfo rm e d b y t h e g r a c e o f aod.

The M a r x is t dogma f o r F a r r e l l , t h e C h r i s t i a n dogma

f o r E li o t * t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s f o r H ead , s o c i a l re fo rm f o r l y n d t a l l somehow w i l l mhfce t h e new man who h a s a e h ie v e d •• S a lv a tio n ,

T h is i s t h e s e n s e i n w hich a l l o f t h e s e men a r e

o n t h e r o m a n tic g u e s t* t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e new " n a t u r a l " man* h u t " n a t u r a l " i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e n h e w i l l he a s h e o u g h t t o he* The p a t t e r n i s one w h ich i s h u i l t on c o n f u s io n s c o n c e r n in g t h e l e v e l s o f la n g u a g e *

The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e

p a t t e r n b e g in s on t h e l i t e r a r y and p r a g m a ti c a l l e v e l on w h ic h o c c u r e x p r e s s i v e s t a te m e n t s i n t h e form s

w h en ev er

v a lu e e , p u rp o s e s ; th e n o b je c tiv e c o r r e la tiv e s f o r v a lu e s # p u r p o s e s * s u b j e c t i v e e le m e n ts*

By s h i f t i n g t h e s e s t a t e ­

m en ts t o t h e s y n t a c t i c a l l e v e l t h e y a r e t h e n made t o a p p e a r t o h a v e l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y so t h h t t h e s t a te m e n t s becom e; w h e n e v e r v a lu e s * p u r p o s e s ; t h e n n e c e s s a r i l y o b j e c t i v e c o r ­ r e l a t i v e s f o r t h o s e v a l u e s * p u rp o se s*

By a f u r t h e r s h i f t

t o t h e s e m a n t ic a l l e v e l t h e s t a tm e n t s t h e n see© t o he

244 f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e o b j e c t i v e w o rld s o t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t c becom e; t a i n k i n d o f w o r ld *

w h en ev er v a l u e s * purpose® s t h e n a c e r ­ The r e s u l t o f m aking su c h s h i f t s i s a

p a t t e r n w h ich c o n f u s e s l i t e r a t u r e and s c i e n c e s c t h a t l i t ­ e r a r y s t a t e m e n t s on t h e p r a g m a t i c a l l e v e l a r e t a k e n t o b e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e w o rld i n t h e s e n s e t h a t s c i e n ­ tific

la w s a re * and t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e

w o r ld a r e t a k e n t o b e t h o s e o f t h e l o g i c a l and g ra m m a tic a l s t r u c t u r e o f la n g u a g e on t h e s y n t a c t i c a l l e v e l * T h is p a t t e r n c o n fu s e s s c i e n c e w ith t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s c i e n c e s o t h a t i t i s made t o seem t h a t s o l e n e e i s n o t o n ly a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w o rld b u t a m ethod o f m ak in g a w o r ld .

Somehow* a c c o r d in g t o t h i s view * s c i ­

e n t i s t s make la w s w hich a r c b l u e - p r l n t s f o r new w o rld s ; t h u s man i s t h e c r e a t o r o f w h a te v e r k in d o f w o rld h e w an ts* A n a t u r a l la w t h e n i s n o t one w h ich i s i n t h e w o rld and t o b e fo u n d b y t h e m ethod o f s c i e n c e ; i t i s one w h ich comes o u t o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e * t h e human a s o p p o sed t o t h e o b je c ­ t i v e * and i s b u i l t i n t o t h e w orld*

So s c i e n c e 1® t h e p r o ­

j e c t i o n o f human v alue® I n t o t h e w o r ld .

The f u n c t i o n s

w h ic h i n t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n w ere t h o s e o f t h e god h a v e becom e man*s« The w o rld i s n o t a l a w f u l one* i n t h i s p a t t e r n * u n t i l i t i s made s o th r o u g h e f f o r t s o f t h e h u m a n is t-

84*6

lite r a r y s c ie n tis t*

M aking a w o rld i s t h e sam e a s w r i t i n g

a n o v e l and. t h e w o rld I s m o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e f o r human V a lu e s w h ic h a r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f s c i e n c e a s c o n c e iv e d i n t h i s p a tte rn *

T hus t h e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y made w o rld i s a l s o

t h e m o ra l w o rld s i n c e I t 1© t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f a m o ra l p a t ­ te rn *

A n o th e r way o f s t a t i n g t h i s w ould be t o s a y t h a t

dogma an d s c i e n c e a r e t h e sam e; t h u s C h r i s t ia n * M arxian* D e m o c r a tic , o r any o t h e r dogma c o u ld b e made one w ith n o t o n ly ;!a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w o rld b u t a p l a n f o r m aking and b r e a k i n g w o rld s* W ith in t h i s p a t t e r n i s room f o r e x tre m e p e ssim is m a n d o p tim ism , d e p e n d in g on how w e l l dogma i s b e in g c o n c r e ­ tis e d *

Thus Lynd and K U o t a r e p e s s i m i s t i c b e c a u s e t h i n g s

do n o t seem t o b e g o in g t h e i r way e a s i l y *

Mead i s o p t i m i s ­

t i c a s w e l l Ite e rs o n an d W hitman b e f o r e him* and F a r r e l l f l u c t u a t e s w ith t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e c t o f M a r x i s t s t o w h ic h h e b e lo n g s *

The dogmas a l l p o i n t t o a

p r e m is e d l a n d , how ever* w h ic h u l t i m a t e l y w i l l b e re a c h e d * W ith in t h e p a t t e r n t h i s m ast b e so* s i n c e t h e w o rld w hich I s n o t now l a w f u l w i l l o f n e c e s s i t y be made so * t h e neees** s i t y o f b e l i e f s 1 m aking a w o rld i n t h e i r own Im ag e.

Thus

id e o lo g y * dogma* and s c i e n c e becom e e q u iv a le n t te rm s* At t h e c o r e o f t h e p a t t e r n i s t h e u n iq u e s u b j e c ­ t i v e s e l f and fro m t h i s a l l th e r e s t f o llo w s *

I t i s in

246 t h i s s e n s e t h a t i t h a s b e e n l a b e l l e d h e r e a s ro m a n tic #

The

n a t u r a l i s t i c fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e 1© t h a t o f s c i e n c e ; a t t h e o t h e r e x tre m e l a t h e a b s o l u t e I d e a l i s t i c fra m e o f r e f e r e n c e . I n b e tw e e n an d c o n f u s in g b o th i s t h e r o m a n tic a t t i t u d e p o s i t i n g t h e w o rld a s t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e human egos

a

g o o d w o rld when i t v i b r a t e s w ith t h a t eg o ; b a d when t h e m u sic i s so u r# W hitman s a n g t h e c re d o o f t h i s p o s i t i o n s I c e l e b r a t e m y s e lf * and s i n g m y se lf* And w hat 1 assum e y o u s h a l l assum e* F o r e v e r y atom b e lo n g in g t o me a s good b e lo n g s t o you#™ ® I am a n acme o f t h i n g s a c c o m p lish e d * and X an e n e l o s e r o f t h i n g s t o b e # * 'A Mfeat i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c n o v e l i s t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f an u n h ap p y ro m a n tic i n o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e s t h a t r e f l e c t h i s u n h a p p in e s s #

A lite ra ry

s t a te m e n t i s c o n fu s e d b y c r i t i c s * and o f t e n tim e s b y t h e a u th o r * w ith a s c i e n t i f i c s ta te m e n t#

The l i t e r a r y o b je e ~

t l v e c o r r e l a t i v e i s t r e a t e d a s i f i t w ere r e f e r r i n g t o t h e o b j e c t i v e w o rld r a t h e r th a n * a s i t does* t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e o f t h e a u th o r*

The s o - c a l l e d n a t u r a l i s t i c n o v e l i s i n

t h e t r a d i t i o n o f ro m a n tic w r i t in g # th irtie s #

The n a t u r a l i s t ©

o f th e

t y p i c a l o f whom a r e Bos Pa.eeos* S te in b e c b * and ‘ ■■f,

.

.

.

.

.

.

:

3 7 0 . W alt W hitm an, L eav es o f G r a s s , e d , S nory H o llo w ay , p . 8 4

371, 1014., P. 68.

247 F a r r e l l * a r e o ffs p r in g o f W ordew orth t u r n e d so u r*

T h e ir

h a p p y g r a n d f a t h e r 8 a id s F e e t r y i s t h e f i r s t an d l a s t o f a l l K n o w le d g e --It i s a s im m o rta l a® t h e h e a r t o f m an. I f t h e l a # -'' h o u r s o f men o f s e le n o e s h o u ld ©Ter c r e a t e any ma­ t e r i a l r e v o lu tio n , d i r e s t o r in d ir e c t* in our c o n d it i o n * and I n t h e im p r e s s io n s w h ich we h a b i t ­ u a l l y r e c e i v e * t h e p o s t w i l l s l e e p t h e n no more t h a n a t p r e s e n t * h u t h e w i l l h e r e a d y t o f o l lo w t h e s t e p s o f t h e man o f s c ie n c e * n o t o n ly I n ,w 7, t h o s e g e n e r a l i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s * b u tM p . w i l l he a t h i s s i d e * c a r r y i n g s e n s a t i o n l a t h t h e m id s t o f th e o b je c ts o f th e s c ie n c e i t s e l f * „ » I f th e tim e s h o u ld e v e r come when w hat i s now c a l l e d s o l cnee* t h u s f a m i l i a r i s e d t o men* s h a l l he r e a d y t o p u t on* a s i t w e re , a fo rm o f f l e s h and b lo o d * t h e p o e t w i l l l e n d „ h i s d i v i n e s p i r i t t o a id th e tr a n s fig u r a tio n * So* to o d i d W ordsw orth th iu fc i n t h e same p a t t e r n a s Mead and ly n d w ere t o do* The t r u t h o f l i t e r a t u r e and s c i e n c e i s i d e n t i ­ c a l* s o say® t h e ro m a n tic th in f c e r and w r i t e r i n %W$ and i n t h e 1 9 3 0 fs«

The e i g h t e e n t h c e n tu r y e m p i r i c a l - r a t i o n & l

f o r m u la becam e t h e ro m a n tic one w hich j o i n e d s c i e n c e and s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s i n an a tte m p t t o p a tc h w hat t h e Humean a n a l y s i s h a d shown c o u ld n o t be one p ie c e *

The p o s i t i o n

a d v a n c e d i n t h i s p a p e r i s t h a t t h e fo rm u la o f t h e 1950*® a s e x p r e s s e d i n Mead* Xynd and F a r r e l l O annot s t a n d u n d e r a n a ly s is * 378* W illia m W ordsworth* R e p r e s e n ta tiv e Poems s e l e c t e d and e d i t e d b y A r th u r B e a t t y * p p . 698-93*

248

0 BXBLIOCrKAPKY Books 1« B e ak e r* C a r l 1 * #The H e a v e n ly C ity o f t h e E ig h te e n th e l f l l ry "Y ale S a i v e r e i l y I’r e s s * few ' !Savenf 2# B e r n a r d t an d J* s # t O r ig in s o f A m erican S o c i o l ­ ogy gftfiljrii Seleno® M o v e m ^ T in t E T W m ^ l f a E e e . fhom a® ^?7 W S i r i l l l ^ w 7 n f i R T T S r E 7 I W K ---------------------3* E li o t * T* S .* S e l e c t e d l a s aye 1917~19&S. H a r e o n r t. B ra c e an d C om pany;F ew T o f f ; 1 ^ 3 2 . 4*

Wa£ 4 ® i M b m m E l g a l S H a ^ i H ^ h t o s M i f f l i n Company^ l o s t o i n ^ i d ^ i r e i r i W k T ^ I I ^ S a n d 1867*

•• w

,

^



M ” 11* c° * ” w -

6* F a r r e l l . Jam es T *«B e rn a rd C la re * The V anguard F re e s * Hew T o r i , 1946* — ------ *--------7* „ w . ■■■ « V a th e ? S E i § £ » . » • V anguard P r e s s , H0W XQlX^jtfjCWiO# 8*

* The l*tf© M vem turea® and O th e r a Til® Vs^i^GL&y& P yoss ^ HSW idl^Ki 1947* i

9*

.................... .........

» "• n m

i*

n m »iiw»'«wni

him* i » m i >

M m m m ««**»

. H o S t a r I® l*o®t * The V anguard Free®* T o l i i X938*

10*

* A B o te on l i t e r a r y C r itic is m * The fangukrd"" K e i s T ^ e w ^ o r ^ r IH H C ----------------------------

11.

. $1000 a Week and O th e r S t o r i e s * The fa n g n a rt

12*

------------------------------------

249

Stud® L o n lg a n # a t r i l o g y c o n t a i n i n g

...

l ^ n i j k ^ fEe x oiH g JESaanocS o f Stud® B o n ig a n .

l u l g i e ^ ^ a y " w f f s a new lif r o H u c f io iB iF y t h e a u t h o r , ¥Ee M O & e rn ja b r a r y , Random H o u se, Hew Y o rk , 1 9 3 8 , Tin- 1 - ■mv 22. I t May C oncern an d O th e r W o r i e i 7 1?ke V an g u ard freieJl^ ew Y or'k^ I9 4 ¥ 7 ~

_

1 8 * t» Bw ^ui iSc Mi M i u -j tgj trc pw do

16,

|

m ow

lo r & i

JL V fto i

£E 2SSL —

S a £ '

T he

» A W orld I Mover Made, The V anguard P r e s s , fe w Y o rk , 193*6* 1

17# Lynd* R o b e rt S . , K now ledge f o r W hat?, P r i n c e t o n U n iv e r ­ s i t y P r e s s , P r ineW onV el1f39>7~ 1 8 . Mead# G eorge H«. Mind# S e l f a n d S o c ie ty fro m t h e S ta n d o ln l o f a S o e l a l '^ a v i m s i v ^ e lifir:^ i o n , t y C h a rlo s " ''Sf* TT! l o r r i s '‘, r 3toe u n i v e r s i t y o f C hicago P re s® , C h ic a g o , 0 1 9 3 4 .

f

*

1

)

1 9 . V eblen* Y h o r s te i n . Yhe T h eo ry o f t h e B u s in e s s I n t e r p r i s e # C h a r le s S e r i E n e r ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ------SO#

. ______ ‘ * The T h eo ry o f t h e l e i s u r e C l a s s # An fee ottomte S tu d y o r l i® ¥ l te flo n ® » w ith a f o r ©word fey M u a r T C h a se , T ie M odern' L i b r a r y , Random H ouse, 0 1 8 9 9 .

S I . W hitm an,. W a lt, l e a v e s o f G r a s s # i n c l u s i v e e d i t i o n , D ouble d a y , D oran a n t' Company, G arden C i t y , Mew Yorfc, 1945# 2 2 . W ordsw orth, W illia m , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Poem® s e l e c t e d and e d i t e d b y A r th u r B e a ti'y , S o u b le la y , E o ra n and Company, Mew Y o rk , 1937# S e r i a l s and P>|i(iimai■m p h**■le ts ■■me fn ij■

,5ffiSSS21S5!2SSi55S»

>11

—*,m*

t. ^ 1

23# B ergm ann, G u s ta v , "An I t e p l r i c i s t f s System o f t h e S c i e n c e s ," t h e S c i e n t i f i c M o n th ly # V o l. 59 (A u g u s t, 1 9 4 4 ) , 14G-TW# 2 4

M

§ "H o lism , H i s t o r i e i s m , and E m erg en ce," P h ilo s o p h y 0£ S o le n e e , Vox* 2 ( O c to b e r , 1 9 4 4 ), 209—2 2 1 .