A History Of Indian Philosophy [3] 8120804147, 9788120804142

The work appears in five volumes. Vol. I comprises Buddhist and Jaina Philosophy and the six systems of Hindu thought, v

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A History Of Indian Philosophy [3]
 8120804147, 9788120804142

Table of contents :
Volume - 3
15. The Bhaskara School of Philosophy
1. Date of Bhaskara
2. Bhaskara and Sankara
3. The Philosophy of Bhaskara's Bhasya
16. The Pancaratra
1. Antiquity of the Pancaratra
2. The Position of the Pancaratra Literature
3. The Pancaratra Literature
4. Philosophy of the Jayakhya and other Samhitas
5. Philosophy of the Ahirbudhnya-samhita
17. The Arvars
1. The Chronology of the Arvars
2. The Philosophy of the Arvars
3. Arvars and Sri-vaisnavas on certain points of controversy in religious dogmas
18. An Historical and Literary Survey of the Visistadvaita School of Thought
1. The Aragiyas from Nathamuni to Ramanuja
2. Ramanuja
3. The Precursors of the Visitadvaita Philosophy and the contem-poraries and pupils of Ramanuja
4. Ramanuja Literature
5. The Influence of the Arvars on the followers of Ramanuja
19. The Philosophy of Yamunacarya
1. Yamuna's doctrine of Soul contrasted with those of others
2. God and the World
3. God according to Ramanuja, Venkatanatha and Lokacarya
4. Visitadvaita doctrine of Soul according to Ramanuja and Venkatanatha
5. Acit or Primeval Matter: the Prakrti and its modifications
20. Philosophy of the Ramanuja School of Thought
1. Sankara and Ramanuja on the nature of Reality as qualified or unqualified
2. Refutation of Sankara's avidya
3. Ramanuja's theory of Illusion - All knowledge is Real
4. Failure of theistic proofs
5. Bhaskara and Ramanuja
6. Ontological position of Ramanuja's Philosophy
7. Venkatanatha's treatment of Pramana
8. Venkatanatha's treatment of Doubt
9. Error and Doubt according to Venkatanatha
10. Perception in the light of elucidation by the later members of the Ramanuja School
11. Venkatanatha's treatment of Inference
12. Epistemology of the Ramanuja School according to Meghanadari and others
13. The Doctrine of Self-validity of Knowledge
14. The Ontological categories of the Ramanuja School according to Venkatanatha
(a) Substance
(b) Criticism of the Samkhya Inference for Establishing the Existence of Prakrti
(c) Refutation of the Atomic Theory of Nyaya in relation to Whole and Part
(d) Criticism of the Samkhya Theory of Sat-karya-vada
(e) Refutation of the Buddhist Doctrine of Momentariness
(j) Refutation of the Carvaka criticism against the Doctrine of Causality
(g) The Nature of the Senses according to Venkatanatha
(h) The Nature of akasa according to Venkatanatha
(i) Nature of Time according to Venkatanatha
(j) The Nature of Soul according to Venkatanatha
(k) The Nature of Emancipation according to Venkatanatha
15. God in the Ramanuja School
16. Dialectical criticism against the Sankara School
17. Meghanadari
18. Vatsya Varada
19. Ramanujacarya II alias Vadi-Harpsa-Navamvuda
20. Ramanujadasa alias Mahacarya
21. Prapatti Doctrine as expounded in Srivacana-bhusana of Lokacarya and Saumya Jamatr Muni's Commentary on it
22. Kasturi-Rangacarya
23. Saila Srinivasa
24. Rangacarya
21. The Nimbarka School of Philosophy
1. Teachers and Pupils of the Nimbarka School
2. A General Idea of Nimbarka's Philosophy
3. Controversy with the Monists by Madhava Mukunda
(a) The Main Thesis and the Ultimate End in Advaita Vedanta are untenable
(b) Refutation of the Sailkara Theory of Illusion in its various Aspects
(c) Refutation of the Sankarite View of Ajnana
4. The Pramanas according to Madhava Mukunda
5. Criticism of the views of Ramanuja and Bhaskara
6. The Reality of the World
7. Vanamali Misra
22. The Philosophy of Vijnana Bhikhu
1. A General Idea of Vijnana Bhikhu's Philosophy
2. The Brahman and the World according to Vijnana-mrita-bhaya
3. The Individual
4. Brahma-Experience and Experience
5. Self-Luminosity and Ignorance
6. Relation of Samkhya and Vedanta according to Bhikhu
7. Maya and Pradhana
8. Bhikhu's criticism of the Samkhya and Yoga
9. Isvara-gita, its Philosophy as expounded by Vijnana Bhikhu
23. Philosophical Speculations of Some of the Selected Puranas
1. Visnu Purana
2. Vayu Purana
3. Markandeya Purana
4. Naradiya Purana
5. Kumara Purana
Appendix to Volume - 1
The Lokayata, Nastika and Carvaka

Citation preview



SURENDRANATH DASGUPTA, M.A., Ph.D. (Cal. et Cantab.), D.Litt. (Hon.) (Rome)

F.R.S.L., LE.S.






London Offict> : Ht>n rley I louse, N. w. American Branch: :'\ew York


Agents for Canada. India, and Pakistan: :\lacmillan

First published 1940 Reprinted 1952

First Printed i11 Great Britain at the Uni1·ersity Press, Cambridge Reprinted by offset-litho by Percy Lund Humphries & Co. Ltd.

To the HON. SRI }AWAHARLAL NEHRU who went through great sufferings and hardships all his life in the cause of the liberation of his countrymen, and who is still labouring with almost superhuman effort for the unification of the subcontinent of India, and who is working with steady devotion and faith for the establishment of peace at home and among the nations of the world, the foremost Indian who is piloting the progress of the country through troubled waters in the most hazardous period of India's. history, this work is most respectfully dedicated as a tribute of personal gratefulness

PREFACE The second volume of this work was published as long ago as 1932. Among the many reasons which delayed the publication of this volume, one must count the excessive administrative and teaching work with which the writer is saddled; his continued illness; the regrettable failure of one eye through strenuous work, which often makes him depend on the assistance of others; and the long distance between the place of publication and Calcutta. The manuscript of the fourth volume is happily ready. In writing the present volume the author has taken great trouble to secure manuscripts which would present a connected account of the development of theistic philosophy in the South. The texts that have been published are but few in number and the entire story cannot be told without constant reference to rare manuscripts from which alone the data can be collected. So far, no work has been written which could throw any light on the discovery and interpretation of a connected history of Vai~Q.ava thought. It would have been well if the Tamil and Telegu works could have been fruitfully utilized in tracing the history of Vai~Q.avism, not only as it appeared in Sanskrit but also as it appeared in the vernaculars of the South. But the author limited himself as far as possible to Sanskrit data. This limitation was necessary for three reasons: first, the author was not master of the various vernaculars of South India; secondly, the inclusion and utilization of such data would have made the present book greatly exceed its intended scope; and thirdly, the inclusion of the data from the vernacular literature would not have contributed materially to the philosophical problems underlying the theistic speculations dealt with in this work. Looked at from the strictly philosophical point of view, son1e of the materials of the present book may be regarded as somewhat out of place. But, both in the present volume and the volume that will follow it, it will be impossible to ignore the religious pathology that is associated with the devotional philosophy which is so predominant in the South and which so much influenced the minds of the people not only in the Middle Ages but also in the recent past and is even now the most important element of Indian religions.



Philosophy in India includes not only morality but religion also. The most characteristic feature of religion is emotion or sentiment associated with a system of beliefs, and as such in the treatment of the dominant schools of philosophy that originated in South India one cannot help emphasizing the important pathological developments of the sentiment of devotion. The writer hopes, therefore, that he may be excused both by those who would not look for any emphasis on the aspect of bhakti or religious sentiment and alsc. by those who demand an over-emphasis on the emotional aspect which forms the essence of the Yai~r:tava religion. He has tried to steer a middle course in the interest of philosophy, which, however, in the schools of thought treated herein is so intimately interwoven with religious sentiment. The writer has probably exceeded the scope of his treatment in dealing with the .Arvars, whose writings are in Tamil, but there also he felt that without referring to the nature of the devotional philosophy of the Arvars the treatment of the philosophy of Ramanuja and h?s followers would be historically defective. But though the original materials for a study of the Arvars are in Tamil, yet fortunately Sanskrit translations of these writings either in manuscript or in published form are available, on which are almost whol1y based the accounts given here of these Tamil writers. The treatment of the Paiicaratra literature offered some difficulty, as most of these works arc still unpublished; but fortunately a large volume of this literature was secured by the present writer in manuscript. Excepting Schrader's work, nothing of any importance has been written on the Paiicaratra School. Though there are translations of the bhii~ya of Ramanuja, there has been no treatment of his philosophy as a whole in relation to other great philosophers of his School. Practically nothing has appeared regarding the philosophy of the great thinkers of the Ramanuja School, such as Yenka~a, 1\leghanadari and others, most of whose works are still unpublished. Nothing has also been written regarding Vijiianabhik!?u's philosophy, and though ~imbarka's bhii~ya has been translated, no systematic account has yet appeared of Nimbarka in relation to his followers. The writer had thus to depend almost wholly on a very large mass of published and unpublished manuscript literature in his interpretation and chronological investigations, which are largely based upon internal evidence;



though, of course, he has always tried to utilize whatever articles and papers appeared on the subject. The subjects treated are vast and it is for the scholarly reader to judge whether any success has been attained in spite of the imperfections which may have crept in. Though the monotheistic speculations and the importance of the doctrine of devotion can be traced even to some of the ~g-veda hymns and the earlier religious literature such as the Gftii and the Mahiibhiirata and the Vir!l-upurii!la, yet it is in the traditional songs of the A.rvars and the later South Indian philosophical writers, beginning from Yamuna and Ramanuja, that we find a special emphasis on our emotional relation with God. This emotional relation of devotion or bhakti differentiated itself in many forms in the experiences and the writings of various Vai~I).ava authors and saints. It is mainly to the study of these forms as associated with their philosophical perspectives that the present and the succeeding volumes have been devoted. From this point of view, the present and the fourth volumes may be regarded as the philosophy of theism in India, and this will be partly continued in the treatment of Saiva and Sakta theism of various forms. The fourth volume will deal with the philosophy of Madhva and his followers in their bitter relation with the monistic thought of Sankara and his followers. It will also deal with the theistic philosophy of the Bhiigavatapurii7Ja and the theistic philosophy of Vallabha and the followers of Sri Caitanya. Among the theistic philosophers the followers of lVIadhva, Jayatlrtha and Vyasatlrtha occupied a great place as subtle thinkers and dialecticians. In the fifth volume, apart from the different schools of Saiva and Sakta thinkers, the Tantras, the philosophy, of grammar, of Hindu Aesthetics, and of Hindu Law will be dealt with. It is thus expected that with the completion of the fifth volume the writer will have completed his survey of Hindu thought so far as it appeared in the Sanskrit language and thus finish what was begun more than twenty years ago. A chapter on the C iirviika materialists has been added as an appendix, since their treatment in the first volume was practically neglected. The writer has a deep debt of gratitude to discharge to Dr F. W. Thomas-the late Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, and a highly esteemed friend of his who, in spite of his various activities,



pressure of work and old age, has been a true jiiiinabandhu to the author, helping him with the manuscript and the proofs, and offering him valuable suggestions as regards orthography, punctuation and idiomatic usage. Without this continued assistance the imperfections of the present work would have been much more numerous. The author is specially grateful to his wife, Dr l\1rs Surama Dasgupta, Sastri, l\1.A., Ph.D. (Cal. et Cantab.) for the continued assistance that he received from her in the writing of this book and also in reading a large mass of manuscripts for the preparation of the work. Considering the author's great handicap in having only one sound eye it would have been impossible for him to complete the book without this assistance. He is also grateful to Dr Satindra Kumar Mukherjee, M.A., Ph.D., for the help that he received from him from time to time.



Date of Bhaskara 2 Bhaskara and Sailkara 3 The Philosophy of Bhaskara's I

3 Bha~ya


CHAPTER XVI THE PANCARATRA Antiquity of the Paiicaratra 2 The Position of the Paiicaratra Literature 3 The Paiicaratra Literature 4 Philosophy of the :Jayakhya and other Sa'f!lhitii.s s Philosophy of the Ahirbudhnya-sa'f!lhita I


I4 2I

24 34

CHAPTER XVII THE MVARS The Chronology of the Arvars . The Philosophy of the Arvars . 3 Ar.vars and Sri-vai~Q.avas on certain points of controversy in religious dogmas

63 69







The Ar.agiyas from Nathamuni to Ramanuja Ramanuja 3 The Precursors of the Visi~tadvaita Philosophy and the contemporaries and pupils of Ramanuja 4 Ramanuja Literature s The Influence of the A.rvars on the followers of Ramanuja



I I4 I34

CHAPTER XIX THE PHILOSOPHY OF YAMUNA.CARYA 1 Yamuna's doctrine of Soul contrasted with those of others

God and the World . 3 God according to Ramanuja, Venkatanatha and Lokacarya 4 Visi~tadvaita doctrine of Soul according to Ramanuja and Venkatanatha S Acit or Primeval Matter: the Prakrti and its modifications 2

139 IS2 ISS







3 4 5 6 7

8 9 IO



I3 I4

5 I6 I 7 I 8 I9 20 I



23 24

Sankara and Ramilnuja on the nature of Reality as qualified or unqualified Refutation of Sankara's avidyii • R!milnuja's theory of Illusion-All knowledge is Real Failure of theistic proofs . BhAskara and Ramanuja Ontological position of Ramilnuja's Philosophy Venkatanatha' s treatment of Pramii')Q Venkatanatha's treatment of Doubt . Error and Doubt according to V enkataniltha Perception in the light of elucidation by the later members of the Ramilnuja School Venkatanatha's treatment of Inference Epistemology of the RAmilnuja School according to MeghanAdari and others The Doctrine of Self-validity of Knowledge The Ontological categories of the RAmilnuja School according to Venkatanatha (a) Substance • (b) Criticism of the Sarpkhya Inference for Establishing the Existence of Prakrti (c) Refutation of the Atomic Theory of l\"yiiya in relation to Whole and Part (d) Criticism of the SArpkhya Theory of Sat-kiirya-viida . (e) Refutation of the Buddhist Doctrine of Momentariness (f) Refutation of the Carvilka criticism against the Doctrine of Causality (g) The Nature of the Senses according to Venkataniltha (h) The Nature of iikiisa according to Venkataniltha (i) Nature of Time according to Venkataniltha (j) The Nature of Soul according to Venkataniltha (k) The Nature of Emancipation according to Venkataniltha God in the RAmilnuja School Dialectical criticism against the Sankara School Meghanildari Viltsya Varada . RAmilnujacArya II alias VAdi-Harpsa-Nav!mvuda RAmilnujadasa alias Mahilcilrya Prapatti Doctrine as expounded in Sr!vacana-bhiijat;za of Lokilcilrya and Saumya }Amatr Muni's Commentary on it Kastiiri-Rangacarya Saila SrinivAsa Rangacarya

I65 I75 179 I 89 I 92 I95 :l.O I

207 2 Io 220 225 235 247 25:;: 25 I 256 262 265 268 276 280 282 284 286 292 296 304 346 349 352 36I 374 38 I 384 395




l 2


4 5 6 7

Teachers and Pupils of the Nimbarka School • A General Idea of Nirnbarka's Philosophy Controversy with the Monists by Madhava Mukunda (a) The Main Thesis and the Ultimate End in Advaita Vedanta are untenable . (b) Refutation of the Sailkara Theory of Illusion in its various Aspects (c) Refutation of the Sankarite View of Ajniina • The PranziiT}as according to Madhava Mukunda . Criticism of the views of Ramanuja and Bhaskara The Reality of the World . V anamali Misra .


416 422 424 426 429 435 440



3 4 5 6 7 8 9

A General Idea of Vijiiana Bhik~u's Philosophy. The Brahman and the World according to Vijiiana-mrta-bha~ya The Individual Brahma-Experience and Experience Self-Luminosity and Ignorance Relation of Sarpkhya and Vedanta according to Bhik~u Maya and Pradhana Bhik~u's criticism of the Sarpkhya and Yoga I ivara-gftii, its Philosophy as expounded by Vijiiana Bhik~u

. . .

. .

445 454 460 465 468 471 476 479 482


Vi~~u Purii~


V iiyu


~Yarka~fjeya Purii~a

• •


4 Naradfya

5 Kurma



497 502 506 507 • 509

APPENDIX TO VOLUME I The Lokayata, Nastika and Carvaka INDEX

512-550 •



Date of Bhaskara. UnAYANA, in his Nyiiya-kusumiifijali, speaks of Bhaskara as a commentator on the Vedanta in accordance with the traditions of the trida1}l}.a school of Vedanta and as holding the view that Brahman suffers evolutionary changes 1 . Bhanoji Dik!?ita also, in his Tattva-viveka-tikii-vivara1}a, speaks of Bhana Bhaskara as holding the doctrine of difference and non-difference (bhediibheda) 2 • It is certain, however, that he flourished after Sankara, for, though he does not mention him by name, yet the way in which he refers to him makes it almost certain that he wrote his commentary with the express purpose of refuting some of the cardinal doctrines of Sankara's commentary on the Brahma-siitra. Thus, at the very beginning of his commentary, he says that it aims at refuting those who, hiding the real sense of the siitra, have only expressed their own opinions, and in other places also he speaks in very strong terms against the commentator who holds the miiyii doctrine and is a Buddhist in his views 3 • But., though he was opposed to Sankara, it was only so far as Sankara had introduced the miiyii doctrine, and only so far as he thought the world had sprung forth not as a real modification of Brahman, but only through miiyii. For 1 Trida~uJa means " three sticks." According to 1\Ianu it was customary among some Brahmins to use one stick, and among others, three sticks. Pandita Vindhvesvari Prasada Dvivedin, in his Sanskrit introduction to Bhask~r~'s comme~tary on the Brahma-sutra, says that the Vai~Q.ava commentators on the Brahma-sfitra prior to Ramanuja, Tanka, Guhadeva, Bharuci and Yamunacarya, the teacher of Ramanuja, were all trida~4ins. Such a statement is indeed very interesting, but unfortunately he does not give us the authority from which he drew this information. 2 "Bha!fabhiiskaras tu bhedii-bheda-vediinta-siddhiinta-viidc"; Bhattoji Dik~?ita's Vediinta-tattva-tlkii-t:ivara~, as quoted by PaQ.station, called iivesiivatiira and siik$iid-a'catiira. The former is of two kinds, svariipiivesa (as in the case of avatiiras like Parasurama, Rama, etc.) and salay-ii'l'eSa (as the influx of certain special functions or powers of God, e.g. in the case of Brahma or Siva, who are on special occasions endowed with certain special powers of God). 'These secondary ii·vesii·vatiiras are by the will of God produced in the form of human beings, as Rama, Kr~t:la, in the form of animals, as the Boar, the Fish and the ~Ian-lion, or even as a tree (the crooked mango tree in the Dal)l).a. According to the Padma-tantra, Matsya, Kurma and Varaha come from Vasudeva, Nrsi111ha, Vamana, Srirama, and Parasurama from Saqlkar!;lal).a, Balarama from Pradyumna and Kr!;>Qa and Kalki from Aniruddha (Padma-tantra, 1. 2. 31, etc.). But according to the Lak$mftantra (11. 55) all the "Libhavas come from Aniruddha. There is another kind of ovatiira, called arcii"L·atiira. The image of Kr!;lQ.a, Nrsiqlha, etc., when duly consecrated according to the V ai$7Java rites, becomes possessed with the power of Vi!;li).U and attains powers and influences which can be experienced by the devotee ( Vi~vaksena-sarrzhitii, quoted in Tatt"L•a-traya). In the aspect in which Aniruddha controls all beings as their inner controller, he is regarded as the antaryiimya•vatiira. There are thus four kinds of avatiiras, vibhava, iivesa, arcii and antaryiimin. The thirty-nine vibhava avatiiras are Padmanabha, Dhruva, Ananta,

The Paiicariitra


panionship in mundane forms to those saints who cannot live without it, and this is the interpretation of the word paritriir.za (protection) in the Gitii; secondly, for destroying those who are opposed to the saints; thirdly, for establishing the Vedic religion, the essence of which is devotion to God 1 • In the form as antaryiimin, or the inner controller, the Lord resides in us as the inner controller of the self, and it is through His impulsion that we commit evil deeds and go to Hell or perform good deeds and go to Heaven. Thus we cannct in any way escape Saktyatman, Madhusudana, Vidyi:idhideva, Kapila, Visvarupa, Vihangama, Kroc;latman, Vac;lavavaktra, Dharma, Vagisvara, Ekan:tavasayin, Kamathdvara, Varaha, Narasirp.ha, Piyli!?ahararya, Sripati, Kantli.tman, Rahujit, Kalanemighna, Parijatahara, Lokanatha, Santatman, Dattatreya, Nyagrodhasayin, Ekasrngatanu, Vamanadeva, Trivikrama, Nara, Narayarya, Hari, Kr~rya, Parasurama, Rama, Vedavid, Kalkin, Patalasayana. They are of the nature of tejas and are objects of worship and meditation in their specific forms, as described in the Siitvatasa"!lhitii (xn), or in the Ahirbudhya-sa7p.hitii (Lxvl). In the Narayaryiya section of the Mahiibhiirata Vihangama or Harp.sa, Kamathesvara or Kurma, Ekasrngatanu or Matsya, Varaha, Nrsirp.ha, Vamana, Parasurama, Rama, Vedavid and Kalkin are mentioned as the ten avatiiras. The avatiira Kroc;latman, Lokanatha and Kantatman are sometimes spoken of as Y ajiia Vari:iha, Manu Vaivasvata and Kama respectively. The latter is sometimes spoken of probably as Dhanvantari (see Schrader's Paiicararra, p. 45). The twenty-three avatiiras spoken of in the Bhiigavata-purii')a (1. 3) are all included in the above list. It is, however, doubtful whether Yagisvara is the same as Hayasir~a. and Santatman as Sanaka or Narada, as Schrader says. The vibhava-avatiiras mentioned in Rupa's Laghu-bhiigavatii"!lrta are mostly included in the above list, though some names appear in slightly different form. Following the Brahma-sa"!lhitii, Rupa, however, regards Kr~rya as the real form (svaya'!l-rfipa) of God. According to him, being one with God, He may have His manifestations in diverse forms. This is called avatiira as ehiitma-rfipa. This ekiitma-rfipa-avatiira may again be of two kinds, sva-viliisa and svii-7!Zsa. When th~ avatiira is of the same nature as the Lord in powers and other qualities, He is called a s•oii'!lsii-vatiira. Thus, Vasudeva is called a svaviliisa-avatiira. But when the avatiira has inferior powers, He is called a ivii-"!liaavatiira. Sarp.kar~arya, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Matsya, Kurma, etc., are thus called svii-"!l~·a-a•vatiira. When God, however, infuses one only with parts of His qualities, he is called an iiveia-avatiira. Narada, Sanaka, etc., are called iivesaavatiiras. The manifestation of the Lord in the above forms for the good of the world is called avatiira. pfirvo-kta-·viiva-kiiryii-rthiim a-pfirvii iva cet svayam dviirii-ntaretJa vii' vil:z-syur avatiiriis tadii smrtii/:z Laghu-bhiigavatiimrta, p. 22. The a1!ZSii'f:atiira is sometimes called puru$iivatiira, while the manifestation of special qualities as in Brahma, Vi~ryu, Siva, etc., is called gutJiivatiiras. The vibhaviivatiiras are generally regarded as tiliivatiiras; vide also Siitvata-sa7p.hitii, Ch. IX (77-84) and Ch. xn. 1 Tattva-traya, p. 138. The word siidhu is here defined as "nirmatsarii/:z mat-samii.(raya')e pravrttiil:z man-niima-karma-svarfiPii'Jii"!l viiil-manasii-gocaratayii mad-darsanena vinii iitma-dhiira')a-po1aniidikam alabhamiinii/:z k~a')a-miitra-kiila"!l kalpa-sahasra"!l manviiniil:z praSithila-sarva-giitrii bhaveyul:z."


Philosophy of the Ahirbudhnya-sa1Jlhita

from this inner controller. In another of His forms He stays within our heart as the object of our meditation 1 • Again, when certain images are made of earth, stone, or metals, and they are properly installed with proper ceremonials, these are inspired with the presence of God and with His special powers. These are called arcavataras, or image-incarnations, for purposes of worship by which all desirable ends may be achieved. There are thus five kinds of existence for the Lord: firstly as his absolute state (para), secondly as vyuha, thirdly as vibhavavatara (primary and secondary), fourthly as antaryamin, and fifthly as arcavatara2 • In the Ahirbudhnya-sa'!lhita we hear also that by the power of sudarsana, or the divine Idea (by the activity of which the vyiiha forms are produced), a divine location is produced which is of the nature of knowledge and bliss radiant with its (sudarsana's) glow. All the experiences that are enjoyed here are blissful in their nature, and the denizens of this transcendent spiritual world who experience them are also blissful in their nature, and their bodies are constituted of knowledge and bliss 3 • The denizens of this world are souls emancipated in the last cycle. They remain attached, however, to the form of the deity to which they were attached in the mundane life4 • The Lord in the highest form is always associated with His power (Sakti) Lak~mi or Sri5 • In the Tattva-traya and its commentary by Varavara we hear of three consort deities, Lak~mi, Bhiimi and Nila. Schrader points out that these deities are identified (in the Vihagendra-sa'!lhita and in the Sita-upani~ad) with will (iccha), action (Kriya), and the direct manifesting power (sak~at-sakti). In the Sita-upani~ad, to which Schrader refers, Sita is described as the Mahalak~mi which exists in the three forms, iccha, jiiana and kriya. Sita is there regarded as the power which exists different from, and as one with, the supreme Lord, constituting within herself all the conscious and unconscious entities of the universe. It exists also in three forms as Lak~mi, Bhiimi and 1



Tattvo-traya, 139, 140. See quotation from Vi~aksena-sa7[lhita quoted in Tattva-traya, p. suddhii purvodita sr~!ir yii sa vyuha-di-bhedin'f sudarsana-khyiit sa7[lkalpiit tasya eva prabho-jjvala. jiiiinanandamay'f styiinii desa-bhava7Jl vrajaty' uta sa desal:z parama7Jl vyoma nirma[a7fl pu~iit param, etc. Ahirbudhnya-sa7[lhita, 6 Ibid. VI. 29. Ibid. \'I. 25.


VI. 21-22.

The Paiicariitra


Ni:la, as benediction, power, and as the Sun, the ~loon and Fire. The third form is responsible for the development of all kinds of vegetation and all temporal determinations 1 • In the sixth chapter of the Alzirbudlmya-sa'!zlzita the intermediate creation is described. It is said there that the power of God as the supreme ego is at once one and different from Him. The Lord cannot exist without His power nor can the power exist without Him. These two are regarded as the ultimate cause of the world. The manifestations that are revealed as the 'lyiilzas and the 'l·ibhm.·as are regarded as pure, for through their meditations the yogins attain their desired enJ~. From the vyiiha and the 'l·iblza'l·a proceed the impure creation (Suddlzetarii-sr~ti) 2 • Power is of two kinds, i.e. power as activity, and power as determinants of being or existence ( bhiiti-:,!afattib, 212 11., 213 v·ipura, 503, 504 Virinchipuram, 523 Virocana, 528 Virodha-hhm"iJarzl, 384 Virodha-nirodha, 115, 130, 384, 385, 386 n., 387, 392, 393 "·· 394 n., 395 Virodha-parihiira, 124 Virodha-t·anlthinl, 395, 396 Virodha-v.·aruthi11l-pramtlllzirzf, 130, 396 Virtues, 29, 33, 34, 47, 291, 294, 295, 303, 304, 349, 38R, 441, 450, 493, so6, 521, 522, 530. 533. 549. sso

Virtuous, 51, 295, 304, 349, 437, 549 t:iruddha-dharma-dhyasavan, 268 tJlrut, 500 VirA.msolaippillai, 138 Visible, 5, 500 Vision, 71, 459, 471, 505 Visual, 543; organ, 222, 240, 241, 243, 459, 545; perception, 219, 310; sense, 217 visada-t:abhasa, 21 7 t:iseJa~a. 429 ,·isina-jiiana, 221 Viiil!a-dvaita, 111, 116 n., 118, 119, 120, 123, 125, 159. 234. 235. 351, 38(), 392, 393. 395 Visil!a-dvaita logic, 234 VisiJta-dvaita-siddhanta, 127 Visi~!a-dvaitavada, 1 19 Viiil!a-dvaitins, 393 visi1!artha, 233 vii4!atva, 2 18 t.•isuddhi, 524 Visva-gu~adarsa, 131 Yisvajaya, 118 Visvarupa, 40 n. VisvAcArya, 401 ViJvamitra, 23 VisvAmitra gotra, 119 Vist-•odara, 59 Vi~ayata-vada, 133 Vi~aya-t-·akya-dfpika, 1 17, 126 Vi~r:tU, 12, IQ, 20, 24, 25, 31, 33. 37. 38, 39, 40 "-· 44. 45. so, 52, s7. s8. 61, 63, 64, 66, 67 n., 68, 69, 87, 89, 96, 155, 304, 415, 448 n., 473, 475, 498. 499. sos. 507, 509 Vi~r:tucitta, 69, 111, 119,137, 214n., 220n., 234, 235. 383 n.; a predecessor of Venkata in the construction of H.A.mAnuja loRic, 235 Yi~r:tucittan, 63 Vr~'}udharmottara, 20 Yi!]r:tu Misra, 159 Vi~~u Pura~a. 20, 81, 260 n., 497, 498 n., 499 n., soo, 501 n., 530; its philosophy. 497 et seq. Vi~'}u-sarrahita, 23, 24, 31, 32; aha'!lkara in, 31 ; Bhiigat•ata-yoga in, 32; hhakti and yoga, 3 2; God, nature of, 31 ; philosophy of, 23-4; prak!ti, theory of, 31 ; Sarytkhya in, 23-4; ~al}-ariga-yoga in, 24; view of allpervasive soul different from the Srivai~r:tavas, 24 Vi~r;u-sakti, 36 r'ipru-tatt?.·a-rahasya, 132

Index Vip_ru-tattva-sa,hilii,


its contents,


V#~u-vardhana, 104 n. Vi~\·aksena, 63 n., 64, 67 n.

V#vaksena-sa,hitii, 24, 30, 41 n., 43, s6, 57; vyuha doctrine in, 39 n. Vital energy, 462 Vital functions, 540 Vital spirit, 8o vita~t;lii, 512, 513, 514 n. vita~fjii-sattha, 514 vita~t;lii-viida-sattham,

512 vit-arta-paramparii, 33.2 Viviidiirtlza-sa,graha, 132 'f.:i·veka, 449. so8 Vivid impression, 217 Vividness, 217 vlra, 6o Viranarayal)a, 94 Vira-rAghava-dasa, 114, 116, 132, 352 vfrya, 35. 37. s6 Void, 56 Vo!ition, 298, 299 Volitional acti,·ity, 47 Vrajabhu~al)asaral)adeva, 402

vrata, 33, 62 Vrddha-manu, 2o vrddhi, 47 vrhan-niiradJya-puriir:ra, 20 vrksa, soo Vrk~a-bhaumiimrta, 122

v rndavana,

94 Vrndavanadeva, 402 '-'rtti, 105, 281, 372, 373, 374,411,423, 439, 465, 466, 471, 485, 49~ 49~ vrtti-.ifiiina, 204 t•rtti-kiita, 105, 107, 108 '-'rtti-kiirasya, 105 n. vrtti-nimdha, so6 n. 'f.Jrtti-prati't·imbitam, 373 vrtti stage, 363 V ucci V enka~acAr:va, 1 32 t·yakta, 4 76, 497 vyaktii-'t•ya.~ta, 497. so8 t'yakti, 52 't•yailga, 26 5 vyiipya, 225 vyatireki, 23o; inference, 230 n., 232; type, 231 vyatireki anumiina, 2 31 , 2 34 Vyavahiiraika-satyatva-khar:rt;lana, 1 2 5 vyat•ahiirika, 459, 477 't'ya·vahiirikatva, 4 78 Vya·vahiirikat'L•a-kha'!lt;iana-siira, 133 't')'G'f.Jahiirikl, 3 7 1 'l')'G'L'nhita, 136 vyiihata-siidhya-viparyayiit, 229


vyiikhyiina-ma~·t;iapa, 1.3 7

vyiina, ~9. 6o 't•yiipaka, 22 5 'L'yiipiira, 204 vyiipti, 225, 228, 427 Vyasa, 18 n., zo, 39, 482 Vyasa Bhattar, 109 n. Vyasa-bhaua, 452 Vyasadeva, 402 Vyiisa-tiitparya-t.ir'!laya, 133 V yasatirtha, 1 1 1, 426 vyoma, 31 vyuha, 17, 37. '38, 39. 41, 42, sf>, 157. 475; doctrine, 19; manifestations, 22

Waking consciousness, 363 \Varangal, 120 Water, 42, 46, 128, 181, 369, 540, 541, sso Waves, 6, 106, 302 Way of knowledge, 184 Ways, 6o Wedding, 377, 378 Western, 95 Wheel, s8, 6o Whirlpool, 83 White, 182, 256; goddess, 37 Whiteness, 193, 254 Whole, 189, 262, 263, 264, 298, 408, 413, 432, 433. 455. 456, 493. 494. 542 Will, 41, 45, 46, 48, 49, 191, 295, 298, 375. 412, 415, 441, 446, 448, 451, 472, 473. 474. 475. 481, 482, 488, 498, soon., 525 Will-activity, 45 Wisdom, 33, 38, 54, 307, 384, 414, 416, 446, 476, 491, 514, 521 Wise, 53 • Wish, 54, 192, 295 Women, 20 Wonderful entity, 79 Words, 5, 29, 53, 61, 194, 309, 318 Work, 42, 46, 53, 56, 6o, 303, 350 World, 6, 27, 34, 35, 41, 42, 53, 54, 55, s6, s7. 153, 174, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196, 198 n., zoo, 205, 293, 299, 301, 302, 312, 313, 314., 320, 321, 350, 365, 366, 388, 390, 391, 397, 413, 415, 416, 435. 438, 440, 442, 443 n., 445, 446, 456, 457, 45H, 472, 476, 482, 488, 515, 517, sd~. 531; of effects, 256; of matter, zoo; view of its fal~ity refuted from the Nimbarka point of view, 435 et seq.

Index ~Norld-appearance,

155, 1'75, 177, 178, Hj6, 197, 210, 239, 307, 308, 309, 310, 312, 313, 3JI, 335, 337, 345, 367, 409, 423, 436, 439 \Vorld-creation, 296, 302, 330, 331, 365, 370 World-creator, 462 World-energy, 58, 459 World-existence, 490 World-experience, 374 World-fCirce, 24 World-forms, 37, 456 World-illusion, 333, 337, 338 Worldly bonds, 22 Worldly objects, 258 \Vorld-materials, 152 World-objects, 367, 371 World-Cirdcr, 197 \\'orld-phenomena, 155, 196, 340 World-process, 292, 458, 477 World-reality, 157 \Vorship, 10, 22, 32, 39, 40 n., s8, 61, 104, 193; of God, 382 \V retchedncss, 99 Writers, 111, 196 Wrongful, 18o

}'ad-art ha-'L•ya·vahiirii-nugut:Jii, 244 Yajfiamurti, 102, 104, 109, 110 Yajfia Varaha, 40 n. Yajnesa, 102, 11o Yajiiopavlta-prati~!hii, 122 yama, 29, 33, 61, 509 n., 519 }·ama samhitiis, 20 Yamunac.arya, his life and works, tJ7 et seq. YasaS'cinl, 59 Yasoda, 77, 81 n. \'lllhiirtha, 180, 188 )·athiirtha-khyiiti, 180, 181, 182, 186n., 237, 240, 243, 24j, 246 n. yathiirtha'!l, 185 n. yathiirthii-'l.:adhii.ra~zam. 62 yathii- vasthita - 'l.')'a'l'ahiirii- nugut:Jam, 236, 240 Yati-dharma-samuccaya, 102 n. Yati-litiga-samarthana, 352 Yatz-pati-mala-dzpikii, 127 Yati-prati·candana-kha~ujana, 133 Yati-raja-·vi'!lsati, 137, 138 Yatisekhara-bharata, 109 Yatzndra-mata-d"ipikii, 117, 127, 128; analysis of, 128, 1 29

Y atlndrapraval)a, 1 1o, 121 ''·, 13 7 Yatlndra-prava~a-bhadra-campu, 1 38 }"atindra-pra'L·a~rl-prabhiiva, 138 Yati.,dra-prm·at:~a-prabhii.,_·am, 6-t-

Yatindrapravar:tacarya, 135 yaugapadya, 228 Ym:anas, 441 n. yavani, 47 Yadava, 100 n., 101 Yadava hill, 22 Yadavaprakasa, 100, 101, 102, 109, 113, 124, 156, 201, z8o, z8s, 301, 305; his view of Brahman, 301; his view of God, 150; his view of time, z8s Yiidm:iibhyudaya, 120, 121 Yadavadri, 104, 137 Y iidrcchika-ppmji, 135 n. Yajfiavalkya, 5 19 Yiijiim·alkya-smrti, 484 Yamuna, 14, 16, 17, 18, 79, 8s, 95, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 108, JOy, 113, 114, 123, 139, 140, 142, 152, 153, 154, •ss. 157, 159, 227, 235; Can·aka's criticism of soul, 139; his disciples, 109; his general position, 139; his theory of self, 140; his view of God, p. 152 et seq. Yamuna's philosophy, 140 Yamunacarya, 97, 139, 229 n. Yellow, 182, 25-tYoga, 18, 22, 2-1-, 30, 31, 32, 33, 52, 6o, 61, 62, 8o, 96, 97, 100, 157, 220, 281 n., 446, 449. 459, 465, 468, 471, 473. 474. 479. 480, -t-81, 482, 487. 4lJI, 496, so6, so~ 512 yogu-bhrlkti, 507 Yoga processes, 4 79 Y oga-rahasya, 96 Yoga-siUra, 61 11., 62 11., 470, 473. 482 }"oga-'l.·iirttiku, 482 Yoga-,·iew, 296 yogiinuiiisana, 62 Yogic knowledge, 214 Yogic practice, 28 Yogin. 27, 30, 31, 42, s8, 6o, 62, y6, 152, 446, 491, so6, 538 )'ogi-pratyak~a, 168, 189 Yogivaha, 63 yogl, 505 yoni, 46, 502