A history of Chinese philosophy. Volume II. The period of classical learning (from the second century B.C. to the twentieth century A.D.) [2, 1 ed.]

This second volume of Fung Yu-lan's History was first published in Chinese by the Commercial Press, Shanghai, in 19

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A history of Chinese philosophy. Volume II. The period of classical learning (from the second century B.C. to the twentieth century A.D.) [2, 1 ed.]

  • Commentary
  • Translated by Derk Bodde

Table of contents :
Translator’s Preface . . . . . xiii

Translator's Historical Introduction . . . . . xix

Chapter I — A General Discussion of the Period of Classical Learning . . . . . 1

Chapter II — Tung Chung-shu and the New Text School . . . . . 7
1. The School of Yin and Yang and the New Text School . . . . . 7
2. The Cosmological System of the Yin-Yang School . . . . . 11
3. Tung Chung-shu's Position among the Confucianists of the Former Han Dynasty . . . . . 16
4. Yuan, Heaven, the Yin and Yang, and the Five Elements . . . . . 19
5. The Four Seasons . . . . . 23
6. The Correlation of Man with the Numerical Categories of Heaven . . . . . 30
7. Human Nature and the Feelings . . . . . 32
8. Individual and Social Ethics . . . . . 38
9. Polital and Social Philosophy . . . . . 46
10. Visitations and Prodigies . . . . . 55
11. Philosophy of History . . . . . 58
12. Significance of the Spring and Autumn Annals . . . . . 71

Chapter III — Prognostication Texts, Apocrypha, and Numerology during the Han Dynasty . . . . . 88
1. Apocrypha and Prognostication Texts . . . . . 88
2. Numerology . . . . . 91
3. The Numbers of the Yin and Yang . . . . . 96
4. The Positions of the Eight Trigrams . . . . . 102
5. The Hexagrams and the "Breaths" of the Year . . . . . 106
6. Meng Hsi and Ching Fang . . . . . 109
7. The Hexagrams and Music . . . . . 118
8. Other Apocrypha . . . . . 124
9. The Yin-Yang School and Science . . . . . 131

Chapter IV — The Old Text School, and Yang Hsiung and Wang Ch'ung . . . . . 133
1. The “Old Learning” and Liu Hsin . . . . . 133
2. Yang Hsiung . . . . . 136
i. The Great Mystery . . . . . 139
ii. The Model Sayings . . . . . 146
3. Wang Ch'ung . . . . . 150
i. Naturalism . . . . . 152
ii. Criticism of Contemporary Beliefs . . . . . 153
iii. View of History . . . . . 158
iv. Methodology . . . . . 159
v. Theory of Human Nature . . . . . 161
vi. View of Fate . . . . . 162

Chapter V — Neo-Taoism during the Period of Disunity (Part I) . . . . . 168
1. The Mysterious Learning and Confucius . . . . . 168
2. Name-Principles . . . . . 175
3. Wang Pi . . . . . 179
i. “Non-being” . . . . . 180
ii. Concepts and Principles . . . . . 184
iii. The Emotions of the Sage . . . . . 187
4. Materialism and Mechanism in the Lieh-tzŭ . . . . . 190
5. Hedonism in the “Yang Chu Chapter” of the Lieh-tzŭ . . . . . 195

Chapter VI — Neo-Taoism during the Period of Disunity (Part II) . . . . . 205
1. Hsiang Hsiu and Kuo Hsiang . . . . . 205
2. Self-Transformation . . . . . 207
3. The Relationships of Things in the Universe . . . . . 210
4. Natural and Social Change . . . . . 213
5. “Non-Activity” . . . . . 215
6. Sage Wisdom . . . . . 219
7. “The Happy Excursion” . . . . . 224
8. “The Equality of Things” . . . . . 226
9. “The Perfect Man” . . . . . 231

Chapter VII — Buddhism and its Critics during the Period of Disunity . . . . . 237
1. Buddhism and Taoism . . . . . 240
2. The “Six Houses” and “Seven Schools” . . . . . 243
3. Seng-chao . . . . . 258
i. The Immutability of Things . . . . . 260
ii. Emptiness of the Unreal . . . . . 264
iii. Prajñā Is Not Knowledge . . . . . 265
4. Tao-sheng . . . . . 270
i. Theory of Retribution . . . . . 271
ii. Theory of Instantaneous Enlightenment . . . . . 274
5. Contemporary Debates on the Immortality of the Soul . . . . . 284

Chapter VIII — Buddhism during the Sui and T'ang Dynasties (Part I) . . . . . 293
1. Chi-tsang's Theory of Double Truth . . . . . 293
2. Hsuan-tsang's Completion of the Doctrine of Mere Ideation . . . . . 299
i. The Mere Ideation Theory of Equally Avoiding Being and Non-being . . . . . 300
ii. The Four Functional Divisions of Consciousness . . . . . 302
iii. The Eighth or Ālaya Consciousness . . . . . 304
iv. The Seventh or Manas Consciousness and the Six Other Consciousnesses . . . . . 312
v. All Is Mere Ideation . . . . . 317
vi. The Three Characters of Existence and Nonexistence, and the Bhūtatathatā . . . . . 328
vii. The Transformation of Consciousness into Wisdom . . . . . 333
3. Fa-tsang's Essay on the Gold Lion . . . . . 339
i. Understanding of Arisal through Causation . . . . . 341
ii. Discriminating the Emptiness of Matter . . . . . 342
iii. Summarizing the Three Characters . . . . . 343
iv. Revelation of the Qualityless . . . . . 344
v. Explaining Non-generation . . . . . 345
vi. Discussing the Five Teachings . . . . . 346
vii. Mastering the Ten Mysteries . . . . . 349
viii. Embracing the Six Qualities . . . . . 355
ix. Achievement of Bodhi . . . . . 355
x. Entry into Nirvana . . . . . 357
xi. Subjective and Objective Idealism . . . . . 358

Chapter IX — Buddhism during the Sui and T'ang Dynasties (Part II) . . . . . 360
1. The T'ien-t'ai School's Mahāyāna Method of Cessation and Contemplation . . . . . 360
i. The Bhūtatathatā and Tathāgata-garbha . . . . . 361
ii. The Three Characters . . . . . 365
iii. Universal and Non-universal Consciousness . . . . . 369
iv. The Integration of All Things . . . . . 370
v. Cessation and Contemplation . . . . . 375
vi. The Impure Natures of the Buddhas . . . . . 378
vii. Enlightenment and Unenlightenment . . . . . 380
viii. The T'ien-t'ai School Compared with the Mere Ideation and Hua-yen Schools . . . . . 383
ix. Chan-jan's Theory that “Even Inanimate Things Possess the Buddha-nature” . . . . . 384
2. The Ch’an School . . . . . 386
i. Intellectual Basis of the Ch'an School . . . . . 388
ii. The First Principle Is Inexpressible . . . . . 390
iii. “Spiritual Cultivation Cannot Be Cultivated” . . . . . 393
iv. In the Last Resort Nothing Is Gained . . . . . 399
v. “There Is Nothing Much in the Buddhist Teaching” . . . . . 401
vi. “In Carrying Water and Chopping Wood: Therein Lies the Wonderful Tao” . . . . . 402

Chapter X — The Rise of Neo-Confucianism and its Borrowings from Buddhism and Taoism . . . . . 407
1. Han Yu . . . . . 408
2. Li Ao . . . . . 413
3. Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism . . . . . 422
4. One Stream of Thought in Religious Taoism . . . . . 424
5. The Scientific Spirit of Religious Taoism . . . . . 431

Chapter XI — Chou Tun-yi and Shao Yung . . . . . 434
1. Chou Tun-yi . . . . . 434
i. Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate Explained . . . . . 435
ii. Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate Explained and the Explanatory Text . . . . . 443
2. Shao Yung . . . . . 451
i. The Supreme Ultimate and the Eight Trigrams . . . . . 454
ii. “Diagram of What Antedates Heaven” and Other Diagrams . . . . . 459
iii. Creation of Individual Things . . . . . 464
iv. Men and the Sage . . . . . 465
v. Cosmological Chronology . . . . . 469
vi. Political Philosophy . . . . . 474

Chapter XII — Chang Tsai and the Ch'eng Brothers . . . . . 477
1. Chang Tsai . . . . . 477
i. The Ether . . . . . 478
ii. Orderly Sequence of Things in the Universe . . . . . 482
iii. Some Universal Phenomena . . . . . 483
iv. Celestial and Terrestrial Phenomena . . . . . 484
v. Theory of the Nature . . . . . 488
vi. Unity of Man with Heaven . . . . . 491
vii. Criticism of Buddhism and Taoism . . . . . 496
2. Ch’eng Hao and Ch’eng Yi . . . . . 498
i. Heavenly Principle . . . . . 500
ii. Criticism of Buddhism . . . . . 508
iii. The Physical and the Metaphysical . . . . . 509
iv. The Ether . . . . . 512
v. The Nature . . . . . 514
vi. Fluctuations of the Yin and Yang and of Good and Evil . . . . . 518
vii. Ch'eng Hao's Theory of Spiritual Cultivation . . . . . 520
viii. Ch'eng Yi's Theory of Spiritual Cultivation . . . . . 527

Chapter XIII — Chu Hsi . . . . . 533
1. Principle and the Supreme Ultimate . . . . . 534
2. The Ether . . . . . 542
3. Cosmogony . . . . . 546
4. The Nature in Men and Other Creatures . . . . . 551
5. Ethics and Theory of Spiritual Cultivation . . . . . 558
6. Political Philosophy . . . . . 562
7. Criticism of Buddhism . . . . . 566

Chapter XIV — Lu Chiu-yuan, Wang Shou-jen, and Ming Idealism . . . . . 572
1. Lu Chiu-yuan . . . . . 572
2. Yang Chien . . . . . 579
3. Chu Hsi and Lu Chiu-yüan Compared . . . . . 585
4. Rationalism after Chu Hsi . . . . . 592
5. Ch'en Hsien-chang and Chan Jo-shui . . . . . 594
6. Wang Shou-jen . . . . . 596
i. Questions on the Great Learning . . . . . 598
ii. Unity of Knowledge and Conduct . . . . . 603
iii. Chu Hsi and Wang Shou-jen Compared . . . . . 605
iv. Criticism of Buddhism and Taoism . . . . . 610
v. The Gradations of Love . . . . . 612
vi. Origin of Evil . . . . . 614
vii. Unity of Activity and Quiescence . . . . . 618
viii. Reactions against Wang's Idealism . . . . . 620
7. Wang Chi and Wang Ken . . . . . 623

Chapter XV — The Ch'ing Continuation of Neo-Confucianism . . . . . 630
1. The Han Learning and the Sung Learning . . . . . 630
2. Yen Yuan, Li Kung, and One Group in Neo-Confucianism . . . . . 631
i. Principle and the Ether . . . . . 636
ii. The Nature and the Physical Form . . . . . 644
3. Tai Chen . . . . . 651
i. Tao and Principle . . . . . 652
ii. The Nature and Capacity . . . . . 657
iii. Methodology for Seeking Principle . . . . . 664
iv. Origin of Evil . . . . . 666
v. Tai Chen and Hsun Tzŭ . . . . . 669

Chapter XVI — The New Text School of the Ch’ing Dynasty . . . . . 673
1. The Religious and Reform Movement at the End of the Ch'ing . . . . . 673
2. K'ang Yu-wei . . . . . 676
i. Confucius as a Religious Leader and Political Reformer . . . . . 676
ii. Book of the Great Unity . . . . . 684
3. T'an Ssŭ-t'ung . . . . . 691
i. Love and the “Ether” . . . . . 692
ii. Being and Non-being, Production and Destruction . . . . . 694
iii. Government in the Great Unity . . . . . 698
iv. Regarding Religious Leaders . . . . . 702
4. Liao P’ing . . . . . 705
i. Interpretation of the Classics: First Phase . . . . . 705
ii. Interpretation of the Classics: Second Phase . . . . . 708
iii. Interpretation of the Classics: Third Phase . . . . . 710
iv. Interpretation of the Classics: Fourth Phase . . . . . 715
v. Interpretation of the Classics: Fifth Phase . . . . . 717
5. Conclusion of the Period of Classical Learning . . . . . 719

Appendix — Chronological Table of the Period of Classical Learning . . . . . 722
Bibliography . . . . . 726

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Barcode : 5990010111782 Title - A History of Chinese Philosophy Vil. II Author - Fung Yu-Lan Language - english Pages - 808 Publication Year - 1953 Barcode EAN.UCC-13

5 990010 111782