A handbook on the organization of remedial reading classrooms for teachers of elementary schools

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A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

toy Morris Cutler August 1950

UMI Number: EP46261

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This project report , w ritten under the direction of the candidate's adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l fu lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in E ducation.

A d v is e r




I N T R O D U C T I O N .....................................


Purpose of the p r o b l e m .......................


Importance of the s t u d y .....................


Scope or limitations of the p r o j e c t ........


Organization of the remainder of the project II.

. . . . .



TYPES OP REMEDIAL READING C L A S S E S ............. Home-room plan



Remedial class situation . .................. Clinical or laboratory type

4 .




Criteria for choosing remedialp l a n ..........




Arranging the teacherTs t i m e .................


Selection of pupils

. . . . .


Grouping for i n s t r u c t i o n ........ .. ..........


Coordinating with the regular classrooms . . .


IV. M A T E R I A L S .......................................



Reading books



Basic reading s e r i e s .......................


Bibliographies of children*s books ..........


Reading t e s t s ................................


Intelligence tests ............................



PAGE Miscellaneous a i d s ..................... .......................


E q u i p m e n t ......................................


Mechanical devices


Audio-visual equipment





. ..........................




Keeping r e c o r d s ...........; ...................


Planning for instruction




E V A L U A T I O N ..........


T e c h n i q u e s ....................................


E v a l u a t i o n ....................................


S U M M A R Y ..........


52 .....................



CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION During recent years educators have become dissatis- . fied with the present remedial reading situation.


reading disability in elementary schools has increased rather than diminished.

As a result the remedial reading

programs are now in the process of reorganization, projected toward in-service training for the classroom teacher. However, the problem of the poor reader must be confronted, and administrators are using the remedial reading room to help solve this problem.

As a result many reading special­

ists, the remedial reading teachers, are being employed to help combat this problem. Purpose of this study.

It is the purpose of this

study to answer the problems which remedial reading teachers encounter while organizing remedial reading classrooms in the elementary schools.

This handbook was prepared to

serve as a guide for new teachers and as a checklist for experienced teachers of remedial reading classes. Importance of the study.

Since there are few teacher

training institutions which have programs for the teaching of retarded readers, there is a definite need for informa­ tion on the part of the personnel entering the field con-

2 eerning the organization of a remedial reading room in the elementary sehool.

Many teachers find themselves suddenly

confronted with the problem of conducting remedial reading classes with no previous experience to help guide them. Such was the case of your writer, who found himself assigned to conduct a remedial reading class.

While he had

had instruction in current remedial reading practices, he had had no instruction nor guidance in any way as to the organ­ ization of his own remedial reading classroom.


ing his problems with those of many teachers from different schools, he has constructed an outline to meet the needs of many teachers of remedial reading classes. Scope or limitations of the project.

While this

study will be concerned with the organization of a remedial reading class in a non-departmental elementary school, it is so organized as to be easily adapted by elementary schools on a departmental basis. Organization of the remainder of the project. To facilitate the work of the teacher in organizing her remedial class the subsequent chapters of this project will be concerned with the following points:

(1) the types of

remedial reading classrooms used and criteria for organ­ izing them,

(2) the administration of the remedial reading

3 class,

(3) materials which are basic for remedial reading


(4) a sequential program based upon the child’s

interests and experiences,

(5) additional sources of in­

formation and aid for the teacher,

(6) the summary.

CHAPTER II TYPES OF REMEDIAL READING CLASSES Many unique types of remedial reading classes have been developed in different situations. best program.

There is no one

Each is necessarily different as it is

adapted to the needs of the students, the facilities available, and the type of person who must assume the responsibility for it.

A few are discussed below.

The home-room plan.

Under the remedial home-room

plan, the teacher plans her class in two sections.


class includes the retarded readers from the lower grades in the morning, and in the afternoon those from the upper grades.

It is best to give remedial instruction to the

children in the lower grades for several reasons. First, the children are more receptive to learning in the morning, and second, most schools have schedules which allow the children from the lower grades to be dismissed earlier than those from the upper grades.

Hence, the


grades children are given instruction at a time more con­ ducive to learning and they receive it for a fair share of the time without penalizing the children from the upper grades. * Children are grouped according to similar needs and


To facilitate teaching, pupil-teachers are used,

and corrfectly handled, this can prove to he a helpful teach­ ing method.

This classroom situation leads to a correlated

program in reading, spelling, and writing for the half day spent with the remedial teacher.

The remaining half of the

day is spent with the regular classroom teacher for instruc­ tion in non-reading activities such as art, arithmetic, music, etc. This arrangement proved satisfactory for Monroe in schools enrolling about five hundred with no more than ten per cent requiring special help.^ Materials and methods of instruction in all areas are adapted to the needs and abilities of the children. The remedial teacher must be skillful and versatile, for she provides instruction over a wide area to children with a great range of ability and achievement.

Close cooperation

with the regular teacher is necessary to insure no stigma being placed upon the child who is a member of the special class. To attain any fair measure of success, the classes

^ Marion Monroe, "Diagnostic and Remedial Procedures in Reading." Supplement Number 2. Educational Record. XIX. (1932), pp. 105-113.

should be limited to twenty children.

Any larger number

would hinder the clinical study of each child which is most important in helping the child overcome his disability. Larger classes appear to mean the loss of some, if not all, of the gains that can be made in smaller groups.2 The remedial reading classroom.

This situation

differs from the regular classroom only in the selection of pupils, in the precision and variety of adjustments to individual differences, and in emphasis on the language arts.3

All possible methods of providing for individual

differences are used.*

Small groups work with pupil-teachers

to aid the teacher in meeting the needs of individuals. (Durrell outlines a very practical program for small working groups in chapter 4.)^ Thfe language-arts subjects call for speeial instruc­ tion in the remedial reading classroom.

Basic vocabulary

should be the same for groups of similar difficulties in composition, oral and written, and in spelling.



A McCullough, Strang, and Traxler, Problems in the Improvement of Reading. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1945T, p. 204. Donald D. Durrell, Improvement of Basic Reading Abilities. (New York: World Book Company, 1940), p. 320. ^ Ibid.. pp. 65-98.

will result in confidence and security rather than confusion now induced by unrelated instruction.

This is in accord

with Betts, who states, "To develop control over the reading process, the learner must acquire control over language structure which is used to show the inter-connectedness of symbol s. Social studies, science, spelling, and language as well as music and art should be so integrated and developed as to serve the ends of growth in language skills.


usual activities such as dramatization, construction, and exhibits are part of the procedure in broadening experiences. A great deal of freedom in choice of materials and methods must be given the remedial teacher.

The time

allotments for various subjects should be adjustable, with more time devoted to reading than is usual in the ordinary classroom.

Every possible provision should be made for rapid

growth in reading, although this necessitates curtailment of the other subjects of the regular curriculum. Size of the class should be below twenty-five pupils. Large classes in the remedial reading classroom also means a forfeiture of some of the gains made in smaller groups.


5 Emmett A. Betts, Foundations of Reading Instruction. (Boston: American Book Company, p. 80. '

should be taken not to make a dumping grounds of the special reading class of all unwanted disciplinary problems under the guise of reading disability.^ The clinical or laboratory type.

Another fora of

class organization for remedial instruction is the reading clinic or reading laboratory to which pupils go from their regular classrooms for a period of help each day.


remedial reading teacher apportions her day into periods of instruction taking a different group each period. period extends from thirty to sixty minutes.


Since the

reading groups are organized on the basis of reading levels and similar disabilities, children from several different grades may be in the same group. Inasmuch as reading groups are assembled in the special class at almost every hour of the day, suitable scheduling is a difficult task.

It is desirable for each

child to have remedial instruction at the time his regular class has its reading period so that he is not excluded from other classroom activities.

A child should not be

taken from, nor be required to miss, any activity which he enjoys or needs, to attend the reading clinic.

By changing

the agenda of the regular class program, scheduling can be

6 McCullough, op. cit., p. 202.

adjusted. No more than six pupils should he selected per period to insure adequate attention to each child’s needs.


remedial reading teacher plans each period to allow equal individual instruction for each child.

Group activities as

well as individual activities are planned. Adequate records are kept concerning the growth of each child, and various techniques are used.

If one method

proves to he unsuccessful after a fair trial, another method is employed.

A well-planned period should include a group'

activity, individual instruction, and silent reading. Frequent cheeks are made possible by the size of the class and the intensity of the instruction.

Whenever possible,

materials are correlated with the interests in the child’s classroom. As the child approaches his ability level, the reme­ dial instruction should help him make the adjustment to the regular assignments.

Often, the remedial reading teacher

may plan work for the child in his regular classroom.


the child’s regular room is organized around small homo­ geneous groups, the remedial instruction should supplement the work of a suitable group.

10 Criteria for selecting a remedial reading classroom. a a M

H i

m m h n m m b m ■ *•« ■ ■ ■ »




The descriptions given in this chapter are only a few ex­ amples of the types of classrooms that have been developed. Inasmuch as the needs of different schools require adapta­ tions, there can be no one best program which can be used by all.

However, the following criteria are recommended in

selecting the type of remedial reading class which best fits the needs of the school. 1.

The remedial reading class should be integrated with the overall reading program.

Research has

proven that one remedial reading class does not solve the reading problem.

Remedial reading

should be regarded as a step in the development of a generally improved reading program. 2.

Remedial reading should not be substituted for activities which are more enjoyable to the pupil. To deprive a child of recess or of school acti­ vities which he especially enjoys is likely to arouse his resentment at once.


possible should be done to remove the bad con­ notation that reading usually has to the child with a reading disability. 3.

The time allowance for remedial work should be generous.

The student with severe reading dis­

abilities has much ground to cover and must be

given much additional experience in reading.


cannot be expected to overcome his reading dis­ abilities without adequate time for instruction and practice. The remedial reading class should have no stigma placed upon it.

The children attending the reme­

dial class should feel that all are concerned and are willing to aid them in overcoming their difficulties.

They should not be made to feel

that they are being segregated as a penalty for their stupidity. Remedial reading should be considered as a part of the overall development of the child.



educational program should show positive change in certain character traits as well as specific achievements. An atmosphere should be created which is conducive to pleasant and successful reading from books and materials chosen in accordance with the child*s ability and interests. The remedial reading teacher should have suffi-^ cient time with the pupil to be able to know him as an individual.

Greater gains can be made with

individual instruction.

To fully understand the

12 child*s problems the teacher needs sufficient time to perform a case study, which will lead to remediation arising from the child*s interests and needs. 8.

The reading done should grow out of interests and activities of the regular classrooms.


motivate the child in reading, an activity in which he has poor achievement, will require great effort on the part of all concerned. Through an interest of the child, the teacher can overcome his indifference. 9.

Give the child as much responsibility as possible for planning and carrying out a realistic program, suitable to his ability and his present and future needs.

The child should know what his difficulty

is, and what the teacher and he can do to over­ come it. 10.

The practice material should resemble the kind of reading the individual needs to do in his school and out of school life, and should emphasize the importance of differentiated reading so that the student will develop flexibility and adaptability in shifting from one type of material and purpose to another.

13 Summary.

Remedial reading classes can usually be

classified into three types.

The home-room plan in which

children from the lower grades receive instruction during the morning half of the school day, and the children from the upper grades in the afternoon.

The remedial reading

teacher provides instruction in all subjects requiring good reading proficiency. In the remedial classroom the child spends the entire day with the remedial reading teacher.

Instruction centers

on the language arts program, though other activities are provided. Another form of class organization for remedial instruction is the reading clinic or reading laboratory to which pupils go from their regular classrooms for reading instruction each day. All of these plans may be varied to suit the needs of the individual schools.

Any plan which is chosen should

meet the criteria of good teaching found in any school.

CHAPTER III ADMINISTRATION Prior to the formation of classes, the remedial reading teacher should have time in which to become adjusted to the school and the school adjusted to her.

This "get

acquainted" period will aid greatly in her selection of pupils for the remedial reading class.

Care should be taken

in the selection of pupils and in their initial adjustment to insure success of the remedial class. Arranging the teacher*s time.

For the most part, the

type of remedial reading class will determine the arrange­ ment of the teacher’s time.

Each type of class should allow

enough time for the teacher to have a consultation period during the school day for parents and for individual child­ ren.

In all types, however, the remedial reading teacher

needs a "get acquainted" period to become aware of the school’s practices and personalities.? It is important that the other members of the school are friendly and cooperative with the remedial teacher. While becoming acquainted with the school, the remedial reading teacher can engage in several functional

? Edward W. Dolch, A Manual for Remedial Reading. (Chicago: Garrard Press, 1945), PP* 331-335.

15 activities. 1.

Visit classrooms to become aware of methods and customs of the school, and to observe some of her pupils in their regular classrooms.


Give tests which will aid in the selection of pupils for remedial reading.


Give aid in diagnosing problems to other teachers.


Advise teachers who are interested in remedial reading for their regular classrooms.

Selection of pupils.

Children with the most severe

reading disability should be appointed to the remedial read­ ing class.

To determine who shall be appointed, existing

records of standardized tests may be used or the adminis­ trator may have a reading survey made of the school.


schools appoint children to remedial reading groups solely upon the basis of standardized tests, selecting those in the lowest quartile of each grade.

Others supplement the result

of tests with classroom proficiency in reading. Limitations of standardized tests should be recognized since their coverage is over a narrow portion of the reading area.

However, standardized tests are of value as a basis

of comparison on a national level.

In California where the

school entrance age is below six years, children may achieve a score comparable to the national norm for their class

16 grade level in reading achievement. As a basis for selecting pupils for remedial reading classes the following features are suggested. 1.

Evidence that the pupil cannot do the necessary reading of the class level.


Results of standardized tests which place him in the lowest quartile of the class.


One year or more difference between the child*s mental age or grade expectancy and his reading grade level.


Achievement in school activities not requiring a heavy reading proficiency up to or above ability level.


A cumulative record which shows a poor home en­ vironment, poor results in early instruction, or an unfavorable family attitude.

If at all possible, the child should be given the Stanford-Binet intelligence test when in cases of doubt. Children who score an intelligence quotient rating of 80 or below on the Stanford-Binet should not be selected for the remedial reading class.

They should be appointed to classes

of slow learning children, for their problem is one of a dif­ ferent nature.

They are slow learners, not retarded readers.

Grouping for instruction.

Children with similar

needs in reading should be grouped to facilitate the remedial program.

No pupil should be considered as permanently-

assigned to any single group.

Remedial groups should not be

organized solely on the basis of test scores.

The child’s

personal likes and dislikes of the other children must be considered.

Although some children may have similar diffi­

culties, they may be too different in personality or too antagonistic socially to work well together.

Rates of learn­

ing will differ greatly in accordance with the background and intelligence of the children.

There must be some pro­

vision for readjustment of the pupils who progress more rapidly than others, even though originally they were equivalent in ability and achievement.


Some standards for grouping. 1.

Consider the reading achievement and mental ability of the students.


Consider their attitudes, interests, and back­ grounds .


Consider their social maturity.


Consider the types of disabilities and needs of

8 Gertrude Hildreth, Helping Children to Read. (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers-College, Columbia University, 1940), pp. 34-35.

18 the children. 5.

Consider the types of learners.


Consider the age of learners.

Coordinating with the regular classrooms. A remedial reading classroom must be coordinated with the regular classrooms to insure success.

During her "get

acquainted" period, the remedial reading teacher should attempt to secure the cooperation of the classroom teacher. This can be begun by enlisting their aid in certain phases of the organizing period. 1.

They may assist with the testing.


All teachers may report evidences of reading retardation among their pupils.


Some teachers may assist by recommending suitable materials from their special fields.


Teachers who have retarded readers may make reports on their progress.

As the children in the remedial reading class overcome their disabilities, their work should be integrated more and more with the work of their regular classroom.

The children

may make reports to their regular classroom on topics of current interest which* they have read in the remedial reading classroom.

Many times dramatic plays may be given by pupils

from the remedial reading classroom for their regular class­

19 mates.

Achievements of the students in the remedial class­

room should be openly praised to give them a greater feeling of success. Summary:

Several kinds of data to be used in the

selection of children for remedial reading are test results, reading achievement and reading capacity, cumulative informa­ tion, and observations and recommendations from teachers. After selecting the children, the remedial reading teacher should exercise great care in grouping them for instruction. Their needs and interests should be considered as well as their social maturity and rates of learning.

No grouping

should be final in order to allow children, who overcome their difficulties more rapidly than others, to shift to groups with similar needs. As the children progress in their reading their work should be integrated in the regular classrooms.

This will

call for much coordination between the remedial reading room and the regular classrooms.

CHAPTER IV READING MATERIALS AND CLASSROOM EQUIPMENT In days gone by, the selection of reading materials was a simple matter.

Today, due to a wealth of materials

available, selection becomes a complicated problem.


lishers are offering a variety of reading materials together with persuasive reasons in favor of their publications.


is extremely important that the remedial reading teacher select and use effectively, the materials most helpful and appropriate for each child. I.


It is obvious that the teacher must choose books which are on the child’s level, and which are also attractive to him.

Books are now being published especially to meet

the needs of retarded readers.

The books listed below have

been used successfully with remedial readers and will be suggestive to teachers making selections for their pupils. A.

Basic Reading Series 1.

Core-Vocabulary Series. Salisbury. Grades 1-6.

Gates, Huber, and

New York: Macmillan Company, 1943.


Crabtree Basic Series.



University Publishing Company, 1948.

Grades 1-6,

pre-primers. 3.

Curriculum Foundation Series.

Gray. New York:

Scott, Foresman Company, 1942.

Grades 1-6, pre-

primers. 4.

Developmental Reading Series. New York:


Lyons and Carnahan, 1948.

Easy Growth in Reading.


J. C. Winston Company, 1943* 6*

The Ginn Basic Readers. Boston:


David Russell and others.

New York:

Language Arts Series.

Learning to Read.


Betts, Welch,

New York:

Grades 1-6.

Nila B. Smith.

in Reading.

Company, 1940.


Grades 1-6.

Silver Burdett, 1946.


Grades 1-6.

Scott, Foresman, and

American Book Company, 1948.



Health and Personal Developmental Series.

Company, 1946.


Grades 1-6.

Grades 1-6.

Ginn and Company, 1948.

and Montgomery.


Guy Bond and others*

Los Angeles:

Grades 1-4. Horn.Boston:

Ginn and

Grades 1-6.

Reading for Independence. Foresman and Company, 1948.


New York:

Grades 1-3.


22 12•

Reading for Interest. and Company, 1942.


193# •



Alice and Jerry Books.

How, Peterson Company,

Grades 1-6, preprimer.

Sports Readers.

Frissell and Friebele.

Macmillan Company, 1946.

Grades 1-3.

Today’s Work-Play Books.

Gates, Huber,

and Salisbury. 1945. B.

D. C. Heath

Grades 1-6.

Reading Foundation Series. O ’Donnell.


Witty. Boston:

New York:

New York:


Macmillan Company,

Grades 1-6, preprimer.

Bibliographies of Children^ Books Since the remedial reading teacher will not be

familiar with many books appropriate for retarded readers, the writer has prepared a brief list of sources which can be used to aid the teacher in selecting library books for her children. 1.

Sub.ject Index to Readers. Eloise Rue. Chicago: American Library Association, 193S.

192 pp.

The contents of 285 frequently used readers, from preprimer through third grade, have been classified in this volume under 1000 subjects.

The book will

be valuable in selecting materials related to children’s interests. 2.

Children’s Catalogue. New York:

Andrew. Siri, Compiler.

H. W. Wilson Company, 1946.

979 pp.

23 It contains a dictionary catalogue of 4000 books with analytical entries for 1020 and a classified list containing subject headings* list is fully annotated.

The dictionary

The grade level is pro­

vided for each book. 3.

Children and Books. York:

Arbuthnot, May Hill.


Scott, Foresman, and Company, 1947.

626 pp.

One of the most complete books on children's reading.

It covers the reading interests of

children from two years old to fourteen or fifteen and considers every type of reading the child enjoys. Reading in M o d e m Education.

Witty, Paul. Boston:

D. C. Heath and Company, 1949. This book contains books chosen by children as well as those found in bibliographies prepared by adults.

A selected and graded list is given in

Chapter VIII. II.


Tests have been devised for many purposes in education. "N

Their value and limitations should be recognized.

Both group

tests and individual tests are used in informal analysis of reading needs.

The commonly used standard test is of value

24 for certain purposes, for example, word recognition or com­ prehension, to measure the amount of gain resulting from instruction, and to discover the range of reading ability in a class or school.

However, such tests indicate little con­

cerning detailed reading abilities and faults and they should not be relied upon as a full guide for directing instruction, especially for individual pupils. In choosing the reading test, one should be guided by whether it is fitted to the range of abilities in the group to be tested, and whether it is sensitive to small units of growth.

The test should be interesting to children in form

and content.

Its norms should be representative.

The following tests are among those most widely used in elementary schools. A*

Reading Readiness Tests for Kindergarten and First Grade American School Reading Readiness Test.


Public School Publishing Company, 1941.

Kgn. -

grade 1. A group test which requires approximately 30 to 40 minutes.

Purports to measure vocabulary, discrimi­

nation of letter forms and letter combinations, discrimination of words by selection and matching. 2*

Gates Reading Readiness Tests.

New York: Teachers

College, Columbia University, 1942. A test for groups and individual.

Score is given

in percentiles and prediction of reading success. Picture directions, word matching, word card matching, rhyming, and reading letter and numbers. 3.

Lee-Qlark Reading Readiness Test;

Los Angeles:

California Test Bureau, 1943. A group test requiring 30 to 3$ minutes.


can be interpreted in percentile ranking and grade placement equivalents.

Measures letter

symbols, concepts, and word symbols. B.

Reading Tests For the Elementary School 1.

Gates Primary Reading Test.

New York: Teachers

College, Columbia University, 1942. Test designed for grades 1-1.5; Type 1. Word recognition; Type 2. Sentence reading; Type 3. Paragraph reading; each test requires from 15 to 20 minutes.

There are three forms to each type

of test. 2.

Gates Basic Reading Tests.

New York:


College, Columbia University, 1942. These tests are designed for grades 3 to 8, re~V j

quiring from 32-36 minutes.

Test is composed of

four sections: Type A, Reading to Appreciate Gen­ eral Significance; Type B, Reading to Predict the Outcome of Given Events; Type C, Reading to Under-

stand Precise Directions; Type D, Reading to Note Details.

There are four forms for each type.

Iowa Silent Reading Tests. New Edition.

New York:

World Book Company, 1943. Tests measure reading from grades 4-8 in a working time of 49 minutes.

The tests cover six areas;

Rate and comprehension, Directed reading, Word meaning, Paragraph comprehension, Sentence meaning, Location of information. Metropolitan Achievement Tests.

New York: World

Book Company, 1946. Primary I is designed for grade 1 requiring approx­ imately 45 minutes.

There are four forms which

purport to measure word pieture, word recognition, word meaning, and numbers. Elementary Reading Tests are for grades 3-4 requiring 35 minutes.

There are three forms which

measure reading and vocabulary. The intermediate Test, for grades 5-6 requires 35 minutes and tests reading and vocabulary. Progressive Reading Tests.

Los Angeles: Cali­

fornia Test Bureau, 1943. The Primary test measures reading vocabulary and reading comprehension in 29 minutes. three forms.

There are

27 The Elementary test has three forms which measure reading vocabulary and comprehension in 35 minutes* D.

Oral Reading Tests 1.

Grays Standardized Oral Reading Chech: Test. ington:


Public School Publishing Company, 1923.

Separated into graded paragraphs, Set I, grades 1-2; Set II, grades 2-4; Set III, grades 4-6; Set XV, grades 6-8. For informal oral testing in which the teacher wishes to diagnose the child’s reading ability, a o series of well prepared graded readers may be used.7 Select short stojJes of two or three pages from each book from primer through the fourth grade reader. From the primer and the first reader choose two stories, one from the beginning of the book and the other from the end, since materials in such books differ in difficulty at the beginning and end.

From the advanced readers choose one story

of not more than one hundred words, if possible. It is desirable to use selections not already read.

Each story’s vocabulary should be typical

9 Donald D. Durrell, Improving Basic Reading Abilities. (New York: World Book Company, 1940.), p. 25.

of the book as a whole.

For each story prepare

five or six questions which cannot be answered "Yes” or "No". Have the child read aside from the group in a book suited to his level.

A selection is too

difficult if the reader has difficulty with more than five words in five lines.

If the selection

Is too difficult, try one from the next lower level.

When a satisfactory level is found, have

him read the story and ask him questions. As the child proceeds orally, several reading characteristics should be noticed.

Use a check

list to record errors and difficulties on which the child needs help. III.


Individual 1.

Arthur Point Scale of Performance Tests. Chicago: 0. H. Stoelting Company, 1930. The test requires from 35-40 minutes.

There are

two forms from which a point score, M . A . , and I.Q,. can be secured. 2.

For six years or over.

Revised Stanford-Binet. Company, 1937.



This test is designed for children 2 years and over.

40-90 minutes are required to achieve a

score which can he M.A. or I.Q. B.

Group Tests-Primary California Tests of Mental Maturity.

Los Angeles:

California Test Bureau, 1936-1939. Requires approximately 90 minutes to secure a diag­ nostic measurement of mental functions.


three intelligence quotients, an I.Q. for language factors and an I.Q. for non-language factors, as well as the usual type of I.Q. based on total scores. 2*

Detroit First Grade Intelligence Test.

New York:

World Book Company, 1935. This test, of which there is only one form, requires approximately 30 minutes to secure a point score, M . A . , and I.Q. 3.

Pintner-Cunningham Primary Test.

New York: World

Book Company, 1923-1946. Requires approximately 45 minutes to secure a point score, M . A . , and I.Q. C.

There is only one form.

Group Tests-Upper Grades 1.

California Test of Mental Maturity. Los Angeles: California Test Bureau, 1936-1939. Requires approximately 90 minutes to secure a diag-

nostic measurement of mental functions.


three intelligence quotients, an I.Q. for language factors and an I.Q,. for non-language factors, as well as the usual I.Q. score based on total scores. 2.

Kuhlman-Anderson Intelligence Tests.


Educational Test Bureau, 1940. {Fifth edition) This battery includes ten short tests made up chiefly of linguistic and numerical items. Requires 40-60 minutes to obtain a M.A. and I.Q. 3-

Otis Q.uick-Seoring Mental Ability Tests.


York: World Book Company, 1938. The Alpha test is for grades 1.5-4 and requires 20 minutes.

The Beta test is for grades 4-9 and

requires 30 minutes.

There are two forms for the

Alpha and four for the Beta.

Scores may be

reported in terms of M.A. and I.Q. with the norms based on nearly 18,000 cases of school children. IV.


There are many aids which the teacher can use to aug­ ment her instruction.

Since these are too numerous to list

individually, the writer has merely gathered sources from which those most useful to the teacher can be gathered. One caution:

Too often many have the impression

31 that materials in remedial instruction are different from those used in the best classroom instruction.

It is true

that some of the materials advocated by reading specialists are very different from those used in the best classrooms. However, the majority of these can be applied to the regular classroom. Also, too many teachers use reading aids as the sole means to instruction.

It must be remembered, in all cases,

that remedial teaching follows the same general principles that are observed in the regular type of instruction. Betts, Emmett A., 1Sources of Help for Teachers.


College, Pennsylvania Reading Clinic, 1943. A catalogue of available materials. Diagnostic Tests and Remedial Exercises in Reading. Chicago: J. C. Winston Company, 1933. Materials to diagnose and remedy difficulties of readers in the intermediate grades. Aids to Reading. Edward W. Doleh.


The Garrard

Press, 1948. Games and Devices for Remedial Reading. Chicago: Institute for Juvenile Research, 1943. Illustrations and instructions for 30 games and devices which have been found useful in teaching children to read.

Practice Exercises in Reading.

New York:

Bureau of Publica­

tions, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1939. Four booklets by Cates and Peardon which correspond to the reading abilities measured by the Gates Silent Reading Tests. Reading Aids to the Grades.

New York: Teachers College,

Columbia University, 1945. A complete assembly and description of 225 devices, exercises, and activities for improving reading. Remedial Reading Drills« Hegge, Kirk, and Kirk.

Ann Arbor:

George Wahr, Publisher, 1939. "A series of exercises systematically designed to correct reading disabilities of an extreme nature." V. Coles, Victor.


"Visual Aids in a Language Arts Program."

Elementary English Review. Volume 21, November, 1944. p. 256. ? D e b a m ardis and Olson.

"Audio-visual and Community Mater­

ials— Some Recent Publications" ship. January, 1944. Falconer, Vera M. Users Guide" 1948.

Educational Leader­

p. 256.

"Filmstrips— A descriptive Index and New York:

McGraw-Hill Book Company,

33 For additional sources it is suggested that teachers consult their own State Department of Education and the extension division of their own state universities. County departments of education are developing excellent guides and sources for audio-visual materials.

The Journal

of National Education Association ^has a fine selection devoted to audio-visual materials.

Educational Screen, also, has

many articles related to reading.

See and Hear is planned

to help teachers plan and use audio-visual teaching materials. >



The remedial reading room should be furnished and arranged quite informally to suit activities carried on. Adequate housing, lighting, and heating should receive first attention. The general equipment should include bulletin boards, blackboards, both built in and movable, tables and chairs which can be adjusted to the children, bookshelves, folding screens, and curtains, if possible. Other.equipment should include a teacher’s desk, easels, paints and crayons, pencils, plentiful paper, oak tag board, a flannel board, a typewriter, primary or intermediate type, scissors, colored paper, clay, and a beaded screen for movies and film strips.

If at all possible, a recording

machine will prove to be infinitely helpful.

Dictionaries are usually supplied by the individual school, and it is best to have one dictionary per pupil, also, a picture dictionary for interest and reference. Some recommended dictionaries. 1.

Thorndike-Century Beginning Dictionary.


Foresman Company, 1945. An excellent book containing 70 lessons for the child on "How to Use Your Dictionary." 2.

The Rainbow Dictionary.

World Publishing Company,

1947. Contains more than 1000 pictures and definitions for 2100 words. VII.


There are several mechanical devices which the class­ room teacher may employ to increase reading comprehension and reading rate among her retarded readers.

While the use

of such devices will help to vary the classroom instruction, the values derived do not warrant the financial outlay. A.


A flash meter which reveals the materials

on the screen at regulated spreads. B.


A series of shutters which reveal sections

of a sentence in order at regulated speeds. C.

Carrier Speed Reader.

A variation of the metronoscope

with a flickering light replacing the shutters.

There are duplications of the taehistoscope which can be made by the teacher from oak tag board or can be pur­ chased from World Book Company. Mechanical devices, while bringing variety for a time into the classroom, provide little material gains in reading proficiency.

They only aid in the mechanics of reading and

add little towards enhancing the reading process.


limitations and expensiveness far outweigh their usefulness. The gains which can be derived from mechanical devices can be secured through other exercises at little or no cost. For most remedial reading classroons on the elementary level, where the majority of disabilities are not specifically concerned with reading speed, purchased mechanisms are totally unwarranted.

In many cases they are more harmful than helpful.


There is a wide selection of materials for

remedial reading classes, materials which will fit the needs and interests of retarded readers.

Their selection should be

made carefully to aid in overcoming the failure and frustra­ tion retarded readers usually have when encountering printed materials.

Materials should be interesting and easy, and in

great variety for purposeful and pleasure reading. Standardized tests are only a part of the information necessary for selecting and grouping members of remedial reading classes.

Reading and intelligent tests should be

used in the light of their limitations.

Many informal tests

should supplement the testing program. All classroom equipment should be versatile to meet the variety of activities and learners found in a remedial reading classroom.

Reading aids and mechanical devices

should be used to provide variety in the classroom and to supplement the instructional program.

CHAPTER V PREPARING FOR INSTRUCTION Having decided upon the type of class which would best fit her school’s needs, having selected and grouped her pupils, the remedial reading teacher must prepare for in­ struction.

She must prepare an adequate and efficient method

for keeping reeords and she must formulate a plan of in­ struction. Keeping records.

In mastering" the mechanics of read­

ing, the strongest motive is the desire for progress.


of visible progress is discouraging both for pupil and teacher. attempted.

Definite objective measures of progress should be A list of words learned to the point of quick

recognition may be kept, these may be reviewed from time to time and a record made of the errors.

When new drill lists

are presented to increase word mastery or to speed up word analysis, the accomplishment on each performance should be recorded. Each child should have his own file.

In this file

the child should keep a record of his own word vocabulary, his stories, materials which may pertain to him, a record of his reading accomplishments, and other materials which may be of use to him.

38 Each teacher should have a file for every child in her class.

Since the preliminary diagnosis is but tentative,

it will change as new data are obtained and new defects, new interests, and new drives are disclosed.

The remedial read­

ing teacher should constantly be adding to her records, in­ formation which will aid her in preparing better instruction for her children. Some facts about the child’s history the teacher should know. 1.

Test results


Observation and information from the cumulative record


Health card


Teachers’ observations


Parental interview


Personal interview with the child

The interviews with the parents and the child are of great importance to the success of the remedial teacher’s work.

By securing the cooperation of the home and the

confidence of the child, many problems can be prevented. Many parents may feel that remedial aid is a reflection upon themselves and their children and may refuse to let their children be aided, while others may feel the remedial class

39 a poor reflection upon the school. The child must be made to feel that the teacher is interested in his problem and is sincere in her attempt to aid him in overcoming his disability. tude must be developed.

A give and take atti­

Some techniques for interviewing the

child which may lead to the establishing of a good rapport between the child and teacher follows. 1.


Make yourself known to the child. a.

Let the child know where he stands.


Let him know what is expeeted of him.

Convey to the child that you are interested in him. Establish a person to person relationship.


Explain to him that what is going to take place is going to be enjoyable to the both of you.


Approach to the child a.



With respect— do not press him beyond the


bounds of courtesy and consideration. c.

Meet the child on his own level— the same relationship between child and adult.


Questions cannot be fired at the child point blank or in machine gun fashion.

They should

Edward W. Doleh, A Manual for Remedial Reading. (Champaign: GUrrad Press, 1945.), pp. 353-387.

40 be worked out carefully and asked indirectly. Planning for instruction.

"Remedial instruction is

a proeess of teaching or the purpose of remedying some difficulty or deficiency."11 instruction.

Thus Gates defines remedial

It is his belief that remedial teaching follows

the same general principles that should be observed in any other type of instruction.

Therefore, as a principle of good

teaching and to insure the initial adjustment of the pupils, the remedial teacher must formulate a plan of instruction. Several plans are possible and they may be accepted wholly or in degree.

A few are discussed below.

The preplanned unit.

Many times teachers are required

by the curriculum, by parental pressure, or by the adminis­ tration to teach her remedial readers according to the curriculum of the school.

Often, others feel that for the

adjustment of the children they should teach the same units as taught in the regular classrooms.

Thus the child will not

feel that he has been segregated, because of poor mentality. Deciding upon a unit of work, the teacher provides an environment to stimulate the children into requesting that

11 Arthur I. Gates, The Improvement of Reading. (New York: Macmillan Company, 1947), p . 1 9 2 .

41 unit.

Bulletin boards, picture displays on the desk, movies,

visitors, trips to exhibits, are all moves planned to stimu­ late the children into desiring more information about the topic. One teacher planned a unit exceptionally well. planned to teach a unit on the Hopi Indians.


Pictures of

the Indians in their own environment were placed on the children*s desks, and on the bulletin boards.

Blankets made

by these Indians were artistically displayed.

Special read­

ing materials were ordered, and colorful book jackets were displayed.

The teacher made arrangements to visit a special

Indian trading store which displayed novelties manufactured by them.

She also planned a visit to the museum which was

exhibiting Indian cultures. Prior to the first class meeting, the teacher arranged for an interview with each child who was to be a member of her class.

During the informal discussion the teacher made

a special note of the interests of each child.

Using these

interests as a guide, she then procured materials on the Hopi Indians which paralleled their interests.

For those

who were interested in pets, she found pictures, paintings, and stories about animals belonging to the Indians.


those interested in crafts, she procured stories, pictures, and products of Indian crafts.

42 As each child entered the classroom the first day, the teacher had a special greeting which she planned to use.


one she. said, "Hello, did you enjoy your summer vacation? did.

I spent the summer at Flagstad."

morning, what did you do this summer? Hopi Indians."


To another, "Good I visited with the

To every child she dropped a clue which

might make him think ahout Indians. After becoming acquainted with the children as a group, she settled the administrative chores, and she and the class began to plan their work.

During the suggestion

stage, the teacher made reference to a map of the South­ western states, suggesting that something of interest might be found there.

One child asked if the blankets were made

there, and upon hearing the affirmative answer asked by whom.

This led into a discussion of Indians and the

children asked to study about the Hopi Indians.


was planned while reading materials related to the Hopi Indians. While this plan may facilitate the work of the teacher, somewhat, the children can, with one or two misguided words, completely upset the teacher’s plans.

If forced to accept

the unit against their wishes, the children may experience similar failure as in the past. The child study plan.

In this type of situation the

43 topic of study comes from the child.

There is no specific

Tunneling of ideas as in the preplanned unit, hut a slow, quizzical searching which leads to the topic of interest. To create the necessary stimulation, the teacher should investigate the results of her interview with the parents, the child, and observations made by other teachers in regard to student interest.

A variety of materials on several

levels should then be procured according to these interests. Many will be similar for children of different levels. In the remedial type plan or the home-room situation the teacher may allow two groups to investigate the reading materials while she discusses a topic or topics with the other group.

In the clinic type classroom, the teacher may

work with one while the others investigate the materials. One wise teacher engaged in a discussion with her group sharing experiences, hobbies, spare time activities, and the like.

These talks continued until the children,

tired with discussions, asked, "I thought this was to be a reading class.

When do we read?"

Thus, the demand to read

came from the children. They then began to talk about "why we read" and "what reading means to me."

Thus, the teacher and the class

developed their own program to discover their problems. education we sometimes tend to underestimate the thinking


abilities of our elementary children-

They divided the class

time into periods for group and individual work, with each child fully understanding the objectives for an activity. With this stimulation, they were eager for results and con­ stantly strived to better themselves.

Those who made more

rapid progress aided their classmates, who gratefully accepted their interest. These are only two examples of the planning which can be done in remedial reading classes.

There are many more.

Each teacher will vary her instruction in accord with pupils, materials, etc.

It should be remembered that when one method

does not prove satisfactory after a fair period of trial, another should be attempted.

CHAPTER 71 EVALUATION Having set forth certain criteria to be observed in all types of remedial reading classes, a means of evaluation must be considered.

Questions to be used in evaluating

have been organized for each criteria.

In some instances

there will be overlapping since the reading process is a series of interrelated, interdependent areas. Techniques for evaluation.

Before discussing the

techniques to be employed in evaluating, the concept of evaluation should be defined. Evaluation is comprehensive 12 measurement of growth. Adequate evaluation serves three functions:

(1) it portrays the amount, rate, and quality of

growth; (2) it reveals developmental status; (3) it suggests desirable modes of guidance.

Ih terms of this outline, an

evaluation scheme for the remedial reading program can be formulated. 1.

Standardized tests should be administered to measure growth in those phases measured by the instruments.


Paul Witty and David Kopel, Reading and the Educative Process. (New York: Ginn and Company, 193St), pp. 104-115.

46 2.

The records.of the remedial reading students should be analyzed.

They should be checked for the

amount, quality, diversity, and unity of reading experiences. 3.

Appraisal should be requested from children, teachers, and parents.


Observations and anecdotal records of student actions and comments should be analyzed.


should be considered, as they are influenced by experience. Evaluation.

Having gaitered data obtained by these

various techniques, evaluation can procede. 1.

Is the remedial reading class integraged with the overall program? a.

Bo parents, teachers, and administrators feel that they have an improved remedial program?


Do teachers consult the remedial reading teacher in regards to classroom reading problems?


Does the school have a workshop for remedial reading in the regular program?


Are definite funds provided in the school budget for remedial reading?


Is remedial reading substituted for activities

which are more enjoyable to the pupil? a.

Are retarded readers excused from the remedial class so that they may attend movies, exhibits, etc. with their classmates?


Does a child miss no other subject than read­ ing while attending the special class?


Is the remedial reading class arranged so as not to be held during recess, lunch time, or after school?

Is the time allowance for remedial work generous? a.

Does the child have ample time for free read­ ing?


Does the teacher have ample time to provide individual instruction?


Is the program arranged so that the retarded reader is not required to make up work after school?

Is the remedial reading class considered as a place to improve reading by the students? a.

Do poor readers look forward to attending the remedial reading class?


Do parents express appreciation for the efforts ®f the remedial class?


Do good readers ask to attend the remedial reading class?


Are the retarded readers reluctant to leave the special class?

Is remedial reading considered as a part in the overall development of the child? a.

Does attendance in the remedial reading class improve attitudes which are needed for good learning?


Does the remedial reading class provide for improvement of social and emotional adjustment of the child?


Does the child learn those habits, skills, and attitudes which are needed for good learning?


Does the remedial class eliminate those ineffective habits which have been learned before?


Is the development of skill in reading accom­ panied by increase in understanding, expansion of interests, and the creation of new and more wholesome satisfaction?

Does the environment lend itself to good and successful reading? a.

Do children express desires to read?


Do children state satisfaction of materials and activities?


Do bulletin boards contain attractive, color­ ful displays which create interests and evoke responses?

Does the remedial teacher have time to know the child as an individual? a.

Does the teacher have time to conduct a case study of each child?


Does the teacher have time in her program for individual conferences?


Does the teacher have records which show the pattern and direction of growth?


Does the teacher have time to work with each child to uncover the cause of reading disability?

Does the reading arise from the child’s interests and activities in the regular classroom? a.

Do reading activities parallel those of the regular classroom?


Does the child ask for reading materials in which he is interested?


Does the child use his knowledge gained in the remedial classroom to aid him in his regular classroom activities?

Does the child help plan his remedial program?


Does the child know what his difficulty is?


Does he know the purpose of each activity?


Does he see the record of his progress?


Does he actively plan his activities with the teacher and his classmates?


Is the practice material functional? a.

Do materials give pupils practice in develop­ ing flexibility and adaptability in reading purposes?


Does the child have opportunity for reading variety?


Does the material give the child opportunity to engage in purposeful reading which will aid him in his regular classroom?

Summary. growth.

Evaluation is comprehensive measurement of

Evaluation of the remedial reading program, then,

Involves the measurements of children’s growth through the avenue of reading.

Such measurement encompasses the results

of standardized tests, the observations and estimates of per­ sons who are associated with the child’s development, and the child’s self appraisal. The evaluation of the remedial reading program should be carried on in the light of the criteria upon which the program was selected.

Each area should be questioned to

observe the progress made.

Some of these items overlap.

Their importance lies in identifying values which we con­ sciously seek.

CHAPTER YII SUMMARY This study has dealt chiefly with the description of remedial reading rooms being used in elementary schools, criteria for choosing or setting up a remedial room, and some of the materials and planning necessary to secure good results. There are hopeful signs from the remedial reading point of view that a new era in education is dawning.


recognition that remedial classes are a part of the over-all program reflects a desirable trend.

No longer are educators

regarding remedial reading classes as a temporary measure. Though they are taking the necessary steps to reduce the number of reading disabilities in the school, administrators recognize that there are many uncontrolable factors which influence the reading process.

Therefore, to have a balanced

program which will give good service to all, a place is being made in the reading program for the remedial class. Several types of remedial reading classrooms have been described and discussed in this project.

There can be no

one type of remedial classroom which will meet the needs of every school due to a variety of administrative and instruc­ tional differences.

However, while there can be no one best

classroom, certain criteria have been set forth which will

53 be useful in selecting the classroom most helpful to the individual school. Administering the remedial reading classroom requires the services of the entire school.

Data to be used in the

selection and grouping of the pupils for the remedial read­ ing class should be gathered from all possible sources to give the remedial teacher greater insight into the possible causes.

If the remedial class is a part of the regular

reading program, the problem of adjusting the child to his regular classroom reading will be facilitated. Choice of materials for the remedial reading class will depend greatly upon interests and needs of the retarded readers.

Also, the financial situation of the school must

be considered.

The funds alloted to the remedial class will

influence the variety and amount of materials gathered. Reading materials can be supplemented by the county library, and informal tests, for diagnoses, can be prepared by any well trained remedial teacher.

Many effective materials

have been devised by imaginative and interested teachers. Planning is a principle to be found in all good teach­ ing.

This is especially true in the remedial reading class.

The initial objectives of the class must be clearly defined for the teacher so that all activities carried on are not aimless and wasted.

She prefers to have a fair measure of

54 success from her pupils, not have them learn by hit or miss. Adequate evaluation serves three functions.


portrays the amount, rate, and quality of growth; it reveals developmental status; and it suggests desirable modes of guidance.

Data gathered from standardized tests, records,

self appraisal, observations and anecdotal records should be used for evaluating the remedial program.

The evaluation

should be made in the light of the criteria set forth for selecting the type of remedial reading classroom.


is comprehensive measurement of growth. The organization of a remedial reading class is the first step toward correcting the reading difficulties of the school’s retarded readers, remediation is the next step.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Adams, Pay, Gray, Lillian, and Reese, Dora, Teaching Children to Read. New York: Ronald Press Company, 1949. 525 PP. The authors present the teaching of reading clearly and graphically. Each source is of immediate and practical help to the classroom teacher. Betts, Emmett A., Poundations of Reading Instruction. New York: American Book Company, 1944. ?57 P P . An exhaustive volume that treats most phases and facets of reading instruction. Blair, Glenn Myers, Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching in

Secondary Schools. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1946. pp. 95-101. The .author writes about the diagnosis and treatment of reading difficulties in high school and gives many suggestions for teachers of special reading groups. Bond, Guy L. and Eva, Teaching the Child to Read. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1943. 35& pp. Authors give valuable suggestions for teaching reading in different subject fields. Cole, Luella, The Improvement of Reading. New York: Parrar and Rinehart, 1938. pp. A briefly written book which gives special attention to remedial instruction. Dolch, Edward William, A Manual for Remedial Reading. Champaign: Garrard Press, 1945. 464 pp. This is the second edition of a volume that deals with remedial reading procedures in regular grades and special classes.Durrell,Ronald D . , Improving the Basic Reading Abilities. New York: World Book Company, 1940. 407 PP. A book on reading which is especially good on reading skills.

56 Fernald, Grace M . , Remedial Techniques in Basic School Subjects. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1943. 349 PP. The section on reading describes the Fernald method so specifically that anyone can follow it. Case studies show results obtained in well motivated sit­ uations. ' Gates, Arthur I., The Improvement of Reading. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947. 657 pp. The third revision of a practical book in diagnostic and remedial methods. Gray, William S., On Their Own in Reading. Chicago: Scott, Foresman Company,’”1948". 268 pp. This is an easily read book that rates as one of the very best books for teachers of remedial reading. Harris, Albert J . , How to Increase Reading Ability. New York: Longman, Green, and Company, 1948. 348 pp. The first revision of a practical book on methods of diagnosis and teaching. Hildreth, Gertrude, and Wright, Josephine, Helping Children to Read. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1940. 90 pp. A good, brief account of an attempt at remedial instruction. McCallister, James M . , Remedial and Corrective Instruction in Reading. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1936T 300 pp. Good suggestion for administering a reading program in the upper grades and high school. McCullough, Constance, Strang, Ruth M . , Traxler,Arthur I., Problems in the Improvement of Reading. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 194^ • 406 pp. A much quoted book with concrete descriptions of reading programs and underlying theory and results of research. Monroe, Marion, Children Who Cannot Read. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1932. 205 pp. A good description of diagnosis and remedial instruc­ tion.


National Society for the Study of Education, Twenty-fourth Yearbook, Part I. Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1925. Chapter IX. An excellent chapter on use of informal reading tests. National Society for the Study of Education, Thirty-sixth Yearbook, Part I. Illinois: Public School Publishing Company, 1937. Chapter XI. Another excellent chapter on use of informal tests and other methods of evaluation. Robinson, Helen M . , Why Pupils Fail in Reading. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 279 pp. Part I reviews the literature on the causes of failure in reading. Part II describes the methods of study and diagnostic findings on thirty eases. Witty, Paul, and Kopel, David, Reading and the Educative Process. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1939 374 PP. Deals with the role of reading in education with special emphasis on the importance of interest. ”

Witty, Paul, Reading Instruction in Modern Education. Boston: Heath and Company, 1949. 307 pp. A new book about important phases of teaching reading.


PERIODICALS Beecher, Willard, "The Truth About Remedial Reading,” Clearing House, XYII (January, 1943), PP* 271-274. Fitzgerald, J. A., "Psychology in the Reading Clinic," Elementary English Review. XIY (1937), pp. 133-137. Johnson, J. W . , Coleman, J. H., and Guiler, W. S., "Improving the Reading Ability of Elementary School Pupils," Elementary School Journal, XLII (October, 1941), pp. 105-115. Monroe, Marion, "Diagnostic and Remedial Procedures in Reading." Supplement Number 2. Educational Record. XIX (1932), pp. 105-113. Robinson, Margaret A., "Our Reading Program," The School. (Elementary Edition), 33: (October, 1944), pp. 130-139. Warburton, T. Stanley, "Administrative Problems with Remedial Reading," Fourth Annual Reading and Curriculum Implementation Conference^ (1939) pp. 92-106.