A handbook for elementary teachers, involving the social adjustments of the students transferring to the secondary school

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A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Myrtle Mary Fife August 1950

UMI Number: EP46303

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>si F t M

Pr% ‘

This project report, w ritte n under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and app ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of E d u c a tio n in p a r t ia l fu lfillm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in E d u c a tio n .

A d vis er




INTRODUCTION ...................................


The p r o b l e m ...........................


* ...............

Importance of the problem


Definitions of t e r m s ....................... School adjustment Social adjustment

. . . . . . . . . . .




Elementary and secondary .................


Overview of h a n d b o o k ..................... . II.





. . . . . . .


Requirements of teachers of adolescent s t u d e n t s ...............................



G u i d a n c e ............ .....................


Method of discipline . . . .



Guiding pupils to see value in parents . .


S u m m a r y . .......................


CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS ............... Personal characteristics


10 11

Individual d i f f e r e n c e s .................. .


Demand for responsibility


. . . . . . . .

D a y d r e a m i n g ..............................


Small worries



Group c o n s c i o u s n e s s .....................







Restlessness and r e b e l l i o n .............


Adolescents imitators . . . . . . . . . .



Varied activity

Desire for f r i e n d s .....................


Boy-Girl relationship ...................


Characteristics of adolescents in the home.


S u m m a r y .................




Problem of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .......... .


. .


home may help b y




elementary school may help by . . .





The secondary

school may help by


Problem of departmental work . . . . . . . The home may help by The



elementary school may help by . . .

The secondary


school may help by


37 .




Racial p r o b l e m ...................


The homes may help b y ................... The

elementary school may help by . . .

The secondary Summary ... V.

school may help by



40 .



42 43




PAGE Relationships of the elementary school ...........

and the home


The relationships of the elementary school and thesecondary

school .........


Meeting of home, elementary school, and the secondaryschool. . . . . . . . . . Summary VI.

................... ..

S U M M A R Y .....................





50 .

51 53 57

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The social adjustment of children transferring from the elementary school to the secondary school can be aided by co-operation between the respective schools and the home. I.


The problem involves the social adjustment of elemen­ tary students transferring to the secondary school.

The ad­

justments of elementary school children to the secondary school have often been a frustrating experience.

The students

feel insecure, because of the size and strangeness of the high school.

Poor social adjustment at this level results in

a lack of confidence within the students. This handbook is to aid the elementary teacher to meet the needs of her pupils when they enter the secondary level. It is the purpose of this study: (1) to indicate the'.'charac­ teristics of an understanding elementary teacher, (2) to dis­ cuss the traits of students during adolescence, (3) to tell how the home and the educational Institutions can meet the social adjustment involved in transferring to a secondary school, and (4) to show that co-operation is needed between the elementary and the secondary levels, and the home for optimum results in this social adjustment.

2 II.


The social adjustment of the elementary child to the secondary level involves their future welfare.

It is im­

portant, therefore, that the adjustment at this age be made in a satisfactory manner.

There is no reason to handicap

anyone socially throughout their lifetime when it can be avoided by preparation between the home, the elementary school, and the secondary level. Satisfactory articulation between *the Elementary and secondary levels is eventually made by most students.


ever, the adjustment should be made as quickly as possible by all students; so that they will be better American citi­ zens.

Since life-long habits are formed at this time, it is

essential that they be formed in the best manner possible. III.


School adjustment.

School adjustment according to

Good means "the act or process of fitting the school envi­ ronment to the needs of the pupil. Social adjustment.

Social adjustment according to

Good means j The process whereby the individual attempts to main-

^ Carter V. Good, Dictionary of Education (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1945T7 p. 10.

3 tain or further his security, comfort, status, or creative inclinations in the face of the ever-changing conditions and pressures of his social environment, or the state or condition attained through such efforts.^ Elementary and secondary.

For the purpose of this

study the elementary school is defined as one with practical­ ly no departmental work; while the secondary is one in which departmental work predominates.

Although districts may have

the 6-2-4 plan, or the 6-3-3 plan, or the 8-4 plan, the same general principles are still involved in all cases. IV.


Chapter II lists the attributes which must be possess­ ed by the teacher who is to guide the students during this transition period.

Chapter III indicates many characteris­

tics of the adolescent during this period of his life.


the period of adolescence usually begins to develop, at this time, it is closely related to the transition from the ele­ mentary to the secondary level.

Chapter IV gives the social

adjustments necessarily involved in transferring to the sec­ ondary school with suggestions as to how the home, the ele­ mentary school, and the secondary level can help In this res­ pect.

Chapter V tells of the interrelationships between the

home, the elementary school, and the secondary level.

2 Ibid. , p. 1-0

Chapter VI is a summary of this investigation in the light of its contribution to the development of future American citi­ zens*

CHAPTER II CHARACTERISTICS OP AN UNDERSTANDING ELEMENTARY TEACHER This chapter includes some of the major requirements necessary for an elementary tea.cher in guiding students for satisfactory adjustment to the secondary school. Teachers in guiding youth must try to the best of their ability to recall their own adolescent problems.


must be capable of understanding children who at this age seek, demand, and need sympathy.

Anyone who gives a student

attention, understanding, sympathy, and friendship is in a position to be of help in guiding him. fundamental human virtue.

Justice is always a

Teachers should remember that

schools exist as a service institution for the whole child. Thus, if their work is to be efficient, it cannot be limited to classroom duties. Requirements of teachers of adolescent students. In many ways teachers are substitutes for parents.


is this true if there are poor home conditions. The following points, taken in part from Briggs,1 are given for teachers to consider in dealing with adolescents: 1.

Maintain emotional balance.

Poh the teacher to do

Thomas H. Briggs, J. Paul Leonard, and Joseph Justman, Secondary Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950) , pp. 145-1137

his best, he must have normal health, rest, and recreation.

Teachers greatly influence the atti­

tudes of pupils toward school work. 2.

Try to understand adolescents.

The teacher must be

able to tell the difference between serious and trivial aspects of behavior.

Hidden fears, frequent­

ly undiscovered by teachers, are more serious than realized. 3.

Become a good counselor.

The good teacher must

develop in the pupil a relation of friendship.


will permit his pupils to make their own decisions, help them to see the results of lack of judgment or hasty and impetuous conduct, and give them oppor­ tunities for assuming responsibilities. the home

By knowing

and family conditions, the teacher will be

able to help more.

Frequently, the teacher must

help to interpret the home to the child, and the child to the home.

The teacher must keep in mind

the welfare of the youth above achievement in any given subject. Guidance. child. meet a

The teacher should give guidance to the

Guidance is a thoughtful attempt to help a person crisis in his

life. It is an effort to aid him in

reaching an intelligent solution to his problem.

In gui­

dance, the child himself must do some thinking to see what

is to be done.

The counselor or teacher giving guidance f

should have knowledge of child psychology, the use of avail­ able records, practical teaching experience, and an acquain­ tance with the demands of the level into which the student will transfer.

Sympathy, tolerance, and patience are indis-

pensible if the teacher is to understand a pupil’s diffi­ culties.

Adequate time for teacher counseling should be

alioted in the school program* Method of discipline.

A successful teacher must have

good discipline in the classroom.

Teachers have often been

unsympathetic in their methods of discipline, causing pupils to be antagonistic.

After setting standards of conduct co­

operatively, the teacher must oversee the standards, and see that they are maintained. Guiding pupils to see value in parents.

No-one can

be as lonely as an adolescent who feels that nobody under­ stands and appreciates him.

Teachers should be on the "look­

out" for this type, and help guide them.

If the youth fails

to find adult help, he may seek satisfaction vicariously. He may imitate some hero in the movies, news, etc. choice may be good or bad.


Teachers can help the youth to

see and appreciate some admirable qualities in their parents which they have not realized.

The teacher will have to know

the parents to be of help in this situation.

This does not

mean to take over the home, but co-operation is needed

between the school and the home. Summary.

The elementary teacher of the adolescent at

this transition period must be understanding and sympathetic with the problems of the student.

The teacher must give

guidance at the right time and where needed for the good of the pupil.

To keep the good will of the pupils good disci­

pline must be kept in the classroom.

The upper elementary

teacher must guide the students to see the increasing need of discussing their problems with their parents as they make this transition to the secondary level. The following check list can be used by the elementary school teacher to evaluate her relationships with her stu­ dents.' Score yourself at the right on each item listed. 2 I try to help young people overcome self-consciousness. Never





I try to help young people gain social ease.




I act as a snob in the presence of young people.




I treat teen-age boys and girls as children.




I call teen-age youth "children.”




Lester ^row, Ph. D . , And Alice Crow, Ph. D . , Our Teen-Age Boys and Girls-Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other-Youth Leaders (New York: McGraw-Hill "Book Company, Inc , 1945), pp. 269-270.

I encourage ,boys and girls to have friends of their own age.




I encourage young people not to laugh at the mis­ takes of one another.




I keep all confidences given to me by young people.




I train young people in social etiquette.




I advise^ young people how to settle their quarrels.




You might ask yourself what you can do to improve those items on which you scored yourself 1.

CHAPTER III CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS In this chapter will be considered the characteristic of the adolescent elementary school student.

There are many

problems bothering the student which need guidance from the elementary school teacher. Adolescence is the transition of human life between childhood and maturity. years.

It usually extends for six or eight

Physiologists and psychologists are agreed that ado­

lescence comes gradually. lescence starts. etc.

There is no definite age when ado

Variations are due to race, health, food,

The more intellectually gifted an individual is, the

more likely he or she will begin this transition early.


is the gradualness of the change that causes most of the difficulties.

One minute the pupil may act as an adult, and

the next moment as a child. Much of the conflict at this time between youth and parents or teachers arises from a failure to recognize early changes in attitude.

More understanding, sympathy, and wis­

dom would be used by adults if they would only remember their own experiences. listen to reason — thing,"

To adults, adolescents seem not to

one might say, ’’You can’t tell him any­

This transition period may be confusing, and even

a frustrating period in his life.

At this age all have

11 problems, and need help in solving them.

Several secondary

school have check lists to discover the factors troubling the students.

This helps greatly if the students are sincere

in their answers. Habits of all kinds tend to become fixed and permanent at this time:

i. e. muscular movements, walking, speaking,

eating, the way in which we think and feel, etc. I.


Individual differences.

During adolescence, increas­

ed development of individual differences is common.


must then be a major consideration in dealing with this age group.

Since they differ increasingly in ability, interests,

tastes, and needs, students must be given the training to fully develop these powers. The elementary teacher can help develop the student's Individual interests by observing and listening to him talk. In this way, she can discover and develop his interests. Interest may, also, be deepened by the success and satis­ faction experienced by the student.

New interests may be

created in the pupil by the enthusiasm of the teacher. Teachers having enthusiasm are more likely to be successful in discovering and creating pupil interests. Thus, individual development and the demands of social efficiency meet.

What Is best now for the pupil,

will in the end be best for the community, also. Demand for responsibility.

One important function of

the schbol is to make possible a secure position of the pupil with his classmates.

This must be established on a

social and intellectual basis.

Social adjustment involves

assisting him in having a social position which is happy and successful.

This is done by counseling, and through provi­

sion of appropriate activities and opportunities for growth and development.

"The social life of the school can enhance

or inhibit personal development."^"

The well-balanced child

must find satisfaction in the whole school program. The adolescent age demands a gradual increase of re­ sponsibility.

This may be started in the elementary grades

by having assemblies, and letting the students plan and take charge of the meetings with guidance from a teacher.


will be several opportunities for leadership in the school room and outside.

The older children in the elementary

school could be hosts and hostesses in the cafeteria.


this way they would be showing good manners to the younger children.

These methods would give pupils the recognition

of their individual importance needed at this time.


desires make them, in most cases, measure up to what is ex­ pected of them. -


Thomas H. Briggs, J. Paul Leonard, and Joseph Justman, Secondary Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950) , p. 149.

13 Daydreaming. student.

He longs for something which he cannot express

even to himself. ence.

Daydreaming Is characteristic of the

He feels no-one has had the same experi­

The daydreaming is chiefly about love, achievement,

and security.

He sees himself in the role he would like to

lead in life.

If daydreaming is accompanied by well-direct­

ed action, it will aid an adequate personality.

The capable

elementary teacher will guide this student carefully.


dreaming needs opportunity, encouragement, and direction. His dreams are full of possibilities if they lead to some­ thing; but if neglected or ridiculed ’’they are dangerously


innervating and hostile to social adjustments." Small worries.

This age has many small worries.

They worry over: pleasing other people, what other people will think of them If they do something wrong (some have the feeling they will be judged by the act), personal appear­ ance (may be teased about being fat), financial position of family, section of town in which they live, health of par­ ents, and separated homes.

These questions are very impor­

tant to them, and should not be overlooked when they are dis­ covered.

Perhaps one could find some stories about children's

questions telling how they were solved and adjusted.


the stories have been read they should be discussed in the

2 Ibid. , p. 133

14 group.

Let the children volunteer for discussion. Group consciousness. One of the most distinctive

characteristics of this age is consciousness and interest in others as a group.

The adolescent is eager to join clubs,

societies, gangs, cliques, or teams, toward them. chief concern.

A loyalty is developed

Their ideals, spirit, and welfare become his The elementary teacher or school may develop

clubs in which different groups are interested.

In this way

they will be in smaller groups than their classroom. Varied activity.

As a rule the children of adoles­

cent age do not like monotony.

Adolescents want activity,

and desire to participate in varied forms of social living. All concerned with this age should remember this in dealing 3 with them. Monotony at this age is a cardinal sin. The teacher may do well to remember this in her assignments. Vary the form of assignments, and better work will be re­ ceived from the pupils. Restlessness and rebellion.

A restlessness and a re­

bellion against the tasks required of them is often present. This is due to the difficulties of adjustment. ral" for them

It is "natu­

to try to escape doing as they are told.


elementary teacher, in this case, will need to realize this

3 Ralph W. Pringle, Adolescence and High-School Prob­ lems (Chicago: D. C. Heath and Co., Publishers, 1922V, p. 156.

condition, and see that the pupils finish their work.


need to learn how to concentrate. Adolescents Imitators. tators."4

’’Adolescents are great imi­

They imitate often without being aware of it.

They are beginning to believe they are fully grown, and have the right to live their lives by adult standards.


quickly recognize the attitude of their parents towards re­ lations between sexes, recreational activities, speech, mode of dress, attitude toward the government, religion, and com­ munity affairs. Many adults try to raise their children in the right way, but act differently themselves.

Many times these adults

are civic, educational or social leaders.

Adolescents want

the kind of freedom to give them social independence. is a strong desire to be liked by others. clubs and form cliques.


They want to join

They do not know sometimes what to

think when they are told right things, but see the opposite. Teachers need to remember that adolescents are imitators, and act accordingly. The adolescent tends to mold his conduct in terms of the examples of his older associates.

He seldom considers

the fact that the result may be disastrous.

Parents and

4 Lester D. Grow Ph. D . , Our Teen-Age Boys and Girls Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other Youth Leaders (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1945), p. 249.

16 teachers need to remember that children are imitators. will do what they see you doing.


They seldom consider that

the result may be disastrous. "Do as I say but not as I do", is an attitude which causes many of the difficulties arising at this time. BDon’t," "Don’t," is tiresome to them. Desire for friends.

The elementary schools from which

most students transfer are considerably smaller than the secondary school they attend.

The friends they have in the

elementary grades will be those who live in their neighbor­ hood.

It is easier to get acquainted with this small group

of associates than with a much larger group.

The need is

now greater for satisfying relationships with new people and groups.

It is easy to form "cliques" or "gangs" and exclude

certain ones from the group-

High school students should try,

when they have the opportunity, to make as many friends as possible.

If they want to have friends, they must learn to

be a friend.

It Is important that the elementary teacher im­

press the students with the idea that kindness to others is a good way to win the friendship of most people. Most young people are shy and find it difficult to make advances toward new people. to make new friends.

They, therefore, need help

Furthermore, articulation of social ad­

justment Is particularily needed at this time, because old social relations are more or less broken by entering the

17 larger institution.

Speedy social adjustment is needed when

strangers, teachers included, are met in every class. The physical development of the adolescent has in­ creased rapidly at this time.

He has a tendency to trip over

rugs or furniture or drops things at the wrong time.


more eager he wants to be at ease, the more his body seems to be uncontrollable.

He grows out of his clothes, and thinks

people realize the fact that his suit or coat is too small for him.

Parents should see that clothes are attractive, and

of the right size even though they are inexpensive.

This will

be a difficult job, but it is important that he should not feel that no one wants to be his friend because of these obstacles. Approval will lead to greater effort, whereas dis­ approval leads to discouragement.

If the pupil*s friends

laugh or tease him, it makes him feel as if something is wrong with him.

It gives him the feeling of being "queer."

It is well to remember not to laugh or ridicule others. needs only to remember that no one is perfect. should be laid upon service to others.



In this way, the child

tends to forget himself and to place another person at ease. The elementary level should plan social programs for younger schoolmates in order to give them practice in social graces. They need to be taught proper forms of introductions, ways of starting a conversation, control of voice, desirable eating

Habits, etc. elders.

Many of these are learned by imitating their

There should be training in good manners in every

school, and in every grade.

If this is done the students

will know what to do, and not feel uncomfortable. One must remember that little is gained by pretend­ ing to be what one is not.

Tell the boys and girls that

adults are occasionally in difficult situations, too.

If one

does not know what to do in a particular situation, the best procedure is to remain quiet. A good listener is a desirable adjunct of any group.

As one gains social poise, one real­

izes he does not have to be constantly talking to be popular. The secrets of popularity are poise, dignity, social ease, and consideration for others.

The pupils must be willing to

co-operate with others in group projects. not show jealousy.

They must, also,

The secret of popularity is the willing­

ness to do for others or to share with them.

These patterns

are the result of gradual habit formation. Young people need to learn differences in the degree of one's friendly relation with others. "acquaintance," and "companion."

They confuse "friend,

A generally friendly atti­

tude will gain for anyone a host of acquaintances with whom he can enjoy work or recreational activity.


should, however, not expect too much from just acquaintances or to confide in them too freely.

They must realize the

meaning of friendship and their own responsibilities for its

19 success.

A true friend is a person in whom one places trust,

and confidence, and to whom one can bring his joys and sorrows.

People have the right to expect their friends to

help them when help is needed unless some social and ethical right would be violated,

A person should not gossip about

his friend if he wants to continue the friendship.


nating knowledge of his friend’s wrong-doing should not be withheld if an innocent person is accused of the act. should be made to confess his wrong-doing.

A plea

If this is not

successful, it is the friend’s duty to society to take it to the proper authorities. take.

This is the only honest course to

In friendship there must be a co-operative spirit --

a mutual "give-and-take." As the students enter the secondary level the acquain­ tances are wider than in the elementary school. students think of their parents as real friends.

Here not all They do not

discuss their problems, and neglect to do their tasks at home. They sometimes.refer to their parents as ’’the old man" and the old woman." here.

They should remember the rule of kindness

Courtesy means knidness and consideration for others.

They must be reminded that no one cares so much for them as their parents.

Therefore, their first duty is to show kind­

ness to them. A pertinent desire with most adolescent children is to be liked and to conform to the standards of their own

20 group.

A nation wide survey by Rammers and Shimberg made in 5 the spring of 1949 showed: 54$ want people to like them more 50$ want to make new friends 42$ wish they were more popular To have friends becomes one of the strongest desires

of the high school students.

They want to be thought of as

a "good fellow" or a "real sport."

Many of the things done

by the boys and girls now are done to get approval of others. If they fail to get approval one way, another way is often tried.

This method of trial and error may often bring u n ­

desirable results. it.

Boys may smoke, because others are doing

In this way they try to prove to others that they are

not afraid.

Swearing, also, begins in the same manner.


leader of the group may be the one who can swear the worst. Girls may use cheap cosmetics, new slang phrases, or even tell falsehoods to attract attention of their friends. There will be many types of groups which will differ widely &

in behavior. With friendships there may now be quarrels and mis­ understandings.

One girl may not speak to another girl, b e ­

cause someone said she was saying things about her that are not true.

Sometimes the quarrels are from things "made: up"

5 H. H. Remmers, and Lyle M. Spencer, "All Young People Have Problems," N. E. A. Journal. XXXIX (March, 1950), 182.

21 and sometimes not.

The elementary teacher needs to stress

the fact that most children will be kind if they are treated kindly.

If they have been treated wrongly they forget to be

kind. Another good point ,to have the pupils remember Is that in case of a misunderstanding it is best to get all the facts, and try to understand them before a quarrel results. Many quarrels would not happen if the students would go to the source of the "gossip" and find out what had been said. It pays to remember that a few words can break a friendship of many years. Boy-Girl relationship.

Out of the friendship in a

group will develop the popularity with the other sex. is natural to begin at this age.


When a boy begins to "no­

tice the girls" he pays more attention to his dress and appearance.

His ears and neck are washed more willingly.

Sometimes a girl may be rejected because she shows in­ terest in boys, early. insecure.

She will have the feeling of being

The adult needs to be aware of the fact that boys

and girls do become interested In each other as they begin to develop into young men and women.

It should be remembered

that some develop earlier than others, and need understanding in place of condemnation.

Girls by nature usually develop

earlier than boys. Friendships with boys and girls at this age is very

22 important to them.

The art of making and keeping friends

will help greatly in the formation of later adult friendships. For these reasons care should be taken to develop wholesome attitudes in social relations.

Adolescent boys and girls

need friends among adults as well as among their contempor­ aries.

They need contact with both masculine and feminine


Hence, they should have contact with both married

and unmarried men and women teachers. Teachers should know each student well enough to know what he is seeking by way of freedom from exclusive depen­ dence upon the family and increasing hetrosexual interest. Many times teachers play their part with insufficient under­ standing.

To sufficiently guide the student, teachers them­

selves must have made a psychological adjustment to the opposite sex.

Otherwise, the adolescent may model himself

upon an adult who is burdened with his own problem.


al stability on the part of the teacher is necessary to ob­ serve and guide the hetrosexual interest of their pupils ih an understanding and sympathic way. Some questions given by Crow involving this adjust6 ment period are: 1.

In what kind of social activities should adolescents

•6 Grow, o£. cit. , pp. 252-254,

23 engage? 2.

Why does the school not furnish more after-school social activities?


What games should be played at parties when both boys and girls are present?


Is it necessary to break old friendships when new friendships are made?


How can a boy or girl develop social ease?

6 . How can a boy overcome bashfulness in the presence of girls? 7. 8


How can a boy or a girl become popular? Is it true that a boy who is popular with girls is not liked by other boys?


What is wrong if a girl is popular with the group but is not dated by boys?

1 0 . Why are some girls popular with boys and not with girls? 1 1 . Should one always be candid in expressing his opin­ ions? 12


How important are friendships that are made during adolescence?


Why do some people take advantage of others?


How can one overcome doing things on impulse that are later regretted?


Parents and teachers are always talking about the


right kind of companions.

How can one know

who is

the right kind? 16.

What should be one's attitude toward his friends?


Why are we encouraged to form friendships with mem­ bers of our own sex?


Are most girls very changeable in their likes and dislikes of boys?


Should a girl associate with another girl who is six years, older than herself?


At what age should a boy or girl start to have dates?


Should boys and girls ever go "Dutch”?


What is puppy love?


What is a good way to refuse an invitation more than once without offending the person who extends the invitation? CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN THE HOME There are some problems involving the relationship of

of the parent and the child which can be met by guidance in group’meetings.

These meetings could be held at the school

with teachers, parents', principal, andf guidance counselors present.

Briggs lists the following factors as causes of

trouble in the home and child relationships.7

^ Briggs, o£. cit. . pp. 141-144

Continued child dependency The parent will still make choices for them, select clothing, choose friends, and arrange social activi­ ties.

They will criticize the decisions made by

their child, and permit them little freedom away from them.

These parents are maladjusted, and need

-to be informed about child psychology. Unhappy home life There are many homes with conflicts in them causing the child to develop a hatred for one of his parents. This, also, includes the divided home. Pressure for social status The parent in this case impresses upon the youth the social group to which he belongs, and does not allow him to mix outside of this group.

This may lead the

child to run away, a nervous breakdown, or an u n ­ worthy marriage "just for spite Conflicts in goals All parents are proud of their children.

They some­

times set a goal too high for them or want them to do something different. Conflicts over interest The child and parent may not be interested in the same things. Favoritism among children

26 The ones not favored will detect these favoritisms and resent them. 7.

The same applies to teachers.

Psychological weaning Some dangers grow out of conditions surrounding the home life of the father and daughter.

The daughter

may idiolize the father or the father may be domin­ eering. Summary.

This chapter considers the characteristics

of the adolescent period of life, and how the school adjust­ ment is involved.

In most cases, the beginning of the ado­

lescent period coincides with transferring to the secondary level which makes the problem of adjustment even more diffi­ cult. The boys and girls at this time are trying to act as adults.

It is essential to remember that this age, unin­

tentionally, imitates adults.

Therefore, we as adults should

act as we would like the students to do. At this time, greater responsibility is being demanded, and usually met successfully by the pupils.

The desire to be

popular and to have many friends is prevalent.


must remember that their parents are their best friends, and talk over their difficulties with them.

This is not always

done. It is important, as teachers, to remember that since we are trying to make the best American citizens we can we

27 must act. so ourselves. An excellent summary as contained in Briggs, of the 8 characteristics of the adolescent are: 1.

During this age the interests of the student is developing for fewer and deeper interests.


During adolescence one is beginning to be more dig­ nified.


The reflecting of adult cultural patterns are b e ­ ginning to appear through imitation.


Identification Is being wanted with a small select group.


The economic status of the family is affecting the pupils with whom they may associate.


Their social activities are beginning to be more formal.


Increasing concern for their own family.


Friendships are beginning to be more lasting.


Fewer and deeper friendships are made.


Increasing insight into human relations.


Individual satisfying activities in the line of tal­ ent is developing.



Beginning to make their own rules with a definite

> P- 150•

purpose In view. Seeking relations with adults on equality basis.

CHAPTER IV SOCIAL ADJUSTMENTS INVOLVED IN TRANSFERRING TO A SECONDARY SCHOOL The transition problem between the elementary school and the secondary school is one of the oldest and most in­ sistent problems connected with the educational welfare of American children.

The problem has some peculiarities in

each school district.

It must be studied and worked out

according to the needs and conditions of each community. However, the general principles rest on general psychologi­ cal and educational principles.

The elementary school blames

the secondary school for some of the problems, and vice versa.

As In most questions probably both are to blame. During the summer of 1949 representatives of thirty-

three national, lay, and professional organizations upon the invitation of the Office of Education, attended the Third Annual Conference on Elementary Education held in Washington D. C.

Problems were considered concerning public elementary

schools of the United States.

One area they recommended con­

centration during the coming year was not only the "3'rs" and other skills, but also concern for their balanced growth and development as human beings and as c i t i z e n s . T h i s

^ Bess Goodykoontz, "Major Needs in Elementary Educa­ tion," School Life, XXXII (November, 1949), 29.

30 This shows that social adjustment to life situations is be­ ginning to get national consideration in our schools of to­ day. Social issues are the concern of the total school com­ munity, and not just a private concern.

Therefore, a clear­

ly defined policy is essential to educational institutions. This adopted policy is to serve as a platform for action. The Central Ohio Social Studies Association recent­ ly adopted the following policy regarding social Issues in the program of the public schools. Education for democratic living is the main business of the American free public school. That is to say, the school must maintain a bias in favor of both education and democracy. Democracy is a way of life that grows out of regard for the individual. It is based on the judgment that all persons are of inherent worth. As such all persons are subject to the rights and obligations of a free society, a society in which responsibility as well as priviledge is shared. The goal of the public school must be that of helping all the youth of the country to become responsible citi­ zens, able and disposed to carry at least their fair share of the social load. Only in so doing can they acquire the dignity that rightfully belongs to free men.2 Social living in all its phrases includes the Issues both present and past which will vitalize any educational program.

Virginia K. Eiggett, "Social Issues in the School Program," Social Education, XIV (January, 1950) , 19.

31 The day-by-day problems of the pupils may often be used to advantage.

There is also included in this program

formal study of vital issues centered in the larger society of which the school is a part.

These may as yet be unsolved.

Controversial issues are studied to provide an oppor­ tunity to clarify, refine, and extend the range of their own understanding of the issue. The teacher must be constantly watching for social adjustment, and do her best to guide the student to a satis­ factory adjustment.

The techniques and the objectives of

social and personal adjustment are learned in intimate, interpersonal situations.

In order for schools to help in

social adjustment of a child we must know him as a person. This chapter will consider some of the'main problems involving school adjustment during this transition period. Suggestions will be given as to how the home, the elementary school, and the secondary school can help in their solution. The secondary school will mainly give suggestions for the pupil before they enter the secondary level. I.


Self-confidence is faith in one's self and in one is

3 Caroline Tryon, and William E. Henry, ”How Children Learn Personal and Social Adjustmentrn The Forty-Ninth Year­ book of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1950), p. 162.

32 fellowman.4

The problem of self-confidence upon entering

the secondary level can be encouraged by the h o m e , the ele­ mentary school, and the secondary school.

The student now

has the problem of bridging into new groups. oldest in the school this year. make new friends.

He is not the

Self-confidence is needed to

Until now he has been in contact, in most

cases, with his home environment.

This includes the smaller

elementary school which is close to his home. It is a big task to build up self-confidence after it has been "torn down."

It requires care and encouragement

from adults and children.

Self-confidence is usually lost

by a child when adults continually finds fault with the child. Self-confidence is rarely lost, because of another child. If a child has confidence in himself, many little worries will be overcome.

He will not worry over the section

of town in which his family lives, what other people think of them, etc.

He will not worry over such problems if self-

confidence is established.

If self-confidence is present,

he will not feel as lost in his new surroundings.

All ele­

mentary teachers, h o m e , and the secondary school can help in this, and should help in developing self-confidence. A.

The home may help by: 1.

Building up self-confidence by not continually

4 Anna -Dunser, "Building Confidence Through Art," American Childhood. XXXII (March, 1 9 4 8 ) , 5 ,

33 finding fault with the child.

Tell the child how to

do it rather than continually barrage him with "don't." 2.

Showing no partiality to one child.


Giving children an allowance to manage.


Letting boys and girls begin to choose their own clothes with guidance.


Beginning to treat children as adults. problems with them.


Then, perhaps, they will bring

their problems to you in return. 6 ..

Letting the girl have a party; planning it by herself.


Having father and son or mother and daughter do things together, and also as a family group.

8 . Giving affection to the child. 9.

Allowing the child to have certain tasks to do at home.



Giving the child encouragement, and complementary remarks when they do something well.

11 . Seeing that the new student has a friend with whom to go to high school the first day of school. 12



Taking trips away from home. Staying home alone when parents are away for the day.


Traveling a short distance alone.


Marketing for the home.


Preparing meals for the family.


Helping their father work on the car.

The elementary school may help b y : 1.

Praising the child for something well done.


Showing interest in the child.

Listen to him if he

wants to talk. 3.

Giving training in manners.


Giving the pupil a monitor’s job in the room.


Being a ’’safety" outside to watch some part of the playground.


Being host or hostess in the cafeteria.


Showing'a.friendly attitude by the entire adminis­ tration.


Treating all the children the same.


Visiting the homes.


Having a group meeting of teachers to discuss the the problem involved.


Talking informally with the student by teachers and principal.


Asking opinions of the student on certain items.


Having the pupil do errands.


Asking the student to bring something of interest


school to give a report. 15.

Having the pupil help you or another pupil in some­ thing he does well.

35 16.

Asking the parent to come to school to tell the ele­ mentary school class about a vocation which they are studying, and which the parent has had experience in himself.


Having;a question box for questions bothering the pupil, and then discussing the questions.


Attacking a problem through role playing.

The secondary school may help b y : 1.

Having the secondary principal or counselor coming to the elementary school, and talking to the chil­ dren about the high school.

If pupils know something

about high school, they will have more confidence when they enter in the fall. 2.

Passing out handbooks to the pupils to study iri the elementary school.


Having a visiting day at high school.


A s s i g n i n g

a Mbig brother" or a "big sister" before

school starts. 5.

Assigning and meeting a counselor early.

6 . Having a get-together in the summer. 7.

Having the freshman in the fall start a day

or two

ahead of the rest; so they will get acquainted with the building. 8.

Being friendly when they visit the elementary school,

and when school starts in the fall.

Meet the stu­

dents with a smile. 9.

Having the high school students come to the elemen­ tary school to tell of their experiences in high school.

Perhaps, a sophomore who attended the same

elementary school the year before would give the stu­ dents encouragement. 10.

Having a social hour for the elementary students at high school to meet the other new students. II. PROBLEM OF DEPARTMENTAL WORK A second social adjustment necessary upon entering the

secondary school is the problem of departmental work.


involves working with more teachers as well as meeting more students.

Here they are responsible to each teacher for a

given subject.

This change frome one teacher for all sub­

jects to five or more teachers is not often made without some emotional stress.

One reason Is the fact bhat at this age

the student is immature.

At a time when the student needs

stabilizing influence of a single teacher he is faced with the effort to adjust to several. Involved in departmental work Is meeting different students in each class, passing in halls, study halls, and the elimination of recesses to which they have been accustom­ ed in the elementary grades.

Recess gives pupils a good

37 chance to make friends in the elementary grades. A.

The home may help by : 1.

^alking with the youth about the new school, instead of showing no interest.


Providing practice in meeting people,


Training the son or daughter to be cheerful.


Giving training in polite manners.


Having an older brother or sister or friend explain the departmental work to the new student.


Telling children about their experiences with depart­ mentalizations in high school.


Inviting a high school teacher they know to their home for the new pupil to meet before school starts.

8 . Securing books available on the subject for children to read, and then discuss the book with them. 9. 10. B.

Giving guidance about electives to choose. Scheduling a certain time for duties at home.

The elementary may help by: 1.

Increasing gradually the number of teachers that children come in contact with in the elementary school},

In the fourth grade increase by one teach­

er for one day a week.

In the fifth grade increase

by one teacher for everyday a week.

Then in the

sixth grade, increase by having two extra teachers everyday. 2.

Practicing meeting new people.

This could be done

38 in the English period. 3.

Having the elementary school class study vocations will help the students in selecting their electives in the secondary school.


Showing a film or film strip on departmental work to the graduating class.


Studying and discussing the high school handbook in regard to departmental work.


Stressing punctuality for school.


Having a play dramatizing departmental work at high school.


Providing reading material on departmental work.


Suggesting what the pupil might major in at high school.

1 0 . Planning a tentative schedule for the student. 11.

Having the pupils give reports to the class on de­ partmental work.


Practicing in going to ’’special" rooms such as art, music, gym, etc.

13. C.

Planning the time schedule and. activitiesf*for^the-day.

The secondary school may help b y : 1.

Integrating some subjects to make a "core program." This would decrease the number of teachers that students would have daily. studies is an example.

English and social

39 2.

Coming to the elementary school, and explaining the new system to them.


Helping the student plan his schedule.


Having a set time to answer questions of the new students concerning departmental work.


Having a high school pupil explain departmental work to the graduating class.


Having freshmen start a day or two ahead of the other students to get acquainted with the school building.


Allowing more time in passing to classes for a few

days. 8.

Having a social for the new students to meet their teachers.

9. 10.

Assigning supervised study periods. Having monitors stationed in the hallways the first week to direct the new students.


Sending to the graduating class a school paper tell­ ing about the program of the secondary school.


Encouraging the child's relationship by the use of a sociometric test. III.


The family , neighborhood, club, church, and schools are influential in making impressions on children's minds as to their attitude toward race.

They may even

40 accept what they hear without further investigation.


impressions of the children reflect the cultural patterns of their social environment. In transferring to a larger institution from the ele­ mentary school the student will usually meet more children of different races.

In California, one will likely be in

contact with Negroes, Mexicans, Japanese or Chinese.


elementary school should acquaint the child with the ideals and contributions of the races which make up our American heritage.

There must be

a basis of common thought and

common aspiration which is essential to an effective democra­ cy. Pringle quotes Bagley and Judd as sayingf "A school which gives to one class of children one set of ideas, and to another class an entirely different set of ideals, will make for social distinctions and are danerous in a democra­ cy." The teacher must remember to treat different races no differently than the other students.

Justice is very impor­

tant when another race is involved. A.

The home may help b y ? 1.

Allowing the children to play with those of another race.

Ralph W. Pringle, Adolescence and High-School Problems (Chicago: D. C. Heath and Co., 1922)7 p. 137.

41 2.

Refraining from making any comments which will give the children any false impressions.


Treating different races with respect when you meet them.



Having a part^ including children of many nation­ al i tie s .


Patronizing other nationalities in business, etc.


Discussing the topic in a family group with a broad point of view,


Taking a trip to observe the better qualities of different races.

Perhaps, in Caxifornia a trip to

Mexico. 8.

Emphasing the better qualities of the various races.


Listeh.ing to and then discussing a race program on the radio.


Taking the family to a program given race.


by another

Perhaps, a Spanish play.

The elementary school may help b y : 1.

Being alert to false impressions. These

may be re­

vealed in objective tests, recitations, original work in art, dramatic play, or incidental comment. Meet the needs at the time they arise. 2.

Explaining likenesses and differences to the child­ ren in class discussions,


Studying these people or their countries to show

what they have contributed to the world.

There is

good in all of us, 4.

Studying the ideas, and ideals of other races.


Treating all races the same.




Having a play or pageant on race relations. Showing a film or film strip on race relationships.

8 . Having an exhibit on race relationships in your room. 9.

Having a club involving all nationalities in the school.


Explaining to the parents at a P. T. A. meeting the importance of this problem to their child.


Encouraging all to play together.


Having an older person of a differentrace



the children. 13.

Having a child of a different race help another race.


Employing teachers of different races.

15. . Singing songs of different nations. 16.

Reading stories of different nations.


Listening to music of different



Doing folk dancing of different



Studying the habits of different


The secondary school may h elp b y ; 1 . Informing the pupils when they come to

the elementary

43 school concerning the nationalities they will meet. 2.

Sending a colored choir to the elementary school for an assembly.


Sending a Mexican dance program to the elementary school for their assembly.


Treating the different nationalities with respect.


Assigning children of different races as "big bro­ ther" and "big sister."


Sending representatives to the elementary school of various races.


Telling the elementary school children about the "International Club" where they discuss the race questions.


Presenting plays given by various nationalities to the elementary children.

The play might relate some

of their problems. 9.

Having in the paper a picture of a group of different nationalities including a white student.

This would

show that segregation was not practised. 10.

Letting different races be leaders, and having this Information publicized. Summary.

There are many problems which bother the

elementary student at the time of transferring to the secon­ dary level.

These can be diminished by the home, the ele­

mentary teacher, and the secondary level.

44 Since the pupil meets so many strangers in departmen­ tal work it is particularly necessary that his self-confidence be established.

The meeting of different teachers and pupils

in each class is a challenge to the pupil.

The problem of

different races must also be met at this time with high ideas, ideals, and standards. These problems should be dealt with by all three agen­ cies in the elementary school to insure better success in high school.

CHAPTER V THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF THE HOME, THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, AND THE SECONDARY SCHOOL This chapter will show that for optimum success in helping children co-peration is needed between the home, the elementary school, and the secondary school. Teamwork is necessary between these three for the best results.

No one educational level is entirely responsible

for a pupil's real education.

Articulation between the two

levels means modification in both to work harmoniously for a larger common good.

To do this, understanding is necessary

between the schools and the home.

Each level, and the home

must know what the other level is trying to accomplish. I.

RELATIONSHIP OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND THE HOME The N. E. A. Code of Ethics for teachers in Article I

Section 4 gives the teacher relationship to the pupil and the home as: A teacher should seek to establish friendly and in­ telligent co-operation between home and school, ever keeping in mind the dignity of his profession and the welfare of the pupils. He should do or say nothing that would undermine the confidence and respect of his pupils for their parents. He should inform the pupils and parents regarding the Importance. purposes, accomplish­ ments , and needs of the schools.

^ The National Education Association, Ethics for Teach­ ers, (Washington D.C.: The National Education Association, 1948), pp. 7-8.

46 The National Educational Association holds the teacher responsible to the home, and expects friendly relations b e ­ tween the home and the school.

The pupil's respect for his

parents should be encouraged. The first step in helping a child to achieve better school adjustment is to understand him and his parents.


child can perhaps tell what is troubling him, but he will seldom be able to describe the situation or the relationships 2 to which he really is reacting. Discuss the problem with the parents to discover ways in which they could help their own children to better adjust to the school and its purposes. Try to get the parents to look at the problem from the child's point of view. The elementary school and the home must work together to prepare the child for the transition to the secondary school.

They should work together on some social affairs for

the pupils; so that when they enter the secondary school, social affairs will not be new to the students. improve their self-confidence.

This will

There should be guidance in

the ways to meet, people, to make introductions, and other social graces.

When both the elementary school and the

parents plan the social affairs , they are familiar with the

p Anna Branstein, "The Social Worker and the Parents," Understanding the Child, XIX (January, 1950) , 17.

47 problems involved, and mutual understanding results.

When the

school and the parents do not agree, a feeling of insecurity may be developed by the student.

Co-operation between the


home and the school will be more likely to develop a rounded personality and security for the student.

A social affair

which they might have for the pupils would be a square dance. This would help them in their social graces, besides being pleasurable for them. Some problems on which the school and the home should 5 co-operate harmoniously are: 1.

Conduct of social affairs at school involving: a.

Hours of closing


Clothes to be worn


Kind of activities


Personal appearance


Conduct of school activities using community re­ sources : a.

Skating rink


Swimming pool,etc.


Conduct of school activities off campus: a.

A school club meeting in a home


Thomas H. Briggs, J. Paul Leonard, and Joseph Justman, Secondary Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950) , p. 147.

48 4.

Activities in and around stores near the school dur^ Ing school hours


Activities of students going to and from school


Particular problems of the child When the home participates with the elementary school

in this way the student will have a better feeling toward their parents on entering the secondary school, and will con­ sider them as their best friends.

They will then be more

likely to discuss their problems with their parents, and accept guidance in solving their problems in high school. Talking over situations before anything is done, may avoid disastrous effects which result from unguided conduct. In the elementary school, we should impress upon the pupils the love their parents have for them, and encourage them to talk over problems with their parents.

Some will re­

sent parental restrictions and want more rights as a grown person.

The parent and the child must respect each other,

admiring their qualities without sentimentality -- under­ standing their faults without anatagonism.

The school is

enabled to play its part in helping him to find a new basis of relationship with his parents.

The adolescent and the

parent must now participate as equals. Another way in which the elementary school may en­ courage more respect for parents is by having a parent come to school to talk to the class.

For example, a class in

. 49 social studies studying about food would have as a speaker a father of one of the pupils who works in a wholesale gro4 eery. Since he would be able to give much information on this subject, it would make the student especially proud" of his father.

In this way the elementary school will be

’’building u p ” the parents to the children, so that they will have more respect for their parents.

Respect for their par­

ents needs to be emphasized at this time.

In this period

they need to talk their problems over with their parents for solutions.

Their problems now are becoming more serious in

life situations, and they need guidance from the school and parents. II.


The elementary school should know the educational philosophy of the secondary school, and vice versa.

In this

way a continuation in the philosophies will more likely be the result.

For optimum co-operation between the two levels

their philosophies must be similar.

After this is under­

stood, the elementary teacher should begin to orient the graduating class to this educational philosophy.

4 Lowell W. Beach, ’’Parents Utilized in the Curricu­ lum," JgfcLe Clearing House. XXIV {February, 1950), 342.

50 To have philosophies nearly corresponding there should be meetings between these two levels to discuss their respec­ tive philosophy.

By forming the two philosophies co-opera­

tively a more democratic system will be the result.

In form­

ing the philosophies, at all times the child should be the major emphasis.

It is the child we are trying to develop in

the best manner possible.

After the unified philosophy has

been "roughly" formulated, in addition to meetings between the two systems, bulletins or guides might be exchanged to facilitate the further exchange of ideas. Since social adjustment must be made to a new insti­ tution, the elementary school should initate the child to this situation by presenting ways to adjust to this situ­ ation.

The secondary school should develop an orientation

program for new students.

The secondary school should re­

member that it is the larger institution with more teachers, many strangers, study halls, clubs, and an unfamiliar sched­ ule. III.


For an ideal understanding among the three most con­ cerned, there should be meetings of the parents, the elemen­ tary school , and the secondary school. all three sides would be heard.

In these meetings,

Parents could give their

51 point of view in regard to their child.

It would be neces­

sary for the parents to have met before this meeting to elect a spokesman for them, and to decide upon the message to give. This might be a good assignment for the Parent-Teacher Asso­ ciation. The elementary school could describe the training they had given the child in preparation for the secondary level. This would include the whole elementary training, and not just the last year.

The principal would probably be the

spokesman for the elementary school. The secondary school would then explain their purposes in receiving the child, and what they planned to do to fur­ ther his education.

Through this meeting, the parents.would

better understand the educational pattern of both institu­ tions.

The elementary school personnel would learn about

factors requiring more emphasis by listening to the parents, and the secondary teachers.

The secondary school would

realize what was expected of them from the parents, and what training had been given the child in the elementary grades. These ideas would, also, help the secondary level in planning their future programs.

Perhaps, some might even be added to

the coming year’s program. Summary.

This chapter has shown that first, a good

relationship is needed between the elementary school, and the home.

Second, that in the relationship between the

52 elementary school and the secondary school, there must be a mutual understanding of principles in order to plan for the benefit of the child.

Finally, all three, the home, the

elementary school, and the secondary school should meet in a planned general meeting since understanding is the basis for co-operation.


CHAPTER -VI SUMMARY This last chapter will be a brief* summary of the pro­ ject as a whole.

Points will be considered in the order

that they appeared in the project. It is the purpose of this project to give to elemen­ tary teachers a handbook showing the problems involved in the social adjustment of elementary students transferring to the secondary school. The specific objectives of this project were: 1.

To indicate the characteristics of an understanding elementary teacher


To discuss the traits of adolescent students


To tell how the home and the educational institutions can meet the social adjustment problems involved in transferring to a secondary school, and


To show that co-operation is needed between the ele­ mentary and the secondary schools, and the home for optimum results in this social adjustment. The writer feels that any problem involving youth is

worthy of study.

The articulation between the elementary

school and the secondary school is confusing to boys and girls.

Little information is written on the social adjust­

ment between these two levels.

54 In the elementary school it is most important that teachers be capable of guiding our young people.


characteristics necessary for a teacher outside of the class­ room are: 1.

She must be emotionally balanced.


She must be a sympathetic person with ability to understand the problems of the boys and girls.


She must possess the techniques to guide pupils to a satisfactory solution of their problems. The characteristics of an adolescent are many.

essential to remember that they are imitators.

It is

They are

"growing u p ” now, and want more independence and less dic­ tation.

Friendship is one of the strongest desires of this

age child.

A demand for responsibility is, also, present at

this time.

Personal characteristics developing in the pupils

are daydreaming, small worries, restlessness and rebellion. Perhaps, the most significant characterization is'* the factor of individual differences among boys and girls of this age. Self-confidence is needed upon entering a strange place. ly.

One needs confidence in one’s self to adjust quick­

The home, the elementary, and the secondary schools

must work harmoniously for the*'optimum development of selfconfidence in adolescents. Departmental work in the secondary school forces one to meet many new students and teachers.

Secondary schools

can relieve this situation most by combining some of their subjects*

In this way children will not meet as many stran­

gers all at once. The racial problem, again, Involves close co-operation between the home and the schools.

It is important to remem­

ber that these boys and girls are imitators. careful of his actions, and what he says.

One should be

Many times preju­

dices are due to the parents, elementary teachers or some adult who is close to the pupil. It is Important for the best adjustment of the child that the home and the schools work together at this time. These agencies are very close to the child, and together can do much to help him.

On the other hand, if they do not co­

operate they can do much to hinder the growth and development of the child. As we look forward for American youth, we must examine ourselves critically as to attitudes and behavior.

If we

want well-adjusted youth to whom with confidence, we can turn over the world of tomorrow, we must remember that they are imitators and that we must be worthy of imitation.




Bent, Rudyard K. , and Henry H. Kronenberg, Principles of Secondary Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949. 619 pp. Briggs, Thomas H . , J. Paul Leonard, and Joseph Justman, Secondary Education. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950. 468 pp. Cook, Lloyd Allen, Community Backgrounds of Education. York: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 1938. 397 pp.


Crow, Lester D. Ph. D . , and Alice.Crow Ph. D . , Our Teen-Age Boys and Girls - Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other Youth Leaders. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Com­ pany, Inc., 1945. 336 pp. Endicott, Frank S . , One Hundred Guidance Lessons. Scranton, Pa.: International Textbook Company, 1937. 236 pp. Good, Carter V., Dictionary of Education. New York: j McGrawHill Book Company, Inc. , 1945. 495 pp. Pringle, Ralph W . , Adolescence and Hlgh-School Problems. Ghieago: D. C. Heath and C o . , Publishers, 1922. 386 pp. Thayer, V. T . , Caroline B. Zachry, Ruth Kotinsky, Reorganiz­ ing Secondary Education. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1939. 483 pp. B.


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