A Guide to Crickets of Australia [Illustrated] 9781486305087, 1486305083

Cricket song is a sound of the Australian bush. Even in cities, the rasping calls signify Australia’s remarkable cricket

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A Guide to Crickets of Australia [Illustrated]
 9781486305087, 1486305083

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A GUIDE TO

CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

DAVID RENTZ

D YOU NING SU

A GUIDE TO

CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

DAVID RENTZAND YOU NING SU

csIRo PUBLISHING

⑥ David Rentz and CSIRO 2019

All rights reserved. Except under the conditions described in the Australian Copyright Act 1968 and subsequent amendments, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,

duplicating or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Contact CSIRO

Publishing for all permission requests.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the National Library of Australia. ISBN: 9781486305063 ((pbk.)

ISBN: 9781486305070 (epdf)

ISBN: 9781486305087 (epub)

Publishd by:

CSIRO Publishng Locked Bag 10

Clayton South VIC 3169

Australia

Telephone: +61 3 9545 8400

Email:publishing.sales@csiro.au Website: www.publish.csiro.au Front cover: (main image) female Cardiodactylus novaeguineae; (top images, left to right) male

Trigonidium bundilla, male Homoeoxipha lycoides, male Ornebius coorumbena.

Back cover:(left to right) male Unka boreena,male Teleogryllus oceanicus,female Hemiphonus

tindalei. All cover photos by David Rentz Set in 9.5/12 Minion

Edited by Joy Window (Living Language) Cover design by James Kelly

Typeset by Thomson Digital Printed in China by Asia Pacific Offset

CSIRO Publishing publishes and distributes scientific,technical and health science books, magazines

and journals from Australia to a worldwide audience and conducts these activities autonomously

from the research activities of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily

represent those of,and should not be attributed to,the publisheror CSIRO. The copyright owner shall not be liable for technical or other errors or omissions contained herein.The reader/user accepts all

risks and responsibility for losses, damages, costs and other consequences resulting directly or indirectly from using this information. The paper this book is printed on is in accordance with the standards of the Forest Stewardship Council. The FSC promotes environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically

viable management of the world's forests.

Feb19_01

Contents Dedication

Preface

Acknowledgements

Australian National Insect Collection

Introduction





vi ix

xi

Australian cricketers

Biology

Cricket lifecycles and development

 20

Collecting techniques useful for crickets

25  43

Morphology

Crickets and culture Crickets as fod

53

56

Cricket identification Superfamily GRYLLOIDEA Superfamily GRYLLOTALPOIDEA

352

List of the crickets of Australia

365

Glossary

Entomological supplies

Websites and special interest groups

Orthopteroid food mix

Cricket recipes

Bibliography

Index

63 64

380 382

382 383

384

387

390

Seance of Sad Crickets;Buck Richardson (see p.225).

iv

Dedication This book is dedicated to Daniel Otte and David B Weissman.

Preface Compiling a book on Australian crickets cricket can be isolated and induced to

has been more difficult than we realised at produce its song in captivity. Methods of the start. With more than 400 species making and analysing recordings are

described, we soon discovered that there discussed as well as techniques to use for were many more undescribed ones than we building a collection of crickets. Links to ever imagined. We actually were happiest the cricket section'ofthe Australian Faunal

when we identified a species with a Directory and the Orthoptera Species file described name. This just highlights the can aid with learning where the cricket fits

need for such a guide. The authors hope it in within the scheme of Australian and will stimulate an interest in this fascinating international classifications. We briefly and somewhat confusing group of insects. discuss the importance of crickets in

Users will discover that not all crickets are culture, especially in Asian countries where

easy to find. Singing (calling)males are there is interest in keeping live crickets for

usually difficult to locate because besides the songs they produce and the use of

being secretive and rather uncommon,they crickets in the sport of cricket fighting.

can be ventriloquial and frustratingly However, with the increasing use of the

difficult to locate. Once the singer has been internet and growing population, both of discovered, skill is required to capture the these cultural pursuits are in decline. insect. We discuss various techniques that We hope that we can kindle an interest will aid in collecting crickets but,be assured, and understanding of the origins and extent they do not always work, even for the of the Australian cricket fauna from the experts. Crickets can be found during the smallest species (nemobiines,p.320) to the

day as well as after dark.Once collected,the largest (podoscirtines,p.124).

Acknowledgements This book could not have been produced types in the care of the museum that helped

without the generous cooperation of many solve several taxonomic problems. Mr individuals. We are in debt to those who Derek Smith and Mr R Cox, Australian

k Museum, Sydney, provided photographs of have provided photographs for the book and information on types, and who have 1 type specimens in the museum's collection made suggestions about the coverage of the as did Dr N Tatarnic, Western Australian

book.

Museum, Perth. Susan Wright and G

Haylee Weaver and Alberto Venchi of Thompson, C Lambkin of the Queensland the Australian Biological Resources Study, Museum are thanked for help with type Canberra, were helpful in providing maps specimens in their care. Dr Tony Robillard, Muséum National and making many suggested changes to the

Faunal List of Australian Crickets which is dHistoire Naturelle, Paris, helped with the

up to date with the publication date of this identification of several difficult species.Dr

book (p.iv). Early in the preparation of the e lan Naumann provided the image of the

book, Dr Alice Wells and Ms K Gerombouxwonderful stone cricket taken in Laos. Mr

provided helpful suggestions and access to CM Wang and Ms YN Chang,Taiwan, the facilities of ABRS.Drs P Gullan and P enabledthe secondauthor tovisit the cricket Cranston are thanked for permission to use theme park in Tainan,Taiwan. Dr J

illustrations from their classic book: The Kathirithamby, Department of Zoology, Insects. Dr P Gullan supervised YN Su's Oxford University, provided identification

work on the Australian Nemobiinae that of the first record ofastylops recorded from has resulted in the development of his study a cricket (p.14). Mr Gary Wilson made of crickets. Dr M Jennions's work on sexualobservations of the biology of several cricket selection in crickets provided thespecies that live in his block of rainforest. opportunity for YN Su to continue his

Mr Buck Richardson accompanied the

cricket interests and resulted in the  first author of most fieldtrips in search of gynandromorphs of Teleogryllus commoduscrickets over the past several years. These

reported on p. 24.

trips have resulted in many crickets Dr G Cowper and D Funk of thephotographed for the first time and el discoveries in their behaviour, ecology and Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University helped with questions about geographic distribution. His companionship specimens in their care. Dr D Otte provided is most appreciated. a series of photos taken on the Alexander Dr DB Weissman, a colleague and and Otte Expedition to Australia in 1960 friend for over 45 years, has made several (p. xiv).Dr P Hudson, South Australian helpful suggestions that have improved the

Museum, Adelaide,provided photos of quality and coverage of this book.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank Mr Scott Morrison, formerly Murray Uptonis thanked for hissuggestions

Ranger Coordinator, Talaroo Station, Mt and encouragement during the course of Surprise,Qld, for his interest in our project this project. and encouraging the discovery of crickets Dr George Hsiung, retired, MacDonald on the station propertyas well as on his own College,McGill University, Canada,and Dr

property in Koah,Qld.Similarly, Dr Xing-bao Jin,retired,provided photographs Michele Schiffer, Station Manager, Daintree of cricket 'competitions'in Asia and

Rainforest Observatory, James Cook information on crickets and folklore,as well University, Cairns,for permission to as recipes where crickets are used as human observe crickets on the station grounds. Dr food. Jeanette Kemp, Wildlife Ecologist and Dr JThe following people provided

Kanowski, National Science and photographic images that have greatly aided Conservation Manager, Australian Wildlife in the coverage of this book: M Anthony, W

Conservancy, are thanked for allowing us Archer,P Branwhite,G Cocks,K Ellingsen, access to Brooklyn Reserve,Mt Molloy, Qld A Elliott,R Farrow,H Frank,P Gullan,J for the purpose of surveying for crickets Hasenpusch, D Heald,A Henderson, P that inhabit this important portion of the Honan,B King,J and F Hort,I Hutton,D north Queensland environment. Professor and F Knowles, X Li, S Mawson (SM), C TJ Walker, who provided the first author Mawson(CM),K McLachlan,N Monaghan,

with a gratisreel-to-reel taperecorder in the Sand D Mawson,Sand A Pearson,BRevell, 1960s for the purpose of recording B Richardson,R Richardson,MRobinson,L

Californian crickets and other Sanders,HT Su, G Tate, G Wilson,R orthopteroids, has provided helpful Wimbush, P Wise and P Zborowski. Those

suggestions during the preparation of this whose photos have been selected are book.Dr RE Love is thanked forcomments identified where they are used. PNaskrecki

on the scaled crickets. Dr T Houston, is thanked for providing the photo of L Western Australia Museum, Perth, and G Chopard which resides on the website of the Monteith and C Lambkin,Queensland Orthopterists'Society. Dr D de Mello

Museum, Brisbane, answered many Mendes is thanked for providing an image questions about specimensin their care.Dr of a Changa Mole Cricket. D Baume and J

K Walker, Melbourne Museum, has Hasenpusch have provided the first author answered questions about crickets in the with many live crickets collected on local

collection. N Bailey and Peter Moran, St fieldtrips. Mr P Shanahan provided many

Andrews University, Fife, Scotland, live crickets from his property in Kuranda,

provided information and publications Qld that were used in photography or sound relating to Teleogryllus species,their recording.Dr M Moulds also provided live

behaviour, physiology and mate choice crickets for photography from time to time.

selection. We also thank the Pet Café, Photographsnot namedwithaphotographer are those of the authors of this guide. Smithfield, Qld. Dr RB Halliday is thanked for

MsJ Waldock and Mr D Elford of the

determination of mites on the crickets. MrWestern Australian Museum provided

vi

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA photographs of the cave-dwelling cricket, M Jin,JLumbers, D Yeates,MF Braby and

Ngamarlanguia luisae,at the suggestion of D Ferguson.Ms SRoutely kindly translated a number important papers. The Dr W Humphreys. Ms Amy Chesher, Australian Institute Lepidoptera Unit,ANIC, is thanked for

of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders encouraging YN Su to pursue his interests

Studies, Canberra, is thanked for searchingg in crickets while attending to his duties in

and providing photographs of NB Tindale

for use in this book.

the section.

Ms Lauren Webb, Development Editor,

Dr D Yeates, Director, Australian CSIRO Publishing, has kept in contact during

National Insect Collection (ANIC), and Dr

the entire time this book was being written,

F Turco, Collection Manager, CSIRO, providing comments and suggestions. National Facilities and Collections, are Ms B Foster and Ms HM Yang, KC Su, thanked for encouragement during the HT Su, Mr J Cricket and Radio Dismuke are

thanked for their companionship and efforts will stimulate the study of crickets encouragement over the development of based on the extensive collections in ANIC. this effort. We thank any people that we production of this book. We hope their

Fieldwork with the colleagues of the second have missed for their interest in seeing this

author include ED Edwards,A Slipinsky, M project to completion.Any errors are those

Horak,A Zwick, L Teasdale, G Cocking,B of the authors.

Lessard, K Meusemann, A Landford, X Li,

vii

Australian National Insect Collection

Photo: Alan Landford

The Australian National Insect Collection holdings of all major insect groups, as well (ANIC) is the world's largest and most as mites and nematodes, the collection is

important collection of Australian insects critical for those requiring authoritative

globally. Managed by the Commonwealthidentification of insects, including pests and

Scientific and Industrial Research threats in biosecurity and agriculture. The Organisation(CSIRO)since its inception collection has 30 paid staff, and an even

almost acenturyago,thecollectionisacritical larger cohort of Honorary Fellows, Visiting

reference for anybody studying the taxonomy Scientists and volunteers. We have two staff

and systematics of Australian insects.

embedded in the collection providing

With over 12 million specimens from identifications and information for the

all of Australia's biomes, and extensive Department of Agriculture and Water 4

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Resources, and a number of staff supplied of the University of Michigan and his

through the earnings from two separate graduate student, Daniel Otte. This endowments, the Elwood and Hannah endeavour was sponsored by and number Zimmerman Trust and the Schlinger of granting agencies in the United States Foundation. The collection continues to and elsewhere. CSIRO and ANIC acted as

host a vibrant community of postgraduate the host for the pair as they traversed the students and early career researcherscountry far and wide, collecting thousands

studying invertebrate diversity. of specimens and making hundreds of ANICis veryproud to beable to support recordings of cricket calling songs. All of the publication of this book,the first the specimens are deposited in the ANIC focused on Australian crickets(Orthoptera: Collection. Their efforts resulted in the Grylloidea and Gryllotalpoidea).These are 1983 publication A Monograph of the

an extremely diverse group of insects, with Australian Crickets,published by the almost 100 genera and over 500 species so Academy of Natural Sciences of far described from Australia. These Philadelphia. Due to the efforts of fascinating but often secretive insects are Alexander and Otte,and many other

more often heard than seen by most collectors,the ANIC cricket collection has

Australians. The huge variety of chirps, grown to over 115 000 specimens. More buzzes and squeaks that male crickets make recent collecting and taxonomic work has when singing to attract a mate is a constant rendered the 1983 monograph out of date reminder of their presence in our gardens and difficult touse.The purpose of the

and bushland. Crickets and their relatives guidebook is to highlight the crickets as are notorious ventriloquists, having thean important group of Australian insects

ability to disguise the source of their song worthy of further study. The book treats from predators, and from entomologists almost all genera, and almost half the

trying to track them down. Their song number of described species.In addition, always signals that there is likely to be ait provides information on how to collect, healthy population of other terrestrial rear and preserve crickets. A précis of

invertebrates nearby as well. In recent Australian and non-Australian

decades the sounds produced by crickets,e entomological cricket specialists provides a history of study of these insects in and the structures they use to produce the a sounds, have been used increasingly as a Australia.A complete checklist of cricket valuable taxonomic character to distinguish species and a list of relevant publications will provide the user with an entré into the species. A major undertaking in the study of study of Australian crickets.

Australian crickets began in 1960 with a year-long fieldtrip by Prof RD Alexander David Yeates,You Ning Suand David Rentz



Introduction The Australian cricket fauna is extremely crickets). The Australian Faunal Directory diverse when compared to that in other (Australian Biological Resources Study parts of the world.The presence of crickets n.d.)currently lists 520 described species in

almost everywhere in Australia has been an the Grylloidea in 89 genera. The important factor leading to the writing of Gryllotalpoidea adds another three genera

this guidebook. Otte and Alexander's and some 19 species. The Orthoptera monograph(1983) is an important entrée Species File(OSF),a global catalogue

into the Australian crickets,but there have (Cigliano et al. n.d.),lists 6058 cricket

been many taxonomic changes and many species in 906 genera for the world,

additional descriptions that make using the including Australia. The Australian fauna

monograph very difficult for the non- includes representatives of almost all of the specialist entomologists. We also hope that major cricket groups.

this photographic excursion into the world Not included in this book are the Raspy of Australian crickets will stimulate others Crickets(Gryllacrididae).They are placed in

to study cricket biology and classification. their own superfamily, Gryllacridoidea, and

What is meant by 'cricket' in

this book

are more closely related to katydids (Tettigoniidae) than they are to crickets. The

King Crickets, family Anostostomatidae, are Several unrelated taxa in the Australian also in their own superfamily, the fauna are called crickets'and some readers Stenopelmatoidea,andare not includedhere.

may be disappointed in not finding them The so-called 'Pygmy Mole Crickets'are in

included in the pages of this book. We are another part of the Orthoptera entirely; in

treatingonlythe members ofthe Orthoptera fact, they are in a different suborder, the superfamilies Gryloidea(true crickets)and Caelifera.Because they are unrelated to 'true

Gryllotalpoidea (mole crickets and ant crickets, we are not including these insects in

Acanthogryllacris sp., a typical winged Raspy

Cricket, family Gryllacrididae.

White-kneed King Cricket, Penalva

flavocalceata (Karny).

×

A GuIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA in Australia from the intertidal zone to the tops of the highest mountains and tops of the tallest trees. Even in cities endemic species can be heard and seen in local

parks, and introduced species such as the Indian House Cricket(p.123) can be heard

in nature as well as in homes. In addition,

Australian King Cricket, Anostostoma

australasiae Gray, megacephalic male.

caves, such as the Black Mountain Caves, north Qld, and the caves of the Cape

Range, Western Australia, harbour unique cave-adapted crickets. As seems to be the

case with other Australian insect groups,

once you start to look, you find more and this book. Such is the problem with common more species than ever expected. Such is

names.What maylooklike acricket may not the situation with crickets. At a given locality more than one species in a genus always be a cricket! Why are there so many cricket speciescan often be found. Silent as well as sound-

in Australia? Probably the most important producing species occur together almost consideration is the tremendous diversity everywhere. At the home of the first author of habitats and plant associations that in Kuranda, Qld, 56 cricket species of both

occur on this continent. That,coupled with superfamilies have been found. These isolation and the complex geology of include species that live in the ground,in

Australia, may also contribute to the leaf litter, in termite mounds,on leaf

diversity.Crickets can be found everywhere surfaces and under bark.

Amusurgus tinka,a silent cricket of northern rainforest understorey vegetation.

INTRODuCTION

Phaloria anapina,female,an occupant of lron Range, Qld, and a member of a genus shared

with New Guinea. Amusurgus kanyakis, a silent cricket of northern rainforest understorey vegetation that spends the day in leaf litter and emerges after dark to

feed on particulate matter on leaf surfaces.

similarity of the two faunas. With the majority of species in the north-eastern part of Australia, the proximity of New

Guinea, the diversity of habitats and the

similarity of climates, they were able to record more than 100 species in various

Unka boreena,a common rainforest cricket in the Daintree and Kuranda Range area,Qld.

Gryllodes sigilatus, the Indian House Cricket, anintroduced species that lives in and around human habitation as well as in nature in the northern tropics.

Diversity and endemicity

Otte and Alexanderhypothesised that the Australian crickets probably reached the continent by way of New Guinea and the

Torres Strait. They based this on the Utona species,a silent cricket of northern proximity of New Guinea and the e Queensland about which little is known.

ii

A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AuSTRALIA

habitats between Iron Range, Qld, and Michigan, they did their fieldwork in Sydney. We can report probably half Australia from June 1968 to August 1969.

again that number of undescribed species The CSIRO Division of Entomology and to further emphasise their claim. Melbourne University served as their hosts.

Rainforest crickets,including those living Some 46 000 miles(73 600 km)of travel

along rainforest margins, have similarity'resulted in more than 900 field stops. This to the New Guinea fauna. The great effort was designed to survey as completely majority of the Australian continent is as possible the Australian cricket fauna. In quite xeric and the crickets from these addition, major Australian collections areas are distinctive and not at all related where cricket specimens were housed were

to those from New Guinea. Otte and visited. Specimens were borrowed and

Alexander note that many investigators localities noted for further visitation. They have related the Australian fauna more to commenced their activities with the that of Asia and Africa.Parallel evolution knowledge that fewer than 150species were

has resulted in confusion, with the recorded in the literature from Australia. generic placement of some desert crickets (Their subsequent monograph includes 492 superficially resembling genera such as species. See Otte and Alexander 1983).

Eurygryllodes, for example. This has been

Fig. 1 shows their travel route. Many of

corrected to a large extent since their the sites visited were later to become type monograph. The south-eastern portion localities for their many new species. The

of the continent,including Tasmania,has black circles indicate both collecting,tape

relatively few cricket species. Severalrecording and listening' sites during their

Tasmanian crickets are flightless and are trip. Almost 1000 localities were sampled. even shared with the mainland, l, Calling songs of the crickets were tape-

substantiating relatively recentrecorded in the field and usually associated connections with mainland Australia. with the crickets producing them. Their trip began in northern

The Alexander and Otte

Queensland. They soon discovered that the

number of new species was very large,

larger than they ever imagined. The pair Expedition (1968-69) This guidebook would not be possible were soon became aware that the vast number of it not for the pioneering fieldwork inundescribed species were in the northern Australia undertaken by Professor RD rainforests, as well as other Queensland Alexander and his graduate student at the habitats. They predicted that their resulting

time, Daniel Otte. With funding provided monograph would cover at least 75of the by the United States National Sciencespecies, described and undescribed, found Foundation and the Guggenheim on the Australian continent. Otte and Foundation,and encouragement from the Alexander admitted that this was just the

Academy of Natural Sciences of beginning and they had probably missed Philadelphia and the University of many undescribed species, especially those

xiv

INTRoDuCTION

601-602.

119 1129、

190-143

42-48

38-41

14-162

163-168

178-188

775-1

R781-813]

748-762

782-774 867-879 880-899

r22-747 /oni

692-708

814-856 189-

/wows

WA 51-6s2

s-6o

\50-92 4-21

\54 55 57

205-218 94-112-

74-84- 85-93y 617-834-

\268-284

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-282-297 208-289

71-72

NT

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审076-67r

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2-37 286-202 50-63 487-489

681-83- 113-118

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0-439

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321

604-60s[

382-38 360-360

0 TAs

4o-361 352-356

312-320 425-420

848-66o

725-735

Fig.1.Route of the Alexander and Otte Expedition to Australia 1968-69.Modifedfromotteand Alexander (1983) with permission.

that produce no calls. We certainly concur document the calling songs and extend the

with this.

locality information for these species. Most

In their monograph they described 376 of their new species were found tobe in the

new species in many genera. As noted north, especially in the rainforests of north

above,they felt that through their collecting Queensland. Our fieldwork suggests that and listening techniques, they obtained at they were only scratching the surface when

least 75of the Australian cricket fauna. it came to species numbers.Based on more Fortunately, they were able to discover than 30 years'collecting in many different

more than 90of the described species in parts of the country, we conclude that, the field. Some of these names were very perhaps,twice the number of species listed

old and they were fortunate to be able to in the monograph exist in Australia.

xV

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA many described ones that are not included here. We present examples of most genera and many species, but not all of them, so don't give up and become discouraged if you cannot make a rapid identification. The keys and illustrations should be of considerable help. If still unsure, perhaps you have encountered one of the many undescribed taxa that are part of the

Along the road to Cooktown. Photo: D otte.

Australian insect fauna.

The scientific names include the name of the person who first described and named the cricket. Taxonomists who use

During the preparation of this guidebook, this book to identify species need the we were pleasantly surprised when weauthor's name for completeness. Authors' discovered a species that we could names are less necessary for well-known positively identify as a 'named'one! groups such as birds and reptiles. But with Generally, we were confronted with insects the name of the author can be

undescribed species.

helpful in leading one to the literature as Alexander and Otte relied on their well as indicating precision with localities,

listening abilities to a great extent to for example.Some authors are more precise

determine ifcrickets were present at a given than others! The uninitiated will note that location. This is useful for species that sing. some authors' names are in brackets, such However, we have discovered that not all as Teleogryllus commodus (Walker). This singing species sing every day or night. means that the species commodus was

Additionally, there is a suite of generallyoriginally described by Walker, but in a unrelated crickets that do not sing at all. genus other than Teleogryllus. A quick glance at the Orthoptera Species File These will be discussed on p. 15.

How to use this book

(p. 382) will reveal that T. commodus was

originally described in Gryllus, which was These pages are meant to be used as you considered a very large cricket genus in the

would a typical field guide: thumbing 19th century. Gryllus is presently a much

through until you find something that more restricted genus. While 'brackets or approximates the cricket you want tono brackets' may be of little concern to the identify. Then double check that theaverage user of this text, they can help to

alert a taxonomist to the fact that the distribution map matches your collection ; locality. For the more difficult species, thepresent concept of the genus is different

notes and illustrations should help to from that as originally intended. Another

identify the specimen.Remember,there are possible reason for a species being placed

many undescribed species in Australia and in another genus is that the original genus xvi

INTRODUCTION

In the outback,central Australia RD Alexander searching for crickets.Photo:Dome.

R.D.Alexander recording on roadside verge.Photo:Dotte

xvi

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

was pre-occupied. This means that at the mistakes are made,especially before the e internet existed. The Catalogue of time of the description of the genus, the author was unaware that the name had Z Zoological Nomenclature also states that a

already been used for another zoologicalspecies name consists of a genus and species. For this reason, species are never organism. In zoology, each generic name s

must be unique. There are catalogues that related as 'commodus, for example. This list all generic names but from time to time taxon is correctly portrayed as T.commodus.

Xxvii

Australian cricketers Almost all of the names given to Australian crickets have been assigned by overseas entomologists. One of the reasons for this book is to attempt to stimulate interest on

the part of local students and professionals in this important group of insects. There are

wonderful opportunities for not only taxonomic study, but also for ecological,

behavioural and acoustic studies. Some of the most important describers of Australian genera and species are presented below.

Richard D Alexander (b. 1930; d. 2018) Emeritus Professor and Emeritus Curator

of Insects, University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Had a broad interest in insects

ranging from orthopteroids to cicadas.

Karl Frederich Brunner von Wattenwyl.

Mostly concerned with singing species, in insects as wellas that of horses,dogs and especially crickets and cicadas. He also primates, including humans. conducted research on evolution of behaviour

Karl Frederich Brunner von Wattenwyl (b.13 June 1823,Bern, Switzerland;d.24

August 1914,Kirchdorf, Austria) Worked as a postmaster and later became

Professor of Physics at the University of Bern,1850-55. He published some of the

most influential works on the classification of insects, the results of which are still used today. He was knighted in 1880.His collections are in many European museums.

Lucien Chopard

(b. 31 August 1885,Paris, France; d.16 November 1971, Paris, France)

Richard Alexander. courtesy of D ote

Chopard joined the Muséum National dHistoire Naturelle, Paris,in 1931 and

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA creatures and geological samples. Wrote several papers based on collections made on the voyage of the Zeleé,1837-40,to the South Pacific. He is credited as describing the widespread oceanic Field Cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus(Le Guillou).

Carl Linnaeus

((b.23 May 1707, Sm?land, Sweden; d.10 January 1778, Uppsala, Sweden)

Linnaeus founded the binomial system of nomenclature in Systema Naturae,the

Lucien Chopard. Photo:ES oss.

naming system which is used in biology

today. Primarily a botanist,Linnaeus

spent most of his career working on mantids published, mostly in Latin, but studied and crickets, retiring in 1955. He produced many animal groups as well as plants. several revisionary classifications, which are Became professor of Botany and Medicine still followed to some extent.He described a at Uppsala.He was knighted in 1761 and his large number of Australian cricket genera moniker then became Carl von Linné. In this book, the most important species he and species represented in this book. described is Acheta domesticus, the House Cricket,a cosmopolitan species. AV Gorochov (b. 1952) Gorochov is responsible for many of the taxonomic changes of the Australian

crickets above the genus level. These changes are based largely on similarities

and differences of genitalic structures. In

addition, he has described several

Australian species, some with scanty data

that does not include dates, collectors or precise localities. The types of these species are in the national collection in St Petersburg,Russia.Heis with theZoological Institute,Russian Academy of Sciences, St

Petersburg,Russia. EJF Le Guillou

(b.1806,Quimperlé,France;d.1855)

Le Guillou was the Chief Surgeon on the

ships IAstrolab and IZelée. But he was

mainly a collector of natural history Carl Linnaeus.



AUSTRALIAN CRICKETERS

Eric Georg Mjoberg

smuggling of human remains back to

(b.6 August 1882, As, Sweden; d.8 July Sweden.The 1915 publication of his diaries

1938, Stockholm, Sweden)

about the 1910 expedition exposed his

Mjoberg was a Swedish entomologist unethical and illegal collection of material

commissioned by the Swedish government from Australia. Some 90 years after his

to lead expeditions to north-western expeditions,the remains of Aboriginals held Australia in 1910-11 and to Queensland in in Swedish museums were returned to

1912-13.Hemission wasto document fauna Aboriginal elders in 2004. Mjoberg died in and flora.Unbeknown to Mjoberg,he was to poverty in Stockholm after a long,

become a controversial figure long after his undiagnosed illness during which he had

death.The insects collected on these constant nightmares reflecting his expeditions were described in many experiences in the Kimberleys, including a

publications, and his name is honoured in sense of being pursued by Aboriginalpeople many patronyms. However, historians have and contact with the Wondjina- creation

described Mjoberg as aggressive,arrogant spirits of the Dreamtime.Aboriginal elders

and devious,a leader who made enemies had no problems in their analysis of the with local Aboriginal people, pastoralists reason for his demise(see Ferrier 2006).

and even his own scientific team. Mj?berg

Mj?berg's insect-collecting activities

became obsessed with the Aboriginalpeople,resulted in many publications, some with and what started offas collecting native flora himself as author. One short paper and fauna for research soon led to the concerned crickets. In addition, Lucien desecration of sacred burialgrounds and the

Chopard described many crickets collected on the Australian expedition.Several species are illustrated in this book.

Daniel tte

(b.14 March 1939,South Africa)

Otte is a world authority on crickets and grasshoppers. Became Curator of Entomology, Academy of Natural Sciences

Eric Mjoberg.Courtesy ofEntomologicalSociety of

Queensland.

Daniel Otte.courtesy ofDotte.



A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA of Philadelphiain the late 1970s followinga palaeontology. He specialised in the insect

stint at the University of Texas.He is now of orders Hymenoptera and various

Drexel University. He has published many orthopteroid orders. De Saussure's papers and books on crickets and classification of the orthopteroid insects is

grasshoppers, and is responsible to the largely followed today, albeit with

promotion and successful publication of the modifications brought on by geneticstudies. web-based Orthoptera Species File,an He described several Australian crickets. online catalogue of all described Orthoptera

species. This catalogue is regularly updated.

Carl Stal

Other orthopteran species files include (b. 21 March 1833, Karlberg Castle,

Phasmida, Blattodea and Mantodea. Along Stockholm, Sweden; d. 13 June 1878, with RD Alexander, he published the Fr?sundavik, Sweden)

Monograph of Australian Crickets in 1983 St?l matriculated at Uppsala University and

without which this guide could not have became a physician but switched to entomology where he completed a PhD at been written. the UniversityofJenain 1859.Superintendent

Henri Louis Frederic de Saussure

and Professor of the Entomological Section,

(b.27 November 1826,Geneva,Switzerland; d.20 February 1905,Geneva,Switzerland)

primary interest was in the Hemiptera but he

NationalZoological Museum of Sweden.His

de Sauaaurewasa distinguishedentomologist skilled in several fields such as geology and

Henri de Saussure. 4

Carl st?l.

AUSTRALIAN CRICKETERS

wrote many major works on Orthoptera, his father with 'limelight' photographic

including Phasmida.

work. But that did not stifle his scientific

interests. He modelled his work after the style of Alfred Russell Wallace. In 1921 he (b.19 April 1841, Neutomischel, Posen, made an expedition to Groot Eylandt, NT, Germany; d. 1922, Adelaide, South where he collected insects. He was made

John Gottleib Otto Tepper

Australia)

aware of the treasury of Aboriginal artefacts

Tepper arrived in Australia in 1847 and on the island and later met the doyen of

later became a state school teacher for 15 Australian anthropologists, Baldwin years. In 1883 he was appointed to the Spencer, who schooled him on the South Australian Institute Museum, later to techniques of collection and preservation of

become the South Australian Museum. He Aboriginal artefacts. This initiated Tindales held the positions of entomologist, other life as an anthropologist. Tindales numismatist and librarian. He was a extraordinarily broad but interconnected consulting entomologist to the South research areas made him such a renowned Australian Department of Agriculture. His specialist in several fields. He made a research interests covered many groups and scholarly study of Pleistocene shorelines in he usually had salient observations on the Australia. He was a linguist and became biology and ecology of the insects he fluent in several Aboriginal languages. He

studied.

Norman B Tindale

made detailed studies of aboriginal

initiation practices, Western Desert art and

(b. 12 October 1900, Perth, Western

Australia;d.19 November 1993,Palo Alto, California)

Tindale was an exceptionalscientist.He was awarded an honorary doctorate late in his

career from the University of Colorado in

1967.He was a multidisciplined researcher

with interests in entomology, ornithology, anthropology, geology and palaeontology. Tindale was largely self-trained. He had

what must be considered an extraordinary life.In 1907 his family moved to Japan fora

stint of missionary work. There he gained an appreciation of natural history and anthropology, and learned the language. In

1915 the Tindales returned to Adelaide

where Norman continued his studies in

moths and butterflies. Shortly after his return,Tindale lost the sight of one eye in Norman Tindale at Fromm's Landing,Murray River, SA, Massola.Photographer Aldo Massola.Courtesy

an acetylene gas explosion while assisting

of AIATSiS (A01.CS-00080371).



A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

mythology.His main entomological interest Museum where he wrote more than 300 was in the Ghost Moth family, the scientific papers (many of doubtless

Hepialidae, and this led to his worth!).He produced many catalogues on

paleontological studies because of the many diverse groups that all entomologists discovery of the most ancient lepidopteran reference in their work. It has been said that

in the Mt Crosby, Qld,fossilbeds.His other his salary was based on the number of entomological activities included studies of s species he described. And so descriptions mantids and mole crickets, Gryllotalpidae might have been at the expense of accuracy (p.353).His investigations into the biology and good judgement. Much has been

of these insects remain classics today. written negatively about Walker and his During his years of study, he collected brief and usually short, ambiguous thousands of insects that are in the Southdescriptions. All taxonomists have to deal Australian Museum. As a result there are with him and his types in the Natural many species named in his honour. History Museum, London, at some time. Tindales knowledge of Japanese servedMost of his taxonomic work is not Australia well during the Second Worldaccompanied by illustrations. Fortunately,

War where he and his brothers were most of his material is adequately preserved instrumental in cracking the Japaneseand the species are recognisable. aircraft production code system; this gave the Allies reliableinformation as toJapanese

airpower. More importantly, he and his unit deciphered the Japanese master naval code.

There is much more that can be said of this one-eyed scientist. He is much better known in anthropological circles for his

many publications, sound recordings and documentation of the tribes' of Australia.

He received many awards for his pursuits. An indication of his 'primary'interests might be that he ran a light sheet and collected insects nightly almost to the end. He spent his last years in Palo Alto,

California. Francis Walker

(b.31 July 1809,Southgate,England; d.5 October 1874,Wanstead, England)

Walker was interested in insects from an early age. He was employed by the British



Francis Walker.

Biology Crickets are generally omnivorous but are found on or in the ground. A few species strongly tied to certain types of habitat.At are associated with coastal mangroves. a given locality the crickets that live there . These crickets can escape danger by

seem 'stratified'that is, there is a scuttling down stems and trunks of the complement of species in each distinctive mangroves seeking refuge underwater.

part of a given habitat. Some live on or in Several species undergo large population the ground, others live in various situations explosions from time to time and these can

above ground be it on bark, under leaves, cause concern for agriculturalists. The

on twigs in foliage such as grass and Black Field Cricket,Teleogryllus commodus

herbaceous vegetation. Probably the (Walker), p.78 and recently its congeneric majority of species at a given site can be relative, the Oceanic Field Cricket,

Large number of the Pygmy Cricket, Pteronemobius ornaticeps,p.336,attracted to lights in Humpty Doo, NT. Encroachment of human populations has caused the population of this cricket to increase

beyond what would be considered normal. Photo: K.McLachlan.

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA T. oceanicus(Le Guillou), p.79, have had established itself in Australia(see p.67),

outbreaks in recently-developed but the Indian House Cricket is often

agricultural areas in both the southern common in cities as well as in nature, areas and the continent's northern tropics.p. 123. Problems are caused when it gets

Pastures in the southern portion of behind walls or under large appliances or

Australia can be damaged from time to other equipment. Its incessant, repetitive time by the Small Black Ground Cricket, calling is disturbing to some people. As Velarifictorus (Buangina) pikiara (Otte and d agriculture expands into the hinterlands of Alexander),p. 113. Two species are the Australian continent, more cricket

confirmed as introductions to Australia. species will undoubtedly emerge as The House Cricket, Acheta domesticus problems in one way or other and as threats

(Linnaeus), p.67 and The Indian House to agriculture. Similarly with the influx of

Cricket, Gryllodessigillatus(Walker),p.123 tourism and the continuous visits of

are used as feeders in the pet trade,p.56. container ships,more exotic insects can be The House Cricket has not permanently  expected to arrive in Australia.

Mass of Teleogryllus oceanicus,p.79,at lights in the Kimberley Region,WA.Periodic outbreaks of

this cricket may be associated with favourable conditions that may have been caused by irrigation

for agriculture.



BIOLoGY ecotypes. Grasses seem to harbour Oecanthus,Euscyrtus,Beybienkoana,Eurepa, Aphonoides, some Salmanites, for example. Shrubs are preferred by Tamborina, Xabea and many others. Many crickets live on orin

the ground, as with Bobilla and

Pteronemobius,others live in burrows of The Black Field Cricket, Teleogryllus commodus,

p.78, collected on a ship in the open ocean.

This is anexample of transport of a potential pest to distant areas.Photo:G.Tate.

their own construction (Apterogryllus in burrows over a metre deep!) or in cracks in

dry clay soils. Somespecies of Gymnogryllus and Mjobergella tunnel in rotting wood.

Some Mogoplistinae,Nemobinae, Gryllinae

Ecological distribution

live in the bases of vegetation or in leaf litter. Many live among the interstices of dense

As noted above many crickets have very grasses even in well used athletic fields.Ant nests are the home of Ant Crickets restricted ecological tolerances. Some are 1

associated with a certain plant groups or (Myrmecophilidae).They seem to have some

Major Vegetation Types

in Australia

Closed-forest Open-forest Woodland Shrubland

Scrub and heath Herbland

Adapted from Carnahan 1977 Vegetative associations of Australia.Note the relatively small landmass that thenorthern tropics occupy.Yet, this area has among the great diversity of Australian crickets.FromCarnahan(1976inAtlsof Australian Resources. Canberra: Dept of Natural Resources.

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

sort of mutual association with their ant plants. The Singapore Daisy, Sphagneticola hosts. Other crickets in the Mogoplistinae trilobata,is a Central American ornamental and Phalangopsinae spend the day within plant that has become established in north termite mounds or sheltered in the shady Queensland. It is an attractive ground cover folds of larger mounds but emerge after dark. but it is quick to colonise cultivated and They can be found on the surface of the mounds feeding and interacting with one

another at night. Many crickets spend the daylight hours under loose bark, often in groups. These include some species of Myara, Riatina and some Eurepa species. The surface of bark is the habitat for Pseudotrigonidium

and many other Phalangopsinae.

Understorey vegetation harbours many

Trigonidinae, Mogoplistinae as well as the large Cardiodactylus crickets. Tree-tops seem

to be the favoured sites of many Madasumma and some Tamborina. A strange situation

sometimes presents itself with introduced Unidentified phalangopsine nymph on termite

mound at night, nr Mt Molloy, Qld.

Mound of termite,Nasutitermes sp, near

Dimbulah, QId.

10

Pseudotrigonidium australis, male,on rainforest

tree trunk at night.

BioLoGY

Amsurgus kanyakis female grazing on particulate matter after dark.

Undescribed wingless phalangopsine female

nymph, on tree trunk at night.

Marina sp.on Xanthorrhoea sp.after dark.

Cardiodactylus novaeguineae nymph abroad at

Field of Singapore Daisies near Babinda, Qld.

night.

abandoned fields and grows prolifically noideawhat theirlifecycles maybe.There is

along rainforest margins.The flowers are an a fruiful reward for those willing to pursue

attractive food source for many crickets and cricket study. its dense growth provides cover to many

Otte and Alexander were surprised that

cricket species.With many crickets,we have Eucalyptus and Acacia in Australia

11

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

harboured relatively few cricket species. spiders will accept crickets as food. Wasps

They surmised that birdpredation, theopen can be observed draggingparalysed crickets foliage of those trees and the general to their nests. absence of aphids, favoured food of some crickets, could be contributing factors. Our fieldwork suggests otherwise. We find both Eucalyptus and Acacia yield crickets when beaten or swept. Genera such as Riatina p.165, Tamborina p. 157,Hemiphonus

p. 174, and many mogoplistines p.263 live in these trees. Loose Eucalyptus bark

provides suitable diurnal protection for nocturnal species. Although aphids may not be plentiful in Australia, they are replaced to a great extent on Eucalyptus by lerps, psyllid bugs that produce a Orb-weaver spider feeding on male Unka crystallised honeydew that covers the larva. boreena at night. Both the secretions and the larvae are eaten

avidly by honeyeaters and other birds and

probably also by crickets.

Predation Crickets are the source of food for many vertebrate and invertebrate species. All over the world House Crickets are raised and sold

for food for captive vertebrates and

invertebrates (p. 56; see Weissman et al.

2012).In nature birds and lizards can be observed searching for insects. Birds search for crickets in dead leaves in shrubbery as

Jumping spider, Cytaea sp.feeding on

mogoplistine cricket at night.Photo:S&APearson.

well as in leaf litter on the ground. Surely plovers, ibis and other birds that are commonly observed feeding on lawns and ovals are encountering crickets. Burrows of Cephalogryllus tau are often discovered partially dug. Digging bandicoots have been observed doing this at night. Whether they are attractedto the soundmade by the calling males or by some other factor is unknown.

Spiders are frequently seen feeding on Spider,Phrynarachne sp.feeding on nymph of crickets. Orb weavers as well as wandering Cardiodactylus novaeguineae at night.

12

BioLoGY Halictophagidae by Dr J. Kathirithamby. This is the first record of this type of parasite

in a cricket.

Gordian worms, Nematomorpha, are elongate nematodes which live within the body of the cricket for most of the host's life. A single worm can be found within the body cavity of the infected cricket. It seems incredible the amount of space within the

Crabronid wasp, Liris sp., preparing to move

body of the cricket these worms occupy.

night. Photo:L Sanders.

development of the cricket but it does render its host sterile. A recent observation

parasitised adult male Loxoblemmus pallens at

The worm does not seem to alter the

Crickets are parasitised by a range of is that of a mogoplistine cricket (p. 263)

organisms. Frequently small red mites bearing a Strepsiptera, probably family

can be found on crickets. These are often Halictophagidae. under the pronotum or wings but can be

Males of the widespread field cricket,

almost anywhere on the body. These ! Teleogryllus oceanicus, were introduced to mites are in a juvenile stage and areseveral Hawaiian Islands in the 1990s. They

parasites only for a short period. After endure high rates of parasitism from a fly

feeding, they drop off and continue their Ormia ochracea, family Tachinidae. development. Stridulating male crickets attract females

A recent observation is that of a from great distance. The crickets have

Strepsiptera protuding from the abdomen another, short-range courtship song that is

of a scaled cricket,Marinna sp. This is the performed once the male is aware that a

first recordof this parasite ina cricket.It has female is present and responsive. These been identified as a member of the family sounds also attract the tachinid fly. Today,

Scaled cricket, Ornebius sp.near coorumbena with mite attached to eft hind femur.Mite identified as in the group Parasitengonain the parasiticnymphal stage. Adult mites of some species in this group

are called Red Velvet Mites.

13

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Scaled cricket Marinna sp.female, with female strepsipteran, Halictophagidae protruding from abdomen.

Adult male Teleogryllus oceanicus.

responsive females of T.oceanicus will mate

Mite attached to cricket male genitalia of Hemiphonus brunneovariegatus.

without hearing the close-range courtship

song. The female fly locates a singing

cricket and deposits a live larva which

most of the male crickets of T.oceanicus on burrows into the cricket feeding on the island of Kauai are silent, called d selective tissues for from 7-10 days. The

'flatwings, that produce neither the calling larva then emerges and falls to the ground

song nor the courtship song. How do the e to pupate, become adult and repeat the silent males mate if they cannot attractcycle. This phenomenon of tachinid flies

females with their calls? Incredibly the e being attracted to the calling songs of silent flatwing males themselves are insects has been studied extensively in attracted to the sound of the other normal Western Australia where tachinid flies of calling males.In experiments with recorded a another genus, Homotrixa sp.,are attracted sound (Zuk et al.,2006), discovered the 1 to the calls of male nocturnal katydids,

silent fatwing males can be found closer to Sciarasaga quadrata Rentz, Tettigoniidae; a loud speaker than normal males. This Austrosaginae,see Allen,1995. suggests that the silent flatwing males are

locating near calling males.Female crickets Courtship

orienting to a calling male may find a Courtship and mating in crickets is

flatwing male first and mate. Apparently elaborate,see Masaki and Walker,1987.It

14

BIOLoGY include a) difficulty of sound propagation in the physical environment; b)evolution

of another means of communication (generally chemical); c)special features

of population structure or habitat;

and,d) the individual 'cost'of singing.In

Mating pair of Eurepa sp.,marginipennis group. Female atop male. She may be palpating

exudates from glands located beneath the

upraised tegmina.

the rainforest, the loss of acoustic communication is probably associated with the first of the three causes.

Sound communication in a labyrinth

of growth may be problematic because of reverberation,however, chemical is the reason that in most species, malecommunication may be successful in crickets sing (stridulate). However, there such environments. In addition, the is a suite of unrelated crickets thatpopulations seem to be very high, so the

produce no sounds(see below).Males of distance between individuals may be less

many unrelated genera such as than experienced with other species. So

Amursurgus,Homoeoxipha,Metioche, the potential for the sexes meeting is Oecanthus and Xabea possess higher and, perhaps, there is little need

metathoracic glands that exude a for long-distance communication.

substance that is thought to have an Perhaps,some crickets employ vibration aphrodisiac effect on females of the as a form of communication as is species.In some trigonidiine genera such common amongst some Tettigonidae.

as: Metiochodes,Homoeoxipha and On the property of one of the authors in Amusurgus have metathoracic glands in Kuranda,Queensland,56 cricket species

both sexes. In some Pteronemobius have been identified.Nineteen species of crickets males haveashort,modifiedspur this total are silent. That is 34of the

on thehind tibiathat producesasubstance total number which seems quite

that, when it is palpated by a female, extraordinary.

supposedly primes her for mating. The various mating strategies have not been Fire studied in Australian crickets.

Bushfires can have affects on cricket

Silent crickets

populations. Repeated burning along

roadsides can eliminate leaf litter and all

Several Australian crickets species have the organisms that rely on it for food or

males which produce no calling sounds shelter. If the burning is sporadicand not at all(Table 1).Several authors have extensive, this may not permanently

developed hypotheses suggesting why damagelocal populations.But theextensive acoustic communication may be lost in a annual burning is some areas surely reduces

some cricket species(see, for example cricketnumbersand maylead topermanent

Desutter-Grandcolas,1997). Reasons disruption of cricket populations. Much

15

AGUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Table 1. Australian'silent'

crickets.

Genera Maluagyfus

Number of described

Umbulgaria



silent species

Apterogrylus Mistshenkoana

1 20 1

Hemiphonus



Insulascirtus



(subgenus Mundeicus)

Salmantes

Adenopterus Pentacentrus

Beybienkoana

Merinella

Tozeria

Turana Arachnocephalus

Endotaria Tincanita

Sivinela Nambungia Nareina Specnia

Eumarinemobius

Ca/perum

1 1 21;



1 1 1



1 2 2 1 2 2

Ngamarlanguia



Amusurgus

93

eritieritia

Metiochodes



Adult female Amusurgus nilarius.Photo:A.Lim. organisms that live within the burning areas.(See McKay, 2017: 30-33 for a sensible discussion of prescribed' burning.)

Conservation

No single cricket species is of conservation concern even though many species are

known from very restricted areas.Probably themost important consideration should be made is conservation of habitats. This is important in coastalareas,such as along the coast of Western Australia where housing development, agriculture, including wheat and grape culture is rampant. Loss of the Coastal Sand Plain flora and fauna is

occurring with many orthopteran species now rare or their populations severely Myrmecophilus restricted. Agriculture is encroaching on natural habitats. This is especially true in more study needs to be made of the effects the southern portion of the country. The

of prescribed burning on not only cricket means to clear large areas of all vegetation populations but the populations of other are now much more convenient than in the

16

BIOoLoGY

Aftermath of fire near Canberra,ACT.

Bushfire! Photo:B.Richardson.

Afterburn of bushland.Heathlands,Qld.

17

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

past when trees were killed by ringers' and introduced plant. On Philip Island,some then cut down and the dry vegetation was 5 km off Norfolk Island, South Pacific, burned. Today tractors can do the job in a rabbits,goats and other organisms were

matter of hours.

introduced by visiting whalers centuries

Much is made about the depredations of a ago. Until relatively recently, they virtually

introduced organisms, especially denuded the island ifits originalvegetation. introduced weeds. Cricket populations are This caused erosion to such an extent that often increased by the presence of certain the roots of the Norfolk Island Pines, weeds, especially grasses. However, one Araucaria heterophylla,are more than 1.5 m

Australian cricket was probably saved from above the present surface of the ground.

certain extinction by the presence of an The island is home to several crickets the

Encroachment of agriculture near Penong, SA.

Tractors used for clearing the bush quickly and thoroughly, WA.

18

BiOLoGY most important of which is the Philip Island introduced olive,Oleaeuropaea.Apparently Cricket, Nesitathra philipensis,p.251).This the rabbits did not like eating the olives and

cricket survived because it was able to take thickets of the plants survive mostly in the

refuge in the leaflitter in the thickets of the gullies on the island.

Denuded landscape of Phillip is.,,near Norfolk Is., 1984.

19

Cricket life cycles and development Crickets have rather simple life cycles. If north Queensland.However,in T.oceanicus

they live in a warm, consistent climate with in Australia, there seems to be seasonality

no extreme seasonal changes, they can have and,perhaps, even diapause in its northern continuous growth and reproduction populations. This seems to be a (overlapping generations). These species contradiction but is another example of a

have a homodynamic life cycle.This form of cricket that deserves further study of its

life cycle is common with crickets and other biology.

insects in the northern tropics. Often at a Crickets are in the group of insects that given locality,adults and young crickets can undergo gradual metamorphosis. This is be found together at most times of the year. true of all the orthopteroid orders,for

On the other hand, depending on where example Orthoptera, Blattodea, Mantodea you are in the tropics, there can be aand Phasmida. The hemipteroid insects are prolonged dry season. Some of the cricketsalso an example of a group that undergoes

in these localities may not have agradual metamorphosis. Examples of some homodynamic life cycle but a heterodynamic insects that undergo complete

life cycle.That is,they are very seasonal and metamorphosis are those in the orders their development is dependent on seasonal Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera.

changes. For example,in the southern part These groups have a larval and pupal stage

of the Australian continent, most cricket before the adult. When a cricket egg species spend the winter months in the eggg hatches, the little cricket is called a nymph.

stage. There may be species that have one or r As it grows, it moults several times. The

life cycle or the other depending on where cricket between moults is called an instar. they occur geographically.

First instar nymphs can be very different in

Diapause is known to occur in many appearance from their adult counterparts. It

species. It is a delayin development that can is often impossible to determine a species occur in the egg stage or at some point in from a first instar unless you have previous development from nymph to adult.experience with the species. Each cricket

Diapause is a way for a species to cope withspecies seems to undergo a precise number

irregular and suboptimal environmental of moults leading to adulthood but this has

conditions. In the southern part of been largely unstudied in the Australian Australia, egg and juvenile diapause is species. The smallest number of instars

known in the Black Field Cricket, seems to be five. This has been recorded in Teleogryllus commodus.Its relative the the Tree Crickets, Oecanthinae(p.231).The

Oceanic Field Cricket, T. oceanicus, has largest number has been recorded in the been found to have no diapause where it House Cricket, Acheta domesticus(p.67), occurs in places like Tahiti and parts of with 14.But a range in variation can even

20

CRICKET LIFE CYCLES AND DEVELOPMENT

place. In most arboreal species, this can take place on the underside of a leaf or twig. Once the cricket has assumed its desired position,it grasps the surface with its tarsi, assuring a firm grip. The cricket undergoes some hormonal changes and its body swells. This causes a split down the

First instar nymph of Riatinanangkita.First instars can appear very different from adults

(see p. 171).

longitudinal dorsal surface of the body. The cricket then begins to remove itselffrom its old skin.This it does by moving forward. This process takes a bit of time but all must

be completed by mid evening. Once

Adult of the same specimen Riatina nangkita.

removed from its skin,the cricket takes in air and grows. The skin remains pliable for a short period and during this time the cricket consumes the old skin. This recycles some of the chemicals contained in the skin and also addsbulk to the gut. This helps the gut to regain its normal shape and form and not collapse on itself. The sides of the fore-and midgut, as well as the inner surface of the fine Malpighian tubules,are

be found within a given species. This part of the exoskeleton and are also shed probably depends on variousenvironmental

during the moulting process. Once the

factors such as food, time of year and moulting process is completed, the cricket

climate.

Moulting is accomplished usually at night.Reasons for this seem simple. When a

hardens and is probably able to feedby mid

morning.

What is important for identification is

cricket moults, it is highly vulnerable to to know whether a specimen is an adult or

predation. In addition, wind can cause a not. With the number of wingless species it fragile cricket to get knocked off its perch can be difficult to determine if the insect in and not undergo a successful moult.hand is mature or not. If a female, check to Moulting is usually accomplished after dark see if the ovipositor is developed or when the cricket is less vulnerable toreduced. Immature females often have

predators and winds are calm and, most ovipositors whose valves separate. Adlt importantly, the humidity increases. Thesemales are a bit more difficult to distinguish.

conditions assist the cricket in ecdysis-the (Checking of the concealed genitalia will

act of moulting. An observer can determinereveal if the specimen is mature. Immature if a cricket is ready to moult. The cricket males have reduced or poorly sclerotised appears somewhat swollen and a bit genitalia. With a little experience, one can lethargic. It eventually finds a suitable be confident that a specimen is an adult or

21

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

A moulting cricket.This takes place at night when humidity

is high.The cricket is much larger than the skin it is leaving. Following the moult, the cricket consumes the skin, recycling some of the chemical components and adding bulk to the foregut so that it maintains its shape.

not.If the individualisvery soft and pliable long-winged andashort-winged species.In and, if a female, the ovipositor is the latter example the forewings(tegmina)

undeveloped and very flexible, then the are in the middle position in thelast instar

specimen is most likely a nymph. The and the wings are in the outer position.

specimen is a nymph if the four wings are They are 'flipped'during the last moults.

separate and the ovipositor is very short. This is much the same in acridoid

Fig. 2 shows last instars v. adults of both a grasshoppers.

Young instar of Mjobergella warra. Note the absence

22

of wings and the very short ovipositor revealing it requires several additional moults to become an adult.

CRICKET LIFE CYCLES AND DEVELOPMENT

Last instar nymph ofHemiphonus tindalei(see p.180).Note the pairof undeveloped wings internal

to the tegmina.The short ovipositor with its separate valvesis also indicative of a nymph.This cricket will be an adult with the next moult.

cycle in crickets is ~2 years from egg through to adult. Only a few Australian species have been studied in this respect.

With global climate change and the

resulting changing environment, there is a

need for research in cricket life cycles.

 Gynandromorphs Gynandromorphs (individuals combining male and female characters in the same individual) are rarely encountered in

insects. We have discovered two individuals

of the Black Field Cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (p. 78) that are bilateral

Fig.2. Last instars v. adults. How can one tell? The specimens on the left are last instars; the ones on the right are adults. Note that

gynandromorphs. Fig. 3, ventral view, shows an undeveloped ovipositor on the

of the nymph, and the hind wings are in the

left. The dorsal surface shows the left tegmen which is obviously male. The right side is female and the short ovipositor can be seen as a short stem. Fig. 4 is a

therefore, the tegmina and wings are flipped,

gynandromorphy that does not fit the

on the lower pair, fully winged as adults, the

forewings (tegmina) are along the midline

outer position. During the last instar moult,

much as they are in acridoid grasshoppers.

bilateral category. In this example the ovipositor is on the left together with the

Longevity seems to also be a feature of f female subgenital plate. Dorsally the male

some crickets. Crickets from northern tegmen on the left is obvious; the left

Australia seem to be especially long-lived. cercus is more male than the right.This is

This is a casual observation and these an example of mosaic gynandromorphy

species may just be ones with a where male and female structures are not

homodynamic life cycle. The longest life bilateral.

23

A GuIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Fig.3.Teleogryllus commodus.Bilateral gynandromorph.Male characters on the left, female on the right.

Fig.4.Teleogrllus commodus.

Gynandromorph not 100 ilateral. Some male characters on the tegmina.Left side ovipositor and female subgenital plate and

right side female cercus.This is termed a

mosaic gynandromorph.

24

Collecting techniques useful for crickets In general, crickets are secretive and many exasperating to try tolocate crickets that are are not easy to find.Several species are silent ventriloquial. This problem can be overcome

and do not producesounds that the collector to some extent if two people 'triangulate

can use to track them down. As a result, towards the calling cricket,keeping in mind specialised collecting methods will help to that the singer may be overhead in a tree. provide successful results. The bat-detectors used by entomologists to search for katydids Collecting equipment

are generally not effective with crickets since Nets

most cricket sounds are below the range of Basicallytwokinds ofnetcan beusedtocollect these devices. Adding to the challenge of crickets. The sweeping net has a robust handle locating singing crickets is that some are attached to a heavy-duty bag. It can be used to

ventriloquial. This simply means that the sweep through grass and shrubby vegetation. sound the crickets produce appears to be It is surprising how many crickets can be

coming from someplace else. It can be collectedin this way.The diameter of thehoop

"Sweeping'with a sweeping net in the Daintree, Qld.This technique is effective in collecting many kinds of mostly small crickets that live in grasses. It is effective day and night.Euscyrtus (p.196),

Beybienkoana(p.193) and various Trigonidini(p.284) and Mogoplistinae(p.263)were found at

this site. Photo:V Mercier.

25

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Vertical malaise trap.

A combination sweeping and aerial net and, right, an aerial net.

of thenet shouldbeatleast 35 cm and thebag fairly deep to prevent an active cricket from escaping. Muslin is the preferred material for

thenet-bag since it is robust and tends to repel Horizontal malaise trap. Photo:ANC. grass seeds.The sweeping net can also be used when shaking low-hanging tree branches to

secure unsuspecting arboreal crickets. An are especially effective for the collection of umbrellaturned upside down can also beused Scaled Crickets (p.263)and Trigs(p.303). but jumping and flying crickets are sure to Such traps can be left for days with alcohol,

escape this form of collecting. ethylene glycol or other preservative The second kind, the aerial net, has provided in the collecting jar. Crumpled rather limited use with crickets. It is paper can be used if live specimens are

generally not robust enough to withstand desired. Care must be taken in the the rigors of sweeping through stiff and placement of this form of trap because prickly Australian vegetation so it is not an wandering livestock, kangaroos or wallabies essential net. A combination aerial and can become entangled in the guy ropes and

sweeping net can be used. It has a heavy become injured or destroy the trap. muslin bag but a net bottom.

Malaise traps

Light-trapping

Light-trapping is a very effective way to

Malaise traps have been found to be useful sample for many species. Light traps can be

for thecollection ofcrickets.Smaller species operated at dusk and while the lights are seem to climb into these traps. These traps attracting crickets to the light sheet, the 26

coLLECTING TECHNiQUES USEFuUL FOR CRICKETS collector can search the adjacent habitat for

secretive or flightless species that would not otherwise be attracted to the lights. We try to use a variety of light sources to provide a broad spectrum of wavelengths that may attract insects. A small generator can be used to power the lights ifin the field away from mains power. A 120 cm fluorescent black light in combination with the kinds of

bulbs noted below will attract many nocturnal crickets. Over the yearsa range oflight sources have

been used to attract insects after dark. Mercury vapour(MV)lamps seem to behighly effective

and most widelyused.The uncoated bulbs are thought to be the best in providingaspectrum most attractive to insects. Recently quartz

halidelamps havebeen found to be very useful for night collecting. These along with the MV Light sheet in the open with mercury vapour,

bulbs are now coated (white appearance) for coated bulb. This light attracted several species

eye safety purposes. This seems to reduce their of ground-dwelling crickets. efficacy in attracting insects. However, they are

th Where to look for crickets still more effective than ordinary lights. With

eitherof these high wattage bulbs,one must be Most crickets can be collected both day and careful to not expose them to rainfall or they night but the collector has to know where to

will explode.It is best to turn them offif rain look for them. Many nocturnal species can approaches or have a metal shield to protect be found secluded during the day after the them from rain.(A warning: eye glasses collector becomes familiar with their habits.

suitable to filtering the harmful rays of MV Search for crickets under rocks and in leaf lights should always be used, especially if litter,or by sweeping or beating vegetation.

collecting close to the light source is Many small crickets live on the ground in prolonged.)Recently we have discovered that leaf litter and can be coaxed to move by

the fluoro blubs used in insect traps can be carefully shuffling through the dead leaves

useful in attracting crickets. They come in a and keeping an eye for the small jumping

range of sizes and the output wavelengths crickets. A glass test tube can aid in seem to be slightly different fromone brand to collecting small crickets promptly in such

another.Because theirlowwattage,severalcan habitats. Plastic test tubes do not seem to be used at a light sheet without any strain on work very well. The cricket eye'seems to

the generator. They can be found in the detect the plastic tubeand theyescapeevery gardening sections of larger hardware and time. Crickets do not seem to detect the

nursery shops.

glass of a test tube, especially if it is clean.

27

A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Glass test tubes with a 20 mm diameter eventually settle into the grass habitat.If the seem to work very well to secure a desired fields are not very well used, the crickets specimen. In dark forest habitats, the use of may actually live and breed in the turf. the headlight during the day can save aRoadside verges in most areas are very

great deal of time.

productive for crickets and other insects.

Short-cut grass can harbour a surprising This is due to several factors. In some areas number of cricket species. Sports ovals and the extra runoff from the highway provides golf courses that are adjacent to naturally more moisture for plants to grow. This is

vegetated woodlands can be the home for detected by insects and specimens can be

one or more species.Even when the grass is found there. In some areas the only closely cut, crickets can be found living remaining 'natural vegetation is that

there.They can be frustratingly elusive in located between the soft shoulder of the escaping through the anastomosing grass road and the fence-line. Waterholes in arid rhizomes. Some of the larger species, such areas can be productive for cricket as the black field crickets, Teleogryllus spp.,collecting. Mole Crickets, Gryllotalpidae can be found living under these conditions. (p.353),and Pygmy Crickets, Trigonididae,

Other groups to look for on grassed areas Nemobiinae (p.335)are often found

include Nemobiinae, both of the tribes burrowing in the soft mud along the

Trigonidiini and Nemobiini. If games are margins of waterholes.Many other crickets

played at night under lights, this probably in the Gryllinae (p.109)and Trigonidinae

attracts the crickets initially and they groups are often found there.

Golf course in the Daintree,Qld.Many grylline,nemobiine and trigonidine crickets were

found amongst the rhizomes and dead grass on the lawn.The margins of the greens were also useful in finding a variety for other species.

2.8

COLLECTING TECHNIQuES uSEFUL FOR CRICKETS

Athleticovalat Mt Molloy,Qld.Severalgrllines and nemobiines were found by searching on hands and knees after dark.Thesourcearea is probably the woodlands in the distance.When events are held at night, the lights surely attract crickets.

Dirt trackleading to Marvel Loch,WA. Severalgryllines were found in vegetation along the margins of the track.

29

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Verges are always worth searching for insects. They often collect more water than areas just a few metres distant.In this example,in South Australia, the verge contains the only natural vegetation for many kilometres.

Junction Waterhole, near Alice Springs, NT. Mole Crickets Gryllotalpa (p.352), live in burrows in mud around this waterhole. A variety

of Pygmy Mole Crickets, Pteronemobius spp. (p.335), and various gryllines (p.64) were found there and were attracted to lights after

dark.

 Collecting at night Spot-lighting

interesting to search various habitats after

dark but can also be a valuable experience Spot-lighting for crickets after dark can in learning and understanding cricket be fun and very rewarding if collections biology. Aheadlight is the most important

or photos are desired. It is not only piece of equipment in this activity. LED

30

COLLECTING TECHNIQUES USEFUL FOR CRICKETs

bicycle night-lights are very efficient and other similar cereal product along a not veryexpensive. Thebrighter the light, walking track, animal track or dirt road.

the more effective it will be for collecting. Active crickets will be attracted to the Lights of 3000 lm or more are effective. smell of the cereal product and stop for a

However, the colour temperature of the feed.Small piles of oatmeal separated by a

light may also be important,especially for metre or more can also be effective in some

the convenience of the collector. A light areas. The crickets can be photographed or, source of neutral colour spectrum,if need be, collected. A drawback of this

around 4500K, seems the best. But these technique is that rodents, marsupials and lights can weaken the batteries fairly some nocturnal birds and lizards may also

quickly so extra batteries should be be attracted to the cereal and consume it carried into the field. Rechargeable along with the crickets. Over the course of

batteries are the best option.High- the evening, many of the ground-dwelling

powered, hand-held LED flashlights are cricket species that might otherwise be also useful in providing bright light but overlooked can be found feeding at the

the drawback is that both hands are not oatmeal. free to collect or photograph the cricket. The headlight is by far the most effective way to spot crickets at night. Fluorescent lights or wands of the type sold for use in car repair garages have had their place in the past. The battery-operated types found in auto supply houses that can used with 6 or 12 V batteries are the most effective in lighting small areas.An

appropriate,rechargeable motorcycle battery that can be carried in a 'bum-bag' is the best source oflong-lastingoperation for this apparatus. In addition to spot- lighting, use of the sweeping net at night is recommended. It can be more

productive than sweeping during the day since at night many crickets will ascend from the leaf litter below to feed or seek

mates.

In addition to light-trapping and

searching the vegetation after dark, the collector can set an oatmeal trail. This is a simple technique that isuseful and literally A bicycle headlight is an inexpensive stops crickets in their tracks. It involves collecting accessory that leaves the hands

free for collecting or photographing.

laying down a trail of oatmeal, muesli orPhoto: B Richardson.

31

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

plastic can help shield the trap from rain. Large ice-cream containers can also be

used. But there are often problems with

curious bandicoots and rodents getting to

the bait and catch before the collector. Sturdy mesh anchored in the ground can help prevent disasters caused by curious

mammals.

The flight-intercept trap is another way

to collect wandering insects. The intercept net is effective at stopping flying insects

which fall into the gutter below. The trap is

essential a length of roofing gutter of, say, 2 mlength with the ends blacked and sealed with silicone. The gutter is buried in the Typical oatmeal trail; female Pteronemobius

ground and some ethylene glycol (or radiator coolant) added to catch, hold and

preserve the insects until the collector checks the trap. The glycol does not piece of oatmeal to the right provides an indication of size. evaporate very quickly and if the trap is left for several days, the insects should be well preserved. They catch can be transferred Well-lit petrol stations or all night cafés directly into 70-80 thanol for permanent ornaticeps (p. 336) at the oatmeal trail. The

can be a good source of crickets.Many storage. One major drawback of this

insects, especially crickets, fly to lights in techniqueis that the by-catch can consist of

such places,especiallyin summer. Checking wandering reptiles and amphibians. Care

early in the morning before insectivorous must be taken to reduce the chances of birds are active can yield a rewarding catch. vertebrate losses.

Pitfall traps

Pitfall traps often reveal crickets that are overlooked using other techniques. Some traps can be left in place for days or weeks, providing specimens when the collector is elsewhere. There are many forms of pitfall trap. The simplest ones are made from takeaway food containers. The traps can be baited with oatmeal, fruit or molasses -or nothing. Wandering crickets,and other insects,are attracted to the bait and

drop in. A piece of corrugated iron or Setting a pitall trap in the 19th century.

32

COLLECTING TECHNIQUEs uSEFUL FOR CRICKETS

Baited pitfall trap with cover (opened) for protection from rain.

Photo:G Monteith.

Making a collection Killing crickets

these colours are not very common in crickets

so ethyl acetate is a good, safe killing agent. Cricket identification can be accurate only Even better is ammonium carbonate. This if specimens are in hand for careful study chemical is the 'smelling salts' of the boxing under themicroscope.Some species can be trade. It is readily available and safe to use. identified from photographs but if there are l Both of the above killing agents attract questions of the identity of closely related moisture and evaporate rather quickly. So the

species, a cricket or two may need to be killing agent has to be replenished regularly preserved so that its taxonomically and theinsects removedpromptly after death,

otherwise they become wet and hairs and important parts can be examined. Killing crickets for collection purposes is scales can be damaged. Potassium cyanide is not difficult. Freezing is a simple and quick byfar thepreferredkillingagent but it must be

method of dispatching a cricket. Care should obtained by permit due to its lethal nature.

be taken, however, because freezing can Advantages for insect collecting include its

destroy cells and cause some discoloration long-lasting properties and it generally and dehydration if the insect is left in the remains dry over time. The greatest

freezer for lengthy periods. If freezing is not disadvantage of using cyanide to kill crickets

anoption,crickets can be killedin killingjars. is that rigor mortis sets in shortly after the Several killing agents can be used to kill insect's death. At this time the hind legs of crickets. Ethyl acetate is safe and readily most orthopteroids,including crickets, easily

available. Its main drawback is that it detach. This problem can be overcome by discolours many green or yellow insects. But waiting about 5 h untilrigor mortis passes and

33

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

For larger species, the tall, wide-mouthed jars in which olives are sold are perfect.

Preparation of any of the killing jars in which

the killing agent is dry is the same.A layer of the substance is placedin thebottom ofthejar

with some finely divided perlite, Styrofoam" or other material to keep it in place. Then a circular cut piece of foam is inserted to keep Ecu时

the ingredients in place. Shredded tissue prevents the crickets from biting each other and losing legs and antennae. With cyanide jars, Plaster of Paris should beused instead of

Killing jars.The bottom of the cyanide jar

is taped to prevent distribution of cyanide should the bottle break.

the foam to hold the cyanide in place.Alayer of Styrofoam or sawdust can be used to

separate the cyanide from the Plaster of Paris. The bottom of the bottle should be taped to

the legs become pliable and less likely to  prevent the cyanide from escaping into a detach from the specimen.Killing insects in wound should the bottle break in ones hand S ethyl acetate and ammonium carbonate does or pocket. not seem to lead to rigor mortis. Ifspecimen is desired for molecular studies, then the fresh Dealing with the catch specimens should be frozen for later use. A Crickets are not as subject to decomposition variety of jars can be used. Juice bottles areas are katydids, raspy crickets and king

useful because they have a narrow neck that crickets. Crickets seem to have a tougher

makes it less difficult to catch a small cricket.exoskeleton and this permits them to dry

Pinned cricket with label to avoid any possbility of confusion.

34

COlLECTING TECHNIQUES USEFUL FOR CRICKETS

without excessive shrivelling or Alcohol preservation decomposition. Since most crickets are not Many entomologists who study crickets

green or yellow, but brown, grey or black, choose to preserve theircatch in alcohol. This

colour changes are not usuallya problem.In has many advantages but also a few fact, most species with which we are familiar disadvantages. Since, as noted above, most

do not need to be gutted and stuffed'as is cricketsare brown,greyorblack,preservation the case with katydids and some large in 80 thanol does not discolour them.

cockroaches.However, if life-like specimens Crickets so preserved are easy to dissect. The are desired,they would benefit from gutting dissected bits can be placed in small vials and

and stuffing'. Some of the larger kept in the same containers as the crickets.In Apterogryllus species are examples. But this way, the specimen and its parts' can

these crickets would probably be best remain associated with one another. Housing

preserved in alcohol. Other crickets can is also enhanced because multiple crickets

merely be pinned, their legs set and left to can be stored in a single container. A

air-dry for a week or so before being drawback with this method is that, with the labelled. Care should be taken to prevent misguided notion that insect collections are ants, geckos and other potential pests frompassé, reduced institutional support for

attacking the drying specimens. If in the taxonomic collections and the associated

field forlongperiods,it may be inconvenient activitiescould result in neglect of the alcohol and a waste of precious field time to pin collection. Curatorial practice demands that specimens.A better method is to layer them alcohol levels be checked periodically.

inlayer boxes.They dryout ratherquicklyif Alcohol should be topped up or changed

the boxes are properly vented,leaving the from time to time, otherwise it could evaporate and the specimens desiccate and be collector to continue with collecting.

A collection of specimens in alcohol. The collection needs regular

observation to replace defective lids or any alcohol that might evaporate.

35

A GUIDETO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

rendered almost useless. One cricket family that should be preserved dry is the Mogoplistidae-the Scaled Crickets. These small crickets are covered in scales and the scales and patterns are important in their identification. The scales can be lost on specimens that are preserved in alcohol, so specimens in this family would be more

useful if dry-preserved.

Dry-preservation An easily constructed relaxing chamber.Add Dry-preservation simply involves pinning, some naphthalene flakes to reduce mould. labelling and placing of the specimens in a

pest-free, dry and dark cabinet. A small amount of naphthalene should be added to the box to discourage museum pests' such as

very fragile and the desired structures could

easilyberuined ifcare is not taken tobegentle

dermestid beetles and book lice. Checking of making the dissection.

the specimens from time to time will reveal if Pinning a cricket

there are any problems with museum pests. Textbooks suggest pinning a cricket through Dissection of wings, genitalia and other the right-hand side of the pronotum. This is

morphologicalstructures from dry materialis probably the best of the techniques. Care

a bit more involved than it would be if done needs to be taken to both preserve the left- with alcohol-preserved material. A dry hand side for observation of morphological

specimen must be 'relaxed'overnight. Thisisa and characters and not to pin through the simple matter.It involvesplacingthe specimen forelegs. This leaves the cricket quite on a wet sponge in an airtight refrigerator unbalanced, as to weight, on the pin. But container. A sprinkling of naphthalene or a pinning in any other place could also cause

few crystals of thymol can help to discourageproblems. If pinned through the wings, this

mould during this process. Care needs to be could both prevent the tegmina and wings taken to either leave the locality label on the from being spread as wellas seeing important specimen or remove it and use a numbering venational characters.So pinning through the system to correctly associate it with the pronotum is probably the best option. Small relevant specimen. Overnight in the relaxing crickets should be pinned with micropins chamber is usually sufficient to loosen the with the micropin embedded in Polporus pith

muscles so that the desired structures can be rectangles. These come in strips and can be

dissected.If they are still not moveable after cut to 10mm sections.This organicmaterialis

8-12 h, moistening with a bit of dilute becoming scarce and difficult to obtain. It is detergent and more time in the chamber also susceptibletothe devastations ofmuseum

should free the muscles and not damage the pests. A better substitute is silicone or another specimen. Freshly caught specimens seem to synthetic strips. These grip the micropin be easier to dissect than dry material but thattightly and are not susceptible to museum is largely a matter of preference. Crickets are l pests, and they are less expensive and put less

36

COLLECTING TECHNIQuES uSEFUL FOR CRICKETS

Mo w

Ta 6d -d.siso0

oceIIya(Chopard) DET/CF Rentz A properly pinned and labelled cricket ready for the collection; a'double-mounted'cricket.

Synthetic strips that can be cut witha single-edged razorblade into1 cm blocks for double-

mounting. Also shown small vials for genitalic preparations.

stress on the environment. Polyporus is a accessories. The elevation can also be

genus of fungus that is collected from determined as thelocality is recorded.It is wodlands. a simple matter to make labels using a computer. The point size should be ~4.5. Labelling the collection Proper labelling involves recording the This allows for a small label with the

maximum amount of data. A second label with a brief statement of the location, the can include habitat or host data. If using a

latitude and longitude of the locality along

date and the collector. This is a fairly computer, a black and white laser printer simple matter with many modern cars can print the labels if the specimens are to

providing GPS systems as standard be pinned. But if they are to be stored in

37

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

alcohol, an ink jet printer should be used most females do not possess the means to

and the labels printed on archival matte p produce sound. With the exception of

paper for longevity.

female Mole Crickets (Gryllotalpidae),

female cricket tegmina are not specially modified to produce sound. Dissecting Dissection of preserved material Dissection of dried insects is often essential cricket genitalia requires patience and for precise identification. With crickets thepractice. The body integument of most most commonly dissected parts are the crickets is very soft.That is one reason they male right tegmen and the male and (for make acceptable fish bait and food for pets. more precision) the female concealed If dissecting numerous individuals, care

genitalia.These two structures contain the must be taken not to mix the genitalia.If

most informative sets of characters for this happens any questionable sample

should be discarded. A colour code or identifying species. Regarding the tegmina, the number and position of the veins of the

male right tegmen determines the

numbering system can keep the items

separate.

Steps for male cricket genitalic produces. This,coupled with the physiology preparation: of the cricket, defines the song.(Some crickets have the left tegmen over the right 1. Using two pairs of fine forceps carefully open the subgenital plate. parameters of the sound that the male

and some species may have some individuals that have the right tegmen over

the left or the left over the right.)The

position, shape and thickness of the veins on the wing are not random but are precise for delivery of the calling song to which females respond. It is generally understood that females respond only to the calls of males of their own species. Silent crickets

rely on other means to bring the sexes together. The structure,placement, spacing

and number of stridulatory pegs are

Carefully tease the membranous tissue around the genital capsule.Take care

to remove the ovoid spermatophore (p.52)along with the genitalia.The

shape of the spermatophore, its colour and the structure at the end of the spermatophore tube can often be species or generically distinctive. Following removal of the genitalia, carefully adjust the tip of the abdomen

so that the cricket appears in a natural

position.

extremely important since they deliver the song. The average user of this book will have difficulty in counting,measuring and

2. Place the dissected portion of the genitalia in a 10solution of potas-

theyare so small and usually very numerous

gently dissolve the muscles and leave the sclerotised bits, containing the most informative parts. Rushing this

even seeing the stridulatory pegs because

in crickets. They are located on the opposite side of the stridulatoryvein(p.48).Because

of this, we are not relying heavily on these

structures for the species identification in this guidebook. It should be noted that

38

sium hydroxide (KOH). This will

process by heating the KOH can result in the finer parts of the genitalia

becoming fragile or disappearing

altogether.

cOLLECTING TECHNIQUES USEFUL FOR CRICKETS

3. After24h orless in KOH,check to see if the muscles detach from the sclerotised portions.If so,transfer the bits to plain water to wash out the

remaining KOH. Then carefully tease the muscles from the sclerotised portions to reveal the genitalia. Once the muscles have been removed, transfer the genitalia to a solution of 70 thanol for a few minutes and proceed to the next step.

4. For permanent storage of the dissected bits,carefully place them in genitalia

vials of the appropriate size,adding a few drops of glycerine. This can be

accomplished with a hypodermic needle. The glycerine acts as a preservative and should keep the

genitalia intact for decades if they are

tightly sealed in the tubes. Plastic genitalia vials are sold by most

Cleared genitalia complex, enhanced somewhat in PhotoShop".

Care should be taken to avoid cork

are generally used in Australia and have many advantages.If cork tops are

black pins are used. Stainless steel pins

commonly observed that the glycerine

entomological supply houses (p. 382).

stoppers for the vials, especially if

used for the genitalia vials, it is

Dissecting instruments and an assortment of dishes used toobserve microstructures under the microscope.The syringe is used to dispense glycerine into the micro-vials.

39

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

flows onto the cork and eventually

makes its way onto the pin.At that

lacking bits of wing and have chewed legs (see Weissman and Rentz 1977);this is a

point, the black pin slowly dissolves

result of crowding. A moulting individual is

and in a few years' time breaks. The

defenceless and its soft body is a source of protein for other occupants. So keeping the

modern synthetic corks and vials coupled with stainless steel pins prevent this problem. The glycerine

remains in place and, even if it does touch the pin, it does not dissolve it. The only drawback with the synthetic

corks is that they eventually lose their

elasticity, especially if the vials are opened repeatedly, and the lids may have to be replaced.

crickets separately has its advantages. A

source of moisture is necessary for each container and this can be a wad of tissues in

a small pill bottle or vial with water added periodically. Crickets will also welcome a piece of apple or carrot from time to time.

Crickets need a substrate to cling to when they moult, otherwise they become distorted as their exoskeleton hardens.

Slide-mounting cricket genitalia is Windowscreening seemsideal for this.The

time-consuming and not necessary. The

insides of the jar or other container should

greatest disadvantage is that the samples be lined with the screen. Plastic or cloth cannot be rotated. And with the asymmetry s screening is not useful because, being of some genitalia, this can prevent the chewing animals, crickets can readily chew

observation of some characters.

Rearing crickets

through this material and escape. Containers should not be air-tight but

should allow for fresh air. Labelling the From time to time, it may be useful to keep container is essential. One should never

crickets alive. This may have to do with trust data to memory because uncertainty

fieldwork to distant locales where one will surely result and the specimens will be

discovers that the crickets there are inaccurately labelled. A gummed label

immature and it would be advantageous to should be affixed to each container and the

bring back nymphs and rear them to 'stop number'of the locality,or some other

maturity. Rearing crickets is not difcult notation that distinguishes the individual, since they arelargely scavengers and are not noted in pencil.

Diapause is a part of the life history of Orthoptera food mix(p.383)is ideal for many cricket species.This may occur in the especially finicky about what they eat. The

rearing crickets. Of course, one needs to egg stage and last for weeks or, perhaps, supply a source of water.Jars or takeaway years.Some desert species may have an egg

food containers can be used to house the diapause that is 'broken' whenenvironmental crickets. Crickets are opportunists. They conditions suggest it is time for the eggs to readily consume other crickets if the hatch.It may also occur in one of the later

opportunity is presented. To avoid this, instars during the life of a cricket.A cricket each cricket shouldbekept on its own,inan may attain the last or second last instar, for individual container. The House Crickets example,and remain in that stage for weeks (p.67) you find in pet shops are often despite the presence of food, water and

40

coLLECTINGTECHNIQUES USEFUL FOR CRICKETS

container for male crickets is important if recording the sound of the cricket is to be accomplished. Once the call of a cricket is

recorded, it should be documented as such with a'recording number'that is associated with a database. A label should be affixed to the specimen when it is killed or dies. We use an S-number. Sis simply for sound

recordingbut any system can beused aslong

Jars for housing live crickets. Note the tube

as it is consistent. Weuse this system for all

used in small quantities. Each jar should have

insects we record, and we have made over

for water.The Orthopteran food mix(p.383)is

a locality label, and the date of maturation

should be noted and recorded on a separate label pinned with the specimen.

2000 recordings. All of these S-numbers are related to a database and the recordings

themselves are in the Australian Wildlife

Sound Collection of CSIRO, Gungahlin, acceptable temperatures. Time may dictate Canberra. Duplicates of the recordings are in the Australian National Insect Collection, when it proceeds to maturity.

If crickets are to be kept en masse for

some reason, a large aquarium with food,

Canberra.

Regardless of which method is used to

water and agenerous amount of insecticide- keep crickets alive, one must be able to free wood wool is all that is needed to raise control mould that grows on old or wet

the insects. However, crickets can be food,as well as cereal storage mites cannibals and eat their neighbours when (Acaridae) and several species of book lice

they moult, so it is best to separate prized (Psocoptera).Mouldy food is not acceptable

individuals and allow them to mature in to hungry crickets and if book lice are a

their own individual container. In so doing, problem,their numbers can increase to the an observer can record the number ofpoint where they can consume most of the moults it takes for a cricket to mature andcricket food and may even attack and kill a note the 'maturation date'(take photos of moulting cricket. Occasional checking of

crickets moulting). This date is important the containers is important,and containers

and should be noted on a special label may need to be washed or changed from

placed under the locality label. It is time to time if these problems occur. surprising that even if immature crickets are collected in the field and take weeks to Recording cricket vocalisations

mature at home, the date at which the Cricket recordingcan beaccomplished with

cricket matures is very similar to what less expensive equipment than that needed

would occur in the field, despite nutritious to acquire the sounds of katydids food and water that are provided. These (Tettigoniidae), for example. The reasons

times seem to be more genetically than for this are simple. Crickets sing at lower environmentally controlled, at least with frequencies thankatydids andless expensive

several species. Providing an individual recorders can do the job. Cameras and

41

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

mobile phones can also provide useful comprises mainly stop numbers. Each

recordings. We have used an Olympus fieldtrip is given a stop number beginning Linear PCM Recorder LS-10 toobtain most with the first trip,usually in January. Full

of therecent cricket recordings used for this label data is affixed to each stop. A brief

book.Analysis of recorded insect sounds is description of the habitat can help in much less complex these days than in the jogging the memory in future if details on

past.A recording can beedited in Audacity the collection are desired.Photos of the

freeware and then transferred to Raven or habitat can also belinked.A list of collected

Canary for analysis and documentation. s species can be useful for future reference. The resultant oscillograms used in this book We return over and over again to notebooks have been made this way. for various types of information. They should be stored in a safe place and digital Notebooks notebooks should be archived from time to Keeping notes can have several uses. Sometime. It is surprising how often researchers

of the older generation still maintain a request details about alocality visited in the

bound notebook but with the digital age, distant past. All one has to do is to look in

notes can be databased on computers or the notebook! Photographic images, sound even on phones.One ofthe authors has kept recordings, and cytological and DNA

an annual notebook for more than 50 years. references can also be linked to original Each year a new book is used. This book field notebooks.

Collecting regalia then and now. (A) A Vogon,

botanical artist, in the late 1870s, near Talaroo,

Qld, with fly veil, high boots and qun. (B) Geoff

Monteith near the same spot more than 125 years later with camera. Photo; G Monteith.

42

Morphology The body plan of a cricket is often median ocellus and often, but not always,

considered as typical for an unspecialised two lateral ocelli. These can vary in size

insect. In order to understand this book,a depending upon the species. Their function basic knowledge of cricket morphology is is obscure but may have to do with the

necessry (Fig. 5).

reception of polarised light. Cricket

Head

Their length relative to the length of the

antennae are simple filamentous structures.

The head of a cricket is often considered body is often helpful in identification.The typical for a chewing in a hemimetabolous antennae may have bands as a result of one

insect (Fig.6).The head is usually rounded or more segments being darker coloured

with the dorsal part composedofthe ociput than the others.These are termed annulate and vertex, the latter of which is extended or, ifunbanded, concolorous. The antennal

between the antennal bases onto the front surface can be hairy or smooth depending of the insect as a frontal rostrum. There is aupon the species. The antennal colour is often distinctive. The first two segments of the antennae are the scape and the pedicel

trus\

forelg;

mndle i9 hindleg

outer

rfrons or ostrum  median cells -laterloelus _5Sape of

antenna _anterfor tympanum

-pronotum _strduatory vein s harpvelns

- hords

>miro

-wings

- subapicalspus

- pilpus

-erls Fig.5. Morphology of typical cricket. Modified from Otte and Alexander(1983), with permission.

respectively. They can be modified with a

tooth or a tubercle in some species. The shape of the eyes is often described as ovoid,

elongate,bulging, reduced or shallow

depending on the amount of bulge.All are important features to observe. Eye colour and pattern are distinctive for the species but colours and patterns often fade or disappear entirely after death. The sides of the head, the cheeks, are called the genae (Fig.6).The front of the head is the frons

beneath which is a suture called the fronto- clypeal suture. This is the boundary of the

clypeus and the tongue-like structure called the labrum. The mandibles are suited for

chewing. The maxillary and labial palpi are

five-segmented and three-segmented respectively and are relatively similar

among species.

43

A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AuSTRALIA - median ocellus -lateral ocellus

ocput

vertex

 antennal socket

-frons

chek 

 clypeus epistomal  suture

 labrum

labium  - labial palpi - maxillary palpl

Fig.6.Principal regions and structures of the cricket head.Modified fromotteand Alexander(983),

with permisson.

Legs Crickets generally have short legs. There are sides of the fore tibia. It may be absent from

auditory structure may be on one or both

exceptions, of course. The tarsi are three- one side or the other, and may be of slightly segmented with the first segment called the different size and shape on one side or the metatarsus. On the hind legs the metatarsus other. The tibial auditory structure is most can be greatly lengthened and can be armed likely used to receive the calls. Interestingly,

these structures are generally similar in s both sexes within a species. Generally, shape of the second tarsal segment is dorsally with spines or teeth (Fig. 7). The

particularly important in cricket species that produce no auditory signals

e lack or have reduced tibial auditory classification. This segment may be described as small and compresed or structures altogether.

depressed, or heart-shaped. We refer to the first pair of legs as the Spurs v.spines

forelegs -fore tibia,fore femur; the middle Distinction between what is meant by a legs-middle tibia or middle femur; and the spur or a spine is important in using this hind legs simply as the hind legs or hind d book. Spurs and spines occur on thelegs of femur or hind tibia. On the fore tibia of many crickets there may be the tibial

crickets. The most important of these structures are on the dorsal surface of the

auditory structure or tympanum(Fig. 5). hind tibiae (Fig.7).Someauthors referto all

The tympanum is an ovoid opening covered spine-like protuberances as simply spines.

by a light-coloured membrane. The tibialOtte and Alexander differentiated between

44

MORPHOLOGY subaplcal

、irst

ust G

fr apkeal

aplcal/

subapical

B _soplcel

mapceal

[o-3

outer

H J

o-2



apical

t2

F1 subaplca

subaplcal spurs



subaplcal spurs

毒pinoes

Fig.7. Spurs and spines on cricket legs.Modifedfromotteand Alexander(1983,with pemision.

spines and spurs and use these terms the position of the tibial auditory structure

throughout their book and we will use the as being on the outside or the inside of the terms in their context just to avoid tibia. This can be confusing depending on

confusion.Spurs are consideredas moveable the orientation of the tibia itself. We have structures with a socket. Teeth, used the designation anterior forastructure

denticulations and other immoveable on the tibiaasit appears when itisstretched tooth-like structures are called spines. out,andposterior for theopposite side.This Spines and spurs are found on all legs, avoids all confusion with insideandoutside.

mostly on the tibiae. Those on the dorsal With the hind leg,because it is fixed in its

surface of the tibiae have provided the orientation,and outside and inside can be important information in leading to a used for the position of structures without specific identification. We start the counting any ambiguity. the spurs from the end of the tibia, not the What is meant by an apical and a

base. We use a slightly different method of subapical spur? Apical spurs are those that dealing with the orientation of thelegs than are found at the very end of the tibia, used by Otte and Alexander. They refer to adjacent to the tarsi. The ones on the dorsal

45

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA another by a humeral edge or ridge. The shape of both the disk and the laterallobes and the sculpture or ornamentation of the disk are often used in classification.

Tegmina and wings

The first pair of wings is referred to as the tegmina,singular tegmen. The second pair, held beneath the first pair,are simplycalled

Fig.8. Scanning electron micrograph of

glandular spur, Pteronemobius ornaticeps (600x).

wings. Not all adult crickets have tegmina and/or wings.Some species are completely

wingless,a condition called apterous.

surface are those that are used in most Tegmina and wings that extend more or identification. The adjacent subapical spurs less to themiddle ofthe abdomen are called are usually much shorter and slightly mesopterous; those that barely protrude different in morphology. They are from beneath the pronotum or are st concealed by the pronotum are called positioned in a line and can extend almost to the base of the tibia. On the hind tibia, micropterous. The male tegmina are modified for sound production in almost there may be some smaller and fixed spines adjacent to the larger spines. These can be

all species. Males that do not sing usually

called denticulations or teeth.Most cricketshave tegmina that are similar to those of do not have these teeth.The ventralsurfaces the female. Most species are sexually

of the fore and middle tibia do not bear dimorphic for tegmina and wings. Some spines that help in the identification of species may have a fully developed pair of species. Those at the end of the hind tibia tegmina with either reduced or absent are often used and their number and

wings. There is evidence that some crickets may chew off their wings at some point in

position,anterior or posterior, can be crucial in making an accurate identification. their life cycle. Reasons for this are yet

Some members of the genus Pteronemobius unknown. Captive crickets have been (p.335)haveapeculiar short and thickened shown to feed on their own wings when spur on the internal margin of the hind tibia. This spur (Fig. 8)is palpated by

females during courtship.It may be that pheromones or glandular secretions are delivered along this spur.

Pronotum

The pronotum, the first segment of the thorax, is flat or weakly convex dorsally, the

dorsal surface is referred toas the disk,and Adult female of the apterous cricket, lateral lobes often separated from one Salmanites allaris.

46

MORPHOLOGY cricket sings. Sexually responsive females react to the calls produced by the appropriate male of the species. The sound

produced is correlated with the morphology of the tegmen and the response of the

female is dependent on her physiology and genetics. Any deviation in the position of a

A mesopterous cricket, Euscyrtus hemelytrus,

vein on the male's tegmen could lead to a

difference in the calling song and lack of recognition by a female or recognition by there is a dietary deficiency. Some termites  the wrong female. Wingless or silent

female.

and cockroaches remove their wings for crickets use other means to bring the sexes other reasons, usually after nuptial flights together, perhaps chemical or visual. These

when they have found a suitable permanent are probably a reflection of the lifestyle of

habitat.

The venation of cricket wings is

the crickets.

The role of crickets in folklore and

complex and yet very important in the culture has led to a distinct naming system

identification of species (Fig. 9).The for the veins on the tegmina. Terms such as

structure of the veins and the membranous chords,harps and mirrorareused in relation

portion between them isvery distinctive of to crickets but not generally other

thespecies. The morphology of the tegmen orthopteroid insects. The stridulatory vein, is important because it conveys the species- or stridulum,is usually slightly more specific sounds produced when the male thickened than the other veins because it dorsal field 1A

2A

3A

con 1A-

eords/ 2

_C0; sc

cu,

下A

上M

chords[

1A- harp vens 2A- -diagona miror dviding vein

Csa'



FW angloe

basl

-Cu;

harp veins

ares3



harp

mtrs

raa

) tatera

mtror aplca

aroa



mecdian

Fig.9. Morphology of typical cricket tegmina.Modifed fromotteand Alexander(1983),wih permission.

47

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Stridulatory file of Gryllotalpapluvialis. carries the stridulatory teeth or pegs on its Scanning electron micrograph of clavate hairs on cercus (300×). Photo:YN Su. opposite side. The structure, number and spacing of the stridulatory teeth are

generally quite species specific. The stridulum operates in a manner similar to running the teeth of a comb across a fingernail. There is a specialised vein or two on the underside of a cricket's tegmen that is slightly raised and acts as the fingernail. The configuration of the veins, membranes and the physiology of the cricket making the sound produce the specific call. The teeth on the stridulatory vein are so small Scanning electron micrograph of clavate hairs that we have decided not to use them as a on cercus (600×). primary identification tool in this book. But

not used for clasping. They are clothed with be aware of the morphology, placement and several kinds of hairs. At the base are special anyone seriously studying crickets should

e swollen scale-like hairs that are number of teeth for the species they are

studying.It should be noted here that the characteristic of grylloids. They are called

Gryllotalpidae (Mole Crickets) often have clavate hairs.

stridulatory teeth on more than one vein, and, unusual for crickets, females bear some Genitalia stridulatory teeth and can answer calling In many groups of animals, especially males. On most crickets the stridulatory insects, genital morphology is species vein is generally in a transverse or horizontal distinctive and is essential for species identification. This is especially true of position on the tegmen.

Abdomen

crickets. Cricket genitalia, both external and concealed, are often very complex

The abdomen is generally cylindrical with structures. The most important parts of the the last tergite bearing long non-articulated genitalia that taxonomists deal with reside cerci.With a few exceptions, the cerci are

48

in the phalliccomplexof the male. This part

MORPHOLOGY

doral ridge ectophallkar ectophallicapodemes

rami

ramiapical stem Fig. 10. Morphology of the genitalia of a

Morphology of the genitalia of Mundeicus

brunneovariegatus. Note asymmetry. of the genitalic complex is usually well structures, especially in males.Two male Cardiodactylus novaeguineae.

sclerotised and is often bilaterally Australian cricket genera, Unka(p.148) asymmetrical and complex (Fig. 10). and Xabea(p.236),bear clasping cerci in

Female genitalia are largely membranous both males and females. This is most and require more skilful study and analysis is unusual for crickets. Crickets of both sexes

than is necessary for the male genitalia. We bear a subgenital plate ventrally near the

C abdominal apex. This serves as a flap or will not deal with concealed female genitalic

structures in this guidebook.

door that covers the concealed genitalia. At

The external genitalia of both male and the generic level, the subgenital plate offers

female crickets are not especially rich in subtle characters one can use to define a characters that can be used to differentiate species. The shape, length and surface species. We will deal with males first. The features can often be distinctive. tenth tergite can be highly modified in other

In many cricket species the male

orthopteroid insects but is generally very concealed genitalia are asymmetrical; that similar among crickets. Exceptions are in is, theleft side maylookquite different from

the Mogoplistinae(p.263)where there may the right. In general,the genitalic

be tubercles, tufts of hairs or protuberances configuration is much more complex than dorsally between the cerci. The cerci in seen with katydids (Tettigoniidae),for

almost all crickets are not especially example,and more difficult to interpret.In modified. In many other orthopteroid the Australian cricket fauna, the insects they are highly modified clasping Trigonidiidae seem to have the least

49

A GuiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Terminal segments of abdomen of male Unka sp.nov.Note clasping cerciand glandular area.

Subgenital plate of female Hemiphonus (M.)

longifemur. Clasping cerci of male Xabea elderra.

intricate male genitalia while some species of the gryllid subfamily Eneopterinae (p. 201) have extraordinarily complex male

genitalia.

Dissecting the male genitalia is rather difficult and can be frustrating because the surrounding integument of crickets is rather soft and fragile even though the genitalic complex itself may be fairly well sclerotised. Fine watchmakers'forceps

should be used in making dissections and this process should be done with the aid of

Subgenital plate of male Tamborina kanina.

50

a microscope. Frequently, the tip of the abdomen may become detached from the

MORPHOLOGY specimen during dissection.Ifthis happens, authoritative identification. Even though

the abdomen can either be glued back in cricket genitalia can bevery diverse, there is place on the specimen or glued to a paper a standardised nomenclature associated

point and mounted with the specimen. with these structures. Some of the smaller

Becoming familiar with the genitalic crickets (Nemobiinae) have minute

structure of crickets is important if concealed genitalia. That does not mean

authoritative identifications are required. that they are not very distinctive. Some of

Familiarity with these parts can help in these species can be studied more accurately

associating difficult species with their by viewing them with the aid of a scanning appropriate subfamilial or generic relatives. electron microscope (below).The scanning Significantly, the genitalia do not seem to electron microscope can reveal remarkable vary over the geographic range of a species morphological diversity not seen with usual

and this fact can be helpful. Other attributes microscopes. such as calling song, colour and pattern can

The cricket ovipositor is composed of

vary over the geographic range of a species. four 'valves'; the internal pair of valves is

In this book we attempt to identify species rudimentary. The shape of the ovipositor is

in the easiest way possible. We also provide usually cylindrical or needle-like with the detailed information that will enable the tip denticulate (see Gryllini,p. 64,for researcher or agricultural consultant or examples). Some crickets have a laterally

general curious naturalist to make an compressed ovipositor with the margins





Ovipositors of several crickets.(A) Adenopterus norfoldensis;(B)Insulascirtus christiani;(C)I.nythos;

(D) Nesitathra philipensis.

51

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA toothed or not (see Turana, Euscyrtus, p. 192). Some species have a greatly reduced

ovipositor and female Mole Crickets (Gryllotalpidae) have no ovipositor at all

(.353). Spermatophore and spermatheca

The male genitalia bear a bag-like sac that it Spermatophore of Aphonoides lowanna. Note

contains the spermatophore. The shape andlackofastructure at end of tube.

spermatophore ultimately contains the sperm that are transferred from male to

female during mating. The shape, colour

In crickets, the sperm packet can serve

and size of the spermatophore, as well as its other functions as well. It can be used to feed a receptive female, priming her for apex, can be a useful taxonomic tool.

secondary matings that will transfer the

.5F. o0.

sperm into her spermatheca. Many observations of cricket courtship by

behaviourists have resulted in hypotheses of

male fitness,nourishment of mother and

eggs,and other modern concepts of sexual

selection.

m.v.. Spermatophore sac from Chopard(1969).

Courting Cardiodactylus novaeguineae on Spermatophore of Riatinacallosifrons.Note

crescentic tip.

52

a plastic container in akitchen.Note the spermatophore emerging from the abdomen of the male and the one on the ground near it.

The latter may be a'nuptialgift'to the female which she will consume.

Crickets and culture Crickets have been important in Asian the songs they produce.Where Australians culture,less so in the more modern culture might regard chirping crickets as a bit of a

of the 21st century. In Asia, crickets have nuisance,the songs were welcome in many been revered from time immemorial for the an Asian home. For hundreds of years

melodic songs they produce. In contrast, crickets have figured with reverence in the same Asian cultures have been Asian poetry and painting. As far back as

enthusiastic and captivated by the 'sport' of 1l BCa Book of Odes accompanied a 16 m

cricket fighting.

painting with singing crickets and katydids

A visit toadepartment store in Tokyo in featured (Dorfman 2012). Crickets evoke a

the 1980s with a pet shop on the roof tranquil lifestyle and keeping them in cages revealed severallive cricket species available for their song seems to have started in

for purchase.None is to be found today, a China during the Tang Dynasty sign of the times. However, in China (618-906 AD). Crickets are bred

crickets are sold over the internet as pets for commercially in Asia for both their singing

ability and for fighting. There is an array of containers made from many sorts of

material from clay to straw for housing the

crickets. The containers have breathing holes and compartments for food and water.

A variety of utensils have been developed to

attend to both cultural and fighting crickets. The common names ascribed to them

are indicative of the respect that the people

have for the small insects. Trigonidiine crickets (especially Anaxipha spp., p.292)

Cricket statue in Laos.Photo:ID Nauman.

A variety of Asian cricket cages. Photo:HTsu.

53

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

are called 'Bells.It is said that the Chinese staying asleep at night seem to be the most ladies of the palace caught crickets and kept affected by persistently singing crickets. In

them near their pillows to provide company California, trees and shrubbery are often during the long night.People still buy removed from the vicinity of bedrooms

crickets in the Shanghai markets. They are because of theannoyingly loud Tree Cricket even used in hospitals to help the patients calls. Crickets would certainly not be used feel comfortable. Small crickets can have in hospitals in the United States to provide

their sounds amplified by using a hollow tranquillity to patients! Perhaps, they gourd as a resonator. In addition, a rosin should! mixture can even be added to the cricket's

wing to soften the sound of the song without

Cricket fighting

harming the insect. It is said that a chirping Cricket fighting probably predates the Tang

cricket can help to reduce blood pressure Dynasty in the 8th century AD. The sport

and mayeven aid in inducing hypnosis. It is was widespread throughout Asia and was not unusual to find a taxi in Shanghai with a v virtually nationalised in China. The activity

cricket in a cage on its dashboard.

is now absent today from places like

Crickets do not seem to have the same Singapore where it used to be very popular. reverence in Western societies. In North Perhaps cricket fighting is not compatible America,the calling song of Tree Crickets, with modern 2lst century values. In Oecanthus spp.(p. 232) can be so Taiwan,cricket ighting is mostly a tourist persistently loud that residents are often attraction (Fig. 11). However, cricket

brought to the point of hysteria. Older fighting is still popular in many rural cities people who generally have difficulties in in China.Three-quarters of a million

Fig.11. Alarge statue of Gry/lsbimaculatus,a cricket used in Taiwanforfighting matches.

54

CRICKETS AND CULTURE

people in Shanghai are involved one way or for the burial of the recently deceased.This

another in cricket fighting. This reaches its was the custom 35 years ago. Whether it

peak in summer (August). Crickets are still exists in modern China is bred for size, ferocity and stamina (Fig. problematical. 12). Crickets from Chin-Yuan, Tsong-HuaSome participants argue they participate

and Hua-Shian are called 'Po-Chiang in cricket fighting tournaments for the shuay'or Northern River Crickets and are cultural values,but in the main it has to do

considered the best fighters. All of these with gambling. In some cities, the cricket localities are in Kwangtung Province, market with its attendant gadgetry has north-west of Hong Kong. The 'bravest' become a significant tourist attraction. The

fighters are the snake-head'crickets. They main species involved is the Fighting

are so-called because they can be found in Cricket, Velarifictorus mikado,a species that

human skulls in overgrown cemeteries is not present in Australia. However, in

where it had been the custom to remove Taiwan,it seems that Gryllus bimaculatus, bones from the graves once most of the with its distinctive black colour and orange flesh had been decomposed, to make way spots, is the fighting cricket of choice.

Fig.12. Velarifictorius mikado males in combat.Note the large size of the mandibles.Photo:xbjin.



Crickets as food Pet food Live crickets are sold in pet shops as food

species from elsewhere could have profound

effects on the North American Grllus

for a variety of pets ranging from birds to

species.Efforts to alert regulatory

fish bait but this is not a common practice

Cricket! It seems that economic

frogs and lizards and large fish. They are authorities in the United States have failed sold in considerable numbers overseas as to initiate any regulation of the 'Black

in Australia.

considerations outweigh anyenvironmental

The cricket trade in the United States is concerns. It would belogical to just switch astonishing, with 50 million live crickets

sold each week. It is a multi-million dollar business that has been based on one species, the non-native House Cricket, Acheta domesticus(p.67).Weissman et al. (2012)

reported on a mortal threat to this

enterprise by the epizootic densovirus (AdDVN).This virus is fatal to A.

domesticus. Efforts to find a replacement cricket are underway. Those in the cricket breeding industry require a species that is

prolific, does not have a diapause at any stage,is relatively easy to rear, and is not aggressive towards the intended animal

consumer. For some reason, many have overlooked the Indian House Cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus(p.123),a similarly non-

native cricket that is common in arid areas, has all of the biological attributes that the industry requires,and is already widespread in many areas of the world as an introduced species. Instead someone has surreptitiously imported the non-native,European and Asian 'Black Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, into the United States. This introduction is fraught with potential disaster as there are

more than 50 species of Gryllus native to Cricket displayin pet shop,Pet Café,Smithfield, North America. Introduction of another Qld.

56

CRICKETS AS FOOD

Adult female Black Cricket, Grylls bimaculatus, Chattin, Myanmar. to another species that already occurs in Crickets and the future of food for

United States, even if non-native, and that humans

meets all the requirements necessary for SYDNEYK.BRANNOCH

commercial culture; the Indian House People have been eating insects and other invertebrates, a practice known as With the growing interest utilising entomophagy, for thousands of years, with crickets as food for pets and zoo animals incommunities around the world eating a wide

Cricket is a logical choice.

Australia, as well as the introduction ofvariety of invertebrate species in varying crickets as human food, breeders need to bequantities. Entomophagy takes place in over aware of potential problems to their business80of the world's countries, with many

should the virus be found in Australia.The developed countries beginning to take part Indian House Cricket(p.123)already exists in this practice.With Coleoptera (beetles),

in Australia andcouldbeused asasubstitute. Hymenoptera(ants,bees,and wasps), However,other non-native crickets such as Orthoptera(grasshoppers and crickets), Grllus species are not present in Australia Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths, and should never be introduced since they eespecially caterpillars), and Hemiptera (true

would very likely compete with other bugs)being some of the most widely gryllines, such as Teleogryllus spp., cause consumed Orders, opportunities to create a ecological problems and could be vectors of wide variety of unique and delicious insect

the densovirus.

food dishes abound.

57

A GUiDE TO CRiCKETS OF AUSTRALIA

People living in developing countriesPeople residing in developed countries

eat insects at higher rates than those living generally eat insects and other invertebrates in developed countries.That said,there are for the novelty or the experience-not certain invertebrate foods that are necessarily for the nutritional benefits.

considered delicacies in developed Some restaurants have been quick to jump countries, including escargot(snails)) in on the entomophagy trend,offering burgers

France; casu marzu, a cheese partially made of smashed crickets, tacos topped

digested by maggots of the cheese fly with fried ants,or cricket chili served with

Piophila casei,in Sardinia and Italy; polenta. Access to safe-for-consumption hachinoko, candied wasp larvae,in Japan; insects has never been easier with the

bondegi,steamed silkworm pupae,in advent of at-home and industrial insect

South Korea.There are also foods that use farms. With any luck,people living in insect by-products, including red food dye developed countries will begin to see eating

made from the cochineal scale insect insects as a healthy, more sustainable Dactylopius occus or shellac,a resin secreted alternative to traditional sources of protein. by the lac bug Kerria lacca, to create a shiny

As with any new food source, insects

coating on food and candies. The should be slowly introduced into one's diet invertebrate foods eaten in developed in case allergies or adverse reactions countries pale in comparison to those eaten develop. People with allergies to shellfish, elsewhere in the world, in both quantity insects or dust mites might also have a

and diversity. For example,in Mexico you similar response to crickets and other might eat tacos with chapulines (fried, consumable invertebrates. This is due to seasoned grasshoppers),giant water bug chitin,which is foundin theexoskeletons of

chili paste (Nam Prik Maeng Da)in invertebrates.While chitin is a great source

Thailand, grilled dragonflies and of fibre and prebiotics, it can cause an damselflies in Bali,and roasted termites in allergicinflammatory response in the lungs.

Nigeria.

Some Indigenous Australian Why eat insects? communities of the past and present eat Insects area moreenvironmentally friendly insects,includinghoney from the distended protein than beef, chicken,and poultry.

abdomens of the honeypot ant Camponotus Greenhouse gases are a major factor driving

inflatus. Other communities eat the lime- climate change,with carbon dioxide, flavoured larvae of green tree ants, methane, and nitrous oxide some of the

incorporating crushed adult green tree ants biggest offenders. Research indicates that into water for a lime-flavored drink. Some agriculture,including the livestockindustry, Indigenous communities feasted on the e is one of the leading causes of human-

Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa, which induced climate change due to the aggregates around the Australian Capital production of greenhouse gas by-products Territory. These moths are roasted and and the heavy use of fresh water. Insects eaten immediately or they are ground into areared for human consumption produce paste to make Bogong Moth cakes. fewer greenhouse gases than traditional

58

CRICKETS AS FOOD

livestock, with only some insect species caused by livestock agriculture alone is producing methane (for example, enough to consider alternative, more

cockroaches, termites, and scarab beetles) environmentally friendly sources of protein. (Oonincx et al. 2010), albeit in significantly

Water usage for livestock drinking water

smaller quantities than the quantities and for feed is another matter entirely, with

produced by traditional livestock. hundreds of trillions of gallons used to Additionally, insects do not emit ammonia I produce feed annually. Feed conversion and nitrogen at levels anywhere near those ratios(agricultural parlance for the amount

produced by the urine and faeces of of grain needed for livestock to gain a livestock. Ammonia and nitrogen runoff kilogram of live weight) indicate that a cow from the livestock industry pollute needs ̄7 kg of grain, a pig needs 4 kg, a waterways and the air, leading to the chicken needs 2 kg,and an herbivorous,

eutrophication of bodies of water and a farmed fish needs less than 2 kg. This is in

build up of particulate matter in the air that starkcontrast to an insect, which requiresless

poses human health risks, including than 2 g of food to gain a gram of weight. cardiovascular and lung diseases. Across Four hundred and sixteen litres of water are the United States, Europe and Asia, the required to grow 1 lb of corn (0.45 kg) majority ofhuman-made ammonia volatiles (United States Geological Survey n.d.).

come from animal feedlots. The pollution Ultimately, it takes ~15 400 L of water to

城a



4.8iq/

⑦2,

The water droplet indicates the litres(L)of water reguired to produce 1 kiloaram ((ka) ofeach

type of protein, clockwise from top left: cricket, pork, beef, and chicken.The faeces of each animal

indicates the estimates of how many kilograms of methane are produced per animal over the course of a year (estimates from the Water Footprint Network n.d.and Monteny et al.2001).

59

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA produce each kilogram of beef(Water Footprint Network n.d.). Crickets and other

consumable insects require significantly less water and food before being processed for human consumption. With only a finite amount of land available for livestock agriculture,feedlots and crop farms,and with

only a finite amount of potable water, relying on livestock production is not a sustainable

s图 图 图

practice when the population on Earth is

estimated to reach 9 billion people by 2050. To accommodate this estimated world population, current food production rates will need to double and, with land already

scarce,expanding farming acreage is hardly a viable or sustainable option. By eating crickets and other insects, we will reduce our reliance on traditional large-animal farming, including factory farming. Ultimately, this will reduce water use,land use and pollution. In addition to all of the environmental benefits of entomophagy, insects are a healthy, alternative source of protein. For example,100g of cricketscontainsjust5.5g of fat and 121 kcal, with almost 13 g of protein (see Table 2). Compare this to

100 g of 80lean ground beef, which has  ̄20 g of fat and 254 kcal. While beef does have more protein than a serving ofcrickets, it also has a much higher calorie and fat

content, with higherlevels of saturated fat.

How to eat insects

Incorporating insects into one's diet is relatively easy, especially so with the rise of

many companies specialising in pre-cleaned and cooked insects and insect flours all over the world. Although crickets and other invertebrates are,for the mostpart,safe to eat when cooked, it is important to avoid catching and eating insects that are found in

one's backyard, as they might have been 60



  

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go  

R 品 un

。o



38 88

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A药



CRICKkETS AS FOOD exposed to pesticides, fertilisers and other require a warmenvironment( ̄30℃C)and by

unsavoury finds. And while some pet shops using a heating source such as a heat mat or do sell crickets and other 'feeder'insects for lamp,along with atemperature gauge affixed fish and reptiles,these insects are given food to the inside of the container, the proper

that does not necessarily increase their temperature can be maintained. Order a lot

nutritional content, nor are they fed with of 100-200 crickets from an online retailer

human consumption in mind. The cricket or pet store,and place them into their new sold commonly in Australian pet shops is the home. House Cricket, Acheta domesticus (Linnaeus,

Feed your six-legged livestock a variety

1758), an introduced species (p.67). Many of organic vegetables and proteins,keeping

Australian species are unsuitable for farming in mind that they may take on the flavour and culture because they may undergo of their food.Some ideas for cricket food

diapause that restricts development at some include pumpkin, dark leafy greens, sweet stage(p. 20). House Crickets are a great potatoes, carrots,apples,and oranges.You

species to learn insect livestock production can even feed crickets high protein foods, due to their continuous generations without such as tofu.Spray the terrarium daily with

diapause. A quick internet search for a fine mist of water to ensure that the

Australian cricket flour'or Australian edible environment has an adequate amount of insects' will yield several companies in humidity to aid moulting and egg Australia selling a variety of delicious six- deposition. Be sure to replace food every legged goods. These include nutty 24 h to prevent mould from developing.

When there is a large number of small mealworms, cricket chips, spiced chapulines, cricket flour and silkworm pupae. While eggs sticking out of the topsoil, remove the

ordering insect food products online is tray and place it in a separate,30°C rearing simple and relativelyinexpensive,small-scale terrarium with high relative humidity. This in-home farming methods are gaining some humidity can be achieved by spraying the popularity due to the relatively simplicity,terrarium twice daily with a fine mist of cost effectiveness, and one's ability to control w water. After a week and a half, small cricket

the food intake of six-legged livestock.

nymphs should hatch from the eggs. Be sure

To build your own small-scale cricket to keep the juveniles separated from the rest

farm,youwill needtwolarge glass terrariums of the livestock,feeding them as one would with fine mesh tops to prevent escapees and the adults. Within a month the juveniles

to ensure that there is enough ventilation for should be large enough to incorporate into

the crickets. Place a shallow water tray at the the adult terrarium.

bottom of the terrarium along with some When it is time to harvest the crickets, empty cardboard egg cartons to give theput the desired amount in a zip-lock bag

crickets places to hide. Place a second and place in a freezer for ̄30 min.Crickets shallow tray filled with a layer of moist, are ectothermic and are thus not able to

organictopsoilatthe bottom of the terrarium regulate their internal body temperature, in order to provide an environment for the and so when they are subjected to cold

female crickets todeposit theireggs. Crickets environmental conditions, they go into a

61

A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

state of torpor and eventually die. After the certainly less debilitating than grasshopper crickets have been properly euthanised, and locust allergies. Cricket allergens are rinse them with water using a colander. If proteinaceous compounds but little is desired, remove legs and antennae. Finally, known of their nature. Perhaps, arginine pull out your favourite cricket recipes and kinase or hexamerin 1B may be involved. get cooking! See p. 384 for recipes. Handling seems to confer the allergy but

Allergies to crickets

food allergy seems quite rare (Pener 2016).

Grylline crickets seem to be the most Cricket allergies, as with other insects, can common causes of allergies. This is probably

occur with continuous handling and because other taxa are not cultured for exposure. Allergies to locusts of various foods or baits. Gryllus campestris and G. species are widespread and well known. bimaculatus inflict allergies as does Acheta

However, with the increased use of crickets domesticus. All three are non-native as food for pets,fishing baits,and now their Australian species. One population of use in flour and other products for human escapees of A.domesticus was recordednear

consumption, those that deal with the live Adelaide, South Australia. Whether this

insects can become allergic. Cricket population still exists is unknown. We have allergies are relatively rare,seem to be less no records of the House Cricket living severe than most common allergies, and are successfully in Australia. G

0ry  aAG

(A) Entomo Farms'large-scale cricket production for human consumption.Photo:stewartstick,Entomo

Farms;(B)Interior view of Entomo Farms'large-scale cricket production.Photo:Stewart Stick,Entomo Farms; (C)Stir-fried insects in Thailand.Photo:AlexCastill;(D)Stir-fried grasshoppers.Photo:stephwood.



Cricket identification

A GuiDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Superfamily GRYLLOIDEA aphrodisiacs' from glands on thorax. This Family Gryllidae: True Crickets supposedly helps to achieve a successful This is the largest family of the Grylloidea s and has been the subject of division and coupling. Males of several cricket species

addition of higher taxa and generic provide the female with a 'nuptial gift' of a subdivision.Presently,6 subfamilies are spermatophore. Multiple spermatophores

h have been consumed by some females represented in the Australian fauna with

species found throughout the continent as before mating. well as Tasmania and Lord Howe and

Norfolk islands. The appearance of many Subfamily Gryllinae

members of this family present the classical Tribe Gryllini

type of cricket. Walt Disney's 'Jiminy The Gryllini is a poorly defined tribe with

Cricket' was modelled after field crickets of severalimportant Australian representatives

the subfamily Gryllinae.

(Table 3). Since the publication of Otte and

Gryllids are characterised by having a a Alexander's monograph, several genera large globularheadandlaterallycompressed have been transferred in and out of the

tarsi.Manyareamong the largest ofcrickets. Gryllini. The most important is the genus Males areusuallywinged with the forewings Loxoblemmus (p.70),which has been

modified for sound production; females further expanded by the synonymy of may be winged or not and not adapted for Comidogryllus and its many species. Four sound production. Some species may be Australian genera are presently included in very short-winged (macropterous) or the Gryllini.The introduced House Cricket,

wingless in l or both sexes.

Acheta domesticus (p. 67), used as food for Gryllids occupya wide range ofhabitats birds and lizards in the pet industry, is also as will be illustrated below in the various included in this tribe. The tribe is subfamilies. Some are subterranean, living characterised by the head lacking dorsal in burrows or in cracks in hard soil. A few bristles; the fore tibia with either both live in rotting woodand many can be found anterior and posterior tympana; and the in leaf litter. Gryllids are seldom found on hind tibialacking spines above the spurs. leaf surfaces. The great majority of species

are primarily nocturnal but some activity Genus Acheta Fabricius (House r Cricket and relatives) can be noted on overcast, dark days or

towards the end of summer.

Known from 23 species from the Old World

Most gryllids have distinctive songs that with 1 species cosmopolitan in distribution are well known to people interested in because it is used as food for pets, zoo

g animals and as live bait for fishing. It is now nature. Females are attracted to singing males and males of some species provide used as a protein source for human food.

64

Habits:. wervnkompygudRF,f;WlDcG

Table 3.ComprisnfAutGy Sck();BdMOx198

_-

Usual hbits Nearhumns 5s,Bw.6R,G,w a R,G,wRF, W,G G s,B Numberofharp veins 3-4 3-4 o-1 e Femur ithspne abovspurs R



×.

区人 2

方2

K- / K-N-[X:

Tympan:iner(I)outer(oa)bset()(disregadi) -o-o0 70/0o riC/o -/o-/ori6/o-o-/o-o |-/o

Mitr:divde()undiv ed ua)bsent (a) doru a /o female

. Forewings p t male 

Genus Tbe



uadoruA /al /a udoru u u /o

上±团

/+ 上出G t

Gymnoglus Cyrtopsu [Grylin Modicgrlni 国

+?

Acheta Telogrylus ApedinaArtelaVelarifctous GrylodesLepidogrlusLoxblemusPctoinaRufocephalus a

Usual hbits

Femurlwith Nbofspneavri



D,GG.w? RF,W,DRF, WRF, 



3-7 o

spurs

Tympan:n r(0)outer(o)absent (C)(disrega iz)

+F

Table 3(Cont) Mirdived ()undive (u)absent a)

Forewings p tmale female

Genus Tibe 8

- ASometis whalvndrbuyjg."D-OcWGroup. Lackingmehlf'Extws2-3 RFRF

4-8G5-9 o 6-7

+ or-

-/o

-/oD-/- -/--/o-/o IE/-



us alyd UBora o a uora

Cephalogryus + Cophlandrevus +

Tumpla EurgyldesMalgrus Apteroglus Daitria Mjobergla Euryglodin Cephalogyin Landrevin

TRIBE GRYLLINI

Originally the House Cricket was thought only 2 localities in Australia.To date,no

to have come from the south-west Asia recent specimens have been found in the where most of its relatives occur.

Australian environment, even though it

Acheta dormesticus (Linnaeus)

would seem that suitable habitats exist. Thus, it seems that the House Cricket has not established itself permanently in

HOUSE CRICKET

The House Cricket can be found alive in Australia. Where the House Cricket almost any pet shop in Australia. It is used d originated is not known. This cricket and

as food for captive reptiles,amphibians and the Indian House Cricket(p.123)havebeen

birds. In the United States 50 million of associated with mankind for so long that these crickets are shipped to pet fancierstheir origins are obscure. and bait shops each week (Weissman et al.

Body length: males 15.0-16.0 mm;

2012).These crickets are now the source of females about the same as males;ovipositor 'cricket flour'and cricket chips'(see p.56). 11.0 mm. The value of this species lies probably in A.domesticus does not seem to occur in both its size and the ease of its reproduction. any established populations in Australia. There is no diapause at any stage and the crickets thrive on a variety of insect diets. The House Cricket is a robust dark brown cricket. It is somewhat similar in appearance to the Indian House Cricket and several

other Australian gryllines. The markings on the head, pronotum and legs are distinctive. Most specimens are long-winged but in captivity the wings can be shed. The calling

song of the male is low and stuttering and

performed continuously day and night. As Acheta domesticus, adult female.

noted by Otte and Alexander in 1983, the species has been recorded in nature from

Achetadomesticus, adult male;genitalia,dorsal

view.

Acheta domesticus, adult female. 6

A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Acheta domesticus, calling song.

large, contrasting to the anteriortympanum which is much smaller. The hind tibia has the last apical spur small in comparison

with those preceding. The pronotum has the sides convex and wider than the head

when viewed dorsally. The hind wings are long. The mirror of the male tegmen is

large and divided by a single vein with the

apical area very well developed. The

ovipositor is relatively short compared to many other crickets, usually less than the length of the pronotum. The 2 Australian Acheta domesticus. Previous known distribution species can be identified by comparing the in Australia. male genitalia, the stridulatory file with its number of teeth and the parameters of the

Genus Gymnogryllus de Saussure

(Giant Crickets)

malecalling song.

Gymnogryllus is an Old World genus with Gymnogryllus brevicauda(Chopard)

44 species in south Asia, including India,NORTH-WESTERN GIANT CRICKET south-east Asia,including Malaysia and Very similar to the Corroboree Giant

Indonesia,Africa,New Guinea and Cricket,differing in the following. northern Australia.The 2 Australian Epiphallus with a U-shaped apical incision. examples arelarge,stout burrowingcrickets Stridulatory file with 66-77 teeth. We have

that are loud trillers. They live alongg no examples. watercourses where they occupy burrows.

Body length: males 30-35.0 mm;

Males sing from burrow entrances after females 34.0-37.0 mm. G. brevicauda is a member of the N dark. At times, the crickets take to flight l Coastal Community, WA and NT. and can be found at lights around petrol stations and all night cafés. Two New

Guinea species may also occur on the Gymnogryllus corroboree Torres Strait Islands and they are included Otte & Alexander

CORROBOREE GIANT CRICKET

in the faunal list (p. 365) but they have not A large, dark cricket that often comes to lights been officially recorded from Australia. /

Gymnogryllus are distinctive,large crickets. on warm, wet nights. Distinguished primarily

The posterior tympanum of the fore tibia is on the morphologyof the male phallus which

68

TRIBE GRYLLINI

Gymnogryllus corroboree, adult male. isbroaderin thisspecies thanin G.brevicauda entrances.The groups were observed 0.3-0.5 and has a V-shaped notch.The mirror of the mapart.Thecallisanear-piercingcontinuous

male tegmen is divided into atleast2 cells; the trill ith a high pulse rate. harp has 3-4 veins. The ovipositor is  ̄0.8 as

Body length: males 32.0-35.0 mm;

sing from groups of a dozen or more from burrow entrances but well below the

G. corroboree is a member of the NE

long as the length of the pronotum.Males females similar in size.

Gymnogryllus corroboree adult female.

Coastal Community, Qld.

Gymnogryus coroboree.

Gymnogryllus corroboree, alling song. 69

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Genus Loxoblemmus de Saussure

further examination of the male genitalia

can confirm identification. We have Loxoblemmus crickets are smaller found these crickets at oatmeal trails but versions of the larger field crickets such they are reluctant to leave the cover of y their habitat even for a resource such as as Lepidogryllus and Teleogryllus. They (Small Field Crickets)

are often found together but the oatmeal.

Loxoblemmus now includes 12 Loxoblemmus crickets inevitably outnumber their larger relatives. These Australian species, the majority from crickets live on the ground in leaflitter or Comidogrylus which was made a synonym

in grass.They can be common on golf of Loxoblemmus (Table 4).In overall

courses and athletic ovals and seem to appearance, Loxoblemmus is very similar to survive and thrive even when these fields genera in the tribe Modicogryllini where

are mowed and modified for sport. Somethese genera had been previously included.

t Only 2 Australian species were ascribed to species may make feeble attempts at

g Loxoblemmus in Otte and Alexander. Now shallow burrows from which they sing after dark. We have found that most of this Old World genus comprises some 69 the crickets just wander through the

species.

tangle of grass runner and dead grass. A

Australian Loxoblemmus are easily

few are found in woodlands or alongrecognised by the following characters:

woodland margins where they live in leaf frons with the occiput produced;legs light litter.More than l species can be found at brown or straw brown,often with a few a given locality. They are easily darker markings;diskof pronotum mottled,

distinguished by calling songs and lateral pronotal lobes pale ventrally frons

Table 4.Distinguishing some Comidogrylus species on the

basis of song and stridulatory file teeth.

Species adina

bio

ingay bilabongus elerinus whyalus

dalacheus

binyars

jabbarupus

marookus

70

Modified from Otte and Alexander(1983), with permission.

Song

No.fle eeth

Complexchirps Complexchirps

85-87(n=3)

 ̄80

Rapid succession of4-6 pulsechirps

91,97(n=2)

Single pulse chirps (slowtills)

Rapid succession of4 pulse chirps

Groups of rapid pulse chirps 8-14-pulsechirps,very rapid pulse chips

Short,widely spaced chirps

Iregularseries of5-7 pulsechirps,rapid pulse rate Chirps consisting oftrilsfollowed by paired pulses

115-158(n=31) 70-85 (n=4) 104 (n= 1) 6988(n=5)

78.80 88  1

TRIBE GRYLLINi with or without a pale stripe connecting Loxoblemmus adina(Otte &

lateral ocelli; fore tibia with a distinct but Alexander)

small anterior auditory tympanum; mirror COMMON SMALL FIELD CRICKET of male tegmen complete, often partially , A small ubiquitous cricket over most of its divided in L. pallens. The male genitalia dorange. This cricket occurs in a variety of

not offer many distinctive characters useful habitats but seems to prefer grassy areas in separating species in this genus.In along roadsides,margins offorests orathletic

collecting these crickets,aglasstubeis most fields.Both long and short-winged morphs

useful. They are very adept at eluding thecan be found at a given locality and the

collector.

tegminal and wing length can be quite

cOMiDoGRYLLus

4.7

adina A1121c

4.7

adina Ai1 21c

4.2|

adina



3.9| 4.1|

4.2|

A19 21C adina



A2*9 21C dallacheus



4.7

4.4

,司职单

4.2|

nxt

4.6

4应

s 小积

ts

. 4ns



A704 20C

dallacheus A293 18C dallacheus A780 23c dallacheus

A78o r3c

ut binyaris

A49o 2zc



4.3

(烟

jabbarupus

A495 28C ellerinus A713 26C

Fia. s9。 Cunidingrsus songs. Scale = 0.5 s. Graphic representation of Comidogrylls songs.Modified from ottandAlexander(1983)withpermission.

71

A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

coMIDoGRYLLus

4.7  i i 间 m i r 旧 m m m 泄 微 维 m 饿 旧 m i 成 m m 成 城 billabongus A146 26C

4.2 4.0

 谨博u in墙N

4.5 峰

4.8  a a

.间1 接.

**

,准增浙 临

4.7|

…an 将增晚 朋 准

4. 画AA再职员 wnswA通内

yingally

A487 28C

.A.tl-ti8yingally

..4it,P,B

-心∶

1*n

.ot 遣师谢t

的n车病内两

A517 24C

yingatly 43 z7c

bitlo

A24 24c bioA2r zzc whyallus A37 20C

3.6 W i矿 tv l tr ly tr  bilo? A25 21C 4.5f化条的 明Mm市帕 邮位uh降 nau?h巾A marokus A45 23C Fio,60 Comidogrthus songs. Scale = 0.5 s. Graphic representation of Comidogrylls songs.Modifedfomotteand Alexander(1983),wthpermssion.

loxoblemmus adina,adult male, Kuranda,Qld (top); long-winged morph, near Dimbulah, Qld (bottom).

72

Loxoblemmus adina, adult female, Daintree, Qld (top); adult long-winged female, Bramston

Beach, Qld (bottom).

TRIBE GRYLLINI

Loxoblermmus adina, lst instar nymph,

Daintree, Qld.

Loxoblemmus adina, adult male showing the forewings (top); head (bottom).

with a whitish patch on the anterior ventral margin. Fore and middle legs banded, spotted and with patches of dark brown or grey. Apex of hind femur dark brown and with a reddish orange tip. Hind femur with 5 inner and 5 outer subapical spurs; hind basitarsus with 7 inner and 9 outer spines. Surface of abdomen dark brown, laterally densely setose. Nymphs are greyish brown with the pattern of the pronotum separating them from Leipdogryllus and Teleogryllus nymphs. The song is a succession of single pulses

with considerable and confusing variation in

variable.Body colour is mostly dark brown. pulse rate. Otte and Alexander discovered

The male tegmen bears a long stridulatory that the pulse rate can vary considerably but

file; mirror undivided;tegmen laterally dark they felt it was within the norms of the

brown laterally but the ventral margin species. The fast pulse rate may be an

creamish white. The top of the head bears 6aggressive or courtship song. Adding a bit of pale stripes, the lateral 2 of which are joined confusion, more than 1 species can occur at a

by an oblique pale stripe. The frons is dark givenlocality.Also this species may be in the brown from the top of the clypeus to thesame habitat as Lepidogryllus and Teleogryllus

head; there is a large median ocellus. Thespecies. It is usually more common than the palpi are pale with the last segment bearing aspecies in either of those genera. brown stripe along the ventral surface. The Body length: males 14.0 mm; females pronotal disk is mottled with the lateral lobe15.5 mm; ovipositor 6.8 mm.

Loxoblemmus adina, alling song adult male, Lake Mitchell,Qld.

73

A GuIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA the song is very different and this should be

used to confidently separate the species. A

few morphological characters can also help

Loxoblemmus adina. L.adina is a member of the N Coastal Loxoblemmus bilo, adult male.

Community and the N Gulf Community,

Qld, the N Coastal Community, NT, WA,

the N Gulf Community, NT.

Loxoblemmus bilo (Otte & Alexander)

BILO SMALL FIELD CRICKET This cricket is virtually morphologically Loxoblemmus bilo,adult male, long-winged morph. indistinguishable from L. adina. However, l

. . . . . . .... . . .... ..

Loxoblemmus bilo,adult male.Head, pronotum,lateral view, frons.

Loxoblemmus bilo,calling song. 74

TRIBE GRYLLINI Body length: males 10.5 mm; females

11.0 mm; ovipositor 6.5 mm.

L.bilo is a member of the NE Coastal

Community, Qld.

Loxoblemmus pallens(Serville) QUEENSLAND FLAT-HEADED CRICKET

Originally 1 of 2 species included in Loxoblemmus but the curious head seemed

Loxoblemmus bilo. to distinguish the species. The frons bears a

to be the only character distinctive enough

to separate this genus from Comidogryllus, so the 2 were combined with Loxoblemmus

the older name and giving it priority. L.

narrow white stripe descending from the pallens is distinctive in several other median ocellus, narrowing ventrally.Lateral characters as well. The protrusion of the lobes of pronotum pale for most of ventral head is more exaggerated in males and third. File as in Table 4.

more developed than in L. nurroo, the sister

Loxoblemmus pallens,adult male,short-winged morph (top);long-winged morph(bottom.

75

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Loxoblemmus pallens,adult male-note protruding head (left);toothon antennal scape(right).

Loxoblemmus pallens, adult female, short-

winged morph.

Loxoblemmus pallens, nymph, early instar. Head with broad whitish streaks on occiput.

Disk of pronotum mottled as in other

Loxoblemmus pallens, adult female. Note mite

which was underneath the left tegmen.

species described in Otte and Alexander.In

addition,males have a peculiar hook on the scape of the antenna. This hookislackingin females and in L.nurroo.The frons has the distinctive stripe spanning the lateralocelli

76

Loxoblemmus species; lateral lobes with more extensive white covering most of the lower half; a broad longitudinal stripe. Tegmen with mirror sometimes divided. Tibial auditory tympanum only on posterior surface. All legs with dark grey or brown spots. Song a slow trill produced after dark. This species does not seem to live in burrows but freely on the ground round grass clumps or under leaf litter. It can be found with other members of the genus, especially L.adina.Despite this,it is often very difficult to find. Body length: males 14.5 mm; females

16.5 mm.

TRIBE GRYLLINI

Loxoblemmus pallens,caling song.Male fromlron Range, Qld.

the easiest way to tell species apart, especially

ifmore than 1 species livesin the samelocality. The male genitalia are somewhat distinctive

only in 1 Australian species,T.marini.

Loxoblemus alens. L.pallens isa member of the NE Coastal Teleogryllus commodus, adult female.

Community, Qld. Genus Teleogryllus Chopard (Southern Black Field Crickets)

Teleogryllus is a large genus of similar- appearing black field crickets occurring in

southern climes, especially in the Pacific region. Where they occur they are usually

common and often come to lights.The calling song is distinctive for each species.It is often

Teleogryllus commodus,2nd last instar male.The creamish white margin on the 2nd abdominal

Teleogryus commodus,adult male.

segment is known only for Australian Teleogryllus species (top);last instar female (bottom).

77

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA



*...5u

4…s **..、u0 40…s.

Teleogryllus commodus, calling song.

such situations. The calls of all species are complex and distinctive in that they contain 2 alternated trills with different pulse rates.

The crickets singmostlyat night but singing

can commence in late afternoon on cloudy days.In Tasmania T.commodus often sings

during the day.Recognition of this genus is

easy. ee Table 3.

Teleogryllus commodus (Walker)

COMMON BLACK FIELD CRICKET

This species is generally black but brownish

Teleogryllus commodus.

individuals are not uncommon. The species is easily distinguished from T. oceanicus by Three species have been described from the song and the number of teeth on the Australia. T. commodus, the Black Field male stridulatory file. In T. commodus there Cricket, is the most widespread and occurs a are usually 280-200 file teeth. In T. in the southern part of the continent from oceanicus there are 225-278 teeth. It occurs coast to coast.T. oceanicus and T. marini are with T. oceanicus in the northern part of its mostly tropical species. T. oceanicus has the range. Otte and Alexander were convinced broadest range of the northern species and that there was no hybridization between

has been found on both Norfolk and Lord the 2 species where they overlap

Howe islands as well as the mainland.T. geographically. This species has only 1

marimi has a more restricted range and has generation per year.The Common Black

a more coastal distribution occurring from Field Cricket lives in pasture,lawns,athletic the Daintree south to Bramston Beach,Qld. c ovals and margins of ponds, streams and

All species seem to be associated with rivers. Macropterous and short-winged

grasses. Golf courses and athletic fields often harbour populations of these crickets

individuals occur.

Body length: males (to tip of hind

that live on the surface of the ground among g wings)28.0-35.0 mm; females 29.0-35.0

the anastomosing stems and matted dead mm; ovipositor 16.0-20.0 mm. foliage of the grasses. They do not make or T. commodus is member of the occupy burrows. Their persistence in such Murray-Darling Basin Community, NSW, habitats is remarkable considering the e and the SE Coastal Communities, NSW,

n Vic, Tas.

mowing and trampling they undergo in

78

TRIBE GRYLLINI Teleogryllus oceanicus (Le Guillou) OCEANIC BLACK FIELD CRICKET

in grassy clearings along roadsides and marshy areas in the northern tropics.

This species is widespread in Oceania with

Body length: (very similar to that of records as far north as Hawaii.It is almost T. commodus)males 29.0-34.0 mm;

indistinguishable from T.commodus except females 30.0-36.0 mm; ovipositor 15.5-

for the slightly larger number of teeth on 19.0 mm. T. oceanicus is a member of the SE and the male stridulatory file and its different

calling song. Males always have 3 harp veins NE Coastal Communities, Qld, the N Gulf but in T. commodus they can have 3-4 harp Community, Qld, NT and the N Coastal veins. The major difference in this species is

Community, NT and WA.

the distinctive song which is an alternation

of 3-4 pulse trills followed by a series of 2-4 pulse chirps. This phrase is repeated 3-5 times in 10 s (compare with T. commodus).

This species lives in much the same habitat as T.commodus. The crickets can be found

Teleogryllus oceanicus, adult long-winged male.

Teleogryllus oceanicus, adult long-winged male

(top);female (bottom).

Teleogryllus oceanicus,adult male head and pronotum(left);male genitalia(right).

79

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Teleogryllus oceanicus, calling song.

reddish brown in colour. The occiput of the head is striped but the stripes are

sometimes indistinct. The male genitalia of thisspecies are distinct from the others. The male tegmen has the harp with 4

veins with the shortest vein not always complete.Nymphs are dark brown to

black with a white mid-body band; the

cerci are light brown. Only long-winged

Teleogrylus oceanicus.

Teleogryllus marini

Otte & Alexander

NORTH COASTAL BLACK FIELD CRICKET This is the largest known Australian

species of Teleogryllus.Like the others,it

is common where it occurs. Mostt Teleogryllus marini, adult male,reddish brown

individuals are chocolate brown to morph.

Teleogrlusmarini,adult female,head-note stripes;male genitalia.

80

TRIBE GRYLLINI

Teleogryllus marini,adult female,mixed colour morph (top); dark reddish brown morph

(bottom). 

Teleogryllus marini, 1st instar nymph.

stems and seem to disappear under dead

grass matts. However, after dark, singing commences and both sexes are on the

move. The crickets can be found on the top of short grass such as on golf courses

Teleogryllus marini, early instar nymph.Note white'waistband!

and athletic fields. Both sexes readily fly to lights. Otte and Alexander noted 2 kinds of song: (1)alternation of6-8 pulse

trills and a series,18-22, of 3-4 pulse chirps; and(2)alternation of 6-9 pulse

individuals are known. This species istrills as in '1'and a continuously faster locally common from the Daintree topulse trill with 30-50 pulses. This may be

Bramston Beach where it lives in pastures part of a courtship stridulation. and grassy places like golf courses and

Body length: males (head to tip of

athletic fields. Even though the crickets vwings)28.0-33.0 mm; females 28.0-34.0

are large,they are very difficult to locate mm;ovipositor 14.0-16.0mm. during the day even in mown grass areas.

T. marini is a member of the NE Coastal

They scuttle with ease among the grass Community, Qld.

81

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

*.*烟 时*.纳作45.*游细*a.

Teleogryl/us marini, calling song.

Tegmina present in males and usually not much 1.5-2.5 times the length

of pronotum; mirror present or absent,if present not divided except

in 1 species: mitanina

Females short tegmina.

Daintria rTeleogrylls marini. Tribe Cephalogryllini (Burrowing

Crickets) Known from 4 genera in Australia. An additional genus has several species in New Caledonia.It is thought that Apterogryllus is

a derivative of the Cephalogryllus-Daintria

Fore tibia with tympanum only on posterior surface. Tegmina present in males and usually 2.5 times length of pronotum.

Mirror present and divided by l vein.

Females with very short tegmina.

Ngamarlanguia

Cave adapted. Fore tibia lacking tympanum. Wingless

and eyeless.

Pale coloration.

complex because the genitalia of Genus Apterogryllus de Saussure Apterogryllus resembles those of these 2 (Wingless Burrowing Crickets) genera. Females of Cephalogryllus are Apterogryllus de Saussure species are almost inseparable from those ofwingless in both sexes. Twenty species have

Apterogryllus further suggesting beendescribedandthereare probably more

relationship.

The 3 genera are easily separated by the to be discovered. The genus has been divided into 2 species groups: the Palpatus

folowing.

Apterogryllus

Fore tibia without tympana in both

sexes. Wings absent in both sexes.

Cephalogryllus

Fore tibia with tympanum only on posterior surface.

82

Group and the Brunnerianus Group. Apterogryllus is widespread across Australia with the bulk of species from the

dry interior and the eastern rainforests. Many are localised and, being wingless, isolated populations could give rise to a

more diverse fauna than one would expect

from winged species.

TRIBE CEPHALOGRYLLINI

The life history of these crickets is most related Cephalogryllusspecies.Asacollecting interesting. They live in deep burrows often technique, pouring water down burrows in hard clay and dry woodland habitats. The brings the occupants to the surface. populations can be dense. Otte and Otte and Alexander surmised that the

Alexander found as many as 15-20 crickets undergo a dry season diapause in a

individuals in an area of ̄0.9 m.During the juvenile stage suggesting a multiple-yearlife

drier periods of the year, the crickets live cycle. The diapauses may be of near the bottom of the burrows where it is indeterminatelength and wholly dependent

cool and moist. This may be nearly 60 cm on optimal periods of development,such as

from the surface of the ground. Following rainy periods. wet periods, the majority of burrows are

Distinguishing characteristics of the

species groups

plugged with dry clay to  ̄2 cm from the

surface of the ground. The burrows are

cylindrical with the excavated material Palpatus Group (6 species) Last segment of labial palp longer than

conspicuously piled near the entrance. Otte

and Alexander rarely found 2 entrances

the last segment of the maxillary

palpo.

leading to the same burrow.At ̄30 cm from Last segment of labial palp with a the surface of the ground, a large chamber fringe of setae. can often be found and this is provisioned with seeds,leaves and a variety of organic Brunnerianus Group (10 species further divided into 2 subgroups) material. This may feed the buried crickets Last segment of labial palp shorter than during the dry season. They discovered that blind offshoots of the main burrow contained

faecal pellets. Beneath the food chamber the main shaft couldextend for 30 cm or more.It

is probable that the crickets come to the surface during rainy periods during the dry season much in the same manner as do

last segment of maxillary palp.

Last segment of labial palp lacking fringe of setae. This group has been further divided into 2 subgroups based on the

following characters.

Subgroup A (4 species) Body length:males 23-30 mm;females

22-30 mm.

Middle femurlength at least 14 mm.

Ovipositor longer than hind femur and at least 3 times as long as length of

pronotum, measured from the

middle.

Hind tibia with the subapical spurs beginning immediately adjacent to

the anterior proximal constriction (see Fig. 13K).

Apterogryllus unknown species.Fist instar

nymph.

Hind tibia without small spines above subapical spurs.

83

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Subgroup B (6 species with the Nyrang Infragroup' included) Body length: 9-20 mm.

Hind femurless than 14 mm except in

Apterogryllus palpatus(Chopard)

COMMON WINGLESS BURROWING

CRICKET

As a member of the Palpatus Group the 1 species, A. ilga. body is strongly constricted between the Ovipositor shorter than hind femur, pronotum and the abdomen. The pronotum from 0.2 to 1.5 times as long as is smooth and shiny. The ovipositor is pronotum measured from the centre. shorter than the length of the hind femur Hind tibia with subapical spurs not and the hind tibia bears 4-7 inner and 3-5 positioned next to proximal

constriction (Fig. 13L), with 3-5

inner and 3-5 outer subapical spurs.

Hind tibia in some species with small spines above the spurs.

outer subapical spurs. This species is similar to A.pedestris but differs in having the last

segment of the labial palpus longer than the last segment of the maxillary palpus. There

The Nyrang Infragroup includes 3 very are long setae on both the galea and the small species distinguished principally on labial palpi. The fore tibia bears flattened apical spurs with cutting edges. the configuration of the male genitalia. We have seen only a few examples in

this study as follows.

Body length: males 16.0-22.0 mm; females 18.0-25.0 mm.



Fig.13. Apterogrylls taxonomiccharacters. (A)palpatus ovipositor,Gahnda Rockhole; (B)palpatus ovipositor, Amadeus Basin, NT;(C) brunnerianus, Bald Mt, Qld; (D)yirrkalis holotype; (E) pedestris, view of lower part of mouth parts; (F)palpatus female, tibia Ispines;(G) palpatus male, leg I;(H).

rimbjae body shape; (J) brunnerianus head;(K) brunnerianus tibia ll nner;(L) bimblios tibia ll outer;(M) brunnerianus tibia lll outer;(N) barranitibia Il inner; (O, P)palpatus tibia ll inner and

outer respectively. Modified from Otte and Alexander (1983), with permission.

84

TRIBE CEPHALOGRYLLINI

Apterogryllus undescribed species NEw SPECIES A

Easily recognised as distinct by the tawny colour and the spurs on the middle tibia

Apterogryllus palpatus,adult female.

Apterogryllus undescribed species, adult male.

Apterogryus palpatus, adult male.

Apterogrlus undescribed species, middle tibia

Nymph, possibly A. palpatus

Apterogrylus palpatus.

(top); hind femur (bottom).

Apterogryllus undescribed species.

85

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

and the spines on the ventral surface of the

hind femur.

Cephalogryllus species are short- winged, the wings used by males only for

This species is a member of the NE stridulation. The lateral (costal) field of tegmen is often contrastingly dark. The Coastal Community, Qld.

body colour is light brown, often with a Genus Cephalogryllus Chopard rusty tinge. The pronotum usually has the (Rainforest Burrowing Crickets) sides parallel when viewed from above or Cephalogryllus is an endemic Australian s slightly narrower in back. The tegmina of genus with 14 described species, all but 1 the females are so small that they do not from the forests of eastern Australia from overlap. The ovipositor is shorter than the

northern New South Wales to near the tip hind femur.

of Cape York. A single species is known Interested readers should consult Otte from Western Australia but this may and Alexander for additional illustrations,

actually belong to another genus because it especially of the distinctive male genitalia is unrelated to any other species and is from that can aid in making identifications.

a very different habitat.

Most Cephalogryllus species have very Cephalogryllus matakira

restricted geographic ranges and are usually Otte & Alexander

e BLACK BIG-HEADED CRICKET known from one locality. Some are

rainforest inhabitants while others live in This species is fairly distinctive in its

dry eucalypt forests, mostly on the western external appearance. The colour is black with a pair of teardrop-shaped orange slopes of the Great Dividing Range. All species live in burrows of their own r marks on the dorsal surface of the construction, although a female of 1 speciespronotum. The male tegmen lacks a mirror was found under a rotting log. Males sing and is less than 1.6 times the length of the from the entrance of their burrows after pronotum. The harp has 4-5 veins. Males of dark. In the tropics,singing can occur at this species have the left tegmen over the

any time of the year even when the ambient it right. The lateral lobe of the pronotum is temperature is below 15°C. Wet conditions seem to limit the activity of the species. When it is dry, singing does not take place regardless of the temperature. Some Cephalogryllus species have reduced ocelli and shorter than average hind

legs that are thickened and enlarged. These features may be adaptations to a subterranean habit. We have not found an adult of either sex abroad after dark even though oatmeal trails have been laid, some within a few centimetres of burrow entrances. How

females find males is still a mystery.

86

Cephalogryllus matakira, adult male.

TRIBE CEPHALOGRYLLINI

Cephalogryllus matakira. Cephalogryllustau,adult male,dark morph, white anteriorly. The biology and song of Kuranda, Qld (top);reddish morph, Mt Baldy,

this species is unknown.

Body length: males 20.0-23.0 mm;

females 22.0-26.0 mm;ovipositor7.5 mm.

C. matakira is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Qld (bottom); male genitalic complex(inset).

adjacent trees. The crickets also occur in

grassy areas adjacent to the rainforest,their

tell-tale burrows revealed by the piles of Cephalogryllus tau Otte & Alexander contrasting grey soil that is piled at the entrance. We have not observed adult RAINFOREST BURROWING CRICKET This is a large species with males more than crickets abroad but Otte and Alexander 25 mm in body length. The hind tibia is record juveniles at night foraging for food. usually strongly bent with a spine on inner They observed burrows open during the face of the hind femur. The male tegmen day but we have always found them closed. Theyfound that the burrows extended to 20 lacks a mirror. Males sing after darkon wet nights from cm deep with an enlarged chamber and the just inside theirburrows.The calling song is veryloud,almost ear piercing,and carries a long distance in the rainforest. The song consists primarily of short trills, erratically produced but wholly unsynchronised so that the bevy of calling crickets sounds like 1 loud, correlated trill. The crickets live underground in burrows, the diameter of theopening belying the size oftheoccupant. Large groups of males occupy small areas

either within the rainforest or along its Cephalogrylls tau,adult female.Photo:Alan margins burrowing in the tangle of roots of Henderson.

87

A GUIDE TO CRICKETSs OF AUSTRALIA

Cephalogrylls tau,male tegmen; adult male hind tibia (top) and tarsus (bottom).Note

spines on dorsal surface of elongate 1st tarsal

segment.

end. Leaves, seeds and other organic material were deposited in the chamber. They observed juvenile crickets carrying oatmeal into the burrows. Small juveniles

were found in burrows with adult females. More than a single mid-sized juvenile was

found in a single burrow.Faecal pellets are found outside the burrows. Our observations are slightly different from those of Otte and Alexander. We have not found any adult individuals abroad and

Cephalogryllstau, late instar nymph.

Cephalogryllus tau,calling song,Kuranda,Qld.

88

have not found any attracted to our oatmeal trails. We have dug nymphs of several sizes

from burrows both during the day and at

TRIBE CEPHALOGRYLLINI

which occur in the coastal rainforests of Queensland. They do not live in burrows, at least in extensive burrows. They inhabit leaf

litter or live in narrow spaces at the base of buttress roots. The common name reflects the peculiar stance of singing males where they extend their hind legs. This emphasises

the 'band-shell effect'made by the combination of the body and extended

wings when the male is stridulating. As with Cephalogryllus, males sing only

Cephalogrylus tau.

on certain nights. Temperature and humidity seem to be important in prompting males to sing. When they do, they seem to

night. Singing is sporadic, apparently be in competition with the more common dependent on ambient moisture and Cephalogrllus species that occur in the

temperature. Singing can occur until early same habitat over parts of the range of the

winterwhen the temperaturecan descend to species. Singing males do so from tree

14°C. Singing can resume any time during

trunks just above ground level to 3 m.

14°C and the environment is wet.

without a net. They can leap 3 m in a single

the winter when the temperature rises aboveSinging males are wary and difficult to catch

jump but on a night when singing is optimal, Bandicoots attempt to dig up crickets j

from burrows at night. Whether they detecta disturbed male will commence singing

the calling songs of the males or can pick up within a few minutes of being disturbed. Male Daintria are easily distinguished the scent of the crickets from the soil around their burrows is not determined.from other rainforest crickets but females may be confused with those of They are more successful digging up 1 Cephalogryllus species.Female crickets from grassy areas adjacent to the ( rainforest than in the rainforest itself. The Cephalogryllus have tegmina short and

tangle of roots in the rainforest seems to apically rounded, somewhat resembling advantage the crickets over the bandicoots. half moons. Those of Daintria are more Body length:males 30.0 mm; females elongate and, in general, are longer than

31.0 mm; 23.0 mm.

those of Cephalogryllus.

Community, Qld.

groups. They can be identified by the following set of characters.

Genus Daintria Otte (Spraddling

Australicus Group (comprising 9 species)

C. tau is a member of the NE Coastal

Rainforest Crickets) Daintria(treated as Stenocephalus in Otte and Alexander 1983) is an Australian

endemic genus comprising 13 species all of

Daintria has been divided into 2 species

Male tegmen more than 0.7 times as

long as hind femur.

Male epiphallus short and broad (single exception,D.wookatios).

89

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

4 to 5 harp veins with the width of the

Patawilyis Group(comprising 4 species)4

Male tegmen less than 0.7 times length mirror less than 1.3 timesitslength. Females of hind femur. are not very distinctive from other similar- Male epiphallus more elongate and sized species. They have rather broad tegmina separated from one another by a distance less than the width of 1 tegmen. The Australicus Group The lower portion of the lateral pronotal lobe is white along the ventral margin. Daintria australicus(Chopard) Males sing at night from perches on tree DAINTREE SPRADDLER D. australicus is fairly distinctive,at least in trunks,onlogs or rocks. They are very wary

narrower.

the male sex. Males are more than 19 mm in and very responsive to external vibrations. body length and have the tegmina less than

D. australicus is a member of the NE

3 times the length of the pronotum and with Coastal Community, Qld.

Daintriaaustralicus,adult male stridulating at night.Note strap-like2nd pairof wings on abdomen.

Daintriaaustralicus,adult male,frons(left);lateralview, head and pronotum(right).

90

TRIBE CEPHALOGRYLLINI

Daintria australicus, adult male,dorsal view; male genitalia.

Daintriaaustralicus,female subgenital plate (top); tip of ovipositor (bottom).

Daintria australicus,adult female,lateral view.

Daintriaaustralicus, adult female,lateral view. Daintria australicus. 传电体材

代精得种

a转mmuueu

Daintria australicus,calling song.

Daintria sp. near yarata

small number of file teeth, numbering

around 70.Harp with 4 veins. The male genitalia are distinctive. Body length: males 15.0 mm; females A species similar to both D. aperensis and

Otte & Alexander YARATA SPRADDLER

D.wirensis but much smaller.Males have a unknown.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Daintria sp. near yarata, adult male.

Daintria sp. near yarata, adult male, head (left)

and pronotum (right).

Daintria sp.nearyarata,adult male,head, pronotum,tegmina;male genitalia.

Daintria sp. near yarata, alling song. D.sp.near yarata is a member of the NE

Coastal Community Qld.

The Patawilyis Group Daintria perrumbis (Otte &

Alexander) IRON RANGE SPRADDLER D. perrumbris is ~18.5 mm in body length;

Daintria sp. near yarata.

92

females are slightly longer. Males have the harp of the tegmen with 8 to 9 veins and the

TRIBE CEPHALOGRYLLINI

Daintria perrumbis, male, dorsal view.

Daintria perrumbis, adult female, dorsal view. Note widely separated tegmina.

Daintria perrumbis.

mirror width more than 1.3 times itslength. Genus Ngamarlanguia Rentz & Su Females are very dark and have short (Cape Range Dwarf Cricket)

tegmina that are separated from one Ngamarlanguia was proposed to include a anotherbya distance much greater than the single unusual species restricted to the caves width of 1tegmen.The lower margin of the of the Cape Range,WA.It is typical of cave-

lateral pronotal lobe is white along the a adapted crickets in that it lacks eyes, has ventral margin. longer than normal antennae and is very pale D. perrumbris is a member of the NE ir in colour. It was placed in the Nemobiinae Coastal Community, Qld.

but was recently transferred to the very

93

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

distant tribe Cephalogryllini. This is the Ngamarlanguia luisae Rentz & Su only truly cave-adapted Australian cricket.LUISE'S CAPE RANGE CRICKET

Nambungia balyarta from Nambung The features listed about should help to

National Park, WA is a species that occurs in distinguish this species.In addition,we add caves(see p.330).But this species has been that the fore tarsus is longer than the fore

found in terrestrialhabitatsas wellandis not tibia and the middle tarsus is aslong as the

obviouslyadaptedtocavelife.Ngamarlanguia middle tibia; the hind tarsus is three-

is small for the Cephalogryllini and is rather quarters thelength of the hind tibia; the lst

elongate in form. In addition to the above,tarsal segment (basitarsus) of all tarsi are both sexes lack wings. The head is slightly broader than the pronotum and not flattened but extends slightly above the cephalic margin of the pronotum. Fore tibia without any trace of auditory tympana, ventral surface armed at apex with a single spine on anterior margin. Hind tibia with 4 spurs on each side, the proximal spur on each side much shorter than the other 3; apex armed dorsally with 2 spurs on each side,the ventral external spur feebly recurved. Tarsi of fore Ngamarlanguia luisae,adult male.Note and middle legs more than twice the length absence of eyes.Photo:DEford,WAMuseum. of the others combined;lst segment dorsally with 7-9 setae on each side, apex with a cluster of 5 setae; 2nd segment short with 2-3 setae at apex; tarsal claw with long, thin

setae on each side. Entire body covered with finesetae. Abdomen with 4setaeon posterior

margin of each sternite;dorsal surface with a concentration of long setae laterally on segments 1-4 adjacent to inner surface of

hind femur. Subgenital plates of both sexes broader than long, not modified. Male gentialia semicircular in dorsal aspect, setaceous at apex. This places N.luisae in the

Cephalogryllini and not in the nemobinae. The ovipositor is much shorter than length of

hind femur, much broaderat base than in the middle, strongly laterally compressed; tip sharp,subapically constricted, not tuberculate. Overall colour pale brown to Ngamarlanguialuisae,adult female; lateral

whitish, head slightly darker.

94

view head. Note absence of eyes.

TRIBE LANDREVINI

Tribe Landrevini

This is a fairly large tribe with 30 genera from Africa,India south Asia,Japan,

Melanesia as well as Australia. Two genera

have been recorded for Australia, Copholandrevus and Mjobergella. The

former is representedby2 species, the other

of which is from Malaysia,Borneo,

Sawawak. Mjobergella contains 2 species,

both from Australia.

Copholandrevus and Mjobergella are

easily separated. Ngamarlanguialuisae,lateral view ovipositor (top); hind leg showing tarsus and adjacent

spurs (bottom).

Copholandrevus Both sexes lack auditory tympana on foe tibia.

Male tegmen less than half the length of pronotum and lacking any trace

twice as long as other tarsi combined, the dorsal surface bearing 2 well defined rows of stout teeth or spines. Females have the ovipositor shorter than the length of the

hind femur with a subapical notch on the

dorsal margin.

Bodylength:males6.4-8.3 mm;females

6.5-9.5 mm; ovipositor 2.2-3.1 mm.

N. luisae is a member of the NE Coastal

Community WA.

of a stridulatory area.

Mjobergella

Both sexes have an auditory tympanum on anterior face of fore tibia.

Male tegmen longer than thelength of pronotum but not extending to the

end of the abdomen and bearing a

stridulatory vein, with or without a mirror,depending on the species.

Genus Copholandrevus Chopard

Both sexes similar in appearance. Body

colour brown with an orange appearance. Males without any form of stridulation.

Hind tibia with spines above the spurs.

Ovipositor longer than length of hind tibia but shorter than the femur.

Copholandrevus australicus

Chopard

SHORT-WINGED FOREST CRICKET

Ngamarlanguialuisae.

A small,tan or reddish brown cricket.Hind

tibia with 4internaland4external subapical

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Copholandrevus australicus,adult male.Note absence of stridulatory file.



Copholandrevus austraicus. Body length: males and females 18.0 mm; ovipositor 12.0 mm.

Fig.14. Male genitalia and tegmina of

Landrevini:Mjobergella and Copholandrevus species. (A) C.australicus; (B) M. warra;(C) M.warra,left tegmen;(D) M.macrocephala, left tegmen.Modified from Otte and Alexander (1983),

with permission.

C. australicus is a member of the NE Coastal Community, Qld.

Genus Mjobergella Chopard (Big-headed Forest Crickets)

Mjobergella species are confined to north

Queensland coastal rainforests. They live on spurs and with 4-6 internal and 5-8tree trunks, emerging from under bark or external spines. Ovipositor slightly shorter r tree cracks after dark. The body is much

than length of hind femur. This cricket lives flatter than with normalcrickets,supposedly on tree trunks in the rainforest.

96

to accommodate life in tight places. The

TRIBE LANDREVINI heads are disproportionately large for the size of the cricket. Males have 6-7 harp veins on the tegmen and may or may not have a mirror on the tegmen, depending upon the species. Hind tibia with 4-5

internal and external spines. Mjobergella macrocephala Chopard

TABLELANDS BIG-HEADED FOREST

CRICKET

Male tegmen lacking a mirror or with a

small one(Fig.14D).Pronotum broader on

anterior margin than posterior. Females bearing auditory tympana on anterior

surface of fore tibia. Males with tegmina shorter than head and pronotum combined and not reaching middle of abdomen. Found on tree trunks in rainforests.

Mjobergella macrocephala,adult female abroad

Otte and Alexander stated the female on tree trunk at night. lacks an auditory tympanum on the fore tibia and had a shorter ovipositor. We Body length: males 19.0-20.0 mm; believe this relatively smaller female specimen belongs to an undescribed

Mjobergella species.

females 20.0 mm;ovipositor 18.0 mm.

M.macrocephala is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Mjobergella macrocephala,adult male.

97

A GuIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Mjobergellamacrocephala,adult male,head (left);male genitalia(right.

and tarsus contrasting reddish brown. Females bearing auditory tympana on

anterior surface offore tibia; female tegmina

very short, only slightly longer than length of pronotum. Male tegmina about aslong as

head and pronotum combine and bearing a

mirror; harp with 6,7veins; stridulatory file

Mjobergella macrocephala. Mjobergella warra Otte & Alexander COASTAL BIG-HEADED FOREST CRICKET

Males with contrasting colours, light on

dorsal surface, black on undersides. Top of head with bands,surface setaceous. Frons black, somewhat lighter in the middle. Antenna with scape light brown, pedicel

and first few segments black,flagellum dark Mjobergella wara,adult male abroad on tree brown.Hind tibiauniquely black with base trunk at night.

98

TRIBE LANDREVINI

Mjobergella warra,adult male; male genitalia.

Mjobergella warra, last instar male.

bearing 60-70 teeth. As with other species,

this species lives on tree trunks in the rainforest and emerges after dark to feed and seek mate. Males sing from within

cracks in the bark.

Body length: males 18.0-20.0 mm; females 16.0 mm; ovipositor 11.0 mm.

M.warra is amember of the NE Coastal Mjobergella warra,adult female,Daintree,Qld. Community, Qld.

Mjobergellawara,,calling song,Cow Bay,Daintree,Qld.

99

A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA the 2 genera are substantially different with the male epiphallus bearing 2 median processes or with a median notch in Eurygryllodes. The similarity of the colour patterns of the 2 seem a result of natural selection and adaptation to desert habitats. Other desert crickets are similarly pallid in

colour. Most Eurygryllodes species live in

Tribe Eurygryllodini

the arid portions of Australia. However, a few are found in mixed woodlands. All species are ground dwellers and live in leaf litter among stones,usually under shrubs. A few occur in gardens. Oddly females are

spp.)and are a challenge to collect. Males

relationship of these 2 genera by having

Mjobergella wara.

The Eurogryllodini contributes 2 genera to unknown for most species. Those that are the Australian fauna.Eurygryllodes consists known are wingless with the ovipositor~1.7 of small crickets that occur in the drier times thelength of the hind femur. Otte and parts of the continent. However, there are Alexander must be consulted for exceptions. Otte and Alexander recognised authoritative identifications in this genus. Eurygryllodes crickets bear a superficial 3 species groups. All species live on the ground and are dorso-ventrally flattened to resemblance to a recently described genus accommodate such an existence. Several Laureopsis from South America, which species are associated with spinifex(Triodia might be inferred as Gondwanan are winged but flightless, females apterous.

Genus Eurygryllodes Chopard (Impostor Crickets)

minute spines proximal to the spurs of the hind tibia and the similarity of male

epiphallus.

Three species groups have been

Eurygryllodes crickets bear a superficial recognised: the Gorimuis Group, the resemblance to members of the Old World Warilla Group and the Diminutus Group. Eugryllodes. Species in that genus have a We have few examples due to the rarity of tympanal opening on the posterior surfacecollection.

of the fore tibia. With the exception of a single species group, Eurygryllodes crickets The Gorimuis Group have tympanal openings on both sides and This group contains average-sized crickets

have minute spines proximal to the spurs of with the male tegmen more than 4.5 times the hind tibia. The pronotum is short and the length of the body.Pronotum 2 times the

broad,usually broadening posteriorly. The length.The outerapicalspurs ofthe hind tibia hind tibia bears 1-4 immoveable spines s are very elongate. Both anterior and posterior tympana are present on the fore tibia. The above the subapical spurs. The male tegmen

bears a mirror with a single dividing vein, mirroriscomplete.Thebodycolour isusually except in the Warilla Group.The genitalia of yellow brown or orange brown.

100

TRIBE EURYGRYLLODINI

Eurygryllodes sp.near takanna,adult male, Keep River, NT.

Eurygrylldes sp.near takanna. Body length: males 10.0-11.0 mm;

Eurygryllodes sp.near takanna Otte & Alexander

females unknown.

inleaf litter under tall trees.It resembles E.

NW Coastal Community, NT.

A beautiful small mottled cricket that lives

takanna but differs in the morphology of

E.sp.near takanna is a member of the

the male genitalia and its calling song.

Eurygrylldes sp.near takanna,calling song.

The Warilla Group

Eurygryllodes warrilla

Members of this group are smaller, ranging Otte & Alexander

sWARILLA IMPOSTER in size from 9 to 15 mm. The tegmen is less Very pale cricket with some dark markings than 3 times as long as the pronotum. The  width of the pronotum is 2 times its length. on the top of the head, pronotum and hind The outer apical spurs of the hind tibia are legs. Occurs in sandy areas with scattered

very long. There is only an anterior vegeation.There issome indication that this tympanum on the fore tibia.The mirror is cricket lives in burrows. The song is a poorly developed. The body colour is succession of 12-20 pulse chirps.

contrastingly marked with brown.

101

A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA Eurygryllodes diminutus(Walker)

CANBERRA IMPOSTER CRICKET

Males of this species have an incredible number of teeth on their stridulatory file.

Up to 820 have been counted. These minute structures are only seen with the best of microscopes. This species is rather

easily recognised with the following Eurygryllodes warilla,adult male.loppolo Nature Reserve,WA.Photo:DKnowles.

Eurygryllodes diminutus,adult male, Cotter

Dam, ACT.

Euryrllodes waril. Body length: males 15.0 mm; females

unknown.

E. warillaisamemberofthe SE Coastal

Community WA. The Diminutus Group

Members of this group are small crickets (under13.0mm).Theyare grey orbrown in

colour.In some species the head is reddish brown with narrow longitudinal stripes on

the occiput. The male tegmen has a dark

brown band dorsally and has4or more cells

in the apical field. The width of the pronotum is less than twice its length.In males the hind femur is longer than the tegmen. The hind tibia has 3,4 inner and outer subapical spurs; the apical spurs are

not especially elongate.

102

Eurygryllodes diminutus,adultmale,dorsal view.

TRIBE EURYGRYLlODINI

combination of characters: harp of male hidden by the subgenital plate. The song is tegmen with 4 distinct veins; middle tibia characterised byextremely long pulses that with a dark spot at its base; tip of hind are widely spaced.This is a grassland femur grey with reddish tinge; hind tibia species, found in numbers in open areas

with 3 inner and 3 outer subapical spurs and often in gardens.

and 2-5 small spines above these;Body length: males 12.0-13.5 mm;

basitarsus with 7-8 spines dorsally on each females 14.0-15.0 mm.

side. Females are easily overlooked as E. diminutus is a member of the SE

males or immature females because the Coastal Community, NSW, and the ovipositor is extremely small and mostlyMurray-Darling Basin Community, ACT.

Eurygryllodes diminutus, adult female; ovipositor, Cotter Dam,ACT.

Eurygryllodes diminutus, calling song adult male, Cotter Dam,ACT.

Eurygryllodes kurrabi

Otte & Alexander KURRABI IMPOSTOR CRICKET This species presents the appearance of a

Comidogryllus species,especiallyin the colour and pattern of the hind femur. The frons and genae are dark brown. The pronotum is odd in that the anterior margin of the lateral lobe is whitish and very hairy.The hind tibiahas 3

Eurygryllodes diminutus.

inner and 3 outer subapical spurs and with 3-4 inner and outer small spines. The hind

103

A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Eurygryllodeskurrabi, adult male,John Forrest

National Park, WA.

basitarsus bears ̄8 outer spines on the dorsal surface. The stridulatory file of this species also bears many teeth. Up to 550 have been counted on some specimens. The song is said to be a succession of single pulses at~0.4 pulses/s.This cricket has been found in grass

litter in open woodlands.

Body length: males 11.0-12.0 mm; females unknown.

E. kurrabi is a member of the SW Eurygryllodes kurrabi, adult male, head, pronotum, tegmina.

Coastal Community, WA.

Eurygryllodes kurrabi, alling song.

Tribe Modicogryllini

The tribe Modicogryllini is well represented in Australia with 9 genera

containing78species.The tribeis aworld-

wide tropical and subtropical group with many very common species.Lepidogryllus species, for example,are among the most common and widespread Australian crickets. The tribe has been characterised

Eurygryllodes krrabi.



by the male phallus having widely

separated lateral lobes. If there is a median

lobe it is small and narrow and very short.

TRIBE MODIcOGRYLLINI

The harp of the male tegmen usually has2

4. Top of frons usually with a thin pale

tympanum on the fore tibia.A few genera also have an anterior tympanum as well. We present examples in all genera except

(Exception: some members of the

veins. All members have a posterior

Apedina and Tumpalia.

Otte and Alexander divided the Australian Modicogryllini into 2 'Groups. The 'Comidogryllus Group'needs a different name because its nominal genus is nowin the tribe Gryllini. Here we include it with quotation marks('). There are some

overlapping characters, but for the most

stripe connecting lateral ocelli.

subgenus Buangina, p.113 and Comidogrylus.)

5.Legs with contrasting light and dark

markings.

6. Epiphallus with prominent median

process.

7. Mirror present and undivided. (Exception:some species of

subgenus Buangina, p.113.)

8. Pronotum when viewed dorsally

with sides parallel or slightly wider

part, the groups are easily distinguished by

posteriorly.

This tribe is presently a confusing taxonomicsituation.See p.367 for complete listing of genera and species now considered in the Modicogryllini.The 2 above-

Aritella Genus Group

the following character list.

mentioned groups are presented below with

(Note: Velarifictorus is now in this group of genera.)

1. Top of head yellowish brown,orange or reddish black or black.

characters listed for each.

2. Fore tibia only with posterior

'Comidogryllus Group

3. Occiput usually without stripes.See

Note: Birubia and Yarrita are now synonyms of the widespread Velarifictorus. Buangina is now a subgenus of Velarifictorus. Comido- gryllus has been placed as a

synonym of Loxoblemmus and those genera all reside in the tribe Gryllini (p.366). We use the name to relate

the genera to those included in the Otte and Alexander monograph.) 1. Top of head brown to black.(Can be

reddish brown in some members of

the subgenus Buangina,p.114.)

2. Fore tibia with a posterior

tympanum. (Some species also with

an anterior tympanum.) 3. Occiput with pale stripes. (Excep-

tion some members of the subgenus

Buangina, p.110.)

tympanum.

V. (B.) diminuens.

4. Top of frons often with a pale stripe connecting ocelli (Exception:

Aritella laticaput.)

5. Legs usually concolorous, yellow brown to reddish brown.(Note:

speckled in some Pictorina.)

6. Epiphallus usually without a median process but several examples have

one.

The Comidogryllus' Group

This group includes Australia as well as non-

Australian representatives. It is widespread in Australia with examples in the northern rainforests as well as moist habitats in the interior. Many species are associated with grasslands and can be abundant on or along

105

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA the margins of athletic fields. Otte and to find both species at a given locality.To

Alexander noted that members ofthis group date, they can be segregated only by song.

arelesstolerant of dry conditions than those There is a slight difference in the number of

of the Aritella Group. Comidogryllus can beteeth on the stridulatory file but the genitalia are almost identical. Females found on p.70.

Genus Lepidogryllus Otte & Alexander

(Confusing Field Crickets)

Lepidogryllus is known from 4 species, 2 of

cannot be separated with certainty. This

genus could possibly be confused with several subgenera of Velarifictorus (see below) and the grylline Loxoblemmus species (p. 70). These crickets live on the

which occur in Australia. The others are ground in open areas where they take from New Caledonia and Vietnam. The  refuge in grass clumps along roadsides and

Australian examples are among the most riverbeds and in moist areas. They can be common crickets in Australia and in thevery abundant under certain conditions.

coastal islands. The genus can be easily Singing males are wary and often dificult recognised by the following combination of to approach. characters. The dorsal surface of the head

has a prominent white stripe connecting Lepidogrllus comparatus (Walker) the lateral ocelli. The disk of the pronotum SLOW-CHIRPING FIELD CRICKET

has a mottled appearance, but different Recognised by the characters listed above. from Loxoblemmus species with which it Males have the stridulatory vein with could be confused. The dorsal surface of 108-143 teeth. The song consists of long

the head bears up to 6 prominent chirps or short rills with a fast pulse rate. longitudinal stripes. There is white chevron Body length: both sexes 17.0 mm. of variable size encompassing the median L. comparatus is a member of all ocellus.The fore tibiabears alarge posterior communities in mainland Australia and tympanum but usually lacks one on the possibly coastal islands such as Norfolk and anterior surface. The lateral lobes of the Lord Howe. pronotum are dark dorsally but pale ventrally. The fore and middlelegs are pale and have fewif any markings,if so, they are indistinct brown or grey stripes or spots. The surface of all legs is covered in dark brown setae. The male tegmen has an undivided mirror; however, the mirror has many minute longitudinal veins throughout. Both long-winged and short-

winged individuals can be found at any

given locality. The 2 species are virtually

indistinguishable morphologically. They Lepidogrylluscomparatus,adult male

overlap geographically anditis not unusual stridulating at night.

106

TRIBE MODICoGRYLLINI

Lepidogyllus comparatus,adult male long-winged morph(top; short-winged morph(bottom; male genitalia, dorsal view (inset).

Lepidogryllus comparatus, adult female, long- winged morph.

Lepidogryllus comparatus, mid instar female

nymph.

Lepidogrylls comparatus, alling song.

107

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Lepidogrylls comparatus. Lepidogrylus parvulus (Walker)

FAST-CHIRPING FIELD CRICKET

Indistinguishable morphologically from L. comparatus but said to be more abundant in the north and along the coasts. There is Lepidogryllusparvulus, adult female, normal long-winged morph (top); short-winged morph

(bottom).

Lepidogryllusparvulus, adult male, short-

winged morph (top);long-winged morph

(bottom); male genitalia (inset).

108

Lepidogryllus parvulus, last instar male.

TRIBE MODICOGRYLLINI

Lepidogryllus parvulus, calling song.

Velarifictorus Subgenus Buangina

Otte & Alexander This subgenus comprises 2 subgenera considered genera in Otte and Alexander (1983).Fifteen species are included.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) diminuens

(Walker)

DIMINUTIVE GROUND CRICKET

Recognised by its dark colour,stripes on the

Lepidogryllus parvulus.

dark head, short concealed hind wings in both sexes and the fore and middle legs

variation in the colour intensity in some localities. Also the stripes on the head can

be absent in some individuals. The stridulatory vein consists of fewer teeth than in L.comparatus,97-129 teeth. The

song consists of very fast pulse chirps.

Body length: males 18.0 mm; females

19.5 mm.

L. parvulus is a member of all

communities in mainland Australia and

Velarifictorus(Buangina)diminuens,adult male.

possibly coastal islands such as Norfolk and

Lord Howe.

Genus Velarifictorus Randell (Pale Field Crickets)

As noted above, several of the genera

described by Otte and Alexander are now considered subgenera of Velarifictorus.

Velarifictorus is a very large genus with 115

species presently included. The genus is known from SE Asia, Africa, SE North Velarifictorus(Buangina) diminuens, adult male, America and Australia. dark morph. Photo: N Monaghan.

109

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Velarifictorus(Buangina)diminuens,adult female.

mottled black on pale background. This cricket is widespread and can be common in the south-eastern portion of the continent and probably occurs in Tasmania.Both sexes are short-winged with females having short, separated tegmina with the apices rounded. This species lives in grassy areas where the males make shallow burrows in

clumps of short grass. They may occupy

burrows made by other animals. Common Velarifictorus(Buangina)diminuens, early instar

male nymph.

in urban gardens in Melbourne and

Canberra.The song is producedin groups of

8-12 pulse chirps. The chirps are separated

ornal

89Bl

dixtubid

Velarifictorus(Buangina)diminuens,caling song;calling song when cricket is disturbed.

110

TRIBE MODICOGRYLLINI by 1.2-1.5sintervals.Thereis some variation in the chirps per group and this may be correlated with locality. More observations

are needed.

Body length:12.00 mm in both sexes. V.(B.)diminuens is a member of the SE

Coastal Communities,NSW and Vic.

Velarifictorus (Buangina)sp.near

diminuens Velarifictorus (Buangina) diminuens.

From south-western Western Australia.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) sp.near diminuens,adult male.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) sp.near diminuens,

adult female.

用MM 料构体构性 和间得间 时间国M

Last-instar female nymph. 构型A作科间柳热构

Velarifictorus(Buangina)sp.near diminuens,calling song.

111

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Velarifictorus (Buangina) sp. near diminuens.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) gayandi, adult male.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) gayandi

the top of the head has a broad, reddish

Note hairy pronotum and light coloured palpi.

brown continuous transverse stripe. Both HAIRY GROUND CRICKET sexes have visible hind wings. The top of the Head without stripes on the occiput. Pronotum frons has a pale transverse stripe. The fore (Otte & Alexander)

with dorsal surface hairy; lateral lobes with and middlelegs are pale witha few scattered whitish markings.Foreandmiddlelegs brown, faint blotches. This species could be both femorahairy; hind femur reddishbrown; confused with the House Cricket(p.67).

hind tibia with 4 inner and 5 outer subapical Careful comparisons should be made. This

spurs. Hind basitarsus with 6 outer and 5 inner s species occurs in large groups and sings spines. This species has been found living in ffrom dry cracks in the ground during the cracks in the ground near waterholes. day. The calling song is a succession of 9-10 Body length: males 11.5 mm. pulse chirps with the last pulses more V. (B.) gayandi is a member of the NE intense than the first ones. The chirps are delivered in groups of 6-24 at 5 chirps/s. Coastal Community, NT.

Body length: 15.0 mm in both sexes.

V. (B.)scutellata is a member of the Murray-Darling Community, NSW, Qld.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) gayandi.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) scutellata

(Chopard)

TWO-STRIPED GROUND CRICKET Recognised by its light colour and the velarifictorus(Buangina)scutellata,adult long- absence of stripes on the occiput. However, winged male.

112

TRIBE MoDICoGRYLLINI

Velarifictorus(Buangina)scutellata, adult short-

winged male (left);dorsal view head,pronotum

tegmen (right).

Velarifictorus(Buangina)scutellata,adult long-

winged female, light-coloured morph.

Velarifitorus(Buangina)scutellata, calling song.

The lateral lobes of the pronotum are

entirely black. Legs and abdomen dark brown to black. This species lives in cracks

in the ground in grasslands. It is a visitor to gardens in Canberra, ACT. The song is an

irregular succession of trills  ̄2 s in length

with ̄8trills per minute.Each trill can have

134 pulses.

Body length: males 18.0 mm; females 14.0-17.0 mm;ovipositor 9.4-10.4 mm.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) scutellata.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) pikiara (Otte & Alexander)

SMALL BLACK GROUND CRICKET

Easily recognised by the combination of the small size, black head, including the frons, without stripes on the occiput and lacking the pale band between the lateral ocelli; all palpi black. The fore tibia has a very large posterior auditory tympana and a veryVelarifictorus(Buangina) pikiara,adult male, small, almost absent, anterior tympanum. dorsal view.

113

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA pulses. This species lives in moist areas along roadsides and around seepage areas. Body length: males 12.0 mm;females

13.0 mm.

V.(B.)mediocris is a member of the N

Gulf and N Coastal Communities, NT, the

N Coastal and NW Coastal Communities,

Velaritorus (Buangina) pikiara,adult female.

WA,and the N Gulf and NE Coastal Communities, Qld.

Velarifictorus (Buangina) mediocris,adult male; genitalia (inset).

Velarifictorus (Buangina) pikiara. V.(B.)pikiara is a member of the

Murray-Darling Community, NSWand Vic, and the SE Coastal Community, NSW, Vic. Velarifictorus (Buangina)mediocris

Velarifictorus(Buangina) mediocris,adult (Mjoberg) female. NORTHERN COMMON GROUND CRICKET

Common across the top half of the

continent from coast to coast. The fore tibia has a tympanal opening on the posterior surface only. The male epiphallus bears a prominent median lobe. The top of the head has 6 faint stripes and the laterallobes of the pronotum are the same colour as the disk.

The legs are pale with a greyish overcast. The dorsal surface of the hind legs can have

a reddish brown overcast. The song is a

succession of chirps consisting of 9-12 velariitorus(Buangina)mediocris. 114

TRIBE MODICOGRYLLINI

The Aritella Group

Aritella fabria Otte & Alexander

This group comprises 5 genera that have LITTLE GROUND CRICKET te This small beautiful cricket was placed in remained taxonomically intact since Otte and Alexander's book. Artitella is the largest the 'Miscellaneous Group'in Otte and

with 21 species included spread over much Alexander. The mirror of the male tegmen of the continent.Most species are rusty red is very narrow. The head and pronotum are in colour and live in the drier parts of the almost uniformly orange with the ventral

outback where they can be found on dry border of the lateral pronotal lobe much soilorrockyoutcrops where they hide deep lighter the above. The hind femur is less than 9.0 mm in length. The species is in crevices.

Genus Aritella Otte & Alexander

widespread in the interior of the continent,

(Inland Ground Crickets)

This genus is widespread over the arid portions of the country with more species in the northern areas and not along the coast. Most Aritella are found in open country and live in cracks in the ground. A flush of water can sometimes bring the

crickets to the surface where they can be trapped with a shovel.Males aredistinctive

in having the mirror of the tegmen Aritella fabria,adult male.Note absence of complete (lacking in Tumpalia), and with stripes on top of head. the mirror divided, sometimes divided several times. The tegmen has 2 connecting veins 2A and 3A(similar in both Pictorina and Rufocephalus).Aritella

has been divided into 5 species groups

with 1 called the miscellaneous group. The groups are based on the permutations

of the male tegmen and the number of outer apical spurs on the hind tibia.The species are not easy to identify and one

should consult Otte and Alexander to help to validate identifications. Recording of the calling song and study of the male tegmen and genitalia are essential for confidence in identification. We have only a small sampling of the genus and have

chosen not to designate them to species Aritellafabria,adult female, light-coloured

groups.

morph (top); long-winged morph (bottom).

115

A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aritellafabria, alling song, Mt Dare,SA. or micropterous individuals. Males have a

reddish head that is contrastingly lighter

than the pronotum. The frons has the top portion of the clypeus orange with the area below that pale yellow. The pronotum has a distinctive pattern both on the surface and the laterallobes. The harp area of the tegmen

Aritella fabria, young nymph.

is the lightest part of the tegmen and translucent. The other areas are dark; the

veins of the apical area are not lighter than

the surrounding cells. Female have the

tegmina mostly uniformly dark. The mirror is divided into several cells.The hind tibia is

Aritell fabria. ranging northwards into the Kimberley Region. The song is a succession of rapid Aritella fu/viceps, adult male.

2-pulse chirps.

Body length: males 15.0 mm; females 13.0-15.0 mm; ovipositor 4.0 mm.

A. fabria is a member of the Murray-

Darling Communities, SA, NSW and Qld, as well as the S Gulfs Community, SA.

Aritella fulviceps (Mj?berg)

PRETTY GROUND CRICKET A very distinctive species dark reddish

brown cricket.Both sexes with macropterous Aritelafulviceps,adult male,lateral view.

116

TRIBE MODICOGRYLLINI

Aritea fulviceps, calling song.

N Coastal and NE Coastal Community, Qld, the N Coastal and NW Coastal Communities,WA, NT, and the N Gulf

Community, NT.

Aritella ilya Otte & Alexander ILYA INLAND GROUND CRICKET

Our sole example is from the Ilya Group, which is defined by the male tegmen in

Aritell fulviceps.

which the mirror is wholly or partially divided into 3 cells. In most species the apical area of the tegmen is well developed. Both macropterous and macropterous individuals are known. The body colour is uniformly orange. The top of the head

is orange and smooth and without pale lines. There is no stripe between the ocelli. The frons is reddish and pale on the lower

part of the clypeus. The palpi are nearly

white. The lateral lobes of the pronotum are

Aritella fulviceps, adult female.

much darker than the femur and bears 7

white in the ventral half with a whitish band extending across the apex of the pronotal disk. The legs are uniformly pale brown with

outer and 6 inner subapical spurs. The dorsal surface of the abdomen is dark and this

contrasts with the sides and ventral surface. This is a grassland cricket that spends the day in cracks in the soil. The calling song is complex of chirps each containing a single pulse followed by 1 or 2 pairs of pulses. Body length: males 18.0 mm; females

similar to male; ovipositor 8.5-10.0 mm.

A.fuviceps is a widespread cricket in Aritell iya,adultmale.Notecontrasting dark

northern Australia and is a member of the colour of tegmen.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

darker setae.Femalescanbe fullywingedor Aritella leengila Otte& Alexander completely lacking any trace of wings. LARGER GROUND CRICKET Body length: both sexes 19.0 mm. Our single example is placed here with

A. ilya is a member of the Lake Eyre some reservations. This is a dark reddish Basin Community, Qld, NT, Vic,SA, as well brown to black cricket with the lateral as the NW Coastal Community, WA.

pronotal lobes the same colour as the disk but with the lower front angle somewhat lighter. Males have the mirror of the tegmen with a single dividing vein arching between 2 posterior mirror veins. Our example was attracted to lights on gravelly

soil in a mixed open forest. The song is said to be a succession of 4-pulse chirps delivered rapidly with the chirps often

in groups.

Body length: males 18.5 mm; females

18.5 mm; ovipositor 10.0 mm. A. leengila is a member of the N Gulf

Community, NT, and the W Plateau Community, WA,NW Coastal Community,

WA,and the NE Coastal Community,Qld.

Aritella ilya,adult female(top);darkfemale

(bottom).

Aritellaleengila,adult female,dark morph.

Ariteliya.

Aritelailya, calling song.

118

TR1BE MODICOGRYLLINI

are very similar to males. The clypeus

extends onto the dorsal surface of the head.

The tegmen is longer than the head and

pronotum combined. The tegmen bears a small stridulatory vein. The ovipositor is elongate and only slightly longer than the hind wings at rest. This cricket is commonly

found at lights.It probablylives under rocks or within spinifex grass clumps.The song is

unknown. Aritellaleengila,adult female, head.

Body length: males (to end of hind wings)13.0-16.0 mm; females(to end of

hind wings) 13.5-16.5 mm.

C. stramineus is a member of desert

habitatsin the Lake Eyre Basin Community,

NSW, SA, NT, Qld.

Aritel eengila. Genus Cyrtoprosopus Chopard (Straw-coloured Ground Crickets)

Cyrtoprosopus stramineus, adult male.

Otteand Alexanderincluded Cyrtoprosopus asamemberof the Aritella Group ofgenera.

The single species bears auditory tympana only on the posterior surface of the fore

tibia and the epiphallus has 2 large lateral processes. Males lack a mirror on the tegmen and there are 1-2 harp veins.

Cyrtoprosopus stramineus Chopard

STRAW-COLOURED GROUND CRICKET This is a small, straw-coloured or yellowish

brown cricket with apeculiar head. FemalesCyrtoprosopus stramineus, adult female.

119

A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA characteristics.The2 species almostcertainly occur together at some localities. The hind tibia has5 outer and4 inner subapical spurs.

Cyrtoprosopus stramineus.

Genus Pictorina Otte & Alexander

(Pictorinas)

Females have minute tegmina that barely protrude from beneath the pronotum. The ratio of pronotal width to length is more than 1.7. The calling song of P. kobarina consists of a succession of trills of  ̄2 s duration at 3-4 trills per minute. According to Otte and Alexander,the calling song of P bullawarra is a complex of short trills comprised of succession of more intense 2-pulse units preceded byless intense pulse. Our examples cannot be identified with certainty. The nymph with the red head was

Pictorina is a small genus with 5 described collected at the same site as the male and species that occur among grasses in could represent another species.

eucalyptus woodlands. They are easily recognised by the following combination of characters. Mirror of male tegmen not divided into cells (with the exception of 1 species P.rimbijae). Veins 2A and 3A are

Body length: males 7.0-10.0 mm;

females 11.0-12.0 mm.

P. kobarina is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

connected by 2 veins in the basal area. The mirror is usually connected to the Cu,vein by a relatively long vein. The apical area of

the tegmen is very narrow. The dorsal surface of the head is almost black. Females appear wingless but there are minute tegmina that barely protrude from beneath

the pronotum.

Pictorina kobarina Otte & Alexander Pictorina kobarina, adult male. MONTANE PICTORINA This cricket occurs in mixed open forests in small populations. It lives in leaf litter but does not seem to make burrows or live in dead wood. Populations seem to be small and only a fewindividuals can be found at a

given site.Males sing after dark.This species

is almost indistinguishable from P.

bullawarra; it differs only in song Pictorina kobarina, adult male.

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TRIBE MODICoGRYLLINI

Pictorina kobarina, adult female.

Pictorinakobarina,late instar nymph.Note

head colour contrasted with adults. Pictorinakobarina, male pronotum and

tegmina (top); male head, pronotum,tegmina, lateral view (bottom).

Pictorina kobarina,male right hind tarsus(top);

Pictorina kobarina.

tip of ovipositor (bottom).

8t44特9*4444

Pictorina kobarina,calling song.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Genus Rufocephalus Otte & Alexander Rufocephalus garooris Otte & Alexander (Red-headed Crickets) Rufocephalus is confined to WesternINLAND RED-HEAD

Australia.The4known species occur in the Red head contrasts with rest of the body. north-western Kimberley region with a The top of the head protrudes slightlyabove

single species from the Hammersley the level of the pronotum. The disk of the

District and localities to the south.pronotum has transverse dark marking Rufocephalus comprises small straw- dorsally; the lateral lobes are lighter on the

coloured crickets with contrasting red anterior margin. The male tegmen is dark heads. The mirror of the male tegmen is laterally and dorsally but the ventrallateral complete and undivided with the mirror margin is whitish to straw coloured. The attached to the Cu, by a long connecting dorsal surface of the abdomen is dark

vein. The epiphallus is cup-shaped and yellow broad and pale between the

t contrastingly lighter cerci. The hind tibia without a central lobe in all species except R. gagooris. Females have not been has 6 outerand 4 inner subapicalspurs. Body length: males 14.4 mm; adult recognised for any species. The4species are

distinguished by minute differences in the stridulatory file, the proportions of the

females unknown.

R.garooris isa member ofthe N Coastal

pronotum and male genitalia. They occur and NW Coastal Communities, WA. in open woodlands or in grassy areas or

under rocks.

Rufocephalus garooris, adult male.

Rufocephalus garooris. Genus Gryllodes de Saussure (Indian House Crickets)

Gryllodes presently includes 2 species, the origins of which are obscure. Both have been associated with human habitation for generations.Gryllodes crickets have a

Rufocephalus garooris, female nymph.

122

tympanum on the posterior surface of the fore tibia and the mirror of the maletegmen usually has a single dividing vein and the

TRIBE MODICOGRYLLINI harp with 2 veins. The apical region of the tegmen is not developed. Gryllodes has not been assigned to either of the 2 groups of

Australian Modicogryllini.

Gryllodes sigillatus (Walker)

INDIAN HOUSE CRICKET The Indian House Cricket is widespread in Australia and is usually associated with

Grylodessillatus,female, last instar (top); dark morph (bottom).

Grylodes sigilltus, adult male.

Gryllodes sillatus, adult female.

Gry/lodes sigilltus,calling song.

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A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUsTRALIA

habitations. The species is thought to have Community, Qld, and the NW Coastal originated from southern Asia but how it Communities,NT and WA, as well as the

got to Australia is uncertain.It is easily Lake Eyre Basin Community, NT.It may

identified morphologically, if not occur more broadly than presently

behaviourly. G.sigillatus is a light-coloured indicated. cricket with spots on the body. Both sexes

and nymphs have the posterior margin of

the disk of the pronotum with a

characteristic dark marking which runs

ventrally onto the lateral lobes. The top of the head bears a pattern of bands. There is a pale transverse band running between the lateral ocelli. The tegmina are slightly darker than the disk of the pronotum. The legs are pale with dark setae. Both the fore and middle tibiae have a prominent dark brown spot on the anterior surface; the inner surface of the hind femur bears a series of Gry/lodes sigillatus.

spots and lines and the tip of the femur is

orange brown; there are 5 inner and outer Subfamily Podoscirtinae

apical spurs.

Tribe Aphonoidini

warm buildings or around appliances such

genera in the tribe Aphonoidini. All but l

The Indian House Cricket is at home in Use these characteristics below to separate

as refrigerators. It can establish colonies genus, Unka,lack a stridulatory vein on the between walls and its incessant calling can male tegmen, albeit a very reduced one, and be annoying to humans. The Indian House

Cricket occurs in nature, usually not far from habitations. It often establishes itself and then eventually disappears if the climate is too wet or too dry. Average life span is  ̄73 days.The song is a rapid succession of 1-4 pulse chirps. This species is easier to culture than Acheta domesticus(p.67)and

it may not be functional.

Aphonoides Chopard Tegminal veins M and R not fused at

any point.

Auditory tympana present only on posterior surface of fore tibia. Highly variablein size,colour and

pattern and habitat preference.

may replace it as diseases of A. domesticus become more prevalent in the petfood Mistshenkoana Gorochov Tegminal veins M and R not fused at industry.It does not have a diapause and

requires 7 instars to mature. Body length: males 14.2-18.3 mm; females 12.1-22.2 mm.

G. sigillatus is a member of the SW

Coastal Community, WA, the NE Coastal

124

any point.

Auditory tympana present only on posterior surface of fore tibia. Single species included, originally described in Aphonoides. Generic

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

distinction clouded. Seems to be larger and more robust than most

content but the range of at least 1 species extends to southern Queensland. Allof these

Aphonoides species and the top of crickets have a large auditory tympanum on the head is black.A rainforest genus. the anterior surface of the fore tibia and

Tegminal veins M and R not fused at

any point.

either none on the posterior surface or a minute dimple-like tympanum.No trace of a stridulatory vein or mirror is present on the

Auditory tympana present on both

male tegmen. The tegmina and wings extend

surfaces of fore tibia.

beyond the tip of the abdomen. The head is

Some species are very hairy.

pronotum. The subapical spurs of the hind

Umbulgaria Otte & Alexander

Legs of at least 1 species flattened. Male genitalia not apically prolonged. Ovipositor very elongate,protruding beyond tip of wings at rest. A

rainforest genus.

Utona Gorochov

Tegminal veins M and R not fused at

any point.

The 2 known species(see p.152) were originally placed in Umbulgaria.

Male genitalia apically elongate.

Ovipositor very elongate, protruding beyond tip of wings at rest. A

rainforest genus. Unka Otte& Alexander Tegminal veins M and R not fused at any point. Tibial auditory tympana present only on posterior surface.

Male tegmen with a reduced stridula-

tory vein.

Cerci of both sexes modified for grasping. A rainforest genus.

Genus Aphonoides Chopard

(Silent Crickets)

narrower than the fore margin of the tibia begin beyond the middle of the tibia.

There are usually 5-8 inner spurs with the first few spurs being small, and 5-7 outer spurs. The male genitalia are distinctive and bilaterally symmetrical.Gorochov (2007)

defined the genus based on genitalic morphology as hind epiphalliclobes short, not hooked, and undivided; ectoparameres with narrow,more orless long proximal part and lobe-like distal part having comparatively small and rounded folds at its base;spermatophore with rounded (not very elongate)ampulla. Aphonoides is a large

genus. We have discovered several new species during the preparation of this book.

Several species can occur at 1 locality. Aphonoides species occur in rainforest and open woodland habitats.All species are

nocturnaland emerge after dark to graze on

the particulate matter that accumulates on leaf surfaces. The day is spent in dead leaves or under loose bark or in bark cracks. Most species seem to come to lights. Otte and Alexander divided the genus into 6 groups (Table 5). The 'Weta Group'

Aphonoides comprises 75 Asian, Oceania with 1 species has subsequently been transferred to Misthenkoana. The Australis and New Guinea species with 16 moderately

sized described Australian species, all of Group contains the species australis, which are silent.These crickets occur mostly miripara and nepotinna. The Angustissimus

in tropical Australia on both sides of the Group contains the species angustissimus.

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A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Table 5. Comparison of Aphonoides species groups. FW mottled Face blackNumberof grey o withor with inner/outer subapical arkspot back markings spurs Australis Group No NOo 6-7/5 No 7-8/6-7 Angustissimus GroupNo

Debili Group BiangriGroup ・SubgroupA

No

-Subgroup c

Yes

 Subgroup B

ves Yes

No

6-7/5

Yes

5/5

Yes

5/5 5/5

EpiphallusMedian ocellus

with thck

setae No Very small No Very small No No

es

Medium

Small toobsolete

5mall

Very smal to

obsolete

The Debilis Group contains the species north to the Capeandalong thecoast to the

debilis and lowanna.The Weeronga Group vicinity of Broome,WA. contains the weeronga. The Biangri Group Body length (head to tip of wings): contains the species biangri, karumbae, males 16-20 mm; females 16-21 mm; agantra, hackeri,marika,jimjimi, binderi,

kaikai and wirratinna. Some examples of

ovipositor 6.5 mm.

these are described below.

The Australis Group

Three species have been assigned to this group, sharing a yellowish brown frons,

small ocelli,and6-7 subapical spurs on the hind tibia with the flat side of the spurs black. The male genitalia are distinctive. Aphonoides australis (Walker)

HANDSOME SILENT CRICKET

A handsome, distinctive yellowish brown species with a yellow or yellow brown frons,

the lower portion of which may be slightly

darker than the upper. This is the most widespread species of the genus with

records from coastal southern Queensland

126

Aphonoidesaustralis,adult female at light sheet.

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

Aphonoides australis adult female (top);frons

(bottom).

Aphonoides australis.

Aphonoides nepotinna Otte &

Alexander

MT GARNET SILENT CRICKET

A pale, slender cricket that might be confused at first with A.angustissimus. The frons is mottled brown and the cross veins of the tegmina are creamish white, contrasting with the other veins and

Aphonoides australis,adult female,lateral view head, pronotum(top);subgenital plate,

ovipositor (bottom).

membranes. This species occurs in

woodland habitats where the crickets seem partial to eucalypts.They are easily attracted

to light after dark. A. australis is a member of the NE

Body length (head to tip of wings): Coastal Community and the N Gulf males: 16.0 mm; females 18.0 mm;

Community, Qld, and the N Coastal

Community, NT and WA.

ovipositor 5.0 mm.

A. neoptinna is a member of the NE

Coastal Community,Qld.

Aphonoides nepotinna, adult male.

127

A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoides nepotinna,adult male,lateral view(top);frons(bottom).

Aphonoides nepotinna,adult male (top); female(bottom).

128

TRIBE APHONOiDINI related species that illustrates the

complexity of this genus. Measurements are very similar to those given for A.

nepotinna.

A. sp. near neoptinna is a member of the NE Coastal Community, Qld.

The Angustissimus Group

(Slender Silent Crickets)

This group consists of a single distinctive Aphonoides nepotina. Aphonoides sp. near nepotinna

species. It is very common where it lives and is most often collected by sweeping. This species occurs with other crickets, namely,

Beybienkoana australicus (p. 193), Euscyrtus

This cricket occurs over much the same hemelytrus (p. 196)and the trigonidiine, geographic range as A. nepotinna. We Homoeoxipha lycoides(p.297).All of these

include it here as an example of a closely species live in rank grasses in open clearings

Aphonoides sp. near nepotinna, adult female.

Aphonoides sp.near nepotinna,adult male.

129

A GuiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoides sp.near nepotinna,adult female, lateral view.

Aphonoides sp. near nepotinna, last instar nymph on grass stem.

Aphonoides sp. near nepotinna, tarsus, right hind tibia (top); ovipositor (bottom).

Aphonoides sp.near nepotinna,adult male,head,pronotum-note long silver setae(left); adult female, frons (right).

130

TRIBE APHONOIDINI or along rainforest margins. They are

abundant during the wet season.

Aphonoides angustissimus

(Chopard) SLENDER SILENT CRICKET

A. angustissimus is slender and its brown

Aphonoides sp. near nepotin na.

colour closely matches the colour and texture of the grass stems on which it perches. The legs and antennae are often outstretched

concealing the cricket on the stem. This species is distinctive in its pallid colour, the large, ovoid anterior tympanum on the fore tibia and 6 longitudinal veins on the tegmen.

Aphonoides angustissimus, adult male on grass blade.

Aphonoides angustissimus,adult male.Note small spots on pronotum and legs.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoidesangustissimus, adult male-note spots on head and pronotum (left); male genitalia (right).

Aphonoides angustissimus, adult female. Note

Aphonoides angustissimus.

attached spermatophore.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 16.0-17.5 mm; females 16.0-18.0

mm; ovipositor 6.0 mm.

A. angustissimus is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld, and the N Coastal

Community NT.

The Debilis Group (Rainforest Silent

Crickets) Aphonoides angustissimus, adult female- note spots on pronotum (top); ovipositor (bottom).

132

Two described species comprise this group.

In many localities both can be found

TRIBE APHONOIDINl together. They are inhabitants of the pair of teardrop-shaped spots. The legs are

understorey vegetation in rainforests of distinctively marked with grey or brown north-east Queensland. The crickets spend patches. the day on the undersides of large leaves or in

crumpled leaves attached dead leaves.They Aphonoides debilis (Chopard)

emerge after dark to feed on the particulate GREY-KNEED SILENT CRICKET matter that accumulates on leaf surfaces or This is the larger of the 2 described species

on flowers or soft fruit. Species in this group in the Debilis Group and is easily recognised have the frons uniformly brown or yellow by the grey patch at the base of the hind

brown.The pronotum mayor may not beara tibia.Thisislacking in A.lowanna.

1B

bG Ranm 1D0

debills 

lowanna

Aphonoides debis, comparison of males of A.debilis (left) with A.lowanna(right) from the same

locality.

Aphonoides debilis adult male. Aphonoides debilis adult male. Note markings

on hind tibiae.

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A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoidesdebis,adult male,lateral view-note genaeandsideof pronotum(left;male genitalia (right).

Aphonoides debilis, adult female.

Aphonoides debilis,right hind tibia (top);female subgenital plate(bottomleft); ovipositor (bottom

right)

134

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

Aphonoides debilis, lateral view of ovipositorin

stump.

Aphonoides lowanna Otte & Alexander PRETTY SILENT CRICKET The smaller of the 2 species in the Debilis Group, this species is easily distinguished in

lacking a greyish patch at the base of the hind tibia.It lives in the same habitat and

can often be found together with A.debilis.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 17.5-21.5 mm; females 10.0-22.0

mm; ovipositor 6.5 mm. Aphonoides debilis,female ovipositing at night in tree stump in rainforest.

  Aphonoides debili. Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 17.5-21.5 mm; females 10.0-22.0

mm; ovipositor 6.5 mm. A.debilisis a member of the NE Coastal

Community, Qld.

Comparison of A.lowanna (left) and

undescribed species with yellow ventral surface(right).Note size discrepancy,spots on

tegmina and pronotum of A.lowanna.

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A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoides lowanna, dult male.

A. lowanna is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Aphonoides sp. near lowanna YELLOW-BELLIED SILENT CRICKET

Aphonoides lowanna.

This undescribed species is parallel in many the crickets communicate with one another

ways with the undescribed species which since they do not stridulate? This species is

occurs with A.debilis.They all sem to live smaller in size than A.lowanna and most

in the same localities and occupy the same individuals have the ventral portion of the

habitats, yet they are distinctive. This abdomen bright yellow. complex is worthy of further study. How do

Aphonoides sp. near lowanna, adult male.

Aphonoides sp.nearlowanna,adult male.Note head and pronotum.

136

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

distinctive when the male genitalia are examined. The overall colour is orange brown with the veins of the tegmina light creamish white or yellow. This contrasts

with the adjacent cells of the tegmina.The

frons is light yellow orange, often with Aphonoides sp.near lowanna,adult female.

several small spots arranged in a triangular pattern.The antennae are dark and may or may not be ringed. The legs

are reddish brown and not striped or

ringed.

Aphonoides weeronga Otte & Alexander

WEERONGA SILENT CRICKET This is a distinctive cricket. It is not as

strikingly marked as others in its group.It

is orange with a greyish overcast. The head and pronotum are dullyellow orange Aphonoides sp.near lowanna,adult female. Lateral view genae and lateral pronotal lobe. Photo: S and A Pearson.

and the frons is about the same colour. The eyes have a horizontal stripe in life. The top of the head bears a few thin stripes or lines. The antennae are faintly banded. There is a characteristic small, darkmarkon the pronotum at the anterior junction of the disk and the lateral lobe.

The forelegs have a large tympanal

opening on the anterior surface. The fore and middle tibiae bear a broad greyish stripe dorsally.The hind tibiae are faintly

marked with grey. Hind tibia bearing 5 Aphonoides sp.near lowanna.

The Weeronga Group (Handsome Silent Crickets)

This is a group comprising several described and undescribed species which

outer and 6inner subapical spurs that re darkly pigmented at the base.Thisspecies lives in the understorey vegetation and has been found on low shrubs bordering

rainforest.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males19.0 mm; females24.0mm;ovipositor

8.5 mm.

A.weeronga is a member of the NE are outwardly distinctive and even more Coastal Community, Qld.

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AGUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoides weeronga,adult female. additional undescribed species presently

known. Members of this group are grey

brown,mottled or striped and seem to be adapted to living on bark. Most have distinctively marked faces with black lines and whitish patches. We have doubts about

the identity of some of our samples and are

indicated as such.

Aphonoides karumbae Aphonoides weeronga.

The Biangri Group

Otte & Alexander HAIRY SILENT CRICKET

This species is fairly easy to recognise with the combination of its hairy appearance,

small ocelli,black and white frons and the (Variegated Silent Crickets) This is the largest group in Aphonoidesmale epiphallus lacking black setae. The with 9 described species and several head,eyes and legs are distinctively

Aphonoideskarumbae,adult male,head and pronotum.Note eye pattern in live cricket.

138

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

Aphonoides karumbae.

marked. The antennae strongly banded. The tegmina are distinctively marked. The

hind tibia bears 5 inner and 5 outer

subapical spurs.

Body length (head to tip of wings): Aphonoides sp.near marika,adult female, near Emerald Falls, near Mareeba,Qld.

males 19.0 mm; females 24.0 mm;

ovipositor 8.5 mm.

A. karumbae is a member of the N Gulf

Community, Qld.

Aphonoides sp.near marika

Otte & Alexander

BLACK-FACED SILENT CRICKET This is a distinctive species with hairy legs and hairy margins of the pronotum. The

frons is black with a white patch below the Aphonoides sp.near marika,adult female.

antennae.The eye in living individuals has2 horizontal stripes. This may fade or be lost entirely in death. The antennae are weakly

annulate.

Body length (head to tip of tegmina):

males 18.0 mm; females 19.0 mm;

ovipositor 7.3 mm.

A. sp.near marika is a member of the NE Coastal Community, Qld. Aphonoides sp.near marika,adult male.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoides sp.near marika,adultmale, head,pronotum,lateral view(left);adult male,frons (right).

Aphonoides sp.near marika, adult male.Note pattern of hind legs. Aphonoides sp. near agantra Otte & Alexander MOTTLED SILENT CRICKET A mottled cricket resembling bark or twigs. The frons is black with a white triangular

patch between the bases of the antennae. This patch seems to vary from locality to locality. Whether this is variation or evidence

of separate species has not been determined. Body length: males 17.0 mm; females

Aphonoides sp. near marika.

140

18.0 mm; ovipositor 6.0 mm.

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

Aphonoides sp.near agantra,adult male.

Aphonoides sp.near agantra,adult male.

Aphonoides sp.nearagantra,adultmale,Clohesy River area, Qld.

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A GUiDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Aphonoidessp.near agantra,adult male,head,pronotum(left; frons(right);Clohesy River area,Qld.

Genus Mistshenkoana Gorochov (Black-headed Silent Crickets)

Aphonoides sp. near agantra, male removing

spermatophore.

This genus comprises 58 species distributed in Oceania and New Guinea. A single described species occurs in Australia and was originally described in Aphonoides. We

have an additional species from Iron Range, Qld. This genus differs from Aphonoides in

its slightly different habitus. Males have an elongate, slightly divided subgenital plate

and a supra-anal plate with a median projection; the epiphallus is divided and the

arms are apically divergent. The spermatophore is elongate and black as occurs in some Aphonoides species. The tip

of the ovipositor is unique.Mistshenkoana species occur in rainforests on understorey

Aphonoides sp.near agantra.

A. sp.near agantra is a member of the

NE Coastal Community, Qld.

142

vegetation and like Aphonoides species are

active at night.

TRIBE APHONOiDINI Mistshenkoana weta (Otte &

Alexander) BLACK-HEADED SILENT CRICKET This cricket is larger than most of the Aphonoides species with which it was originally placed. The black head and black scape and pedicel of the antennae and black eye are distinctive. The frons is yellow

orange with a short black streak between Mistshenkoana weta, adult female. the eyes. At the base of each jaw and on the

clypeus there are a few small reddish brown

spots. This species is known from rainforest margins from the tip of Cape York to the Daintree, Qld.

Mistshenkoana weta, adult male.

Mistshenkoana weta, late instar female.

Mistshenkoana weta, male head-note colour of basal antennal segments (left);male frons(right).

143

A GuIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Mistshenkoanaweta,female,,left hind tibia(top);left tegmen(bottom).

Body length (head to tip of wings): males 20.0 mm; females 23.0mm;ovipositor

11.5 mm.

M. weta is a member of the NE Coastal

Community, Qld.

Mistshenkoana sp. nov. Mistshenkoana weta, male genitalia (left);

spermatophore protruding from male subgenital plate (right).

An undescribed species from Iron Range,

Qld,is included here because it superficially resembles A. debilis. It is larger and the

spermatophore is black as it is in M.weta.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 19.0 mm; females22.0mm;ovipositor

11.0 mm.

M. sp. nov. is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Genus Umbulgaria Otte & Alexander

Mistshenkoana weta. 144

(Wally's Bush Crickets) Umbulgaria comprises 2 described species. A 3rd species is known but not described. All are from the Daintree region and the

TRIBE APHONO1DINI

Mistshenkoana sp.nov., adult female, ron Range, Qld.

Umbulgaria species are proportionally longer than those of any other aphonoidiine

species.

Umbulgaria hillimunga

Otte & Alexander HILLIMUNGA BUSH CRICKET

Described on the basis of a female from Kuranda, northern Qld, this species has the dorsal surface of the head with 4 pale

narrow stripes on the occiput. There are no spots behind the ocelli. The frons is pale brown and most importantly the pronotum Kuranda rainforests of far northlacks the small spots along its margins that

Mistshenkoana sp. nov.

Queensland.Umbulgariais related to Utona characterise the other species. The

on the basis of the male genitalia having theposterior surface of the middle femur lacks arms elongate and parallel,and the relativelya distinct black spot but bears an ill-

short fore and middle legs. Umbulgaria is defined elongate brown patch. The hind also distinctive in having the median and radius veins of the tegmen not fused and the fore tibia with the auditory tympanum open on both sides. The pronotal disk is

very broad and the fore and middle legs are flattened. The posterior margin of the middle femur bears a large dark mark in

Umbulgaria species. The ovipositors of Umbulgariahillimunga,adult male.

145

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Umbulgariahillimunga,male tegmen (top); head pronotum(bottom left); genitalia with spermatophore

attached (bottom right).

tibia has 4 inner and outer subapical spurs, Umbulgaria ita Otte & Alexander

the outer ones decided longer than the e KURANDA BUSH CRICKET inner. The male recorded here is most ] The smaller of the 2 Umbulgaria species, this species was described from the tip of Cape likely this species. Body length: males 19.0 mm; females York. It has been found in the Daintree and as 27.5 mm; ovipositor 11.0 mm. far south as the Kuranda rainforests. The species

U. hillimunga is a member of the NE has annulate antennae and a distinct black spot  Coastal Community, Qld. on the posterior surface of the middle femur. The frons is pale but the mandibles contribute

to the frons appearing to be ventrally blackish. The pronotum has a row of dark brown spots

along the cephalic margin and is fringed

with silvery orblacksetae. The male genitalia are characteristic. The spermatophore is

black with a hook at its base.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males24.0mm;females 34.0 mm;ovipositor

14.0 mm.

U. ita is a member of the NE Coastal

Umbulgariahilimunga.

146

Community, Qld.

TRIBE APHONO1DINI

Umbulgaria ita,adult female.Note very long ovipositor.

Umbulgaria ita, adult male.

Umbulgaria ita,adult male,head, pronotum(left);genitalia (right).

147

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Umbulgaria ita. may or may not be annulate depending upon the species.This genus and the related Pseudounka Gorochov from Oceania and

New Guinea are unique for the Aphonoidini in having clasping cerci. Differences from Pseudounka include the absence of any trace ofastridulatory fileand a slightlylarger tibial auditory tympanum in Pseudounka. Unka

species live in rainforests,perhaps highin the trees as they are frequently attracted to lights but are not encountered during the day. The Umbulgariaia,frons (top); middle tibia,posterior genus is recorded from Mt Spec and Paluma

view (bottom).

Genus Unka Otte & Alexander

to the Daintree, Qld.

Unka boreena Otte & Alexander TWO-SPOTTED SILENT CRICKET

The colour pattern and annulate antennae (Clasping Crickets) Unka is a wholly Australian genus with 2 are distinctive for this species. The head described species. Unka is unique in the bears a bright yellow V-shaped mark

following characters: both sexes have a large between the eyes. The hind tibia bears 5

auditory tympanum on anterior surface of internal and 4 external subapical spurs. The

the fore tibia; males bear a short, poorly male phallus has a pair of paddle-like or developed stridulatory file with ~120 teeth; subcylindrical projections below the apex. l The spotted tegmina and patterns on the the male cerci are curved and with an internal tubercle or tooth that suggests a clasping g head and pronotum serve to distinguish

function. The combination of the colour this species from its relative U.tribulatio. pattern of yellow stripes on the fastigium of

At Kuranda, both Unka species can be

the vertex and spots on the tegmina is not found together in the understorey found in other Aphonoidini. The antennae vegetation of the rainforest.

148

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

Unka boreena, male.

Unka boreena, adult male, resting posture in rain.

Unka boreena, adult female. Head, pronotum,

base of tegmina.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 20.0-23.0 mm; females 26.0-29.0

mm; ovipositor 7.0-8.0 mm.

U. boreena is a member of the NE

Unka boreena, adult female.

Coastal Community, Qld.

Unkaboreena,male genitalia (right),ventral view-note clasping cerci(top left) and peculiar 10th tergite; male subgenital plate with spermatophore protruding (bottom left).

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Unka tribulatio Gorochov PLAIN CLASPING CRICKET This species is slightly larger and a bit more

plain than the Two-spotted Silent Cricket. There are no spots on the tegmina and the antennae are not banded. The tegmen bears

an elongate yellow stripe between the subcostal and radius. The cross veins therein are also yellow.In general, the cross

veins of the tegmina are more poorly

Unka boreena.

defined in U. tribulatio. The early instar

nymphs of this species are bright green.

Unka tribulatio,adultmale.Note absence of spots ontegmina.

*co Unkatribulatio,adult female.Note absence of spots on tegmina.

150

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

Unka tribulatio,female nymph.Note green colour.

Unkatribulatio,last instar male (left); adult female frons(right).

Unka triulatio. Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 20.0-21.0 mm; females 26.0-27.0;

Unka tribulatio,adult female,same specimen as green nymph.Head, pronotum, base of

tegmina (top); ovipositor (bottom).

mm ovipositor 7.0-9.0 mm.

U. tribulatio is a member of the NE Coastal Community, Qld.

151

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Unka sp. nov.

Measurements similar to U. boreena.

U.sp.nov. is a member of the NE This species resembles U. boreena in many respects but without distinct spot on the Coastal Community, Qld. forewings, we conclude it is different and undescribed. We have found it only in the

Genus Utona Gorochov

tip of Cape York after dark on leaf surfaces (Imposter Bush Crickets) like othermembers of its tribe. It is included Twospecies are described in Utona.One,U. here to reduce confuson since it may be obscura, was transferred from Umbulgaria encountered with others of the Aphonoidini by Gorochov. At the same time he described U. longicauda from a female from at the same locality. Townsville. The dark dorsal surface of the head and the elongate spots along the dorsal

lateral margin of the tegmina suggest that a complex of species exists in Utona since we

have several specimens with spots that differ in arrangement and number. We are unable

Unka sp. nov., adult female.

to reliably identify U.obscura from Kuranda, and the Daintree, but at least l other species is currently present in Kuranda that is represented by females. Males of this species appear to be sexually dimorphic for colour and pattern. Females of both undescribed species have very elongate ovipositors, a significant characteristic that was not noted by Chopard in his original description of the

female type of U.obscura. We refer to the undescribed species as near obscura 1 and

near obscura2.Obviously, as in Aphonoides, Unka sp.nov.,adult female.Note annulations

on antennae.

there are complex problems attempting to

interpret speciation in this genus. Utona obscura (Chopard)

HAIRY IMPOSTER This species was described based on the following characters: body colour mottled

grey, and hairy. Pronotum slightly pitted and with a fringe of dark setae on the

margins. The surface of the pronotum very dark and with a pair of obscure teardrop-

shaped spots similar to those found in many

Unka sp. nov.

152

Aphonoides species. The top of the head is

TRIBE APHONOIDINI dark and bears markings similar to the 2 undescribed species. We have no specimens

we can reliably identify as this species.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 16.0-17.0 mm; females 23.0 mm; ovipositor 21.0 mm. U. obscura is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Utona obscura sp. 1, adult male.

Utona obscura sp.1,adult female.Note hairy body and light patches.

Utonaobscurasp.1,adult female-note fringing hairs and patternon head and pronotum(left); frons-note absence of distinct pattern and small spots (right).

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Utona obscura sp.1, adult female, dorsal view. Note very long ovipositor.

Utona obscura sp. 1, male phallus - note

V-shaped structure top); spermatophore

(bottom).

Utonaobscura sp.1,adult male,ventral view.Note shape of subgenital plate and protruding

spermatophore.

154

TRIBE APHONOIDINI

Utona obscura sp.2,adult male.

Utona obscura sp. 1.

Utona obscura sp. 1

Males dark,females with light patches anda complex pattern or grey and brown.This cricket resembles a lichen patch on a twig.

Utona obscura sp.2,adult female.

The frons of this species is without a

distinctive pattern but bears a few minute

spots.

Body length: males 18.0 mm;females

25.0 mm; ovipositor 23.0 mm.

U.obscura is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Utona obscura sp.2

Utonaobscura sp.2,adult male,frons-note triangular mark(left);male genitalia-note

A robust cricket with mottled grey and serrated internal surface ofV-shaped portion

brown colour patterns.The light patches of (right). U.sp.1are absent for this cricket.The frons

has a triangular creamish white patch.

Utona obscura sp.2,adult male.

Utona obscura sp.2. 155

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Body length: males 18.0 mm; females

22.0 mm; ovipositor 21.0 mm.

U.obscura is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Tribe Podoscirtini

Recent changes have resulted in the definition of the genus Mundeicus has resulted in its now being regarded as a

subgenus of Hemiphonus. The genus Tamborina has had species transferred to it from Madasumma. This can be quite confusing to the uninitiated to taxonomic practice.Refer to the species list on p.372 forcomplete listings of species. All3 of these taxa are very closely related. Madasumma

comprises rather similar-appearing crickets and it could be easily confused with the other 2. This is reflected in its taxonomic

history. Other genera are not as difficult to separate. Use the lists of characters below to

attempt to identify your specimens. The morphological characters are presented with the most important features at the top. The male genitalia are asymmetrical. Females of

Tamborina Tegminalveins M and R not fused at any point. Tibial auditory tympana present on both surfaces of the fore tibia.

Frons darkly banded.

Madasumma Tegminal veins M and R not fused at any point. Tibial auditory tympana present on both surfaces of the fore tibia.

Frons not darkly banded, rather plain. (Not now known to occur in

Australia.)

Riatina

Tegminal veins M and R not fused at

any point. Tibial auditory tympana present on both anterior and posterior

surfaes.

Mirror usually absent from male

tegmen.

Having a flattened appearance.

Relatively colourful when compared to other related genera.

several of these genera are very difficult to The Pacific Island genera Insulascirtus separate, but the venation of the tegmen isand Adenopterus are less difficult to identify

distinctiveamongthe generaandis usefulin and are very distinctive. They are included defining the genera. And be aware: more in this book. than l of these genera can be present at a

given locality. In the final analysis, the male Genus Madasumma Walker genitalia need to be checked.

Hemiphonus including subgenus Hemiphonus

Tegminal veins M and R fused briefly

in anterior half. Male tegmen with a stridulatory vein. Male genitalia strongly asymmetrical. Hemiphonus subgenus Mundeicus

Male tegmen without a stridulatory

vein.

156

(Plain Bush Crickets)

Madusumma comprises 28 species, the

majority of which come from the region bounded byJava,the Philippines and India.

Four Australian species were tentatively

placed in the genus. But they are in a 'transitory taxonomic state, meaning that

they cannot be reliably identified. Some have potentially unreliablelocality data, the type of another cannot be found and

TRIBE PODOSCIRTINI

M. hornensis Chopard was described from have been transferred to Tamborina from a female from Horn Island. It cannot be other genera such as Madasumma. They

properly identified and assigned to genus have been sorted to 4 species groups,

untila male from that locality can be found. making identification bit simpler. These

Most of the species placed in Madasumma groups are Affinis Group,Australis Group,

in Otte and Alexander have been Loorea Group and the Ocellata Group.All transferred to Tamborina. As a result Tamborina are large nocturnal greyish Madasumma will not be covered in this crickets that live in trees and shrubbery.The book. The 4 species referred to above are frons of both sexes usually has distinctive

listed in the species list. But at presentmarks and lines. The posterior surface of Madasumma cannot be confirmed to occurthe fore and middle tibiae is often striped. Males sing with loud calls and are somewhat in Australia. ventriloquial. They can be difficult to

Genus Tamborina Otte & Alexanderidentify, but the calling song and the male

genitalia are the most reliable way to make a

(Tamborine Bush Crickets)

Tamborina comprises 14 species, all ofpositive identification (Table 6; Fig.15).The male subgenital plate is distinctive in its which are confined to Australia. A number

Table6. Some characteristics useful in separating some

Tamborina males.

Number ofle Area between M  Antennae strongly Male M vein as pale Species teeth and R veins in male banded as surrounding membrane jiranda 102-119 Yellowish NOo No n=11 No afns 104-135 Yelowish Yes n=20 kanina [m-17 Yelowish No Yes n=3 113 Yelowish Yes ma n=1 No Yelowish choota 116 No No n=1 loorea 6s-71 Brownwith pale Yes No crossveins n=5 Brown with pale Yes manila 63-72 No

n=3

crosveins

157

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

5.3

识预典间肉A间A我A病负民a负典我AAAAAAA负A我肉A民AAAA负肉民AAAAAAsAAAAAAA只

5.6

A美Aa介自aA。

典负AA向绳A舞高s高

6.4 .as......G..sKAassN.....a

affinis

A478 23C jirranda

A301 20-3c

kanina A493 27C

6.2 转积想电缺熟电衷就特核然越热热想熟积职熟积状积积R&热状款w伸热想述装装状w lorea A144 26C

5.2 情特背为用用的能序的增就用时的构期 maltea?

A17 26

Fig.15.Comparison of calling songs of some Tamborina species.Modified fomotte andAlexander(1983),

with permission.

external shape. Females are very similar in Tamborina affinis(Chopard)

appearance and difficult to identify, COMMONTAMBORINE BUSH CRICKET especially if there are multiple species at a This species is fairly distinctive. Features of

given locality.In addition, females can be the male tegmen and male genitalia can help confused with other genera such as to make a positive identification. Markings

Mundeicus. Table6 can help identify some on top of the head and frons are somewhat species. We present examples from 3 of the variable but can help to identify the species. T

4 groups. Tamborina offers a challenge to a dedicated cricket specialist to seek out the species, document the calling songs and provide the important taxonomic

characters.

Affinis Group

The Affinis Group can be recognised by the M vein of the male tegmen being yellow in

Tamborina affinis, adult male.

all species except T.jirranda and the harp with 5-7 veins. The distinctive male

genitalia are an important aid to identification. This group comprises T. affinis(Chopard),T. choota(Otte & Alexander)),T. ilima(Otte& Alexander),T.

jirranda (Otte & Alexander)and T. kanina

(Otte & Alexander).

158

Tamborina affinis,adult female, dark morph.

TRIBE PODoSCIRTINi

Tamborina affis, adult male-head, pronotum (left);adult female, frons (right).

afinis is widespreadand thereis considerable them to maturity is not dificult and is the

variation among individuals even from the simplest way to obtain series of adults. same locality. Collection of adults is difficult Body length: males 25.0 mm; females

because they tend to live in trees and tall 30.0 mm.

shrubs, and singing males are ventriloquial. T. affinis is a member of the NE Gulf Nymphs tend to be common on or near the and Coastal Communities,Qld,NT,and the

ground. The nymphs can be found abroad at W Plateau Community, WA,as well as the night on flowers or on low shrubs.Rearing Lake Eyre Community, NT.

Tamborina affinis, adult female. Ventral surface of abdomen showing subgenital

plate.

Tamborina affinis, last instar female nymph.

Tamborina affis alling song. 159

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Body length: males 19.0 mm; females

16.0-21.0 mm.

T.kanina is a member of the N Coastal

Community, and the N Gulf Communities,

Ql.

Tamborina affinis. Tamborina jirranda (Otte &

Alexander)

JIRRANDA BUSH CRICKET This species is similar to both T. affinis and T. kanina.The yellow stripe on the male tegmen usually has a black streak running down the middle.The top of the head is usually solid reddish brown

Tamborinakanina,adult male in Gardenia

vilhelmi at night.

between the eyes.

Body length: males 20.0-25.0 mm;

females22.0 mm.

Tamborina kanina, adult male.

T.jirranda is a member of the NE

coastal community, Qld, and the Northern

Gulf Community, Qld, NT.

Tamborina kanina (Otte & Alexander)

KANINA BUSH CRICKET

A small greyish cricket the males of which

produce a loud distinctive call. This species seems to be smaller than others in the group, especially when males from inland localities are compared.Males at Talaroo,Qld,seem to

prefer the 'Breadfruit, Gardenia vilhelmi Morrison, where they live among the leaves

of the shrubs to 3 m height.Lengthy periods of quiet can be followed by the singing of many surrounding males. This species can beTamborina kanina,male subgenital plate (top); genitalia (bottom). attracted to lights butonlylate in theevening.

160

TRIBE PODoSCIRTINI

Tamborinakanina,adult male, ventral surface of abdomen.

Tamborina kanina, calling song. Tamborina ocellata(Chopard) NORTHERN TAMBORINE BUSH CRICKET

This is a moderate-sized, handsome cricket. The frons is banded,thenarrowwhite stripe

Tamborina kanina.

Ocellata Group

The Ocellata Group contains 3 species of moderate-sized grey or grey brown crickets. All are known from eastern Queensland

where they can be found in rainforests or coastal forests. Members of this group can

be identified by noting that the male epiphallus is broad at its apexin contrast to the Australis Group, which has the

epiphallus gradually tapering.

Tamborinaocellata,adult male on tree trunk.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Tamborinaocellata,adult female,lateral view.

Tamborinaocellata, male genitalia(top);female ovipositor, tip, ventral view (bottom).

eg.

Tamborinaocellata,female frons; right middle

Tamborina ocellata, alling song. continuing across the frons, and there is a whitelongitudinal band behind the eye. The clypeus and labrum are light coloured. The fore and middle legs are striped, and the apex of the hind femurand adjacent tibia are

black. The phallic process is distinctive but similar in some respects to that of T. manilla

in that the main portion is broad and plate-

like. The harphas ̄7 veins.The calling song

is a low-pitched continuous trill.

Tamborina ocellata. 162

Body length: males 20.0-24.0 mm;

females 20.0-21.0 mm.

TRIBE PODOSCIRTINI

T. ocellata is a member of the NE Tamborina wypanda Otte&

Coastal Community and N Gulf Alexander Community, Qld,as well as the NW Gulf ECHOINGTAMBORINE BUSHCRICKET This large cricket occurs in rainforests and Community, NT. Tamborina manilla Otte &

Alexander

adjacent open woodlands where males sing

from trees and tall shrubs. The song is

distinctive. The pale stripe below the eye is interrupted at the midpoint. The phallic This moderate-sized Bush Cricket is similar complex is symmetrical and bears a rake- to T.ocellata but differs in the head markings like process. The harp can have up to 8 veins in havinga black mark between the eyes and but specimens we have found have a smaller

IRON RANGE TAMBORINE BUSH CRICKET

behind the ocelli. There is no pale Y-shaped stripe within the dark area. Harp of male

tegmen with around 8 veins. Fore and

number of harp veins. Body length: males 22.0-26.0 mm;

females 24.0-27.0 mm. T. wypanda is a member of the N Coastal Community Qld. not bear a rake-like process. The calling middlelegs are striped as in T.ocellata. The phallic complex is asymmetrical but does

song is aloud chirp containing some ll-16

pulses/chirp. Females are unknown.

Body length: males 27.0 mm.

T.manillais a member of the NCoastal

Community Qld.

Tamborina manilla adult male.

Tamborina manilla.

Tamborina manilla,adult male.Note venation

of tegmen.

163

A GuIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Tamborina wypanda, adult male.

Tamborina wypanda, adult male. Head,

pronotum, tegmen.

Tamborinawypanda,left male tegmen(top); subgenital plate(bottom left);

male genitalia (bottom right). Note rake-like hooks ventrally.

晶称格

Tamborina wypanda, calling song. 164



TRIBE PODoSCIRTINi

Tamborina wypanda, adult male. Head; note fastigium of vertex.

Tamborina wypanda.

Genus Riatina Otte & Alexander

their habit of spending the day under loose

(Gumtree Crickets)

bark, often in groups of several individuals.

Riatina is one of the most easily recognised Males of many species are unique in having

of podoscirtine genera based on overall a pair of parallel diagonal veins at the base appearance.The genus is wholly confined to of the tegmen,directed to the left. The fore Australia where 12 species have been and middle legs are somewhat enlarged, described(see p. 372). Riatina occurs suggesting to Otte and Alexander that they

broadly across the continent with only may be suited for digging and making South Australia, New South Wales, and burrows. We havenot observed that habit in

Tasmania not yet recording any species. any Riatina species. It is interesting to note

Five species groups have been defined. that Otte and Alexander did not hear or,of

These groups are the Frontalis Group, course, record the song of any species of

comprising R. frontalis,R. pilkena; the Riatina. Males have well-developed

Callosifrons Group, comprising R. stridulatory files and mirrors that suggest callosifrons,R. nangkita; the Padiminka they can produce sound. But we have not

Group,comprising R. padiminka, R. been able to elicit singing in any captive mundiwindi; the Villosiceps Group specimens. comprising R. villosiceps, R. brevicauda; and Riatina species are not easy to identify.

the Pulkara Group comprising R. pulkara,Careful comparisons need to be made and

R. karalla. All are distinctive in the all structures of taxonomic interest should combination of colour pattern and the be examined.Table7and Figure 16 should

dorso-ventrally flattened appearance of the help to provide an identification. The

crickets themselves. This seems suited for tubercles that are referred to are not easy to

165

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Table7.Comparisonof some charactersuseful for the identification of Riatina species.

Modified from Otte and Alexander (1983),with permission.

Species Number BackgroundFacial Facal Frons Dorsum fle teth  facial olor tubercles markings proile(top ofrostrum view) blackish fontalis 50-175 Brownto with more ubercles Ponted Sometimes n=6 back than6pale pale tubercles pilkena [128,129n Rusty red wthout Fronswith6 Truncated No =2 uberdles pale spots torounded nangkita 179,180 Black Sometimes with6or Truncated Yes n=2 1lowone moreyelow beneath spots eacheye calosifons ca.140 Darkbrown Usualyno Fronswith Rounded to Yes  n=2 toblack tuberdles 4-8whiteor truncated palespots mundiwindi 128-181 Redish No Frons with Truncated No n=5 brown tubercles several indistinct palespots padiminka 155-204 Rustyred to one Frons Rounded toNo  n=7 black tuberdle without paletruncated beneath spots eacheye viosieps 196-205 Brown to No Fronswith8Largel No n=4

 black

tubercdles ormore paletruncated

spots

151-168 Pale brown  No Fronswith6 Truncated  No n=5 to brown tubercles palespots Frons Slignty res pu/kara 88-93 Darkbrown No toblack tuberdles without pale pointedor trncated spots karala 71-85 Pale brown No Frons Truncated No brevicauda

n=6

166

tuberdles without pale

spots

TRIBE PODo5CIRTINI

文)

A-

ADX7m[

y 

Fig.16. Comparison of male genitalia among Riatina species.The male genitalia are usually very distinctive in this genus. Note the2-pronged spermatophore which also seems to be distinctive for

Riatina.(A)R.frontalis,Avon Downs,NT;(B)R.frontalis, near Millstream HS, WA;(C)R. pilkena,Millstream

HS, WA; (D)R.padiminka, near Sandford, near Broome right;(F)R.mundiwindi, Gascoyne River,Hwy

1;(G) R.villosiceps,near Mt Cahill; (H) R. brevicauda; ①) Vacant; (J)R. pulkara; (K)R. karalla, Carson escarpment;(L)R.karalla,Prince Regent Res; (M)R.callosifrons, Glen Rowen,Vic; (N)R. nangkita,Ban Ban Range, S of Biggenden, Qld. Modified from Otte and Alexander (1983), with permission.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

see since the frons of most species is black. The Frontalis Group

The tubercles should belooked for with the Riatina frontalis(Walker)

head at an angle. Also, the spots can be PIMPLE-FACED GUMTREE CRICKET

white or yellow and this may depend on Head black; frons black, with up to 8 the preservation of the dead cricket. y white or yellowish spots on the 6 Orange and yellow colours can change to tubercles; occiput greyish brown,often creamish white on death.The most with distinct stripes; labial palpi with important taxonomic characters to observe

terminal segment orange; labrum yellow

are the head, frons, tubercles and spots, orange. Pronotum with surface greyish dorsal surface,colour and pattern,brown,mottled;laterallobes black.Legs mouthparts,and colourofpalpi;pronotum uniformly orange brown. Main stem of colour of dorsal surface and lateral lobes; male phallus narrow, not expanded and colour and pattern of legs; and male flange-like. This species appears to be

genitalia.

Riatinafrontalis, adult male.

Riatina frontals, male head,pronotum left);frons(right).Note small light spots

and colour of palpi.

168

TRIBE PODoSCIRTINI

The Callosifrons Group

Riatina callosifrons(Chopard)

COASTAL GUMTREE CRICKET This widespread cricket is fairly easy to recognise with the following combination

of characters: head black,occiput greyish

brown,often striped.Frons black with light spots but lacking tubercles; clypeus, and

apical segments of labial and maxillary palpi, orange to yellow, the other segments black and ringed with white. Dorsal surface of pronotum greyish brown,mottled;lateral lobe black. Legs orange brown; hind femur

Riatina frontalis, male genitalia(top); spermatophore (bottom).

Riatina callosifrons, adult male.

Riatina frotalis. fairly common over its broad range.

Specimens of both sexes frequently come

to lights late in the evening.

Body length: males 25.0 mm; females

27.0-31.0 mm;ovipositor7.5-9.5 mm.

R.frontalis is amember of the N Coastal

Community, Qld,the Lake Eyre Basin

Community, Qld, NT, and the N Gulf Riatinacallosifrons,adult male, frons.Note

Community, NT.

small light spots and colour of palpi.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Riatinaca/osifrons,male subgenital plate(left); genitalia right).

Riatina sp.near callosifrons (Chopard)

The dark head, antennal bases and lateral pronotallobes suggested this cricket may be different. The male genitalia confirm that

observation. We include it here for

comparison. Riatina callosifrons. not intensely banded. Male phallus with main stem expanded,flange-like. This species is fairly common along the entire coast of Queensland where it lives in eucalypt woodlands. It has been found

under bark during the day. Like others in

the genus it comes to lights late in the

evening.

Body length: males and females 19.0-

24.0 mm.

R. callosifrons is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

170

Riatina sp.nearcallsifrons,male genitalia.

TRIBE PODoSCIRTINI

Riatina sp.near callosifrons, adult male.

any other species. However, some other species can show faint traces of the

pattern.Frons black, with a few yellowish

or whitish spots; dorsal surface of the frontal fastigium black; terminal segment of maxillary palps orange in life. Pronotum with dorsal surface grey brown,lateral

lobes black. Tegmen with mirror small, poorly developed. Legs orange brown;

Riatina sp. near callosifrons.

hind femur with darker patch in the

middle. Main stem of phallus broad,

R. sp.near callosifrons is a member of extraordinarily flange-like. This species the NE Coastal Community, Qld.

has been found with R.callosifrons and R.

frontalis.It freely comes to lights late in

the evening. The distinctive pattern of the hind legs is not 100 istinctive and other NANGKITA GUMTREE CRICKET One of the most distinctive and easily species can bear faint traces of this recognised species in the genus. The character. We include an additional pattern on the hind legs is not known for species related to R.nangkita.The colour pattern of the head and the absence of longitudinal stripes on the hind femur are

Riatina nangkita Otte & Alexander

distinctive.

Body length: males 25.0-27.0 mm

(including tegmina); females 28.0-29.0

mm (including tegmina; ovipositor

Riatina nangkita, adult male.

8.2-8.8 mm. R. nangkita is a member of the NE Coastal Community, Qld.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Riatina nangkita,adult female emerging from bark, Photo: N Monaghan.

Riatina nangkita, male genitalia.

Riatina sp.near nangkita

Otte & Alexander

This species is distinct in the colour of the head and pronotum. The distinctive stripe

on the hind femur of R.nangkita are absent in this species. We have found a male of this species on a giant mound of the termite

Riatina nangkita.

Nasutitermes in dry mixed forest. R. sp.near nangkita is a member of the NE Coastal Community, Qld.

Riatina sp.near nangkita,adult male (left);head,pronotum (left).

172

TRIBE PODoSCIRTINI

Riatina sp. near nangkita. spots. The head has 1 or more very pale yellowish stripes. This cricket is associated with spinifex clumps. When the clumps are in flower or seed, the crickets ascend the

Riatina sp.near nangkita, adult female.

culms to feed after dark. This cricket may also livein adjacent eucalypts as is common

with other Riatina species. Our illustrations may indicate that more than 1 species is

The Villosiceps Group Riatina brevicauda (Chopard)

considered here.

Body length: males (head to tip of tegmina)19.0-23.0 mm; females (head to

SPINIFEX GUMTREE CRICKET tip of tegmina)15.0-17.5 mm; ovipositor This species is easily recognised by its pale6.0-7.0 mm. R.brevicaudais a member of the N Gulf colour and pronotum, the disk of which is about the same colour as the lateral lobes. a and N Coastal Communities, NT, and the NW Coastal Communities, WA,and the N The frons is reddish brown, not black,and l lacks tubercles but possesses small yellow Gulf Community, Qld.

Riatina brevicauda, adult male.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Riatina brevicauda. Hermiphonus (Hemiphonus)continuus

(Walker)

HANDSOME STRIPED CRICKET

This distinctive cricket has been found

Riatina brevicauda, adult male on Triodia culm south-east Queensland as well as in the

 at nght.

northern tropics. The body colour is pale

Genus Hermiphonus de Saussure

which are continuous and unbroken. The male stridulatory file is odd in that the number of teeth ranges from 7-34. Perhaps,

grey brown with prominent black stripes

Hemiphonus now comprises 2 subgenera this species is losing its ability to produce (see p.372). Subgenus Hemiphonus sound.Its closest relative, the similar

contains 3 species. Subgenus Mundeicus, appearing H. wilparina,occurs in localities

on the other hand contains 7 Australian near to H. continuus but males have

species. Two additional species from stridulatory files with considerably more

south Asia have been placedin Mundeicus. teeth,ranging from 50 to 70.That species

None of these Mundeicus species has a stridulatory file and as such they are

Ssilent.

Subgenus Hemiphonus (Striped

Crickets) Hemiphonus is an Australian endemic

subgenus with 3 species, all of which have stridulatory files that may produce sound. All are confined to Queensland, mostly Hemiphonus (H.) continuus, adult male. Photo:N

along the east coast.

174

Monaghan.

TRIBE PODoSCIRTINI

Hemiphonus(H.)continuus,adult male, head and

antennae; male tegmen showing faint stridulatory vein.

Hemiphonus (H.) continuus, adult male.

probably produces sound, but this has not

been confirmed.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

males 3.0 mm; females 25.0 mm; ovipositor

12.0 mm.

H. (H.)continuus is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Subgenus Mundeicus Chopard (Arboreal Bush Crickets)

Hemiphonus (H.) continus.

Seven species have been assigned to the

subgenus Mundeicus.Two species groups

175

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

_

Hemiphonus (H.) continus, male frons; male genitalia, lateral view.

have been named to accommodate these We presentillustrations of several of these crickets. This is a difficult group taxa in the hope that this may stir some

taxonomically and often individuals are interest in solving the taxonomic puzzles

difficult to identify. We have discovered in the group. several undescribed species in our efforts to understand this subgenus. In addition

to males lacking a stridulatory file, both sexes have the median and radius veins fused briefly in the anterior third. The male epiphallus is strongly asymmetrical

with only a median lobe. The surface of the pronotum is distinctive in sculpture and its surface features. The tegmina are elongate and both sexes are fully capable of

flight. The tibiae are hairy and the fore tibiae have tympanal opening on both sides.Many species are frequent visitors to light sheets. The crickets live in trees and spend the day in dead leaves, under bark or in tree cracks. We have become aware of

several species complexes in this subgenus.

176

Otte and Alexander defined several

species groups as follows.

The Longifemur Group

Cu, vein for tegmen pale or alternating

pale and dark.

Major longitudinal veins of the dorsal

surface of the tegmen evenly spaced,

parallel.

Body colour pale brown or streaked

grey.

The Warringus Group

Cu, vein of tegmen not alternating pale

and dark.

Major longitudinal veins usually

irregular and not parallel.

Body colour variegated,dark,bark

coloured,reddish or grey.

TRIBE PODOSCIRTINI

The Longifemur Group

dorsally with at least 10 major longitudinal Four species are included in this group. veins and streaked. Most cells between The surface of the pronotum flat,

without appearing step-like when laterally viewed. Small species, males 18.0-24.0 mm; females(to end of ovipositor) 29.0-32.0 mm.

This group was further divided into

2 subgroups but we will not use

them here. The species are wide-

spread in the interior of the

contint.

major longitudinal veins rectangular. Legs pale. H.(M.)longifemur has a broad

distribution across northern Australia in open,non-rainforest habitats. Readily

attracted to lights.

Body length:(head to tip of wings) males 20.0-24.0mm;females(head to tip of ovipositor))29.0-32.0 mm; ovipositor 12.00

mm.H.(M.) longifemur is a member of the NE Coastal and the Murray-Darling Basin

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus)longifemur Communities, Qld, the NW Gulf

(Chopard)

Communities, Qld, NT, the W Plateau

Subcostal vein of tegmen with 9-11 Community, NT, and the N Coastal branching points, Cu, vein of tegmen pale Community, WA. in last two-thirds, tegmen when viewed

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus) longifemur,adult male.

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus longifemur,adult female.

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A GuIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus longifemur,adult male,frons; male genitalia.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) longifemur.

with pale veins or alternating pale and dark along the subcostal angle. Subcosta 2 with Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) longifemur, female subgenital plate (top); ovipositor, lateral view

(bottom).

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) nillanilla (Otte & Alexander)

9-1l branching points; dorsal surface of tegmen with 10 longitudinal veins,the cells therein often irregular. Cu, vein uniformly pale in last two-thirds of tegmen. Dorsal

surface of hind femur with 2 brown spots.

Common in mixed open woodlands where

TWO-SPOT ARBOREAL BUSH CRICKET it readily comes to lights. An easy species to identify. This cricket has the following identifying characters: tegmen

178

TRIBE PODoSCIRTINI

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus nillanilla,adult

female.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) nillanila.

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus)sp.near

nillanilla Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) nilanilla,adult male,

dark morph.

This cricket appears to be undescribed but

may be part of a complex of species currently regarded as 'nillanilla?. Further workis required to understand the relations

of this taxon.

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus)near nillanilla

is a member of the NE Coastal Community,

Qld.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) nillanilla,adult male.

Head, frons.

Body length (head to tip of wings): males 22.0-25.0 mm; females(to tip of

ovipositor) 28.0-32.0 mm. Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) nillanilla is a Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) near nillanilla, adult

member of the NE Coastal Community, female,head,pronotum.

QId.

179

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus)near niania,adult female.Dorsal view head (left);frons(right).

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) near nillanilla, female

at rest on underside of leaf.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus)) near nillanilla.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) tindalei

(Otte & Alexander)

TINDALE'S ARBOREAL BUSH CRICKET This species could be confused with H. (M.)

nillanilla. A check of the dorsal surface of the hind femur will reveal that this species lacks the dorsal spots distinctive of H. (M.)

nillanilla. In addition, Tindale's Arboreal

Bush Cricket has the frons with only a few black spots, the subcostal vein on the male

tegmen with 4-6 branching points and the dorsal surface of the tegmen with fewer than 10 major longitudinal veins; the Cu, vein Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) near nillanilla, adult female,subgenital plate (top);ovipositor

lateral view (bottom).

180

alternates pale and dark. This species is also

attracted to lights and probably spends the

day in tees.

TRIBE PoDosCIRTINI Body length:(head to tip of wings) ovipositor)29.0-32.0 mm;ovipositor 12.5-

males 20.0-21.0 mm; females(to tip of 13.5 mm.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) tindalei,adult male abroad at night on Xanthorrhoea.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) tindalei, adult female,

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) tindalei, adult male,

dark morph.

dark morph.

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus) tindalei, head left); adult male,frons(right).Note absence of spots.

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A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) tindalei, male subgenital plate, ventral view;male genitalia.

Two of the 3 species occur in the southern interior;the other is found on the east coast of Queensland and in the coast north of

Darwin.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) brunneo- variegatus (Chopard)

LARGE ARBOREAL CRICKET

This species is so different from others in the subgenus that it would not be surprising if it were eventually moved to another Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) tindalei.

genus. Unlike others in the subgenus, it has

many distinctive characters. Its large size H. (M.) tindalei is a member of the NE and dark grey body colour are unique. The Coastal Community, Qld, and the N Gulf pronotum when viewed in lateral profile has a step-like shelf beyond the middle. The Community, NT.

The Warringus Group

head has a broad black band extending

across thelower half of the frons.The top of Three species are included in this group. the head bears 2 prominent tubercles. This The Cu,vein of the tegmen is not pale but cricket is a frequent visitor to light sheets. It grey or grey brown throughout. Most longitudinal veins are irregular and elongate. The pronotal disk is peculiar in

lives in trees and spends the day concealed in deep bark cracks.

Body length (head to tip of wings):

that it is concave or bears a transverse step. males 30.0-35.0mm; females 35.0 mm;

ovipositor 17.0 mm.

182

TRIBE PODosCIRTINI

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) brunneovariegatus,

adult female abroad at night.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) brunneovariegatus,

adult male.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) brunneovariegatus,

adult male, frons. Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) brunneovariegatus, adult

female, head, pronotum. Note profile of pronotum

and hairy surface of head and pronotum.

Hemiphonus(Mundeicus) brunneovariegatus,adult male.Note pattern of stripes on hind femur (top);subgenital plate,lateral view (bottom left); male genitalia, lateral view (bottom right).

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Body length (head to tip of wings): males 27.0-28.0 mm; females 34.0-35.0

mm; ovipositor 14.0 mm.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus)quinnia is a

member of the NE Coastal Community, Qld, the Murray-Darling Basin

Community, NSW, and the NW Coastal

Community, WA.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus)brunneovariegatus.

H.(M.)brunneovariegatus is a member

of the NE Coastal Community,Qld,and the

NN Coastal Community, NT. Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) quinnia (Otte & Alexander)

QUINNIA ARBOREAL CRICKET Related to H.(M.)brunneovariegatus,this

cricket has the frons lacking the strong transverse black bands and the vertex of the head without the prominent tubercles characteristic of its relative. The surface of

the pronotum is not as strongly concave as it is in H. (M.) brunneovariegatus.

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus)quinnia,adult male. Hemiphonus (Mundeicus)quinnia,adult male.

184

TRIBE PODOsSCIRTINI mutus and tacitus).Since much of Norfolk

has been destroyed by clearing for agriculture and development, more species may have occurred on Norfolk Island in the past. On the other hand, Lord Howe Island has undergone much less clearing and change due to development. Perhaps this accounts for more species having been

collected there.

Insulascirtus christiani Otte and

Hemiphonus (Mundeicus) quinnia.

Rentz

FLETCHER CHRISTIAN'S SHORT-WINGED

Genus Insulascirtus Otte and Rentz

CRICKET

A dark brown species with adult males

more than 25 mm and females more than 28 mm in length. The ovipositor is slightly Insulascirtus species occur both on Lord  (Island Short-winged Crickets)

Howe and Norfolk islands, South Pacific. shorter than the length of the hind femur.

The genus is related to several New Caledonia This is the less common of the 2 species

found on Norfolk. It lives both on the genera which are long-winged. All f Insulascirtus species appear to be winglessground and in litter accumulated in palm but both sexes have minute tegmina, often leaf axils, together with individuals of I. completely concealed by the pronotum.nythos.

Insulascirtus has speciated on Lord Howe and Norfolk islands, but Insulascirtus is absent from both the Australian mainland

Body length: males 27.0 mm; females

28.0-32.0 mm.

and New Zealand. Otte and Rentz(1985) Insulascirtus nythos Otte and Rentz hypothesised that the genus probably NYTHOS SHORT-WINGED ISLAND originated and diversified along the Inner CRICKET Melanesian Arc with the major radiation A relatively small, light brown,shiny cricket

taking place in the New Caledonia area. with adult males less than 24 mm and

Perhaps the ancestors of Insulascirtusflew to femalesless than 26 mm in bodylength.The Lord Howe and Norfolk or rafted there as nymphs of this species are grey or dark eggs. Either mode is possible. If the flying brown with the distinctive brown adult

option, then it might have occurred when colour coming after the final moult. The

there were more 'stepping stone islands ovipositor is slightly longer than the length between New Caledonia and Norfolk and of the hind femur. This species lives mostly

Lord Howe islands.

off the ground in dead banana leaves where

Two Insulascirtus species have been the nymphs seem to be gregarious. Females

found on Norfolk(christiani and nythos) have been observed ovipositing in broken

and 5 on Lord Howe(alogus,akytos,ellops, anddeadleaves ofbanana.Thisis an example

185

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

/nsulascirtus nythos, adult male.

Insulascirtus nythos, adult female.

ofa native species adaptingto an introduced Insulascirtus aklytos Otte and Rentz

plant and surviving or, perhaps, thriving. BANDED SHORT-WINGED ISLAND CRICKET

Body length: males 19.0-22.0 mm; Hind tibia with only 1inner and 1 outer

females 21.0-23.0 mm.

subapical spur and with 6 or fewer inner

and outer tibial spines. Hind tibia not

noticeably flattened between the spines;

Insulascirtus aklytos, adult female.

186

TRIBE PODOSCIRTINI length of spines mostly greater than species,in that the shape of the hind tibia

distance between them. The tegmina of is broad along the posterior margin to the the female are pad-like and ~1/8 the extent that the distance between the spines length of the pronotum. This species couldis greater than the length of a spine. be confused with I. tacitus Otte and Rentz Body length: males 26 mm; females (not included here)but differs in that

21.0 mm.

/nsulascirtus ellops, adult male in resting posture.

Insulascirtus ellops, adult female in resting posture.

Insulascirtus ellops, courting pair.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Insulascirtus ellops Otte and Rentz ELLOPS SHORT-WINGED ISLAND CRICKET An elongate, dark brown species with

contrasting yellow patches along the sides of the body and on the entire ventral surface. Both sexes have yellow eyes in life. Males havea peculiar crescentic white patch on the dorsal surface near the tip of the abdomen that has been observed to secrete asubstance duringcourtship.This species is Insulascirtus mutus,adult male on palm frond unique in having more spines and spurs on in rain. Photo:I Hutton. the hind tibia than any other. There may be up to 20 spines above and between the spurs

on the dorsal margin of the hind tibia.

Body length: males 16.0 mm; females

17.5 mm.

Insulascirtus mutus Otte and Rentz BLACK-EYED SHORT-WINGED ISLAND

CRICKET

A large species with 3 or more subapical

spurs on both sides of the dorsal surface of Insulascirtus mutus, subadult female in n defensive posture. Photo:IHutton. the hind tibia and with7 or more spines on

each side.The body colour is greyish brown and not shiny. The top of the head has

poorly defined lines. The tegmen is a and light spots.In adults the apex of the completely hidden beneath the pronotum. abdomen is black. This species is most Each abdominal tergite has a row of dark closely related to both I. nythos and I.

christiani, which occur on Norfolk Island.

Body length: males 31.0 mm; females

30.0 mm.

Insulascirtus tacitus Otte and Rentz GIANT SHORT-WINGED ISLAND CRICKET

This large brown cricket is distinctive in having only 4 inner and 4 outer subapical spurs on the hind tibia with the distance between the spines greater than the length of the spines themselves. The colour is dark

Insulascirtus mutus,adult male at night on palm frond. Photo:I Hutton.

188

brown with yellow eyes and yellow patches

on the sides of the lst abdominal segment.

TRIBE PODosSCIRTINI

Insulascirtus tacitus, adult female. Photo:1Hutton. The entire ventral surface is bright yellow. disturbed. The fore tibia has 2 and the The ovipositor is only about three-quarters middle tibiae have 3 apical spurs.

the length of the hind tibia.

Genus Adenopterus Chopard

Adenopterus norfolkensis Chopard NORFOLK ISLAND CRICKET

This genus is known from Norfolk Island, Body colour somewhat variable, but often New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands with pink or reddish pigmentation on the

where nearly 30 species have been head.Both sexes are fully winged.The head described.A single distinctive and colourful bears 3 ocelli and the occiput usually has 6 nocturnal species is common on Norfolk longitudinalstripes on a brown background.

Island. Adenopterus is a genus of silent Males have a peculiar venation of the

species; males lack a stridulatory vein, but tegmen in which the R and M veins produce auditory tympana are present on the fore apocket along the margin ofthe dorsalfield

tibiae. This suggests that the ability to which contains a dense clothing of fine produce calls was lost relatively recently. hairs. This pocket can be filled with a white

Adults are capable of flight and do so when gelatinous substance. This cricket is most

Adenopterus norfokensis, adult female abroad at night.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

common on Mt Pitt where it lives in the Genus Pentacentrus de Saussure dead and drying leaves of banana during (Silent Dwarf Crickets) the day. The crickets can also be found Two species are known both from

under similar situations in garden plants, northern Australia on both sides of the such as tree ferns and cordylines. The continent. They are largely dark brown

crickets appear to be true scavengers in that t and fairly slow moving, and have a dorso- they feed on floral parts, including petals ventrally flattened appearance. This

and seeds, as well as bird droppings. distinguishes them in the field from the Females oviposit in dead twigs.

more erratic trigonidiines (p. 284)which

Body length: males 10.0-11.0 mm;they superficially resemble. They might

females l11.0-12.0 mm; ovipositor 9.5 mm. be confused with some species of Subfamily Pentacentrinae (Silent Litter Crickets)

Amusurgus, for example (p. 287). The 2

species are very similar in appearance and it seems they can be distinguished only on

The Pentacentrinae comprises more than the basis of the male genitalia (Fig.17).

40 species world-wide. Pentacentrus is the The Australian pentacentrines have been largest genus with ̄25 species and it is the largely collected at lights from very only representative of the subfamily known different habitats. Our examples are from

to occur in Australia. Two species have the rainforests of northern Queensland. been described from Australia, 1 from the We have example of an undescribed anda Northern Territory, the other from short-winged morph that may be either a northern Queensland as well as the

Northern Territory. Little is known of the biology of these crickets because they seem to be rare and have been found mostly by

being attracted to lights. The 2 species have been distinguished by very minute differences in the male genitalia.

Pentacentrines are small crickets, easily mistaken as Pygmy Crickets (Nemobiinae).

They are flat-headed with the antennal insertions appearinglow on the head. Both sexes are long-winged with the tegmina extending to the tip of the abdomen with

the hind wings well beyond that. The inner



AA-7水?》

tympanum islarge and theoutertympanum

Fig.17.(A)Pentacentrus profile.(B)P. kakira,

without any visible branching points and males lack a stridulatory vein. The hind

(E)P. kakira left hind leg; (F)P.kakira.(G-K)

is lacking. The Sc vein of the tegmen is Locherbie;((C), (D)2 views of P velutinus frons; Male genitalia:(G) P venutinus; (H) Pkakira,

Dorisvale Homestead,NT;(I) Open;(J)P. kakira,Locherbie, Qld;(K)P. kakira, Cobourg

legs bear a row of small spines at the base Peninsula, NT. Modifiedfrom Otte and Alexander(1983),

above the spurs on each side.

190

with permission.

SUBFAMILY PENTACENTRINAE

distinct species or a short-winged morph very similar to those of the other species,

of a described species. More collecting is P.kakirra.The only differences seem to be

needed.

in the length of the main stem of the male

Pentacentrus velutinus Chopard

been found from several localities in the

phallus (Fig. 17G, H). This species has

TERRITORY SILENT DWARF CRICKET Northern Territory and Western We have not collected this species butAustralia. specimens in the ANIC collection are Body length: both sexes 10.0 mm.

P. velutinus is a member of the N Gulf and N Coastal Communities, NT, and the

NW Coastal Community, WA.

Pentacentrus kakirra Otte &

Alexander SHORT-HORNED DWARF CRICKET Named with reference to the short stem of the male phallus (Fig. 17J, K). Colour

morph similar to that of Amusurgus tinka (p. 289)but much more flattened in

appearance.P. kakira has been attracted to

lights in the Daintree region of Cape York. It has also been observed on leaf surfaces after dark. Specimens have been taken in pitfall traps, suggesting they live in leaf

P velutinus,adult male.Modified from otteand Alexander (1983), with permission.

litter Body length: both sexes ~10.0 mm; ovipositor 2.7 mm. P. kakirra is a member of the N Gulf

Community, NT and Qld, and the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Pentacentrus sp. nov. 1

This cricket is a raremember of the Daintree

Rainforest biota.It seems to occur on low

shrubbery after dark. It may spend the

daylight hours in leaflitter.

Body length: males 10.0 mm. This species is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld. Pentacentrus velutinus.

191

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Pentacentrus sp. nov. 1.

Pentacentrus sp. 2 This peculiar cricket is a short-winged

example but of which Pentacentrus species Pentacentrus sp.nov.1,adult male at light sheet.

we do not know.

Pentacentrus sp.2,adult male. Photo: S and A Pearson.

Pentacentrus sp.2.

Subfamily Euscyrtinae (Slender

are well suited for their habit of living in

Grass Crickets)

slender grasses. These crickets are also

This group of 5 genera was treated as the distinctive in having a gradually tapering Euscyrtus Genus Group'in Alexander and ovipositor that is unarmed. The claws are Otte.It has been accorded subfamily status. serrated in all but 2 genera: Turana and

Tozeria. This supposedly aids in One genus has undergone a name change:  Patiscus is now Beybienkoana. The other maintaining stability on grass stems. The

generaremain the same.Theyare all similar tegmina may be present or absent

to theextent that they are very slender and depending upon the genus. Only I genus,

192

SUBFAMILY EUSCYRTINAE





Fig.18. Heads of some Australian Euscyrtinae.(A)Euscyrtus hemelytrus female;(B)Merrinella

winunga female;(C)M.elinya(holotype);(D)M.tandanya male;(E)Turanapankurla(holotype);(F)

T.aminya(holotype);(G)T.kiwani(holotype);(H)Tozeria muwitiwallina female.Modifiedfrom otteand Alexander (1983), with permission.

Merrinella,has a stridulatory vein on the Genus Beybienkoana Gorochov

male tegmen. The others either lack it or (Bey-Bienko's Grass Cricket) are wingless. Tibial auditory tympana are Gorochov(1988)transferred Patiscus to his

absent in all genera that lack tegmina, but new genus,Beybienkoana.As it stands now,

some species with tegmina may also lack Beybienkoana is primarily a south-east

tibial auditory tympana.All species in this Asian and Pacific genusincluding 15 species group are reluctant to fly when disturbed. with a single species recorded from Angola, Instead they extend their legs and cling Africa. tightly to the grass stem on which they

perch.Some examples of this subfamily are Beybienkoana australica (Chopard)

present in all states except South Australia NORTH COASTAL GRASS CRICKET and Tasmania.Merrinella would be Both sexes appear similar in appearance.

expected in Tasmania.

The body is pale yellow with a brown

193

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

N.(0; 

 

NN

/.

EnsS4dax

o P

Fig.19. Male genitalia of Euscytine species. ((A) Turana aminya (holotype); (B) T.pankurla (holotype);(C)Tozeria muwitiwallina (holotype);(D) Euscyrtus hemelytrus; (E) Merrinella tandanya

(holotype);(F)M.winnunga (holotype);(G) Beybienkoana australicus;(H) Patiscus australicus hind

tibia, internal view; (I)Vacant; (J)Patiscus australicus hind tibia, outer view; (K) E.hemelytrus, tip

of female abdomen, lateral view; (L) M.elinya, tip of female abdomen, lateral view (holotype);

(M)M.tandanya, tip of female abdomen, lateral view; (N) M. tandanya tegmen (holotype); (O) B. australicus, serrated claw;(P) E.hemelytrus, ovipositor.Modified from Otteand Alexander(1983),with permission.

stripe running down each side. The head a apex of the abdomen. Cerci are pale and is flat with the frontal ridge about half as broad at base. broad as the antennal scape. The disk of This is a common cricket in the the pronotum is yellow brown and the preferred habitat. It frequents tall grasses, lateral lobes have a reddish brown band especially habitats where there is some along the dorsal half. The fore and moisture. It often occurs with Euscyrtus

middle legs are yellowish brown. The hemelytrus,a species that lives in the same

hind tibia has 6 outer and 1l inner habitat.

subapical spurs. There are no spines Body length: 12.0-14.0 mm; females between the last 4 outer and last 6 inner 12.0-15.0 mm; ovipositor 12.0-15.0 mm. spurs. The tegmina reach the 2nd last B. australica is a member of the NE tergite; the wings extend well beyond the Coastal Community, Qld.

194

SUBFAMILY EUSCYRTINAE

Beybienkoana australica, adult male.

Beybienkoana australica,adult female on grass Beybienkoana australica. blade at night.

Beybienkoanaaustralica,adult female (left);dorsalview head and pronotum(right.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

k3书管考 Beybienkoanaaustralica,adult male,dorsal view tip of abdomen (left); malegenitalia(right).

Genus Euscyrtus Guérin-Menéville (Grass Crickets)

green grasses, often along streams. It is often found with other members of the

This pan-tropical genus includes 21 species subfamily, such as Beybienkoana australica that have been placed in 2 subgenera. Both (p. 193), and with the similarly elongate

sexes have tegmina and the male tegmen lacks a stridulatory vein. The fore tibia has an anterior tympanum and a much smaller posterior one. Both macropterous and macropterous individuals can be found at

the same locality, and the posterior auditory tympanum can be greatly reduced in

macropterous specimens. The genus is represented along the eastern coast ofnorth tropical Queensland. Subgenera have been Euscyrtus (Euscyrtus) hemelytrus,adult male. named. Only the nominate subgenus is

known from Australia.

Euscyrtus (Euscyrtus) hemelytrus

(Haan)

COMMON GRASS CRICKET

This species has a broad distribution stretching from northern India through to Malaysia and Indonesia and northern Australia. It can be very common in the right situations. The crickets prefer tall,

196

Euscyrtus (Euscyrtus) hemelytrus,male,late instar.

SUBFAMILY EUSCYRTINAE

Euscyrtus(Euscyrtus)hemelytrus,adult female abroad at night onXanthorrhoea.

Euscyrtus (Euscyrtus) hemelytrus, adult female, dorsal view head, pronotum and tegmina (top);

male tarsus (bottom).

Euscyrtus (Euscyrtus) hemelytrus, adult female.

197

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Genus Merrinella Otte & Alexander (Short-winged Grass Crickets)

This genus is known from 3 very disjunct species. M. winnunga is the northern

representative, being known only from Arnhem Land, NT. The other 2 have a south-coastal distribution. M. elinya is known from a single locality in Cooloola National Park, Qld. M. tandanya is

primarily coastal in New South Wales and

Victoria. Euscyrtus (Euscyrtus) hemelytrus.

Merrinella tandanya Otte &

Aphonoides angustissimus (p. 131), but Alexander E.hemelytrus is always the more common. SOUTHERN SHORT-WINGED GRASS

CRICKET The tegmen and hind wing lengths are

variable and the latter can sometimes be Both sexes are short-winged; the male absent. There is also agreat dealof variation possesses a stridulatory file. The fore tibia in the presenceand size ofthe tibialauditorybears an auditory foramen on both sides.

tympana. The claws are serrated.

Lives in grassy areas often adjacent to

10.0-11.0 mm.

grassy habitats created by clearings for

Coastal Community Qld.

the south coast and considerably inland

S1 forests. This species can be found in the Body length: males 10.5 mm; females

E. hemelytrus is a member of the NE powerlines and fire trails. It occurs along

Merrinella tandanya, adult male.

198

SUBFAMILY EuSCYRTINAE

Merrinellatandanya,adult male (left); head, pronotum,tegmina(right).

where suitable habitats are found. It is to be

looked for in Tasmania.

Body length: males 8.0-12 mm; females

10-12.0 mm;ovipositor 8.7-9.7 mm.

M.tandanya is a member of the SE and

the NE Coastal Communities,NSW, Vic. Merrinella tandanya, adult female.

Genus Tozeria Otte & Alexander (Iron Range Short-winged Grass Crickets)

Tozeria muwitiwallina Otte &

Alexander IRON RANGE SHORT-WINGED GRASS CRICKET

Tozeria is known from a single species

Merrinella tandanya.

from far north Queensland. Both sexes bear tegmina but without a stridulatory file. The fore tibiae do not bear auditory tympana. The claws are not serrated and

the head and pronotum do not have

199

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Tozeria muwitiwallina,adult male (top)and female(bottom.

al longer than the length of the body and strongly contrasting stripes. The lateral lobes of the pronotum are pale in the somewhat dorso-ventrally flattened. ventral half. The tegmina small and ovoid Occurs in grassy areas along the coast well being about as long as the pronotum and back from the high water line. they do not overlap. The fore and middle Body length: males 13.0 mm; females legs appear very small with the tarsi about

13.3 mm; ovipositor 17.5 mm.

T. muwitiwallina is a member of the NE as long as the tibiae. The hind tibia usually has 9 inner and 6 outer subapical spurs Coastal Community, Qld. with the outer apicalspurs short and nearly

equal in length. The ovipositor is slightly Genus Turana Otte & Alexander (Wingless Grass Crickets)

Turanais known from3 species and appears to be most closely related to Merrinella on the basis of the structure of the male genitalia. In additional to being wingless, the claws arenot serrated and the fore tibiae lack auditory tympana. The fore tibia is shorter than the length of the pronotum. The hind tibia bears 9-12 outer and 6-10

inner subapical spurs.

All Turana species are members of the

Tozeria muwitiwallina.

200

NW and NW Gulf Communities, Qld,NT

and WA.

SUBFAMILY EUSCYRTINAE

Adult Turana pankurla male (top) and female (bottom).

Turana pankurla.

Subfamily Eneopterinae the scheme of things. There may be further This subfamily has had a complex subdivision of these groups as research

taxonomic history. Presently, it is a rather proceeds.For example, based on the restricted group in Australia with several structure of the male genitalia, theevidence tribes previously included in the suggests that Lebinthus miripara,Salmanites

Eneopterinae placed in other subfamilies. obscurifrons,Eurepella budyara and E.

The Eneopterinae isrepresented in Australia tumbiumbia are more closely related than

by 2 tribes containing 72 species.

presently understood and probably should

Eneopterines are small to moderately be placed togetherin lgenus.Thisillustrates

large crickets, usually brown or greyish the range of taxonomic problems that still

brown.They are often found on the ground exist in the Grylloidea.This situation is not or on leaf surfaces after dark where they unusual with the Australia insect fauna. graze on particulate matter that has fallen Virtually any group of orthopteroids that is

upon the leaves.Identifying characters studied in detail results in the discovery of

include the head rounded and without very complex patterns of speciation and dorsal bristles. The hind tibiae usually have relationship.Weare presenting these groups

spines between most spurs.The fore and as they are today in hope that it will middle tibiae are not strongly banded and stimulate further, extensive study in these

the middle tarsi have the 2nd segment groups.We have made no major changes in

flattened with a prominent adhesive pad. this book. Females may be winged or wingless depending upon the species.

Tribe Eurepini

The tribes are in a bit of taxonomic flux This tribe currently contains the 'Eurepa

and further changes can be expected Genus Group'and the 'Eurepella Genus because several genus groups'are included Group. The tribe is recognised by the outer in the tribes. This suggests that there is apical spur of the hind tibia being more

uncertainty as to where these groups fit in than 2 times as long as the adjacent spur 201

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

and, in addition, it is longer than the with cup-like parameres on the epiphallus subapical spurs. There are 4 inner and 4 (Fig. 20). The main stem of the phallus is

outer subapical spurs. The posterior usually clothed in setae.The surface of the tympanum of the fore tibia is large and the head usually has some brown bands with 4 anterior one may be absent or reduced to adarkbands between the eves.The pronotum

tiny slit. Males have a stridulatory file and is broader thanlong in both sexes.The male

the mirror of the tegmen is divided by 2 t tegmina are more than 3 times as long as the pronotum; female tegmina shorter than veins. length of the pronotum. The length of the mirror on the male tegmen is about equal to Genus Arilpa Otte & Alexander its width. (Arilpas) Arilpa is known from 7 species, all from Our example is from the Moonagin

Hills, WA. We are identifying it as A. allara

Western Australia. All are small crickets, ]

usually 15.0 mm or less. They inhabit rocky Otte & Alexander, but further material is

or gravelly soil and are often associated with necessaryto substantiatethisidentification. spinifex communities. Males are distinctive

师)

A愈8 理.引 用月宜及 Fig.20.Male genitalia of some Arilpa species.(A)A.panaroo;(B)A.panaroovariant;(C)A.gidya;

(D)A. wirilla;(E)A.pitanae;(F)A.milkappa.Modified from Otteand Alexander(1983),with permission.

202

TRIBE EUREPINI

Arilpa allara Otte & Alexander GERALDTON ARILPA

~1.6 times the length of the pronotum. Ovipositor about as long as hind femur.

This species is similar to A.warilla but the This species has been found among grasses

latter is known from localities to the north in woodlands. The song is unknown. of A.allara. The frons has a broad brown Body length: males 12.0 mm; females vertical stripe which forks on the clypeus. The side of the head bears a large brown

14.0 mm; ovipositor 9.0 mm.

A.allara is a member of the N Coastal

patch behind the eye. The hind femur bearsCommunity, WA.

a row of brown spots on the internal surface

below bottom ridge and another row with Genus Eurepa Walker (Long-tailed Crickets) more spots just above it. The dorsal surface of the abdomen bears a narrow brown Eurepa is an Australian endemic genus

stripe with a thinner white stripe running comprising 10 species. The identity of 1

down the middle with the last 2 segmentsspecies in doubt. Eurepa is found in some with brown patches on each side of the of the driest areas of the southern portion median band. Females have the tegminaof the continent. The crickets get their

common name from the very long cerci possessed by both sexes. Eurepa is easily confused with several other genera in the

tribe, most importantly with Myara(see p. 211). But males are easily separated by

the presence of large flange-like processes (parameres) of the phallus of all Eurepa

species. These can be seen without having to dissect the specimen. The key should be

Arilpa allara,adult male. Photo:Dknowles.

used as a first step leading to the identity of the genera in this tribe. Additionally, Eurepa males have the mirror of the tegmen longer than broad and the fore tibia with only a posterior tympanum. The top of the clypeus extends almost to the plane of the antennae. Four species groups

were defined based mainly on habitat

preferences:

Marginipennis Group (bark and stem

species).

Nurndina Group (bark and stem species).

Wirkutta Group (grass-clump species).

Aripalara.

Woortoora Group(grass-clump species).

203

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

The Marginipennis Group

milky streak between M and R veins; the Sc

This group is characterised by the fastigiumand R veins are pale of yellow; the tegmina of the vertex being wider than the scape. are laterally black below the R vein.Dorsal

The clypeus is spotted but does not extend surface of abdomen black.

to the top of the head. The body colour is reddish brown with distinct pale bands Eurepa marginipennis(White) along the lateral margins of the dorsal field d SOUTHERN LONGTAIL

beginning on the pronotum and extendingg Fairly easy to separate from other species

onto the tegmina. The surface of the with thecombination ofthe frontal fastigium

H, being ~1.3 times as wide as the antennal pronotum is brown and irregularly speckled, but pale laterally; the lateral lobes are pale scape and the tegmen being 2.3 times as long

dorsally, but black ventrally. Tegmina with a as wide and the mirror length ̄1.4 times its

Eurepamarginipennis, stridulating male on Banksiamenziesi at night near East Cannington,WA. Photo: S Mawson.

Eurepamarginipennis,adult female.Queens Park,Perth, WA.Photo:SMawson.

204

TRIBE EUREPINI

Eurepa marginipennis, adult male.

Eurepa marginipennis, adult female. Males sing from ~l m from the ground, often partially concealed by a piece of bark. Singing males are extremely wary and

should be approached with caution. Body length: both sexes 11.0 mm; cerci

15.0 mm; ovipositor 16.0-35.0 mm.

E. marginipennis is a member of the Murray-Darling Basin Community, NSW

and SA, the Gulf and W Plateau

Eurepa marginipennis, late instar female.

Communities, SA, and the NW Coastal, SW Coastal and W Plateau Communities, WA. We conclude that a complex of related

width. This species shows considerable species exists, now considered to be under variation across its broad range. This is the name'marginipennis. The calling songs especially true ofthelengthof theovipositors and differences in the male genitalia suggest

of females.This species lives on small trees.this. This complex of species is widespread

iiiiisiisiis.itu11i3Wt61i6u1tu4iitt.0t

WA 的行u的.ws..m..b..u.imf制的1M65M44155tssMo野94MI54M特睡f

ACT NSw Eurepa marginipennis, calling song, Dalwallinu, WA; Black Mountain, ACT; Round Hill, NSW.

205

A GUIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Eurepa marginipennis. over the southern and western portions of

the continent. We present a few disparate

examples.

Eurepa sp.near marginipennis,adult male;

male genitalia-note ventralflanges.

Eurepa sp.near marginipennis (White)

It resembles E.marginipennis but differs in

the morphology ofthe male genitaliaand its

callin song.

Eurepa sp.near marginipennis, late instar

female nymph.

Eurepasp.near marginipennis,adult female. 电

Eurepa sp.near marginipennis,calling song. 206

Eurepa sp.near marginipennis.

TRIBE EUREPINi Genus Eurepella Otte & Alexanderin suitable habitats. Males sing from grass Eurepella is a large genus of 21 known stems, often from the tops of spinifex

species that are associated with grasses. The clumps where they hide during the day. genus occurs broadly across the continent Chacteristics of Eurepella are shown in Figs

烯八炔N

23单入门/7 23 颜T

对撤 焦7

八用N

X养意项氧应 /.价上 门风代

Fig.21. Some male genitalia of Eurepella species, each at various angles. (A) E.guarriana; (B) E. wanga;(C)E.waninga; (D) E.mjobergi;(E)E.kulkawirra; (F) E.meda; (G) E. ballina; (H) E.narranda; ()

vacant;(J)E.lewara; (K) E. nakkara; (L)E.tumbiumba;(M) E. budyara.Modified from otte and Alexander(983)

with permission.

207

A GuiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

X. Fig.22. Some malegenitalia of Eurepella species,each at various angles.(A)E.oana;(B)E.moojera;

(C) E.tinga; (D)E.jllangolo;(E)E.iando.Modified from otte and Alexander(1983),with permission.

21, 22 and 23.A few of the important width of the head being less than twice as characters include the mirror of the male long as the pronotum. The tegmina of

tegmen being wider than long, and the females are longer than the length of the

208

TRIBE EUREPINi

Fig.23. Left male tegmina of some Eurepella species.(A)E.quarriana;(B)E.tinga;(F)E.tumbiumba;

(D) E. budyara. Modified from Otte and Alexander (1983), with permission.

pronotum but not reaching much beyond the middle of the abdomen. The ovipositor is slightly longer or slightly less than the length of the hind femur. We suspect that each species may represent a complex of related species. Further work is needed in Eurepella. The genus has been divided into 3

species groups defined as follows.

The Quarriana Group

Male epiphallus bearing thin pale setae.

Dorsal surface of abdomen with

distinct longitudinal dark bands or

entirely pale.

Fore and middle legs usually pale not spotted or banded.

The Bundyara Group

Male epiphallus different from other

groups, with thin setae. Dorsal surface of abdomen dark brown

or black or densely mottled.

Fore and middle legs mostly black,

tibiae banded; hind femur with a

broad black band along the outer upper surface.

Frons entirely black.

Eurepella quarriana Otte& Alexan- der species complex

We have discovered several species that are

members of the Quarriana Group but they

Frons pale often brown spotted. The Moojera Group

Male epiphallus with dense black setae.

Dorsal surface of abdomen entirely dark brown or black of highly

mottled.

Fore and middlelegs with dark brown or black spots. Frons and clypeus brown spotted.

Eurepellaquarriana,Mt Dare,NT#1,adult male.

209

A GuIDE To CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Eurepella quarrana,Mt Dare,NT#1,calling song.

Eurepella quariana, Mt Dare,NT #1.

Eurepellaquarriana,Mt Dare,NT#1,adult male.

Note head, pronotum, tegmina.

Eurepella quarriana,Mt Dare,NT#2,adult male. Eurepella quarriana,Mt Dare,NT#2,adult male. Head, pronotum, tegmen.

210

..

TRIBE EUREPINI **A

**间

Eurepella quarriana, Mt Dare, NT #2, calling song.

Eurepella quarriana, Mt Dare, NT #2, adult

female, dark morph.

Eurepella quarriana, Mt Dare, NT #2.

are undescribed. This suggests that this locality. Some species commence singing

species group could be quite large. Our well before dark. examples from the Mt Dare region, western

Thirteen species have been described

edge of the Simpson Desert, SA and NT, and they are placed in 3 species groups. reveal 2 sympatric species are present.

Genus Myara Otte & Alexander (Meteor Crickets)

Myara is wholly confined to the Australian continent with the distinctive species inhabiting stems and bark of trees. The group has an appropriate common name based on the behaviour of the crickets- they are very quick to escape. The genus is similar in overall appearance to Eurepa but

can be easily identified by examining the male concealed genitalia.In Myara the ectoparameres lack downwards projecting

flanges. The biology and ecology of the 2 genera are similar. The crickets inhabit

trees and live in bark crevices or under loose bark. Males are vocal and a given species may be common at a suitable

They are readily distinguished by features of

the head and tegminal (Figs 24, 25).

Unicolor Group

Frons, especially the clypeus, strongly spotted less so in M.unicolor).

Clypeus extending onto the top of the

head.

Tegmen lacking lateral pale stripes. The area between the R and M veins in males and between the Sc and R

veins in females dark.

Sordida Group

Frons with broad dark bands. Clypeus

not strongly spotted.

Clypeus not reaching top of head.

Tegmen with pale lateral stripes. Area between R and M veins in males and

Sc and R veins in females pale brown

or yellow.

211

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Fig.24. Males unless otherwise stated. (A) M.pakaria female;(B)) M. sordida female;(C) M. muttaburra;

(D)M.yabmanna; (E)M.wintrena female;(F)M. warratinna; (G)M.erola;(H)M.merimbula;(l)Vacant; (J)M. mabanuria; (K)M. yurgama;(L)M.aperta;(M) M.unicolor;(N) M. pakaria; (O) M.wintrena; (P) M.unicolor;

(Q) M.aperta middle leg,anterior surface;(R)) M.aperta left hind femur; (S)M.merimbula left hind femur; (T) M. mabanuria left hind femur. Modifiedfrom Otte and Alexander(1983),with permisson.

座/AA

NM Fig.25. Male genitalia of Myara species.Dorsal, ventral, lateral views, vertically arranged.(A) M. unicolor; (B) M.vurgama;(C) M. merimbula; (D) M.aperta;(E)M.sordida;(F)M.sordida; (G M.pakarig;(H) M.wintrena

(l) Vacant; J) M. yabmanna; (K) M. warratinna.Modife from otte and Alexander(1983),with permisson.

212

TRIBE EUREPINI

Pakaria Group

bythe following: the clypeus is not especially

Frons with broad dark bands. Clypeus produced forwards. The head, pronotum not strongly spotted. and ventral surface of the antennalscape are Clypeus not reaching top of head.

Tegmen without pale lateral stripes.

Unicolor Group

Member of this group are mostly from the southern portion of the continent. Myara unicolor (Chopard)

SOUTHERN METEOR CRICKET

This widespread cricket can be found after

black. The ovipositor is less than 3.5 times the length of the hind femur.

M. unicolor is a member of the SW

Coastal and W Plateau Communities.

Sordida Group

The 5 known members of this group are

distributed across the top half of the

continent.

darksinging from thebases of Mulga(Acacia Myara wintrena Otte & Alexander aneura).The Southern Meteor Cricket is WINTRENA METEOR CRICKET

rather easily recognised.It is a dark species. This is a very common cricket where it

In addition to the characters listed for the occurs.It can be found in avariety of shrubs

Unicolor Group, this cricket can be identifiedand trees. Males commence singing in the

Myara unicolor, adult male. Note similarity to

M. muttabrra.

Myara unicolor.

Myara wintrena, adult male showing head,

pronotum, tegmen.

213

A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Myara wintrena, adult male singing at night in Myara wintrena, adult female abroad at night.

low shrub.

Myara wintrena,adult female frons(left); ovipositor (top right);left hind tarsus(bottom right).

move to a more prominent perch where they

broadcast their persistent calls. They are

rarely attracted to light.

This species is easily recognised with the bright yellow chordal area. The frons is distinctive and the male genitalia should

Myara wintrena, adult female, lateral view.

serve to identify the species. The male

calling song is also distinctive and can be

late afternoon during the wet season and recognised from a distance of many metres. Nymphs are common on tree trunks continue until about mid evening (2000).

Afterdark,singingmales areeasyto approach after dark. Young nymphs are pale and with

y a dark spot in the centre of the lst and with a little stealth can be captured by net.Theyseem to prefer singingfrom clumps abdominal tergite.

M. wintrena is a member of the NE ofleaves or from twigs at the base of a group of leaves. As the evening proceeds,the males Coastal Community, Qld.

214

TRIBE EUREPINI

Myarawintrena,adult male.Ventral view subgenital plate(left);genitalia dorsalview(right).

Myara wintrena.

Myara wintrena, nymphs sheltering during the day in eucalypt bark crack.

Myara wintrena, calling song.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA

Pakaria Group

This group is known from 2 described species. It resembles the Unicolor Group in having the clypeus not spotted and not extending onto the dorsal part of the head.

Although the species lack the prominent yellow or creamish lateral bands on the

tegmen, the media vein and the subcostal veins are dull white. Occur on tree trunks or among dead twigs and branches on the ground. These Myara muttabura,adult male stridulating at

species could be devastated by uncontrolled night from dead tree 1.5 m from the ground.

wildfires. Both species overlap in their distributions and could be expected to be

found together at some localities. Neither seem to be very common. Myara muttaburra Otte & Alexander DARK-FACED METEOR CRICKET

This species seems to prefer more arid habitats than M.wintrena, a more

common species that is almost sympatric

Myara muttabura, same male, head on.

withitoverpart ofits range.M.muttaburra was found singing in small numbers from scattered eucalypts and other small, shrubby trees on sparsely vegetated, rocky

soil.Males commence singing shortly before dark. Singing continues until mid

evening.

This isa fairly distinctive species with its

dark coloration and the white median vein

Myara muttaburra .出nl

Myara muttaburra, calling song.

216

 压标

.,uekno

TRIBE EUREPINi on of the male tegmen. The dorsal surface of the hind femur bears a row of elongate brownish spots. The ventral surface of the abdomen is dull yellow brown in life. The ovipositor is up to 1.8 times the length of

the hind femur.

M. muttaburra is a member of the NE

Coastal Community, Qld.

Myara pakaria, adult male.

Myara pakaria Otte & Alexander BRIGALOW METEOR CRICKET

This species seems to be the inland species have been described. All known

equivalent of M.muttaburra.It also prefers species are from the northern portion of arid habitats and lives on small trees or in the continent and most are tropical. These dead twigs and branches on the ground crickets live on the ground in leaf litter or underlargertrees.It shares thewhitemedian in grassy areas. At least 1 species occurs in vein with M. muttaburra of the male tegmen.coastal strand vegetation. These crickets The hind femur lacks the series ofcan be common, especially when nymphs brown spots on the dorsal surface. The are present. They are active during the day

ovipositor is only ̄1.5 times the length of but males commence singing shortly

the hind femur.

before dark and continue for a couple of

Coastal Community, Qld.

features distinguishing Salmanites are many. The dorsal demarcation of the

M. pakaria is a member of the NE hours thereafter.Then singing ceases.The

clypeus is positioned just below the

antennal sockets and does not extend to the top of the head. The frontal fastigium is twice as broad as the antennal scape (Fig.

26). The mirror of the male tegmen is

longer than wide and its harp has 3 or more

veins. The mirror can be completely

divided or with only a short vein protruding anteriorly from the dividing vein (Figs 27,28). Females are wingless in

Myara pakaria. Genus Salmanites Chopard (Lined Ground Crickets)

all but 2 species, S. iknurra and S.

obscurifrons. However, we have discovered minute tegmina on females of what we

believe is S. allaris. The 5th abdominal tergite is irregularly shaped and may

Salmanites is an endemic Australian genus i indicate that it is a glandular opening. A

of small flightless crickets. To date 15 dark central band extends from the

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A GUiDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA



你@ Fig.27. Sa/manites.A-R Right male tegmina.S-X

dorsal surface female pronotums and abdomens. Some species repeated to illustrate variation. Fig.26. Salmanites.(A-N),Frons. (O-Y)lateral

pronotallobes, head toleft. (A) S.obscurifrons; (B)S.alta;(C) S.taltantris; (D) S.wittiliko; (E)S. wittilliko (holotype);(F)S.noccundris (holotype);

(G)S.terba(holotype);(H) S.allaris; ()Vacant;

(J)S.peekarra;(K)S.muralappi (holotype);(L) S.noonamina (holotype);(M) S.poene; (N)S.

ninbella (holotype); (O)S.peekarra(holotype);

(A)S.peekarra;(B) S.peekarra; (C)S.obscurifrons;

(D) S.noonamina; (E)S.wittlliko; (F)S.allaris;(G) S.wittllko;(H) S.wittliliko;() Vacant; (J)Vacant;

(K) S.terba;(L) S.ninbella;(M)S.noccundris; (N)

S.taltantris;(O) S.muralappi;(P)S.ninbella;(Q) S.

alta;(R)S.alta; (S)S.terba;(T)S.allaris;(U)S.alta; (V)S.wittilliko;(W) S.taltaris;(X) S.taltaris.Modifed from Otte and Alexander(1983),with permission.

(P) S.noccundris(holotype);(Q S.murralappi

(holotype);(R)S.alta; (S)S.terba(holotype); (T) S.taltantris(holotype);(U)S.poene (holotype); (V) S. wittlliko;(W)S.wittilliko; (X) S.noonamina (holotype); (Y)S.ninbella(holotype).Modified from Otte and Alexander (1983), with permission.

groups mostly based on features ofthe very

distinctive male genitalia. anterior margin of the pronotum to the tip of the abdomen in both sexes. Otte and

Alexander divided the genus into 4 species

218

The Wittllio Group

Epiphallus covered in thick black dorsal setae. Females wingless.

TRIBE EUREPINI

The Peekara Group

Epiphallus with thin,pale dorsal

setae.

Females wingless.

The Witilliko Group Salmanites wittlliko Otte & Alexander

NORTHERN LINED GROUND CRICKET

The Ninblla Group

Easily recognised. This species has the

Epiphallus hairless dorsally.

Females wingless in many species but

minute tegmina in S. allaris.

The knurra Group

frons not black under the eyes (Fig.26E),

but usually with a dagger-like stripe that extends nearly to thelabrum. This can be

a rather broad blotch in some specimens

Males unknown!

(Fig. 26D). Pronotum with lateral lobes

Females with short tegmina.

with an irregular horizontal band in the

[.\0 /



/R年0

Fig.28.Male genitalia of Salmanites species.(A)S.terba;(B))S.peekarra;(C)S.poene;(D)S.taltantris; (E) S.wittlliko;(F)S.wittllko;(G)S.noonamina;(H)S.noccundris;U)S.allaris; (K)S.ninbella;(L) S.obscurifrons;

(M) S.alta;(N)S.alta; (O) S.murralappi.Modified from Otteand Alexander(1983),with permission.

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A GUIDE TO CRICKETS OF AUSTRALIA dorsal half (Fig. 26V,