A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, Volume II: K-Z [1 ed.] 9781003374855, 1003374859

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A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, Volume II: K-Z [1 ed.]
 9781003374855, 1003374859

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Volume II
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A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing


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A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing Volume II



D.R. WOolf Managing Editor

Kathryn M Brammall Editorial Assistant

Greg Bak

Advisory Editors

Peter Burke John Flint Georg G. Iggers Donald R. Kelley P] Levy D.L. McMullen Peter Novick Karen Offen Anthony Reid Kenneth Sacks Judith P Zinsser


A member of the Taylor & Francis Group

New York & London, 1998

Copyright © 1998 D.R. Woolf All rights reserved

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A global encyclopedia of historical writing / editor, D.R. Woolf; managing editor, Kathryn M. Brammall ; editorial assistant, Greg Bak ; advisory editors, Peter Burke ... [et al.]. v. cm. - (Garland reference library of the humanities ; vol. 1809) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8153-1514-7 (v. 1 : alk. paper) 1. Historiography. 2. Historians. 1. Woolf, D. R. (Daniel R.) II. Series. D13.G47 1998 907' .2-dc21

Cover art: Antique map, World / Seutter 1730 Cover design: Lawrence Wolfson Design, New York

97-42982 CIP


Volume I ix



Introduction and Editorial Conventions




About the Editor


The Encyclopedia

Volume II 499

The Encyclopedia


General Index

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A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing Volutne II


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K Kagwa, Sir Apolo, (1869-1927)

Baganda "protonationalist," prime minister (katikkiro), and writer. Kagwa was born in 1869 into a Baganda aristocratic family, and had some Western education as provided by the missions. Initiated early into politics, Kagwa rose rapidly in the royal service of King Mutesa, becoming the katikkiro in 1889. Between 1897 and 1914 Kagwa ruled Buganda as a regent and negotiated the Agreement of 1900 with Britain, which guaranteed for Buganda some degree of autonomy under colonial rule. He was knighted in 1902. Besides Kagwa's profound but controversial political accomplishments, he found time to engage in historical writing. Although he wrote in Luganda (the language of the Baganda people), his works provided the first attempt at ethnohistory ofa people to be done by any East African. Kagwa's efforts resulted in the publication of many books, most of which have been translated into English. Out of these works, two remain very significant: The Kings ofBuganda (1901) and The Customs o/the Baganda (1909). While The Kings ofBuganda attempted to demonstrate that the precolonial political system of the Kingdom of Buganda had already exhibited outstanding capacity for good and effective government, The Customs stressed the need to preserve the continuity as well as the self-respect ofthe Baganda people in an era of rapid and humiliating change occasioned by European imperialism. Based mainly on the record of the oral traditions of the kingdom and particularly events ofhis own time, it was clear that the purpose ofthese works was to legitimize the extraordinary degree of autonomy claimed by the Baganda in the Agreement of 1900 with the British. Kagwa's writings, by their clarity and elegance, helped to establish Luganda as a language in which an educated elite could express complex ideas. More widely significant for historical studies in the future

was the way in which Kagwa's writings demonstrated that some African societies had highly complex historical memories, hitherto orally transmitted, which could form a basis of "oral documents" for the reconstruction of precolonial history in Africa.

Apollos O. Nwauwa Texts

The Customs ofthe Baganda. Ed. May Mandelbaum Edel; trans. Ernest B. Kalibala. New York: Columbia University Press, 1934. The Kings ofBuganda. Ed. and trans. M.S.M. Kiwanuka. Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1971. References Mukasa, Ham. Sir Apolo Kagwa Discovers Britain. Ed. Taban 10 Liyong. London: Heinemann,

1975. Wrigley, C. C. "Apolo Kagwa: Katikkiro of Buganda." In Leadership in 19th Century Africa: Essays from Tarikh, ed. Obaro Ikime. London: Longman, 1974, 116-127.

Kaizuka Shigeki (1904-1987)

Japanese historian ofChina. Born in Tokyo, Kaizuka graduated from Kyoto Imperial University before joining its affiliated Institute ofOriental Culture. He served as the director ofthe institute, renamed as the Research Institute of Humanistic Sciences, between 1949 and 1955, retiring from it in 1968. Kaizuka's main area of interest was the ancient Shang, and he was among the first to use systematically the inscriptions on oracle bones and bronze vessels for the study ofits histof)T. Kaizuka published, in addition to a nwnber of books on ancient Chinese history and culture, several edited collections of oracle bone inscriptions.

John Lee K A I Z U K ASH I G E K I



Kaizuka Shigeki chosakusho [Collected Works of Kaizuka Shigeki]. 10 vols. Tokyo: Chuo Koron Sha, 1976-1978.

Kalista, Zdenik (1900-1982)

Czech historian, poet, and translator. A promising docent at the University ofPrague in his early career, his progress was impeded by his imprisonment from 1950 to 1960 and subsequent discrimination by Communist authorities; he nevertheless managed to produce or edit over twenty books and numerous articles, some in samizdat fashion. (Samizdat was a practice of self-publishing common in Communist countries, whereby an author, denied access to regular, government-controlled presses, allowed multiple typewritten copies of his or her work to circulate in typewritten form.) In 1991, in recognition of his fortitude and his achievements, he was posthumously awarded one of the highest decorations of then Czechoslovakia by President Vaclav Havel. Kalista belonged to a group of Czech intellectuals who tried, largely successfully, to rehabilitate the baroque as a positive period in Czech culture and history, in contrast to previous writers, who had viewed it mostly negatively. The list of his major works in this field starts with a brilliant monograph on the making of aperfect baroque cavalier, Mladi Humprechta Jana Cernina z Chudenic [The Youth of Humprecht Jan Cernin z Chudenic] (1932); reaches its pinnacle in his panoramic overview of Czech literary baroque, Ceske baroko [Czech Baroque] (1941); and ends with a passionate summation of his many insights into this phenomenon in his Tvar baroka [The Face of the Baroque] (1982), which he had to dictate to his friends owing to the loss of his eyesight in the last years of his life. A special place among his works belongs to Ceska baroknigotika ajeji zJarske ohnisko [Czech Baroque Gothic and Its Focal Point in iclar] (1970), a study of a unique type of Czech architecture that had tried to unite, with admirable results, Gothic and baroque structures and forms. A talented poet, he also published several volumes of poetry and numerous translations of historical and literary works from several languages.

JosefAnderle Texts

Ceska barokni gotika a jeji zJarske ohnisko. Brno: Blok, 1970. Ceske baroko. Prague: Evropsky literarni klub, 1941. 500


Mladi Humprechta lana Cernina z Chudenic. Prague: Nakladem vlastnim, 1932. Tvar baroka. Munich: Edice Arkyr, 1982. References Kalista, Zdenek. Cesty historikovy [The Ways of a Historian]. Praha: Vaclav Petr, 1947. "Zdenek Kalista." In Frantisek Kutnar. Prehledne

dijiny ceskeho a slovenskeho dijepisectvi [General History of Czech and Slovak Historiography]. Prague: Statni pedagogicke nakladatelstvi, 1977, vol. 2, 319-322.

al-~al~ashandj, Abu

'I-'Abbas Al:Jmad ibn 'Abdallah (1355-1418)

Mamluk official and author. al-Kal1}.ashandI was born in Kal1}.ashanda in the Egyptian delta. He served in various capacities during the second Mamluk period (1382-1517) but achieved prominence as secretary of the chancery. He completed the $ubh al-a mafi fina 'at al-inma ' [The Morning Light in Chancery Art], an encyclopedic manual for chancery scribes during the Mamluk period, in 1412. Based on the author's own observations and experiences and containing a host of treaties and documents, it offers historians a treasure of information on Islamic history, especially on Fatimid Egypt (969-1172) and the Mamluk period. It contains, among other things, detailed expositions on the practical and theoretical training of the scribe; geography and topography; the Caliphate; Egypt's districts and their boundaries, cities, organization, administration, climate, crops, and finances; language arts; the Prophetic Traditions; the economy; and correspondence between provinces.

Mahmood Ibrahim Texts

Subb al-a ma fi kitabat al-inma'. Trans. Luis Seco de Lucena (into Spanish). Valencia: Anubar Ediciones, 1975. Subh al-amafi fina'at al-inma: Cairo: alMu'assassas al-Misriyya al-'Amma Ii 'tta'lif wa 'ttarjama wa 'ttiba'a wa 'nnashr, 1964. Faharis fubb al-Ama [Indices]. Ed. Mubammad Qandil al-Baqli. Cairo: 'Alam al-Kutub, 1972. References Bjorkman, W Beitriige zur Geschichte der Staatskanzlei im islamischen A"gyten [Contributions to the History of the Chancellory in Islamic Egypt]. Hamburg: Friederichsen, De Gruyter and Co., 1928. Little, Donald. History and Historiography ofthe

Mamluks. London: Variorum Reprints, 1986. Popper, William. Egypt and Syria under the Circassian Sultans, 1382-1468. University of California Series in Semitic Philology, vols. 15-16. New York: AMS Press, 1977.

Kann, Robert A. (1906-1981)

Kampuchean Historiography


Kang Youwei [K'ang Yu-wei] (1858-1927)

Chinese philosopher and leader ofthe reform movement in the late Qing dynasty. Born in Nanhai in Guangdong province, Kang grew up in a family with Confucian classical learning. Although he earned his status in modern history mainly because ofhis leading role in the "Hundred Days' Reforms" in 1898, throughout his life his central aim was to initiate reform in the political, economic, and intellectual spheres of traditional China. The decisive commitment of his scholarly life lay in his pursuit of the "New Text" tradition in Confucian scholarship. In painting Confucius as a reformer, he tried to revive Confucianism by dissociating it from a rigid, state-sponsored orthodoxy. In his work, Kang laid the groundwork for a theory of historical progress based on the New Text concept of the Three Ages, wherein society advanced from an earlier age of "disorder" through an age of "minor tranquillity," that in turn anticipated the future era of a global "great peace." In Datong shu [Grand Unity] (1901-1902), Kang described his vision of a utopian world that reflected what he conceived to be the best of revised Confucianism and various international traditions, sciences, and technologies.

Shao Dongfang

Austro-American historian. Born into a Viennese professional family, Kann received a law degree from Vienna University in 1930. After almost a decade of law practice he emigrated to the United States in 1938. There he joined Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study before obtaining his doctorate in history from Columbia University. From 1946 until his retirement in 1976 he taught at Rutgers University and as a visiting professor at Columbia, Princeton, and Vienna. Kann's studies of the structure of the Habsburg monarchy and the legacies of its constituent nationalities earned him a place among the world's foremost scholars on Eastern Europe. Besides dealing with political history and the complexities of ethnicity, his research embraced the study of the area's intellectual traditions and the issues revolving around the emergence of the successor states after World War 1. His academic eminence was recognized by the receipt of Prize for Humanities of the City of Vienna and membership in the Austrian Academy of Science. William O. Oldson Texts

A History o/the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. The Multinational Empire, Nationalism and National Reform in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1848-1918. New York: Octagon Books, 1970. Das Nationalitatenproblem der Habsburgermonarchie [The Problem of Nationalism in the Habsburg Monarchy]. Second ed. Graz: H. Bohlau, 1964.

A Study in Austrian Intellectual History, from Late Baroque to Romanticism. New York: Octagon, 1973.


Kang Youwei quanji [Completed Works of Kang Youwei]. Ed. Jiang Yihua and Wu Gengliang. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe, 1987-1995.

Tang T'ung Shu: The One World Philosophy of K'ang Yu-wei. Trans. Lawrence G. Thompson. London: Allen and Unwin, 1958. References Hsiao Kung-ch'uan. A Modern China and a New

World: K'ang Yu-wei, Reformer and Utopian, 1858-1927. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975. Lo Jung-pang, ed. K'ang Yu-wei: A Biography and a Symposium. Tucson: University ofArizona Press, 1967.

References Obituary. New York Times. September 2,1981, A18.

Kantorowicz, Ernst Hartwig (1895-1963)

German historian ofthe Middle Ages. Kantorowicz began his career as a devotee and member of the inner circle of the poet Stefan George. A fierce nationalist with strong literary talents, he was asked to write a biography of Emperor Frederick II. When his Kaiser Friedrich der Zweite finally appeared in 1927, it created a huge debate among those who extolled it for its rich literary virtues and those who decried it as a biased, unscholarly treatment of the controversial ruler. The original biography having K ANT 0 ROW I C Z,





been published without footnotes or citations, Kantorowicz responded to criticism in 1931 by publishing an Erganzungsband, rich with annotations and commentaries on the original text. The author slowly gained recognition as a historian and serious academic. Jewish by birth, Kantorowicz soon found himself forced out of his university position by the Nazi regime, and eventually out of Germany itself. He spent a year at Oxford, then taught for a time at Berkeley until the dispute over the loyalty oaths demanded ofCalifornia professors convinced him to settle at Princeton. His interdisciplinary approach and broad-ranging interests manifested themselves in two monographs and some fifty articles, notes, and reviews. In 1957 he published his most famous book, The King's Two Bodies, a rich melding of traditional archival, artistic, literary, and legal sources into a complex and multilayered, if at times esoteric, study of the ideas and symbols of medieval kingship. The work has had a lasting impact on studies of medieval and early modern political thought.

Krista Kesselring

of Enlightenment views and feudal ideology. A firm nationalist, he identified the history of Russia with the state and autocracy. He defended serfdom as an inalienable part of the society. He criticized Peter I for importing foreign ways and praised Catherine II for subordinating the Poles to Moscow. He used many new historical sources and was a proponent of the "Normanist theory" of the origin of Kievan Rus' (the ducal state within what is now Ukraine and which existed from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries). His work was popular with the educated public because of its high standards of scholarship and informal, readable style. His conservative views were the basis for much of official nineteenth-century Russian historiography.

Elizabeth V Haigh Texts

Istoriia gosudarstva Rossiiskogo [History of the Russian State]. 12 vols. St. Petersburg: N. Grecha, 1818-1829. Karamzin's Memoir on Ancient and Medieval Russia. Trans. and by Richard Pipes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959.


Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz: Geschichtsschreiber [Selections]. Vienna: Turia & Kant, 1992. Frederick the Second, 1194-1250. Trans. E. O. Lorimer. London: Constable, 1931. The King's Two Bodies. Princeton, N]: Princeton University Press, 1957. Selected Studies. Locust Valley, NY: J.J. Augustin, 1965.

Letters, Political Thinker, Historian, 17661826. The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 1975. - - - . Nicholas Karamzin and Russian Society in the Nineteenth Century: A Study in Russian Political and Historical Thought. Toronto: University ofToronto Press, 1975.

References Abulafia, D. "Kantorowicz and Frederick II."

Kareev, Nikolai Ivanovich (1850-1931)

History 62 (1977): 193-210. Baethgen, Friedrich. "Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz." Deutsches Archiv fur

Erforschung des Mittelalters 21 (1964): 1-14. Malkiel, Y. "Ernst H. Kantorowicz." In On Four

Modern Humanists: Hofmannsthal, Gundolf Curtius, Kantorowicz, ed. A.R. Evans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,


Karamzin, Nikolai Mikhailovich (1766-1826)

Russian historian, journalist, and novelist. Born a nobleman, Karamzin became a successful journalist. In 1803, Emperor Alexander I appointed him official historian of the Russian Empire. He wrote a twelve-volume History ofthe Russian State, which ended at the Time of Troubles with the author's death. His view of history was a mixture




References Black, J.L. Essays on Karamzin: Russian Man-of

Russian historian and sociologist. Kareev was the author ofa groundbreaking study ofprerevolutionary France and preeminent academic representative of the Russian "subjective school" of sociology. Kareev's 1879 work The Peasantry and the Peasant Question in France transformed the analysis of the ancien regime peasantry. Utilizing new archival sources-particularly peasant cahiers-Kareev rejected the juridical discussion of the peasantry and established that feudal obligations were resurgent in the prerevolutionary epoch. He contradicted Alexis de Tocqueville's interpretation that the Revolution was unnecessary. The work was translated into French, elicited approval from Marx and Engels, and helped establish l'ecole russe, which reflected Russian social anxiety in the intensive study of ancien regime France. He authored numerous works on French, European, and Polish history. Kareev also wrote extensively on the philoso-


phy of history. He attempted to reconcile Comtean sociological objectivism with Russian populist ethical voluntarism, allotting to sociology the elaboration of laws ofhuman social behavior. He bridged the gap to social engagement by applying elements of subjective sociology to the historical process. His analysis led to the discussion of ideographic versus nomothetic historical phenomena (roughly speaking, those that are unique, and those that may be grouped together or explained by laws), signifIcantly predating Heinrich Rickert's work, and to insightful critiques of Marxism. Kareev's death coincided with the purge ofhistorians in Stalin's USSR.

T. Sanders Texts

Istoriki frantsuzskoi revoliutsii [History of the French Revolution]. Leningrad: Izd-vo "Kolos," 1924-1925.

Ies paysans et la question paysanne en France dans Ie dernier quartier du XVIIIe Siecle [The Peasants and the Peasant Question in France during the Last Quarter of the Eighteenth Century]. Paris: V. Giard & E. Briere, 1899. "Les travaux russes sur l'epoque de la revolution fran with Introduction> Bibliography and Notes. New York: American Book Company, 1939. Levin, David. History As Romantic Art-Bancroft> Prescott> Motley and Parkman. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959.

Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801) Motley, John Lothrop (1814-1877)

American historian and diplomat. Motley was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts. Following graduation from Harvard University in 1831 he

Japanese National Learning (Kokugaku) scholar of the Edo period. Born into a merchant family, Motoori practiced medicine for a living. Considering himself a disciple of the Kokugaku scholar Kamo Mabuchi (1697-1769), Motoori MOTOORI




was a seminal figure in the National Learning movement that strove to formulate a philosophical cosmology based on a Japanese tradition untainted by Chinese or other foreign influences. Kokugaku emphasized the importance of Shinto and of research into Japan's own literature in order to find the roots of Japanese tradition. Historiographically, Motoori's name is associated particularly with an analysis and annotated translation of the Kojiki (a history compiled in 712 and the oldest surviving Japanese book), which he attempted to establish as a basic Shinto scripture. Motoori personally had an absolute religious faith in the native Shinto kami ofJapan. In interpreting Genji Monogatari, he saw this Heian novel as the embodiment of the aesthetic term mono no aware, which referred to human sensitivity. Motoori believed sensitivity was one of the most important qualities native to the Japanese, a view that conflicted with the rationalist thought of contemporary Zhu Xi [Chu Hsi] Confucian scholars. His thought had a profound influence on subsequent Japanese perceptions of their country's past.

A. Hamish Ion

influential for it. In the 1960s Mousnier did move into comparative and social history to study peasant rebellions, and he criticized the Soviet historian, Boris Porshnev, for overemphasizing class tensions in the peasant revolts of the seventeenth century. He was equally critical ofthe quantitative social history of historians such as Fran