A discourse on problems of management planning in the public service with special reference to the responsibilities of the supervisor

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A discourse on problems of management planning in the public service with special reference to the responsibilities of the supervisor

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A DISCGDPSE Oil Pr(GBLEEP OP EAEAGEEEET PLANKING IN TEE PUBLIC SERVICE V.ITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TEE RESPONSIBILITIES OP TEE SUPERVISOR

A Thesis Presented to t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f Go v e r n me n t The U n i v e r s i t y of S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e Degree P l a s t e r of S c i e n c e

in Public A dm in istratio n

by J e s s N. Swanson J u n e 1942

UMI Number: EP64456

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

UMI D issertation Publishing

UMI EP64456 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

Th is thesis, w r itt en by

...... JESS

N.

SWANSON...........

M

under the direction of hi Ls. F a c u l t y C o m m it t e e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been p r es en te d to an d a c c e p t e d by the Co u n ci l on G ra d u a t e S t u d y a n d R es ea r ch in pa r ti a l fulfill­ m e n t of th e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e o f

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. /' D ea n

/n S ecretary

D a te ...X im & t . . . 1 9 A 2 .........................

m m ittee

/

PREFACE The m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s part

o f a more e x t e n s i v e

thesis

is

one d i s t i n c t

study e n t i t l e d S upervision in

P u b l i c Management w h i c h i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d b y P r o f e s s o r J o h n M. P f i f f n e r and a s t a f f broad o u tlin e Pfiffner;

of the

of r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s .

The

s t u d y was c o n c e i v e d b y P r o f e s s o r

h o w e v e r , t h e d e t a i l e d b r e a k down i n w h i c h t h e

study appears

is the a u th o r ’s.

In w r i t i n g th e

o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t t h e f o o t n o t e and

c i t a t i o n f o r m s of t h e c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i s h e r were u s e d , and t h r o u g h p e r m i s s i o n g r a n t e d b y t h e G r a d u a t e S c h o o l t h e same form i s used th ro u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s ography.

in c lu d in g the b i b l i ­

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

INTRODUCTION

1 PART I ORGANIZATION FOR MANAGEMENT PLANNING

I.

TPIE GENERAL TESOFY OP; PLANNING

..........................

Vho s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g The i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e L e v e l s of p l a n n i n g II.

.

.

. . . .

10 13

..................................................

TEE PLANNING AND PROCEDURES DIVISION

10

. . .

17 26

L o c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g a nd p r o c e d u r e s division

......................................................................

The f u n c t i o n s and d u t i e s

26

of t h e

p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n

. . . .

31

I n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n III.

...................................

36

TEE AUTHORITY AND OPERATING RELATIONSHIPS OF TEE PLANNING AND PROCEDURES DIVISION FTTH SUBSIDIARY PLANNING STAFFS AND OPERATING DIVISIONS Operating r e l a ti o n s h i p s The f u n c t i o n a l agent in the

.

39

........................................

39

d e p a r t m e n t h e a d a s an in te g ra te d planning

s t r u c t u r e .....................................................

52

V

CHAPTER IV.

PACE

TEE SUPERVISORS RELATION TO PLANNING . . . . P l a c i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e l i n e The s u p e r v i s o r s

. . . .

60

re s p o n s ib ility to

d e v e l o p a c o - o r d i n a t e d work p r o g r a m The w o r k e r s p a r t

60

in planning

.

.

64

.........................

71

PART I I THE TECHNIQUES OF PLANNING I.

APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUES OF MANAGEMENT PLANNING

II.

..................................................

73

The work f l o w s t u d y ..................................................

82

S i m p l i f i c a t i o n and s y n t h e s i s

85

..............................

THE RELATION OF STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE TO SUPERVISION

............................................................

The p h i l o s o p h y w i t h s t a n d a r d s

95

s h o u l d be

a p p r o a c h e d i n t e r m s of a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n ................................................................. Measuring p ro d u ctio n or s e r v i c e rendered Measuring q u a l i t y of perform ance Determining the e f f o r t

. . . . .

100 108

w h i c h s h o u l d be

expended in a t t a i n i n g th e Special considerations

.

97

objective

. .

109

in e s t a b l is h i n g

s ta n d a r d time allo w ances

125

vi CHAPTER III.

PACE

USING STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE AS A SUPERVISORY A I D . ....................................................... Work p r o g r a m m i n g and b u d g e t i n g

130

. . . .

130

D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r o p e r work l o a d s and ..............................

a l l o c a t i o n of p e rs o n n e l

132

S c h e d u l i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e productive process

................................

D e l e g a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g

..............................

138

...................................

143

........................................

14 6

.......................................................

150

R a t i n g and d i s c i p l i n i n g Improving Performance Improving morale

135

The u s e o f c o s t s a s a m e a s u r e of p e r f o r m a n c e ......................... .................................. BIBLIOGRAPHY

151

................................................................................

157

APPENDICES: A--Deleted organization chart

of a l a r g e

government a g en c y showing t h e r e l a t i o n

of

an i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e t o t h e general organization

........................................

163

B - - Q , u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department

of A g r i c u l t u r e

s im p li f i c a ti o n study

i n work

........................................

164

C - - E x a m p l e o f a work f l o w c h a r t .........................

165

INTRODUCTION

hhat

i s p l a n n i n g ? '*

P l a n n i n g i s a c o v e r - a l l word w i t h

v a r i o u s meanings f o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p le .

Thus i n p u b l i c

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e t e r m h a s b e e n u s e d mos t w i d e l y , bly f i r s t wh i c h i s

in p oint

of t i m e ,

in c o n n e c tio n with c i t y p la n n in g

a form of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g .

s u p e r v i s i o n , however, the usage is t h a t ment.

The v e r y h e a r t

In t h e f i e l d

of

of s c i e n t i f i c

manage­

o f F r e d r i c k Wi ns l ow T a y l o r r s s y s t e m

was t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t ists

and p r o b a ­

of t h e f a c t o r y w h e r e i n s p e c i a l ­

p l a n n e d o p e r a t i o n s and work f l o w .

T h e s e a r e T a y l o r Ts

own w o r d s : . . . I n t h e c a s e o f a m a c h i n e s h o p whi ch i s managed u n d e r t h e modern s y s t e m d e t a i l e d w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o t h e b e s t way of d o i n g e a c h p i e c e of work a r e p r e p a r e d i n a d v a n c e , by men i n t h e planning department. These i n s t r u c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t t h e c o m b i n e d work o f s e v e r a l men i n t h e p l a n n i n g r o o m, e a c h of whom h a s h i s own s p e c i a l i t y , o r f u n c ­ tion. One o f t h e m , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a s p e c i a l i s t on t h e p r o p e r s p e e d s and c u t t i n g t o o l s t o be u s e d . He u s e s t h e s l i d e - r u l e s w h i c h h a v e been, d e s c r i b e d as an a i d , t o g u i d e h i m i n o b t a i n i n g p r o p e r s p e e d s , e t c . A n o t h e r man a n a l y z e s t h e b e s t and q u i c k e s t m o t i o n s t o be made by t h e workman i n s e t t i n g t h e work up i n t h e m a c h i n e and r e m o v i n g i t , e t c . S till a third, t h r o u g h t h e t i m e - s t u d y r e c o r d s wh i c h h a v e b e e n a c ­ c u m u l a t e d , makes o u t a t i m e t a b l e g i v i n g t h e p r o p e r

The s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " T h a t i s p l a n n i n g ” was w r i t t e n by P r o f e s s o r J o h n Ivl. P f i f f n e r a s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s s t u d y when i t was s t a r t e d by hi m i n J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 0 . It is reproduced here with h i s p e rm issio n .

2 s p e e d f o r d o i n g e a c h e l e m e n t of t h e w o r k . The d i r e c t i o n s of a l l t h e s e men, h o w e v e r , a r e w r i t t e n on a s i n g l e i n s t r u c t i o n c a r d , o r s h e e t . T h e s e men of n e c e s s i t y s p e n d mos t o f t h e i r t i m e i n t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t , b e c a u s e t h e y must he c l o s e t o t h e r e c o r d s and d a t a wh i c h t h e y c o n t i n u a l l y u s e i n t h e i r w o r k , and b e c a u s e t h i s work r e q u i r e s t h e u s e of a d e s k a nd f r e e d o m f r o m i n t e r r u p t i o n . Human n a t u r e i s s u c h , h o w e v e r , t h a t many o f t h e workmen, i f l e f t t o t h e m s e l v e s , woul d p a y b u t l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o th e ir w ritten in stru ctio n s. It is necessary, th e re ­ f o r e , t o pro vid e t e a c h e r s ( c a l l e d f u n c t i o n a l foremen) t o s e e t h a t t h e workmen b o t h u n d e r s t a n d and c a r r y o u t these w r itte n i n s t r u c t ions The p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h a s

ju s t o u tlin e d today c o n s t i ­

t u t e s t h e e s s e n c e of b a s i c o p e r a t i o n s in a l l well- m an age d industrial units. system,

To b e s u r e , c e r t a i n a s p e c t s

of T a y l o r ’ s

su ch as t h e f u n c t i o n a l f o r e m a n , have n o t been as

w h o l e h e a r t e d l y embraced as o t h e r s . application

Furthermore, the rig id

o f t i m e - a n d - m o t i o n s t u d y h a s f r e q u e n t l y r u n up

a g a i n s t t h e o b s t a c l e o f o b s t i n a t e human n a t u r e . t h e e s s e n c e of T a y l o r i s m i s t o d a y v e r y v i r i l e

Nevertheless,

and t e n a c i o u s .

I n d e e d , management p l a n n i n g seems t o a t t r a c t more a t t e n t i o n and command g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e a s t h e y e a r s go o n . It

is

only r a t h e r r e c e n t l y t h a t

one h a s h e a r d t h e

wro r d p l a n n i n g , u s e d i n t h e a b o v e s e n s e , a p p l i e d t o t h e i n t e r n a l management p h a s e s o f g o v e r n m e n t . brought

I t p r o b a b l y was

i n by some s c i e n t i f i c management men who t o o k

^ F r e d r i c k V. T a y l o r , The P r i n c l p l e s o f S c i e n t i f i c Management ( H a r p e r & B r o s . , New Y o r k , 1 9 1 1 ) , p p . 1 2 2 - 1 2 3 .

3 positions

in Washington.

o l d B u r e a u of E f f i c i e n c y ;

Some o f t h e m wer e e m p l o y e d i n t h e a nd when t h a t was a b o l i s h e d t h e y

f o u n d t h e i r way i n t o t h e Farm C r e d i t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t and e l s e w h e r e . a few o f t hem now i n p o s i t i o n s

It

the

Is i n t e r e s t i n g t o

see

of g e n u i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

l e a d e r s h i p , f o r e x a m p l e Mc Re ynol ds of t h e Whi t e House s t a f f , and B a l l i n g e r of t h e T r e a s u r y .

A n umbe r of mana gement

e n g i n e e r s came i n t o t h e F e d e r a l S e r v i c e d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n of t h e 1 9 3 0 * s ,

which a c c o u n t s f o r t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e

and a c t i v e W a s h i n g t o n c h a p t e r of t h e S o c i e t y f o r t h e A d v a n c e ­ ment o f Ma n a g e m e n t .

The r e s u l t

is th at

one h e a r s t h e t e r m

f,p l a n n i n g fl a p p l i e d t o i n t e r n a l mana gement much more o f t e n in f e d e r a l government than s t a t e

and l o c a l .

Management p l a n n i n g i s i n e s s e n c e b a s e d upon r e s e a r c h a nd f a c t - f i n d i n g . secures a l l as to re v e a l of a c t i o n .

It

studies,

investigates,

of th e a v a i l a b l e d a t a ;

gathers data,

organizes these data

so

t h e i r t r u e m e a n i n g , and. comes o u t w i t h a p l a n The a i m i s t o d e f i n e t h e p u r p o s e s and o b j e c t i v e s

t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d ;

know a l l

b e a r i n g on g e t t i n g t h e way t o p r o c e e d ,

of t h e f a c t o r s a nd i n f o r m a t i o n

job done;

and t h e n f i n d o u t t h e b e s t

h i t h t h o s e who may i n s i s t

that there

i s no

one b e s t way f o r a ny p a r t i c u l a r t a s k o r a s s i g n m e n t , b u t t h a t e a c h may be done e q u a l l y w e l l i n s e v e r a l w a y s , t h e r e inclination insist

to quarrel here.

on a s i n g l e

i s no

S c i e n t i f i c management d o e s n o t

nb e s t way; b u t

I t d o e s demand t h e r i g h t

4 t o i n q u i r e a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e may "be a ’' b e t t e r 11 me t h o d o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g o b j e c t i v e s t h a n t h a t now i n u s e . It

is d e sirab le

to d is p e l a t the

outset

any m i s c o n ­

c e p t i o n t h a t ma na ge me nt p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s t h e h o r r i b l e spectre

of Si mon L e g r e e w i t h a s t o p w a t c h and b l a c k s n a k e ,

s n e a k i n g up on i n n o c e n t w o r k e r s t o g e t t h a t effort.

Some ” e f f i c i e n c y ” e n g i n e e r s

last

ounc e of

o f g o n e d a y s may h a v e

p u r s u e d such t a c t i c s , b u t t h e y a r e n o t d e c i d e d l y o u t d a t e d . In government t h e t a s k s a r e d o m in a n t ly c l e r i c a l c o l l a r in n a tu r e ,

with the r e s u l t

d e a l l a r g e l y with, p a p e r w o r k .

that

and w h i t e

p la n n in g problems

T h a t i s why t h e p l a n n i n g u n i t

i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e s y s t e m s and p r o c e d u r e s division. finance,

The s u b j e c t s job a n a l y s i s ,

considered include systems,

layout,

a nd o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 2

Time-and-motion study plays a n e g l i g i b l e

r o l e a nd t h e p i e c e -

r a t e m e t h o d of c o m p e n s a t i o n i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a b s e n t . It

i s a r a t h e r common s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t a n e s r - m a r k

the high-powered e xecutive sions.

This b e l i e f

is the a b i l i t y

t o make q u i c k d e c i ­

se ems t o c a u s e some s u p e r v i s o r s t o t h i n k

th a t they w ill lose face unless they act q u ick ly ,

and seem t o

appear om niscient.

T h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y t i m e s v he n i t

necessary to a rr iv e

at decisions

2

of

immediately.

is

However, t h e

E . E. N i l e s , a nd M. c . N i l e s , The O f f i c e S u p e r v i s o r ( J o h n h i l e y & S o n s , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 5 ) , p p . 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 .

5 b e s t way t o h a v e a h i g h b a t t i n g a v e r a g e i n d e c i d i n g c o r r e c t ­ ly is to lay the b a s is f o r d e c is io n s through f o r e s i g h t . Important d e cisio n s

s h o u l d be b a s e d on f a c t s ,

f u n c t i o n of ma na ge me nt p l a n n i n g t o f o r e s e e f o r d e c i s i o n and be r e a d y w i t h t h e f a c t s ,

a nd i t

i s the

impending need or to f o r e s t a l l

t h e n e e d f o r s u d d e n d e c i s i o n by r e c o m me n d i n g p l a n s o f a c t i o n which m in i m iz e t h e need f o r emergency d e c i s i o n . ^ Instead

of m ee tin g t r o u b l e f a c e t o f a c e c o n s t a n t l y ,

c o n s c i o u s l y a v o id e d by removing i t s

it

is

causes in advance.

The s t a t e m e n t s t h a t h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n made h a v e i n a sense

indicated

the need f o r p l a n n i n g ; how e ver, s i n c e the

word i s

s o m e a n i n g l e s s when r e mo v e d f r o m i t s

context

it

s e ems d e s i r a b l e

t o c o n s i d e r th e need f o r p l a n n i n g , p a r ­

t i c u l a r l y as i t

applies to supervision.

The n e e d f o r s u p e r v i s o r y p l a n n i n g , . im plies the d ire c tio n f e c t i v e l y the specific.

o f human e f f o r t ,

Supervision

a n d t o do t h i s

ef­

o b j e c t i v e mus t be t h o u g h t f u l l y p r e p a r e d and

A s u p e r v i s o r c a n o n l y be s u c c e s s f u l when he h a s

s e t up a g o a l w h i c h i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d b o t h i n h i s m i n d a nd i n t h e mi nd o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s . carried th is

own

One w r i t e r h a s

concept a ste p f a r t h e r with the statem ent

' C h a r l e s R. Gow, E l e m e n t s o f human E n g i n e e r i n g (The M a c m i l l a n C o . , New Y o r P , 1 9 3 2 ) , p p . 5 9 - 6 0 ; h a l t e r V. B i n g h a m , " L e a d e r s h i p 11 I n H. C. M e t c a l f ( E d . ) , P s y c h o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f Management ( A. Y. Shaw C o . , C h i c a g o , 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 2 4 8 .

6 that

"su p e rv isio n is planning ra th e r than p lanned.

v iso ry planning in i t s

Super­

broadest sense im plies the c r e a tio n

o f a r e i g n o f o r d e r i n w h i c h b o t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s work i n h a r m o n y .

S u p e r v i s i o n of t h i s t y p e i s

c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c e r t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s . It

r e q u i r e s a t th e o u t s e t the development

of a com­

b i n e d s y s t e m o f wor k flow? and j o b a n a l y s i s w h i c h d e f i n e s the duties

of e a c h w o r k e r , and embodies t h e p r o c e d u r e s t o

be f o l l o w e d by t h e w o rk e r i n f l o w c h a r t s t i c e manuals.

and s t a n d a r d p r a c ­

The f l o w c h a r t s mus t be s u p p l e m e n t e d by

s c h e d u l e s s o t h a t t h e w o r k e r w i l l know a p p r o x i m a t e l y when he w i l l r e c e i v e h i s w o r k , what i t expected t o complete i t .

a nd when he i s

The s u p e r v i s o r m u s t a l s o d e v e l o p

work p r o g r a m s w h i c h r e f l e c t and a s s i g n p r i o r i t i e s

will be,

the trend

of work p r o c e s s e s

to the various a c t i v i t i e s .

To make

h i s p l a n n i n g e f f e c t i v e t h e good s u p e r v i s o r d e v e l o p s a s y s t e m o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e wor k w h i c h he d e l e g a t e s i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o know howr t h i s

so t h a t

work i s

p ro g ressin g without e x e rc is in g constant s u r v e illa n c e .

This

is in keeping with the c o n tro l fu n c tio n f o r c o n tro l is n o rm ally e x e r c i s e d th r o u g h a system of c o - o r d i n a t e d r e p o r t ­ i n g a nd i n s p e c t i o n w h i c h i s c o n d u c t e d t o f o r e s t a l l a

A. S . B a r r , Y i l l i a m R. B u r t o n , and Leo J . B r u e c k n e r , S u p e r v i s i o n ( D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, hew Y o r k , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 149"

7 crisis,

r a t h e r than to take

States fo rest

action afterw ards.

A United

S e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t o r h a s summarized s u p e r ­

v i s o r y p l a n n i n g as t h e a c t

of

. . . g i v i n g t o t h e work a l l o f t h e i n t e r e s t a nd z e s t of a g a m e - - t a r g e t s s e t u p , r u l e s t o f o l l o w , new t e c h n i c t o he d e v e l o p e d , r e f e r e e s , s c o r e s , p r i z e s , c o o p e r a t i o n , a nd t e a m w o r k . ^ It

is u n fo rtu n a te , hut t r u e ,

that a su b s ta n tia l pro­

p o r t i o n of t h e s u p e r v i s i o n b e i n g e x e r c i s e d i n b o t h g o v e r n ­ ment and p r i v a t e

i n d u s t r y i s n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p l a n n i n g .

T h e r e seems t o be a t e n d e n c y among s u p e r v i s o r s , i f th e y are l e f t a lo n e , t o use the system a v i a t o r s c a l l " f l y i n g by t h e s e a t of t h e i r p a n t s , " i n ma na g ­ ing t h e i r d e p a rtm e n ts . ^ The f a i l u r e

of the s u p e r v i s o r to p lan r e s u l t s

r e p e r c u s s i o n s which a f f e c t t h e the

supervisor,

and h i s

o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole,

subordinates.

a wh o l e i s a f f e c t e d due t o t h e f a c t which c u t a c r o s s s u p e r v i s o r y l i n e s a l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n .

in u n d e sira b le

The o r g a n i z a t i o n a s

t h a t work p r o c e s s e s a r e s l o w e d up b e c a u s e o f

'The s u p e r v i s o r i s a f f e c t e d

in

t h a t h e c a n n o t a c h i e v e c o - o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e work

5

E. V. • I o v e r r i d g e , Job- Load A n aly s i s and Planning, o f E x e c u t i ve ? o r k i n h a t l o n a l F o r e s t A d m i n i s t r a t iorT) pEovernment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , h a s h i n g t o n , h . C . , 19 37"), p . 8 2 . 6

Pi. iV. K a i s e r , " M e a s u r i n g O f f i c e O u t p u t f o r E x e c u ­ t i v e C o n t r o l , " C o - o r d i n a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n I n The Of f i c e ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , I\ev Y o r k , 1 9 5 7 ) , O f f i c e Management S e r i e s , No. 9 0 , p . 1 6 .

8 p r o c e s s e s f o r w h i c h he a l o n e no p a t t e r n

i s r e s p o n s i b l e b e c a u s e he h a s

o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e s p o n s e b u i l t

o n l y way he can h o p e t o o p e r a t e

up.

The

i s by t h a t mos t d i f f i c u l t

o f a l l m e t h o d s o f s u p e r v i s i o n known a s " c h a s i n g . ” '7

This

k i n d o f s u p e r v i s i o n a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t work i n p r o c e s s a f t e r t h e work i s

s c h e d u l e d t o be c o m p l e t e a n d when t h e r e

i s no t i m e t o make a d j u s t m e n t s f o r u n f o r e s e e n c o n t i n g e n c i e s . U n p l a n n e d s u p e r v i s i o n i m p i n g e s most s e r i o u s l y upon the c o n s c ie n tio u s employees, t h a t any s a t i s f a c t i o n position It

is

and y o u f i n d t h e m c o m p l a i n i n g

th e y might o th e rw is e f i n d

i s l o s t b e c a u s e of a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g

in t h i s

in t h e i r

of i n d e c i s i o n .

s i t u a t i o n t h a t y o u f i n d t h e e mp l o y e e who

c o m p l a i n s t h a t h e i s c a p a b l e and d e s i r o u s

of assuming a

more r e s p o n s i b l e t a s k i f t h e s u p e r v i s o r would o n l y d e f i n e his r e s p o n s ib ilitie s . a t a s k i n wh i c h t h e r e

However, i n p r e f e r e n c e t o p e r f o r m i n g i s an e l e m e n t

of u n c e r t a i n t y t h i s

employee p r e f e r s t o t a k e u n t o h i m s e l f c e r t a i n r o u t i n e d u t i e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e a r e e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e s and standards

o f p e r f o r m a n c e and d o e s e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n h i s

p o we r t o r e t a i n t h o s e d u t i e s

in o rd e r t o escape the f e e l i n g

of f r u s t r a t i o n which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y . The r e a d e r may now h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o f e e l t h a t

7

L. I . H u n t , "The P s y c h o l o g y o f P r o d u c t i o n P l a n ­ n i n g , ft The Human F a c t o r ( J u n e , 1 9 3 7 ) , V o l . X I , p . 2 1 6 .

9 success

or f a i l u r e

f o r a n o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l h i n g e on w h e t h e r

or not the s u p e r v i s o r s p l a n .

T h i s woul d he a mos t f a l ­

lac io u s assumption, f o r the supervisor is lim ite d d e g r e e t o whi c h h e c a n p l a n by t h e a c t i o n of h i s

in the superiors.

E v e r y o n e w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s a c e r t a i n amount o f p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a nd t o be e f f e c t i v e mu s t u n d e r s t a n d t h i s p a t t e r n

of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

r e l a t i o n with the c e n t r a l planning d i v is io n c u l a r n e e d of c l a r i f i c a t i o n . )

the su p erv iso r

Part

is

I of t h i s

(His

in p a r t i ­ study w ill

he d e v o t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

and

relationships

of

and w i l l a l s o t o u c h upon c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s

o r g a n i z a t i o n which a re r e l a t e d t o p l a n n i n g . d i s c u s s more f u l l y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n

Part

II will

o f some o f t h e t e c h ­

n i q u e s of p l a n n i n g w h i c h h a v e b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s ductory chapter.

intro­

PART

I

ORGANIZATION FOR MANAGEMENT PLANNING

CHAPTER I TEE GENERAL THEORY OP PLANEIMG I.

WHO ELI GULL EE RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING?

Among t h e ma na ge me nt c o n s u l t a n t s w i t h whom s u c h term s as " r o u t i n g , " are a sso c ia te d th e re

" m e t h o d s , " " l a y o u t - , " and " s c h e d u l e s " se ems t o be u n i f o r m a c c o r d t h a t t h i s

work s h o u l d be p e r f o r m e d by a s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . ^ It

is v ig o ro u sly proclaimed th a t planning is s p e c ia liz e d ,

and t h a t

there

i s a p r o f o u n d d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e human

b e i n g who i s most c a p a b l e o f p l a n n i n g t h e wor k a n d h i s f e l l o w - m a n who i s mos t c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g i t . of t h e i r argument

i s t h a t t h e o p e r a t i n g man i s t o o a b s o r b e d

in o peratin g d e t a i l s point

The t e n o r

t o ha ve t h e d e t a c h e d and o b j e c t i v e

of v iew n e c e s s a r y f o r p l a n n i n g .

It

Is also said th at

he i s t o o c l o s e t o h i s p r o b l e m s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e m and a c ­ c o r d i n g l y t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t I s c o n c e d e d t o be " t h e forte"

of b e t t e r m a n a g e m e n t . S t a f f a g e n c ie s have c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e

c o n d u c t i n g p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r a l a n a l y s i s ;

advantages however,

In it

w i l l p a y e v e r y o r g a n i z a t i o n ha ndsome d i v i d e n d s t o i n v e s t i ­ g a t e t h e gap be tw een i t s

s t a f f and l i n e f u n c t i o n s .

I f we

^E. W. L o v e r i d g e , J o b Load A n a l y s i s a n d P l a n n i n g of E x e c u t i v e Work i n N a t i o n a l F o r e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (U. ST Go v e r n me n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 4 8 .

11 are honest with o urselves

It

i s n e c e s s a r y to admit t h a t

much o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t a t t r i b u t e d t o s t a f f a g e n c i e s paper achievement.

The work of t h e s t a f f

i s n o t e f f e c t i v e l y f l o w i n g down t h e l i n e , field

is

a g e n c ie s of today and o u t

in to the

i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s a c t u a l l y t o c h a n g e t h e c o n d u c t of

an o f f i c e serve.

in i t s

relation

to the c it i z e n s

T h i s c a n be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d

the lin e u n its

see th e s t a f f

it

is

to t h e f a c t

that

s p e c i a l i s t not only as a s o u rce

o f i n f o r m a t i o n and h e l p , b u t a s a l u r k i n g t y r a n t with k i n e t i c

supposed to

charged

e n e r g y a n d w a i t i n g f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r ­

vene in a c t i v i t i e s t h a t

are s t r i c t l y

a f u n c t i o n of th e l i n e .

Bureaus of budget and e f f i c i e n c y charged with th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a i n i n g and i n s t a l l a t i o n

o f s y s t e m s a nd

p r o c e d u r e s h a v e b e e n known t o c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e y c a n n o t perform e f f e c t i v e l y because the lin e agencies sabotage t h e i r work.

T h i s c a n be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e h i g h and

mighty a t t i t u d e It

wh i c h i s s o m e t i m e s a s s u me d b y b u d g e t b u r e a u s .

i s r e a d i l y conceded t o be d e s i r a b l e t o s e p a r a t e

p l a n n i n g f r o m p e r f o r m a n c e up t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t , w h i c h w i l l vary in each o rg a n iz a tio n ; i s found to l i e of t h e s t a f f , line

however, the h e a r t

of t h e p roblem

in th e c o n f l i c t between the p o i n t s

of v i e w

wh i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g , a n d t h e

which i s c h a r g e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r y o p e r a t i n g r e s u l t s .

C o n f l i c t s of t h i s

c h a r a c t e r a c t as an e f f e c t i v e sto p g a p t o

12 prevent co-operative a c t io n .2 tive,

it

is

I f p l a n n i n g i s t o be e f f e c ­

imperative to strik e

a b a la n c e between th e s e

two c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s w i t h o u t r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e and j u d g m e n t of t h e p e r s o n n e l on t h e l i n e ,

and a t t h e same

time making c e r t a i n

th at a d m in istra tiv e p o lic ie s form ulated •z by t h e s t a f f a r e n o t d i s r e g a r d e d . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g c a n n o t be a r b i t r a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d

t o one o r g a n i z a ­

tio n a l u n it created s p e c if ic a lly fo r th at purpose.

Co-ordi­

n a t i o n a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n , w h i c h a r e s o e s s e n t i a l t o good m a n a g e m e n t , c a n o n l y be a c h i e v e d when e a c h u n i t w i t h i n t h e organization

is

informed, re s p o n siv e ,

m a j o r o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s

and i n a c c o r d w i t h

as w e l l as day t o day o p e r ­

ating ro u tin es. The n e e d f o r a f o r m a l and r e c o g n i z e d p l a n n i n g s t r u c ­ t u r e wh i c h i s e i t h e r I n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a n of t h e government agency or

su p erim p o sed ^

upon i t

i s b e c o m­

ing i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t.

T h i s p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e must

% I a r r y A r t h u r K o p f , ,fA d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o - o r d i n a t i o n , ” i n F r i t z M o r s t e i n Marx ( E d . ) P u b l i c Management i n t h e New De mo c r a c y ( H a r p e r and B r o s . , New Y o r k , - 1 9 4 2 ) , p". 9 0 . ^ C o m s t o c k G l a s e r , ”A n o t e on E x e c u t i v e P l a n n i n g , ” J o u r n a l of t h e S o c i e t y f o r t h e Ad v a n c e me n t of Management ( J u l y , - 1 9 5 7 J 7 " V o l . , I I , No. 4 , p . 1 1 2 . ^The S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a h a s i n a s e n s e a d o p t e d a s u p e r i m p o s e d p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e wh i c h f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e medium o f i t s i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o n f e r e n c e s .

13 n e c e s s a r i l y be i n t e g r a t e d

in the sense th a t

it

w i l l be

c o - o r d i n a t e d and d i r e c t e d by a r e s p o n s i b l e h e a d , b u t s h o u l d n o t be i n f e r r e d t h a t

t h i s w i l l a l s o mean t h a t t h e

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be c e n t r a l i z e d . basic tion

it

i d e a of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n

The

assumes a d eg ree of c o n c e n t r a ­

o f f i n a l a u t h o r i t y wh i c h a p p e a r s t o be n o n - e x i s t e n t

in

actual p ractice. As f a r b a c k a s 1926 Mary F o l l e t t reg ard in g the

inconsistencies

wrote as f o llo w s

of t h e c o n c e p t

of f i n a l

authority: So much g o e s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n s b e f o r e th e p a r t which t h e e x e c u t i v e h e a d t a k e s in th em , which i s i n d e e d sometimes m e r e l y t h e o f f i c i a l p r o m u l g a t i o n o f a d e c i s i o n , t h a t t h e c o n c e p t i o n of f i n a l a u th o r i ty is lo s in g i t s fo rc e in the p resent o r g a n i z a t i o n of b u s i n e s s . This i s t r u e of o t h e r ex­ e c u t i v e s as of the h e a d . I h a v e s e e n an e x e c u t i v e f e e l a l i t t l e s e l f i m p o r t a n t over a d e c i s i o n he had m a d e , wheh t h a t d e c i s i o n h a d r e a l l y come t o h i m r e a d y made. An e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n i s a moment i n a p r o c e s s . The g r o w t h of d e c i s i o n a n d t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of a u ­ t h o r i t y , n o t t h e f i n a l s t e p , i s what we n e e d mos t t o study . . . . 5 II.

THE INTEGRATED PLANKING STRUCTURE

During the p a s t f i f t y and c o n s u l t a n t s h a v e b u i l t

y e a r s mana gement e n g i n e e r s

up a new p h i l o s o p h y o f p l a n n i n g

w h i c h p l a c e s upon t h e word a d i f f e r e n t e m p h a s i s t h a n t h a t

Mary P. F o l l e t t , f,The I l l u s i o n o f F i n a l A u t h o r i t y , ” B u l l e t i n o f t h e T a y l o r S o c i e t y ( D e c . , 1 9 2 6 ) , V o l . X I , No. 5, p. 243.

14 o r d i n a r i l y a t t r i b u t e d t o th e d i c t i o n a r y meaning of t h e t e i m . T h i s new c o n c e p t

is the r e s u l t

t i o n which in t u r n

of t h e c o m p l e x i t y of o r g a n i z a ­

is the r e s u l t

o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and

d i v i s i o n of l a h o r . The e a r l y o p e r a t i o n s

of t h e s e c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n s

was t y p i f i e d b y c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e v a r y i n g m o t i v e s a nd fallible

judgme nts of i n d i v i d u a l s .

p lie d f o r only a s h o rt tim e , life

of a c o r p o r a t i o n , f a i l e d

a nd a s a r e s u l t

the l i f e

Individual e ffo rt ap­

in comparison t o t h e l e n g t h of to re su lt

of b u s i n e s s

in c o - o r d i n a ti o n ,

i n s t i t u t i o n s was e n ­

dangered. I h e n i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e lon g er able

i n d i v i d u a l was no

to envisage the u ltim a te e f f e c t

a l l t h e i r d e t a i l s , mana gement b e n t

itself

to the task

c r e a t i n g an e n t i t y t h a t woul d ov e r c o me t h i s o r d e r t o meet t h i s

problem i t

of h i s a c t s

in

of

weakness.

In

was n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e an

’’i n s t i t u t i o n a l m i n d 11 i n d e p e n d e n t

o f i n d i v i d u a l s who come

and g o, and w i t h a c a p a c i t y t o t h i n k i n t e r m s of e x p e r i e n c e l a r g e r t h a n t h a t wh i c h comes t o a ny i n d i v i d u a l .

This

i n s t i t u t i o n a l mi nd i s t h e i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e v/ hich t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t i s

one p a r t .

p u r p o se of t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r tm e n t

The p r i m a r y

is to f a c i l i t a t e

’’m a s t e r p l a n ” of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e

of

a

o r g a n i z a t i o n as a

_

H. S. P e r s o n , ” 0n p l a n n i n g , ” J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r t h e Ad v a n c e me n t o f Management ( I\To v e m b e r , 193 6 ) , V. , No. 5, p. 144.

15 whole.

It

s h o u l d be t h e f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n wh i c h c o - o r d i ­

n a t i o n o f p u r p o s e and a c t i o n o f e a c h c o mp o n e n t p a r t organization

of th e

is developed.

The g o a l o f t h o s e f a r s i g h t e d mana gement e n g i n e e r s d e v e l o p e d t h i s new p h i l o s o p h y of p l a n n i n g , h a s o n l y b e e n partially

realized

in b u s in e s s , perhaps very l a r g e ly because

s o much d e p e n d s on t h a t factor.

i n t a n g i b l e t h i n g c a l l e d t h e human

R e g a r d l e s s of w h e t h e r or n ot t h e p h i l o s o p h y of

p l a n n i n g h a s met w i t h c o m p l e t e s u c c e s s i n b u s i n e s s many o f I t s p r i n c i p l e s c a n a nd s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e b e s t of o u r ability

in the growing f i e l d

of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

In our g o v e rn m e n ta l o p e r a t i o n s of t h e p a s t everyone f r o m t h e t o p a d m i n i s t r a t o r down t o t h e f i r s t - l i n e

supervisor

has planned to a c e r t a i n

e x te n t according to the d i c t i o n a r y

definition

T h i s p l a n n i n g i s t y p i f i e d by i t s

of t h e t e r m .

individuality, individuals,

a nd b e c a u s e t h e p l a n n i n g h a s b e e n i n t e r m s o f

i t h a s b e en so c a s u a l as t o f a i l

to provide co­

o r d i n a t i o n of e f f o r t betw een i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p a r t s . n o t m e a n t t o d i s c o u r a g e p l a n n i n g on t h e p a r t fo r there

This is

of i n d i v i d u a l s ,

i s c e r t a i n l y a n e e d f o r more i n d i v i d u a l and i n d e ­

p e n d e n t p l a n n i n g on t h e p a r t

of e v e r y o n e w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a ­

tion.

H o w e v e r , t h e i r e f f o r t s w i l l me e t w i t h more s u c c e s s

if a ll

of t h e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s

effectively

integrated.

o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e

T h i s whol e p r o b l e m h a s b e e n v e r y

c o n c i s e l y s t a t e d b y H. S. P e r s o n ,

who w r i t e s

as f o l l o w s :

16 P l a n n i n g a p a r t i s nob p l a n n i n g t h e w h o l e . A p a r t c a n n o t h e e f f e c t i v e l y p l a n n e d i f t h e whol e i s not planned. The whol e c a n n o t be p l a n n e d i f e v e r y i n te g r a l p art is not also planned. P l a n n i n g mus t c o v e r t h e whol e a r e a of r e l a t e d and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t factors.7 The t e r m i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e f u l l y e n c o m p a s s a l l of t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e word p l a n n i n g i s u s e d . least

include t h e

in connection with

T h e s e woul d a t t h e v e r y

follow ing a c t i v i t i e s ;

n omi c s t a b i l i z a t i o n

can r i g h t ­

regional planning,

planning f o r eco­ c i t y p l a n n i n g , a nd

p l a n n i n g f o r t h e p u r p o s e of i m pr o ving management. b o t h r e a s o n a b l e and d e s i r a b l e activities

that a ll

It

is

of th e s e p la n n in g

s h o u l d some day be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d ;

however,

i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e whol e p r o b l e m t o an a s s i g n m e n t wh i c h c a n be h a n d l e d t h e p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n

of t h e p l a n n i n g

s t r u c t u r e w i l l be somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e a s p e c t s o f p l a n n i n g w h i c h a r e c o n c e i v e d t o be most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i m p r o v e me n t o f ma na ge me nt a nd i n t u r n s u p e r ­ vision.

Thr ou g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s

term planning

stu d y whenever the

i s used w ith ou t q u a l i f i c a t i o n th e r e f e r e n c e

w a l l be t o p l a n n i n g t o p r o m o t e more e f f e c t i v e mana gement a s t h o u g h mana gement e x i s t s a s an i s o l a t e d in r e a l i t y

7

it

entity,

although

does n o t .

E . S. P e r s o n , " P l a n n i n g : A T e c h n i q u e a s w e l l a s an A t t i t u d e o f m i n d , " B u l l e t i n o f t h e T a y l o r S o c i e t y and t h e S o c i e t y f o r I n d u s t r i a l E n g i n e e r s ( r a n c h , 1 9 3 5 ) , V o l . I , No. 3 , p. 94.

17 III.

LEVELS OF PLANEIFG

I t has been emphasized b efo re t h a t t o be e f f e c t i v e

it

c a n n o t be r e s t r i c t e d

organization regardless

of v b e t h e r t h a t

i f planning is

t o one l e v e l

of t h e

l e v e l is near the

t o p or n e a r t h e b o t to m of t h e h i e r a r c h y .

The f i r s t

line

su p e rv is o r cannot e f f e c t i v e l y execute h is planning r e s p o n s i­ bility

w i t h o u t c o - o p e r a t i o n from s u p e r i o r s and s u b o r d i n a t e s ,

and t h e same s t a t e m e n t m inistrative

is equally applicable

to the ad­

o f f i c e r i n c h a r g e of a s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g

division. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the l e v e l s

of p l a n n i n g a r e

n o t c l e a r c u t when c o n s i d e r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n , a nd t o d i s c u s s t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o s i m p l i f y t h e p r o b l e m .

in the a b s t r a c t

E . S. P e r s o n i n h i s wor ks on

p la n n in g has d i s t i n g u i s h e d between th r e e b a s i c p l a n n i n g , namely; operative. planning.

does not

levels

d ire c tiv e , general ad m in istrativ e,

Person’s w riting is

of and

in terms of i n d u s t r i a l

His d i s t i n c t i o n between l e v e l s f o l l o w s :

D i r e c t i v e p la n n in g is conducted by the g e n e r a l c o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e w h i c h p l a n s s c h e d u l e s and b u d g e t s i n t e r m s o f e n t i r e p l a n t s a s u n i t s and g e n e r a l l y does n o t c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of p l a n t s , except as i t a p p r a i s e s r e s u l t s a f t e r the e x e c u t i o n of a p l a n . G e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i s c o n d u c t e d by t h e g e n e r a l o f f i c e s o f e a c h p l a n t i n t e r m s of i t s m a j o r d e p a r t m e n t s a s u n i t s w i t h no c o n c e r n g e n e r a l l y f o r d e t a i l s o f o r d e r s , m a c h i n e s , a n d o t h e r work places. General a d m i n i s t r a t iv e planning is con­ d i t i o n e d by d i r e c t i v e p l a n n i n g .

18 3. Operative planning is conducted in each d e p a r t ­ ment w h i c h p l a n s i n t e r m s o f o r d e r s , m a c h i n e s , and w o r k e r s a s c o n d i t i o n e d by g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e planning. He r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n d e t a i l e n t e r s t h e p i c t u r e •8 An o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l g o v e r n m e n t agency,

( A p p e n d i x A) i s p r e s e n t e d

i n o r d e r t o show an

a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h e l e v e l s d e f i n e d by P e r s o n a n d t h o s e f o u n d i n mos t l a r g e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . porated within th is

Incor­

o rg an iz atio n plan are suggested lin e s

of a u t h o r i t y and a d v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o for m a s t r u c t u r e which should f a c i l i t a t e

t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h ­

out th e o r g a n i z a t i o n . L e t i t be n o t e d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t

it

is d i f f i c u l t ,

i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o s a y what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b e s t f o r m of o r g a n i z a t i o n t o pro v id e activities

i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g , and t h e

t o be e n g a g e d i n a r e e v e n more u n c e r t a i n .

p e r f e c t l y s a f e from a l l c r i t i c s able to shrug onefs sh o u ld ers, stating that

and p a s s t h e p r o b l e m o f f by

Parenthetically,

wherever the

t h a t a s s u m p t i o n .is

H o w e v e r , i n o r d e r t o make a s u b j e c t

n a t u r e even r e a s o n a b l y r e a l i s t i c it

woul d seem t o be a d v i s ­

t h e s o l u t i o n w i l l be d i f f e r e n t

problem Is fo un d. perhaps t r u e .

it

To be

of t h i s

to the u n i v e r s it y student

se ems n e c e s s a r y t o a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r

t o a few " p r i n c i p l e s , "

a nd p r e s e n t an o r d e r l y p i c t u r e

though these

p r i n c i p l e s rnay b e somewhat p r e ­

so-called

sumptuous • 8 I b i d . p. 91.

even

19 The u s e

of t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l

organization chart

is

in

accordance with th e d e c isio n to p o rtra y the su b je ct m a tte r of t h i s f i e l d

in as o r d e r l y a manner as p o s s i b l e .

me a n t t o s e r v e a s a v i s u a l

assure

s t a t e m e n t s , and

as the i d e a l form of o r g a n i z a t i o n t o

in teg rated planning. According t o P e rs o n ’ s d i s t i n c t i o n

planning a c t i v i t y

of t h i s

vided as f o l l o w s :

those a c t i v i t i e s

may be c l a s s i f i e d

as d i r e c t i v e .

below l e v e l E are In t h i s

the le v e ls

of

o r g a n i z a t i o n may be r o u g h l y d i ­ c o n d u c t e d a bove l e v e l A

Those c o n d u c t e d above

le v e l E are g e n eral a d m in is tr a tiv e ;

are

is

’’h i t c h i n g r a c k ” f o r much o f t h e

m a t e r i a l which im m ediately fo llo w s t h e s e i s not p r e s e n t e d

It

while those conducted

operative.

type

of o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e a c t i v i t i e s

o r d i n a r i l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e f u n c t i o n s

ment a r e c o n d u c t e d a s s t a f f work on a l l h i e r a r c h y , however, th e re

is s t i l l

levels

which

of manage­ of th e

a n o t h e r t y p e of p l a n ­

n i n g i n v o l v e d h e r e w h i c h i s common t o a l l t h r e e l e v e l s . I t has been i d e n t i f i e d

as program p l a n n i n g ,

a ss o c ia te d with the su b sta n tiv e a c t i v i t i e s the

organization.^

in t h i s

and i s c l o s e l y p e r f o r m e d by

Ye a r e n o t s e r i o u s l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h i t

study because i t

does not i n v o l v e p l a n n i n g t o

^ B e r n a r d L. G l a d i e u x , ’’Management P l a n n i n g i n t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , ” Adva nc e d Management ( A p r i l , May, J u n e : 1 9 4 0 ) , V o l . V, No. 2 , p . 8 2 .

20 i m p r o v e mana gement a s s u c h . to the te c h n ic a l aspects

It

is usually closely rela te d

of the f u n c t i o n and i n v o l v e s t h e

q u e s t i o n of improving s e r v i c e more e f f e c t i v e m a n a g e m e n t .

t hr ough, a medium o t h e r t h a n

It

i s , however,

imperative that

t h o s e p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r management p l a n n i n g s h o u l d c o n ti n u o u s l y c o n f e r with th o se charged w ith program p l a n ­ ning in order to p r o v id e 'th e

a d j u s t m e n t s be tw ee n e ac h which

a r e n e c e s s a r y t o make t h e p r o p o s e d p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y feasible . P l a n n i n g on t h e d i r e c t i v e l e v e l . t h e b o dy w i t h w h i c h we a r e charged with a d e f i n i t e actual practice th is

The l e g i s l a t u r e

concerned at t h i s

level.

planning r e s p o n s i b i li t y ,

but

is

in

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y seems t o be e n t i r e l y

n e g le c te d or e x te n s iv e ly

overemphasized.

There has been a

t r a d i t i o n a l tendency f o r l e g i s l a t i v e b o d ie s ,

once prodded.

I n t o a c t i o n , t o go t o an e x t r e m e i n t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n what s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e the

It

is

detail.

of

This harks back to

i n h e r e n t f e a r w h i c h o u r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r e f a t h e r s had.

of po we r p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d s of an e x e c u t i v e . cy h a s r o b b e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s

This ten d e n ­

of t h e d i s c r e t i o n w h i c h i s s o

n e c e s s a r y i n a s o c i e t y gove rne d, by t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n b r i e f l y d e f i n e s t h e p r o p e r f u n c t i o n of t h e l e g i s l a t u r e :

■ ^ G l a d i e u x , hoc . C i t .

21 The l e g i s l a t u r e s h o u l d d e c i d e what s h o u l d be done, but should leave i t t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l ad­ m i n i s t r a t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e how i t s h o u l d be d o n e . A f t e r t h a t i t i s t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t o e s t a b l i s h c h e c k s a nd a u d i t s t o a s c e r t a i n how w e l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a c q u i t t i n g i t s e l f of i t s d u t i e s . T h e s e c h e c k s a n d a u d i t s s h o u l d be p e r f o r m e d by t e c h n i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n s who r e p o r t t o and advise the l e g i s l a t u r e . H P l a n n i n g on t h e g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e chief adm inistrative

officer is,

p la n n e r in every o r g a n i z a t i o n . izations

The

or should b e , the c h ie f I n mos t o f t h e

large

of t h e p r e s e n t t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

d o e s a s s ume t h a t p o s i t i o n , this

level.

but i t

organ­

officer

i s p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o do

o n l y by d e l e g a t i n g t o o t h e r s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r

many o f t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s

of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

This

d e l e g a t i o n by t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r of c e r t a i n p a r t s h i s work t o s u b o r d i n a t e s

is a part

of

of t h e s t a f f c o n c e p t

of m a n a g e m e n t . S t a f f wor k i s

o f t e n d i v i d e d i n t o twro c a t e g o r i e s ;

"au x iliary " technical s ta ff,

the

and t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f . - ^

J o h n M. P f i f ' f n e r , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( R o n a l d P r e s s Company, New Y o r k , 19 3 5 ) , p . 1 2 2 . The r e a d e r s h o u l d o b s e r v e t h a t t h i s t h e o r y i s p a r a l l e l t o the f u n c t i o n a t t r i ­ b u t e d t o t h e d i r e c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t a f f by P e r s o n . J o h n M. G a u s , L e o n a r d D. V. h i t e , a n d M a r s h a l l E. Di mock, The F r o n t i e r s of1 Pub l i c Admin 1 s t r a t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . '71. See a l s o H. P a s d e r m a d j i a n , "The P l a n n i n g S t a f f i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Ma nage ­ m e n t , " P l a n Age ( M a r c h , 19 3 9 ) , V o l . V, N o . 3 .

22 The w r i t e r who u s e s t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r t e r m s p l a c e s f i n a n c e , personnel, m ateria ls, the f i r s t

and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n

of r e p o r t s

in

c a t e g o r y .

The g e n e r a l

staff

chief a d m in istrato r's

is

s e e n a s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e

office

and i s ,

to quote,

A g r o u p of o f f i c i a l s who . . . f o r m u l a t e f r o m th e m a t e r i a l s p ro v id ed by p lan n in g s t a f f s in the c o n s t it u e n t departments a f i n a l conspectus of the m a t e r i a l s r e l e v a n t t o each, m a j o r f u n c t i o n , p r o j e c t , or a r e a r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e c h i e f e x ­ e c u t i v e a nd h i s C a b i n e t C o l l e a g u e s . ^ Another w r i t e r has

summarized t h e d u t i e s

s t a f f with the s ta te m e n t t h a t , executive's p erso n ality ,

,rI t

of t h e g e n e r a l

i s an e x t e n s i o n of t h e

. . . and i s what t h e e x e c u t i v e

wo u l d be i f h e were f i v e men, o r t e n men, o r h o w e v e r l a r g e t h e s t a f f may b e . ” The n e e d f o r s t a f f because

s e r v i c e s has n e c e s s a r i l y developed

o f t h e a l m o s t i n s u r m o u n t a b l e mass o f d e t a i l s

i n e v i t a b l y r i s e s t o t h e t o p of e v e r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . adm inistrative

which The t o p

o f f i c e r i s c o n s t a n t l y f a c e d w i t h an e n d l e s s

amount o f r o u t i n e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s w h i c h come t o h i s d e s k as th e r e s u l t

of t r a d i t i o n

or o t h e r w i s e .

It

i s common

knowledge t h a t

t h e c a p a b l e man who r i s e s

to a place

of

adm inistrative

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y many t i m e s v a k e s up w i t h a

Gaus , Vh.ite , a nd Di moc k, l o c . c i t » ■^J ohn M. G a u s , ”The G e n e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f , ” P l a n Age ( J a n . , 1 9 3 7 ) , V o l . I l l , No. 1 , p . 1 1 .

23 start

to re a liz e

t h a t h e i s no l o n g e r m a k i n g t h e t y p e of

c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h o r i g i n a l l y made hi m a valuable part

of i t .

The m o s t l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n t o t h i s

p r o b l e m woul d be

t o d e c r e a s e t h e f l o w o f work r e a c h i n g t h e t o p by p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l work p r o c e s s e s on t h e lower l e v e l s .

The fll a w s fr o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and management

f a v o r t h i s b u t t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s u n d e r whi ch m o s t organizations

o p e r a t e make i t

impossible.

In g e n e r a l l e g i s ­

l a t u r e s h a v e gone t o an e x t r e m e i n s p e c i f y i n g t h e n a t u r e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l w h i c h m u s t be h a n d l e d b y t h e c h i e f adm inistrative relieve

officer.

A dm inistrators are re lu c ta n t to

t h e m s e l v e s of t h i s b u r d e n b e c a u s e t h e c o u r t s h a v e

taken a stand a g a in s t the d e le g a tio n

of d i s c r e t i o n v e s t e d

in the a d m i n i s t r a t o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t a f f e c t s making p o w e r , ^

T h i s f o r c e s an u n b e l i e v a b l e amount o f e x t r a

work t o t h e t o p of an o r g a n i z a t i o n b e c a u s e difficult,

during the

from d e c i s i o n s which i n v o l v e A dm inistrative

it

is extremely

c o u r s e of many o f f i c i a l a c t s ,

d is tin g u is h those decisions

details

the rule

to

involving policy determ ination o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d procedure.-*-®

o f f i c e r s mu s t b e f r e e d o f t h e s e

i n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e b i g g e r t a s k f o r wh i c h

Tg

'“A r t h u r k . Macmahon and J ohn D. M i l l e t t , F e d e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 16I b i d . ,

pp.

14-15.

10.

24 t h e i r p o s i t i o n s wer e e s t a b l i s h e d . do c o n s t r u c t i v e wo r k , trative

They mus t h a v e t i m e t o

and a b o v e a l l e l s e

o f f ic e should not s t i f l e

the top adminis­

the o p e ra tin g departments

by a c t i n g a s a b o t t l e - n e c k t h r o u g h w h i c h i t get a decision.

No c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r c a n be an e f f e c t i v e

l e a d e r i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n

i n wh i c h t h i s

The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f be l o o k e d upon a s a r e l i e f

of o r g a n i z a t i o n ,

of c o n t r o l on t h e p a r t

condition e x is ts .

s e r v i c e s can a t l e a s t

from t h i s h a r a s s i n g problem.

The a d v e n t of t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f the refinement

t a k e s months t o

i s an o u t g r o w t h o f

a nd a n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g s p a n

of th e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

In o r d e r t o r e d u c e s t i l l

further this

officer.

s p a n o f c o n t r o l many

a u t h o r i t i e s e n d o r s e t h e p o l i c y of h e a d i n g - u p t h e work of t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f by one man known a s t h e c h i e f In v i e w of t h e

o v e r w h e l m i n g n u mb e r o f l i n e d e p a r t m e n t s i n

th e t y p i c a l government agency, a l l nition

o f s t a f f .-*-'7

they receive

of which c o v e t t h e r e c o g ­

in being allowed to r e p o r t

the c h ie f a d m in is tr a to r ,

It

d ir e c tly to

seems d e s i r a b l e t o r e d u c e s t a f f

c o n t a c t s t o a minimum, a nd a c c o r d i n g l y t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t p r o v i d e s f o r a c h i e f of s t a f f . As t h e r e a d e r h a s no d o u b t r e c o g n i z e d , in t h i s

we h a v e n o t ,

s e c t i o n , been d e a lin g with planning f o r the

provement

Im­

of mana gement a s t h o u g h management wer e an

E. J . C o i l , flA d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r P o l i c y P l a n n i n g , ’1 The S o c i e t y F o r t h e Adva nce ment o f Management J o u r n a l ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 9 ) , V o l . IV, ' No. 1 . ' u

isolated function,

which i s t h e g o a l of t h i s

r a t h e r w ith th e program p la n n in g a c t i v i t i e s trative

level.l'^

T h i s seemed d e s i r a b l e

r e a d e r m i g h t more e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e

study, but of t h e a d m i n i s ­

in order t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between

t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f a n d t h e P l a n n i n g a nd P r o c e d u r e s D i v i s i o n , which i s an appen da ge of th e g e n e r a l s t a f f the h y p o th e tic a l

organization ch art.

with a s u b s t i t u t i o n

as p r e s e n t e d i n

Quoting from C o i l b u t

o f synonymous t e r m s :

We now s e e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f i s a c o l l e c t i v e t e r m w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e c o n c e p t s o f b o t h ’p r o g r a m a nd mana gement s t a f f w o r k . Within a g e n eral s t a f f , however, i t i s always wise t o m a i n t a i n t h e s e r e s p e c ­ t i v e f u n c t i o n a l j u r i d i c t i o n s . The g e n e r a l s t a f f i s r e a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , a s y s t e m o f i n t e g r a t e d s t a f f s . 19

18

A s e r i e s of d i s c u s s i o n s was h e l d d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 1941 by t h e W a s h i n g t o n C h a p t e r o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e r o l e o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n s a nd p r o c e d u r e s u n i t s i n i m p r o v i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and management. I n an u n p u b l i s h e d summary of t h e s e m e e t ­ i n g s d a t e d May 17, 1941 t h e s t a t e m e n t I s made t h a t a d m i n i s ­ t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g I s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d a s synonymous w i t h program p l a n n i n g .

CHAP TAP: I I

THE PLANKIP3 AND PROCEDURES DIVISION The p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n c o u n t e r p a r t fo u n d in government ment.

This

i s trie c l o s e s t

of T a y l o r ’ s p l a n n i n g d e p a r t

is a r e la tiv e ly recent

I n n o v a t i o n In government

t h e v a lu e of which i s n o t g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d w i t h th e e x c e p tio n of the f e d e r a l s e r v i c e .

T h e r e a r e many u n i t s

w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a l , s e r v i c e which a r e e n ga ge d i n p l a n n i n g wo r k of a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same n a t u r e , b u t t h e y a r e i d e n t i f i e d by a v a r i e t y

of t e r m s .

These u n i t s a r e g e n e r ­

a l l y known a s p l a n n i n g a nd p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n s , a l t h o u g h there

i s some i n c l i n a t i o n ,

evidenced very r e c e n t l y ,

t o use

t h e t e r m c o - o r d i n a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n . I.

LOCATION OF THE PLANNING AND PROCEDURES DIVISION It

i s b o t h u n w i s e a nd i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t e m p t t o g i v e

a s i n g l e an sw er t o t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e p r o p e r l o c a t i o n a p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n o r t o s p e c i f y i t s re la tio n sh ip to other s t a f f

s e r v ic e s , but i t

of

proper

should c e r ­

t a i n l y s e r v e i n t h e c a p a c i t y of an i m m e d i a t e arm of t h e adm inistrator, office. the

a n d be c l o t h e d w i t h t h e p r e s t i g e

of h i s

J o h n M. Gaus makes t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t a b o u t

location

of the p la n n in g u n i t ,

The p l a n n e r w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e i f he i s b r o u g h t i n t o t h e s t r e a m of b u s i n e s s wh i c h i s b e i n g

27 f o r m u l a t e d , a r r a n g e d , and f o c u s e d f o r more a d e q u a t e u s e by t h e h e a d s o f t h e l i n e d e p a r t m e n t s a n d t h e whol e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t . . . . I t i s d a n g e r o u s t o p l a n n i n g and t o a d m i n i s ­ t r a t i o n t o i s o l a t e t h e p l a n n e r s a s t h o u g h t h e y were a p e c u l i a r s e c t , t o be r e c o g n i z e d on S u n d a y , l e t us s a y , b u t n o t on week d a y s . Suc h an a t t i t u d e i s c o n t a g i o u s and t h e c i t i z e n w i l l q u e s t i o n t h e i r v a l u e a nd I m p o r t a n c e . The same r i s k e x i s t s f o r g e n e r a l adm inistrative s ta f f s , herely to e sta b lis h e ith e r s e r v i c e by s t a t u t e , a nd r e j o i c e t h a t we can p o i n t t o p l a n n i n g and g e n e r a l a g e n c i e s c r e a t e d b y l a w i s dangerous. It brings both into d is re p u te , unless t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e a nd t h e d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s f i n d o u t how v a l u a b l e t h e y a r e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p r e p a ­ r a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s t h a t a r e e f f e c t i v e a nd e c o n o m i c a l . . . and t h a t c an be e x e c u t e d a d e q u a t e l y w i t h t h e mea ns and a g e n c i e s t h a t h a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d a nd c o ­ ordinated . 1 The same w r i t e r g o e s a h e a d t o recommend t h e e m p l o y ­ ment on t h e g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f

o f ’’f u n c t i o n a l

p l a n n e r s ” who woul d c i r c u l a t e t h r o u g h t h e l i n e e x c h a n g in g p o s t s from time t o time w ith l i n e It

is f e l t

departments

officials.*"

that,

S u c h an a s s o c i a t i o n s h o u l d make p l a n n i n g more v i t a l a nd p u r p o s e f u l , s i n c e i t w i l l b r i n g i t d i r e c t ­ l y t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r n o t a s some ’’e x t r a ” e s o t e r i c d o c u m e n t c o n t a i n i n g i d e a s wh i c h m i g h t be f i n e i n some r e m o t e t i m e and p l a c e when c o n d i t i o n s a r e more f a v o r a b l e , b u t a s a n i m m e d i a t e l y u s e f u l scheme of priorities . . . . P r o p e r l y developed such s t a f f work s h o u l d win t h e s u p p o r t o f o t h e r w i s e j e a l o u s l i n e d e p a r t m e n t s a s t h e y s e e t h e i r own p o l i c i e s

J o h n M. G a u s , ’’The G e n e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f , ” P l a n Age ( J a n . , 1 9 3 7 ) , V o l . I l l , No. 1 , p p . 1 2 - 1 3 . 2

Gaus,

Ibid.,

p.

14.

28 g i v e n more a d e q u a t e a t t e n t i o n t a tin g device. The a c t i v i t i e s

o f t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s

d iv isio n are c lo s e ly r e la te d services in t h i s nel,

and i t

is

through t h i s f a c i l i ­

t o t h e work of o t h e r s t a f f

i m p o r t a n t t h a t m e a s u r e s "be t a k e n t o t i e

wor k a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e w i t h b u d g e t i n g , p e r s o n ­

program p l a n n i n g ,

activities

and o t h e r r e l a t e d

services.^

The

o f mana gement p l a n n i n g a n d b u d g e t i n g a r e

p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d , f o r in each case know t h e vol ume o f w o r k , how i t

it

is necessary to

is being performed, whether

b e t t e r m e t h o d s c a n be d e v i s e d , how many m a n - h o u r s a r e r e ­ q u i r e d , and t h e u l t i m a t e c o s t .

T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , some

s t r o n g a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t t h e u n i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g and procedures d i v i s i o n w ith the budget o f f i c e ,

which have been

g i v e n p r e c e d e n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e p l a n ­ n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n tion

in the h y p o th e tic a l o rg aniza­

chart. The f i r s t

a r g u m e n t i n f a v o r o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n of

t h e s e t wo a c t i v i t i e s

i s due t o t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t

bud g etin g has overemphasized the s t r i c t l y of t h i s

financial

side

problem and ha s g e n e r a l l y r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e

^Gaus, I b i d . , p. 4

12.

From an u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t o f a d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p c o mp o s e d o f members o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. C h a p t e r o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r P u b lic A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S p r i n g , 1941.

29 t h e human r e l a t i o n s

aspects.

It

is a ls o apparent t h a t the

p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n c a n n o t

operate e f f e c t i v e l y

i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y t o t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r u n l e s s the advisory re la tio n s h ip bility

fo r carrying

upon t h e

i s made c l e a r ,

and t h e r e s p o n s i ­

out t h e recom mendations p l a c e d d i r e c t l y

operating o f f i c i a l s .

The u n i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g

a n d p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n a nd t h e b u d g e t o f f i c e to confuse t h i s could e x e rc is e

relationship, adm inistrative

d iv is io n s through the budget

would t e n d

b e c a u s e t h e c o mb i n e d u n i t c o n tr o l over the o p e ra tin g p ro cess.^

The i m p l i c a t i o n s

i n s u c h a n a r r a n g e m e n t woul d p r o m o t e a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n staff all

and l i n e

personnel.

sim ilar situ atio n s,

( T h i s se ems t o be i n h e r e n t

in

b u t s h o u l d be a v o i d e d a s f a r a s

p o s s i b l e by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n

of p r o p e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l

r e l a t i o n s h i p s .) The t h i r d r e a s o n f o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e b u d g e t office

and t h e p l a n n i n g a n d p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n c a n be a t ­

tr i b u t e d to the close personnel.

r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p l a n n i n g and

T h i s b e c o me s more e v i d e n t when one s t o p s

to

r e a l i z e t h a t a lm o s t any change which t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n m i g h t recommend i m m e d i a t e l y i m p i n g e s upon i n c u m b e n t p e r ­ sonnel or contem plated p e rs o n n e l.

Every a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

d e c i s i o n m u s t be t e m p e r e d i n t e r m s o f a v a i l a b l e 5

Unpublished Report,

l o c . cit_.

personnel.

30 Ch a n g e s i n p r o c e d u r e

or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m o s t

invariably

r e q u i r e p e r s o n n e l a d j u s t m e n t s w h i c h may c o v e r one o r a l l the a c t i v i t i e s

of

common t o a c e n t r a l p u b l i c p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e .

T h e r e s h o u l d be a c o n s t a n t

inter-exchange

between th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t a f f

of i n f o r m a t i o n

of the p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e

a n d t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n

in order to m ini­

mize t h e s e p r o b l e m s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s

of b u d g e t i n g ,

planning,

and p e r ­

sonn el have been w ell d e fin e d as f o l lo w s : The d u t y o f t h e p e r s o n n e l u n i t i s t o a n a l y z e t h e necessary p o s itio n s , describe (but not p r e s c r i b e ) t h e a s s i g n e d d u t i e s , and once p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n a llo c a te d to the proper c la s s e s , to secure q u a li­ f i e d s t a f f t o c a r r y out such d u t i e s . To g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p la n f r e e z i n g a poor o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t - u p o r an i m p r o p e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work, t h e p e r s o n n e l u n i t must c o n s t a n t l y p r e s s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o c e d u r a l a d j u s t m e n t s whenever i t d is c o v e r s t h a t such changes are needed. However, t h i s concern which th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t has in o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s d o e s n o t p r o p e r l y e x ­ te n d t o f i x i n g t h e p l a n of o r g a n i z a t i o n or t o d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n umbe r and c h a r a c t e r o f p o s i t i o n s allowed. O rg a n iz atio n planning f a l l s w ith in the scope of the p la n n in g u n i t while th e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of p o s i t i o n r e q u ir e m e n ts i s e s s e n t i a l l y a budget responsibility.^ B e c a u s e t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n me a n t t o s e r v e pacity

t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n an a d v i s o r y c a ­

i t se ems a d v i s a b l e

s t a f f and t o s e p a r a t e 6

is

it

t o make i t

a part

of h i s g e n e r a l

e n t i r e l y f r o m p e r s o n n e l a nd b u d n e t i n n •

B e r n a r d L. G l a d i e u x , "Management P l a n n i n g i n t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , " Advanced Management ( A p r i l , h a y , J u n e , 1 9 4 0 ) , V o l . V, No. 2 , p . 8 3 .

31

However, t h e p e r s o n n e l engaged In a l l t h r e e h e k e e n l y a wa r e o f t h e II.

in tegrated nature

divisions

should

o f t h e i r wor k.

TFS FITFCTIOHS ADD DUTIES OF TFE PLAID IDG ALL PROCEDURES DIVISION

One w r i t e r h a s e l a b o r a t e d on t h e f a c t t h a t

the l in e

p e r s o n n e l do n o t g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e f o r what p u r p o s e t h e planning department

i s c r e a t e d by t e l l i n g

the follow ing

story: Vhen a w e l l known l i f e i n s u r a n c e company e s t a b l i s h e d a p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t t h e d i r e c t o r was amazed t o r e c e i v e a r e s p o n s e f r o m one g e n e r a l a g e n t , e x p r e s s i n g h i s i n t e r e s t and g r a t i f i c a t i o n a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s s e r v i c e i n t h e c ompa ny. He then o u tlin e d s e v e r a l u n d e rw ritin g problems having t o do w i t h p r o g r a m i n s u r a n c e , c i t i n g t h e i n s u r a n c e n e e d s , t h e f i n a n c i a l b a ck g r o u n d of t h e p r o s p e c t , f a m i l y i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . , and s u g g e s t e d t h a t he woul d e x p e c t b y r e t u r n m a i l , s e v e r a l w e l l t h o u g h t out p la n s f o r h i s a p proach , h e e d l e s s to say t h i s was a s l i g h t m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m o t i v e b a c k of th e c r e a t i o n of t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . ^ G o v e r n m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e wa r y o f t h e p l a n ­ n i n g d e p a r t m e n t on e x a c t l y t h o s e

same g r o u n d s , n a m e l y ;

that

o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l w i l l decide th e y d o n ’t have t o plan a f t e r a planning d iv is io n

is e s ta b lis h e d .

This a t t i t u d e

may be due t o an i m p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f why t h e d i v i s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d ,

o r i t may be an e x p r e s s i o n o f o u t r i g h t

7_ K a l p h R. Coombs, 11Home O f f i c e H a n n i n g , ” P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 1954 S p e c i a l C o n f e r e n c e s ( L i f e O f f i c e Management A s s o c i a t i o n , P o r t Uayne, I n d i a n a , 1934), p. 38.

32 a n t a g o n i s m t o w a r d t h e new d i v i s i o n cripple the

it.

The f i r s t

and an a t t e m p t t o

c o n d itio n is not a s e rio u s

one and

s e c o n d s h o u l d be a v o i d e d a s much a s p o s s i b l e b y p r o p e r

definition

of t h e p l a c e

of t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n i n t h e

or­

ganizational hierarchy. The p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n s h o u l d n e v e r be e x p e c t e d t o a s s u me a n y o f t h e departments, but facilitate

operating r e s p o n s i b i li t ie s

of t h e l i n e

in s te a d the plan n in g d i v i s i o n should

the lin e agencies in c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s

with

ad v ic e given from t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d p o i n t of v ie w .°

The

b a s i s of p l a n n i n g i s r e s e a r c h .

P l a n n i n g mu s t s u b s t i t u t e

wre l l

which w i l l achieve the

d e fin e d c o u rs e s of a c t i o n ,

o b jective, fo r the typical h it

end m i s s c o u r s e

of a c t i o n

which i s g u i d e d by chance The work of t h i s d i v i s i o n d o e s n o t "supertechniques." commonly c a r r i e d

i n v o l v e new

Instead the a c t i v i t i e s

engaged, i n a r e

on f r o m t i m e t o t i m e by o p e r a t i n g men,

a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e h a n d i c a p p e d a nd u n a b l e t o do j u s t i c e this

work b e c a u s e t h e r e

of work t h a t

is

is

seldom a l u l l

to

in the p re s s u re

o f an o p e r a t i n g n a t u r e and c a n n o t be

D. M. S t e v e n s o n , " O r g a n i z i n g a nd o p e r a t i n g a P l a n ­ n i n g D e p a r t m e n t From t h e S t a n d p o i n t o f o u r own E x p e r i e n c e , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 19 34- S p e c i a l C o n f e r e n c e s ( l i f e O f f i c e mana gement A s s o c i a t i o n , F o r t P a y n e , I n d i a n a , 19 3 4 ) , p . 64. 9

II. S. P e r s o n , "On P l a n n i n g , " S o c i e t y F o r t h e A d v a n c e ­ ment o f Management J o u r n a l ( No v e m b e r , 19 3 C ) , V o l . I , No. 5 , p. 145.

33 delayed.

One w r i t e r h a s comment ed a s f o l l ows *.

I f e e l t h a t , p r i m a r i l y , t h e d u t i e s of a d e p a r t ­ ment of t h i s n a t u r e c o n s i s t s i m p l y of a more c o n ­ c e n t r a t e d a t t a c k on c e r t a i n common p r o b l e m s i n a d u l y c o n s t i t u t e d d e p a r t m e n t , w i t h t h e t i m e and m e a s u r e of a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n y t h e p r o b l e m s to a conclusion. be a r e a l l fa r. i l i a r w i t h t h e o f ­ f i c e p r o b l e m s c r y i n g f o r s o l u t i o n , wh i c h d r i f t on a nd on b e c a u s e of t h e i n a b i l i t y of a p e o p e r a u ­ t h o r i t y t o d e v o t e t h e t i m e and r e s e a r c h n e c e s s a r y t o e f f e c t t h e c h a n g e , o r t o c r e a t e t h e new p r o c e d u r e . B e c a u s e t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n mus t act

i n a n a d v i s o r y and a s s i s t a n c e

internal

c a p a c i t y on p r o b l e m s o f

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n , t h e s p e c i f i c

duties

of the d i v i s i o n w i l l v a r y i n g e n e r a l w it h the p r o b l e m s of the a d m in is tr a to r .

T h e s e p r o b l e m s w i l l be c o n d i t i o n e d b y

t h e scope of a c t i v i t i e s arising

out of t h e

namely;

size,

agencies,

organizational

a d e q u a c y of o t h e r s t a f f

upon t h e u l t i m a t e

activities

and by p r o b l e m s

structure

geographical lo c a tio n ,

ad eq u a cy of o t h e r s t a f f effect

of t h e a g e n c y ,

of t h e a g e n c y ,

r e la tio n s h ip to other

services,

etc.

The

s e r v i c e s w i l l perhaps have a g r e a t e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e s c o p e o f

of a p l a n n i n g and. p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n t h a n a ny

other contingency.

If these

s e r v ic e s are

inadequate the

p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n c a n e x p e c t t o be c o l l e d upon t o p e r f o r m many of t h e d u t i e s commonly a t t r i b u t e d t o b u d g e t i n g , p e r ­ sonnel,

e t c T h e

f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s have been s u g g e s t e d

■^Coombs, l o c . c i t . ■^Unpublished R e p o rt,

loc. c it .

34 as t y p i c a l : 1. Survey t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , management, f u n c t i o n s , a n d o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s of t h e s e v e r a l b u r e a u s and t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s and submit re c o m m e n d at io ns t o t h e chief ad m in istrativ e o f f ic e r fo r approval. 2 . S t u d y and r e p o r t on q u e s t i o n s o f d u p l i c a t i o n , j u r i s d i c t i o n , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e v e r a l b u r e a u s a s t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r i s e and a r e a s s i g n e d by the c h ie f a d m in is tra tiv e o f f i c e r . 3 . A s s i s t t h e b u d g e t o f f i c e i n t h e c o n d u c t of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y of b u d g e t r e q u e s t s and i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b u d g e t d o c u m e n t s . 4 . C o - o p e r a t e w i t h and a s s i s t t h e s e v e r a l b u r e a u s a n d o f f i c e s , when r e q u e s t e d , i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n o f e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l m e t h o d s of operat io n . 5 . I n i t i a t e , wher e i n d i c a t e d , and r e v i e w a l l p r o ­ posed r e g u l a t i o n s , o r d e r s , b u l l e t i n s , manuals, g e n e r a l memoranda, form l e t t e r s , and o t h e r f o r m a l documents of g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , or which p r e s c r i b e p r o c e d u r e f o r any b u r e a u , o r recommend p r a c t i c e s f o r s ta te agencies. 6 . B e v i e w a n d a s s i g n a p p r o p r i a t e n u mb e r s t o a l l forms d e a l i n g w ith p r o c e d u r e , proposed f o r use w i t h i n or between th e a g e n c ie s of t h e dep artm en t or f o r use by s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s or t h e pub ­ l i c and t h e i r c o n t a c t s with, t h e d e p a r t m e n t ; r e v i e w o f m a p s , c h a r t s , and g r a p h s o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u s i n t h e i n t e r e s t of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of s y m b o l s , s i z e a nd m a k e - u p , and t h e a s s i g n m e n t of numbers. 7. Ad vi se i n t h e p r o c u r e m e n t of s p e c i a l a c c o u n t i n g , t a b u l a t i n g , s t a t i s t i c a l , and o t h e r m e c h a n i c a l e q u i p m e n t p r o p o s e d f o r u s e bv t h e b u r e a u s o r r e c o m ­ mended f o r t h e s t a t e s . S. P e r f o r m s u c h o t h e r d u t i e s a s t h e c h i e f a d m i n ­ i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r may a s s i g n t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e t e c h n i c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n of t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e department •^ 12

istration

J ohn M. P f i f f n e r , P e s e s r c h h e t b o d s i n P u b l i c Admin­ ( R o n a l d P r e s s Company, New Y o r k , 1 9 4 0 ) , p p , 3 5 - 3 6 .

55 The w r i t e r d i f f e r s professional tions

s omewhat w i t h t h e w e i g h t of

o p i n i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e d u t i e s and f u n c ­

of t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n i n i t s

ship to lin e -o p e ra tin g d iv is io n s . that

It

is g en erally suggested

the p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n s h o u l d have f u l l

ma l e i n s t a l l a t i o n s

relation­

authority to

i n t h e o p e r a t i n g d i v i s i o n upon s p e c i f i c

a s s i g n m e n t by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r .

'Moils I t

i s conceded t o

be d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n t o p o s s e s s t h i s p o we r i t

Is doubtful

if

t h e y whoul d e x e r c i s e t h i s

latent

authority

e x c e p t i n an e m e r g e n c y s i t u a t i o n wh i c h makes i m m e d i a t e action imperative. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y division

o f t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s

should not extend beyond g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h ,

struction,

review,

and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .

in­

A ll problems should

b e a p p r o a c h e d f r o m an o v e r - a l l p o i n t o f v i e w , a nd t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n of o p e r a t i n g d e t a i l a part

of t h e d u t i e s

I s mos t d e f i n i t e l y n o t

of t h e c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n .

The p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n may d e t e r m i n e t h e n e e d f o r a c h a n g e , but the

operating d e ta ils

i n v o l v e d In t h a t change

come up from, t h e b o t t o m o f t h e

should

organization instead

b e i n g f o r c e d down f r o m t h e t o p .

It

of

is th e du ty of the

p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n t o f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e s s e n t i a l features

of t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e , and a s t h e d e t a i l s

are

wor ked o u t by t h e o p e r a t i n g d i v i s i o n t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n should a c t as a board

of r e v i e w .

In such a c a p a c i t y t h e y

36 woul d recommend c h a n g e s t o a c h i e v e

operating effectiv en e ss

and t o p r o v i d e f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n . III.

INTERNAL ORGANISATION Oh T i t PLANNING AND PROCEDURES DIVISION

I n t h e c a s e o f t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n it

seems d e s i r a b l e

departm ents.-^

to organize

i t f u n c t i o n a l l y and n o t by

Superior re s u lts

a r e o r d i n a r i l y o b t a i n e d by

t h e a s s i g n m e n t of s t a f f a c c o r d i n g t o t e c h n i c a l competence which has been developed throu gh a long a s s o c i a t i o n w ith p a r t i c u l a r problems. t o b e mos t e f f e c t i v e of t h e s e a r e a s

In a n y e v e n t

it

w i l l be g e n e r a l l y f o u n d

t o make s t a f f a s s i g n m e n t s on t h e b a s i s

of t e c h n i c a l competence.

r e v i e w of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , f o r m s , department

it

would be d e s i r a b l e

achieved i t

organization stru ctu re The s t a t e m e n t s

etc.

of a l i n e

to a ssig n a person

has s p e c i a l knowledge of t h a t d e p a r t m e n t . satisfactorily

F o r e x a mp l e i n t h e

If this

who i s t o be

is e s s e n t i a l to keep the i n t e r n a l

very f l e x i b l e . ^ j u s t made i n d i c a t e

t h a t t h e f o r m of

13 ' T h e r e a d e r s h o u l d s e e A r t h u r D. Macmahon and J o h n D. M i l l e t t , F e d e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 9 ) , p p . 5 2 - 9 3 . T h e r e i s an. e x t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t o f a s s i g n m e n t f u n c t i o n a l l y v . s . a s s i g n m e n t by b u r e a u s i n th is chapter. Unpublished Report,

loc. c i t .

37 i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t b e p e r s o n ­ n e l , b u t t o s p e c i f y tb e t y p e of p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d t o s t a f f a p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n task.

I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t

i s c e r t a i n l y n o t an e a s y t b e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s be

observed in s t a f f i n g the planning d iv is io n : 1 . The m o s t e s s e n t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of p e r s o n n e l i n a £ p l a n n i n g j and p r o c e d u r e s u n i t a r e t a c t f u l n e s s , a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y , and a b i l i t y t o p r e s e n t i d e a s e f f e c t i v e l y , o r a l l y and i n w r i t i n g . It is e ss e n tia l t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s employed i n s u c h u n i t s have a t h o r o u g h knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f o p e r a t i n g problems. I n some i n s t a n c e s , t h i s c a n b e s t be o b t a i n e d by s e l e c t i n g p e rs o n s w ith o p e r a t i n g e x ­ perience. In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , i n d i v i d u a l s w ith l o n g o p e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e t e n d t o become r e s t r i c t e d in t h e i r p o i n t of view or a tt e m p t t o o p e r a t e the a gen cy i n s t e a d of s e r v i n g i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , no s i n g l e s e t of c r i t e r i a c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d a s t o t h e mos t d e s i r a b l e t y p e s of p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e . Each i n d i v i d u a l m us t b e e v a l u a t e d i n t e r m s of h i s b a c k g r o u n d , a p t i ­ t u d e , a nd p e r s o n a l i t y . 2 . L e g a l t r a i n i n g may be a v a l u a b l e a s s e t t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t e d i n £ p l a n n i ngj f a nd p r o c e d u r e s work b e c a u s e of t h e d i s c i p l i n e s and t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e d e v e l o p e d : (a.) t h e p r a c t i c e o f d e f i n i n g a p r o b l e m , ( b ) s t a t i n g t h e p r o b l e m and i s s u e s , ( c ) c o l l e c t i n g e v i d e n c e w h i c h b e a r s upon t h e p r o b l e m , ( d ) e v a l u a t i n g t h e e v i d e n c e , and ( e ) t e s t i n g i t a g a i n s t t h e i s s u e s and f o r m u l a t i n g conclusions. O t h e r t r a i n i n g , s u c h a s r e s e a r c h , may f o s t e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h i s same t y p e o f a p p r o a c h t o p r o b l e m s wh i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d t o a c o - o r d i n a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s u n t i . 3 . P e r s o n n e l i n a ( p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n } may p r o f i t a b l y h a v e h a d some o p e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r two r e a s o n s : ( 1 ) I t may a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p ­ ment and e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o p o s e d p r o c e d u r e s i n t e r m s o f a c t u a l o p e r a t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s , and ( 2 ) o p e r a t i n g experience develops a g r e a t e r a p p r e c ia ti o n fo r the o p e r a t i n g problem fac e d by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r in a cc om plish ing the program o b j e c t i v e .

38 4 . To a c e r t a i n d e g r e e t h e l e v e l i n t h e o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n whi c h t h e [ p l a n n i n g a nd p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n ] i s l o c a t e d w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e most d e s i r ­ a b l e t y p e o f t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h s h o u l d he so u g h t i n s e l e c t i n g p e r s o n n e l , r e g a r d l e s s of th e b a c k g r o u n d o r p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . H i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i l l d e p e n d upon h i s a b i l i t y t o a n a l y z e a n d wor k o u t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o c e d u r a l problems which w i l l a s s i s t th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r in p e r ­ f o r m i n g h i s work more e f f i c i e n t l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y . ^

15

Unpublished Report,

loc, c i t .

CEAFTER I I I TEE AUTHORITY AND OPERATING RELAT1OUSEIPS OP TEE PLANNING AND PROCEDURES DIVISION WITE SUBSIDIARY PLANNING STAFFS AND OPERATING DIVISIONS I. It

OPERATING RELATIONSHIPS

i s b o t h r e c o g n i z e d and u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e

w i l l not f u l l y u t i l i z e division,

t h e r e s o u r c e s of t h e p l a n n i n g

n o r w i l l t h e y a l w a y s he i n c l i n e d t o a c t

with the suggestions

of the p lan n in g d i v i s i o n *

v e r y p r o b l e m a nd t h e c o n t i n g e n t f e e l i n g

operating divisions*

It

is

this

t h e i r recom­

In g e n e r a l they

have f a i l e d t o g e t anywhere by use of f o r c e lim ite d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s

in accord

of i m p o t e n c e t h a t

has caused th e p l a n n e r s t o a tte m p t t o f o r c e m e n d a t i o n s upon t h e

line

and h a v e

of a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l .

There

a r e s e v e r a l f o r m s o f a c t i o n whi c h c a n be t a k e n t o m i t i g a t e t h e s e r i o u s n e s s of t h i s na u t h o r i t y

problem.

First

of i d e a s ” i n h e r e n t l y c a r r i e s

t h e c o n c e p t , of t h e with i t

all

a u t h o r i t y t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n s h o u l d h a v e , and a l l it

needs to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y .

down b e c a u s e t h e

adm inistrative

s t a f f attached to his

office

of th e that

The w h o l e c o n c e p t b r e a k s

o f f i c e r and t h e p l a n n i n g

do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r

joint

rela t ionship. The l a s t

stages

of p l a n n i n g a r e t h e f i r s t

stages

of

40

execution,

ancl i t

is d i f f i c u l t

w h i c h e x i s t be t w e e n t h e t r a t o r and t h a t

to

define the boundaries

s p h e r e o f a c t i o n of' t h e a d m i n i s ­

of t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f .

Eow/ever, t h i s

d o e s n o t mean t h a t we a r e f a c e d w i t h a n i n t o l e r a b l e

situ­

a tio n because

effort

in g e n e r a l t h e r e has been v e ry l i t t l e

t o d e f i n e t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s and e i t h e r tions

tends to e x is t. The f i r s t

is th at the ad m inistrator f a i l s

the planning s t a f f

whi ch he h a s a t t a c h e d t o h i s

The r e a s o n f o r t h i s may l i e

t o use office.

i n t h e f a c t t h a t he d o e s n o t

r e c o g n i z e why t h e s t a f f was c r e a t e d , b u t e d t o a s t a f f which f a i l s E. J .

one of t wo c o n d i ­

o r i t may be a t t r i ­

t o be a u s e f u l a p p e n d a g e .

C o il w r i t e s as f o l l o w s , In r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a tendency t o t h i n k of r e s e a r c h as im plying only t h e e s t a b l i s h ­ ment o f f a c t s . But f a c t s do n o t s p e a k f o r t h e m ­ selves. To d e s i g n o p e r a t i v e p o l i c i e s c a l l s f o r j u d g m e n t and e v a l u a t i o n . Although p o l i c y should be s u p p o r t e d by f a c t u a l e v i d e n c e , f a c t s a s s u c h never determine p o l i c y . . . . Unless i t ta k e s the i n i t i a t i v e of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f w i l l p r o b a b l y become i m p o t e n t . . . . Unless a s t a f f t h i n k s th r o u g h problems in term s of p r i o r i t i e s of p o l i c i e s , t h e e x e c u t i v e w i l l n o t r e l y on i t f o r a d v i c e . It w ill n u llify Its reason for existence.^ The e x t r e m e

opposite

i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n of l i n e

a u t h o r i t y by t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f .

i

T h i s may be t h e r e s u l t

E. J. C oil, "A dm inistrative Organization f o r Policy P l a n n i n g , ” The S o c i e t y F o r t h e Ad va nc e me nt o f Ua n a g e me n t J o u r n a l ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 9 ) , V o l . IV, Uo. 1 , p p . 1 2 - 1 3

41 of a c t u a l

o r i m p l i e d d e l e g a t i o n by t h e

i t may be t h e r e s u l t

of o u t r i g h t

of t b e p l a n n i n g s t a f f . it

g iv e s the l i n e

sense

officials

To a v o i d t h i s

constantly fight

a s s u m p t i o n on t h e p a r t

under the a d m i n i s t r a to r a and w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o

c o n d i t i o n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f mus t

a ny a c t i o n w h i c h woul d i m p l y t h a t t h e y

a r e endowed w i t h t h e d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y trator,

or th a t

or

This i s h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e f o r

of d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,

friction.

adm inistrator,

of t h e a d m i n i s ­

t h e y woul d u s u r p t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s

operating d iv isio n

of t h e

i f g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y . ^

The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n has been d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : The s t a f f s h o u l d s e r v e i n a t e c h n i c a l , c o n s u l t ­ i n g and a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of e f f e c t i v e p l a n s of o p e r a t i o n and s h o u l d s e c u r e f i n a l a p p r o v a l from t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r a l l m a tte rs t h a t are subm itted f o r review . Investi­ g a tio n s r e l a t i n g to the f u n c t i o n s , o rg a n is a tio n s a nd p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e s e v e r a l o p e r a t i n g u n i t s may be u n d e r t a k e n o n l y upon t h e s p e c i f i c a u t h o r i z a t i o n of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r . Requests f o r a s s i s t a n c e from o p e r a t i n g o f f i c i a l s a r e t o be e n c o u r a g e d , b u t s h o u l d c l e a r through the a d m i n i s t r a t o r p r i o r to the in ­ i t i a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s . The p l a n n i n g u n i t may n o t p r o p e r l y make d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o r i s s u e d e c i s i o n s i n i t s own name o r r i g h t . It simply a c ts f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n t h e s t u d y of p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s , and makes r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o h i m . Only when a p p r o v e d and I m p l e m e n t e d by o r d e r s do s u c h p r o p o s a l s become b i n d i n g upon t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .

2

From an u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t of a d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p o f members o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n , D . C. C h a p t e r of t h e S o c i e t y f o r P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S p r i n g , 1941. composed

42

The p l a n n i n g p e r s o n n e l t h u s c o n s t i t u t e s a s t a f f u n i t in the t r u e sense of t h i s term . It exerts its i d e a s and t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e - - n o t by i s s u i n g o r d e r s and i n s t r u c t i o n s . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r c a l l s upon i t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , a d v i c e , and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , b u t in the l a s t a n a l y s i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e te rm in a ­ t i o n s r e s u l t i n g t h e r e f r o m a r e h i s own and. n o t t h o s e o f h i s s t a f f a g e n c y .'-1 It of t h i s

s h o u l d be c o n s t a n t l y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t

line

definition The l i n e trator,

and s t a f f

the s tre n g th

a r r a n g e m e n t d e p e n d s upon an a d e q u a t e

of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

of e v e r y o n e c o n c e r n e d .

and s t a f f a r e b o t h r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e a d m i n i s ­ and i f he d o e s n o t a c t a s an e f f e c t i v e

co-ordinating

h e a d t h e wh o l e c o n c e p t w i l l b r e a k down. ^ The r e a d e r s h o u l d o b s e r v e t h a t t h e relationship applicable explicit

and a u t h o r i t y

at a l l

j u s t mentioned are e q u a l l y

of t h e p l a n n i n g l e v e l s .

the r e la tio n s

" p r i n c i p l e s ” of

To be more

w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same

b e t w e e n t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r and h i s p l a n n i n g s t a f f , t h e d e p a r t m e n t head and h i s

staff,

and t h e b u r e a u c h i e f

a nd h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t . The mer e c l a r i f i c a t i o n

of the a u t h o r i t y

of t h e

planning d iv is io n w ill not provide assurance t h a t t h e i r

3

B e r n a r d L. G - l a d i e u x , "Management p l a n n i n g i n t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , ” Ad v a n c e d Management ( A p r i l , May, J u n e ; 1 9 4 0 ) , V o l . V. No. 2 , p . S3. 4

H. S. P e r s o n , " P l a n n i n g : A T e c h n i q u e a s h e l l a s an A t t i t u d e o f M i n d , ” B u l l e t i n o f t h e T a y l o r S o c i e t y and t h e S o c i e t y f o r I n d u s t r i a l B n g i n e e r s ( M a r c h , 1 9 3 5 ) , V o l . 1 , No. 3. o . 93.

43 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l f l o w down t h e l i n e end he e n t i r e l y acceptable.

The p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n m u s t h a v e e m i s s a r i e s

out i n th e f i e l d .

There

is

involved here a d i f f i c u l t

pr o b l e m of working r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which have n o t been g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d u p o n , and a c c o r d i n g l y i t hesitation that this

subject

i s w i t h some

is approached.

The g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y h a s b e e n t o p r o v i d e f o r centralized

responsibility

of p l a n n i n g .

the

T h i s form of

o r g a n i z a t i o n must o p e r a t e t h r o u g h t h e medium of f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n e r s r e f e r r e d t o by Gaus and c i t e d study.

These f u n c t i o n a l

e a r l i e r in t h i s

p l a n n e r s m u s t go o u t

in to the

o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s and a d v i s e and i n s t a l l b e c a u s e t h e r e n o r m a l l y no p r e d e s i g n a t e d through in the

line

i n d i v i d u a l f o r t he m t o work

divisions.

The p l a n n i n g man i s

im m ediately placed in the

embarrassing p o sitio n previously re fe rre d i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y , a s k a n c e by t h e

and i s

to.

operatin g p e rso n n e l, because they cannot

t h e man f r o m h e a d q u a r t e r s , At t h i s

stage

job than

even th ou gh t h e y asked f o r h i s

t h e s t a f f man s e t s up h i s u s u a l

" h o w l " f o r more a u t h o r i t y ; h o w e v e r , culty

He i s t h e r e

i n h e r e n t l y l o o k e d upon

h e l p b u t f e e l t h a t t h e y know more a b o u t t h e i r

advice.

i f the point

of d i f f i ­

i s n e a r t h e b o t t o m o f t h e h i e r a r c h y i t may t a k e

m o n t h s f o r t h e d e c i s i o n t o come down t h r o u g h t h e l i n e it

rightfully

is

should.

as

Such a n a r r a n g e m e n t p r o v e s t o be

44 unsatisfactory large p a c ific

i n mos t i n s t a n c e s . coast

An a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n a

c i t y c o n tr i b u te d th e fo llo w in g case in

p o i n t f r o m h i s p o s i t i o n a s an i n t e r e s t e d The c a s e

side-line

observer.

i n v o l v e d an a t t e m p t by a c e n t r a l a c c o u n t i n g

o f f i c e t o p l a c e men, r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e a c c o u n t i n g o f f i c e and on t h e i r p a y r o l l , supervise cost

in a l l

accounting.

opposition to th is

the major departments to T h e r e was s u c h a t r e m e n d o u s

practice that

i t h a d t o be d i s c o n t i n u e d .

Public A d m in is tra tio n Service has p u b lis h e d a case r e p o r t w h i c h woul d seem t o r e f u t e ed.

However, t h e

the o p in io n j u s t

s u c c e s s of t h e e x p e r i m e n t

t o be t i e d up e n t i r e l y

present­

r e p o r t e d seems

i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f one i n d i v i d u a l ,

and t h e r e

is reason to b e lie v e t h a t the arrangement reported 5 woul d be s a t i s f a c t o r y o n l y i n i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s . i t is

r e a d i l y c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e r e a r e p e o p l e who h a v e t h e I n ­ h e re n t a b i l i t y to produce in the unusual s i t u a t i o n which t h e p l a n n e r f i n d s h i m s e l f t h r u s t ; n o t enough of t h e s e p e r s o n a l i t i e s

and i t

in

however, th e re are be hoo ves us t o

f i n d a mors c o m p a t i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t i n w h i c h t o e x e c u t e planning. The s u b s i d i a r y p l a n n i n g s t a f f s . need f o r i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n

There i s

of t h e l e v e l s

an a p p a r e n t

of p l a n n i n g ,

^ Case R e p o r t s i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , 1 § 4 1 ) , V o l . , I I , Case R e p o r t , h o . 4 3 .

45 w h i c h i n i t s e l f woul d n e c e s s i t a t e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n planning fu n ctio n . responsibility

This

i s e x a c t l y what i s n e e d e d ,

of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e t a i l s

s h o u l d he p l a c e d n e a r t h e effected.

seat

In t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l

office

fo r the

of p l a n n e d a c t i o n

of a u t h o r i t y o f t h e a c t i v i t y organization chart

t h e s t a f f compos ed o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officer,

of the

(Appendix. A)

assistant,

budget

and p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e r w h i c h i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e

of t h e b u r e a u c h i e f

i s an a t t e m p t t o m e e t t h i s n e e d

for decentralization. Many r e a d e r s w i l l t e n d t o h a v e a f e e l i n g t h a t division largest

o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y woul d be p r a c t i c a l of o r g a n i z a t i o n s .

this

only in the

On t h e c o n t r a r y t h o s e who h a v e

had e x p e rie n c e with the assignm ent

of one i n d i v i d u a l t o work

of a p l a n n i n g n a t u r e , even in a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l u n i t , u s u a l l y convinced t h a t t h i s t i m e s more t h a n t h e c o s t

p e r s o n ’ s wort s a v e s s e v e r a l

of h i s

There are a ls o a d d i t i o n a l values service,

are

s a l a r y I n a c t u a l money. i n t e r m s of i n c r e a s e d

smoother flow ing o p e r a t i o n s , e t c . ,

which a re d i f f i ­

c u lt to measure. The p r o b l e m o f s e c u r i n g s t a f f n a t u r e c a n be a t t r i b u t e d the

services

of t h i s

to the th rea d b are c o n d itio n

o l d s t o r y t h a t y o u can s a v e money b o t h i n t e r m s

a c t u a l c o s t and i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e by s p e n d i n g m o r e . fact that

the t o t a l budget c o n tin u es to r i s e

p r o o f f o r mo s t l e g i s l a t o r s t h a t

the

is

of of The

sufficient

i n n o v a t i o n which th e y

46 r e c e n t l y v o t e '-1 f u n d s f o r wo n ’ t w o r k , and t h e y a r e d e t e r m i n e d n o t t o he ” t a k e n recognize

in a g a i n . ”

is th at there

new s e r v i c e s ,

The o n l y t h i n g t h e y f a i l t o

i s o f t e n an e x p a n s i o n of e n t i r e l y

w h i c h m i g h t h a v e c o s t t w i c e a s much i f

h a d f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e money f o r t h e

they

"new f a n g l e d ” i d e a

wh i c h t h e y l a t e r b r a n d a s ’’a c a d m i c a l l y i m p r a c t i c a l ” b e c a u s e it

d i d n ’t reduce the budget. In o r d e r t o make i t

ize the place

e a sie r for the reader to v is u a l­

of t h e s e s u b - p l a n n i n g s t a f f s

planning s tru c tu re

in the i n t e g r a t e d

a p r o b l e m o f a p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e w i l l be

b r i e f l y t r a c e d down t h r o u g h t h e h i e r a r c h y .

For the purpose

of t h i s

chief adminis­

Illustration

l e t us a ssume t h a t t h e

t r a t o r in c o n s u l t a t i o n with h i s g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f has decided t h a t a sy s te m of c o s t

the

o r g a n iz a tio n needs to Inaugurate

accounting.

It

Is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

of

t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f t o d e t e r m i n e I n a g e n e r a l way what t y p e of c o st it

information

i s n e e d e d a nd t h e f i n a l f o r m in. wh i c h

s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n o r d e r t o be o f t h e g r e a t e s t

possible u t i l i t y

to them.

A f t e r t h i s broad d e c i s i o n has

b e e n made , t h e p r o b l e m w i l l n o r m a l l y be p a s s e d on t o t h e p l a n n i n g a nd p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s In v e s tig a te the report

to

on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f e a s i b i l i t y

of

securing the cost inform ation d esired . The p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n mus t I n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x i s t i n g facilities

a v a i la b le w ithin the o p e ra tin g d iv is io n

47 effected able.

in ter m s of p e r s o n n e l ,

The p l a n n e r s

e q u i p m e n t and f u n d s a v a i l ­

should c o n sid e r a l t e r n a t i v e

r a n k them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r m e r i t s , to the c h ie f a d m in is tra tiv e

programs,

and make t h e i r r e p o r t

officer.

The c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i l l n o r m a l l y a c c e p t t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n ’ s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and w i l l p r o b a b l y a s k that

division to d raft

in stru c tio n s to the operating

d i v i s i o n s t o be t r a n s m i t t e d

o v e r h i s na me .

i o n s s h o u l d n o t be d e t a i l e d .

They s h o u l d m e r e l y o u t l i n e

the

i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d , and t h e f o r m i t

in,

and d e f i n i t e l y

should not

le c tin g these costs;

These i n s t r u c t ­

s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d

sp ecify the d e t a i l

of c o l ­

a l t h o u g h t h e r e may be c e r t a i n r e q u i r e ­

m e n t s w h i c h must be s t i p u l a t e d

in o rd e r t o se c u re u n i f o r m i t y .

T h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l t h e n be t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e c h i e f a d m in is tr a to r to the department heads. w i l l norm ally t u r n over t h i s staff,

The d e p a r t m e n t h e a d

request fo r cost data to his

a s k i n g t h e m t o make an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e

t h e most e f f e c t i v e

course

of a c t i o n t o t a k e

in se c u rin g

t h e c o s t d a t a wh i c h t h e c h i e f h a s r e q u e s t e d . This r e q u e s t f o r c o st d a ta w i l l g r a d u a l l y flo w a l l t h e way down t o t h e w o r k e r w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l amount o f p r e d e te rm in e d d e t a i l as i t it

r e a c h e s each l e v e l .

However,

s h o u l d n o t be a ’’c u t and d r i e d ” p r o c e d u r e when i t

t h e s u p e r v i s o r and t h e w o r k e r f o r valuable contributions the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

t o add i f

reaches

t h e y w i l l h a v e many they are a c t u a l l y given

of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m i n u t e d e t a i l s .

48 I t has been p r e v i o u s l y

i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e man f r o m

the c e n tr a l planning d iv is io n

i s g e n e r a l l y i m p o t e n t when

working out in t h e o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s , b u t t h a t

is under

a s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g was centralized.

Under a d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g a r r a n g e m e n t

t h e man f r o m h e a d q u a r t e r s

w i l l be g e n e r a l l y a b l e t o p r o d u c e

but in q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t manner. a nd r e c o g n i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s a s s is ta n ts through, operating d iv is io n s , dual role

He now h a s p r e d e t e r m i n e d

in the form of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

and w i t h whom, h e c a n work i n t h e and he d o e s n o t h a v e t o assume t h e

of a d v i s o r and e x e c u t o r i n o r d e r t o g e t some­

thing done. Goi n g b a c k t o o u r e x a m p l e ;

as th e

chief adminis­

t r a t o r ’ s r e q u e s t f o r c o s t d a t a comes down t h e l i n e ,

the

s t a f f man f r o m t h e c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n s h o u l d be a t each p o in t

of d e s t i n a t i o n r e a d y t o s e r v e i n h i s

capacity.

s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t he h a s no a u t h o r i t y

It

over the s u b s id i a r y planning s t a f f i s s u e from l i n e

officials

and t h a t

and go down l i n e

The p l a n n i n g c o n f e r e n c e .

all

advisory

orders

channels.^’

I t ha s been s u g g e s t e d

th a t the procedures to provide the cost accounting data r e q u e s t e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h o u l d n o t be a " c u t and

6

C oil,

o£. c i t . , p. 15.

49 d r i e d " p r o p o s i t i o n by t h e t i m e i t v i s o r and t h e w o r k e r .

It

r e a c h e s down t o t h e s u p e r ­

is here th at the f u n c tio n a l

p l a n n e r s work r e a l l y b e g i n s .

A w e l l known c i t y m a n a g e r h a s

s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d be c o n f e r e n c e l e a d e r s and n o t e x p e r t s . that

it

H o w e v e r , he woul d p r o b a b l y a g r e e

woul d b e d e s i r a b l e

f o r them t o have t h e t r a i n i n g

o f an e x p e r t , w i t h o u t t r y i n g t o " e x p e r t " t h e divisions th a t the

In which t h e y work. "participation

ly minor p o s i t i o n s

T h i s same c i t y m a n a g e r f e e l s

of e m p l o y e e s o c c u p y i n g e v e n r e l a t i v e ­

in conferences d ealing with procedures

an d p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s part

operating

o f t h e i r d a y ' s wvork.

Is a very important

This is a ls o the h e a r t

of

L a wr e n c e A p p l e y ' s ma na ge me nt f o r m u l a wh i c h I s d e s i g n e d t o o p e r a t e t h r o u g h a medium known a s " c o n s u l t a t i v e The f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n e r ' s

responsibility

ence l e a d e r I s t o l e a d g r a d u a l l y t h o s e

functional

it

own, and t o

i d e a s by c o n t r i b u t i o n s made

o u t o f t h e i r own r e a l m o f k n o w l e d g e . u s e d a s an i l l u s t r a t i o n

as a c o n f e r ­

who a r e c o n c e r n e d

w i t h t h e new p l a n t o a c c e p t h i s i d e a s a s t h e i r i n s p i r e t h e m t o a dd t o h i s

supervision."

In t h e

situation

is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

just

of th e

p l a n n e r t o s e l l t o t h e e m p l o y e e s c o n c e r n e d what

i s b e l i e v e d t o be t h e b e s t p r o c e d u r e f o r s e c u r i n g t h e desired

cost data. T h e r e a r e many who o p p o s e any u s e o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e

because cult

it

i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g and. a l s o b e c a u s e

it

is d i f f i ­

t o r e c o g n i z e an o u t s t a n d i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n by a ny one

50 individual.

I.’r . A p p l e y m a l e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t

a h o u t t h e u s e of t i m e : I b e l i e v e I . . . [can] p r o v e t o y o u t h a t l e s s t o t a l t i m e i s c ons umed i f we d i s c u s s p r o b l e m s , p l a n s , p o l i c i e s with our people in th e o r g a n i s a t i o n b e f o r e d e c i s i o n s a r e made t h a n i f v-.:e mal e t h e d e c i s i o n s , a n n o u n c e t h e m , and t h e n t h r o u g h t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , m e m o r a n d a , s p e c i a l b u l l e t i n s , a nd p e r s o n a l i n s t r u c t ­ i o n s , i n t e r p r e t , c o r r e c t , a l t e r , s u p p l e m e n t , a nd i n some c a s e s w i t h d r a w t h e d e c i s i o n c o m p l e t e l y . it ta k e s l e s s time t o l e t the people in the o r g a n i ­ z a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e t o a d e c i s i o n b e f o r e i t i s made t h a n i t d o e s t o make i t a nd t h e n t r y t o g e t t h e organization to understand i t . ^ The C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h its

B u r e a u of T r a d e a n d I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n h a s e x p o s e d

many s t a t e the State

a g e n c i e s a nd l o c a l of C a l i f o r n i a ,

t r a i n i n g medi um.

jurisdictions,

t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e me t hod a s a

There i s

a general feeling

of t h o s e who h a v e come i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s it

has been r e l a t i v e l y

safe

throughout

successful,

and i t

on t h e p a r t a c tiv ity that

certainly

seems

t o a s s ume t h a t g u i d e d c o n f e r e n c e s w i l l be u s e d more

in the f u t u r e . Youthful aggres s iv e n e s s . their- a u t h o r i t y is

lim ite d to the

The p l a n n i n g men know t h a t " a u t h o r i t y of i d e a s , "

but they are u s u a lly a g g re s s iv e , competent, p r o f e s s i o n a l l y m o t i v a t e d yo u n g men and i n many i n s t a n c e s t h e y c a n n o t

L a wr e n c e A. A p p l e y , " The Human E l e m e n t i n P e r s o n n e l Managemen t , " ( S o c i e t y F o r P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , W a s h i n g ­ t o n , L. C . , 1 9 4 1 ) , P a m p h l e t No. 4 , p . 2 4 .

51 r e f r a i n from s t i c k i n g operating p ie.

They a l s o know t h a t

them t o s e l l t h e i r to in itia te

t h e i r t humbs t o o d e e p i n t o t h e

id e a s , but

:it i s n e c e s s a r y f o r

so o f t e n

in t h e i r enthusiasm

a pro p o sed change t h e y a c c e p t d e l e g a t e d

i t y and s t a r t

r u s h i n g t h e new p r o c e d u r e t o o f a s t ,

author­ h be n

t h i s h a p p e n s s o m e o n e ’ s t o e s a r e i n v a r i a b l y s t e p p e d upon and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y

of t h e p l a n n e r s d o i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e

work and a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e It

is possible

r e a s o n s an o p e r a t i n g a new p l a n I n I t s

is m a te r ia lly reduced.

t h a t f o r any one of a n u mb e r of d i v i s i o n w i l l n o t be r e c e p t i v e t o w a r d

e n t i r e t y t h e moment i t

Is suggested.

The f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n e r c a n a p p e a l t o t h e h e a d of t h e p l a n ­ n i n g d e p a r t m e n t and i n t u r n t o t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r an o r d e r t o f o r c e t h e p l a n upon t h e r e l u c t a n t d iv is io n , but i t

w i l l be a. g r a v e m i s t a k e t o do s o u n l e s s

an e m e r g e n c y s i t u a t i o n makes i t n e c e s s a r y . b e t t e r to introduce th a t have

it

It

i s much

p a r t wh i c h i s a c c e p t a b l e and

" s t i c k 11 t h a n t o f o r c e t h e

plan sabotaged.

operating

i s s u e a nd h a v e t h e whol e

I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t

the f u n c tio n a l

p l a n n e r s h o u l d be a " c h e e r f u l n a g g e r " a s w e l l a s a c o n f e r ­ ence l e a d e r .

I n o t h e r words he s h o u l d be c o n s t a n t l y

p r e s s i n g f o r c h a n g e s w h i c h a n a g e n c y w?a s n o t w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t a y e a r ago w i t h o u t m e n t a l r e s e r v a t i o n s , b u t m i g h t accept before

l o n g I f m o t i v a t e d by a l i t t l e

coaxing.

T h e r e i s mos t c e r t a i n l y one g o a l w h i c h a l l p l a n n i n g

52 staffs

should s t r i v e

for,

and t h a t

i s t o wi n t h e c o n f i d e n c e

of the o p e r a t i n g d i v i s i o n s to the e x te n t is elim inated.

that a ll fric tio n

Through, t h e i r t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e t h e

p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n mu s t d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e y d e s e r v e t h e confidence

of t h e o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s .

accomplished,

Then t h i s

is

the i n f o r m a t i o n ne eded by t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i ­

s i o n w i l l f l o w f r e e l y and w i l l i n g l y from t h e o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s , and t h e y w i l l be i n c l i n e d t o a s k f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h o u t s h e e r n e c e s s i t y f o r c i n g t h e m t o do s o . be s a i d i n summary t h a t

t i m e w i l l e l i m i n a t e many o f t h e

p r o b l e m s f a c e d by t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c y a t if

its

strict

I t might

its

inception

p e r s o n n e l i s t e c h n i c a l l y comp ete nt and o b s e r v e a code o f

II.

ethics

in t h e i r r e l a t i o n s

with the l i n e .

TEE FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENT HEAD AS AN AGENT IN TEE INTEGRATED PLANNING STRUCTURE

The r e a s o n s g i v e n p r e v i o u s l y f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e c h ie f a d m in istra to r with a general s t a f f contentions fo r providing a sim ila r, staff,

to serve the lin e

a division and h i s

a r e a l s o s ound

h u t more l i m i t e d

adm inistrators.

of a c t i v i t i e s between the l i n e

This r e q u i r e s adm inistrator

s t a f f upon whi c h t h e c o n c e p t of t h e f u n c t i o n a l

departm ent head r e s t s .

The m o s t d e s i r a b l e d i v i s i o n

t o be one t h a t w i l l s e p a r a t e activities

the s t r i c t l y

seems

functional

f o r w h i c h t h e d e p a r t m e n t was c r e a t e d f r o m t h e

53 ma n a g e me nt o f f a c i l i t a t i n g

services.

The r e a s o n f o r t h i s

has been v e ry a p t l y s t a t e d

as f o l lo w s :

D e p a r t m e n t l i n e s a r e s e t op p r i n c i p a l l y a c c o r d ­ i n g t o t h e t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e wor k and t h e h e a d s of t h e s e v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s a r e , of n e c e s s i t y , t r a i n e d e x p e r t s in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y . They a r e , n a t u r a l l y , i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i r work and i n many i n s t a n c e s h a v e l i t t l e a p t i t u d e f o r . o r i n t e r e s t i n , t h e f u n c t i o n s of o f f i c e m an ag em en t.A case

i n p o i n t which, v e r y a p t l y

technical ad m in istrato r's

diffidence

m a t t e r s came t o t h e w r i t e r ' s

illustrates

the

t o w a r d management

attention

q u i t e by a c c i d e n t .

The e x a m p l e was c o n t r i b u t e d b y a t e c h n i c a l l j r t r a i n e d , man o c c u p y i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n

i n one of t h e " o l d

l i n e " b u r e a u s of t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . m e n t i o n e d was q u i t e

s h o c k e d when h e a c c i d e n t a l l y became

a wa r e o f t h e F e d e r a l C i v i l S e r v i c e for selective

certification.

v i s i o n he i n d i c a t e s t h a t is

The i n d i v i d u a l

Commission's p r o v i s i o n

Upon l e a r n i n g o f t h i s

in the f i e l d

sta tio n e d the a d m in istra tiv e

staff,

office

pro­

i n whi ch he

composed e n t i r e l y

o f t e c h n i c a l men, were n o t a w a r e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n and h a d been s t r u g g l i n g f o r months w i t h d e p l e t e d e l i g i b l e i n an e f f o r t

to get q u a li f ie d p ersonnel;

registers

whereas they could

h a v e s e c u r e d t h e men n e e d e d i m m e d i a t e l y i f t h e y h a d o n l y Q

H a r o l d C. F e n n i c k e , " O f f i c e P l a n n i n g , P e r s o n n e l , and S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t s , t h e i r F u n c t i o n s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s ” ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , Few; Y o r k , 1 9 2 9 ) , O f f i c e E x e c u t i v e S e r i e s , No. 4 1 .

54

b e e n a w a r e of t h e

selective

certification

The e xa mpl e may be an - u n f o r t u n a t e

one i n v i e w o f

t h e c o n t r o v e r s y ove r t h e use of s e l e c t i v e and t h e r e

a r e no d o u b t t h o s e

if this

stations

field

certification,

who w i l l c l a i m t h a t

w e l l t h a t t h e y d i d n ’ t know a b o u t that

provision.

it.

However, i t

it

was

is c e rta in

s t a t i o n e x p e c t s t o compete w i t h o t h e r

and a g e n c i e s f o r t h e b e s t p e r s o n n e l

they w ill

h a v e t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedure. The d e s i r a b i l i t y

o f s e p a r a t i n g t h e s e tw/o c o m p o n e n t s

o f d e p a r t m e n t a l mana gement h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d

in the plea

f o r a more g e n e r a l u s e of t h e b u s i n e s s m a n a g e r . 9 for this

same p u r p o s e t h a t

a s s i s t a n t has been provided zation c h a rt. to advise

It

the p o sitio n

is

of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

in the h y p o t h e t i c a l o r g a n i ­

is the a d m in is tra tiv e

a s s i s t a n t ’s duty

the o p e r a t i n g head in the conduct

keeping or f a c i l i t a t i n g

It

services

of t h e h o u s e ­

of t h e d e p a r t m e n t in

o r d e r t h a t t h e o p e r a t i n g h e a d may more e f f e c t i v e l y p u r s u e his

s p e c i a l t y whi ch e m b r a c e s t h e f u n c t i o n f o r w h i c h t h e

d e p a r t m e n t was c r e a t e d . This arra n g em e n t t e n d s t o s u b o r d i n a t e t h e manage­ ment a c t i v i t i e s t o t h o s e

of a s u b s t a n t i v e n a t u r e .

somewhat u n o r t h o d o x , b u t t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s

that

This is it

is

------------------

A r t h u r k . Macmahon and J o h n D. M i l l e t t , F e d e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Hew Y o r k , 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 40.

55

the c o rre c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to e s t a b l i s h . c r e a t e d f o r o n l y one r e a s o n and t h a t the fa c to rs

friction

me r e t o o l s objective

is

is to bring a l l

of

whi ch a r e n e e d e d t o g e t h e r i n t o p r o p e r r e l a t i o n ­

s h ip in o rd e r to achieve the as l i t t l e

Organization

as p o s s i b l e .

which f a c i l i t a t e w ithin the

e n tir e ly proper that functional a c tiv ity .

the

it

of t h e g ro u p w i t h

IVianagement i s c o mp o s e d of a c h i e v e m e n t of t h i s

organization

structure

and i t

s h o u l d be made s u b s e r v i e n t

is to the

( I f the d e te rm in a tio n to conduct

the fu n ctio n al a c t iv i t y the f a c i l i t a t i n g

objective

i s n o t made t h e r e

i s no n e e d f o r

s e r v i c e known a s m a n a g e m e n t . )

T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t ma na ge me nt a s s u c h v / i l l lose c a s te .

I n s t e a d s u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e

t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e c o g n i t i o n of management a s a profession.

This arrangement also o f f e r s a p a r t i a l s o l u ­

t i o n t o t h e p e r p l e x i n g problem of r e c o g n i z i n g t h e worthy services

o f a good t e c h n i c a l man w i t h o u t m a k i n g hi m an

u n h a p p y and m e d i o c r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r . of the h y p o t h e t i c a l l i n e s

A b rie f discussion

of p r o m o ti o n i n v o l v e d w i l l

c l a r i f y t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s somewhat. T u r n i n g once more t o t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n chart

( A p p e n d i x A. )

lines

of p ro m o ti o n f o r t h e

the bureau le v e l.

l e t us c o n s i d e r ,

FIs lin e

a s an e x a m p l e ,

adm inistrative

assistant

the at

of prom otion i s not t o b u r e a u

c h i e f f o r t h e r e a r e t o o many t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s

involved

56

i n t h a t p o s i t i o n wh i c h he i s n o t

interested

T h i s man h a s h i s h e a d t u r n e d t o w a r d a s t a f f departmental le v e l, to the o f f i c e

Such an a r r a n g e ­

o b v i o u s l y he a s t e p t o w a r d ma k i n g ma n a g e ­

ment a p r o f e s s i o n w i t h o u t r e n d e r i n g t h o s e profession

susceptible

nature to the

job a t t h e

a n d on up t o t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f a t t a c h e d

of the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r .

ment woul d q u i t e

in m a s t e r i n g .

engaged in the

to tech n ical d e ta il

of a f u n c t i o n a l

p o i n t wh e r e i t be c o me s b u r d e n s o m e .

u s c o n s i d e r hov; t h i s

Now l e t

a r r a n g e m e n t woul d s e r v e t o make t h e

t e c h n i c a l o p e r a t i n g h e a d more v a l u a b l e t o h i s

organization.

The t e c h n i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s wh i c h u s u a l l y p l a c e a n e mp l o y e e i n a p o s i t i o n

of command i n a n o p e r a t i n g a g e n c y

are

a g e n c y a f t e r h e a s s u m e s h i s new

often lo s t to th a t

p o s i t i o n f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t h e f a c t “ swamped*1 w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e devote to the a c t i v i t y

t h a t he i s

d e t a i l a n d h a s no t i m e t o

i n wh i c h he i s m o s t c o m p e t e n t .

h a s a l s o b e e n common f o r p r o m i s i n g t e c h n i c i a n s ,

It

who h a v e

s o u g h t t h e pow-er o f command i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t t h e utilization

of t h e i r

th e ir technical fie ld trative

skills,

t o s u b o r d i n a te growth in

to the a c q u i s i t i o n

of t h e a d m i n i s ­

a b i l i t y and e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y i n

order to f i l l

t h e p o s i t i o n c a r r y i n g t h e command power*

P r o v i d i n g t h e t e c h n i c i a n w i t h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ' a s s i s t a n t a s s u g g e s t e d s h o u l d make i t

e a s ie r to e lev ate the q u a lifie d

57 t e c h n ic ia n - ^ i n to a place the te c h n ic a l

operations

o f command v,here he c a n d i r e c t i n w h i c h he i s s h i l l e d w i t h o u t

b e i n g h a m p e r e d by an e n d l e s s amount o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d etail. The p o s s i b i l i t y the

of t h e

o p e ra tin g h e a d ’s p o s i t i o n

s t a f f man a s p i r i n g t o h o l d is a t h r e a t to the a r r a n g e ­

ment w h i c h c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . this

d a n g e r t h e s t a f f man s h o u l d be g i v e n an ampl e amount

of p r e s t i g e .

He s h o u l d a l s o r e c e i v e

commensurate w i t h t h a t lines

In o rd e r t o minimize

of t h e

a salary closely

operating head,

and h i s

own

o f p r o m o t i o n s h o u l d be k e p t a s f r e e a s p o s s i b l e . It

is

r e a d ily recognized th a t the estab lish m en t

th e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s simple In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . alization

is

of

j u s t m e n t i o n e d w i l l n o t be If th is

t o be s u c c e s s f u l I t

s y s t e m of f u n c t i o n -

is a b so lu tely imperative

f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t h e a d and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t t o have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e sib ilities.

respon­

The f u n c t i o n a l o p e r a t i n g h e a d i s s o l e l y

r e s p o n s i b l e to the c h ie f a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r the conduct o f h i s d e p a r t m e n t , and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h he u s e s t h e

1C

I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e p h r a s e ’’q u a l i f i e d t e c h n i c i a n , ” Im plies t h a t the t e c h n i c i a n has the r e q u i s i t e q u a l i t i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p and b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e , wh i c h a ny d i r e c t i n g a u th o r i ty should p o ss es s. The c o n t e n t i o n made h e r e i s t h a t he c a n be made more e f f e c t i v e by p r o v i d i n g him w i t h s t a f f a s s is ta n c e in connection with h is house­ k e e p i n g wo r k .

s ta ff assistance

which h a s t e e n p r o p o s e d w i l l n a t u r a l l y

vary with the a b i l i t y his

subordinates.

o f t h e o p e r a t i n g h e a d a nd t h a t

The n a t u r e

of

and s c o p e o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l

a c t i v i t y wi l 3

a l s o e f f e c t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p wh i c h i s

established.

It

i s q u i t e n a t u r a l t o e x p e c t t h e head of

a c i t y h e a l t h d e p a r t m e n t t o c a l l upon h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t f o r more h e l p s e r v i c e s of h i s office

in the conduct

of t h e h o u s e k e e p i n

d e p a r t m e n t t h a n woul d be t h e c a s e i n t h e

of a c i t y c l e r k . One o f t h e g r e a t e s t

difficulties

inherent

in t h i s

wh o l e a r r a n g e m e n t w i l l be t o p e r s u a d e t h e o p e r a t i n g h e a d t h a t he c a n e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e assistant.

In t h o s e c a s e s

e n t i r e l y capable

the se rv ic e s

in which the

of a s t a f f

o p e ra tin g head is

of c o n d u c t i n g b o t h h i s t e c h n i c a l a nd

adm inistrative re s p o n s ib ilitie s

it

would p r o b a b l y be

undesirable to provide the s t a f f a s s i s t a n t ;

however the

r e a l p r o b l e m w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e

in which th e

t e c h n i c a l o p e r a t i n g head i s

situation

i n c a p a b le of p erform in g the

adm inistrative duties

of h i s

t o a c c e p t and u t i l i z e

sta ff assistance.

a d m in is tra to r is not

department, but is r e lu c ta n t If the c h ie f

i m p o t e n t he w i l l g e t r e s u l t s b y

f o r c i n g t h e s t a f f s e r v i c e upon t h e

operating head,

o r 'by

removing him. For purposes that there

of c l a r i t y

it

s h o u l d be r e me mbe r e d

i s a b s o l u t e l y no d e l e g a t i o n

of o p e r a t i n g

59

responsibility He a c t s

or a u th o r ity to the a d m in istra tiv e

o n l y i n an a d v i s o r y and a s s i s t a n c e

o p e r a t i n g h e a d on m a t t e r s facilitating

services.

assistant.

c a p a c ity to the

of p e r s o n n e l , f i n a n c e ,

and o t h e r

He i s , h o w e v e r , d i r e c t l y

responsi­

b le to the

o p e r a t i n g h e a d f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y a d v i c e and

assistance

on t h e s e m a t t e r s ,

to the g e n e ra l s t a f f

of t h e c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r .

o f command r e m a i n s w i t h t h e are h i s .

and i s i n no way r e s p o n s i b l e The p o we r

o p e r a t i n g h e a d and a l l

decisions

The o p e r a t i n g h e a d may, h o w e v e r , h a v e a s s i s t a n t s

in a d d i t i o n to h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t posed between h i s

o f f i c e and t h e l i n e .

who a r e

inter­

These p o s i t i o n s

woul d c a r r y d e l e g a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y f o r operations,

and woul d a l s o d r a w upon t h e

s ta ff service for

a d v i c e a nd a s s i s t a n c e . Although not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the t o p ic discussion i t trative

se ems d e s i r a b l e

to suggest t h a t the adm inis­

a s s i s t a n t s m i g h t be r e c r u i t e d O

as s t u d e n t a s s i s t a n t s ,

level .

CJ

I f a f t e r going

t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m thej^ were c a p a b l e o f p a s s i n g

the examination fo r a d m in is tra tiv e be a p p o i n t e d t o s t a f f agencies

into the organization

and p u t t h r o u g h a r i g o r o u s t r a i n -

ing program a t the g e n e r a l s t a f f through t h i s

of

assistant,

they could

p o sitio n s a ttac h ed to the

on t h e l o v re r l e v e l s

operating

of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y .

K. P a s d e r m a d j i a n , " D e v e l o p m e n t and t r e n d s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e M a n a g e m e n t , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e S e v e n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Management C o n g r e s s ( The h a v e r l y P r e s s IncT,~~' B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 3 8 ) , Vol. V I I , P a r t s 1 - 3 , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n P a p e r s , P • 74.

CHAPTER IV

THE SUPERVISOR'S RELATION TO PLANNING I.

PLACING RESPONSIBILITY ON THE LINE

The t i m e worn a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g h a s b e e n t o p r o v i d e ' f o r a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c y wh i c h was e x p e c t e d t o he o m n i s c i e n t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t

it

f o r a n y and a l l

departments-

changes in th e l i n e

could see the need The

p la n n in g agency has a l s o been expected t o i n i t i a t e needed changes in p r o c e d u r e ,

system,

the

or o r g a n i z a t i o n -

This p o l i c y has only se rv ed t o f o s t e r antagonism between s t a f f and l i n e ,

a nd h a s g i v e n t h e l i n e a s e n s e o f f u t i l i t y

and g e n e r a l d i f f i d e n c e t o w a rd assuming any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for m atters

of p r o c e d u r e .

Any p l a n n i n g work t h a t place

i s r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e must

a l a r g e amount o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e

s u p e r v i s o r ’s

s h o u l d e r s , and mus t d e v e l o p and i n c r e a s e t h e a b i l i t y b o t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s and w o r k e r s . ^

Planning is

of

concerned

w i t h more t h a n t h e c a s u a l d e v e l o p m e n t

of r o u t i n e ,

and s t a n d a r d s ;

i n v o l v e d who m u s t be

t h e r e a r e human b e i n g s

rendered responsive successful.

i f the planning e f f o r t s

The s u p e r v i s o r I n h i s

strategic

forms,

a r e t o be position

b e t w e e n t o p mana gement and t h e w o r k e r c a n n o t be n e g l e c t e d , ~----------- y—;-------------L i l l i a m 0. L i c h t n e r , P l a n n e d C o n t r o l o f M a n u f a c t u r ­ i n g R o n a l d P r e s s Company, New Y o r k , 1 9 2 4 ) , p . 6 2 .

f o r he i s t h e

Mi n t e r p r e t e r 11 f o r t h e p o l i c y d e t e r m i n i n g

body of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .

I t has been s t a t e d t h a t :

The s l i g h t p r o g r e s s made t o d a t e i n mot I o n - t i m e a n a l y s i s in the o f f i c e i s due, in a la r g e m easure, t o t h e n e g l e c t of t h e s u p e r v i s o r in i n t r o d u c i n g the innovat i o n . ^ I n s t e a d of t a k i n g a l l entirely

p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s work

o u t o f t h e h a n d s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s , much of I t

s h o u l d be ’’s a d d l e d * 1 d i r e c t l y upon t h e m .

It

is often said

t h a t t h e f o r e m e n and w o r k e r h a v e n o t h i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d b e t t e r m e t h o d s , f o r I f t h e y d i d t h e y w o u l d n ’ t be in the p o s i t i o n t h e y occupy.

Ho we v e r ,

i n t o o many i n s t a n c e

t h e y h a v e n o t h a d a n y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p l a c e d upon t h e m , wh i c h woul d t e s t

t h e i r c o m p e t e n c e , and t h e y a r e g r e e d y

f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o show? what t h e y c a n d o . mo s t s e r i o u s r e s t r i c t i o n s ability

One o f t h e

on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x e c u t i v e

w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n : To d e p r i v e t h e s u p e r v i s o r y g r o u p of t h e o p p o r ­ t u n i t y t o w i e l d f r e e l y t h e d e g r e e of a u t h o r i t y which r e a s o n a b l y b e l o n g s t o t h e m - - e v e n th e a u t h o r ­ i t y t o make m i s t a k e s . ^ S u p e r v i s o r s m u s t be d e v e l o p e d who a r e q u a l i f i e d

the techniques

In

o f management and v;ho know how t o g i v e

2

F . L. Ho wl a n d , ” A B a s i s o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c e A d m i n i s ­ t r a t i o n , ” P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l ( J a n u a r y , 193 6 ), p . 289. 5

H a r r y A r t h u r H o p f , ’’A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o - o r d i n a t i o n ” i n F r i t z M o r s t e i n Marx ( E d . ) P u b l i c Management I n t h e New De mocr a cy ( H a r p e r s , New Y o r k ," 1 9 4 0 ) , p 7 57•

62 adequate perso n al d i r e c t i o n put in to the p i c t u r e personnel, mana gement * specialists

to the o r g a n iz a tio n ,

t h e b e s t methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,

a nd o t h e r f u n c t i o n s e s s e n t i a l t o good o v e r - a l l The s u p e r v i s o r s c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o be in a l l

p h a s e s o f mana gement p l a n n i n g , b u t i t

is highly desirable

t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r s become c o g n i z a n t

of t h e t e c h n i q u e s u se d ^ i n o r d e r t h a t a l l w i l l n o t have t o o r i g i n a t e and mee t t h e a t t e n d a n t present

and t h u s

the s c i e n t i f i c

work

a t t h e t o p of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n

resistance that

if the su p e rv iso rs

of t h i s

is certain

t o be

are e n t i r e l y u n f a m i l i a r with

a p p r o a c h t o management.

S u p e r v i s o r s s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f r e c o g n i z i n g and analyzing, th e ir o rg an izational,

procedural,

and o t h e r

p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l p r o b l e m s so f a r a s t h e i r b r e a d t h of v i e w on t h e i r l e v e l w i l l a l l o w . is

i n i t i a t e d wh i c h wri l l

procedures attendant

a f f e c t a s u p e r v i s o r ’s u n it the

w i t h t h e c h a n g e s h o u l d n o t be h a n d e d

t o him, but r a t h e r the be o u t l i n e d and t h e

Yvhen a c h a n g e of p o l i c y

o b j e c t i v e s t o be a c h i e v e d s h o u l d

responsibility for tentative

p l a c e d upon t h e s u p e r v i s o r .

procedures

In such a s i t u a t i o n t h e s u p e r ­

v i s o r c a n be e x p e c t e d t o a v a i l h i m s e l f o f i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s e a r c h d a t a t h r o u g h t h e p l a n n i n g and p r o c e d u r e s d i v i s i o n , and i n mo s t i n s t a n c e s t h e f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n e r w i l l p r o b a b l y

. E. E i l e s and M. C. E . N i l e s , The O f f i c e S u p e r ­ v i s o r ( J o h n b i l e y & S o n s , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 5 ) , P- 1 2 3 .

63 be c a l l e d It

in at

the s u p e r v i s o r ’s r e q u e s t .

is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

of the f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n e r

t o m e e t w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r and t h e w o r k e r s c o n c e r n e d and t o h e l p them d e v e l o p t h e n e c e s s a r y p r o c e d u r e s . the

situation

that

i n wh i c h I t h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d

the f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n e r should ta k e the p a r t

conference b ility

This i s

l e a d e r and n o t an e x p e r t .

It

of a

Is h is r e s p o n s i­

t o g r a d u a l l y l e a d t h o s e who a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e

new p r o c e d u r e t o a c c e p t h i s i n s p i r e t h e m t o add t o h i s

ideas as t h e i r

own, a nd t o

i d e a s b y c o n t r i b u t i o n s made o u t

o f t h e i r own r e a l m o f k n o w l e d g e . S u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t w i l l make t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e a l l y c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e , and i s more l i k e l y t o produce p r o c e d u re s which the i n g t o ’’l i v e

w ith.”

o perating personnel are w i l l ­

Tvluch o f t h e s t i g m a wh i c h I s commonly

a t t a c h e d t o t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n w i l l a l s o be a v o i d e d , f o r t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n w i l l be p l a c e d d e s i r a b l e p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g t h e l i n e it

for help.

It

in the h i g h l y

officials

come t o

I s a l s o t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e l i n e

woul d i n many i n s t a n c e s d e v e l o p t h e n e c e s s a r y p r o c e d u r e s w i t h o u t a i d from t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n ,

and i n t h o s e c a s e s

woul d n e e d t o c o n s u l t t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n o n l y t o a s c e r ­ tain that

c o n t e m p l a t e d c h a n g e s would d o v e t a i l w i t h t h e

activities development

a n d p r o c e d u r e s of t h e e n t i r e

organization.

o f t h e l a t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p woul d make t h e

The

64

p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n a much more u s e f u l a p p e n d a g e t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as a w hole. II.

TEE SUPERVISOR’ S RESPONSIBILITY TO DEVELOP A CO-ORDINATED WORK PROGRAM The s u p e r v i s o r h a s a n o t h e r p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

w h i c h i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s y s t e m s a n d p r o c e d u r e s work h u t wh i c h i s much b r o a d e r and more i m p o r t a n t s o f a r a s we are concerned in t h i s over again th a t

study.

I t h a s b e e n p r o v e d o v e r and

i f a s u p e r v i s o r i s t o be e f f e c t i v e he

must have a p l a n n e d program f o r e x e c u t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n s f o r whi ch h e i s r e s p o n s i b l e : W i t h o u t an a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a s k s t o be done and a c a r e f u l l y developed plan f o r o r g a n i z in g bo th time a n d t o o l s t h e r e i s no p e a c e o r s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r s u p e rv iso r . . .( o r ) worker.^ The s u p e r v i s o r mus t o r d i n a r i l y p r e p a r e a work p r o g r a m which c l e a r l y d e f i n e s t h e o b j e c t i v e s he w ish es t o a t t a i n i f he I s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o u t i l i z e wh i c h he h a s a v a i l a b l e .

and a d j u s t

the f a c i l i t i e s

Furthermore the q u a lity

of s u p e r ­

v i s i o n b e i n g e x e r c i s e d c a n o n l y be m e a s u r e d b y u s e o f a s u p e rv iso ria l plan against

wh i c h t h e r e s u l t s

of o p e ra tio n

a r e compared.® -

Eva A b r a ms o n , The S u p e r v i s o r ’ s J ob i n t h e P u b l i c Ag e n c y ( A m e r i c a n P u b l i c " We I T a r e A s s o c i a t i o n T ” CETcagoI 3 U4 0 ) , p i IZT ^A. S . B a r r , V. E. B u r t o n , and L. J . B r u e c k n e r , S u p e r v i s i o n (D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company I n c . , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . " 129.

65

The s u p e r v i s o r s h o u l d s e t up a f l o w o f work and outline

a pattern

of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

operate e f f e c t i v e l y

so t h a t h i s u n i t

during h i s absence

can

of s e v e r a l d a y s .

. . . E a r l i e r t h e b o s s h a d t o be p r e s e n t e v e r y m i n u t e b e c a u s e he was e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e s i t u a t i o n ; t h e r e was no o r g a n i z a t i o n and no p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e b u i l t up. So we h a v e t h e e a r l y p e r i o d of t h e o w n e r-m a n ag e r-su p e rv is o r a l l in one, then th e p e r i o d o f t h e b o s s , and t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r - - t h e p e r i o d we a r e now i n . ' Some i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s f o l l o w a p o l i c y o f r e q u i r i n g t h e s u p e r v i s o r to absent h im s e lf from h i s department day each month; just

one-half

i t b e i n g f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t he r e m a i n s

as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what o c c u r s d u r i n g h i s a b s e n c e a s

when he i s

on t h e

job.

This f o r c e s the

supervisor to plan

and t o d e l e g a t e p r o p e r l y a s w e l l a s t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r ­ study.® The s u p e r v i s o r mus t h a v e a s u p e r v i s o r y p l a n w h i c h embraces s t a n d a r d s direct

o f p e r f o r m a n c e b e f o r e lie c a n e f f e c t i v e l y

t h e o p e r a t i o n s of h i s d i v i s i o n .

Every s u p e r v i s o r

who i s s u c c e s s f u l h a s t h e s e

s t a n d a r d s e ve n i f h e do e s c a l l

t h e m ’’h o r s e s e n s e ” o r 11j u s t

know11 s t a n d a r d s .

Ho w e v e r , t h e

s u p e r v i s o r n e e d s t h e h e l p o f a more p r e c i s e and o b j e c t i v e

7

H. S. P e r s o n , ’’T e c h n i q u e s o f S u p e r v i s i o n , ’1 i n E l e m e n t s o f P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i ­ c u l t u r e G r a d u a t e S c h o o l , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 35. 8

A l f r e d N. C o o p e r , How t o S u p e r v i s e P e o p l e . H i l l Book C o . , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 1 0 3 .

(McGraw-

66 t y p e of s t a n d a r d s

i n mos t

in stan ces.^

The p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n su p e rv iso r in th is

r e s p e c t , h u t p e r h a p s i n a more r e s t r i c t e d

degree than in the case th e problems

of s y s t e m s a nd p r o c e d u r e s w o r k , f o r

i n v o l v e d h e r e a r e more p e c u l i a r t o e a c h o r g a n ­

izational unit. tions

is in a p o s i t i o n to aid the

The u s u a l , p r o c e d u r e i n t h e l a r g e

which have a p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n

organiza­

is to render tech n ical

s e r v i c e s by a s s i s t i n g t h e s u p e r v i s o r i n t h e p r o c e s s standardizing als,

operations,

developing standards

schedules, ever,

all

and i n s t a l l i n g

w riting

s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e manu­

of p e r f o r m a n c e , d e v e l o p i n g o t h e r methods of c o n t r o l .

How­

of t h i s work w i l l go f o r n a u g h t u n l e s s t h e

s u p e r v i s o r i s a b l e t o comprehend t h e tools

of

significance

of t h e

w i t h wh i c h he h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d and i s p e r s u a d e d t o

u s e them. I n c i t i n g t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o d e v e l o p a work p r o g r a m . The s u p e r v i s o r c a n p r o b a b l y be i n c i t e d t o a d o p t a p l a n n e d approach, t o h i s result

work by b e i n g f i r m l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t

it

will

i n a more o r d e r l y w o r k i n g s i t u a t i o n w h i c h wi 11 f a v o r

b o t h him and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s .

To c o n v i n c e t h e

supervisor

on t h i s p o i n t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y mus t be p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d i n o r d e r t o make i t is

a p p a r e n t t o him t h a t h i s p r i m a r y d u t y

to d i r e c t the e f f o r t s

^ N i l e s and P i l e s ,

of o t h e r s along p r o f i t a b l e

op. c i t . ,

p.

175 f f .

channels

67 e v e n t h o u g h he may a l s o work a s he d o e s i t . made q u i t e

obvious t h a t

it

is

I t m u s t he

i m p o s s i b l e f o r hi m t o d e l e g a t e

a u t h o r i t y f o r work p r o c e s s e s and m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l w i t h o u t exercising constant su rv e illan c e,

u n l e s s he d e v e l o p s a

s u p e r v i s o r y work p r o g r a m . The s u p e r v i s o r must be e d u c a t e d t o s e e t h a t k e e p s h i m on t h e

offensive.

I t makes i t

a plan

p o s s i b l e f o r hi m

t o p u s h t h e work r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t h e work p u s h h i m . The man who d o e s n o t p l a n i s c r o w d e d by u n ­ e x p e c t e d t a s k s and i s h a u n t e d by y e s t e r d a y ’ s l o o s e ends. He i s a l w a y s on t h e d e f e n s i v e w h i l e o t h e r s wri t h more f o r e s i g h t wage wa r s o f a g g r e s s i o n . ^ The p l a n n i n g o f o n e ’ s work i s e s s e n t i a l t o m e n t a l health.

One o f t h e p r i n c i p a l n o n - h e r e d i t a r y c a u s e s o f i n ­

s a n i t y i s t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e nb i g i d e a " be c l a r i f i e d b e c a u s e o f i t s

which can n e v e r

s i z e a nd i n t a n g i b i l i t y . ^

breakdown i n m e n t a l h e a l t h f i r s t

appears

This

i n a f o r m of f r u s ­

t r a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s from a l a c k of a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . In o r d e r t o a v o id t h i s

t h e s u p e r v i s o r must b r e a k h i s

w.!o r k down i n t o s m a l l t a s k s t h a t c a n be f i n i s h e d

one by one

an d he w i l l t h e n be i n a p o s i t i o n t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e

sense

of s a t i s f a c t i o n and fr e e d o m which a c c o m p a n ie s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t .

Enoch B u r t o n G-owin, D e v e l o p i n g E x e c u t i v e A b i l i t y (The R o n a l d P r e s s Company, New Y o r k , 1924]", p . 1 0 8 . 11

Loc. c i t .

68

The r e w a r d Jpf p l a n n i n g f o r s u p e r v i s o r and w o r k e r comes i n s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h d a i l y a c c o m p l i s h ­ m e n t , f r o m t h e f e e l i n g o f b e i n g "on t o p o f t h e j o b , ” from t h e knowledge t h a t a c t i v i t i e s have r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n i n t h e o r d e r of t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e and t h a t no i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y h a s b e e n o v e r l o o k e d . To p e r ­ m i t i t t o be o t h e r w i s e means s q u a n d e r i n g of t i m e w h i c h s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y h o a r d e d , i n c r e a s e s f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n , and l i m i t s b o t h t i m e and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r . . . se rv ic e to the c l i e n t . - ^ P o s s i b l y t h e b e s t way t o s e l l

o r d e r l y p l a n n i n g of

wor k p r o c e s s e s t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s t o c o n v i n c e h i m t h a t the

o b j e c t i v e d a t a wh i c h he a c q u i r e s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s

w i l l be v a l u a b l e

t o him in s u b s t a n t i a t i n g h i s b u d g e t r e q u e s t

Even t h e most s t o d g y s u p e r v i s o r t e n d s t o be an " e m p i r e b u i l d e r 11 t o some d e g r e e a nd i s

l i k e l y t o be m o t i v a t e d t o

p l a n i f h e t h i n k s t h a t by so d o i n g he i s more l i k e l y t o get his

program f i n a n c e d by t h e bu dget a g e n c y .

has g e n e r a l l y tended t o prove t h i s adm inistrator states

statem ent,

Experience and a s c h o o l

that:

The s c h o o l w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d a g a i n and a g a i n t h a t o r g a n i s i n g a t e n t a t i v e p r o g r a m f o r th e guidance of s c h o o l i n t e r e s t s i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s u c c e s s of any s i t u a t i o n . During the r e c e n t d e p r e s s i o n s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l o s t out a g a i n and a g a i n i n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r f u n d s w i t h o t h e r d e p a r t ­ m e n t s of t h e g o v e r n m e n t . The o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s came i n w i t h f a c t s and f i g u r e s t a b l e d and g r a p h e d w i t h a n a l y s e s of p a s t p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e activities. The s c h o o l man u s u a l l y came i n w i t h

12 Eva Ab r a m s o n , The E u p e r v i s or 1s j o b In The P u b l i c Agency ( A m e r i c a n P u b l i c W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 18 •

69 s e n t i m e n t a l p l e a s f o r b o y s and g i r l s , a n d a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e s a n c t i t y o f h i s c a u s e"I .'Z man w i t h t h e f a c t s and p l a n s u s u a l l y won.-*The r e f e r e n c e a problem which i s

a

made t o t h e b u d g e t a g e n c y very perplexing

organizational u n it,

t h a t knows, i t s

one.

to a ll o c a t e

b r i n g s up

How c a n t h e

procedures

program a r e i n a d e q u a t e , change t h o s e f e a t u r e s agency r e f u s e s

The

a nd work

i f the budget

t o them t h e a d d i t i o n a l

funds

whi ch a r e n e e d e d t o s t u d y a n d c h a n g e t h e s i t u a t i o n ? b u d g e t a g e n c y wh i c h d o e s t h i s a vicious c irc le

The

i s mos t c e r t a i n l y p r o m o t i n g

of i n e f f e c t i v e

a d m in istratio n , fo r they

a r e c e r t a i n t o compl ai n, b e c a u s e t h e y g e t i n a d e q u a t e

infor­

mation on wh i c h t o b a s e a l l o c a t i o n o f money t o t h e d i v i s i o n in q u e s t i o n , and t h i s

same d i v i s i o n c o m p l a i n s b e c a u s e t h e y

c a n ’ t g e t e n o u g h money t o d e v e l o p p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l r e c o r d s wh i c h w i l l i n d i c a t e

the n a tu re

of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l

needs. There a re s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s to lea d that the

one t o b e l i e v e

some b u d g e t a g e n c i e s r e a l l y c o v e t t h e i r power t o wave tfb i g s t i c k , ” and s i m p l y r e v e l i n h a v i n g t h e l i n e

o f f i c e r come i n t o t h e i r

office

without s u f f i c i e n t

objective

d a ta t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s budget r e q u e s t so t h a t the budget a g e n c y v d. l l be f r e e t o h a n d l e t h e m a t t e r i n a ny a r b i t r a r y m a n n e r t h a t may seem p o l i t i c a l l y

c l t .,

p.

expedient.

A. S. B a r r , b . E . B u r t o n and I . 128.

Budget a g e n c i e s

J. Eruechner,

op.

h a v e n ’t ,

i n many i n s t a n c e s , b e e n i n c l i n e d

proving the

to a ssist

i n im­

o v e r - a l l q u a l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e e x ­

p e n s e of' l o s i n g some o f t h e management p r e r o g a t i v e s

wh i c h

t h e y h a v e g a t h e r e d by d e v i o u s m e t h o d s u n d e r t h e i r m a t e r n a l wing.

This r e l u c t a n c e

is not too d i f f i c u l t

to understand

f o r s u c h a c h a n g e woul d e l i m i n a t e many o f t h e e x c u s e s o r d i n a r i l y u s e d by t h e b u d g e t a g e n c y t o j u s t i f y t h e i r m e d d l ­ ing in the a f f a i r s

of t h e l i n e .

the reader th a t the

statements

b e an i n d i c t m e n t

(It

s h o u l d be n o t e d by

j u s t made a r e n o t m e a n t t o

o f t h e b u d g e t m e c h a n i s m n o r of t h e p r i n c i ­

p l e s o f b u d g e t i n g , b u t r a t h e r o f a human f a c t o r t i e d

up

in the p ro c e ss of budget o p e r a t i o n s . ) Those b u d g e t a g e n c i e s g u i l t y mentioned should r e v e r s e

of t h e c o n d u c t

just

t h e m s e l v e s and p u r s u e a p o l i c y of

d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e i r power t o make i t

possible for

t h e l i n e t o d e v e l o p t h e t y p e of i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e y need t o s u b s t a t i a t e

t h e i r b u d g e t s , and whi c h i n t u r n c o u l d

be c o - o r d i n a t e d b y t h e b u d g e t a g e n c y i n t o a u n i f i e d d oc ume n t t o be u s e d t o ’’g u i d e t h e s t e p s ” of t h e e n t i r e

organization.

The a n a l y s i s

on w h i c h t h e

of t r e n d s ,

work-loads,

and c o s t s

b u d g e t r e q u e s t s a r e b a s e d s h o u l d be so a c c u r a t e and f r e e f r o m ’’p a d d e d i t e m s ” t h a t a l l t h e b u d g e t a g e n c y w i l l h a v e t o do i n a l l o c a t i n g a v a i l a b l e f u n d s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e priority

o f n e e d among t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s .

71 III.

TEE YORKER’ S PART IE PLANNING

Human b e i n g s g e t a g r e a t amount of s a t i s f a c t i o n of a f e e l i n g

out

of a cc o m p lis h m en t which acc ompanie s t h e d e - ■

v e l o p m e n t o f some i m p r o v e m e n t i n p r o c e s s o r p r o c e d u r e . is the place

It

of' management t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i n d i v i d u a l

w o r k e r t o make a n y c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t h e c a n . ^

It has

been v e ry a p t l y s t a t e d t h a t , An o f f i c e w o r k e r t h i n k s o f h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f as a person s t r i v i n g f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . One o f t h e mos t p o w e r f u l m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s i n t h e r a n g e of t h e e m o t i o n s o f an o f f i c e w o r k e r i s t h e s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l w o rthw hileness in the job t h a t is b e in g done. The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e work and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e whol e -i t r mu s t be b u i l t up i n t h e mi nd of t h e w o r k e r . 0 The w o r k e r s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o c o - o p e r a t e t h e p r o c e s s which h a s been termed c o n s u l t a t i v e

in

supervision.

Ee s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f work s t a n d a r d s , work p r o g r a m s a n d s c h e d u l e s . T h i s b r i n g s up t h e q u e s t i o n of s u g g e s t i o n s on whi ch t h e r e w ritings

systems

I s an a b u n d a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e

on s c i e n t i f i c

management, so i t

w i l l n o t be t r e a t e d

14

W a l l a c e C l a r k , ”The C o n t r o l o f O u t p u t I n O f f i c e s , ” i n h . J . D o n a l d ( E d . ) , Ha ndbook o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( E c G r a w - E i l l Book C o . , New Y o r k , 19 3 1 7 , p . "97§7 15 I. J . B e r n i , “M a i n t a i n i n g A R e s p o n s i v e O f f i c e S t a f f , ” P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S e v e n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Management C o n g r e s s ( T h e v a v e r l y P r e s s I n c . E a 11 im o r e 19 38 ) , V o l . V I I , F a r t s " 1 - 3 , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p a p e r s , p. 74.

72

here

o t h e r t h a n t o m e n t i o n one r e c e n t v a r i a t i o n .

This

v a r i a t i o n h a s b e e n u s e d w i t h some d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s by public

adm inistrators

ee t o a d d r e s s a t l e a s t

and c o n s i s t s

one 11why” q u e s t i o n t o t h e management

onc e o r t w i c e e a c h y e a r . valuable because

of r e q u i r i n g , e v e r y e m p l o y ­

In t h i s

way mana gement g e t s many

s u g g e s t i o n s t h e y woul d o r d i n a r i l y f a i l t o g e t of employee d i f f i d e n c e .

PART II TEE TECHNIQUES OF PLANNING

CHAPTER I APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUES; OF SUPERVISORY FLAHNINu1 Social science technique because th e re

are

i s n o t e a s y t o w r i t e upon

so many v a r i a b l e s t h a t

up o n t h e s i t u a t i o n .

A part

of t h i s

are dependent

difficulty

out of the f a c t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s

also a rises

dy n a mi c a n d t h a t

w h i c h seems s o u n d t o d a y may be out moded t omor r ow' . ingly i t

seems d e s i r a b l e

t o p l a c e t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e

of t h e v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s f,h o w . ”

Accord­ "why11

o f p l a n n i n g r a t h e r t h a n on t h e

The m a t t e r o f m e c h a n i c s w a l l i n m o s t i n s t a n c e s be

c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d b u t a p p l i c a t i o n seems t o m e r i t more emphasis b ecause i t

i s much e a s i e r f o r t h e

to understand the p r a c tic e s ing a job a n a l y s i s it

and p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n c o n d u c t ­

s u r v e y o r i n p l o t t i n g , a flow/ c h a r t t h a n

is to understand the value t h a t

use.

average person

w i l l a c c r u e from t h e i r

F u r t h e r m o r e , ma na ge me nt l i t e r a t u r e

endowed w i t h r e f e r e n c e s

i s mos t a d e q u a t e l y

d e a l i n g w i t h t h e how of t h e s e t e c h ­

n i q u e s w h i l e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h t h e y m a l e town.re

The p h r a s e " t e c h n i q u e s of p l a n n i n g " w i l l be e mp l o y e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s s t u d y as i f th e t e c h n i q u e s d i s c u s s e d b e l o n g e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e p l a n n i n g p h a s e of manage ment. To be c o r r e c t t h e y s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o a s t e c h n i q u e wh i c h f a c i l i t a t e p l a n n i n g ; h o w e v e r , t h a t c r e a t e s a p r o b l e m o f e x p r e s s i o n wh i c h t h e w r i t e r w i s h e s t o a v o i d and a c c o r d i n g l y t h e r e a d e r i s a s k e d t o b e a r the s e e m i n g l y ambiguous use of the p hrase " t e c h n iq u e s of p l a n n i n g . "

74 achieving the o v e r-a ll

objective

t o h e somewhat b e w i l d e r i n g :

of mana gement c o n t i n u e s

e s p e c i a l l y t o the

supervisor

and w o r k e r . The w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s

and p r o c e d u r e s w i t h w h i c h

t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e t o d e a l a r e dyna mi c and c h a n g e i n many i n s t a n c e s these

with alarm ing r a p i d i t y .

operating re la tio n sh ip s

time without the b e n e f i t

It

i s common f o r

t o d e v e l o p ove r a p e r i o d of

of a g u i d i n g h a n d , and a s a r e s u l t

many a s u p e r v i s o r f i n d s h i m s e l f f a c e d w i t h an. i n t o l e r a b l e supervisory situ atio n

i n wh i c h n o t h i n g se ems r i g h t .

p r o b l e m i n t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s

study is to outline

i n which t h e s u p e r v i s o r can u t i l i z e p l a n n i n g " t o b u i l d up a p a t t e r n ization. s t r u c t u r e

the "techniques

Our a way of

of p r o c e d u r e s , and an o r g a n ­

whi ch w a l l e l i m i n a t e t h e di l e mma wd t h

which he i s f a c e d . The q u e s t i o n wh i c h i m m e d i a t e l y a r i s e s

i s how/ f a r

c a n t h e s u p e r v i s o r go i n s o l v i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s ? part

of t h i s

assume?

That

planning r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should the s u p e rv is o r

b h a t p a r t b e l o n g s t o t o p m a n a g e m e n t , and when

should the planning d i v i s i o n ,

if

one e x i s t s , be u t i l i z e d ?

The same q u e s t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d th a t the v a r i a b i l i t y answer i m p o s s i b l e .

in P a rt

I only t o conclude

i n e a c h s i t u a t i o n makes a c a t e g o r i c a l F u r t h e r m o r e , a ny d i v i s i o n

b i l i t y w h i c h m i g b t be made i n t h i s

of r e s p o n s i ­

s t u d y woul d be e n t i r e l y

a r b i t r a r y and u n n e c e s s a r y f o r a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f

75

the a p p li c a t io n

o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e t o be

consiclered. Some r e a d e r s may f e e l t h a t v iso r's

it

job t o conduct a job a n a l y s i s

o f wo r k .

These d i f f e r e n c e s

is not the super­ or to ch art

the flow

of o p i n i o n c a n f o r t h e mo s t

p a r t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l c o n f u s i o n wh i c h h a s r e s u l t e d from u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s t o draw an a r b i t r a r y l i n e w h i c h s e p a r a t e s ma n a g e me n t and s u p e r v i s i o n i n s u c h a way t h a t

a l l p h a s e s of b o t h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d as d i s t i n c t

and s e p a r a t e , L a wr e n c e A p p l e y h a s s e t t l e d mi nd b y r e s o l v i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e

the question

in h is

i n t o one of d e g r e e . ^

own He

makes no a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e a n d p o i n t a t wh i c h s u p e r v i s i o n sh a d e s i n t o management; m anagem ent.

”3

i n f a c t he s a y s

"the

supervisor is

T h i s seems t o be a v a l i d way t o t r e a t

the

p r o b l e m a nd a n y o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h m i g h t be made f o r the purposes of t h i s

s t u d y woul d seem t o be s u p e r f l u o u s .

T h e r e i s no s e t

o r d e r i n wh i c h t h e t e c h n i q u e s

p l a n n i n g mus t b e a p p l i e d the s u p e r v is o r .

the purposes

of t h i s

2

i n o r d e r t o make t h e m v a l u a b l e

The v a r i a b l e s

in a la r g e degree c o n tr o l

of to

of e a c h work s i t u a t i o n w i l l

th e ir application;

however, f o r

s t u d y a somewhat d e f i n i t e

pattern

is

Lav/ rence A. A p p l e y , The Human h i erne n t i n P e r s o n n e l Manageme n t ( S o c i e t y L o r P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1 9 4 1 ) , P a m p h l e t Ho. 4 , p . 1 4 . 3

Loc. c i t .

76 g o i n g t o be f o l l o w e d .

The o r d e r of t h i s

b a s e d upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e

p a t t e r n w i l l be

supervisor is face to

f a c e w i t h an i n t o l e r a b l e s u p e r v i s o r y s i t u a t i o n and mu s t ’' s t a r t f r o m s c r a t c h ” i n r e v a m p i n g h i s u n i t . I t has been i n d ic a t e d e a r l i e r such a problem is n o rm a lly the

result

in t h i s

of an u n r e c o g n i z e d ,

t r a n s f o r m a ti o n in o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , procedures.

chapter that

objectives,

This be in g th e case o b j e c t i v e s ,

duties,

sponsibilities,

and p r o c e d u r e s m u s t be r e d e f i n e d .

operating audit

i s t h e medi um u s u a l l y u s e d f o r t h i s

The same p r o c e s s

i s a l s o known a s t h e

p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t nition

"periodic

and re­

The p u r p o s e .4

c h e c k u p : "5

i s used a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s

in rec o g ­

of t h e i n e v i t a b l e c h a n g e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e d y n a mi c

c h a r a c t e r of o r g a n i z a t i o n

structure.

There i s

a l s o some

i n c l i n a t i o n t o u s e t h e t e r m " p r o c e d u r a l a n a l y s i s . "6 "operating audit"

i s t h e more i n c l u s i v e t e r m i t

used, f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s

Since

w i l l be

study.

4

henry F. F a u t h e r , "Fundamental P r i n c i p l e s U nd erlyin g t h e P l a n n i n g o f O f f i c e R o u t i n e s , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e 1954 S p e c i a l C o n f e r e n c e s ( l i f e O f f i c e Management A s s o c i a t i o n , B;o r t Wayne, I n d i a n a , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 4 9 . 5 h e n r y E. N i l e s and. h a r y C u s h i n g Howard N i l e s , The O f f i c e S u p e r v i s o r ( J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , New; Y o r k , 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 123. 6

_

D o n a l d J . M o r r i s , e l e m e n t a r y Work S i m p l i f i c a t i o n (U. S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , R e g i o n 8 , 1 9 4 1 , M i m e o g r a p h e d ) , 12 p p .

77 The p u r p o s e s

o r o b j e c t i v e s t o be a c h i e v e d

in conduct­

i n g t h e o p e r a t i n g a u d i t a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a me , b u t h a v e b e e n e x p r e s s e d by t b e u s e of v a r i o u s t e r m s .

’’Work s i m p 3 I -

f i c a t i o n , ” 7 ’’ j o b s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , ” ® and ’’s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , used without a m o d if ie r ,

r a n k h i g h among t h e m o s t commonly

used term s.

These t e r m s a r e f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s

synonymous.

They a l l

procedure a v a ila b le given tim e,

i n d i c a t e an a t t e m p t t o f i n d t h e b e s t

fo r accomplishing a given ta sk at a

and r e q u i r e

th a t the

’’b e s t

v.ay” be r e c o g n i z e d

a nd e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r h a n d l i n g t h a t u n t i l a b e t t e r one i s

devised.

task

M o r r i s L l e w e l l y n Cooke h a s

d e s c r i b e d a s t a n d a r d as f o llo w s : A s t a n d a r d u n d e r s c i e n t i f i c mana gement i s s i m p l y a c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t o u t m e t h o d of p e r f o r m i n g a function . . . . The i d e a o f p e r f e c t i o n i s n o t involved in s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . The s t a n d a r d way of d o i n g a n y t h i n g i s s i m p l y t h e b e s t me t h o d of d o i n g a n y t h i n g t h a t c a n be d e v i s e d a t t h e t i m e t h e s t a n d ­ a r d i s dr awn . . . . There is a b s o l u t e l y n o th in g in s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n t o preclu.de i n n o v a t i o n . But t o p r o t e c t s t a n d a r d s from changes t h a t a re not in t h e d i r e c t i o n of i m p r o v e m e n t c e r t a i n s a f e g u a r d s a r e erected. These s a f e g u a r d s p r o t e c t s t a n d a r d s from change f o r t h e s a l e of c h a n g e . 7Ibid. Q

F. G. W h a r t o n , ’’D i s c u s s i o n , ” P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Nat i o n a l O f f i c e Ma n a g e m e n t A s s o c l a t i on~~( Ch i c a g o , IS 3?7 / p • 2 1 . 9 W. E. L e f f "■n g w e l l , ’’The A p p l i c a t i o n o f I n c e n t i v e Wage Payment P l a n s t o O f f i c e W o r k , ” I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s f o r Sc l e n t i f 1c Management P r o c e e d i n g s ' ( A m s t e r d a m 1932) , V o l . V, P a r t ~2 ,* C h . ” 1 2 , p . 4~. " 1“" 1 0 Qu o t e d I n L e f f e n g w e l l ,

Ibid,

78

The b a s i c

i d e a e mb o d i e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t

has a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f ic a n t

just

quoted

r e la tio n to su p e rv isio n ,

f o r without the a p p li c a t io n

of t h i s p r i n c i p l e

c a n n o t be d e l e g a t e d

s u p e r v i s o r cannot s u p e r v i s e

and t h e

authority

f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t h e f i n d s no t i m e t o do s o . fective

Ef­

s u p e r v i s i o n r e q u i r e s d e l e g a t i o n a nd i n o r d e r t o

d e l e g a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y t h e good s u p e r v i s o r i s c o n s t a n t l y s e e k i n g t h e b e s t way t o p e r f o r m t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s he i s r e s p o n s i b l e .

f o r wh i c h

T h i s allow?s h i m t o s e t up s t a n d a r d

p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a g i v e n a c t i v i t y and ma k e s i t

possible to tr a in

e m p l o y e e s i n t e r m s of t h o s e p r o ­

c e d u r e s a nd h o l d t he m r e s p o n s i b l e It

for effective

performance.

c a n be s a i d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s u r a n c e t h a t

when a n y g i v e n a c t i v i t y f o r w h i c h a s u p e r v i s o r i s b l e b e c o me s s u f f i c i e n t l y c r y s t a l l i z e d t o p e r m i t

responsi­

its

defi­

n i t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n s t a n d a r d methods f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h a t a c t i v i t y s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d , for its

performance d e l e g a t e d . ^

s u p e rv is o r to give h is

and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

This w i l l perm it the

a t t e n t i o n t o t h e new and u n u s u a l

phases of the a c t i v i t i e s

f o r wh i c h he i s r e s p o n s i b l e .

11Work s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ” o r T,s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ” i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m a t t e r of s c i e n t i f i c has

research;

Leffingwell

o u t l i n e d a g e n e r a l proced ure as f o llo w s : *

IX

E. F . A n d e r s o n , and G. T. S c h w e n n i n g , The Sc f e n c e o f P r o d u c t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n ( J o h n b i l e y and S o n s , I n c . Hew Y ork, 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 216.

79 1 . An a n a l y s i s of e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s made i n a c o l d d i s p a s s i o n a t e manner. 2 . tome method o f v i s u a l i z i n g t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s h o u l d he u s e d , summary, d i a g r a m s , p r o c e s s c h a r t s method o f e n a b l i n g one q u i c k l y t o cance o f t h e f a c t s .

s t a t e m e n t o f the e i t h e r by a b r i e f or o t h e r t e r s e grasp the s i g n i f i ­

3 . A l l o b s e r v a t i o n s s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y made and r e ■ corded, observers being in s tr u c t e d to s t a t e f a c t s , n o t o p i n i o n s , and s uch f a c t s must n e v e r be c o l o r e d i n any manner. 4 . R e c o r d s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s s h o u l d be made i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e d m a n n e r and o r d e r , d e s i g n e d t o make t h e i r study less lab oriou s. 5. E x p e r i m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y of i m p r o v e m e n t s w h i c h may o c c u r t o t h e o b s e r v e r . 6. Scientific synthesis, from f a c t s p r e v i o u s l y g a t h e r e d , a s t u d y o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t , t h e new m e t h o d i s e v o l v e d by a m e t h o d o f a n a l y t i c t h i n k i n g . 7. T h i s new m e t h o d i s t h o r o u g h l y t e s t e d . 8 . The new' me t h o d b y means o f s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e i n ­ s t r u c t i o n s i s f i x e d and p r e s e r v e d f o r f u t u r e u s e . ^ T h e r e a r e two b a s i c m e t h o d s of c o n d u c t i n g t h e r e ­ quired

investigation.

investigation analysis.

One me t h o d p l a c e s e m p h a s i s

on t h e

o f work flow/ w h i l e t h e o t h e r e m p h a s i z e s j o b

T h o s e who recommend j o b a n a l y s i s

are f r e q u e n t ly

c h a r g e d with c o n f u s i n g t h e b e s t p r o c e d u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e to perform a given a c t i v i t y with the p e rso n al a p t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e wor k.

This a t t i t u d e

does not minimize the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r but r a t h e r i t

^ l e f f ingw ell,

loc . c i t .

attem pts

80

to consider i t

as a c o n s t a n t u n t i l a l a t e r p o i n t

investigation.

The a n a l y s i s

in th e

o f work f l o w h a s a d d i t i o n a l

a d v a n g a g e s which a r e e n u m e r at ed as f o l l o w s : ( 1 ) The s t u d y o f work f l o w h a s a p a r t i c u l a r l y stro ng advantage over the that there

j o b a n a l y s i s met hod i n

i s much l e s s e mp l o y e e a p p r e h e n s i v e n e s s

e v i d e n c e d d u r i n g a s t u d y o f work f l o w . work f l o w t h e e m p h a s i s that

is

In s t u d y i n g

p l a c e d upon t h e a c t i o n

i s t a k e n upon r e p o r t s ,

forms,

and o t h e r

d o c u m e n t s a nd n o t upon what i s b e i n g done b y i n d i ­ viduals. that it

it

h e n t h e p e r s o n n e l of an o f f i c e

realize

i s n o t a m a t t e r of i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i c i s m ,

is r e l a t i v e l y easy to get t h e i r c o -o p e r a tio n .- ^

( 2 ) A s t u d y o f work f l o w m a l e s t h e 11whol e p i c t u r e 11 and t h a t

it

p o s s i b l e t o see

is p a r t i c u l a r l y true

when c h a r t s wh i c h d e p i c t what i s h a p p e n i n g a r e prepared.

It

i s human n a t u r e t o a t t a c k what may

seem t o be t h e all

possible

obvious d i f f i c u l t y

contingencies.

w. i t hout a n a l y z i n g

W i t h o u t an a n a l y s i s o f

work f l o w wh i c h c h a r t s and t h r o w s a n e n t i r e in to broad r e l i e f 13

procedure

change i s l i k e l y t o t a k e t h e form

A l l a n E . N o g e n s e n , " b o r k S i m p l i f i c a t i o n I n The O f f i c e , ” Time And h o t i o n Economy I n The O f f i c e ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 19 38) O f f i c e Management: S e r i e s , No. 8 2 , p . 1 7 . See a l s o : H e n r y E. N i l e s , " D i s c u s ­ s i o n , ” Modern O f f i c e Management Me t h o d s ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k ” 19 3 8 ) , O f f i c e Management S e r i e s , No. 8 3 , p . 1 8 .

81

of a s e r i e s

o f s p e c i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n s t o me e t e a c h

new s i t u a t i o n

as i t

occurs.

Suc h a me t h o d n e v e r

s o lv e s the u n d e r l y i n g problem. creates additional (3)

In f a c t

it

usually

one s

A t h o r o u g h l y c o n d u c t e d s t u d y o f wor k f l o w w i l l

normally provide the analysis

in terms

i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d f o r a i ob

of t h e m a j o r r o u t i n e s

and a

k n o w l e d g e of s e c o n d a r y f u n c t i o n s c a n be o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a more d e t a i l e d individual p o sitio n s,

c hec k on t h e d u t i e s furtherm ore,

It

of

Is o f t e n

i m p o s s i b l e t o make a p r o p e r j o b a n a l y s i s u n t i l t h e f l o w of work i s s t u d i e d b e c a u s e a p o s i t i o n

Is often _

a n a r t i f i c a i l g r o u p i n g of d u t i e s w h i c h r e f l e c t abilities

the

o f t h e I n c u m b e n t and b e a r s no r e l a t i o n

t o the needs of the s e r v i c e . It

is obvious t h a t

b e made upon t h e b a s i s

the a l l o c a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e

of d u t i e s must

perso n n el but

t h a t d o e s n o t p r e c l u d e t h e n e e d f o r what may be 14

Mo g e n s e n , o p . c i t . , p . 1 5 . See a I s •' : H. C. ^ h e e l e r , ’’D e v e l o p i n g And A p p l y i n g I mp r o v e d O f f i c e M e t h o d s , ” S t a n d a r ­ d i z i n g O f f i c e P r o c e d u r e s ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , hew Y o r k , 1937"]~ O f f i c e ~ M a n a g e m e n t S e r i e s , No. 8 0 , p . 8 . 15

He nr y £ . N i l e s , ’’D i s c u s s i o n , ” on. c i t . p . 1 9 . See a l s o : Eugene J . B e n g e , ’’D i s c u s s i o n , ” Modern O f f i c e Ivlanagement Me t hods ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , Mew Y o r k , 1 9 3 8 ) O f f i c e Management S e r i e s , No. 8 3 , p p . 1 6 - 1 7 .

82 t e r m e d ’’i d e a l ” j o b s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . s u c h s p e c i f i c a t i o n s may be t h e adequate a l l o c a t i o n

In many i n s t a n c e s

i m p e t u s f o r a more

o f d u t i e s among t i e

available

personnel. I.

TLL bORK FLOW STUDY

The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f work f l o w i s n o t an i s o l a t e d piece

of r e s e a r c h

with i t

in s c i e n t i f i c management, f o r entw in ed

s o a s t o be a l m o s t i n s e p a r a b l e

when c o mb i n e d w i t h o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s s t a g e s found in job a n a l y s i s , layout tools

study.

They a r e

include the p rin c ip a l

t i m e and m o t i o n s t u d y ,

and

i n many ways s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t

o f m a n a g e m e n t , and y e t t h e r e

s h i p w h i c h makes i t

a re o p e r a t i o n s which

difficult

For th e p u rp o se s of t h i s

is

a corollary re la tio n ­

to c o n s i d e r them s e p a r a t e l y .

s t u d y t h e y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d

s e p a r a t e l y , b u t t h e y w i l l a l l be c o n s i d e r e d a s c ompone nt parts

of t h e o p e r a t i n g a u d i t . The s u p e r v i s o r w i l l n o r m a l l y f i n d

on p r e l i m i n a r y

a n a l y s i s t h a t h i s work c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o major ty p es ,

v/ith s e v e r a l minor t y p e s .

one o r two

Investigation

th e r o u t i n e s used in h a n d l i n g the m ajor ty p e s n o r m a l l y c l a r i f y t h e s e c o n d a r y r o u t i n e s . 16 r e a s o n most s t u d i e s tion

of t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t r o u t i n e s .

129.

o f work w i l l

For th is

of work f l o w b e g i n w i t h a n i n v e s t i g a ­

N i l e s and N i l e s , p.

of

F o r example i f

a

The O f f i c e S u p e r v i s o r , o p . c i t . ,

85

state

d e p a r t m e n t of m o t o r v e h i c l e s

s t u d y o f work f l o w i t gation

of i t s

s h o u l d e m b a r t upon a

woul d c e r t a i n l y

p r o c e d u r e of i s s u i n g

include

an i n v e s t i ­

l i c e n s e s as t h i s

is

one of i t s m a j o r a c t i v i t i e s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f work f l o w may b e g i n w i t h t h e circulation

of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e

ing a c t u a l c a se s through questionnaire

o r i t may s t a r t by f o l l o w ­

an e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e .

i s oft en, u s e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p t o

d e t e r m i n e wh i c h r o u t i n e s a r e t h e mus t i m p o r t a n t , is

and i t

a p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e way o f g e t t i n g c l u e s as t o

what r o u t i n e s may be t h e mos t t r o u b l e s o m e . always used at complete th e

It

is almost

some t i m e d u r i n g an o p e r a t i n g a u d i t t o

job a n a l y s i s .

Appendix B c o n t a i n s a q u e s t i o n ­

n a i r e u s e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e its

The

in stu d y in g

procurement procedure. Regardless

of w h e t h e r o r n o t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e

is

u s e d , t h e e s s e n t i a l p u r p o s e o f a s t u d y of work f l o w i s t o d e t e r m i n e what e a c h i n d i v i d u a l toward the

involved c o n tr ib u te s

p r o c e s s i n g of a s p e c i f i e d f o r m , r e p o r t ,

o t h e r document.

Forms and o t h e r r e c o r d s a r e

subjected to i n te n s i f i e d

contribute

ordinarily

study because they are

s e l v e s t h e media f o r p e r f o r m i n g most toward the f i n a l

objective

or

in them­

of t h e r o u t i n e s w h i c h of a n y o r g a n i z a ­

tional u n it.^ 17

R a l p h R. Coombs, "Home O f f i c e P l a n n i n g , " P r o c e e d ­ i n g s o f t h e 1954 Sp e c i a l C o n f e r en c e s ( L i f e O f f i c e Ma nage ­ ment A s s o c i a t i o n , P o r t Y.ayne , I n d i a n a , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 4 4 .

84

As a s t u d y of work f l o w p r o g r e s s e s , involved

in the flo w i s r e q u e s t e d t o s t a t e

each p e rso n i n d e t a i l what

a c t i o n h e t a k e s upon t h e d o c u m e n t i n q u e s t i o n , give h i s

analysis

o f what r e l a t i o n

c o m p l e t i o n of t h e r o u t i n e .

a nd t o

th a t a c tio n has to the

(Each i n d i v i d u a l employee

s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o comment on t h e r o u t i n e s and o f f e r suggestions.)

One o f t h e

p r i m a r y a d v a n t a g e s t o be r e a l i z ­

ed f r o m a s t u d y o f work f l o w i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f an o b j e c t i v e and q u e s t i o n i n g a t t i t u d e

on t h e p a r t

of the

employees

involved. ^ It

w i l l be n e c e s s a r y i n many i n s t a n c e s f o r t h e

su p e rv is o r to determine the d e t a i l s

of work done i n

a n o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r ’ s u n i t b e c a u s e t h e i r work i s c l o s e l y related.

T h i s c a n o f t e n be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t f r i c t i o n

b u t t h e r e w i l l no d o u b t be s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be l o o k e d upon a s " p r y i n g . ff knotty question,

it

seems p o s s i b l e

in which such a c t i o n

Although t h i s to s ta te

is

a

w i t h some

a s s u r a n c e t h a t the c e n t r a l p la n n in g d i v i s i o n w i l l have a distinct routine

advantage over th e s u p e r v i s o r in stu d y in g a wh i c h o v e r l a p s

several supervisory u n its .

G. A. P o w e r , " O r g a n i z i n g and S e l l i n g O f f i c e M e t h o d s , " Nat i o n a 1 O f f i c e Management A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d ­ i n g s : T w e n t i e t h Annua l C o n f e r e n c e , ( N a t i o n a l O f f i c e Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 8

85 II.

SIMPLIFICATION AND SYNTFESIS

C h a rtin ~ the during the

work p r o c e s s .

investigation

e f f e c t i v e l y by c h a r t i n g

The I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d

o f work f l o w c a n be u t i l i z e d mos t It.

T h i s i s n o t a l w a y s done b y

t h e m e t h o d s man b e c a u s e he s o o n a c q u i r e s visualizing a ll

of t h e r e l a t e d

f a c e s him.; h o w e v e r ,

if

it

aspects

the f a c u l t y of

of t h e pr o b lem t h a t

i s n e c e s s a r y f o r hi m t o s e l l a

p r o p o s e d c h a n g e i n p r o c e d u r e t o t h e mana gement o r t h e w; or ker , c h a r t s w h i c h show- t h e p r o c e d u r e

i n e f f e c t and t h e

proposed p ro ce d ure are almost always p r e p a r e d . ^

The

s u p e r v i s o r who i s n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h m e t h o d s work w i l l f i n d c h a r t s t o be e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l t o hi m i n t h a t t h e y p r e s e n t the e n tire

process.

Any a t t e m p t s t o s i m p l i f y p r o c e d u r e

w h i c h a r e n o t made f r o m an o v e r a l l v i e w p o i n t

are l i k e l y

t o c r e a t e new p r o b l e m s , r a t h e r t h a n t o e l i m i n a t e t h e

old

o n e s . 20 C h a r t s as prepared, by t h e methods e x p e r t a p p e a r in many f o r m s a n d a r e known by a v a r i e t y c h a r t s may be d i v i d e d first

of names.

The s e

into three general c ateg o ries.

The

i s t h e si m p le f l o w - o f - w o r k c h a r t which i s l i m i t e d

in i t s u se, 19

H a r o l d C. P e n n i c k e , " L a y o u t and F l o w of O f f i c e Wor k, n Noma For um ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 8 ) , V o l . XI V, h o . 2 , p . 4 . 20

F . B. Maynar d and 0 . J . £ t e g e n i e r t e n , O p e r a t i on A n a l y s i s ( h c G r a w - F i l l Book Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , I S 3 9 ) , p. 72.

86

. . . t o s i t u a t i o n s whe r e t h e mai n c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e amount of t r a v e l of c l e r k s o r p a p e r s ; i t a f f o r d s s c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d y of w o r k i n g p r o c e s s e s . . . .93 The s e c o n d f o r m i s p r e p a r e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e t h e work o f a s i n g l e

clerk

of a n a l y s i n g

o r of s e v e r a l c l e r k s

a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same d u t i e s b u t v d t h l i t t l e

performing

o r no a c t u a l

f l o w o f work b e t w e e n t h e m . This has been termed a c l e r i c a l Pp o -z routine chart and a l s o an o p e r a t i o n p r o c e s s c h a r t w The t h i r d f o r m i s t h e f l o w p r o c e s s c h a r t

whi c h d e p i c t s t h e

flow; o f work o r what i s h a p p e n i n g b e t w e e n o p e r a t i o n s a s

QA

w ell as th e o p e r a t i o n s t h e m s e lv e s . ^ chart

The l a s t t y p e

often includes d istances trav eled

of

and t i m e r e q u i r e d .

pa

T h e s e c h a r t s a r e u s u a l l y p r e p a r e d by p l a c i n g d e s c r i p ­ tive

symbols alo n g v e r t i c a l

well stan d ard ized

lines.

The s y m b o l s a r e f a i r l y

so a s t o p o s s e s s r a t h e r u n i v e r s a l m e a n ­

i n g f o r p e r s o n s who h a v e wor ke d in. t h e f i e l d . v a r y from p l a c e t o p l a c e

or with d i f f e r e n t

approach is e s s e n t i a l l y u n i f o r m . T h e

They may

persons but the

symbols g e n e r a l l y

Eugene «j . B e n g e , C u t t i n g C l e r i c a l C o s t s K i l l Book Company, I n c . , hew; Y o r k , 193177 P* 9 5 .

( Me Cr a w-

22I b i d . , p. 102. 23

Maynar d and S t e g e m e r t e n , o p . c i t . , p p . ' 7 7 - 9 1 .

94l b i d ., 25 26

p. 92.

B e n g e , ojc. c i t . , p p .

111-130.

Compare L i o r g e n s e n , Tirne and Mot i o n Economy I n The O f f i c e , C i t e d 5u p r e , p p . 1 4 - 1 6 w i t h Maynard and S t e g e m e r t e n , Q p e r a t i o n A n a l y s i s , p. 9 4 .

87 usecl and t h e i r m e a n i n g s a r e a s f o l l o w s : Large c i r c l e

d e n o t e s an o p e r a t i o n .

Small c i r c l e

denotes a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .

Doubl e t r i a n g l e

denotes temporary sto ra g e .

Single tr ia n g le

denotes a permanent s t o r a g e .

S q u a r e d e n o t e s an i n s p e c t i o n . L i n e and d e s c r i p t i o n c h a r t s f o r t h e symbol c h a r t s . over the serve

are

often substituted,

They h a v e a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d v a n t a g e

s y m b o l c h a r t s p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e as a

chart

is to

g u i d e f o r t h e employee p e r f o r m i n g t h e j o b .

s y mb o l c h a r t se ems t o be much more f o r m i d a b l e c a t e d i n t h e e y e s o f mo s t e m p l o y e e s t h a n description chart.

The

and c o m p l i ­

th e l i n e and

27

During the a c t u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n

o f t h e wor k f l o w

e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be p l a c e d

on g a t h e r i n g a l l

inform ation in s u f f i c i e n t

d e t a i l so t h a t

s i m p l i f i c a t i o n can p r o g r e s s from t h a t

of t h e n e c e s s a r y

a n a l y s i s and

point without d e l a y . ^

27

F o r an e xa mpl e o f t h e l i n e a n d d e s c r i p t i o n c h a r t s e e : R o b e r t B r u c e , "The T e c h n i q u e Of I m p r o v i n g O f f i c e M e t h o d s , " P r o g r e s s i v e O f f ' i c e Management P o l i c i e s ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 19 39") O f f i c e Management S e r i e s , No. 8 6 , p. 38. 28

Bower, l o c , c i t .

88

The

p r e p a r a t i o n of

charts

i s u s u a l l y o n l y a mea ns t o an e nd

and

accordingly the

objective

of t h e

in v e s tig a tio n mill

g o v e r n t h e t y p e 01 c h a r t -which i s p r e p a r e d . o f work f l o w c h a r t s

s e e A p p e n d i x C.

A fter a usable c h a rt pared,

F o r an e x a mp l e

analysis begins.

of t h e e x i s t i n g : r o u t i n e

This i s ,

is pre­

in I ogsnsenfs opinion

r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r , A f t e r a p r o c e s s c h a r t i s d r a w n , common s e n s e i s a l l t h a t is n e c e s s a r y to in cre a s e e f f i c i e n c y or b e t t e r t h e p r o c e s s . . N e e d l e s s , i l l - d i r e c t e d and i n ­ e f f e c t i v e moves a nd o p e r a t i o n s a r e r e a d i l y d i s c e r n e d , o b v i o u s i m p r o v e m e n t s become a p p a r e n t . Some one w i t h l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n ce i n m e t h o d s s t u d y c a n c h e c k t h r o u g h an o p e r a t i o n and f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t i m p r o v e ­ m e n t s . 1^ The c h a r t makes p o s s i b l e d i s c u s s i o n by e v e r y ­ one i n t e r e s t e d , b e c a u s e i t r e c o r d s and v i s u a l i z e s e x a c t l y what i s g o i n g on and p r e s e n t s s p e c i f i c t o p i c s for consideration. f t u d y of p r o c e s s c h a r t s s u g g e s t s o p e r a t i o n s t h a t may be e l i m i n a t e d and c o m b i n a t i o n s o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s t h a t c a n r e a d i l y be m a d e . It o b v i a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l e d s tu d y of u n n e c e s s a r y o p e r a t i o n s , t h a t woul d o t h e r w i s e h a v e t o be m a d e . I t make s p o s s i b l e a g r a p h i c p l a n of p r o c e d u r e and p e r m i t s a l l o c a t i o n of t i m e t o be s p e n t i n d e t a i l s t u d y o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e whol e p r o b l e m . ^0 In a n a l y z i n g any given r o u t i n e s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o c l o s e ing b a s i c

s c r u t i n y by a p p l y i n g t h e f o l l o w ­

questions:

ffl . 29

of work e a c h s t e p

Can t h e ope r a t i o n be e l i m i n a t e d ? . . . . . . . .

Not e t h a t

the u n d e r s c o r i n g i s not

I o p e n s e n , ojo. c *4i t . , p.

l o^ .

in the o r i g i n a l .

89

2* Can i t be c o mb i n e d w i t h some o t h e r o p e r a t i o n?

. .

3• Can t h e

s e q u e n c e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s be c h a n g e d ? . .

4 • Can t h e

31 ope r a t i o n he s imp I l f l e d ? ......................................... ,f

E a c h of t h e s e f a c t o r i l y before

q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d he a n s w e r e d s a t i s ­

the next

one i s c o n s i d e r e d and i n t h e

p u b l i c s e r v i c e t h e y m u s t a l l be t e m p e r e d by one a d d i t i o n a l consideration;

namely,

i s t h e r e a m a t t e r o f lav; i n v o l v e d ?

These q u e s t i o n s a r e only a g u i d e t o a i d in a n a l y z i n g t h e e x i s t i n g r o u t i n e and i n d e v e l o p i n g a b e t t e r one.

In

d e v e l o p i n g t h e new r o u t i n e a g r e a t

should

be s p e n t

in f e r r e t i n g

h a v e become a p a r t

deal of e f f o r t

out u n n e c e s s a r y o p e r a t i o n s which

of t h e r o u t i n e t o meet a s p e c i a l s i t u a ­

t i o n and. h a v e c o n t i n u e d a s a m a t t e r o f i n e r t i a . of d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t

i s a l s o a f r u i t f u l means of

imp ro ve ment, and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n usually

The s t u d y

o f f o r m s and r e p o r t s

is

included in the stu d y . Analysis

o f f o r m s and r e p o r t s .

S i n c e f o r m s and

r e p o r t s a re t h e b a s i c media f o r h a n d l i n g t h e t y p i c a l o f f i c e work t h e y a r e

in v ariab ly subjected to a sp e cial study.

For m d e s i g n and c o n t r o l f o r t h e e n t i r e often a part

of t h e d u t i e s

organization

is

of t h e c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n .

I b i d . , p. 17. See a l s o : N i l e s , The O f f i c e S u p e r ­ v i s o r , o j d . c i t . , p p . 1 3 8 - 1 4 1 f o r a more e x t e n s i v e l i s t of q u e s t i o n s recomme nded f o r u s e i n m e a s u r i n g t h e a d e q u a c y o f an y g i v e n r o u t i n e .

90 T h i s wor t should, a l w a y s he done i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r and i n many i n s t a n c e s t h e p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n m e r e l y a c t s as a c o - o r d i n a t o r of f o r m s ;

the

supervisors

being allowed to o r g in a te forms i f th ey are not d u p l i c a ­ tions.

S i n c e t h e m a t t e r of f o r m d e s i g n and c o n t r o l h a s

become a s p e c i a l t y some b a s i c this

in i t s e l f ,

references

it

seems d e s i r a b l e

and p a s s t h e m a t t e r o v e r s o f a r a s

go study is concerned.'' Machines.

Any s t u d y c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f

i m p r o v i n g o p e r a t i o n s mus t c o n s i d e r t h e o f f ic e machines.

ordinarily

application

Impossible t o

operation thoroughly, i n s t a l l ' a system t h a t

f o u n d t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y some wher e e l s e w i t h t h e it

will

of

In o r d e r t o m e c h a n i z e an o p e r a t i o n i t

is .n e c e s s a ry to analyze th a t is

to c ite

and I t was

idea th a t

work i n t h e new/ s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t a d j u s t m e n t . 3 3

For th is

reason the

su p e rv iso r w ill normally fin d

It

On f o r m s , s e e : Eugene J . B e n g e , Off i c e Ec onomi e s (The Ronald P r e s s Company, New York, 19377") ppT 3 - 2 0 ; and ?■'. J . D o n a l d , ( E d . ) Handbook Of B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( McOraw-H111 Book C o . , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 1 7 " , PP• 9 4 4 - 9 6 0 . See a l s o : O t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s by O f f i c e Management s e c t i o n of Ameri can Management A s s o c i a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l O f f i c e Management A s s o c i a t i o n . 33

R. W. S t a r r e v e l d , "Trends i n O f f i c e M e c h a n i z a t i o n , " S i g n i f l e a n t Dev e l o p me n t s In Off i c e Management (Ameri can Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Yo r k, 19 37) 7 O f f i c e Management S e r i e s , No. 7 8 , p. 2 7 .

91 n ecessary to r e s o r t to the planning d iv is io n z a t i o n and t o t h e s a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s

of h i s

organi­

of t h e v a r i o u s

c o m p a n i e s who m a n u f a c t u r e o f f i c e m a c h i n e s f o r a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem. There is a d is a d v a n ta g e t o c a l l i n g that

in salesmen in

t h e s u p e r v i s o r w i l l be s u b j e c t i n g h i m s e l f t o e m o t i o n a l

s a l e s arguments;

h o w e v e r i t mu s t be a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e manu­

f a c t u r e r ’s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e which i s a v a i l a b l e It

q u a lif ie d advice

a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . 34

i s e n c o u r a g i n g t o n o t e t h e f'orv.ra r d p r o g r e s s

a consulting national

can give the b e st

service

of

i n t h i s f i e l d known a s t h e I n t e r ­

O f f i c e Machines R e s e a r c h C o r p o r a t i o n .

It

was

l a u n c h e d i n Ams t e r d a m b y a g r o u p o f D u t c h a c c o u n t a n t s who f o r a long tim e had f e l t

th e need f o r assem bling u n b ia s e d

i n f o r m a t i o n on o f f i c e m a c h i n e s end t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . ^ ^ An a m e r i c a n u n i t

of t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d

in the United S t a t e s in 1936, w ith h e a d q u a r t e r s

i n New

York . III.

TIME AMD MOTION STUDY

The e v e r - p r e s e n t

c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n of

u s i n g t i m e and m o t i o n s t u d y I s q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , b u t

Robert Bruce, 35

Starreveld,

o£. c i t . ,

p. 40.

cup. c i t . , p .

19.

92

it

is e x c e p tio n a lly d i f f i c u l t

principles

o f t i m e a nd m o t i o n a r e e i t h e r c a r r i e d t o an

extreme in t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n There

t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e

or are e n t i r e l y n e g le c te d *

i s a b s o l u t e l y no r e a s o n why t h e p r o g r e s s i v e s u p e r ­

v i s o r should not apply the rudim entary p r i n c i p l e s

of t i m e

and m o t i o n s t u d y i n l a y i n g o u t t h e p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s of h i s

subordinates* The U. 2 . F o r e s t S e r v i c e g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n

t o t h i s p r o b l e m i n what t h e y h a v e t e r m e d 11work p l a c e ” stu d ies.^

The f u n d a m e n t a l g o a l o f s u c h a s t u d y i s t o

bring a l l physical facto rs ships to f a c i l i t a t e

i n t o t h e most i d e a l r e l a t i o n ­

t h e p e rf o r m a n c e of a g i v e n t a s k .

Many o f u s i n o u r e v e r y d a y l i f e h a v e b e e n a p p l y i n g these

same p r i n c i p l e s

i n o u r ho me s .

C o n s id e r , f o r example,

t h e p r o g r e s s w h i c h h a s b e e n made i n t h e d e s i g n and l a y o u t of k i t c h e n s . twice as la r g e

The o l d f a r m k i t c h e n was i n many i n s t a n c e s a s was n e c e s s a r y ,

and i n g e n e r a l t h e r e

seemed t o be no e f f o r t made t o p l a c e e q u i p m e n t and. s u p p l i e s in the proper r e l a t i o n s h i p to aid the housewife r a t h e r burdensome d u t i e s .

36

in her

Today we f i n d mos t k i t c h e n s

Do n a l d J . M o r r i s s , E l e m e n t a r y F o r k S i m p l i f i c a t i o n (U. S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , F e g i o n 8 , 1 9 4 1 , M i m e o . ) , 12 p p .

95 arranged

i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e f a c t o r s

o f p r o d u c t i o n with,

w h i c h t h e h o u s e w i f e wor ks a r e p l a c e d i n t h e i r relationship,

and a s a r e s u l t

she has tim e t o a t t e n d an

e x t r a "bridge p a r t y c u r i n g t h e week.

Part

ment h a s no d o u b t r e s u l t e d f r o m s t u d i e s w a t c h was u s e d , b u t result

proper

of t h i s

improve­

i n wh i c h t h e s t o p

in a l a r g e measure i t has been the

of ’’h o r s e s e n s e ” ancl i n i t i a t i v e

ap p lied with d i l i ­

gence . The s u p e r v i s o r c a n do a g r e a t d e a l t o w a r d i m p r o v i n g the

work p l a c e s o f h i s

su b o rd in a te s, without

incurring

any of t h e stigma which i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s t o p watch study. is

The p r i m a r y r e q u i s i t e

an i n t e l l i g e n t

fo r success

and. i n q u i r i n g a t t i t u d e ,

w orkers’ welfare a t

least

in t h i s

venture

wh i c h p l a c e s t h e

on a p a r w i t h t h e f a c t o r o f

increased production. An a d m i r a b l e r e s u l t

of i n f o r m a l c o m m o n - se n se - ti m e -

a n d - m o t i o n s t u d y c a n be p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e Los A n g e l e s h a t e r and Power D e p a r t m e n t . units

I n one o f t h e i r k e y p u n c h

t h e y h a v e d e v e l o p e d o v e r a p e r i o d of y e a r s , t h r o u g h

co-operative

effort

o f e m p l o y e e s and m a n a g e m e n t , a d e s k

w h i c h i s w e l l a d a p t e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c k e y punc h o p e r a t i o n which i s b e in g p erfo rm ed .

It

is

quite possible th a t

an

e v e n b e t t e r d e s k d e s i g n c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d t h r o u g h a f o rm a l tim e -a n d - motion stu dy ; however, under t h e s e circum ­ stances

it

is u s u a lly n e ce ssa ry to take the

Initiative

94 out of t h e h a n d s of b o t h t h e emplo yee s and s u p e r v i s o r s and f o r t h i s

reason they often take a h o s t i l e

t o w a r d t h e new e x p e r i m e n t .

attitude

CHAPTER I I

THE RELATION OF STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE TO SUPERVISION Part

I I of t h e s y l l a b u s h a s up t o t h i s

s t a g e been

d e v o t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f ways and means o f a n a l y z i n g t h e wor k o f a g i v e n a g e n c y i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h e " b e s t way" i n wh i c h t o o r g a n i z e a n d p e r f o r m t h e work i n v o l v e d . I n some i n s t a n c e s

time s t u d i e s are conducted d u rin g the

i n v e s t i g a t i o n to determine the derived at t h is

"b est way."

t i m e may c o n s t i t u t e

satisfactory

of p e rf o r m a n c e b u t as a g e n e r a l r u l e t h i s case.

Standards

The f i g u r e s standards

w i l l n o t be t h e

of p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h a r e s e t a t t h e same

t i m e new p r o c e d u r e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d a r e

o r d i n a r i l y un­

s a t is f a c t o r y fo r the follow ing reasons: 1 . The e m p l o y e e s m u s t be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and trained

i n t e r m s o f t h e new r o u t i n e b e f o r e

it

is

p o s s i b l e t o measure a c c u r a t e l y the performance wh i c h c a n be e x p e c t e d . 2 . A c h a n g e i n m e t h o d a l w a y s wor ks h a r d s h i p on many e m p l o y e e s and a n y a t t e m p t t o s e t s t a n d a r d s formance d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d in which t h e tion

of p e r ­

organiza­

i s u n d e r g o i n g c h a n g e w i l l c a u s e a d d i t i o n a l and

u n n e c e s s a r y a p p r e h e n s i o n on t h e p a r t

of e m p lo y ee s.

D u r i n g tine p e r i o d wh i c h i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s a c h a n g e in procedure, a g rea t

d e a l c a n be done t o a s s u r e t h e s u c c e s s

96

o f a p r o g r a m of s c i e n t i f i c

management.

d u r i n g which e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g

It

i s s. p e r i o d

s h o u l d he c o n d u c t e d and

c a r e s h o u l d he g i v e n t o t h e c a r e f u l d e f i n i t i o n a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is evident that

of e v e r y e mployee .

of the Vhen i t

t h e new p r o c e d u r e s a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d

and t h e p e r s o n n e l a r e no l o n g e r u n d u l y a p p r e h e n s i v e , t h e strategic

time h a s a r r i v e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a n d a r d s of

p e rf ormance. The g e n e r a l c o n c e p t

of s t a n d a r d s and, m e a s u r e m e n t s .

S t o n e h a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n a s t a n d a r d and a m e a s u r e ­ ment a s f o l l o w ’S : A s t a n d a r d i s a m e a s u r e , e x a m p l e o r c r i t e r i o n of q u a n t i t y , q u a l i t y , t i m e , o r p r a c t i c e wh i c h I s e s ­ t a b l i s h e d by a u t h o r i t y , c u sto m , or g e n e r a l c o n s e n t as a d e f i n i t e b a s i s f o r comparison or r e f e r e n c e . A m e a s u r e on t h e o t h e r h a n d i s a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t h in g being measured with the s t a n d a r d . 1 The s t a n d a r d i s g e n e r a l l y a s t a t e m e n t tions

which s a t i s f a c t o r y c o m p l e t i o n of t h e

about.

The e s s e n c e

job w i l l b r i n g

of measurement i s comparison between

a c t u a l a cco m plish m en t and t h e

standard,

o r d i n a r i l y a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e use reflects

of t h e c o n d i ­

measurement Is

of a work u n i t wh i c h

accomplishment.

1 D o n a l d 0 . S t o n e , The Management of M u n i c i p a l h' or ks (P u b lic A d m in is tra tio n S e rv ic e , Chicago, 1939), p . 48.

97 I.

THE PHILOSOPHY PITH HTICH STANDARDS SHOULD BE APPROACHED IK TERMS OF ACHIEVING BETTER SUPERVISION Sound s t a n d a r d s

of p e r f o r m a n c e a r e e s s e n t i a l and u n i ­

v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o e v e r y p h a s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ^ and y et t h e y have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y u se d In a v e r y r e s t r i c t e d sense.

The r e s t r i c t e d

use of the c o n c e p t has cau sed s t a n d ­

a r d s t o be l o o k e d upon a s k a n c e by e m p l o y e e s . The s t a n d a r d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h time and m o ti o n s t u d y have a l m o s t e x c e s s i v e e m phasis upon t h e time s t a n d a r d s

in in d u stry

in v a ria b ly placed of i n d i v i d u a l

workman r a t h e r t h a n on t i m e s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e a c t i v i t y process.

In s p i t e

or

o f t h e d i s s e n t v o i c e d by t h e s o - c a l l e d

" e f f i c i e n c y e x p e r t s 11 i t must be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e primary purpose

of t h e

standards

e s t a b l i s h e d b y t i m e and

m o t i o n s t u d y h a v e b e e n t o s p e e d up t h e

i n d i v i d u a l and g e t

more work o u t

of h i m w i t h t h e same u n i t

standards are

s e t f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a piec e

rate

that

The

s y s t e m o f wage p a y m e n t s , and a r e v e r y o f t e n n e v e r u s e d

f o r the broader o b je c tiv e s are

of o v e r h e a d .

of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

Standards

i n t o o many i n s t a n c e s r e s e r v e d f o r one p u r p o s e and i s t o p o i n t t h e g u i l t y f i n g e r a t an i n d i v i d u a l

and p r o v e t h a t he i s a s l a c k e r w h i l e t h i s o

worker

is perhaps the

M. G. C r i d e r , " D i s c u s s i o n , " P r o g r e s s i v e O f f i c e Manage merit P o l i c i e s ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 9 ) , O f f i c e Management E e r i e s , Ho. 8 6 .

98

last

p u r p o s e t h e y s h o u l d he u s e d f o r . T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e n o t mea nt t o he a c o n d e m n a t i o n

o f s t a n d a r d s of p e r f o r m a n c e a s a p p l i e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l h u t t h e y a r e meant t o condemn t h e p r a c t i c e t h e use of s t a n d a r d s t o t h a t

of r e s t i r i c t i n g

p u r p o s e o n l y , when t h e y m i g h t

he u s e d s o much more e f f e c t i v e l y f o r o v e r - a l l p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l i n c l u d i n g t h e m e a s u r e m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . Any a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h s t a n d a r d s i n e v i t a b l y p r o ­ v o k e s a p p r e h e n s i o n on t h e p a r t

of e m p l o y e e s .

This is only

n a t u r a l f o r i t m u s t be a d m i t t e d t h a t

it

sell

of the a dv antag e s

s t a n d a r d s t o e m p l o y e e s when a l l

s eem t o a c c r r u e

t o t h e management.

It

is very hard to

is possible th at

t h e e m p l o y e e may be a p p e a l e d t o on t h e b a s i s

that

standards

w i l l i mp r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n u n d e r w h i c h he i s w o r k i n g and a s a r e s u l t he wri l l be s u r r o u n d e d w i t h a more o r d e r l y e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t a t b e s t he i s c e r t a i n t o be skeptical.

I n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e p r o b l e m of s t a n d a r d s t h e

s u p e rv is o r should assure h i s not

one o f s p e e d - u p b u t i s

employees t h a t

rather

the object

is

one o f m e a s u r i n g t h e i r

p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y i n o r d e r t o p l a n more e f f e c t i v e l y t h e work o f t h e f u t u r e

and d i s t r i b u t e

it

i n e q u i t a b l e work

loads. The s u p e r v i s o r h a s b e e n p r o n e t o a v o i d h i s sibility

for establishing

respon­

s t a n d a r d s of p e r f o r m a n c e v e r y

l a r g e l y b e c a u s e he h a s f e l t

that

a c o n s i d e r a b l e a mount of

99

t e c h n i c a l and e n g i n e e r i n g k n o w l e d g e to develop adequate s t a n d a r d s . ^

is n ecessary in order

One a u t h o r i n c o m p a r i n g

the automobile

o f two d e c a d e s ago w i t h t h e mode r n p r o d u c t

concludes th at

i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s we

are

still

in the

’’b a n d - c r a n k e d e r a . "

a r e t o have s t a n d a r d s a process

little

A s t a t i s t i c a l t r e n d b a s e d on

o f one o r t wo y e a r s w i l l n o r m a l l y be o f v e r y

value f o r purposes of p r e d i c t i o n .

On t h e o t h e r h a n d

a t i m e s e r i e s b a s e d on d a t a c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d y e a r s may be v e r y e n l i g h t e n i n g , b u t t h e the b e n e f it Standards viewpoint.

we

o f p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e y m u s t go t h r o u g h

of d e v e l o p m e n t .

time s e r i e s

I n o t h e r words i f

of s u c h a g u i d e

of f i v e

o n l y way t o g e t

is to s t a r t keeping reco rd s.

of p e r f o r m a n c e mus t be looked, a t f r o m t i e T he y may be somewhat i n a d e q u a t e

same

at the s t a r t

b u t t h e y c a n be r e f i n e d and i mp r o v e d u n t i l t h e y become a dependable c r i t e r i a

of perform ance.

D e f i n i t e r e c o r d s a r e a t t h e b a s i s of a l l s t a n d ­ ards. I f y o u h a v e n o t t i m e now t o d e v e l o p s t a n d a r d s f o r your d e p a rtm e n t, at l e a s t see t h a t simple r e c o r d s o f p e r f o r m a n c e a r e ma d e , k e e p them f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e a n a l y s i s a nd f o r c o m p a r i s o n f r o m p e r i o d t o period. I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o jump f r o m no s t a n d ­ a r d s t o t h e most s c i e n t i f i c . You c a n s t a r t from, c r u d e o n e s and g r a d u a l l v i n c r e a s e t h e i r v a l u e . ^ 3

L. K. B r i g h a m , ’’D i s c u s s i o n , ” P r o g r e s s i v e O f f i c e Management P o l i c i e s ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 19 3 9 ) , O f f i c e Management S e r i e s , No. 8 6 , p . 2 4 . 4

h e n r y E. N i l e s and Mary C u s h i n g Howard N i l e , The O f f i c e S u p e r v i s o r ( J o h n h i l e y & S o n s , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 5 ) , p .

187.

100 Most s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e r o u g h and r e a d y o r s o - c a l l e d ’’h o r s e

sense” standards.

with these

The s u p e r v i s o r m i g h t w e l l b e g i n

in a program t o e s t a b l i s h s t a n d a r d s by r e f i n i n g

t h e m a n d m a k i n g t h e m more p r e c i s e . As an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s u c c e e d i n g s e c t i o n s seems d e s i r a b l e

t o reem phasize the f a c t t h a t

it

standards are

n o t e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e s o l e pu rp o se of p a y i n g employees on a p i e c e r a t e b a s i s .

The p r o g r e s s i v e

standards fo r planning,

scheduling,

s u p e r v is o r uses

c o n t r o l l i n g and c o - o r d i ­

n a t i n g t h e -work f o r wh i c h he i s r e s p o n s i b l e . needs at l e a s t

three d iffe re n t units

The s u p e r v i s o r

of measurement:

a unit

w i t h w h i c h t o m e a s u r e q u a n t i t y of p r o d u c t i o n

or s e r v i c e , a

unit

w ith which to

w i t h wh i c h t o j u d g e q u a l i t y ,

measure e f f o r t II.

r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e work.

MSASORIbG PRODUCTION OF SERVICE FEHLEFBD

The work u n i t

in terms

Is measured should r e f l e c t unit

and a u n i t

in which i t

o f whi ch p r o d u c t i o n o r s e r v i c e

the

i s being; u s e d .

objective

of the

I n some i n s t a n c e s t h e

o b j e c t i v e w i l l be v e r y c l e a r w h i l e i n o t h e r s exceedingly nebulous. of o b j e c t i v e s

supervisory

it

w i l l be

As a m a t t e r of f a c t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n

i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e d e d t o be ’’one o f t h e m o s t

d i f f i c u l t t a s k s i n t h e whol e f i e l d of m e a s u r e m e n t . ” ^ T h i s 5 C l a r e n c e E. R i d l e y , ’’M e a s u r i n g P e r f o r m a n c e i n R e l a t i o n t o R e s u l t s , ” The"Fork Unit In F e d e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , Chicago"! 19 37 J~, P u b l i c a t i o n h o . 56, p. 8.

101 is p a rtic u la rly true quantitatively. quantitatively,

if

the

Ho w e v e r , it

o b j e c t i v e mu s t be e x p r e s s e d

i f the

objective

c a n be e x p r e s s e d

is very often a s a t i s f a c t o r y standard

w i t h whi ch a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t c a n be c o m p a r e d . I t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t mos t g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s have s h o r t term o b j e c t i v e s ed o n e s .

Many a g e n c i e s f r a m e s p e c i a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r each,

successive

o p e r a t i n g p e r i o d and i t

to devise u n its of t h e

a s w e l l a s more e x t e n d ­

which w a l l measure achievement

sp e c ia l goal than I t

istrative

performance.

to define the

i s u s u a l l y much e a s i e r

It

I s t o m e a s u r e o v e r —a l l a d m i n ­ is,

f o r exampley extrem ely hard

o v er-all objective

of a c i t y playground

d e p a r t m e n t and m e a s u r e p e r f o r m a n c e

in. t e r m s of t h e o b j e c t i v e ,

b u t i t may be c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a s y t o d e f i n e short term o b je c tiv e s them.

s u b s i d i a r y or

and m e a s u r e p e r f o r m a n c e

i n t e r m s of

C i t y p l a y g r o u n d s a r e u s u a l l y s u p e r v i s e d by p r o ­

f e s s i o n a l l y m otivated people, tion le t public

in terms

us a ssume t h a t t h e

of i l l u s t r a ­

su p erv iso r decides th a t the

I s ma k i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t

are a v a ila b le

so f o r p u r p o s e s

u s e of t h e f a c i l i t i e s

t o t h e m and may a s a r e s u l t

s p e c ia l goal f o r a given o p e ra tin g p e rio d .

which

establish, a The g o a l m i g h t

be t o i n c r e a s e p l a y g r o u n d a t t e n d a n c e t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t without cent.

i n c r e a s i n g ; o p e r a t i n g ; e x p e n s e s more t h a n t e n p e r During a subsequent p e rio d the s p e c i a l o b j e c ti v e

may be c h a n g e d t o one o f i n c r e a s i n g ; a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n

In

102 supervised increase

or group a c t i v i t i e s

and t h e g o a l may he t o

adult p a rtic ip a tio n ten percent

without

incress-

i n g o p e r a t irjg e x p e n s e t ; . The o b j e c t i v e s

o f many g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a r e

c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g w h i c h means t h a t t h e

s u p e rv is o rs engag­

ed i n s u c h a c t i v i t i e s m u s t

i n t u r n he c o n s t a n t l y s e e k i n g

new u n i t s

The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t made

of m ea su re m e n t.

b y a Home Own e r ’ s Loan C o r p o r a t i o n e x e c u t i v e tive

of t h e p o i n t

j u s t ma de .

He p o i n t s

is

illu stra­

out t h a t ,

The m e a s u r e o f work a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n ha d b e e n t h e vol ume of applications. L a t e r i t became t h e t o t a l o f t h e c lo sed lo an s per r e g i o n , s t a t e , d i s t r i c t , or subdistrict. In t h e s e r v i c i n g p r o g r a m t h e m e a s u r e h a s now? become t h e d e l i n q u e n c y l o a d . Loveridre has suggested th a t of p e r f o r m a n c e f o r f i r e

a p r a c tic a l standard

c o n t r o l in a N a t i o n a l F o r e s t might

be e x p r e s s e d a s f o l l o w s :

tfD u r i n g t h e p e r i o d

1952-57 redu c e

t h e a v e r a g e a r e a b u r n e d p e r y e a r t o n o t more t h a n 0 . 2 p e r c e n t a t an a v e r a g e c o s t p e r y e a r of 2 c e n t s p e r a c r e . ” ^ T h i s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d very valuable

a s an o v e r - a l l m e a s u r e m e n t and i s

in a p p ra is in g the degree

of a ch iev m en t

of

E. T. b i l s o n , 11The Loan S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n o f t h e Home Owners Loan C o r p o r a t i o n , ,f The Work U n i t I n F e d e r a l Admin i s t r a t i o n ( P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , C h i c a g o , 19 5 7 ) , p . 2 4 . 7

E. L. L o v e r i a g e , J o b - L o a d A n a l y s i s and P l a n n i n g of E x e c u t i v e Work i n Nat I o n a I F o r e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " ( G o v e r n ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 1 6 .

103 the major o b je c tiv e . o v er-all objective provide the

H o w e v e r , a s t a n d a r d i n t e r m s of t h e

of an e n t e r p r i s e

w ill

s u p e rv is o r with s u f f i c i e n t

t i o n on t h e c omp o n e n t e l e m e n t s

detailed

problem the

s u p e r v i s o r must

In. o r d e r t o

o rd in a rily define

t h e o b j e c t i v e o f h i s u n i t i n t e r m s of t h e p a r t play in achieving the and must

objective

i t mus t

of t h e e n t e r p r i s e ,

I d e n t i f y t h e c o mp o n e n t e l e m e n t s o f v o r h wh i c h h i s

u n i t must p e r f o r m . terns

over-all

informa­

o f work w h i c h mus t be

performed t o achieve the major o b j e c t i v e . meet t h i s

o r d i n a r i l y not

He must t h e n d e v i s e work u n i t s

o f wh i c h t o m e a s u r e p e r f o r m a n c e

in

of t h e a c t i v i t i e s

f o r w h i c h he a l o n e i s r e s p o n s i b l e . The s i x mo n t h o p e r a t i n g program, o f t h e B u r e a u o f Ol d- Age and S u r v i v o r s S e c u ri t y Board,

In surance, United S ta te s

illustrates

the p r a c t i c e

of e s t a b l i s h i n g

m a jo r o b j e c t i v e s f o r a g i v e n p e r i o d , and a t th e d e fin in g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s

Social

same t i m e

and d u t i e s wh i c h s u b o r d i n a t e

u n i t s must p e r f o r m i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e . follovdng quotation listed

includes the f i r s t

in a recen t p e rio d ic I.

of f i v e

The

objectives

o p e ra tin g program.

To s e r v e b e t t e r t h o s e men a nd women who r e c e i v e o l d age*" and s u r v i v o r s i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s . A.

By r e d u c i n g t h e t i m e a c l a i m a n t m u s t w a i t t o r e c e i v e h i s o l d a g e and s u r v i v o r s i n ­ s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s In any normal c a s e t o not more t h a n 23 d a y s f r o m t h e t i m e he h a s f i l e d a claim u n t i l such claim is c e r t i f i e d f o r payment. This w ill r e q u ir e t h a t :

104 1.

The F i e l d Qffn c e s r e d u c e t h e a v e r a g e e l a p s e d Time ( i nc lu.d i ng m a i l i n g t i m e ) f o r t h e d e v e l o p me n t o f a c l a i m t o not more t han 16 d a y s ; t he p r e s e n t a v e r a g e t i me i s 19.3 days.

2 . The C o n t r o l E l v i s i o n r e d u c e t h e a v e r a g e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g c l a i m s a nd c e r t i f y i n g t hem f o r pa yme nt t o n o t more t h a n 4 d a y s : d u r i n g June th e a v e r a g e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s e a c t i o n s was 4 . 7 days . 3 . The C l a i m s D i v i s i o n r e d u c e t h e a v e r a g e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e a d j u d i c a t i o n of c l a i m s t o n o t more t h a n 3 d a y s ; d u r i n g June the a d j u d i c a t i o n of a c l a i m r e q u i r ­ ed 4 . 3 d a y s . B.

By r e d u c i n g t h e t i m e a c l a i m a n t w a i t s f o r a r e p l y when h e h a s n o t i f i e d t h e B u r e a u t h a t he h a s c h a n g e d h i s a d d r e s s , r e t u r n e d t o w o r k , s t o p p e d wjo r k , w i s h e s t o r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s a g a i n , or ha s n o t i f i e d us of o t h e r s i m i l a r changes in h i s s t a t u s . This w i l l re q u ire that: 1 . The C o n t r o l D i v i s i o n r e d u c e : a.

The a v e r a g e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c h a n g i n g of a b e n e f i c i a r y ’ s a d d r e s s i n o u r r e c o r d s t o 1 day; d u r i n g June t h e a v e r a g e t i m e was 1 . 3 d a y s .

b . The a v e r a g e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o a b e n e f i c i a r y on t h e pa yme nt a f t e r he h a s s t o p p e d work t o d u r i n g June t h e a v e r a g e t im e days •

reinstate rolls 6 days; was 8 . 9

The a v e r a g e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o s t o p p a y m e n t s t o a b e n e f i c i a r y who h a s r e t u r n e d t o work, d i e d , or r e m a r r i e d t o 2 days; d u r i n g June t h e average t i m e r e q u i r e d was 2 . 7 d a v s . ^ ®From t h e S i x Mont h O p e r a t i n g P r o g r a m o f t h e B u r e a u o f 01c Age and S u r v i v o r s I n s u r a n c e , U n i t e d S t a t e s S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Bo a r d f o r t h e p e r i o d e n d i n g J a n u a r y 1 , 1 9 4 2 .

105 When a p p r o a c h e d on t h e q u e s t i o n o f d e v i s i n g work units

and e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a n d a r d s

o f t h o s e work u n i t s , lading

initiative

the

of performance in terms

i n d o l e n t s u p e r v i s o r o r t h e one

and i m a g i n a t i o n o r d i n a r i l y w i l l u s e

t h e e x c u s e t h a t t h e r e a r e " t o o many v a r i a b l e s ” i n t h e work he s u p e r v i s e s

to e s t a b l i s h s ta n d a rd s

is true th at there wor k; h o w e v e r ,

is v aria tio n

it

is s t i l l

It

i n a l l b u t t h e most r o u t i n e

i n many a c t i v i t i e s

f a c t o r l ooms l a r g e

of p e r f o r m a n c e .

i n whi ch t h e v a r i a b l e

possible to e s ta b lis h a

s u f f ic i e n tl y accurate average. F o r e x a m p l e A. F* H i n r i c b s E u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s

states

of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s that

they

. . . can n e v e r e s t i m a t e in advance t h e time r e q u i r e d t o a n s w e r a ny one o f t h e t h o u s a n d s of i n q u i r i e s w h i c h come t o us e a c h mo n t h ; b u t t a k e n b y t h e l a r g e , we know? t h e vol ume o f s u c h work and c a n e x p r e s s t h e amount o f t i m e r e q u i r e d p e r h u n d r e d i n q u i r i e s , t h o u g h one of t h e m may i n v o l v e t h e work o f a s p e c i a l i s t f o r s e v e r a l d a y s .9 It

is

obvious t h a t

a t ask: m u s t be r e c u r r e n t

if

there

i s t o be a ny a d v a n t a g e d e r i v e d f r o m e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a n d a r d s for it.

Some s u p e r v i s o r s

failure

j u s t i f y t h e i r i n d o l e n c e and

to e sta b lis h standards

of p e r f o r m a n c e f o r t h e i r

r e c u r r e n t work on t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e r e t o be w o r t h - w h i l e .

9

The F o r e s t

i s n o t enough of i t

Service discount t h is

argument

A. F . H i n r i c h s , " B u d g e t F a k i n g i n t h e E u r e a u of l a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , ” The F o r k U n i t I n F e d e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (P u b lic A d m in is tra tio n S e rv ic e , Chicago, 1937), p p . 9-1 0 .

106 f o r they have found in a n a ly z in g t h e i r

work t h a t a s u r p r i s ­

i n g l y l a r g e p e r c e n t of' t h e t a s k s w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o be non-recurrent

are a c t u a l l y r e c u r r e n t ,

measurement.

Furthermore,

and s u s c e p t i b l e

they claim th a t

of

i f the re c u rre n t

t a s k s a r e w e l l p l a n n e d t h e r e w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t i m e available

to devote to the unexpected ta s k s

whi ch i n v a r i ­

ably a r i s e . Some s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l f i n d s e v e r a l wor k u n i t s

it

n e c e s s a r y t o use

i n o r d e r t o measure t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of

t h e work f o r wh i c h t h e y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e , f i n d one wor k u n i t

sufficient.

The d i f f e r e n c e

on t h e d e g r e e o f h o m o g e n e i t y of t h e w o r k . to selec t u n its

w i l l depend

It i s d e s i r a b l e

wh i c h a r e a s b r o a d a s p o s s i b l e

whi ch w i l l r e f l e c t other a c t i v i t i e s

while o t h e r s w i l l

and t h o s e

p ro p o rtio n a lly the f l u c t u a t i o n

of

not d i r e c t l y measured.

For i n s t a n c e , in a c o l l e c t i o n d i v i s i o n the " number o f r e m i t t a n c e s r e c e i v e d . ” m i g h t be a c c e p t e d a s t h e i n d e x o f p r o d u c t i o n o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s of t h e division. L i k e w i s e t h e " n u mb e r o f c h e c k s w r i t t e n ” c o u l d be a c c e p t e d a s t h e i n d e x m e a s u r e of a l l a c t i v i t i e s in a s e c t i o n of t h e c a s h i e r ’s d e p a r t ­ m e n t , e v e n t h o u g h many o p e r a t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o w ritin g checks, are performed. I t c a n be a s s ume d t h a t in g e n e r s l these other o p e ra tio n s are e i t h e r n o n - v a r i a b l e or w i l l i n c r e a s e or d e c re a se with the n u mb e r o f u n i t s h a n d l e d . - ^ ■^Loveridge,

op>. c i t . , p . 8 3 .

^ F ;. L. R o w l a n d , " I n d i c a t e d T r e n d s I n O f f i c e m a n a g e ­ m e n t , " P r o g r e s s i v e O f f i c e Management P o l i c i e s ( A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 19 39"), O f f i c e Management S e r i e s , Ho. 8 6 , p . 7 .

The u n i t

s h o u l d be s i m p l e t o c o u n t ,

c o u n tin g should cause as l i t t l e practice is

it

and t b e a c t o f

d e l a y as p o s s i b l e .

In

w i l l o f t e n be p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t a u n i t

wh i c h

r e g u l a r l y counted f o r o th e r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes thus

o b v i a t i n g t h e v;orl whi ch a s p e c i a l c o u n t Yvould n e c e s s i t a t e . Miss Wirt has c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e r e about fiv e

different

(special

automatic counters The e f f e c t

count;

scales);

nTh.ey

(2) numbered f o r m s ;

(4)

weight;

a nd ( 5 )

on m a c h i n e s . 11 of a_ f i x e d f a c t o r .

measure p r o d u c t i o n or s e r v i c e ed b y f i x e d f a c t o r s example,

in g e n e ra l

ways t o c o u n t u n i t p r o d u c t i o n .

a r e by ( 1 ) n u m e r i c a l ( m a n u a l) (3) measurement

are

The u n i t u s e d t o

is quite

l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t ­

in the s i t u a t i o n being measured.

in government th e b a s i c

law o f t e n s t a t e s

For

that a

g i v e n p i e c e o f work m u s t be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n a f i x e d p e r i o d of time w ithout r e f e r e n c e

to co st.

stipulation

l i k e l y t o be a d o p t e d a s t h e

of t h e lawT i s

standard f o r production regardless

12

13 14

biles

and b i l e s ,

o p

In t h a t

event the

of w h e t h e r t h e

standard

. c i t . , p. 180.

Howl a n d , ojp. c i t . , p . 8 .

M a r i o n A. W i r t , "The Use of Work U n i t s and M e a s u r ­ e d P r o d u c t i o n i n C l e r i c a l Work” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , June, 1940), p. 37.

108 i s good o r b a d . lim itations

In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s

Imposed by t h e b u d g e t

f a c t o r y performance r e g a r d l e s s performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y

o p e ra tio n w ith in the

i s a c c e p t e d as s a t i s ­

of w h e t h e r t h e work i s

or with e f f i c i e n c y .

C o n c r e t e r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a f f e c t e d by a f i x e d f a c t o r o r ’’b o t t l e n e c k ” i n t h a t any f a s t e r t h a n th e

t h e work c a n n o t p r o g r e s s

c o n c r e te mixer can produce.

Planning,

s c h e d u l i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e work i n v o l v ­ ed I n c o n c r e t e r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n mu s t be b a s e d on t h e known productive

c a p a c i t y of t h e m i x e r .

Because the mixer

introduces

a fix ed f a c to r in to the s i t u a t i o n ,

u n n e c e s s a r y t o measure performance of the activities,

it

is

often

o t h e r c ompone nt

f o r in o r d e r t o keep the m ixer o p e r a t i n g at

f u l l capacity there

I s o f n e c e s s i t y a c e r t a i n amount of

u n p r o d u c t i v e t i m e wh i c h m u s t be c h a r g e d up t o t h e t r u c k s and o t h e r s u p p l e m e n t a r y e q u i p m e n t a s w e l l as t o t h e p e r s o n n e l engaged i n t h e i r it

operation.

On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,

i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e r a t i o

of

e q u i p m e n t a nd p e r s o n n e l t o u s e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e m ixer. III.

MEASURING QUALITY OB PERFORMANCE

I n many I n s t a n c e s t h e same u n i t w i l l b o t h q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f p e r f o r m a n c e .

serve t o measure F o r example i n

t h e s t a n d a r d s e t by L o v e r i d g e , p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d in

109 this

c h a p t e r , t h e r e d u c t i o n o f b u r n e d a c r e a g e t o 0 . 2 % of

t h e t o t a l a c r e a g e woul d c o n s t i t u t e

adequate performance

i n t e r r a s of b o t h q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . In t h e o f f i c e

situation

errors

be t a k e n a s a r e s u l t

of e r r o r s

are o f t e n used as a u n i t

f o r m easuring q u a l i t y of perform ance.

or a c tio n s

w h i c h mus t

In t a k i n g cla im s

f o r o l d - a g e and s u r i v v o r s b e n e f i t s t h e S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Board r e c o r d s t h e number of c l a i m s

interview s handled,

t h e number of c o m p e n s a b l e c a s e s a c c e n t e d , a n d t h e number of r e f e r r a l s

of w r i t t e n c a s e r e p o r t s f r o m W a s h i n g t o n b a c k

to the d i s t r i c t

offices.

In t h i s

situation

the

referral

i s t h e u n i t u s e d f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e q u a l i t y of p e r f o r m a n c e of th e I V.

claims in te r v ie w e r s . DETERMINING TEE EFF ORT Eh ICE: SkOULD BE EXPENDED IN ATTAINING TEE OBJECTIVE Time e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f man and m a c h i n e h o u r s

i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a s t h e mos t s a t i s f a c t o r y u n i t f o r measuring e f f o r t . . . . The man h o u r I s t h e b e s t common d e n o m i ­ n a t o r , because the working r e l a t i o n s between . . . jobs are n e a r l y always time r e l a t i o n s . Ea c h o f t h e s e v e r a l h u n d r e d j o b s b e i n g done by a n o f f i c e must be s y n c h r o n i z e d i f c o s t l y d e l a y i s t o be a v o i d e d . E a c h t a s k mus t h a v e a d e f i n i t e p e r f o r m a n c e t i m e and an e q u i v a l e n t a mount of work t i m e m u s t be s e t a s i d e for i t . 15

Coms t ock G l a s e r , T,A R o t e On E x e c u t i v e P l a n n i n g , ” The S o c i e t y F o r t h e Ad v a n c e m e n t o f Management J o u r n a l ( J u l y , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 114.

110

The f a i l u r e

o f a p l a n o f o p e r a t i o n when p u t t o t h e t e s t

in a c t u a l p r a c t i c e tim ing.

c a n u s u a l l y he t i e d

Then a s c h e d u l e

found t h a t perfect,

almost

is placed

in o p e r a t io n ,

it

is

i n v a r i a b l y the time allowances are not

w h i c h n a t u r a l l y means t h a t

be f l e x i b l e

up w i t h f a u l t y

t h e t i m e b u d g e t mu s t

s o t h a t a d j u s t m e n t s c a n be m a d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y

for underestimates

G laser has concluded t h a t

rru n l e s s

t h e t i m e f a c t o r c a n be t h o r o u g h l y m a s t e r e d mana gement p l a n *j r y

n i n g c a n n e v e r be e f f e c t i v e . 11

The t i m e u n i t h a s an a d d i t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s i n c e effort

e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s of t i m e c a n be r e a d i l y c o n v e r t ­

ed i n t o c o s t s wh i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y c o m p a r a b l e , b e c a u s e t h e time u n i t

is

independent

of ch ange s

costs

of m a t e r i a l s ,

there

i s a c h a n g e i n work l o a d . When t h e

in r a t e s

o f wages o r

and s h o u l d r e m a i n c o n s t a n t u n l e s s

s u p e r v i s o r launches a program to determ ine

t h e t i m e w h i c h s h o u l d be d e v o t e d t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a given ta s k , t i r ne f i g u r e s t h e work a s

t h e r e may be some q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r t h e s h o u l d be b a s e d u p o n t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o do i t h a s b e e n done o r a s i t

s h o u l d be d o n e .

t h e p r e s e n t m e t h o d s I n u s e and t h e a l l o c a t i o n the various 16 17

If

of t i m e among

j o b s a r e b e l i e v e d t o be a d e q u a t e , t i m e f i g u r e s

Pinrichs,

ojo. c i t . , p .

10.

Comst ock G l a s e r , A d m l n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e ( A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l On P u b l i c A f f a i r s , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 1 6 5 .

Ill b a s e d on e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s may be s a t i s f a c t o r y .

Ho we v e r ,

t i m e a l l o w a n c e s w h i c h a r e b a s e d on t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m a g i v e n .job o r a c t i v i t y reliable,

in the p a st

are o f t e n un­

f o r the

. . . i n f o r m a t i o n y i e l d e d by a n a l y s e s of t h e of s t a f f t i m e do e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t t h e p r o p r i a t e a l l o c a t i o n of t i m e t o e a c h p r o g r a m o r a c t i v i t y ; t h e t i m e s t u d y m e a s u r e s t h e amount o f e x p e n d_e d u n 1d Q e r e x i s t i n gt-J a d m i n i s t r a t i v e zp r a c t i c e s procedures. The F o r e s t S e r v i c e

in e s t a b l i s h i n g

use ap­ time a nd

s ta n d a r d time

a l l o w a n c e s t h r o u g h t h e u s e of t h e i r ” d i a r y s y s t e m ” h a v e found the tim es re c o rd e d t h e r e i n are o f t e n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y criteria

o f t h e t i m e wh i c h s h o u l d be s p e n t

For example,

it

is very easy fo r a f o r e s t

on a g i v e n j o b . o f fic e r to ride

a h o b b y and t h e r e b y d e v o t e more t i m e t o t h a t a c t i v i t y t h a n t h e n e e d s o f t h e a c t i v i t y de ma nd.

I f on t h e

he h a s b e e n n e g l e c t i n g t o k e e p h i s t r a i l s

o t h e r hand

i n shape and

c o n s e q u e n t l y h a s n ’ t b e e n c h a r g i n g much t i m e t o t h i s t h e a c t u a l t i m e s p e n t on t h e a c t i v i t y criteria

w i l l a g a i n be a p o o r

of th e tim e needed t o h a n d le t h e

As a c o n s e q u e n c e ,

wo r k ,

work p r o p e r l y . 19

in o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h th e p ro p e r time

18

J o e l Go r don a n d B y r o n T. H i p p i e , A n a l y z i n g The Use Of S t a f f Time I n P u b l i c Ass 1 s t a n c e A g e n c i e s , R e p o r t Uo. 10 o f t h e E u r e a u of R e s e a r c h and S t a t i s t i c s , U n i t e d S t a t e s S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Board (Government F r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 1 ) , p. iv , foreword. 19

I . o v e r i d g e , op.

cit.,

p p . 28 f f .

112

requirem ents f o r performing a given job, the f ig u r e s be b a s e d on t h e t i m e e x p e n d e d i n d o i n g t h e way t h a t t h e

his unit

job in such a

o b je c tiv e s are p ro p erly a ch iev e d . ^

mea ns t h a t t h e

should

s u p e r v i s o r mus t i d e n t i f y t h e

This

objectives

of

i n t e r m s of q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n

required taking into consideration a ll He m u s t d i s c o v e r u n i t s

,ff i x e d f a c t o r s . n

w h i c h w i l l m e a s u r e q u a n t i t y and

q u a l i t y and m u s t t h e n d e t e r m i n e how much e f f o r t m u s t be expended, i n a t t a i n i n g t h e r e q u i r e d

q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of

pro d u ctio n or s e r v i c e . The m e t h o d s w h i c h a r e commonly u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount o f t i m e w h i c h s h o u l d be d e v o t e d t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of a g i v e n element categories.

o f work c a n be g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e b r o a d

They a r e :

( 1 ) by j u d g m e n t ;

(2)

th r o u g h time

and m o ti o n s t u d y i n c l u d i n g m ic r o m o t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ; on t h e b a s i s

of v a r i o u s f o r m s

Production records are

time s t u d y .

o f t e n m entioned as a s e p a r a t e

method b u t t h e y a r e r e a l l y A*

of s t r a i g h t

and ( 3 )

a form of a time s t u d y .

S e t t i n g S t a n d a r d s by Judgment .

Some

p r o p o n e n t s of s c i e n t i f i c ma na ge me nt h a v e b e e n v e r y c r i t i c a l of s t a n d a r d s

set through

judgment.

within reason to c r i t i c i z e ards

in a c t i v i t i e s 20

Ib id .,

It

is perhaps e n t i r e l y

t h e u s e o f !?h o r e e s e n s e ” s t a n d ­

i n w h i c h more o b j e c t i v e

p . 26.

standards are

115 available,

yet

i t m u s t be a d m i t t e d t h a t many a c t i v i t i e s

have been e f f e c t i v e l y s u p e r v i s e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a n d a r d s b a se d e n t i r e l y a r d s b a s e d on t h e personnel tive

is

subjective

on j u d g m e n t .

In f a c t ,

stand­

judgment of e x p e r i e n c e d

o f t e n an a p p r o a c h t o more p r e c i s e

and o b j e c ­

standards. In the United S t a t e s F o r e s t

activities

S e r v i c e and i n c e r t a i n

of th e Rural E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n A d m i n is tr a t io n

time s t a n d a r d s a re f i r s t

established

i n a c o n f e r e n c e of

t h e e m p l o y e e s e f f e c t e d and a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v i s e d t o b r i n g them in l i n e

with a c t u a l e x p e r ie n c e .

dure s e r v e s a t w o - f o l d p u rp o se . responsibilities basis

Suc h a p r o c e ­

The i n d i v i d u a l e m p l o y e e s ’

are d e f i n e d and,

in a d d itio n to t h i s ,

i s prov ided f o r un iform agreement

a

on what i s t o be

e x p e c t e d i n t h e way o f p e r f o r m a n c e . Standards

of p e r f o r m a n c e b a s e d on j u d g m e n t a r e

o ften the only sta n d a rd s a v a i la b l e

to the

i s d i r e c t i n g work o f a r e s e a r c h n a t u r e . in accu racy th ey are u s u a l l y e s s e n t i a l ,

In s p i t e

time.

contemplation

of t h e employees engaged t h e r e i n

ly hard fo r the

of t h e i r

f o r i n any a c t i v i t y

r e q u i r i n g a c e r t a i n amount of r e f l e c t i v e on t h e p a r t

s u p e r v i s o r who

it

is extreme­

supervisor to co n tro l the expenditure

Experience has in d ic a te d th a t th e re

of

is a tendency

f o r e v e n t h e m o s t c o n s c i e n t i o u s w o r k e r t o " d r a g o u t " an assignment u n less th e re

is a ten ta tiv e

date

set for its

114 completion. result

The d e l a y i n c o m p l e t i o n i s n o t u s u a l l y t h e

of w i l l f u l s o l d i e r i n g , h u t

i s more l i k e l y t o r e s u l t

f r o m a d d i t i o n a l t i m e e x p e n d e d i n an e f f o r t the q u a lity

of t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t .

This in i t s e l f

u n d e s i r a b l e , h u t i t m u s t he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t d a n g e r of employees s p e n d i n g i n o r d i n a t e on a m e n i a l a s s i g n m e n t

if

a tentative

i s not e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e

supervisor.

F o r even t h e most i n t a n g i v l e ly desirable at

for the

to increase

there

i s not is

some

amounts of t im e

completion deadline

assignment i t

s u p e r v i s o r a nd s u b o r d i n a t e

is high­

to arrive

some k i n d of an a g r e e m e n t on t h e t i m e t o be e x p e n d e d .

The t i m e s t a n d a r d s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be b a s e d upon t h e collective However,

if

judgment of th e s u p e r v i s o r and s u b o r d i n a t e . it

is

an a s s i g n m e n t

on wh i c h t h e r e h a s b e e n

n o p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t o g u i d e e i t h e r one i n a r r i v i n g at

a reasonable f ig u r e ,

the subordinate it

wri l l

it

is

to survey the

often advisable to allow j o b and e s t i m a t e t h e t i m e

t a k e hi m t o c o m p l e t e t h e n e c e s s a r y wo r k .

He s h o u l d

s c h e d u l e h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g l y , and a l t h o u g h t h e a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e t i m e may v a r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h e three d is tin c t

estim ate,

adv an tag e s w i l l accrue from such a p r o c e d u r e .

In the f i r s t s t a n d i n g between th e

place

it

estab lish es s general under­

s u p e r v i s o r and t h e s u b o r d i n a t e

t h e approxi mat e t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t s reducing the p o s i b i l i t y

of t h e

on

job, thereby

o f f u t u r e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r what

115 constitutes

s a t i s f a c t o r y performance.

the e s t im a t e , subordinate,

particularly

if

it

i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e

a c t s as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l

Un i o n s s u b s c r i b e

to th is

In t h e s e c o n d p l a c e

stim ulant to produce.

t h e o r y a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e f o l l o w ­

ing s t a te m e n t : A w o r k e r wl 1 1 want t o l i v e up t o o_ s t a n d a r d t h a t he h i m s e l f h e l p s t o s e t and a g r e e s t o . T h e r e can be no d i s p u t e b e t w e e n f o r e m e n and men a b o u t t h e p r o p e r s p e e d of work when p r o d u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y s e t up by a g r e e m e n t b e t ween t h e u n i o n and, man a g e me n t . 2 1 The t h i r d

a d v a n ta g e a c c r u e s from t h e f a c t

t h a t by e s t a b ­

l i s h i n g e v e n a r o u g h e s t i m a t e t h e s u p e r v i s o r w i l l know7 a p p r o x i m a t e l y when t h e

subordinate

should

be a v a i l a b l e

for

a d d itio n a l assignments. S t a n d a r d s b a s e d on j u d g m e n t s h o u l d be u s e d o n l y a s an e x p e d i e n t recurrent. be k e p t

of t h e f i r s t

instance

if

t h e work i s t o become

In o t h e r wor ds a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s

in order t h a t f u tu r e

t h e more o b j e c t i v e •

should

e s t i m a t e s may be b a s e d upon

d a t a t h e r e b y made a v a i l a b l e .

Time and mot i o n and m l c r o m o t i o n t e c h n i q u e s .

Time and m o t i o n s t u d y i n t h e s h o p s i g n i f i c a n c e i s b e i n g u s e d more and more i n t h e

office

particularly

of p r i v a t e

in the

larger offices

of t h e t e r m

situation; industry.



P r o d u c t i o n P r o b l e m s , A h a n d b o o k f o r Commi t t eemen of L o c a l l o d g e s o f S_. b . 0 . C_. ( S t e e l P o r k e r s O r g a n i z i n g Committee, P i t t s b u r g h , u n d a t e d ) Pub. h o . 2 , pp. 1 0 - 1 1 .

116

However " f r o m a p r a c t i c a l obtainable

point

from u t i l i z a t i o n

at too great a cost

of view t h e e x t r a

savings

o f t h e s e m e t h o d s may be s e c u r e d

of o f f i c e m o r a l e t o w a r r e n t t h e i r u s e . " ^

T h e s e m e t h o d s a r e u s u a l l y f r o w n e d upon t h r o u g h t r a d i t i o n mor1© t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e ed w i t h t h e

sin c e they are u n i v e r s a l l y a s s o c i a t ­

" s p e e d up" i n t h e a v e r a g e e m p l o y e e ’ s m i n d .

Congress has e x p re ssed

its

a n t i p a t h y toward the

" s p e e d up"

by s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t i n g t h e use of r e c o r d i n g c l o c k s

in

a n y of t h e e x e c u t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s i n W a s h i n g t o n and s i n c e 1916 r i d e r s h a v e b e e n a t t a c h e d t o t h e a n n u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r t h e b a r and Navy D e p a r t m e n t s p r o h i b i t i n g t h e u s e of sto p watches in United S t a t e s A rs e n a ls , It the p a rt

is possible th at

O T

°

t h e r e woul d be l e s s

objection

on

o f e m p l o y e e s t o t h e more r e f i n e d t e c h n i q u e s em­

b o d i e d i n t i m e and m o t i o n s t u d y and m i c r o m o t i o n s t u d y i f t h e work was c o n d u c t e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r . o f an i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e a nd down t h e s p i n e states

office

of m o s t p u b l i c

The v e r y t h o u g h t

causes j i t t e r s employees.

t o r u n up

Fatbauer

that, . . . t h e c h i e f r e a s o n why m o t i o n s t u d y h a s n o t b e e n more g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a s a p p l i c a b l e t o o f f i c e p r a c t ic e s is because i t s b asic p r i n c i p le s are not op

Eugene J . E e n g e , C u t t i n g C l e r i c a l C o s t s I ' i l l Book C o . , New Y o r k , 19 5 1 ) , pp.. 56 f f . 23 tration

(DcGraw-

J o h n M. P f i f f n e r , R e s e a r c h Me t hods I n P u b l i c Ydi r i n l s ( R o n a l d P r e s s C o . , New York, 1 9 4 0 j , pp. 3 1 5 - 3 1 6 f f .

117

g e n e r a lly understood, la r g e ly f o r the reason th a t I t i s human n a t u r e t o l o o t aA s k a n c e a t a n y t h i n g whi ch l a c k s t v e t i n t of r e a l i t y . ^ 4 This

in i t s e l f

practices niques

is perhaps s u f f i c i e n t

reason fo r confining

for e sta b lis h in g standards

which a r e

of p e r f o r m a n c e t o t e c h ­

s i m p l e e n o u g h t o he p e r f o r m e d by t h e a v e r a g e

superv is o r . C.

T inie s t u d y m e t h o d s .

m e t h o d s w i t h w h i c h we a r e c o n c e r n e d g r o u p e d i n t o t wo b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s

in t h i s

record

i t him self,

the

s t u d y c a n be

whi ch a r e b a s e d on t h e

me t h o d o f r e c o r d i n g t h e t i m e d a t a . subject

The t i m e s t u d y

One

other is

i s t o have th e t o h a v e an o b s e r v e r

a c c o mp a n y t h e w o r k e r and r e c o r d t h e t i m e d a t a . The O b s e r v a t i o n T e c h n i q u e .

■— —

............................ .

«„



,

i -i -

i .



,i.

.

11x .

i s commonly u s e d i n s i t u a t i o n s



i n whi c h

have very a c c u r a t e time r e p o r t i n g , t h e use of a s t o p w a t c h . a situation

is

and i t

i t is imperative

to

u su a lly involves

p a r tic u la r ly valuable

in

in which t h e time r e q u i r e d t o perfo rm a g r e a t

many d i f f e r e n t for it

It

The " o b s e r v e r " me t h o d

elements

i s almost

of work must be r e c o r d e d s e p a r a t e l y

im possible f o r the s u b je c t to record the

time data under th e s e

circumstances.

Henry F. F a t h a u e r , "Fun dam ental P r i n c i p l e s Under­ l y i n g t h e P l a n n i n g O f f i c e F o u t i n e s , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e 1954 d p e c l a l C o n f e r e n c e s ( L i f e O f f i c e ' nnagement A s s o c l , F o r t b a y n e , I n d i a n a , 19 5 4 ) , p . 5 5 .

118 The C s l i f o r n i s

S t a t e B e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n in

c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e B u r e a u of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ' U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a ,

c o n d u c t e d an e x p e r i m e n t a 3. s t u d y

d u r i n g 1940 i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e hov. l a r g e f o r most e f f i c i e n t professional in t h i s the

operation,

case w o r k e r s .

in s ta n c e ; however,

a work l o a d ,

s h o u l d he a s s i g n e d

to the

The o b s e r v e r m e t h o d was u s e d it

was somewhat u n i q u e i n t h a t

o b s e r v e r was a c o - w o r k e r o f t h e

i n d i v i d u a l being; t i m e d

r a t h e r t v an an Mo u t s i d e r . " ^^ The d e f e c t s around t h e

of the

artificial

o b s e r v e r me t h o d c e n t e r m a i n l y

work s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s c r e a t e d

b e c a u s e t h e w o r k e r knows he i s u n d e r o b s e r v a t i o n .

For th is

r e a s o n w o r k e r s t e n d t o be n e r v o u s and u n d e r t e n s i o n

and may

p r o d u c e more work d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n whi ch t h e y a r e u n d e r o b s e r v a t i o n t h a n c a n o r d i n a r i l y be e x p e c t e d long p e rio d of tim e .

This u s u a l ly develops

wh i c h i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t C alifornia

to c o n tr o l ; however,

over a

i n t o a problem in the

s t u d y r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e t h e y wer e s u c c e s s f u l

i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e human f a c t o r t o a c e r t a i n

degree.^

— H e r b e r t A. S i m o n , W i l l i a m R. D i v i n e , E. hyl . es C o o p e r , and M i l t o n C h e r n i n , D e t e r m i n i n g Work I o a d s f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f i n £ P u b l i c Be I f a r e Agency ( Bur- e a u of "Publ i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1 9 4 1 ) , 94 p p . 26 F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t s e e : H e r b e r t A. Simon and W i l l i a m R. D i v i n e , " C o n t r o l l i n g Human F a c t o r s i n an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e E x p e r i m e n t , " P u b l i c A d i n i n i s t r a t i o n Rev i e w ( Aut umn, 1 9 4 1 ) , p p . 4 8 5 - 4 9 3 . .

The D i a r y T e c h n i q u e . le a d in g , but tales

place

it

The word d i a r y may/ be m i s ­

is n evertheless

expressive

in t h a t th e worker r e c o rd s h i s

o f what a c t u a l l own t i m e ;

u s u a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o some p r e d e t e r m i n e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n * The p r o p o n e n t s of t h e d i a r y m e t h o d p o i n t

out t h a t

it

p r o v i d e s a m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e amount o f t i m e v h i c h i s b e i n g e x p e n d e d w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g an a r t i f i c i a l situation

working

o r a r o u s i n g und u e a p r e h e n s i o n among e m p l o y e e s .

Furthermore,

it

p r o v i d e s a method of a c c u m u l a t i n g c o n t i n u ­

o us t i m e r e c o r d s

if that

w i l l be d i s c u s s e d

is deemed d e s ira b le .

su b s e q u e n tly in t h i s

This p o i n t

section.

The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i o n t o a s y s t e m of t i m e s t u d y i n which t h e workers r e c o r d t h e i r in a c cu ra cies w ill creep in .

i s t h a t many

The i n a c c u r a c y of t h e t i m e

d a t a c a n u s u a l l y be a t t r i b u t e d follow ing conditions

own t i m e

t o one o r more o f t h e

or reasons:

1. There i s a n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y f o r employees t o d e l a y t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t i m e e x p e n d e d u n t i l t h e end of t h e due.

d a y , we e k , o r mont h when t h e r e p o r t b e c o me s Delay in r e c o r d i n g n a t u r a l l y causes th e data

t o b e b a s e d a l m o s t a s much on j u d g m e n t a s a c t u a l measurement. 2 . T h e r e i s some r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t e m p l o y e e s are capable

of d i s t r i b u t i n g

or fo u r c a t e g o r i e s , b u t

t h e i r t i m e among t h r e e

in c ase s

i n whi c h many

120

o p e r a t i o n s m u s t be t i m e d w i t h p r e c i s i o n , accurate re su lts c o m p i l e d by t h e

c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d f r o m r e c o r d s individual

worker.

a t t e m p t t o do s o may i n t e r f e r e and a f f e c t 3.

the r e l i a b i l i t y

I f t h e e mp l o y e e f e e l s it

is

sufficiently

that

In f a c t any

with the ro utin e

of the d a t a . it

w i l l b u i l d up h i s

job

o n l y n a t u r a l f o r h i m t o ’’F u d g e 0 h i s t i m e

r e c o r d and show’ more t i m e on t h e more r e s p o n s i b l e activities t o them.

t h a t he p e r f o r m s t h a n he a c t u a l l y d e v o t e s This

is p a r t i c u l a r l y tru e

or r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n

if classification

i s t o be b a s e d on t h e s e d a t a .

4 . Most o f t h e f o r m s on whi ch t h e e m p l o y e e t a b u l a t e s h i s t i m e c o n t a i n a c ol umn h e a d e d ’’m i s c e l l a n e o u s . ” T h i s col umn t e n d s t o become a c a t c h - a l l f o r u n p r o 07 d u c t i v e m i n u t e s wh i c h c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r . D u r a t i o n of t h e tim e s t u d y . study data th e re at the o u ts e t,

In g a t h e r i n g t h e tim e

i s alw ays an immediate q u e s t i o n t o d e c i d e

a nd t h a t

time d a ta as the F o r e s t

is whether to c o l l e c t continuous S e rv ice does or whether t o measure

t h e t i m e e x p e n d e d d u r i n g what i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a r e p r e ­ sentative

period.

C o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d i n g o f t i m e by t h e

i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r o f t e n be comes e x c e e d i n g l y b u r d e n s o m e , and because

of t h a t f a c t t h e d a t a r e c o r d e d a r e o f t e n u n r e l i a b l e . 27

W irt,

oj3. c i t . , p . 4 2 .

121

There

I s some r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d i n g

of time expended has been s u c c e s s f u l in the F o r e s t S e r v i c e because Forest

of t h e i r e x t e n s i v e

S e rv ice employees a re c o n s t a n t l y b eing

with th e

importance

general they re a liz e in is

and bro ad t r a i n i n g

policy. impressed

of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r d i a r i e s that

the

a c t u a l l y being, u t i l i z e d

a nd i n

information contained th e r e ­ as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

and

supervisory guide. The F o r e s t S e r v i c e woul d p r o b a b l y f i n d

i t un­

n e c e s s a r y t o ke ep a c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d of time expended if

t h e d a t a were t o be u s e d f o r t h e

t e r m i n i n g p r o p e r time a l l o w a n c e s . i n f o r m a t i o n on work l o a d t r e n d s

sole p urpose of d e ­ The d i a r y p r o v i d e s

and a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e d a t a

which are n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i s e time a llo w a n c e s . In e s t a b l i s h i n g

w e i g h t e d wor k u n i t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g

a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e xp en se s by programs th e U n ite d S t a t e s S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Bo a r d h a s e n d e a v o r e d t o tiv e periods

i n wh i c h t o a n a l y z e t h e t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t s

of t h e i r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . here c e n te rs period.

select representa­

The p r o b l e m w h i c h a r i s e s

around t h e s e l e c t i o n

of a t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

The S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B o a r d h a d t o a t t e m p t t o f i n d

a p e r i o d d u r i n g whi c h v.ori

was b e i n g p e r f o r m e d on a l l

p r o g r a m’s o f t h e a g e n c y and one i n w h i c h a l l

jobs Involved

i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o f t h e v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s we r e p e r ­ formed.

I t was a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o a v o i d a p e r i o d

In which

122

special effo rt single

aspect

was b e i n g d e v o t e d t o one p r o g r a m o r a op o f one p r o g r a m .

The . S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Boa r d f e e l s t h a t t h e u s e of a representative

period

is

“ r e a s o n a b l y s o u n d ” and b a s e s i t s

a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m on t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : ( 1 ) T h a t u n i t s o f work c a n be m e a s u r e d on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s more e a s i l y t h a n t i m e s p e n t . (2) That the a verage time r e q u i r e d t o perform a g i v e n t y p e o f work u n i t w i l l r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of t i m e , b a r r i n g r a d i c a l changes in p r o c e d u r e s . ( 3 ) T h a t t h e number o f u n i t s o f work a c t u a l l y performed during a given p e rio d is the important v a r i a b l e t o be m e a s u r e d . ^9 The d a t a g a t h e r e d by t h e s a m p l i n g m e t h o d may be more r e l i a b l e

a t t h e t i m e of c o l l e c t i o n t h a n d a t a c o l l e c t ­

ed by c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d i n g a s i s done i n t h e F o r e s t Service. nature,

However i f and t h e r e

t h e work i n q u e s t i o n

is

o f a dyna mi c

i s a c o n s t a n t change i n o b j e c t i v e

pro ced u res, methods, e t c .

the o r i g i n a l time allow ances

a r e l i k e l y t o be out mode d a l m o s t b e f o r e t h e y a r e e s t a b ­ lished.

I n some i n s t a n c e s

it

w i l l be p o s s i b l e

t o mee t

t h i s p r o b l e m by s u b s e q u e n t s a m p l i n g t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the

o r i g i n a l allowances are s t i l l

accurate,

^ G o r d o n and H i p p i e , o p . c i t . , p p . 29

and i f t h e y

12-16.

U n i t e d S t a t e s S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B o a r d , D i v i s i o n of P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e R e s e a r c h , F i e l d Memorandum R S - l y 1 5 , September 6 , 1939, pp. 1-2 f f .

125 are found in a d e q u a te ,

t o a d j u s t them.

w i l l no d o u b t be i m p o s s i b l e by s a m p l i n g . to reso rt

In o t h e r c a s e s i t

to maintain c o rre c t

In t h o s e c a s e s

it

standards

w i l l p r o b a b l y be n e c e s s a r y

t o the c o n tin u o u s r e c o r d i n g of time expended.

Supervision.

In o r d e r t o s e c u r e r e l i a b l e

and u s e ­

f u l t i m e a l l o w a n c e s by t h e

d i a r y me t h o d i t

ex ercise close supervision

o v e r t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t i m e by

the in d iv id u a l employees.

This is p a r t i c u l a r l y

the data are c o lle c te d

is necessary to

true

only during a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e

when period,

and i n t h a t c a s e a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u l d be made f o r a. s p e c i a l s u p e r v i s o r t o answer the em plo yees’ q u e s t io n s distribute three

on how t o

t h e i r t im e , d u r i n g a t l e a s t the f i r s t

days of t h e p e r i o d b e i n g a n a l y z e d .

In l a r g e

i z a t i o n s th e b e g i n n i n g of t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e the various u n its

is

often s lig h tly

t wo or

staggered

period

organ­ in

in order to

allow/ t h e specie.], s u p e r v i s o r t o i n t r o d u c e t h e s t u d y i n each u n i t . able

The S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B o a r d h a s f o u n d i t

t o make some e m p l o y e e o f e a c h u n i t

desir­

o th er than the

re g u la r su p e rv iso r s o le ly resp o n sib le f o r the

supervision

of tim e r e c o r d i n g a f t e r t h e s p e c i a l s u p e r v i s o r departs.*" Any t i m e s p e n t of th e

in t r a i n i n g th e employees in terms

o b

■ ■ '.j

n

o1

P H PF f H hP ;j_,

c

X

M PP I—i hP P-< pH a

F> j :

O i- to < S / u r

f> .

a

12. A p p llo a tlo n . s u p p o r tin g p a p e r s , and t h r e e o o p le s o f DC 28 r o u te d to C o n f i d e n t ia l In d e x . 1 3 . The f o u r t h oopy o f DC 28 la r o u te d t o th e ASA D l s t r l o t In whloh o ase I s t o b e open ed . I k . C o n f i d e n t ia l Index opens o ase to S p e o la l A id D iv is io n . 1 5 . C o n f i d e n ti a l In d ex fo rw a rd s a p p l l o a t l o n , o a s e , and s u p p o r tin g p a p e rs t o S t a t e Aid B u s in e ss O f f lo e . 16. S t a t e Aid B u e ln e ss O f flo e r a g l s t e r e th e a p p l l o a t l o n , a s s i g n s o a s e to th e p r o p e r ASA D l s t r l o t and C ase W orker. 17. A p p llo a tlo n , e a s e , and s u p p o r tin g p a p e rs s e n t to ASA D l s t r l o t O f f lo e . 1 8 . S t a t e Aid Case W orker o a l l s on th e a p p l l o a n t and p ro o e e d s w ith th e I n v e s tig a tio n . 19. S t a t e Aid Case Worker d l o t a t e s th e o a se h i s t o r y , an d p r e p a r e s th e n e o e e s a ry p a p e rs f o r f i l i n g . 2 0 . Case W orker s u b a i te th e a p p l i c a t i o n and s u p p o r tin g p a p e rs w ith th e o a e e f i l e t o th e R eview er. 2 . . R eview er in e p e o ts a l l p ap ere f o r o o a p le te n e e e and a o o u ra o y . F i l l s o u t S t a t e F o ra e . 2 2 . A p p llo a tlo n , S t a t e f o r a e , and s u p p o r tin g p a p e rs s e n t to S t a t e Aid B u s in e s s O f f lo e . 2 3 . Case f i l e r e t u r n e d to Caee W orker. • S o u ro e : L.A . County D s p a rta e n t o f C h a r i t i e s , DEPARTMENTAL

NOTICE

No. 117.

/W O K

/ $

— 3 0 4 2 /3 /7

/f'/C