A Directed Observation of Certain Principles of Teaching: A Sound Motion Picture Film

Citation preview


by Garold Delbert Hol stin©

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Education, in the Graduate College of the State University of Iowa

ice of tbe camera and sound, recording apparatus is determined by the iraterial to be pro­ duced. As the number of variations required in­ creases, the need for care of proper selection of equipment Increases* In recording slow motion pictures a camera with varying speeds is essential. Lenses of different focal lengths must be used when the element of distance enters In. For In­ terior scenes it is necessary to use lenses with greater speed than ordinary lenses. The most convenient camera size is the sixteen millimeter. It is quite essential that the best sound record­ ing apparatus be used, If possible. Poor sound can practically ruin an otherwise good film. Selection of Film Stock.- The selection of film stock is of utmost Importance if both good .

E* C. Dent, The Audio-V13ual Handbook, Chicago; The society for Visual Education, 19&9, pp. 115-120. 33Easfcman Kodak company. How to Make Good Movies, Rochester: Eastman Kodak Co., 193§. C* Keisling, Talking Pictures, Hew Yorks Johnson Publishing Co., 1937, pp. 164-208* 3?B. V. Morkovln, The Fundamentals of Motion picture Production, Los Angeles; ftlie University of southern California, 1936, pp. 20-38 , 48-115. 3®H» Nanrburg, We Make the Movies, New Yorks Horton and Co., 1937, pp. 143-216.

W* W.

Rand and R. Lewis, Film and School, Hew York; p. Appleton-Century Co., 1937,pp. 61-96•

picture and sound reproduction are desirable* Super-sensitive film should be used in poor light or for pictures under artificial light, since It is more sensitive to artificial light than Is either regular or panchromatic film* It is one of three classifications of the reversible film; namely, ortho chromatic, panchromatic, and super-sensitive* The re­ versible film is converted from negative to positive in the processing and comes back to the photographer ready for processing* negative stock should be used for those pictures which are to be used for several prints* After the picture and sound films are exposed and developed separately, they must be matched and prepared for the sychronlzation process for the final, combined print* Extreme car© Is also neces­ sary in this process* ^Shooting” the Picture*- in order to avoid the unnecessary 1wasfing of expensive film. It is quite important that the photographers become well s c v q qualnted with certain simple suggestions* Dent lists nine; *1* 2* 3* 4* 5*

6* 7# 8*


Us© a reliable exposure meter to determine the proper lens setting* Keep the lens immaculately clean* Keep the camera clean and well oiled* Follow the Instruction book* Hold the camera steady at all times* Use a well constructed tripod* Make complete scenes; not bits. A simple rule to follow is to count ten for any scene. Increasing the length of the scene as may be needed to complete the action of the picture to be recorded* Shoot action shots at an angle of ap­ proximately thirty degrees* Use filters whenever possible for color gradations* Do not wpaEitt the camera* It is best to set the camera in a stationary manner and let the action move through the field of the lens* Use half-speed or slow motion variations only when necessary* Pictures should be taken at the rate of twenty-four frames per second for sound film synchronization.”

40E* C* Dent, op. clt*, pp* 117-120*

It should b© added to this list that the sound recording apparatus should be kept under control at all times so that the sound is re­ corded evenly with the picture* All extraneous noises should be eliminated from the effective radius of the microphone* Editing the Film*- The editing of the films comes after they areexposed and processed* It Is necessary to Insert proper explanatory titles ah©a4-of the scene for which delineation Is needed* Dent submits some good suggestions in regard to the problem of editing? ”1* 2* 3* 4* 5*

Cut out all inferior scenes* It is better to retake the scene than to leave in poor pictures. Use attractive titles* coimnerdaily made titles are more than worth the expense Involved* Splice the film carefully* Do not show the film until edited because it will usually leave a poor impression* If the picture is to be used expensively, have a *dup©f negative prepared from which additional prints may be made, and save the original•w

Brpl Experiment in Teacher Training There have been many studies made of the ef­ fectiveness of the sound motion picture as measured by the permanence of learning.

Three of the most significant

of these are given by Arnspiger48, Rulon43, and Eads and Stover44* The writer, however, found only one Investigation 4^Loc. cit* 48V* C* Arnspiger, op* cit*, p. 156* 43P* 1* Rulon, The Sound Motion Picture in Science Teaching, Cambridge? Harvard tJnlversIty Hress, l9S3. 44V* C* Arnspiger, op* cit*, pp* 7-8.

*11 which attempted to find th© effectiveness of the sound motion picture for teacher training*


review of this

experiment is here given, as reported by Arnspiger45* The experiment conducted during the summer session, 1951, of Teachers College, Columbia University, by Dr* Laura Eads and Edgar M* Stover of the Research staff of Erpl Picture Consultants, Xnc# The study was conducted with four classes in educational psychology to "determine whether educational pictures could add to the usual procedures in teacher-training courses.” The film, individual Differences in Arithmetic, a twenty-mlnute picture prepared by ^uswell was used* In this film Buswell describes and demon­ strates various techniques for diagnosing diffi­ culties in arithmetic* The measure of influence of the picture was obtained by tests designed for this purposes* Four questions were asked In the experiment: "1*

Does a combination of a reading assign­ ment and talking picture enable students to gain a clearer understanding of the subject than that obtained from reading only? 2* Does the presentation of a sub ject by means of specific reading, class discussion of the reading, and observation of the talking picture give better results than those obtained from a combination of reading and discussion only? 5* Does the presentation of a twenty-minute talking picture before students un­ familiar with the subject give better results than those obtained from a twentyminute lecture personally delivered by an expert in the field? 4* Does the presentation of a twenty-minute talking picture enable students to gain a better understanding of a subject than that obtained from reading the material on which the picture was based?"

The number of persons in each of the four groups hoc* cit*

described was 99, 21, 50, and 70 respectively.


members of the second group and some of the members of the first group saw the picture twice; others saw the picture but once.

Th© experiment was loosely constructed,

apparently, so that the results are not too significant. For example, th© sis© of one group was very small,


the second place, there was no apparent attempt to de­ termine what the students already knew concerning th© material before the period of instruction*

The final

test, in this case, revealed only what these students knew after instruction.

Finally, there Is no standard

or measure by which the actual value of either the sound film, the lecture, or the monograph used could be de­ termined*

For example, the fact that an expert delivered

the lecture does not mean that It was a good lecture in comparison with others, or that it was better or poorer in proportion to th© degree of perfection attained by the film*

Only the results In these particular Instances

with these groups are known. The results of the experiment with the Impli­ cations drawn ares "1*

Seventy—seven per cent of th© students who saw the picture twice made a score higher than th© average score of those who did not see the picture.


Seventy-two per cent of the students who saw the picture twice made a score higher than the average score of those who saw th© picture only once*


Fifty-six pel* cent of the students who saw this picture once mad© a score higher than the average score of those who did not see th© picture*


Eighty per cent of the students who saw the picture read th© monograph on which th© picture was baaed, and took part in class discussion of th© monograph made a score higher than the average of those who read the monograph and participated in th© class discussion, but did not see the picture*


Sixty-eight per cent of the students who saw the picture only made a score higher than th© average of those who listened only to a twenty-minute lecture based on the monograph*


Sixty per cent of the students who saw th© twenty-minute picture but did not read the monograph made a score higher than the average of those who spent on the average of 2*61 hours reading the monograph*0

Thirty-six per cent of the students answering th© questionnaire reported that they gained a clearer idea of the technical apparatus by means of the picture than from the monograph alone* Impl icat ion s» nThis experiment was the first of a series to test the merits of the talking picture as a teaching medium* In addition to revealing the efficacy of this particular film as an aid In teacher training, the results of the experiment threw some light on the relative merits of various measuring devices which are applicable In investigations of this nature* Bespit© the fact that this preliminary experiment was limited, owing to the small number of students participating, these results seem to indicate a definite contribution of the educational talking picture In teacher-training work.0 Principles of the Teaching Process The nature of Teaching As explained on page eight of this thesis It is assumed in this study that a principle Is a fIbaslc

general truth*"46

This definition implies that a certain

condition must be met before the desired outcomes can be reasonably expected.

There are principles that must be

utilised in any process if it is to be performed satis­ factorily, except by chance.

If the process of teaching

Is to "cause pupils to learn”4,7, there are certain funda­ mental conditions that should be met previous to and during the specific act of teaching*

Certain of these

conditions are known as principles* An examination of the teaching process reveals those activities that are performed by the teacher In his effort to Induce learning.


describes the

teaching process as follows* "H© assigns lessons, gives information, prepares and gives tests, assigns and records grades, prepares activities in which th© children engage, controls th© room so that work may pro­ ceed In order, gives help to pupils who encounter difficulty, keeps th© physical conditions of the room satisfactory, meets the individual needs of the pupils, etc* From these activities it seems logical to conclude that teaching Is guid­ ing and in spiring the learnerand creating an environment" In' 'which I©arning'will'take 'place"" most adeqimiely” . "From this point of view It Is very clear that teaching becomes more than merely imparting —


H* C* Witherlngton, The Principles of Teaching, New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939, pp. 1-3* 47g * *• Colegrove, op* cit*, p. 217. ^ A * L. Keer, Steps to Better Teaching, New Yorks W* W* horton and Co*, I&37, pp* id-17*

Information* It becomes the process of guid­ ing the Individual so that his experiences are reorganised and reconstructed on a broader basis; so that more factors are taken Into account; and so that the student will be able to direct future experiences more intelligently* With such a concept, teaching takes on a new and more vital importance and the teacher should seek to. direct the learning activities so that desirable learning will be more likely to be actually achieved*" Thus, It may be concluded that effective teaching io based upon a curriculum, consisting of worthwhile experiences; It utilizes methods that are adapted to the natures of both the learners and the curriculum; and it is performed by a teacher with personal qualities that motivate and guide the pur­ poses, attitudes, and Interests of the pupils in ac­ cordance with specific objectives and basic concepts of a socially accepted philosophy of education. Witherington4® concludes that "effective teaching rests upon basic principles*"

He contlnuesi

"When we discover by observation and Investigation that certain modes of procedure fail while others always succeed, we are convinced that a principle Is operating*..* Our experimental and laboratory techniques in education have enabled us to discover the basic general truths which explain these phenomena sufficiently to afford a working basis for correct teaching procedures.1* Three of these basic principles for teaching which follow from th© reasoning indicated above are given below*

These statements of principles are derived

AQ 1r"r|[ i-r-H. C* Wltherington, op* cit., pp* 13-14*

from th© literature and research by authorities on teaching: 1*

Formulation of Immediate and Ultimate 0jb.1ectiyes» *EE® teacher should formulate for each learning enterprise both immediate and ultimate objectives that are consistent with desirable educational outcomes*


$election off Content ancj frctiyl11 as. The teacbers&ouldseiectbotif and us©/Content and activities^ that are suited to the Interests, abilities, and needs of the learners*


Adaptation of Method* The teacher should use skillfully a method of instruction that Is well adapted to the nature of the learners and the learning experiences* These principles are stated In terms of what

the teacher should do in th© teaching process if desirable learning is to be a result of the activities of the teacher* However, it should be said that the utilisation of any given principle does not guarantee that learning will occur; It simply provides a more favorable condition for learning* principle of Formulation of Both immediate and Ultimato Objectives The teacher should formulate for each learn­ ing experience both immediate and ultimate objectives that are consistent with desirable educational outcomes. That learning tends to be more effective when the learner has a definite Idea of what is to be accom­ plished and why It should be accomplished Is In general

agreement among loading authorities In teaching*


of the most pertinent references supporting this principle are given In th© footnote below.50

The objectives, both

immediate and ultimate, should be clear to both teacher and pupils*

If there are minor objectives these should

also be clearly formulated.

The teacher should set up

these objectives in advance of the meeting of th© class In relation to the Interests, abilities, and needs of the learners*

He should then develop these objectives with his pupils in cooperative planning. 51 The teacher should also have a carefully worked out plan that will assist in the achievement of th© goals* The following statements are representative expressions of th© foregoing, as found in the literature: ”Clearly defined objectives, therefore, may be laid down as our first general principle of teaching and learning*” — WitherIngton52^ Barr, Burton, and Brueekner (6:159—222); Billett (8:105-10?); Boardman and Carlson (10:116); Brueekner (14:392-395); Butler (17:26, 45-48); Campbell (19:37); Colegrove (23:217-220,246-248); Douglass (34:278); Heer (44s 3—54)4 horn (47:2-3,6-7); Jones (50s 55-64); Maxwell and Reusser (56:166-198); Mitchell (61:31-32); Morrison (65t89-99); Reagan (67:308-319); Strayer (74s 1231); strebel and Morehart (75:24-32); Thorndike (78:1-11); Tyson (79s87-89); Bmstattd (80s20-45); witherington (84s 120-122); Woodring and Flemming (85:152-153); Yoakam (87: 274-279); and Yoakam and Simpson (88:14—21). ^ R * 0* Billett, op. cit., p. 116* . c* Witherington, op* cit., pp* 121-122•

“Since purpose gives direction and meaning to ©very educational undertaking, it follows that method apart from purpose lacks both direction and meaning; that the best method linked to Inferior, irrelevant, confused or unsocial purpose, as judged by some accepted frame of reference, can give only inferior, Irrelevant, confused or unsocial results; and that method, like knowledge, must be conceived, applied, and appraised in terms of purpose*” 5 “Selection of th© most worthwhile objectives is a principle of teaching, and it is on© of the most Important**** Various terms are used in educational literature to express what should appear as the results of schooling* Among the most cojasaonly used terms are? ultimate objectives, goals, ends, aims, objectives, and purposes*”54 “in teaching, an understanding of the objectives guides the teacher, facilitates progress, and lends seal to his efforts***.Knowing the aims the teacher Introduces the students to those experiences which will enable them to attain the goals set for them by the broad objectives of education in a democratic civilization***.Another value of purpose is its tendency to focus attention on the desired outcome, thereby eliminating waste motion***.Furthermore, knowledge of purpose generates motive power* En­ thusiasm grows with clarity of purpose**** First comes purpose; then follow the activities which will attain the purpose*” 5 There are three types of objectives In the unit of adaptation, according to Jones 56s ^American Historical Association, Commission on the Social Studies, Conclusions and Recommendations of the Commission, Hew Yorks Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934,p.69. a * Butler, The Improvement of Teaching in the Secondary Schools, Chicago? university of Chicago Press,

1939, ■pp: m~x zrr

55J* a* Umstattd, op* cit*, pp* 20-21* 55A* J* Jones, E* h* Grlzell and W* J* Grinstead, Principles of bnit construction, Hew lorks McGraw-Hill Book tfoTTTSSg# fp V ‘^ g s g g :---------

ttIn the unit of adaptation three types of objectives are recognized* (1) th© central objective— the learning product to be attained, the mastery of the type of life situation; {2} the contributory objectives— those that are necessary to attain the central objective; and (3) the indirect or concomitant objectives, or those that are by-products of the activities in­ volved in attaining the other objectives— these are sometimes called flattendant learnings.*1***• Four of the most important elements in efficient learning ares 11(1) a more or less definite idea on the part of the learner of what the goal la­ the learning product to be attained, the objectives; (2) the acceptance of the goal by the learner as of value to him, a desire to reach th© goal, th© purpose; (3) a more or less well-defined program of activities that are necessary in order to ac­ complish the goal; and (4) some means of determining when the goal has been reached*w Dewey^ presents some of the characteristics of good educational aims and objectives, which seem to be excellent criteria for evaluating both general and specific aims* a*

nAn educational aim must be founded upon the intrinsic activities and needs (including original instinct and acquired habit) of the given Individual to be educated*


r,An aim must be capable of translation into a method of cooperating with th© activities of those undergoing instruction** *.Unless it lends itself to the construction of specific procedures, and unless these pro­ cedures test, correct, and amplify the aims, the latter is worthless*


nA truly general aim broadens the outlook; it stimulates one to take more consequences into account*w Thus, the importance attached to objectives

by almost every authority in the field of education leads ,,


y* Dewey, Democracy and Education, New York* Macmillan and Co •, 191V, pp * 3u2d— *

one to accept the formulation of both immediate and ulti­ mate objectives for each learning enterprise, commensurate with desirable educational outcomes, as a basic principle for teaching# Principle of Selection of Content and Activities The teacher should select and use both con­ tent and activities that are suited to th© interests, abilities, and needs of th© learners* It Is self-evident that both subject matter content and th© accompanying activities should b© selected carefully and, wherever possible, based upon validated CO

research and experimentation# a These learning experiences are the means by which the pupil is enabled to develop his interests, abilities, understandings, and attitudes# Both content and activities should be selected in terms of known facts about the learners* Brueckner'*® states that the curriculum should ^recognize adequately the experimental nature of th© Barr, Burton, and Brueckner (6*472-577); Billett (8*153-182); Brink (13:9-11, 370-373); Brueckner (14:394395); Campbell (19:68-74); Hear (44:55-67); Horn (47:8-16); Jones (50:8-31); Maxwell and Reusser (56:6-8); Minor (60: 45-56); Reagan (67:308-319); SchorXIng (72:87-109); Strebel and Morehart (75:60-74); Thorndike (78:1-11); Tyson (79: 104-105); Bmstattd (80s247); Waples (81:138-147); and WOOdring and Flemming (85:152-154)# J. Brueckner, "Diagnosis and Remedial Teaching,” Encyclopedia of Educational Research, New York: Macmillan co *, T^irr'pp — ----------

learning process and make provision for rich., participatory social experiencing by pupils*"

These experiences are

provided by the subject matter and activities that are selected by the teacher*

To the same purpose Billett^®

writes: "To the teacher who sees the nature and necessity of psychological organization of subject matter, teaching Is not merely something which Is done after the selection and organization of subject matter has taken place* Teaching Involves th© selection and organization of subject matter* It would be a remarkable absurdity If the teacher were so busy with teaching that he could not give time to one of the fundamental aspects of teaching*" Heer

acknowledges the importance of th© inter­

relation of two principles of teaching listed above when he says: "Formulate understandable objectives In terns of behavior outcomes and then choose the subject matter which is best fitted to attain these ob­ jectives* ** The subject matter must be suited to the age and experience of the learner*" Brink 62 includes activities In his discussion of the direction of the learning process: "Modern psychologists stress the fact that learning takes place through experience* Experience, however, has no meaning except in terms of activity* Learning is an active process, and the individual learns as a result of seeing, perceiving, analyzing, judging, and participating in a variety of activities, ® R * 0. Bill at t. Fundamentals of Secondary School Teaching, Bostons Houghton-Mlffling Co *, 1940, pp* 173 * L* Heer, op* cit*, pp* 60-61* 6^W* 0. Brink, op* cit*, pp* 8-9*

both mental and overt* Moreover, the entire organism Is involved in each instance of learn­ ing*" Another significant reference indicating the importance attached to the selection of the right edu­ cational experiences is made by Woodring and Flemming63 as follows: "The assignment-techniqitte for the teacher embraces; 1. The selection and organization of materials and activities for a given group or for individuals, based on, (a) outcomes desired, (b) how children learn, and (e) careful and accurate diagnosis of th© abilities and needs of those pupils for whom the assignment Is planned*" Principle of Adaptation of Method Th© teacher should use skillfully a method of Instruction that Is well adapted to the nature of the learners and the learning experiences* This principle is very widely and uniformly supported by authorities on the teaching process* is documented by the references given below*64



ever, it should be said that there is no uniformity of "".“""Vff— * M* N* Woodring and C* W* Flemming, Directing Study of High School Pupils, New York: Bureau of Publications, TeaeKers.College, CoTumbla University, 1935, pp* 153-154* 64Bagley and Keith (4:35-34); Boardman and Carlson (10:68-85); Brink (13:3^*299); Brueckner (14:392-398); Butler (17:162-299); Campbell (19:55-84,119-122,123-125); Colegrove (23:275-289,318-345); Douglass (34x69-100,295322); Heer (44:77-200,233-265); Horn (47:1-39); Jones (50: 108-118); Maxwell and Reusser (56:270-350); Mitchell (61: 31-32); Morrison (63:79-99); Reagan (67:150-174,308-319, 336-360); Reeder and Reynolds (68:3-12); Sehorling (72:110194); Strayer (74:12-40,41-223); Strebel and Morehart (75: 137-251); Stroud (76:777-807); Thorndike (78:1-11); Tyson (79:7-116); Umstattd (80:244-283); Witherington (84:292-312); Woodring and Flemming (85:112-174,175-253); and Yoakai.i (87;1113).

43 agreement on Just what method is best in all instances* even in those possessing generally identical character­ istics • This idea is substantiated by Corey and Monroe65 in their review of the research that has been done relative to determining th© effectiveness of various methods* ^Plans of instruction (general methods) can­ not be ranked with respect to effectiveness for all teachers because the degree of success attain­ ed depends upon other factors.”*.*• ^Furthermore* all patterns of instruction are not intended to serve the same functions*” These authors point out further that no plan or method of instruction will Insure that any desired result will occur*

Results depend upon how skillfully

any given method is utilized in the teaching process* For example* the recitation method has been shown con­ sistently to be inferior* and the project and laboratory methods have been demonstrated to be superior in experi­ mentation*

But, as these writers state, ”there may be

good recitation teaching and poor project teaching” and vice versa*

There have not been accurate measures as

to how good any specific method of teaching is in proportion to its possibilities*

The experimental research has usually

dealt with comparisons of the relative effectiveness of methods*

These studies have been subject to many factors

which tend to render th© results unsafe for generalization, — "ng«S. M* Gorey and W. S* Conroe, ”M@thods of Teaching,” Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Hew York* Macmillan co., i m r ' p p * t o b =v o t :------------

44 such. as lack of control of the no n-exper linental factors, of teacher skill, seal, and enthusiasm, inadequacies in the measurement of outcomes#

It is pointed out by H o r n ^ #

Yoakam^*7, and Corey and Monroe®® , that a careful examination of the research in the field does not reveal conclusive evidence that there Is any best pattern of Instruction for wall

subject matter at all times and at all places#nThus

Horn**® concludes: **There are methods by which, In a given situation, for a definite purpose, at some specified grade level, and with such Instruc­ tional equipment as is available, a specified unit of subject matter organised in a certain way and placed In a certain sequence may be taught to students of a given kind and distri­ bution of ability and background of experience# All of these conditioning factors operate, more­ over, under the guidance of what the Commission has termed some *frame of reference,* and through some teacher* In short, methods are Instrumental and must be chosen and appraised In view of the ends to be reached and In the light of conditioning circumstances* Otherwise, method becomes a cult, an empty and ritualistic exercise, without vitality and without significance#*1 It is the duty of the teacher to make the right selection of method and then to use it with the greatest skill possible#

The specific set of educational experi­

ences to be provided should be adapted to the nature of E* Horn, Methods of Instruction In the Soeial Studies, Part XV: Report of the commission on the So clal_ studies, American Historical Association, New york: Charles Scribner*s and Sons, 1937, pp* 37-38# ^ Q * A* Yoakam, op# clt*, pp* 12-13# M# corey and W* S. Monroe, op* clt#, pp* 725-727, ®®E* Horn, op* clt#, pp# 37-38*

45 the pupIIa*

It Is obvious that the practice or requiring

all pupils to learn the same amount, In the same time and with the same degree of perfection,Is not In keeping with the facts of variations among the pupils*

There are

differences that pertain to intelligence, opportunity, health, previous training, social standard, economic stability, and moral stamina*

Thus, these differences

In both heredity and environment must be reckoned with constantly by the teacher*

It is, therefore, important

that the method used be one which can cope with these conditions* 70 Horn lists the following three basic factors which Influence understanding by the learners ^First, the inherent nature of the problem* Second, the nature of the instructional media through which he comes to grip with the problem* Third, the student, himself— his experience, inter©st, and abi 11ty *** Further significance of the importance of the use of the right method is Implied by the same author when he writes: **There are, nevertheless, important data and fundamental problems of learning that are inevitably basic in determining the methods of teaching in any course of study: the classifi­ cation of students for purposes of teaching; the policy as to indoctrination, freedom of teaching and learning, and teaching students how to think } the factors that Influence ‘ under­ standing} the way in which dependable Ideas are formed; the role of reading In learning in the Ibid*, pp* 557-358*

social studies; the selection and use of instructional equipment; the uses of oral instruction. Including both oral presentation and questioning; the utilisation of other sources of experience, such as visual aids, museums, field trips, and constructive activities; the us© of aids to the imagination; and finally, the provision for growth and retention* ttX When the teacher considers seriously the factors cited In the previous paragraph, he should discover that the right selection and skillful utilisation of method are basic In the process of teaching effectively*


should learn that the effectiveness of teaching Is de­ termined in a large measure by the relationship between the objectives or purposes of instruction and the learn­ ing experiences provided for the pupils.

He should view

method as th© means by which he can direct or guide the learning processes in the desired relationship*


he should find that principles of teaching have an Inter­ relationship, and that the outcomes of learning are dependent upon the effective use of this interrelationship* Mitchell^ concludes from hla experimentation in commercial geography that the teacher who systematically sets up objectives and then plans learning experiences compatible with these objectives has a method that gets better results than do teachers who use the question and W|— — .— ■ Ibid*, p. 39* 72B* F. Mitchell, A Study of a Systematic Method of Teaching, contributions to Education, Ho* 61, Nashville: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1929, p. 105*

answer methods* ne Horn cites a number of Implications for method in the social studies that are based upon findings from research! ”1*

Both teacher and students should know the chief characteristics of forgetting and the best ways of providing for the retention and development of experience*


There should, be a clear understanding on the part of both teacher and pupils of what is to be learned, whether facts* concepts* principles, attitudes, ways of working or knowledge of sources*


The amount and quality of what is retained are heavily conditioned by what i3 don© in the period of initial learning* a* Instructional materials should be organized In terms of one or more significant purposes* b* Students should be encouraged In an aggressive, active, and purpose­ ful attitude toward the problem under attack**. (We learn chiefly by getting ourselves to learn*) c* It is Imperative that all ideas be clear, accurate, and well organized* 4* The impression, whether through read­ ing, learning, or observation, should be interspersed with attempted recalls* e* Overlearning appears to be economical in the long run, even In the early stages of learning*, f *, The contribution of interest is funda­ mental *,


There must be a provision for review*.


There must be a material reduction amount to b© learned*”

In the

In an article entitled wExperiments on Learning E. Horn, op* clt*, pp* 496-509*

48 In School Situations,” Stroud*^ reviews the literature relative to general findings, whereby a teacher may verify the effectiveness of certain factors in the learning situ­ ation*

The article deals with such topics as "Individual

Differences,” "Sensory Mode of Presentation,” Motivation,” Transfer,” and '’Retention*” Cooperative Planning of an Assignment Description of the Cooperative Assignment The cooperative development or planning of an assignment is best described by certain underlying princi­ ples and characteristics ascribed to it by authorities in the field of assignment making*

It is first necessary to

discuss the importance of the assignment In the learning Butler*75 refers to the assignment as the beginning point In teaching. Woodrlng and Flemming76 are


cgulte emphatic when they says

"of all the responsibilities

which the teacher must face, the assignment Is the most important*

it Is the pivot of suceessfuly teaching.”

They go further, stating?

”Whether the study activities

will have carry-over values depends upon the character of -

7% —

J* B* Stroud, "Experiments on beaming in School Situations,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 10, December 1940, pp. • A* Butler, op. cit., pp. 169-188. 76m. N. Woodrlng and C. W. Flemming, op. cit*, pp* 132-154*

the assignment•H

The following questions serve to empha­

size further the importance that is attached to the assign­ ment: "Will boys and girls of our high schools be able to attack a problem in later life? Will they know when and how to use the knowledge acquired? Will they be aware of the sources to which they can go for help? Will they have developed methods of procedure, habits and skills which will make them Interested Independent workers when the school experience Is past? The answer to these questions II© in the kind of assignments planned, the artistry with which they are presented, and the skill with which the preparation is directed** The main purposes of the assignment,which


the first phase of the development of a unit are,according to Hmstattd



”1* 2* 3* 4*

To discover pupil needs* To set objectives which will meet those needs* To anticipate and remove difficulties* To select activities which will achieve the objectives* 5. To stimulate eagerness to perform the activities* 6* To plan the individual's activities. 7* To launch the attack*”

The criteria for evaluating assignments and for no suggesting how they should be mad© are listed by Heer in the following manner: ”1* 2* 3* 4*

So far as possible the assignment should be cooperative* It should be so definite that it under­ stood by all* Each pupil should be aware of the purpose of the assignment* Each pupil should have an Idea of some definite ways in which the assignment can be

we .. 1 1 1 " J* G* TJmstattd, op* elt*, p* 265* ^®A* I** Heer, op* cit*, p* 179*

accompli shed • 5* It should provide a motive for the work to be done* 6* It should provide for the outstanding individual differences of the group. 7* It should be worthwhile. 8 * it should be of reasonable difficulty* 9* It should be of such length that It can be done in a reasonable length of time*" 70


set up ten characteristics of a good

assignment based on a study summarizing the literature of eighteen writers In the field of the assignment: ”1* 2* 3* 4* 5*

Definiteness Clearness Interest Stimulation Inspiration

6* 7. 8. 9* 10* Woodrlng and Flemming.80

Exposition Preparation Direction Discrimination Indi vidua 11 eat Ion *” conclude that the real

test of a good assignment Is expressed in this statements "The final measure of an assignment is the effectiveness of the preparation by each pupil as evidenced by pupil activity be^it oral or written; mental, physical, or emotional*" There Is practically an unlimited variety in types and methods of making the assignment*


analyzed th© assignments of on© thousand high school teachers and found that ninety per cent of them were entirely teacher dominated*

However, he points out that

there is a growing conception of the cooperative approach to assignment making*

it is recognized that the assign­

ment provides a definite opportunity for effective teaching* - ""TO---------

G* A* Toak&m, op* cit*, p. 116*

®^M* N* Woo&ring and C* W* Flemming, op* cit*, p. 154* 81W* G* Brink, op* cit*, pp. 114-121*

Investigations of the differences between good and poor teaching show that one of the major distinguishing characteristics Is the ability to plan assignments. Brink®^, Heer®®, Yoakam®^ and Carr and Waage®® draw the distinction between th© traditional and co­ operative types of assignment in the following manner: The traditional assignment is thought of in terms of a task or tasks imposed upon the pupils by a teacher who performs the functions of a dictator. This teacher dominated type of assignment is a kind of mathematical sub­ division of the course text. It may be repre­ sented by th© equation given by Waage and Carrs ttA equals


, where A equals the assign-


ment for the day; P, the number of pages in the book; T, the length of the torn in days; and L, the number of days lo3t owing to examinations and Interrupt ions.” Th© pupils are given almost no opportunity to choose the activities Involved or to plan the procedures for carrying them on. The cooperative planning of an assignment, on the other hand, respects pupils purposes, encourages the expression of preferences and suggestions for lines of procedure, Invites pupils to volunteer information concerning the uses and sources of material, and provides opportunity for the development of skills necessary for the growth of Interested inde­ pendent workers when the experiences provided by the school are concluded* Under this method "the assignment becomes a cooperative enterprise carried on by the pupils ^ d e r the expert direction „ Brink, Ibid., pp. 110-111. 83A. ju* Heer, op. cit., pp. 179-186. A. Yoakam, op. cit., pp. 186-187. G. Carr and J* ?Jaag©, The Lesson Assignment, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, l^SX, pp. 43-V7*

52 of the teacher*1,86 A further explanation of the cooperative planning of the assignment is given by Yoakam8^ in the following paragraphs "The pupil is generally as actively engaged In planning, purposing, thinking, making sug­ gestions, proposing new ideas, etc., as is the teacher.... His part is to question the teacher, make suggestions, propose changes, volunteer activities, and to demand that everything that is not clear be made so before ho attempts to study the new lesson# Ho should assume a co­ operative attitude toward both the teacher and his fellow pupils, should show a desire to help others, should be responsible for what is asked of him, and should feel pride in doing whatever he is asked to do in a workmanlike manner* He should come to understand that the teacher is guiding him and directing him in learning; that she is not a taskmaster or a police officer; that her function is to help him learn and not merely to punish him if he does not learn. He should think less of requirements and more of opportunites* It Is only when he has this cooperative attitude and this cooperative function that teaching and learning are most advantageous#" Yoakam warns that if the teacher desires to plan an assignment cooperatively that he should assume the cooperative spirit, expect cooperation from the pupils, and show willingness to cooperate with them. Otherwise, there will probably be no effective cooperation* Brink88 explains that a good assignment Is 0* Brink, op. cit., p. Ill* A* Yoakam, op* cit., pp* 186-187* 88W* G* Brink, op* cit

pp# 110-155*

53 designed to challenge pupils to the upper limits of their ability to sense pertinent problems; analyse real situations; contribute relevant information* organ­ ise and express their thoughts* concisely* courteously* and completely; and to cooperate and participate with their fellow pupils and teacher toward the solution of a problem that is of vital concern to them* individually and as a group.

H@ cites four basic principles which

will aid in the realization of the outcomes of the assign­ ments ”l. The assignment should make provision for activities and experiences that are Interesting and challenging to pupils. II.

The assignment should be motivated chiefly through the development of worthy purposes within pupils for engaging in the activities and experiences involved.


Th© assignment should be definitely and clearly presented and should contain specific directions as to how pupils are to proceed.


The assignment should include a sufficient variety of activities and experiences to make adequate provision for differences in the Interests* needs* and abilities of individual pupils*11 As Yoakam®® concludes* however* there are other

factors which motivate and affect th© success of th© assignment*

Among th© most prominent of these are the

following! "1. go Gr»

The teacher*s personality* her appeal to children from a strictly personal viewpoint. — —— A. Yoakam* op. cit.* pp. 143-144.


The types of activity of the school: their appeal to the native and acquired urges to action* 3. Th© activities: their appeal to the childfs sense of values* 4m The teacher*s skill in presenting activities and subjects to children In such a way as to secure their cooperation* 5* The teacher’s skill In discussion and Its management • 6 * The teacher’s skill in directing learning activities* 7* The teacher's skill in organization of learn­ ing experiences* 8 * The teacher* s understanding of children and child ways* 9* Th© intrinsic appeal of certain types of teaching*1*

Conclusions It Is to be concluded from the literature and research relating to assignment making and planning that there is no one pattern that can be used with all pupils at all times In all courses and by all teachers* There are so many variables within each group that change fro® day to day*

This means that each teacher must be

prepared constantly to adapt her procedures wisely to each classroom situation*

However, there are several

basic principles that underlie effective assignments, such as interest, cooperation, purpose, clearness, and definiteness*

The teacher should be skillful In the use

of these principles*

In addition, the teacher should

possess th© personal qualities that will enable the effective development or planning of an assignment*

55 Chapter ill DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE General Plan The general procedures used in the production or the film A Directed Observation or certain principles of Teaching were adapted from those discussed by Bevereux9^* A summary or the suggested procedures is given In chapter

II of this thesis* The following nine major steps were developed and followed during th© course of this project! First, selection of the field and subject matter area* Second, formulation of the major objectives and purposes for the film* Third, selection of th© personnel, equipment, sup* plies, and location necessary to produce the film* Fourth, selection and organization of method and unit of experiences* Fifth, preparation of the personnel, equipment, and location for the filming* Sixth, exposure of the sound and picture film* Seventh, editorial treatment of the film* Eighth, preparation of the manual for use with the film* Ninth, evaluation of th© film* ^ F * I»* Devereux, op* cit*, pp* 6-37*

56 An analysis of the procedure followed in each of the steeps Indlioate^L Is jp2?es©iit©d. in tlxls cbispteif* First Step;

Selection of the Field and Subject

This experimental project was arbitrarily limited to the construction of a sound motion picture film for the pre-service and in-service training of teachers*

The writer selected this field chiefly because

of his Interest In th© field of teacher training and his desire to develop an Instrument that would serve as a directed observation of the process of teaching#


fore, th© primary purpose of th© film was to present a directed observation of certain basic principles of teach­ ing In a single, unified classroom procedure*

This purpose

was arrived at after a review of the literature and research relative to the training of teachers*

This review revealed

that on© of the principal weaknesses is the lack of ef­ fective directed observations of the teaching process* It was felt that a filmed lesson should prove to be an especially good supplement for th© enrichment of the usual classroom observation procedures because it lends itself to critical study*

This fact seemed especially

important since a filmed lesson can be repeated wherever and whenever desired*

With these thoughts in mind, It

was decided to concentrate upon the demonstration of a few well selected principles of teaching*

Three were

finally selected, and the decision was mad© to delineate

.57 them during a single lesson*

Th© three principles were

formulated from authoritative sources, which recognized them as basic to the process of teaching* The principles selected were chosen by the following criterlat

(1) each principle must b© recognized

by authorities in the field of teaching as basic to th© teaching process; (2) each principle must lend itself to an effective sound motion picture demonstration for a directed observation; (3) the personnel available must have th© ability to demonstrate each principle; and (4) each principle must be stated in terns of the teacher*s relation to th© teaching process*

The following principles

were formulated from these criterlas I*

Formulation of Immediate and Ultimate Objectives* ^he teacher shoulcf forinulate for each learning enterprise both immediate and ultimate objectives that are consistent with desirable educational outcomes*

II •

selection of Content and Activities * The leader should select both content and activities that are suited to th© interests, abilities, and needs of the learners*


Adaptation of Method* The teacher should us© skillfully a method of Instruction that is well adapted to the nature of th© learners and the learning experiences* Documentary support for each of these principles

is given in chapter II*

These principles deal with th®

relationships between objectives, method, content, and activities* It was arbitrarily decided that a class from

th© social studies area should be selected for the demon­ stration*

It was believed that the nature of th© subject

matter of the social studies was ©specially favorable for the utilization of th© three principles*

Furthermore, the

course chosen, American history, proved a representative unit of material, which Is one criterion in the evaluation of an educational film*

A second criterion, that the

material must be adaptable to sound motion picture pre­ sentation, was also met in the social studies field* Second Steps

Formulation of the Major Objectives and Purposes

Inasmuch as the major purpose adopted for the film was the presentation of a directed observation of certain principles for teaching In a single, unified class­ room activity, its construction was solely to enrich the usual classroom observational procedure*

To accomplish

this goal, the following major objectives were set up for th© films 1*

To arouse the pre-eervlce and In-service teacher1s Interest In effective teaching and what It in­ volves in the classroom*


To point out the presence and use of objectives, subject matter and activities, and method in the complete act of teaching*


To direct attention to the manner in which a teacher utilizes certain basic principles for teaching*


To enable th© teacher to be aware of th© Inter­ relation of two or more of these principles*


To make th© teacher more critical in his analysis and observation of th© teaching process to th© end that he may the better recognize the principles Involved, incorporate them In his own thinking, and apply them to situations other than the one observed.

Third Steps

selection of Personnel^ Equipment, Supplies» and Location

personnel The selection of the personnel related to the project was divided Into the following categories:


advisory committee, (2) demonstration teacher, (3) pupils, (4) film technicians, (5) methods Instructor, and (6) stu­ dent teachers. (1) Advisory Committee.- Each member of the advisory committee represents a special area of the teacher education program.

The members of the committee

for the project were: Paul C. Packer, Dean, College of Education Harry K. Hewburn, Dean, college of liberal Arts James B. Stroud, Associate professor, Educational Psychology, Chairman of the Thesis committee Ernest Horn, Professor, Elementary Education and Supervision of Social Studies b. A. Van Dyke, Assistant professor, secondary Education and Director of Teacher Education Karl Robinson, Assistant Professor, Speech Education and Critic In Student Teaching All of tiles© persons are members of th© faculty of the State University of Iowa*

The advisory services

of each member was utilized In making decisions that dealt with various phases of the educational treatment given to th© construction of the film.

(2) Demonstration Teacher.- Ryland W. Crary was selected as demonstration teacher from the application of the following criteria:

(a) the teacher must have the

ability to teach effectively so that the principles of teaching may be qualitatively demonstrated, and (b) the teacher should possess certain personal qualities necessary to add to the effectiveness of the film, such as good recording voice, personality, and ease before the camera and microphone.

Mr. Crary is an Instructor in social

studies and a critic in student teaching at the University High School. (3) Pupils.- Twenty members of one section in American history, taught by Mr. Cracy, were chosen for participation in the project.

Certain technical require­

ments made It desirable to restrict the size of the group to this number.

Those pupils whose voices recorded most

satisfactorily were selected from the original class membership of thirty pupils.

Th© following is a list of

pupils who participated: Jane Alcock Patricia Burns Bill Frey Thorald Gllpatrick Patricia Grothaus ^Shirley Harper Dick Hills John Hoksbergen Lois Irwin Charles Kent

Margaret Lane Clarke Louis Carolyn McCandliss Bill Uusser Janet Peterson Jim pollock Eleanor Pownall Jim Rasiey Jack Reed Anne Y/lllhite

^Shirley Harper was unable to be present for the filming.

Th© average Intelligence quotient, ascertained from standardized tests, for this group was 118#

The class

Included pupils whose parents were engaged In professional, business, and agricultural occupations#

The Individual

differences in attitudes, interests, and abilities were quite noticeable# All of these pupils were accustomed to th© pres­ ence of visitors and student teacher observers, thereby limiting the degree of distraction that would normally result from th© work of film technicians during th© film­ ing* (4)

Production Crew*- This study does not propose

to describe the highly technical work of the production specialists*

Th© film technicians were well grounded in

principles of motion picture photography, sound recording, acoustics, lighting, laboratory methods, film handling, and production management*

The production crew Included

the director of production, motion picture photographer and three assistants, recorder of sound on film and three assistants, recorder of sound on disc record and one assistant, an electrician, and 11extras#tt Th© writer was director of the production* The Bureau of Visual Instruction of the State University of Iowa supplied the film technicians and assistants* lee w* Cochran directed and supervised th© photography, and John R* Hedges directed and supervised the recording

of the sound on film*

Carl Menzer, director of Radio

Station W* S* U* I*, and John Ebert, manager, controlled the Instruments for recording the sound on discs for both the voice training periods and th© classroom activity dur­ ing the progress of the unit*

All of the services of these

men were supplied without cost to the project, each person giving his time cooperatively and freely* (£) Methods Instructor*- Dr* Vernon Price was selected as instructor of methods for the Introductory and concluding part of the film*

He is teacher of mathe­

matics, Instructor of methods, and critic in student teach­ ing at the University Experimental Schools* (6) Student Teachers*- Seven University of Iowa students were chosen to represent a class in methods of teaching*

These students were utilized in providing the

setting for the introductory and concluding divisions of the film in which an explanation was made of the classroom activity*

They were regularly enrolled students In a

methods course* Equipment The choice of the camera and the sound recording apparatus was determined by the type of production desired* On© problem was the fact that a relatively long film re­ quired a large number of variations In scenes In order to maintain interest*

Since the action was to be continuous

and th© single camera available had to be held stationary

*.63 on a tripod, it was necessary to secure motion picture equipment with lenses with varying focal lengths.


with faster speed than is ordinarily required, were neces­ sary because all of the filming had to be done with artifleal light in interior scenes.

The problem of acoustical

treatment for sound recording was such that good recording equipment was necessary.

Because of limited finances for

the project, it was necessary to us© the equipment already In possession of the Bureau of Visual Instruction.


major problem, then, was one largely of adjustment and adaptation of the equipment to the available locations for the filming. Camera.- Th© motion picture camera selected and used was purchased in the summer of 1940 from the firm of Berndt-Maurer, Inc* of Hew York City.

The description is

MSound Fro Camera, Silent Type, 503 B, with constant speed for sound with sychronous motors; sixteen millimeter•** Lenses of four different diameters were used, namely, 1 Inch,

inch, 4 inch, and a 15 millimeter wide-angle lens.

The double system of recording sound and motion picture on separate film was used*

The camera was mounted on an

adjustable tripod. Sound Recorder.- Th© semi-portable, model D, sound recorder designed for use with th© sound Fro camera was used*

It was purchased by the Bureau of Visual In­

struction at the same time as the camera and from the same firm.

The microphone used with the recorder was the Western

Electric Uni—Directional type*

Only on© microphone was

used for the recording* Lighting*- All of th© lighting came from artifleal sources.

Six number four photo flood bulbs in

reflectors, two small keg semi-spots, and four number two photoflood bulbs were used for illumination.

The lights

were distributed to provide proper meter reading by using stands constructed for that purpose. Acoustical Treatment*- After th© most favorable location was secured for sound recording, heavy blankets and rugs were placed about the room to absorb sound*


method proved to be very satisfactory for the temporary acoustical conditions required by th© project* Supplies The selection of good film stock was used* Since the double system of recording picture and sound was used, It was necessary to use a high grade negative so that additional prints could be made*

The picture

film was Afga Superpan sixteen millimeter negative, and the sound film, Afga High Resolving sound recording stock. All of the film was developed by the Calvin company of Kansas City, Missouri.

The final, combined print was

made by the Consolidated Film Industries, Inc., Hew York City.

The negative film was purchased In four hundred

feet rolls.

Six rolls, or two thousand and four hundred

65 feet, each of picture and sound film, were used during the course of the project* Th© classroom activity which developed In succeeding periods after the cooperative planning of the assignment was recorded in sound on red label glass base disc records purchased from Radio Parts Company, Madison, Wisconsin*

These records are available in th© College of

Education of the state University of Iowa* Table I gives a summary of the costs for the project, including raw film for picture and sound, develop­ ment costs, records, printing titles, photoflood bulbs, electrician, combined print, moving furniture, and miscel­ laneous items* $339*49*

The total cost for the production was

However, it should be noted that, with the ex­

ception of th© electrician, there was no charge to the project for any personal services supplied by the Bureau of Visual Instruction, Radio Station W* S* U* I*, and the University Experimental Schools*

There was no charge for

equipment or for the us© of locations*

These items would

have added a large amount to the actual cost of the proj­ ect*

Table I Itemized Analysis of the Expense Incurred by the Sound Motion picture Film project


Expense Incurred

picture Film (including processing)*.♦••*....•*$> 56*70 Sound Film (negative stock)#**.•*.**••«••*•*•«•


Developing Sound Film*.............****** ******


Positive Print of Picture•••••••**«••«.•••«•*•• 112.17 Combined Print of Picture and sound Film*******


Moving Furniture**••••*••••••«*•••••••••••»••*•


Electric ian*••••**••**•*«•«*•**••*«*••****..••*


Printing Titles*..****....*.*...******.*.....**


Lumber for Framework (rental)**•****•«•••••..**


Photoflood Light Bulbs****.•*•****•••*.•«•*.*•*


Audiodisc Records..............................


Resharpening Sapphire Cutting Heedle...........


Miscellaneous Items»•«*••••«•***•*..*..••*.**.*


Total Expense**♦••«••••.•••*««*.**•.«*•*.**.«.*$339*49

Location One of the most difficult selections Involved th© location of suitable room for the production work* In the first place, the nature of the project was such that a location for a classroom scene was a primary

67 consideration*

It was soon discovered that there were

no classrooms on the campus that had been constructed for the purpose of making sound motion pictures, and considerable work would have been necessary to prepare a classroom for the photography and the sound recording* After several try-outs a very desirable set up was found In Studio E in th© Engineering building on the campus* Studio E had the following characteristics:

length* fifty

feet; width, thirty feet; height, twenty feet; raised floor In one end, covered with a heavy rug; acoustically prepared with cinder block construction; sufficient number of electrical outlets for lighting; dark shades for windows; separate rooms at upper rear for sound re­ cording and photography; freedom from possible distracting noises and high tension wires; and individual entrances for th© rooms*

Test films of photography and sound were made

to make certain of tn© availability of the location. As a location for th© methods class the conference room of the campus library on th© third floor of Schaeffer Hall was used.

The setting was appropriate and the a-

cousties was made satisfactory by placing a hundred heavy blankets around the room and over solid surfaces to prevent echoes, muffled sounds, and other undesirable noises*


conference tables, library, and room decoration made this location highly desirable for the purpose that It was to serve*

The large reading room to the left provided ample

space for the sound recording and camera equipment*

G8 Fourth Step:

Selection and Organization of Method and Unit of instruction ■■i.hii

■— Nh


in ...m i

After the selection of th© teacher-pupil per­ sonnel # an analysis was made of the Interests, abilities, and needs of the group*

Then, after consultation with

the teacher, Mr* crary, it was decided that the method used should be the cooperative planning of the assign­ ment for a new unit The Historical Development of certain Basic Institutions of Freedom In America* The group had used this method successfully in the planning of other units*

The cooperative planning method provided for a

desirable amount of pupil participation under the direction of the teacher*

Furthermore, it was desired that the demon­

stration be extemporaneous*

Another factor was the thought

that these pupils were not sufficiently good actors to make the us© of prepared script feasible*

Although there may

be other reasons for an ^unstaged** lesson, this procedure was adopted chiefly for the reason that it seemed unlikely that naturalness could be achieved in any other way* The steps of the method, given in the following paragraph, were planned along lines suggested by authori­ ties on assignment making and cooperative planning*


literature and research upon which these steps were based are presented in chapter II*

(m A Cooperative Assignment First Step I*

Introduction of the Hew Unit A* Procedure— -Teacher Presentation B* Purposes 1* To arouse interest 2* To link pupils* past experiences to new unit 3* To relate unit to course 4* To give pupils a general overview of new unit Second Step


Definition of the Major Problem A* Definition of terms B* General analysis of problem C* Development of objectives Third step


Development of Problems for investigation A* Statement of suggested problems B* Evaluation of problems C* Organisation of problems Fourth Step

IV* Organisation of Sources of Information A* listing of sources B* Evaluation of sources C* Organization of sources Fifth Step


Planning of procedure A* Suggestion of study activities B* Evaluation of suggestions C* Organization of attack

This outline was prepared in advance for the teacher to follow in the lesson to be filmed* It was necessary to analyze the material and experiences to be provided for the new unit and to deter­ mine whether or not they would fit in with the continuity set up in the proposed outline*

The outline gave the

teacher a ^blueprint” from which to work*

This outline

was necessary in order to give purpose and a sense of direction to the lesson and to the film*

This preliminary

planning was, therefore, adapted to the particular teaching situation desired*

The preparation of the unit of In­

struction relative to the historical development of certain basic institutions of freedom In America involved the following activities by the director and teachers 1* Formulation of Objectives A* immediate B* Ultimate C* General pattern D* Specific details 1* Facts and attitudes 2. Skills and appreciations II*


Development of Overview or Summary of the Unit A* Perspective of the unit as a whole B* Review of available content and activities Selection and Organization of Subject Matter Content


Selection and Organisation of Learning Activities


Selection and Adaptation of Method to Experiences


Listing of Desirable Outcomes


Listing of Helpful References



Ifc was necessary for this degree of preparation* even though the assignment was to be developed cooperatively* because the teacher is usually less able to direct a learn­ ing enterprise effectively if he lias not previously been over the ground to be covered* The desired outcomes formulated for this unit of (1) the development of the abilities of *•

instruction wore?

the Individual pupils to sense and analyse pertinent problems (S) the contribution of relevant information; (3) pupil evaluation of contributions made by themselves and other pupils; (4) concise organization and expression of contri­ butions; and (5) cooperation of pupils with teacher and fellow classmates toward the ultimate solution of a problem that is of vital concern to them. Individually and col­ lectively* Fifth Steps

Preparation of Personnel, Equipment, and Location

Personnel The fact that the teacher-pupil activity, the demonstration, was extemporaneous eliminated the prepa­ ration of a script*

The success of the project depended

upon other factors such as the ability of the teacher to teach under filming conditions, the adjustment of both the teacher and the pupils to the presence of moving pleture and sound equipment, working crews, and the new location and setting*

in order to offset this distraction

they were given the usual voice tests for sound record­ ing*

The necessary preliminary arrangements, lighting

and voice tests, and trial runs, involving the placing of equipment, required eight practice periods,as It wore* all of which were held in the location#

During all of

these periods the teacher and pupils proceeded with their regular class work*

For three preceding lessons trial

sound recordings were made*

These were played back to

the class so that obvious imperfections in speaking could be pointed out, and, it was hoped, corrected*

One class

period was devoted to specific training in voice, with the group being divided into two smaller sections for this purpose*

Another class period was devoted to studying

methods of the cooperative discussion and planning*


summary of this presentation Is included in Appendix 0* Thus, while It is not to be said that the teacher and pupils were without practice, the lesson actually filmed was unrehearsed and extemporaneous* Equipment At the same time that the teacher and pupils were being provided with practice, experimentation with all of the mechanical equipment was made*

For example,

the microphone was placed at various positions and checked for best results*

Lighting was checked for proper meter

readings at the various positions, and the camera was set up at different angles*

,.73 Pictures were taken to test results.


was experimentation with sizes of lenses for desired effects.

Trial films thus enabled proper adjustments

to be made before the actual filming began with the result that many hazards were avoided. Location The problems of preparing the location for the filming required Inspection and adjustment of the location by the electrician, sound engineer, and cameraman, and preparation of the location for the specific classroom background and surroundings needed.

It was necessary for

the electrician to make certain that the power lines would carry sufficient load to supply the lights to be used in photographing the various scenes.

The sound engineer cheek­

ed the room for acoustieal treatment and made necessary modifications in the placing of the blankets, the arrange­ ment of rugs and of furniture and placement of microphone. Tli® framework for the background, thirty-six feet In length and twelve feet in height, was constructed from first grade lumber, two Inches thick by four inches wide. The frame was made into two sections, with the rear section twenty—four feet and the left wing twelve feet in length. This framework was then covered with heavy manila paper to give protection to heavy draperies mounted over it. latter were cream colored.


This procedure was followed to

correct the poor picture background provided by the dark

74 colored cinder block of which the walls of the studio were constructed* Sixth Stopt

Expo sure of the Sound and Picture Film

A crew of twelve persons was used In the filming and recording processes, a director of the production, a cameraman and three assistants, a sound engineer and two assistants, an electrician, two doorkeepers, and a timekeeper*

The procedure was organised so that each individual

had a specific task to perform. The exposed film was sent to the Calvin Company film laboratory In Kansas City, Missouri for development and printing*

One positive print for work purposes was

ordered with each picture negative* The actual filming of the classroom activity was done between nine and ten o'clock on the morning of Wednesday, December third, 1941*

The filming of the

introduction mid interpretation section of the film was done on Saturday, February seventh, 1942* As indicated previously there could be no nre­ takes w because of the fact that an extemporaneous class­ room procedure was desired*

Therefore, the filming pro­

cedure occurred only during the regular classroom period of forty minutes*

A short time was provided every eleven

minutes for replacing exposed film with unexposed film* However, discussion proceded in regular order after the interruption *

Seventh Step:

Editorial Treatment of the Film

When the film was returned from the laboratories, it had to be cheeked carefully, placed in order, matched, edited, cut, titled, and synchronized with sound#

it should

be said that only the inarticulate parts were actually re­ moved from the film*

The amount of film removed did not

exceed one hundred feet, leaving the film practically intact# A prepared script was made and filmed for both the introduction and conclusion to the film*

This section,

requiring six minutes film time, was made for the purpose of informing the observer of the film of what he would see in the demonstration and suggesting specific factors to be observed#

A copy of this script is in Appendix A*

The scene for this section included a college methods in­ structor concluding a unit in his courses The Principles of the Art and Science of Teaching# He summarized for the group of seven teacher trainees certain factors influencing teaching, providing some of the background which the observer of the film needs in observing the film#

The instructor also

made several suggestions for the observation of the class­ room activity*

Mr* Crary, the demonstration teacher, intro­

duced at the conclusion of the methods instructor's lecture, gave an account of the cooperative planning of the assign­ ment which would be utilized in the demonstration and a brief description of the pupils in the class*

For the

conclusion of the film the instructor and his trainees

returned to their conference room for a summarization of their impressions of the observation.

The instructor

called on one of the trainees to make the summary which serves as a fitting conclusion for the observer of the film. Another method of interpretation utilized was that provided by the use of titles at appropriate places throughout the film.

These commercially made titles were

used to introduce the observer of the film to the next step in the teaching process and to direct his attention toward certain major factors related to a particular principle of teaching.

The total number of film minutes

for both the Introductory and explanatory titles is eight, or fourteen per cent of the total film time* the titles used Is found in Appendix A.

A copy of

The principal

purpose of the titling was to provide a guided or directed observation of the utilization of the three selected princi­ ples of teaching. The editorial treatment also included the proper assembling and arrangement of all parts of the picture and sound films and sending them to the laboratories of the Consolidated Film Industries, Incorporated of Hew Torlc city for the final, combined positive print.

The apparatus used

In cutting, assembling, and arrangement and matching of the negative picture and sound films included the Neuraade rewind , the Craig film viewer, the Heumade sound picture editor and

measuring apparatus, a splicer, and four sixteen hundred foot reels. All of the film was handled by special gloves. The slightest mark or stain would have marred the negative* Xt was also necessary to maintain proper moisture content in the film to prevent breakage and separation at the splices* Eighth Step:

preparation of the Manual

The manual was designed to supplement the film by providing certain information about Its background, preparation, and possible uses as an Instrument in the preservice training of teachers*

A copy of the material con­

tained In the manual may be found In the Appendix 6*


manual contains information which is more effectively pre­ sented in printed form*

An observation guide prepared for

use with this film Is also Included*

This study guide may

be used by the teacher or supervisor in planning the obser­ vation for his students*

Its purpose, chiefly, is to serve

as a flexible guide to enrich any situation in which this sound motion picture film may be used* The material in the manual is obviously condensed and does not include a complete account of the film*


does, however, attempt to cover the most important aspects, including its preparation, content, and possible uses for teacher training* Binth Steps

Evaluation of the Film

The method of ©valuation used resembled the

pattern followed toy Gray


who mad© an analysis of the

individual reactions to the sound motion picture film Havajo Children#

In his investigation ninety-eight under­

graduate and graduate students enrolled in an educational psychology class at Teachers college, Columbia University were asked to respond to a questionnaire before and after viewing the above mentioned film*

The first part of the

questionnaire, containing information relative to ”th© respondent1s sex, age, length of academic study, major field of academic Interest, experience with amateur and professionally prepared films, amount of Instruction received In the use of visual aids, and opinions on the general effectiveness of Instructional sound films," was administered before the film was shown*

Following this

procedure the group viewed the film, the title not being announced, for the definite purpose of appraising its general and specific educational values, as well as the possible uses to which it might toe put in an Instructional program*

After observing the picture, the group responded

to the second part of the questionnaire* with reactions to the followings

This phase dealt

"range of grades through

which the film would to© suitable; Its course of study correlations; its value for both teachers and pupils; its technical qualities; the desirability and the nature of —


H* A* Gray, ’‘Evaluation and Use of Sound Films,” The Elementary School Journal, 42| 97-104, October, 1941*

accompanying handbook materials; and a suitable title for the production*11 Every effort was made to provide a satisfactory screening of the film in a room that was acoustically treated* Gray concluded from his study that there are serious difficulties involved in the attempt to realise objectivity in situations involving subjective judgments and that any film-rating scale requiring subjective con** slderatlon of its objective features can yield only par­ tially objective results*

He went on to say that

"***.many film-rating scales should be abandoned in favor of a more simplified, sub­ jective, and practical method of determining the worth of a given film* Educational •specialists* can only roughly estimate the nature and scope of the values possessed by a film* Boys and girls are seldom found in the offices of educational *specialists* or in the studios of raotion-picture producers* Teachers, too are conspi cuouslvpabsent from these centers of Inspiration**9^ His conclusion implies that reactions as to the value of a film should come directly from the potential users of the film and that the latter should have a greater part in its production* with soldiers and subalterns on the firing line, teachers and pupils in the class­ room soon are able to detect weakness in the plans of the general staff* They are the ones who determine the value of method* General staffs later may study the results and perhaps bring 92 H* A* Gray, ibid *, p* 104

..80 about a coalescence for the improvement of method* This belief at least seems worthy of trial in the matters of evaluation and use of sound films In accordance with Gray1s suggestion a plan for evaluation was set up to secure reactions from potential users of the film*

An evaluation of the film was made by

securing subjective ratings of It by the faculty and students of certain Institutions engaged either In the preservice or in-service training of teachers*

It was felt

that evaluations from these groups would be especially help­ ful from the standpoint of determining whether or not the film produced met an established need in the program of teacher education*

it was fully recognized at the ^bart

that the majority of Individuals selected as judges were not fully competent to evaluate the technical and educa­ tional aspects of the film*

This was true largely because

of their Inexperience in film evaluation*

It should be

recognized also, that these judges tended to rate the film higher and to be less critical than would have been true had they been able to compare It with other films*


ever, the groups used did Include the principal typos of Intended users of the film*

The main purpose of the evalu­

ation was to secure the reactions of the consumers 3 rather than the producers, of educational films in teacher edu­ cation* The subjective ratings were made by the observers on the items included in an adaptation of the checklist . A * Gray, ibid* , p* 104*

^_81 for ©valuation of educational films developed by Devereux and described in detail in Appendix p*

The check list

presents the standards for the evaluation of educational sound motion picture films.

The same check list is used

by the Erpi Classroom Films, Incorporated, Hew York City, on© of the most prominent producers of educational sound motion pictures to guide the various steps of production and the ©valuation of th© finished product.

Th© writer

secured permission from the holder of th© copyright, the Chivarsity of Chicago Press, and the Erpi Classroom Films, Incorporated for th© use of th© rating seal© for the ©valuation.

In addition, provision was mad© at the end

of the check list for reactions in terms of criticisms and suggestions for improvement of the film as an instrument In training of teachers.

These reactions were analyzed and

placed in chapter IV and Appendix E* The analysis of th© ©valuations Included these steps*

(1) classification of the ratings and criticisms

as to those made by (a) undergraduate students In teacher education, (b) graduate students in education, (c) elementary school teachers, (d) high school teachers, (e) high school administrators and supervisors, (f) instructors and critics in teacher education, and (g) directors of teacher education; (2) tabulations of ratings in th© foregoing classifications; (3) analysis of supplementary reactions; and (4) summary and conclusions. Eighteen educational institutions participated

82 in the study#

Tliey are classified by types as follows:

Teachers College-*— Carthage» Carthage, Illinois5 central, Pella, jowa} Coe, cedar Rapids, Iowa; Cornell, Mount Vernon, Iowa; Iowa Wesleyan, Mount Pleasant, Iowa; Monmouth, Monmouth, Illinois; Parsons, Fairfield, Iowa; and Simpson, Indianola, Iowa; Junior Colleg©3—

Purlington» Burlington,

Iowa; and Washington, Washing ton, Iowa; Universities**-Drake, Des Moines, Iowa; and state University of Iowa, Iowa City; public Schools-—-Pairfield Public Schools, Fairfield, jowa; Mount Pleasant High School, Mount Pleasant, Iowa; Roosevelt High School, cedar Rapids, Iowa; Roosevelt High School, Des koines, Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa*

and University High School,

Many other Institutions were represented

in a showing to a Saturday class in Educational Psychology at the State University of Iowa*

There were 476 persons

who made evaluations for th© study*

All of these were

tabulated and analyzed* The film was shown by the writer to the personnel of the institutions referred to during th© first half of the month of April*

The film was shown under conditions

as nearly Identical as possible*

Comments made in intro­

ducing th© film were relative to the purpose of showing It, suggestions for observing th© film as an instrument in teacher education, explanation of th© rating scale and criticism sheet, and expression of appreciation for the time given by the group to observing and evaluating the film*

The comments made in Introducing the film are given


is Appendix D* Til© eight liberal arts colleges were included in the study because it was desired to seour© ratings from institutions offering courses in teacher education with a decided handicap in limited demonstration and observational facilities*

The audiences in these insti­

tutions Included students enrolled in pre-service teaching and methods courses. Instructors in teacher education, critic teachers of the public schools affiliated with the college, and directors of the teacher training program* On© teachers college participated In the study* This institution was Included because it was felt that both th© faculty and students would be especially critical* This college has a training school with outstanding demon­ stration and observational facilities*

For this reason

it was believed that the reactions from the personnel of this institution would be helpful* The administrators, supervisors, and faculty members of the public schools were included because it was desired to secure reactions to th© in—service training possibilities of the film*

In some of these schools the

personnel participated In the study as critic teachers for the teacher education departments of certain liberal arts colleges• The findings from this study are summarized in Chapter V*

Appendix E Is given to certain representative

reactions to th© film*



Introduction This chapter shows the distribution of the ratings and the summarization of criticisms mad© by 476 persons after observing the film#

Th© film was shown by

the writer to certain of the personnel of eighteen edu­ cational institutions during the month of April, 1942. The showings of th© film were under conditions as nearly identical as possible.

The reactions were indicated in

terms of the value of this film as a medium to enrich the usual observational procedures In the training of teachers* It should be said, however, that both th® ratings and criticisms tended to favor the film rather highly* This was probably due to the fact that th© judges were Inex­ perienced in rating and criticising educational films and the fact that there was no other film to which comparison could be made.

Another factor probably causing stronger

favoritism is that, since there is an apparent need for films with th© better characteristics of the one produced, the judges tended to rat© the idea more than th® actual film Itself.

Still another factor that should be ac­

knowledged Is that there was a high degree of selection of judges*

The judges were Individuals who were* directly

related to either the in-service or pre-service training

of teachers.

This selection was intentional In order to

secure reactions from th© Intended users of the film in the capacity of either a student or a teacher in the train­ ing program.

There were, without doubt, other miscellaneous

factors which tended to produce a higher rating than would otherwise have been the case.

Th© reader is cautioned to

keep those conditioning factors in mind as h© reads this chapter. ^^^a^^ofRatings A mean rating of 1.741 on a five point scale was given to the film by the 476 judges. film were rated.

Six phases of the

These were objectives, content, develop­

ment of content, technical audio-visual elements, contri­ bution to other curriculum materials, and overview of gener­ al effectiveness.

An average of the above ratings was also

given by each judge*

A check list of standards for educa­

tional films accompanied each rating scale for the purpose of defining the items included in each of the phases of th© film ©valuation.

This information may be found in Appendix

D. The objectives of the film were apparently clear, as 458 judges rated this item either ”excellent” or “good.” Content received 448 “excellent” and “good” ratings.


Item relating to general effectiveness received 429 ratings of “excellent” or “good.”

The judges were most critical

of th© sound and picture elements of th© film, assigning

* 255 first or second point ratings*

They indicated weak­

nesses covering such factors as eyestrain, need of a variety in angles and distances, extraneous recording noises, and poor voices of the participants*

It is ac­

knowledged that there are perhaps more noticeable factors of the objective type in the physical aspeets of the film than in other phases*

This fact tends to make the items

in this phase of the filming more subject to criticism* It should be said also that the judges probably made com­ parison of the physical aspeets to those of commercially made films, which provided a standard for the rating* Tables II through IX give the numbers and distributions of the ratings assigned to the film*


, .87 Table ii Distribution of the Ratings made by the 476 Judges: A Summary Item






TFoTal. Humber Hating

I* Objectives* * * * * * *







II. Content . • • * * « • •







II. Development of content. 197






IV. Technical audio-visual elements* . * * * • • *







v. Contribution to other curriculum materials* • 177






VI. Overview of general effectiveness • • • • • 188






General rating {average 2 298 25 0 of above ratings) * * * 151 476 ... ................ .......... ..... ........ „ ,i .jj,"— — The rating scale 1st X— Excellent; 2— Good; 3— Pair; 4— Poorf and 5— .Objectionable* The mean rating for all of th© groups is 1*741* "^There were 258 out of 476 persons who gave this film a rating of nlf* or **excellent11 on the i tern wobjeetlvea** Each of the numbers in this table and in those that follow should be read in this manner* The 476 persons judging th© film were classified into seven divisions* depending upon th© relationship of each to the program of teacher education*

These divisions

are given in the order in which the tables for the distri-* but ion of ratings are arranged:

undergraduate students in

teacher education* graduate student in education* elementary school teacher* high school teacher* school administrator or supervisor* instructor in teacher education, and director

^ .88 of teacher education*

It will be noticed that there

seems to be general agreement in the ratings from group to group*

There are some slight variations, but they

are not large enough to be significant# Table ill Distribution of Ratings made by 378 Undergraduate Students in Teacher Education







Total Number Ratini?

Objectives • « * # • «








Content * * * * * * * *








Development of content 155







Technical audio**visual elements * • • * * • *





Contribution to other curriculum materials * 148






Overview of general effectiveness * * * • 146






General rating (average of above ratings)* * * 117








V* VI*

3 **376

*The rating scale is* I— Excellent; 2— Good; 3— Pair; 4— Poor; and 5— Objectionable* The mean rating for this group Is 1.751. ^ X n some instances certain judges neglected to rate one or two of the items* They assigned average ratings, however, indicating an oversight In the rating of the individual items*


Table IV Distribution of Ratings made by Twelve Graduate Students in Education







Total Humber Rating

!♦ Objectives* • • • • • *







II» Content • • • * • • • •







II. Development of content*







IV. Technical audio-visual elements* * * • * • * •







V. Contribution to other curriculum materials* •







VI. Overview of general effectiveness * * * . *







General rating (average of above ratings) * * *







**The rating scale 1st 1--Excellent; 2— Good; 3— Falr; 4— -Poor; and 5— Objactionable* The mean rating for this group Is 2*000



Table V Distribution of Ratings made by seventeen Elementary School Teachers Item

Total *1




5 Number Rating


Objectives# •









• « * • • * #








Development of content#








Technical audio-visual elements# « » • # • • •













Overview of general effectiveness • • . * # 8











V# VI.

Contribution to other curriculum materials#

General rating (average of above ratings). • *


The rating scale 1st 1— Excellent; 2— Good; 5— Pair; 4~Poor; 5— Objectionable* The mean rating Tor this group is 1*825*

Table VI Distribution of Ratings made by Eighteen High School Teachers





Total 5 Humber Rating

• 7






II* Content * * * * • * • • 8






:xi* Development of content* 7






IV* Technical audio-visual elements* «■* * * * * * 4






Contribution to other curriculum materials * 3






Overview of general effectiveness* * * * • 8






General rating (average of above ratings). • . 6






Item Objectives* * * * * *

V* VI*

‘ifeThe rating scale 1st 1— -Excellent; 2— Good; 3— Fair; 4--Poor; and 5~0bject leasable* The mean rating for this group is 1*666*

fable VII Distribution of Ratings made by Thirteen school Administrators and Supervisors





Total™ 5 Number Rating

I. Objectives* • • * * • «







11. Content * # « • • • * •































General rating (average of above ratings)* . • * * 7







■* H H

Development of content*

XV. Technical audio-visual V# Contribution to other curriculum materials* • VI* Overview of general effectiveness * * * * *

**The rating scale iai 1— - E x c e l l e n t ; 2— Good; 3— Fair; 4— Poor; and 5--Objectionable. The mean rating for this group is 1*461#

Table VIII Distribution of Eatings mad© by Twenty-Nine instructors in Teacher Education





Total 5 Humber Rating

I* Objectives. . . . . . .







II. Content . . « « . . . *







































Development of content*

IV. Technical audio-visual elements. • « • • • • • V. Contribution to other curriculum materials. . Vi. Overview of general effectiveness. . . . . . General rating (average of above ratings) . . .

*Th© rating scale ist 1— 'Excellent; 2— Good; 3< Fair; 4~Poor; and 5~0bjectionable. The mean rating for this group is 1.758*

Table ix Distribution of Eatings made by Nine Directors of Teacher Education






fotal Humber Hating













XI* Development of content* 5






IV* Technical audio-visual elements * • • • • « *







V* Contribution to other curriculum materials* * 2






VI* Overview of general effectiveness * * * • * 4






Item I* Objectives* * • « • • • II* Content

« « • • • • *

General rating (average 0 0 5 0 9 of above ratings) • • * 4 4t> The rating scale is* 1— Excellent; 2— Good; 3--Fair; 4--Poor; and 5— Objactionable. The mean rating for this group is 1.555.

, 95

Table x Summary of Ratings made by All Groups In the study Mean Rating




education. * * * * * *




High school teachers * • * 18




Undergraduate students In education . . . . .



instructors In teacher education. » ♦ • * • * . • . 29




Elementary school teachers • * * * • * .




Graduate students in



Group 1*

School administrators and supervisors. . . .


. . 13

2* Directors of teacher


Total number rating. * . .476 Mean rating * * * . . . .



There was a slight tendency for the elementary school teachers and the graduate students to be more critical than the other groups*

However, the difference

In group means is not significant*

Furthermore* the film

was designed primarily for the five groups who gave the highest ratings to the film.

Generally* the average

ratings assigned to the sir principal Items of the film were approximately the same from group to group*

That Is

. -96 tbm objectives and content aspects were rated highest in each group, and the audio-visual elements were rated lowest» Criticisms This phase of the study was quit© valuable in many respects*

The section entitled t!comments*1 gave

each judge considerable freedom in indicating his reactions In writing*

The introduction of this section is as follows*

wSince this sound motion picture film represents an experi ental research project for the pre-service and in-service training of teachers, additional comments relative to its possible effectiveness as an instrument in teacher education will be greatly appreciated* Kindly indicate your reaction to this film and your suggestions for future production of educational films of this nature The response to this section was quite strong, with over sixty per cent or 290, of the judges writing comments• These comments ranged from the most serious criticisms of the film to an endorsement of its us© in teacher education*

The criticisms dealt with suggested

improvement of the physical and educational aspects of the film*

The criticisms were largely the same from group

to group, indicating a general agreement in favorable and unfavorable reactions*

An analysis of the criticisms is

made in the following pages* Suggestions for the Improvement of the Film The two general classifications of th© suggestions

,97 for the improvement of the film are* first* those sug­ gestions which relate to the mechanical or physical aspects of the film and* second* those suggestions that deal with the educational treatment*

As indicated 290 comments by

different judges were sumi ari^ed and tabulated*

In many

instances the suggestions were translated from the negative statement to Its Implication in a positive suggestion*


example* the statement tTthe film causes eyestrain” is in­ cluded in the item in the table which reads "arrange light­ ing to avoid eyestrain*”

This procedure was necessary

because statements implying the same criticism and sug­ gestion for improvement were given In bpth positive and negative forms In the comments* Mechanical *- Suggestions for Improvement of this phase of the film dealt with stich factors as lighting* sound* size of print in titling* transitions from scene to scene* voice* camera angles* and color film*

Forty-one of the

476 judges criticised the lighting and suggested that a definite attempt be made to produce pictures with less eye­ strain*

Instructions wore given to the pupils to wear light

colored clothing because previous film tests had shown that the darker colored clothing produced undesirable results* A more moderate distribution of light colored clothing throughout the picture would probably have been more de­ sirable*

Twenty-two persons suggested that smoother tran­

sitions should be mad© from scene to title and title to

scene• Thirty—two Individuals made reference to suggested improvement in the recording of sound*

They referred to

such factors as surface noises* disturbing sounds* and un­ even recording*

The handicap caused by the limitation of

equipment prevented the realization of many of the more desirable outcomes in the mechanical phases of the film* With better and more complete equipment many of the un­ desirable features of the film can be eliminated in the future*

It was also impossible for the person in charge

of the sound control apparatus to know who would speak next because of the unrehearsed and extemporaneous features of the filming*

This prevented accurate and immediate

adjustment to all voices*

Eighteen persons suggested the

use of larger type for the titles*

Tables XI and XII show

the frequencies and distribution of the suggestions for improvement in the mechanical aspects of the film#

Table XI Frequency and Distribution of Suggestions for Improve­ ment In the Pictorial Elements of the Film Hq » of Judges Making Suggestion Suggestions for improvement Undergraduate All Total Students In other of All Education Groups Groups "Arrange lighting to avoid eyestrain"* • • • « * • • * • •




"Improve transition from scene to title# title to scene" (Fades)* * * * * * * * *




"Keep camera in focus" * * * * *




"Use larger type for titles" * • 17



"Develop more artistic effect" #




"Use different angles for variation. 14



"Follow speaker more closely"* *





"Use color film" * * * * *



Thirty-five undergraduates suggested that improve­ ment should be made In the distribution of lighting and color of clothing so that eyestrain can be avoided in future films# There were six persons In all of the other groups who Indicated a similar reaction* This made a total of forty-one of the 476 judges who wrote this suggestion on the page entitled "Comments*"

Table XII Frequency and Distribution of Suggestions for Improvement in the Sound Elements of Film No* of judges Making Suggestion Suggestions for Improvement Undergraduate All Total Students In Other of All Education Groups Groups "Eliminate surface noises” * * *




"Train voices of speakers", * * 13



"Control volume In record­ ing”* * • » • » * • • • • • * •




"Regulate transition from sound to silent parts of film" . , * , . * * * * .




"Use more microphones* * * * * *




"Check the syehronlzation of sound and picture" * * * * *




• , *

The following quotations from the written comments are representative of the criticisms and sug­ gestions for improvement in the visual elements? "Future films will# no doubt# be better along technical lines? fades# dissolves# closeups# distant shots* and In the sound recording* This will make for a smoother film said one that will compare with commercial motion pictures •" (Instructor In visual education) "The frame presenting the emphasis called for Interruption of class procedure# as far as an observer is concerned* A title at the top of the picture# relating the emphasis, would eliminate this and aid the observer***.Color would improve it*" (Director of teacher education) "I found the audlo-vlsual elements a little poor and wish they could be improved*" (Graduate student) "The printed material inserted interrupted the unity* but I donft have any Idea how It might be done*" (Undergraduate student) "Film good, but some of the angle shots were not too good* It wasn’t especially hard on the eyes* though*" (Undergraduate student) "Filming could be improved by having shorter pauses between changes of lenses*" (Undergraduate student) "The film was quite tiring for one’s eyes* and this detracted greatly from the effectiveness *!l (Undergraduate student) The treatment of the sound elements received some criticisms also*

Some of these are suggested In

the quotations just cited in connection with the pictures " m a few places it was rather difficult to understand the speakers because their voices were muff1ed *" (Undergraduate student) "There were a few technical imperfections in


sound which can probably b© eliminated as the technicians become more experienced in taking this type or movie*" (Undergraduate student) "The greater technical perfection which is bound to follow with further work along this line would enhance the value further#" (High school faculty member) "More microphones would help, I believe.” (Graduate student) "Bad sound recording in places*" (Graduate student) E d u c a t i o n a l Many very helpful suggestions were given relative to improvement of the film in its educational treatment*

These suggestions were along the

lines of length of film, lessons and techniques, areas of subject matter, titling, the introduction and conclusion, preparation for the showing, teacher and pupils, and possible uses for this film and others of a similar nature# The summary of suggestions is given in Table XIII*

fable XIIX Frequency and Distribution of Suggestions for Improve­ ment In the Educational Aspects of the Film

Suggestions for Improvement

Ho* of Judges Making Suggestion Total All Undergraduate of All Other Students in Groups Groups Education

"Use pupils from typical school situations* * * * *

* •




"Reduce the length of film1** • •




"Improve the introduction” * * *




"Provide printed material cover­ ing principles and objectives”*




"Use fewer titles” * • * • * * •




"Use shorter titles" * * * * * #




"Use more titles"* * * * * *








"Place titles more appropriately"

The most frequent criticism in the educational phase of the film was that the pupils used were not typical in relation to the characteristics of the pupils usually taught by the beginning teachers*

The statements in this

regard implied that a film which uses pupils with lower mental ability and with a limited background of experience would probably be of more practical value to the pre-service teacher*

They did Indicate, however, that they believed

that a superior teacher should be used in all demonstrations* In this manner the pre-service teacher could view a typical

situation as it could be handled by some on© well trained* The undergraduate students recognised this fact in ap­ proximately the same proportion as did the other groups* Gut of the eighty-eight persons referring to this criticism, seventy-one were undergraduates.

The percentage was ap­

proximately eighteen in each case*

It was decided to use

the select group in this project because of the many hazards involved in the filming process*

First, It was quit© neces­

sary to us© only pupils whose voices would record reasonably well*

Second, it was felt that better results would be

secured with pupils who were rather well accustomed to the presence of observers*

Third, it was felt that pupils with

less aggressive characteristics would tend to be "camera and microphone shy*"

Furthermore, it was believed that a

film demonstration should be somewhat better than the usual classroom procedure if it were to contribute toward the improvement of teaching* A second criticism was that the film Is too long for a typical college methods class or a high school fac­ ulty meeting*

It was suggested that the length of the

film be reduced to approximately forty minutes*

The film

Is forty—eight minutes In length at the present time*


was pointed out that the Introduction could be condensed and perhaps handled in a different manner.

For example,

the facts necessary to the understanding of the picture could be printed in a small pamphlet and given to the class in advance of the showing*

The instructor showing the film


could Gall attention to the important facta*

In this

manner the actual classroom demonstration could be intro­ duced much more quickly*

Th© formality of the Introductory

and concluding sections of the film was also criticised* A selection of representative quotations related to th© educational phases of th© film is hereby givens "The lines of explanation Interspersed through­ out th© film are most valuable additions. I think even more such could be run in and make the picture count for more— a method of getting more value from on© thousand feet of actual picture*" (Director of teacher education) "Try one in a typical rural school, consolidated school and high school at the junior high school level*” (Director of teacher education) "The film needs a bit of shortening* I do not know where*” (Graduate student)


”1 wonder if a class of 118 i* q* is best for such teaching* The real problem of the high school teacher comes with classes of about 92 to 96 X* Q* average* I believe that such a class should be photographed in a place where the whole class could be better photographed so you can see who is speak­ ing* Would suggest that the amount of time devoted to the unit be Included In the film some place* I believe that much valuable teaching can be shown by this film, and others like it* In fact, Ifd say that It is preferable to observation*” (High school faculty member)

"Regarding the use of the film, it should be emphasized that th© class instructor needs to be thoroughly acquainted with the material v&xlch you will put in your manual and should make provision for several showings of certain parts of the fIlia along with class discussions of the problems raised. The class might then profit by visiting one or several classes to observe the principles set forth in the film in different settings*” (Graduate student— former supervisor) "One of the weak spots, as 2 saw the picture, was that the story of the picture was interrupted


by the silent explanations* I feel a longer explanation at the beginning and end would make it more effective** (instructor In teacher education) *(1) I think that when the film Is shown before a class of teachers in training it should be explained that their students probably wouldn*t have had ex­ perience in cooperative planning since the sixth grade and probably wouldn*t have an average j. Q. of 118. "(2) I think the most of th© first part of the film showing the graduate class was superfluous. The objectives of th© film could have been stated more briefly* "(3) I was Interested enough by the movie to want to see further results of the unit.” (undergraduate student) ttX enjoyed the film very much, but x really feel that it does not characterize th© average class­ room* Either we usually have poor high school classes and teachers, or this is an exceptional class. I should like very much to see such films developed in other teaching fields and in average classrooms.n (Und ergraduate stud ent) "The actual classroom work Illustrated very well, I thought, th© principles involved, but Is also Illustrated some other principles as valuable, or nearly as valuable* capital should be made, it would seem, of these other principles also.” (High school faculty member) "The students used in this class were not typical* The average high school class has a wider spread in intelligence, particularly downward•" (High school faculty member) "I sometimes think a less perfect situation would be more helpful in presenting real problems. Larger class, limited material, greater variation in group, and less desirable physical equipment are some of the examples of what I mean. Too many teachers go out with a false idea that all schools are equipped as well as their training school, which, as you know, is fantastic•” (High school faculty member) “The film Is too long* For a teacher training class, X think one or possibly two, objectives could

±07 be demonstrated* Then others could be patterned after these examples without the showing*” (High school teacher) "This was so valuable In content that It seems that money would be well spent to make the picture more artistic* The group didn1t look comfortable* They couldn,t talk to each other* On© felt that they were bunched to get into th© pictur©*” (Administrator) WI should Ilk© to see what could be don© in a typical public school classroom by some highly trained teacher, such as may be found In th© experimental or demonstration schools* Th© work in these schools Is definitely helpful to the average teacher, but not always applicable to a situation with larger classes and a lower I* Q.” (Kindergarten teacher) "How that you have this unrehearsed material, perhaps it could be written in script performance and acted*” (Instructor in teacher education) Favorable Reactions to This Film As indicated by the relatively high rating given to the film there were many expressions of favorable reactions* Those reactions pointed out th© value of this film for teacher education*

The suggestion of the us© of th© sound motion

pictur© film as a medium in the training of teachers met with usually strong approval*

This fact was probably re­

sponsible for the high rating given to this film*

Of the

290 written comments there were 127 that suggested other areas in which sound motion picture films are needed in th© education of teachers*

The specific areas included

In these suggestions were demonstrations of principles and method in th© different subject matter fields of the kindergarten, the rural school, the elementary school, the

Junior high school, and th© senior high school*

On th©

high school level the fields named were agriculture, biology, mathematics, home economics, music, English, literature, foreign languages, and commerce*

It was

pointed out that sound films of th© type observed pro­ vided excellent opportunities for Intensive critical study* There were 258 persons who stated that this film is an excellent medium for the pre-service training of teachers* Its value for in-service training was mentioned by sixtyeight persons*

There were 223 individuals who said that

the film presented a fin© demonstration of the utilization of the three principles of teaching*

A large number com­

mented on the effectiveness with which th© cooperative planning procedure was used*

One of th© most favorable

reactions to the film is Indicated by the fact that 154 persons said that the film demonstrated clearly the possi­ bilities of its use as an effective Instrument for the directed observation of teaching.

It was pointed out by

forty-four persons that the film Is useful for Introducing th© student to classroom observation.

A series of good

films demonstrating principles and methods of teaching would be very welcome in the liberal arts colleges which have quite limited demons trat Ion and observational fa­ cilities* Table XIV gives a summary of th© most frequently mentioned favorable responses.

Table XIV Frequency and Distribution of Favorable Reactions to the Film Ho* of Judges Indicating Reaction Undergraduate All Total Students in Other of All Education Groups Groups i iiii ■ i

Favorable Reaction


u ami— iiT O u m

.... .

f,Excellent medium training for pre*servic© teachers” * •




”Well presented demon* stration” • * • * • * * • » *








”0ther similar films are needed” * * * * * * * * * # • (Other age levels-fielda)


”Good portrayal of the ideal situation” * * * * * *




”Good for training in* service teachers” * * * * * *




”Film provides means for critical study of teaching” *




”Fi!m assists in orienting student to classroom observation” * ♦ * • * * » * *








ftTiilesar© very helpful” * * *




wThese films can eliminate long field trips for observational purposes” * * *






”Good directed observation”

”Film provides motivation to study th© teaching process” * * * * • * • * ♦ *

”Sueh films can be used for articulating th© work of elementary and secondary schools” * * * * * * * * • • *




Quotations from Typical Comment 3 *- Some of th© quotations expressing th© ideas presented above are as follows: Directors of Teacher Education ”111 my judgment th© use of this method (film) has excellent possibilities* 1 should like to see other films of this same type*1'

”l feel that the film has fin© possibilities in teacher training*” ”Very good idea* W© need films In typical rural school, consolidated school, and junior high school situations, also*” ”1 would like films, such as this, for methods classes* They offer opportunity to various approaches to teaching, such as are available in any on© Institution* The film definitely usable in meeting a real need*”

my present not is

”This is the kind of thing we need for teacher education where w© have no demonstration schools* I think that this is so stimulating as to be more valuable than hours of observation of ordinary, poorly planned classes* I think that the principles of teaching are one© that need great emphasis* The lines of explanation Interspersed throughout the film are most valuable additions* I think even more such could be run In and make th© picture count for more*” ”W© need films of this type for introducing our student© to more meaningful observations.” instructors in Teacher Education ”1 feel that th© project as a whole was ex­ cellent *”

”It was excellent> It was informative; it was an excellent idea; and it was presented expertly, with some exceptions*” ”This was a splendid demonstration of th© possibilities of the use of th© sound flira In teacher education*”

"A very fin© film for teacher training* This film should Inspire teachers to improve their teaching* It should be very valuable for teachers1 colleges, schools of education, and training sections for teachers and demonstrators**♦ The class did a very fin© piece of work, and at th© end of the film, i had the feeling of wanting to see more* Due to this reaction, I am wondering if more of th© material used for the Introduction could be included as part of the summary and ending ** "X feel that the project as a whole was ex­ cellent* I’d only suggest that it be made longer to Include more details*n "It was an excellent portrayal of the Ideal situation*" "I think that this method Is an excellent way to demonstrate teaching procedures*" "Th© film seems to me to be excellent for illustrating principles of unit procedure*" "I liked the method of instruction used* There should be more like it*" "On the whole i am delighted with the film and would be Interested in using it in my classes*" School Administrators and Supervisors "This study seems to be a valuable contri­ bution to th© pre-service and in-service training of teachers* It is a type of service altogether new to me* I am not so sure the method Illustrated Is altogether valid, but x do heartily approve of such motion pictures as teacher aids*" "I believe firmly that projects of this type would be highly valuable to pre-service and inservice training* in fact, I think it is a far superior method to the traditional lecture course so continuously used* Th© observer sees human beings in action* It should create an interest in presentation of subject matter that has become so theoretical to be meaningless, sometimes*” "It is such a great and significant contri­ bution to teacher training that better teacher actors would contribute much*"

.112 "I believe definitely that you people have hit upon an idea of great value and benefit to any pre-service or in-service teacher* Many questions are asked on methods* Films prepared to demonstrate various techniques would be of profound value to the teaching profession*1* "Makes definite contribution above and beyond that possible by the usual method and technique lectures or courses* especially as it may inspire teachers to adopt an improved method and not leave them in mid-air as to how to do it* So far as content Is concerned* it is as good as an actual visit to the class* Excellent for faculty meetings, which are usually ineffective*** "This film is more practical than attending a state convention* Would like to see films of other classes*" "The technique and procedures are brought closer to the teacher by this method* Pictures of this type in upper grad© levels should serve as a help in integrating th© high school and grade school teaching*** "This is a phase of education that has been need­ ed in teacher training for some time* Such methods could be used very effectively by supervisors and principals in the school systems, teachers institutes, and colleges engaged in teacher training* In addition to training teachers a film of this type can be used very well to enlighten students in what constitutes a good group discussion*fl Graduate students "This Is a valuable document to show well these three objectives* Th© logieal development is an excellent form of presenting essential teaching principles* Th© film Is well planned and directed to give observers the best possible view of the major concepts In good order*" "I think it would be a good thing to have more such pictures* The objectives were clearly stated and th© lesson unit well carried out • We need more socialized lessons such as this* I am a graduate student with a major in English, and I wish there were similar pictures In this field*" "Objectives, content, methods and curriculum materials were all excellent*"

113 "to excellent beginning In a field rich in possibilities! It would seem worthwhile to have a concise statement of the difficulties encountered in building this film In order that future attempts may be facilitated* *** What a help It would be if we had other films showing every step in the solution of that problem so that each aprt could be related to another*® "Idea and organization excellent*" High School Teachers "This was an excellent demonstration of work­ ing out th© assignment** **l was particularly impressed by the sincere and unaffected manner of all of those participating, especially the high school class.” "I feel sure that this film was of definite value and interest to those Individuals connected with high school teaching* It can also be fitted for elementary teaching****! think this method Is an excellent way to demonstrate teaching procedures*” "As a teacher I find the film extremely Inter­ esting* 1 think that it might be valuable for teacher training*” "I believe that much valuable teaching can be shown by this film, and others like It* In fact, I'd say It is preferable to observation*” "The actual class room work illustrated very well, I thought, th© principles involved* ***Th© whole idea seemed to be pregnant with possibilities*” Elementary School Teachers "The objectives were clear and well set up* I believe that a student teacher would have a very good Idea of procedures to follow in presenting and following up a project of this type. Aether the advantage of this type of teaching Justifies the expense I can't say* It certainly is superior to other types of teaching.” "It seems to me that there are great possi­ bilities in the use of films as a means of teacher training* It presents in a very clear, concise way many important principles of education* It would require a much longer time to present the


aame material by the lecture method, and it would not be nearly so practical or as easily remembered* It would be of great service to teachers to have more such films prepared." "It seems to me that the film should be an excellent aid In teacher training, it can give almost as much as an actual visit for observation, and the content can be controlled so that the actual point of study Is Illustrated* This la not always possible in classroom observation." Undergraduate Students in Education "I really think that this Is a fine idea for education classes* It really shows th© principles better than th© lecture method. I hop© that some film can be developed in the field of Home Economies." "I think that th© picture Is very valuable be­ cause it Illustrates th© practicability of co­ operative planning*...I think this type of educational aid for prospective teachers Is invaluable, especially If it could be worked out in fields which are often considered trite by students, i*e. mathematics and grammar." "I would like to see something like this in the teaching of literature." "I liked the film very much* I would like to see a film based on the teaching of modern languages for students In that field. *.. It could be arranged to show how the teacher can meet various difficulties in teaching languages, such as In sound and pronunciation." "Good picture* Should be more similar films made for other fields* I think it would be a valuable aid to teachers and prospective teachers as well as for parents of students of all ages In school* Everyone Is or should be interested In what Is going on In our schools* Pictures like this would help to give them a clearer picture of the school curriculum." "I thought the subject and presentation was very good* Also, many good teaching practices were brought out* For Instance, the teacher moved about the room, brought all students Into the discussion.


#1.15 and let th© students do th© majority of th© talking# Also I liked the way th© film showed beforehand what principles th© teacher was to see. The pletur© was very educational and interesting to me because it showed In actual practice what w© have studied in b o o k s * T h e picture helped me in many ways*" "It's amazing to see that all the principles and theories of unit planning that we have been studying are so well applied in actualities as well as in theory* The picture serves to crystallize the material already learned*" "I should like to see an entire unit worked out on the screen*" "The kindergarten and primary fields, too, need such films*" "The pupils were alive, actually Interested in the subject and eager for expression, rather than showing off for the sake of the camera*" "An excellent presentation of phrases of teaching that instructors and prospective Instructors may become familiar with through such agencies. From the standpoint of an undergraduate, I consider such methods of presentation a marvelous means of seeing hitherto rather remote theories and ideas actually become 'alive*1 Seeing them actually being used helps the person who is comparatively unfamiliar with their extensive use, to evaluate them In re­ lation to a situation in which he might find himself*" "Such an observation may be made whenever the entire class is prepared for it*" "I felt that this film was one of the finest of Its type that I have ever seen* The purpose seemed clearly defined, and the procedure used to develop th© unit was surely excellent. I should like to see a class of lower X* Q*, for many of us will not be fortunate enough to obtain positions teaching students as alert, interested, and Intelligent as these boys and girls." "X found this film to be very Interesting and helpful in clarifying concepts Involved in principles and methods of teaching*" "in jay opinion this is Indeed a step in the right direction* The fact that materials are so

scarce in the secondary field makes such a start all th© more commendable*•••Basically, th© material covered was excellent and offers a very good founda­ tion on which more films might be made." *1 was most favorably impressed with the film— Its unique and obvious sincere presentation* Th© vigor and Intelligence with which the class approached the entire question should and may well be an In­ spiration to any teacher or would-be teacher who sees it* The film presented the proper method of this teaching practice forcefully, clearly, and with a permanence of effect."

Chapter V SUMMAHX Introduction One of the many possible applications of the sound motion picture film to th© area of teacher education Is Its use as a directed observation of the principles of teaching.

The film lends Itself as an instrument in this

regard because it can be mad© available without the many inconveniences often associated with the ordinary obser­ vation of demonstrations of teaching*

By the use of the

narrator and titles the observer can be guided through­ out th© demonstration lesson*

The film makes possible

intensive and critical study of the teaching done in certain instances because the same lesson can be observed as many times as desired.

The film also makes It possible

to focus the attention of the observer on any specific part of the lesson or toward any participant.

Such a

film, however, should only be used to enrich the usual observational procedures, rather than to supercede them* Purpose The primary purpose of this project was to construct a sound motion picture film to serve as a directed observation of certain principles of teaching* An analysis has been mad© of certain subjective judgments on the value of this film for the pre-service and inservice training of teachers*

in addition, a manual was

*'•l.fs £

prepared for use with the film* Th© three major parts of th© film are the Introduction, the demonstration lesson, and th© summa­ rization*

The film is centered upon an extemporaneous

classroom demonstration of the cooperative planning of an assignment for the unit The Historical Development of Certain Basic Institutions of Freedom

in America*

Procedure The following nine major steps were developed and followed during th© course of this project} First, selection of the field and subject matter area* ^ Second, formulation of the major objectives and purposes for th© film* Third, selection of the personnel, equipment, supplies, and location necessary to produce th© film* Fourth, selection and organization of method and unit of learning experiences* Fifth, preparation of the personnel, equipment, and location for the ^filming* Sixth, exposure of the sound and picture* film* Seventh, editorial treatment of the film* Eighth, preparation of th© manual for use with the film. Ninth, evaluation of the film*


First Step—

This project was arbitrarily limited

t© the construction of a sound motion picture film for the training of teachers#

The writer selected this field chiefly

because of his interest in the field of teacher education and his desire to develop an instrument that would serve as a directed observation of the process of teaching#


review of the literature and research relative to the train­ ing of teachers reveals that one of the principal weaknesses in teacher education is the lack of effective directed obser­ vations of teaching*

It was felt that a filmed lesson

should prove to be an especially good supplement for the enrichment of the usual classroom observational procedures because it lends itself to critical study#

It was then

decided to concentrate upon three well selected principles of teaching and to delineate them during a single lesson# Three principles were formulated from authoritative sources, which recognised them as basic to teaching*

They are:


Formulation of Immediate and Ultimate Objectives# The teacher should formulate for each learning enterprise both immediate rad ultimate objectives that are consistent with desirable educational outcomes*


Selection of content and Activities* The teacher should select both and us©content and activities that are suited to the interests, abilities, and needs of the learners#


Adaptation of Method. The teacher should us© skillfully a method- of Instruction that is well adapted to the nature of the learners and the learning experiences to be provided* The social studies area was selected beeaus©

It was felt that the nature of the subject matter was especially favorable for the utilization of the principles formulated* Second Step*- To accomplish the goal of a di­ rected observation the following major objectives were set up for the fIlm: X*

To arouse the pre-service and the In-service teacher’s interest in effective teaching and what It involves in the classroom*


To point out the presence and use of objectives, subject matter and activities, and method in the act of teaching a single lesson*


To direct attention to the manner in which a teacher utilizes certain basic principles for teaching*


To enable the teacher to be aware of the inter­ relation of two or more of these principles*


To make the teacher more critical In his analysis and observation of the teaching process, to the end that he may the better recognize the princi­ ples Involved, incorporate them in his thinking, and apply then to situations other than the one observed* Third step*- The selection of the personnel

related to the project was divided into the following categories:

(!) advisory committee, (2) demonstration

teacher, (3) pupils, (4) film technicians, (5) methods instructor, and (6) student teachers*

Ryland Crary was

selected as demonstration teacher because of his ability to present good demonstrations with his class*


nineteen eleventh-grade pupils were selected principally because their voices recorded better than the voice of the other members of the class*

Because of limitations

In equipment it was not feasible to include a greater number of pupils in this demonstration class.

The average

intelligence quotient, ascertained from standardized tests* is 113.

Xt is recognized that this mental rating is

definitely above that of the typical class.

However, the

nature of the project was such that it was not considered wise to attempt* at the time, the filming of a less well qualified group*

This was true because of the many hazards

involved in filming an unrehearsed and extemporaneous classroom recitation. Fourth Step.- After the selection of the teacher— pupil personnel, an analysis was made of the interests, abilities, and needs of the pupils.

From this analysis

the cooperative planning method was selected for the unit The Historical Development of Certain Basic Institutions of Freedom in America.

It was also decided that the

demonstration should be of the extemporaneous nature in order that the element of naturalness could be achieved* It was also felt that the use of a prepared script would lessen the value of the film. Fifth Step.- A training program, consisting of eight meetings in the studio, was administered to the teachers and pupils so that extraneous factors, such as lighting, sound, and picture equipment, and production personnel, would have less distraction on the occasion of the filming.

Trial sound recordings were mad© of the

regular classroom work for the three preceding meetings*

These were played back to the class so that obvious imperfections in speaking could be pointed out and, in so far as possible, corrected.

Two previous class periods

were given to a discussion of the cooperative assignment. This procedure had been used In the three preceding units by this class in the normal course of instruction. Test films were also

mad© to enable a better

adaptation of the equipment to the location for the film­ ing. Sixth Step.- A crew of twelve persons was used In the filming process.

Each of the following individuals

was assigned a specific task to perform?

director of the

production, cameraman and three assistants, sound engineer and two assistants, electrician, two doorkeepers, and a timekeeper.

The double system of recording was used*

The class discussion was halted only for the replacing of unexposed for the exposed film*

This occurred every

eleven minutes. Seventh Step#- VLhen the film was returned from the laboratories, it was checked carefully, placed In order, matched, edited, cut, titled, and sychronized*


should be said that only the inarticulate parts were actually removed from the film*

The amount of film removed

did not exceed on© hundred feet, leaving the film practically Intact.

After both the picture and sound film had been

prepared In the desired form, it was sent to the labora­ tories for the combined positive print for showing purposes*


Eighth step*- a manual was prepared to supple­ ment the film by providing certain information about its preparation, content, and possible uses as an instrument in teacher education*

An observation guide with suggestions

for studying the content of the film is included in the manual* Hlnth Step*- This last step, the evaluation of the film, resembled the pattern followed by Gray^ who made an analysis of the individual reactions to the sound motion picture film Havajo Children* An evaluation of the film was made by securing ratings and criticisms from certain administrators, high school teachers, teacher train­ ing personnel, and student teachers, and analysing the results*

The Devereux Rating Scale^ was used in getting

reactions toward the film relative to its use as a medium in the pre-service and in-service training of teachers* Written criticisms were also obtained*

A total of 476

judges from eighteen different educational institutions participated In the evaluation.

The following classifi­

cation of these judges,with the number in each division, was made:

undergraduate students in education, 378;

graduate students in education, 12; elementary teachers, 17; high school teachers, 18; school administrators and supervisors, 13; instructors in teacher education, 29; ® S . A. Gray, ibid., pp* 97-104* !*• Devereux, op* clt*, pp* 204-210*

and. directors of teacher education, 9*

A mean rating

of 1*743 on a five point scale was given the film by the 476 judges* 1*461 and 2*000*

The range of group means was between It should be said, however, that the

rating tended to be higher than would probably have been the case If the judges had had more experience In evaluating educational films and If there had been some specific standards of comparison with other films* This result does Indicate that the film apparently meets a need In teacher education*

The objectives and content

of the film were ranked highest In relation to the six principal items of check list*

The judges were most

critical of the audio-visual elements*

This was un­

doubtedly due to the fact that there are more noticeable objective factors in the physical aspects of the film than are found In the other areas*

it is also true that

the judges probably made comparison of the physical elements to those of commercially mad© films, thus pro­ viding a standard for the rating* Approximately sixty per cent, or 290


wrote criticisms in the section entitled ”comments*ft These comments ranged from serious objections and sug­ gestions for improvement to a whole hearted endorsement of the film in its present form.

The most frequently

mentioned suggestions for the improvement of the pictorial elements related to the arrangement of lighting to prevent eyestrain and a more artistic transition from scene to

scene In changes of lenses and Insertion of titles# Suggestions for improving the sound elements dealt with the elimination of extraneous surface noises and further training of the voices of participants*

In making sug­

gestions for the improvement of the educational aspects of the film* it was suggested that a more typical group of pupils should have been used* with the superior teacher demonstrating the use of the principles with a more normal situation*

There were 858 individuals who wrote that this

film was definitely good for the pre-service training of teachers*

several judges recommended that a reduction

be made in the time devoted to the Introduction section of the film*

There Is apparently a great need and a

strong desire for films designed to demonstrate different principles* methods, and other factors related to the teaching process*

BIBLIOGRAPHY Selected References 1*

American Historical Association, Report or the commisalon on the SoclalStudiea, Conclusions and Recommendations» New ^ork; Hilaries """" Scribner *s Sons, 1934 * P* 89»


Armentrout, w* B*, "Making Observations Effective for Teachers," Educational Administration and Supervision* Vol.id, 1334, pi5» ~~


Arasplger, V* C*, Measuring the Effectiveness of Sound Piotures as Reaching Aids, ¥ew York: bureau of PublicatIons, Teachers College, Columbia University, Ho* 565, 1953, Pp* 156*


Bagley, tt* C* and Keith, John A* H*, An Introduction to Teaching, New Yorks Macmillan do*, 1324,'"~r pp r " 2 V


Bagley, ?;* c* and MacDonald, M, Standard Practices In Teaching, New Yorks r.lacmillan hoi, 1952, pp* 38—4$*


Barr, A* S*, Burton, W* H*, and Brueckner, L* J., Super­ vision, New Yorks D« Apple ton-Century Co*, I'§o8 pp * 684—709*


Baxter, T*, "Selecting and Teaching a Unit of Work," Teachers College Record, Vol. 31, 1929, pp* 148T&GZ !

8* Blllett, R* 0*, Fundamentals of Secondary School TeachIng, with BapH&sIs on tHe'Unit Method, Chicago: S o u g ^ o n ^ ^ ^ ^ PpTTWTT' 9.

Boardman, C* W*, "Student Teaching at the University of Minnesota,” Fourteenth Yearbook of the Superviaor s of Student Tea clxing, 1"9S4, pp * ' 8r6-$l *

10* Boardman, C* W* and Carlson, w* S*, Student Teacherts Handbook, Minneapolis: Burgess.Publishing Co*, m o T T p * 153* 11* Briggs, T* H*, Improving Instruction, New York; Macmillan Co., I&3S , pp * ^8-^48 • 12* Brink, W« G*, "Assignment Procedures of 1,000 High School Teachers," Educational Trends, April, 1932, pp* 6-14*



Brink, W* GU,. Directing Study Activities in Secondary Schools, Mew Y o r k : f"SbuoIedaV* Doran. and do*. 1587 pp. 110-165,


Brueckner, L* J», ^Diagnosis and Remedial Teaching,!l Encyclopedia of Educational Research, New York:


r a i m * eorrioiirppT^^-OTe*—


Brunstetter, M, r ., How to Use the Educational Film, Chicago: University of 'CEIcago'"Trees, T§37, pp* 1-10*


Burton, W. H*, The Nature and Direction of Learning, Hew York: D* Apple ton-Century Co*, 1^29, pp. 445465*


Butler, F* A*, The Improvement of Teaching, Chicago: University ot Uhiea'go Pro3s, "1939,'nPp. 389*


Carlson, W. S* and others, Manual for the Supervising Teacher, Minneapolis: University of fe'innesota, ISWTShapter 1.


Campbell, W* G*, A Manual forQbservatIon^and Directed Teaching, Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press, 1940, pp* 37, 55-84*

20 *

Carr, W. 9* and Waage,. John, The Lesson Assignment, Palo Alto: Stanford University fresa, l9#I, pp* 43-77•

21 *

Charters, W* W* and Waples, Douglass, The Commonwealth Teacher Training Study, Chicago: 'Universiiy of _ 1 Chicago press,I§29*


. Chatterton, R* H*, Lesson Observing by Freservice Student Teachers, 'llew Yorks ' Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, No* 834, 1941, Pp* 137*


Colegrove, C* P., The Teacher and the School, Chicago: Charles Scribner*s Sons, l9i0, pp* 217-298•


Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards, How to Evaluate a Secondary School, Washington, TTTc.x Cooperative study, l94u,p*X3*


Corey, S* M* and Monroe, W. S*, ‘'Methods of Teaching,” Encyclopedia of Educational Research, New York: ^acml'llan Co*, 1941, pp * 725-750.

„1 2 8


Cr&ry, R* Vf*, f,Th© Democratic Spirit in the Social Studies Classroom,” Social Education* Vol* 4, November, 1940, pp* 13$-4t>