A Dictionary of the Chinese Particles 0802021190, 9781442653795

with a prolegomenon in which the problems of the particles are considered and they are classified by their grammatical f

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A Dictionary of the Chinese Particles
 0802021190, 9781442653795

Table of contents :
Contents
Preface
Prolegomenon
Contents
Introduction
CHAPTER 1. The problem of the particles
CHAPTER 2. The categorization of the particles
DICTIONARY
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
r
s
t
u
w
y
Radical Index

Citation preview

A DICTIONARY OF THE CHINESE PARTICLES

This dictionary treats some 694 particles, the nuclei, as it were, of the grammar of Classical Chinese. It includes all the auxiliaries (modals, aspectuals, etc.); the markers of grammatical relationships; the conjunctions, numerals, and markers of enumeration; the substitutes (pronouns, demonstratives, and interrogative and indefinite substitutes); and the interjections and allegro forms which occur in classical literature from its beginnings to the Six Dynasties. Copious examples of usage and currency are given and cross-references to concordances and other reference works are supplied, the whole designed to provide for the student of the Chinese language a reference work of a kind that hitherto has not existed. In the Prolegomenon, the problems of the particles and the part they play in the grammar of Classical Chinese are considered, and the particles are classified. In the Dictionary proper, the particles are treated individually; their functions are described and illustrated by textual examples, which are translated for the convenience of the user. Following the Dictionary are a Radical Chart and Radical Index, by radical and stroke count, a table for conversion from the Wade-Giles system of romanization to the Gwoyeu Romatzyh system, and a list of characters with obscure radicals by total stroke count. W.A.C.H. DOBSON is Professor of Chinese in the University of Toronto, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and a graduate in Oriental Studies from Oxford, of which university he is a Doctor of Letters. He has written extensively on the Chinese language and is author of numerous articles in scholarly journals as well as a number of books: The Civilisation of the Orient; Late Archaic Chinese: a Grammatical Study; Early Archaic Chinese: a Descriptive Grammar; Mencius: a New Translation Arranged and Annotated for the General Reader; Late Han Chinese: the ArchaicHan Shift; and The Language of the Book of Songs.

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A DICTIONARY OF T H E CHINESE PARTICLES with a prolegomenon in which the problems of the particles are considered and they are classified by their grammatical functions W.A.C.H. DOBSON Professor of Chinese in the University of Toronto

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS

© University of Toronto Press 1974 Toronto and Buffalo Printed in Canada ISBN 0-8020-2119-0 L C 73-91242

for

M..p EH. PPP.HHHHHH H.

V

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Contents Preface Prolegomenon

ix 1

Dictionary

103

Radical index

881

Romanization conversion table

903

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Preface This dictionary treats of some six hundred and ninety-four particles — the nuclei, as it were, of the grammar of Classical Chinese.

Entries are arranged

in the first place in alphabetical order by the Gwoyeu Romatzyh system, and sub­ sequently (in the case of homonyns) in numerical order reckoned by radical num­ ber and stroke count. For those who use the Wade-Giles system of romanization, a table for its conversion to Gwoyeu Romatzyh is provided on page 903. Gwoyeu Romatzyh is used in this dictionary as a classificatory convenience. It is based on the pronunciation of Modern Standard Chinese. Though in practice classical texts are read in Modern Standard Chinese, this does not represent the phonetic value that the particles enjoyed in the Archaic or Classical period. Un­ der each entry therefore is added a reconstruction of that value in Archaic and Ancient Chinese as given in Bernhard Karlgren Grammata Sιrica Recensa. A reference to the paragraph and item number in Karlgren follows the abbreviation Gram. Ser. To facilitate the identification of textual examples in texts, a number pre­ ceded by the word "Concordance" is given. This is the six-place number refer­ ence for Chinese characters reckoned by the Kuei Hsieh system (described in Vernon Nash Trindex) by which the concordances and indices published by the Harvard-Yenching Institute are arranged.

Other references given in the sub­

heading of each entry are to the appropriate entry in the Tsyr Chyuan Shanghai, 1928 (a chapter and page number of Yang Shun-dar preceded by YSD ); in the Guu-shu Shiu-tzyh Jyi Shyh of Peir Shyue-hae, Shanghai, 1934 (a page number preceded by "PSH"); and in the Juh-tzyh Biann-liueh of Liou Chyi { Tf

M

Peking reprint, 1955 (a page number preceded by L C ) . M

M

This dictionary treats of grammatical usage only. Many of the "particles" also occur in texts in substantival and verbal usage. These usages are disre­ garded.

Grammatical usage is summarized in a paragraph title preceded by a

decimal number.

This number refers to the appropriate paragraph in chapter 2

of the Prolegomenon (see page 1) in which cases of comparable usage are brought together and further grammatical description is given. Usage is given under each individual entry and is summarized in the Prolegomenon.

Both dictionary entry and prolegomenon treatment are intended to be taken together. Further grammatical description will be found in W. A. C. H. Dobson Late Archaic Chinese, Toronto, 1959 (cited as "LAC"); Early Archaic Chinese, Toronto, 1962 (cited as "EAC"); Late Han Chinese, Toronto, 1964 (cited as "Late Han") and The Language of the Book of Songs, Toronto, 1968 (cited as "Songs") and in the articles cited therein — the basic studies upon which this dictionary has been built. Textual examples are identified by text title and chapter number.

A refer­

ence to "EAC Inscriptions" followed by a number refers to the corpus of western Chou bronze inscriptions, transcribed and translated in EAC. My debt to Yang, P ei and Liu and to Karlgren is immense. T

Their works

and that of the compilers of the Harvard-Yenehing Institute Index Series have been indispensable. Debts of a more immediate kind are to Professor Raymond Chu, the librarian of the University of Toronto s East Asian Collection, for his f

unfailing helpfulness, to Mrs. Pui-Wah Choi, for her elegant calligraphy, and f i ­ nally to Mrs. Betty Easterbrook, without whose unwavering devotion and meticu­ lous attention to detail this dictionary would never have been completed. I have enjoyed financial assistance from the Canada Council and also from the Presidents Office of the University of Toronto. Without this help and support a work on this scale could never have been attempted.

I gladly acknowledge my

indebtedness to i t .

W.A. C H . Dobson

University of Toronto June, 1973

x

PROLEGOMENON INTRODUCTION

3

CHAPTER

1 The problem of the particles

4

CHAPTER

2 The categorization of the particles

9

1

Introduction

2

Grammatical words occurring in word-formation and word-group formation10

3

Grammatical words occurring in the verbal sentence

27

4

Grammatical words occurring in the determinative sentence

68

5

Grammatical words occurring at the inter-sentential level

75

6

Substitution

7

Blunted usage

9 10

87 100

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Introduction This dictionary differs in important ways from the traditional lexicons of the "empty words. " In the first place it treats grammatical "particles" histori­ cally, that is, it takes account of earliest occurrences, periods of currency, blunted and anachronistic usages and obsolescence.

Secondly, it traces the af­

finities among grammatical words (beyond the simple adducing of heuristic glos­ ses) by placing the word within the grammatical class and sub-class which i t shares with others. And thirdly, it defines and describes, rather than merely illustrating by examples, the word's grammatical functions. Such treatment goes far beyond that of traditional lexicography. The dictionary is in two parts.

The first, this Prolegomenon in which, in

chapter 1, the problems of identifying and describing the particles are discussed and, in chapter 2, an inventory of the words treated is drawn up, classified by the grammatical classes and sub-classes to which they belong. The second, the Dictionary proper, in which particles are treated individually and their functions separately described. The Prolegomenon and the Dictionary complement each other and are i n ­ tended to be taken together.

Collectively, they will provide the student of Classi­

cal Chinese, it is hoped, with a much needed reference work.

3

T h e p r o b l e m o f the particles 1.1.

The Problem of Scope and Aim The first problem is to decide by some means other than purely subjective

ones what a grammatical dictionary of Classical Chinese should include. While sinologists are familiar in a general way with the class of words known as "parthe "empty words" of traditional sinology), the class is,

ticles (shiu-tzyh M

in fact, only loosely and broadly defined. Compilers of the traditional lexicons of the "empty words" differ in important detail as to what words are "particles. " What is needed is a formal criterion of what to include and what to leave out. The next problem is to devise formal and meaningful ways for classification and description so that the dictionary will not merely be a collection of glosses or an inventory of particles but a guide to affinities and usage. 1. 2. The Criterion for Inclusion The criterion adopted for inclusion can be stated negatively as any word occurring in Classical Chinese which is functioning other than as a substantive (noun or attribute) or verb. "Substantive" and "verb" are here used, not as the properties of individual words per se, but as the grammatical properties of "slots" in sets of distribution ("matrices"). A word occupying such a slot par­ takes of the grammatical value of the slot. Words cannot be relegated a priori to the class "substantive" or "verb. " They can be relegated to either class or both, if they can be attested to occur in the forms of distribution proper to "sub­ stantive" or "verb. " To put this more positively, a word occurring in any form of distribution other than that proper to substantive or verb merits inclusion. Such a criterion obviates the ambiguity inherent in the term "particle. " Shiu-tzyh, in the strictly historical sense, was a term used in poetics for a word "full word", elided in the reckoning of metre. Its corollary, shyr-tzyh was used for a word that reckoned in metrical scansion. In adopting and adapting these words, traditional grammarians have broadened their import without in any formal way defining the boundaries that separate them. In practice, lexicons of the particles have tended to include any word that the compiler thought called for grammatical comment. 1

1

In the main part of my dictionary, where Peir, Yang or Liou have com-

4

1. 3. Grammatical Words and the Hierarchy of Levels Grammatical words can be placed into three sub-classes upon the basis of the level in the syntactical hierarchy at which they occur. Three such levels are posited. Those grammatical words which occur at the primary level — the level of word-formation and word-group formation ( i . e. syntagma) — constitute a class (for example, the Reduplicative Markers, the Syntagmatic Conjunctions etc. ). Those grammatical words which occur at the secondary level — the level of sen­ tence formation — constitute a class (for example, the Modal and Aspectual Aux­ iliaries of the verb, the Distributive Auxiliaries of the noun etc. ). Those gram­ matical words that occur at the tertiary level — the level of inter-sentential formation — constitute a further class (for example, the Sentential Conjunctions). This broad classification of grammatical words is, as i t were, a horizontal one. By it grammatical words can be classed as being syntagmatic, sentential or inter-sentential. 1.4.

Grammatical Words and the Point of Occurrence To the horizontal classification can be added a vertical one. This is the

identification within each level of the point at which grammatical words occur. At the primary or syntagmatic level, elements in word-formation can be identi­ fied as being pre- or post-posed. At the secondary or sentential level, gram­ matical words can be identified as occurring initially, finally, or at any one of a given number of points in the distribution of the elements of the sentence. At the tertiary or inter-sentential level, grammatical words can be identified as being interposed between or incorporated into sentences. 1. 5. A Further Formal Criterion for Grammatical Words The horizontal and vertical classifications of the forms of distribution pro­ vide a further formal criterion for the definition of a grammatical word. In contrast to words in substantival and verbal usage, a grammatical word is r e ­ stricted to specific and predictable positions. While a "full word" in isolation has a possibility of occurring in any of the substantival or verbal "slots" and mented on a word, a cross reference to them has been given. It will be seen that these three dictionaries vary considerably in their total listings. Each word treated by them has, however, been included except for hapax legomena, or for items for which no textual examples are given, or for items which, on formal grounds, are not grammatical words.

5

cannot (until so distributed) be relegated a priori to any particular slot, the grammatical word is characteristic of a specific slot and its occurrence there can be predicted. The grammatical word is itself diagnostic of a slot, but the full word" is not. Its value varies with that of the particular slot it occupies. o M

1. 6. Classes Among Grammatical Words Having established the level and point of distribution of a grammatical word it will be found to share functions with all grammatical words similarly distributed. (And not only so,it proves to share certain recognizable phonologi­ cal features.

These "word-classes" arrived at by formal syntactical means of­

fer promise of a new approach to the problem of phonological affinities — the socalled "word families" of Classical Chinese. ) A consistent nomenclature for these functions makes for clarity and it has been found useful to speak of i) aux­ iliaries, for grammatical words that augment or qualify substantives or verbs (for example, the Modal and Aspectual Auxiliaries, the Auxiliaries of Manner and Voice, etc. ); ii) markers, for grammatical words that indicate or mark a grammatical function (for example, the Reduplicative Marker, the Marker of Syntagma, etc. ); iii) conjunctions, for words that indicate linkage (for example, the Syntagmatic Conjunctions and the Inter-sentential Conjunctions); iv) particles, for words that identify a grammatical relationship (for example, the Particle of Exposure, the Particle of the Second Post-verbal Position, etc. ); v) numerals and substitutes. The numerals occur both as cardinals and ordinals but also as grammatical auxiliaries. In number formation they have a distinctive syntax and are thus a formal class in themselves. Among substitutes the defining char­ acteristic of which as a class is "substituting for a full word or words" there are substitutes for proper names (pronouns) and for the gesture of pointing (demon­ stratives). There are anaphoric substitutes, substitutions made from a reluc­ tance to repeat, and the indefinite and interrogative substitutes, substitutions made either to withhold or to solicit information; vi) the copulae, a class occur­ ring uniquely between the two terms of a determinative sentence and differing from conjunctions in that they are susceptible to modal qualification; and finally, vii) interjections. 2 For a more detailed discussion of the theory of linguistic analysis and its application to Classical Chinese that underlies this description, see the Introduc­ tions to LAC, EAC, and the articles cited therein.

6

Of a different kind is the class Allegro Form. This provides for a feature whereby two grammatical words (regardless of the classifications previously mentioned) by customary collocation develop a rapid speech form.

By phonolog­

ical contraction they become a single unit, represented in the Chinese writing system by a single sign. 1. 7. The Particular Description of Grammatical Words The criteria of deployment and function place grammatical words into comparable classes. Thereafter lexicographical description is concerned with the characteristics that each word individually possesses. 1. 8. The Historical Treatment of Grammatical Words One characteristic that each word uniquely possesses — irrespective of its membership in a grammatical class — is its effective life in the language. Clas­ sical Chinese is not static but in a constant state of change. Period by period its grammatical repertory is enriched with new coinages, dispenses with obsolescent ones and adopts old forms to new uses. No description of the deployment and us­ age of a grammatical word is complete, therefore,which omits its period of valid­ ity. A grammatical word s life in the language begins when it occurs as an i n ­ T

novation (in practice, its first attested occurrence in a text). It enjoys a period of currency, becomes obsolete and may be resuscitated (often in blunted and i m ­ precise ways) in archaising styles. In the present state of research precise dating is not possible.

But a step

in that direction has been made with the recognition that, prior to the Han Dy­ nasty in the Archaic Period (c. 11th to 3rd centuries B. C. ),written documents do not betray a conscious effort at imitation of the language of an earlier period. Each period preserves its own peculiarities. Archaic Chinese usefully falls into three periods, Early Archaic (c. 11th to 7th centuries B.C. ), Middle Archaic (c. 7th to 5th centuries B. C. ) and Late Archaic (c. 4th to 3rd centuries B. C. ). It is pre-eminently in the Archaic Period that the Confucian Classics were w r i t ­ ten. During the Han Dynasty these classics acquired authority as models for "correct" style in writing. In Han writing, where deliberate use is made of ca­ nonical models,we may speak of Han Classical Chinese, but in Han times a w r i t ­ ten form of the language was also in vogue which was close to contemporary us­ age, and not influenced by archaising or classicising. This has been distin­ guished as Han Literary Chinese.

7

In Han Classical, writers draw upon the en-

tire classical canon so that the whole repertory of Archaic usage, irrespective of its period within Archaic Chinese, is likely to occur. Here blunting and impre­ cision are most marked and some of the finer shades of Archaic distinction are lost. In the Six Dynasties period this process continues. Six Dynasties writers not only borrow from classical precedents, sometimes in ways differing from those of Han writers, but also introduce features of current usage. This generically has been characterized as "Six Dynasties usage. ff

With the compilation of the Confucian Canon and the authority accorded to it as the model for style and usage in the Han and Six Dynasties period, Classical Chinese had assumed the shape that it would maintain for much of Chinese i m ­ perial history. The traditional lexicons confine their scope to Six Dynasties, Han and pre-Han usage. This dictionary has followed suit. But it is clear to the author that the ku-wen or wen-yen of subsequent periods cannot entirely be ex­ plained in these terms. Each merits, period by period, study for its own sake. 1. 9. Identity of Function and Identity of Meaning By the criteria of level, point and function grammatical words similarly distributed partake in classes. This means that all entries in a class are in some way mutually substitutable. Chinese glossematics.

Mutual substitutibility is the basis of traditional

Though heuristic in approach the results are frequently

as reliable as classifications made by more formal means. Almost all the infor­ mation we possess about individual grammatical words comes in this traditional form.

For example, when bih

that, in the context glossed, jyj

is glossed as jyi ,

this means

substitute for bih without loss of meaning.

In formal terms, where bih is substituted for j y i , it occurs at the sentential level in the time position, preceding a verbal clause of time in the sense of "by the time that . . . " Severally, bih and jyj have each quite different intentions and ex­ tensions of meaning and contrasting distributional patterns.

Bih therefore only

substitutes for j y i , at a specific period, in a precise and peculiar context. No identity other than this between bih and jyj_ is to be assumed from the gloss bih j y i yee.

But, since the formula X Y yee does sometimes imply identity, glossa-

rists also employ the formula X t

Y, that is X is like Y in some respect or must be taken to mean something like TT

other. " For example, "ruoh in this context is deployed and is functioning in a way similar to ye ou when similarly deployed and functioning. In this sense only, ruoh resembles ye ou. "

8

CHAPTER 2

The

categorization o f the particles

1. Introduction ]h the section which follows grammatical words are treated in relation to the class and sub-class to which they belong. The treatment is categorical. De­ scription follows the ascending order of the hierarchy of levels, beginning with the syntagmatic level (part 2) continuing with the sentential level (the verbal sen­ /

tence, part 3, and the determinative sentence, part 4) and proceeding to the i n ­ ter-sentential level (part 5). Substitutes, which occur at all levels,are treated in part 6. Blunted usage is considered separately in part 7. A cross reference to the main dictionary, in the case of any given word, will provide text examples and further descriptive matter.

Cross references

from the main dictionary to the appropriate part of the section which follows will show the relationship of any given word to its affiliates and the grammatical classes to which it belongs. In this section, historical periods are distinguished as follows: Early Archaic Chinese

(c. 11th - 7th centuries B. C. ) abbreviated as EAC

Middle Archaic Chinese

(c. 7th - 5th centuries B. C. ) abbreviated as MAC

Late Archaic Chinese

(c. 4th - 3rd centuries B.C. ) abbreviated as LAC

Han Chinese

(c. 2nd century B. C. - 2nd century A. D. ) abbreviated as Han

Six Dynasties

(c. 2nd - 6th centuries A. D. )

In the case of usages from Archaic to Han, Karlgren's phonological recon­ struction for Archaic Chinese is given, and for Six Dynasties' usage, his Ancient Chinese reconstruction. A reconstruction of the phonology, period by period, is not at present available. However, words segregated by formal means and shar­ ing a common grammatical function prove to have obvious phonological features in common. Such groupings might, i n the future, provide material for a histori­ cally progressive phonological reconstruction.

9

2. Grammatical Words Occurring in Wordformation and Word-group Formation 2.1.

In Word-formation

2. 1. 1. The Reduplicative Markers Reduplication both in identical form

(gemination) and with dissimilation

in one member (broken reduplicative) is a very productive process of word deri­ vation in Archaic Chinese. In EAC reduplication is sometimes marked with a Reduplicative Marker. These markers occur both pre- and post-posed to the word reduplicated.

They are:

Pre-posed Arc. *siag SL

Arc. *sieg

chyi

Arc. *g iag

ye ou

Arc. *gi٧g

sy chyi yeou hour

Arc. *sieg

f

Post-posed Arc. *g iag f

Arc. *giug Arc. *g u T

The markers occur in all types of reduplication. Sy

post-posed is r e ­

stricted to the reduplication of nouns, numerals and measure words and the aux­ iliaries of manner (for the latter, see 3. 1.4). 2.1. 2. Grammatical Words as Elements in Word-formation Certain grammatical words occur as Elements in Word-formation. These are: kee

Arc. *k a T

forming attributes before verbs "-able" (EAC) Arc. *piwo

fu

as suffix after nouns forming vocational names etc. (LAC) Arc. *mβk-tiag-nong moh-jy-neng forming attributes before verbs "un . . . able" (LAC) tzyh Anc. *dz*ias prefix forming reflexive nouns "self-" (EAC) tzwu

Arc. *tsiuk

forming attributes before verbs "worth-" (LAC) 10

tzuoh

Arc. *tsak and tzay

Arc. *tsag

as prefix before verbs forming ergatives (EAC) Arc. *ννiak Arc. *nio and ruoh ru either as prefix (EAC) or suffix (Han) forming similiative attributes and nouns Anc. *. a ah as prefix before proper names (both family and familiar names), kinship terms and interrogative substitutes for proper names wuh

(Six Dynasties)

Anc. *miuet

post-posed to attributes forming substantives (Six Dynasties) 2.2.

Syntagma

2. 2.1.

The Connective Syntagmatic Conjunctions

In the process by which words form groups to enter, interchangeably with single words, as elements in the formation of sentences (syntagma) certain Syn­ tagmatic Conjunctions occur. Among the connectives are Simple Connection (A and B) and Alternative Connection (A or B). The conjunctions of simple connec­ tion between two verbs or attributes are: chiee Arc. *ts ia erl Arc. *nieg T

and between two nouns are: yueh

EAC EAC

Arc. *giwat

EAC

Arc. *giwat

EAC

Arc. *g i€d

EAC

hi

Arc. * g i 8 p

EAC

shyh

Arc. *siek

EAC

yn

Arc. *ziag

EAC

yeu

Arc. *zio

EAC

wei

Arc. *diwor

EAC

yonq

Arc. *diung

Han

Arc. *niog erl The conjunction of alternative connection is:

Han

iue

f

f

LAC Arc. *niak ruoh Note. Yeu, in LAC, when linking two agents shifts to the pre-verbal posi­ tion and may be preceded by aspectual and modal auxiliaries.

11

2. 2. 2. The Syntagmatic Determinative Conjunctions The Syntagmatic Determinative Conjunctions (which indicate a relationship of class and member or of possession) are: chyi

Arc. *g iag

EAC

jyue

Arc. *kiwat

EAC

sy

Arc. *sieg

EAC

Arc. *tiag

EAC

T

The conjunction occurs between two nouns. Atypical of Archaic and Clas­ sical Chinese as a whole is the occurrence of the determinative conjunctions jy and jee Arc. *tia in the Book of Songs between attribute and noun, a r e ­ lationship later left unmarked. Jee is peculiar to this usage. 2. 3. Numerals and Numerical Grammatical Words Since "number" is outside of the reference of the noun in Classical Chinese and "grammatical number" is not introduced as of prescriptive necessity, a va­ riety of auxiliaries, markers and conjunctions provide for such distinctions as definite and indefinite number, "a single, few, or many instances of . . . ", "a collectivity or a single instance only of . . . ", "a numerable instance of . . . ", "a plurality of . . . " and the like. The Auxiliaries of Number all precede the noun they qualify.

Certain auxiliaries of collectivity and restriction when qualifying

the agent of a verbal sentence follow the noun they qualify.

They contrast with

the numerical auxiliaries. They are described in 3. 4, "The Agent and its Dis­ tributives. " 2 . 3 . 1 . The Numerals The terms of counting in Classical Chinese are: Arc. *. jet 1. i_ Arc. *niar 2. ell

two

san

Arc. *sam

three

4. syh

Arc. *siad

four

5. wuu

Arc. *ngo

five

6. liow

Arc. *lipk

six

7. chi

Arc. *ts iet

seven

8. ba

Arc. *pwat

eight

9. jeou

Arc. *kiug

nine

3.

f

and thereafter in compounds with

12

one

10.

shyr

Arc. *diap

for 10 and its multiples

100.

bae

Arc. *pak

for 100 and its multiples

1,000.

chian

Arc. *ts ien

for 1,000 and its multiples

10,000.

warm

Arc. *miwan for 10,000 and its multiples

?

100,000. yih Jiuh

Arc. *.iak

Arc. *g io and jiuh T

for 100,000 and its multiples

Arc. *g io pre-posed to wann f

yih have the sense of "many tens of thousands, myriads, etc. (Han). n

Certain numerals have alternate forms. These are: for ^ Han i_ Arc. *. iet

Leang

leang

Arc. *liang 1

ell

Arc. *niar J

tsan

Arc. *ts am7

san

Arc. *ts amJ

f

for

LAC

for ^ LAC

r

Arc. *liang is also a Group Form, "two conceived as a pair"

(EAC) as is syh

Arc. *si9d for groups of four (spec, horses) (EAC).

Ordi­

nals and cardinals are not formally differentiated, but by Han times a Numeri­ Arc. *d iar may precede a numeral to mark an ordinal num­ cal Marker, dih f

ber. Certain numerals have a Fraction Form used for the denominator.

These

are: tsan

Arc. *ts am

for

Han

san

Arc. ^s'am

for

LAC

wuu

Arc. * ngo

for

LAC

f

shyr Arc. *di9p for LAC Arc. *pwan is a specialized fraction form for "a half" (LAC).

Bann A Numerical Marker may occur between denominator and numerator in the formation of fractions.

This is fen

Arc. *piwan (LAC).

A Numerical Conjunction may occur between the multiples and single num­ bers in the sense of "plus. " The numerical conjunctions are: EAC yow Arc. Yow

Arc. yow in collocation with yu

LAC Arc. *dio added to a numeral or a meas­

ure word provides for "a little over" (EAC). Arc. *sio and in the Six Dynasties sheu Anc. *xiwo: Jh Han, suoo f i l l a comparable function and may well derive from an allegro form of

13

Other qualifications of numerals are: bu or wu guoh

Arc. *kwa "not to exceed . . .

maan

Arc. *mwan "the full number" (Han)

bu maan

"short of the full number" (Han)

bu yng

Anc. *i'ng "no more than" (Six Dynasties)

T T

(Han)

Certain auxiliaries occur as Quasi-numerals to mark ordinal sequences. These are: shanq

Arc. *diang "first of a series of two or three" (LAC)

tsyh

Arc. *ts iar "second of a series of two or three" (LAC)

moh

Arc. *mwat "last of a series of two or three" (Han)

!

2. 3. 2. The Auxiliaries of Number Certain numerals are used in an indefinite sense. These are: bae Arc. *pak "a large number, many" (EAC) Arc. *som "a small number, few" (EAC)

san

Arc. *miwan "myriad" (LAC)

warm

.Arc. *ni8r-sam "several" (LAC)

ell-san

Arc. *. iet-niar "one or two, several" (EAC) i-ell Note. Ell-san is restricted to occurrence before the status pronouns, otherwise it occurs specifically for "two or three. " Other Auxiliaries of Indefinite Number are: "a large number, many" Arc. *ta duo

EAC

Arc. *tiong EAC jonq "a small number, few" Arc. *kwa LAC goa These occur before substantives. The auxiliaries of indefinite number that occur before numerals and measure words are: "a few [-hundreds, -thousands, -days, -feet, etc.]" shut Jii

Arc. *sliu

LAC

Arc. *kiar EAC iii also occurs interrogatively in the sense of "a few what?" i_

"one"

also occurs indefinitely in the sense of "a certain one, anyone. 2.3.3. The Enumerating Auxiliaries The Enumerating Auxiliaries, the class-meaning of which is "an enumer­ able instance of," are associated with certain nouns when the noun is enumerated.

14

For example, tour

*d u "a head" is used with words for "sheep" and "oxen," !

*liang and chernq *d iong in enumerating coaches and chariots, and leang suoo jik *sio in enumerating buildings, houses etc. f

Enumerating auxiliaries occur as early as EAC usually in itemized lists. In modern Chinese their use is prescriptive and the repertory of enumerating auxiliaries quite extensive. In Archaic and Classical usage the distributional "of order is "enumerated noun/numeral/auxiliary" (for example sheep, a thousand head" i . e. "a thousand sheep"). In this form of distribution the following occur: EAC leang

Arc. *liang

ren

Arc. *nien

Humans

fu

Arc. *piwo

Humans

bor

Arc. *pak

Nobles

Arc. *p iet

Horses

LAC

Arc. *d ieng

Coaches, chariots

chenq

Arc. *kar

Arrows, poles

HAN

Arc. *ki8p

m

Enemies, grades in rank

Arc. *d u

Cattle, sheep

tour

Arc. *sio

Buildings, houses

suoo

Arc. *mwar

Coins, curios

mei

Arc. *k u

"Heads" of population

koou

Arc. *p iet

E Ξ LAC

T

f

Coaches, chariots

geh T

T

f

"Bolts" of cloth, cavalrymen (and horses as in EAC)



Arc. *b ia

Furs, carcasses etc.

Arc. *g iu

Mats

Arc. *t ung

Books

sau

Anc. ? *sau:

Boats, ships

liing

Anc. *liβCng:

Carpets, mats

pyj jiuh

tong SIX DYNASTIES

T

f

!

Enumerating auxiliaries which occur in the distribution "numeral/auxili­ ary/enumerated noun" are:

15

LAC jieh

Arc. *kβd

Officials, servants, etc.

Arc. *p iet

Horses

Arc. *diu

Trees

HAN T

EΝ shun SIX DYNASTIES

Anc. *tu8nMeals guenn After the Han period a further set of Enumerating Auxiliaries occurs, as­ sociated with certain verbs.

Their purpose is to provide for the enumeration of

the number of occurrences of an action, or for the singling out of a single i n ­ stance. The distribution is "verb/numeral/auxiliary".

These auxiliaries have

the class-meaning a time or turn". They are: Anc. *kuaguoh Anc. *p iwen fan M

T

Anc. *k au: koou Note. Livestock is sometimes reckoned by the hoof, head or horns. Tzwu f

Arc. *tsiuk (Han) and t y i

?Anc. *d iei (Han) are used for "hooves" (four hooves constituting one head of cattle). Tzwu-iiau "[tour] hooves plus [one] head," is also used and thus five units constitute one head of cattle, as is tzwu-jeau g

T

[four] hooves plus [two] horns and thus six units constitute one

head of cattle (Han). Animals are also reckoned by the couple or brace. Shuang Arc. *sung occurs in this usage (Han). Serfs may be reckoned in a unit con­ sisting of ten l i n g e r s " for which shoou-jyy

Arc. *siog-ti8r is used, thus

ten "fingers" equals one serf. 2.3.4. The Auxiliaries of Approximate Number The Auxiliaries of Approximate Number occur before numerals, fractions and measure words in the sense of "approximately, roughly" "not quite, less than, almost" etc. The auxiliaries are: "Approximately" Jiang

Arc. *tsiang

LAC

chiee

Arc. *ts ia

LAC

chwei

Anc. *zwie

Six Dynasties

kee

Arc. *k a

Han

Ü

Arc. *kiar

Han Han Han

shuay dah-shuay 16

f

T

Arc. *sliwat Arc. *d ad-sliwat ,

"Not quite, less than" jinn

Arc. *g ian

Han

shinq

Arc. *g ang

Han

shinq-ji

Arc. *g ang-kiar

Han

bu

Arc. *pwat

Han

wey

Arc. *miwad

Han

bu-neng

Arc. *pw9t-nang

Han

T

T

T

wey-neng Arc. *miwad-nong 2.3.5. The Numerical Group Markers

Han

The distinction between the genera of the noun (for example "cattle") and a "countable instance" of the noun (for example "head of cattle") is provided for by the use of the enumerating auxiliaries (see 2. 3.3). The Numerical Group Mark­ ers provide for the distinction between the genera of the noun (for example "en­ voys") and "a countable group of" (for example "a party or parties of envoys"). The Numerical Group Markers occur in three types of distribution, i) following a proper name or pronoun as an inclusive "we, they" etc., ii) with a numeral in the sense of "a group of so many" and iii) with a numeral in the sense of "so many groups of . . . " The numerical group markers are: *chair

Arc. *dz €r

LAC

*chour

Arc. *d iog

Han

*shuu

Arc. *d iuk

Han

**tsaur

Arc. *dz og

Han

**bey

Arc. *?piar

Han

Arc. *tang

Han

*deeng

T

f

!

!

4

* indicates distribution (i) above only, ** indicates distribution (i) (ii) and (٧i). Compounded forms Han Han 2.3.6.

The Collective and Restrictive Auxiliaries of Number

The Collective Auxiliaries of Number determine a noun or numeral to indi­ cate "collectivity" "all of the . . . " "the entire . . . " They distinguish identity and and synthesis.

Identifying collectives that occur before a noun in the sense of

"all of the . . . " "each of the . . . " "the entire . . . " (a total of like instances) are:

17

jiuh jeu

Arc. *g iu

geh

Arc. *klak

LAC LAC Han

meei

Arc. *mwag

EAC

i_

Arc. *. jet

Han

shi

Anc. *sjet

Han

shuay

Arc. *sliwat

EAC

farn

Arc. *b iwam

EAC

chyuan

Arc. *dz iwan

Han

shuh

Arc. *siag

EAC

T

Arc. *kio

r

!

Occurring before place-names in the sense of "in all places in . . . " "throughout . . . " are: puu

Arc. ?*p iwo f

EAC

puu

Arc. *p'o

LAC

kong

Arc. *k ung

Han

Note. Chyuan

f

Arc. *dz iwan prefixed to geographical place-names is f

used in the technical sense of "undivided" "before the partition of" particularly for states which historically were once intact, but which subsequently were par­ titioned. Synthesizing Collectives that occur before a noun in the sense of "all the various . . . " (a total of varied instances) are: sheau-dah

Arc. *siog-d ad

EAC

bae

Arc. *pak

EAC

warm

Arc. *miwan

LAC

chyun

Arc. *g iwan

EAC

Arc. *tio

EAC

T

T

The Identifying Collective that occurs before numerals in the sense of "a total of . . . " "in all . . . " is: farn

Arc. *b iwam f

Han

Identifying Collectives which occur before measures of time in the sense of "a whole or the entire [-day, -month, -year]" are:

Ji

Arc. *kiag

LAC

Arc. *kiag LAC L The Synthesizing Collective that occurs before numerals in the sense of "of 1

each kind so many . . . " is: geh Arc. *klak 18

Han

There are Iterative Collectives that occur before measure words in the sense of "one . . . after another" "for successive . . . " (a total in series). They are: chorng

Arc. *d iung

LAC

leei

Arc. *liwar

LAC

lih

Arc. *liek

Han

lian

Arc. *lian

Han

bii

Arc. *piar

Han

pyn

Anc. *b ien

Six Dynasties

mi

Anc. *mjie

Six Dynasties

ji Farn

f

T

Six Dynasties Anc. Hstëk Arc. *b iwam occurs in the distribution "farn/numeral/verb" in f

the sense of "in all so many occurrences" (Han). The Restrictive Auxiliaries of Number occur before nouns and enumerated nouns in an excluding sense, "only a . . . " "nothing but . . . " These are: we i

Arc. *diwar

EAC

dwu

Arc. *d uk

Han

twu

Arc. *d o

LAC

dann

Arc. *d an

Han

jea

Arc. *kβ

LAC

T

f

T

Compounded form Han 2.4. The Status Auxiliaries The relative status of the person speaking and the person addressed or a l ­ luded to, whether real or conventionally conferred, calls for special status forms of the pronouns (see Status Pronouns 6.1) and for the qualification of certain nouns and verbs by the Status Auxiliaries. In EAC reverence or awe in addressing or speaking of deities and kings is indicated by prefacing both nouns and verbs with either dann

Arc. *d an

pi

Arc. *p iog

or horng

Arc. *g ung

T

T

!

Compounded form EAC All mean "great, greatly to" but are conventional and simply acknowledge the status of the referent. 19

In later stages of Archaic Chinese Status Auxiliaries that occur before the verb indicating deference to the person addressed or alluded to are: "With all reverence"

jinq

Arc. *kieng

LAC

jiin

Arc. *kian

Han

"Request with reverence" Arc. *ts ieng chiing "Show grace or favour by . . . " T

huey

Arc. *g iwad !

LAC EAC

Arc. *g eng shinq "With all deference"

Han

Arc. *ts iat chieh "Asking your condescension" Arc. *niuk ruu

MAC

f

T

LAC

"With a deep bow" fwu

Arc. *b iuk T

Han

huey and shinq occur either singly or with e r l viz. Status Auxiliaries which occur before a noun as a humble form are: bih

Arc. *b iad

"my tattered . . . "

EAC

sheau

Arc. *siog

"my petty . . . "

EAC

yu.

Arc. *ngiu

"my foolish . . . "

Han

f

Status Auxiliaries which occur before a noun as a mark of deference are: Arc. *d ad "your great . . . " EAC dan f

Arc. *log "your venerable . . . " LAC lao Status Auxiliaries which are appended to proper names as a mark of r e ­ spect are: sheng

Arc. *seng

Han

jiun

Anc. *kiuan

Six Dynasties

fuu

Anc. *piu:

Six Dynasties

gong

Arc. *kung

Han

Convention requires princes to belittle themselves and their subjects to belittle them when addressing other princes by the use of: goa

gu

20

Arc. *kwβ

"lonely"

EAC

Arc. *kwo

"orphaned"

LAC

2. 5. The Intensive Auxiliaries A heightened intensity or emphasis is imposed upon words used attributively and upon the modal negatives by the use of the Intensive Auxiliaries. Those that occur before attributes in the sense of "very, really, so very much . . . " etc. are: daan

Arc. *tân

EAC

dan

Arc. *tan

EAC

dan

Arc. *d âd

EAC

shenn

Arc. *d iam

EAC

chern

Arc. *d iom

Han

shyun

Arc. *siwen

EAC

ye un

Arc. *ziwan

EAC

m

Arc. *kiad

EAC

i*

Arc. *kiog

LAC

syh

Arc. *siod

EAC

shyr

Arc. *d iet

EAC

YÍ_i Jong

Arc. *ziag

Han

Arc. *tiong

EAC

jonq

Arc. *ïiông

EAC

ioncL tonq

Arc. *d iung

LAC

Arc. *t ung

Han

koong

Arc. *k ung

EAC

horng

Arc. *g wang

EAC

jinq

Arc. *kiang

Han

gu

Arc. *kwo

Han

guh

Arc. *ko

Han

jyue

Arc. *dz iwat

Han

liang

Arc. *liang

Han

T

T

t

T

T

f

f

T

f

Compounded form Han The Intensive Auxiliaries that occur before the modal negatives in such senses as "absolutely not" "under no circumstances . . . " "certainly did not . . . " etc. are: guh

Arc. *ko

LAC

guh

Arc. *ko

Han

21

b٧i

Are. *piet

LAC

chih

Are. *xiat

post-Han

chνh

Are. *kiot

Han

shu

Are. *diu

LAC

du

Anc. *tuo

Six Dynasties

cherng

Are. *dieng

EAC

tserng

Are. *dz ong

LAC

tzuen

Are. *tswon

LAC

shenn

Arc. *dien

LAC

chinq

Are. *k ieng

EAC

jinq

Arc. *kiαng

Han EAC

T

!

yeong

Are. *giwang

woe i

Are. *. iwar

Han

liueh

Anc. *liak

Six Dynasties

leau

?

Six Dynasties

jong

Arc. *tiong

EAC

jyue

Are. *dz iwat

LAC

suey

Are. *dziwad

LAC

T

Jong and jyue occur before the agential distributive moh

*mak in the

sense of "absolutely no-one. " Bih

occurs before the existential yeou *giννg in the sense of "there must be . . . " "certainly there will be . . . " Shu also

occurs as an intensive before the auxiliaries of manner. Shenn only occurs be­ fore injunctives. 2. 6. The Privative Auxiliaries Certain of the modal negatives function at the level of word-formation in the creation of privative forms of attributes, nouns and certain grammatical auxiliaries. The Privative Auxiliaries have the class-meaning "negating" with­ out the modality implicit when they function at the sentential level in the verbal complex. The Privative Auxiliaries are: before attributes " u n . . . " " . . . less"

before nouns " . . . lessness"

bu .

Arc. *pwat

x

x

fwu

Arc. *piwat

x

x

wu

Arc. *miwo

x

x

22

before auxiliaries x

EAC EAC

x

EAC

before before attributes nouns before " u n . . . " " . . . less" " . . . lessness" auxiliaries wu

Arc. *miwo

x

x

LAC

wang

Arc. *miwang

x

x

EAC

fei

Arc. *piwar

fee i

Arc. *piwar

fee i

x x

-

-

EAC EAC

x x EAC Arc. *piwar Privative forms have normally, as their positive counterparts, the priva­

tive auxiliary replaced by zero.

In certain contexts, where contrast is accentua­

ted, zero may be replaced by a counter -privative auxiliary. The counter-priva­ tive auxiliaries are: EAC

ye ou Arc. *. ier replacing bu i 2. 7. The Spatial Auxiliaries

EAC

The names of the cardinal points of the compass and certain other designa­ tions of position in space, "inner and outer," "upper and lower, " etc. , have the peculiar property of determining a noun both pre- and post-posed. Pre-posed they are attributive, for example bee i "northern," jonq "central," way "outer. " Post-posed they indicate direction relative to the noun, for example, bee i "to the north of," jonq "in the middle of," way beyond. " When post-posed the conjunc­ rt

tion of determination jy

may occur. In this latter usage the spatial auxili­ aries occur where, in translation, the English prepositions "at, in, on" etc. ,

would be used. Certain spatial auxiliaries have an extended usage in forming time phrases. In the list which follows they are marked with an asterisk. Post-posed Pre-posed *shian

Arc. *sian

"former"

*chyan

Arc. *dz ian

"former"

"in front of"

*how

Arc. *g u

"latter"

"behind"

*jian

Arc. *kan j

"intervening"

"in the middle of, among,

*shyan

Arc. *g anJ

*jong

T

f

within"

T

Arc. *tiong

"central"

"in the middle of, within"

*ney

Arc. *nwab

"inner"

"within"

*way

Arc. *ngwad

"outer"

"beyond, outside of"

*shanq

Arc. *diang

"upper"

"above, upon"

*shiah

Arc. *g 

"lower"

"below, under"

!

23

parng

Arc. *b wang T

Pre-posed

Post-posed

"adjoining,

"beside, in the neighbour­

adjacent"

hood of"

shiang

Arc. *xiang )

" . . .wards" after compass

shianq

Arc. *xianq J

points only.

tour

Anc. *d au

" . . .wards" after compass

T

points; "atop of" Note. A l l the above auxiliaries are archaic, except for shiang and shianq which are Han usages, and tour which is Six Dynasties usage. When post-posed to numerals, ranks in a hierarchy, items in series etc. , Arc. with the interposing of erl Arc. *niag or y i i >^ Arc. *zjag or y i i *zteg certain of the spatial auxiliaries that follow, and also woang Arc. *giwang have the property of continuing the series as follows: "And all numbers, ranks, etc. , above or beyond" Arc. *giwang woang Arc. *diang shanq "And all numbers, ranks etc. , below"

LAC Han

LAC

Han LAC Arc. *g a shiah With the cardinal points of the compass post-posed to place-names the i n ­ terposing of y i i has the effect of "such and such a place and the area to the !

south (north, east, west, etc.)." 2. 8. The Auxiliaries of the Degrees of Comparison The degrees of comparison in Classical Chinese are three, the comparative degree, the superlative degree and the excessive degree. The Auxiliaries of Comparison precede attributes and verbs. A Conjunction of Comparison pre­ cedes verbal sentences in the sense of "how much the more so . . . how much the less so . . . " The comparative degree, "more so"

24

jia

Arc. *ka

LAC

Yih

Arc. *.iek

LAC

yow

Arc. *giug

LAC

huoh

Arc. g wok

LAC

hwang

Arc. *g wang

EAC

kuanq

Arc. *xiwang

EAC

f

T

tzy

Arc. *tsiag

tzeng

Arc. *tsang

LAC Han

yuh

Arc. *diu

Han

Arc. *diu

LAC

Arc. *miar

Han

yu

mi Note. Uei

Arc. *miwar occurs in the sense of "slightly more" (Han) Compounded forms Han Han

The superlative degree, "most" you shenn

Arc. *giug

LAC

Arc. *d iam

LAC

jyh

Arc. *tiSd

LAC

T

Han Arc. *tswad tzuey You and jyh create superlatives by following a substantive with the conjunc­ tion of determination j y parison.

occurring between substantive and auxiliary of com­

Shenn occurs only in this form. Compounded forms Han Han

The excessive degree, "too much" tay

Arc. *t ad

EAC

yii

Arc. *zi9g

LAC

mi

Arc. *miar

Han

T

The Conjunctions of Comparison are: Arc. *sion sheen hwang

Arc. *g wang T

EAC EAC

Arc. *xiwang LAC kuanq The auxiliaries of comparison occur in series before attributes in the sense of "the more . . . the more . . . . " hi this usage the following occur: mi

Arc. *miar

LAC

yuh

Arc. *diu

Han

The copulae of common inclusion (see 4. l ) f o r m syntagmas of comparison when occurring between attribute and noun in the sense of " as . . . as . . . " These are:

25

ru

Arc. *nio

EAC

ruoh

Arc. *niak

Han

2. 9. The Marker of Syntagma A word-group functioning as a single element in a verbal sentence may be marked with the Marker of Syntagma. This is jee ^

Arc. *tia. The marker

also occurs marking a cited passage, the citation form of a word ( the word X ) M

and personalizing nouns and attributes in the sense of "those who . . .

M

M

In the

Late Archaic-Han period, the marker also serves to demark time phrases, causal clauses and the protases of conditional sentences. The syntagmatic determinative conjunction jy

Arc. *tiog also occurs as

a Marker of Syntagma when occurring between agent and verb in a process which downgrades a verbal clause to a substantival syntagma.

26

3. Grammatical Words Occurring in the Verbal Sentence 3. 1. The Verbal Complex The verbal sentence is essentially and at minimal form solely a verb. A l l other elements of the verbal sentence are extensions of the verb. The immediate extensions which form the verbal complex are the auxiliaries of degree, of mode, of aspect and of manner. None occur as a matter of prescription (except for ne­ gation) and any or all may occur, seemingly as a matter of free option. 3. 1.1. The Auxiliaries of Degree The Auxiliaries of Verbal Degree either heighten or lower the degree of intensity of the verb. Those with the class-meaning "in an intense degree" ("totally, utterly, thoroughly, absolutely, etc. ") are: tzwu

Arc. *tsiwat

EAC

iZHe

Arc. *dz iwat

Han

koong

Arc. *k ung

EAC

genc[

Arc. *kang

Han

duo

Arc. *ta

EAC

dah

Arc. *d ad

EAC

tay

Arc. *t ad

Han

jyh

Arc. *tied

LAC

shwu

Arc. *diok

Han

jinn

Arc. *dz ien

LAC

chyuan

Arc. *dz iwan

Han

M

Arc. *g iak

LAC

ji

!

f

T

f

T

f

f

Arc. *kiog

LAC

shen

Arc. *siom

Han

shenn

Arc. *d iom

Han

T

Compounded forms Han Han Those with the class-meaning "in a lesser degree" ("slightly, somewhat, hardly, barely") are:

27

sheau

Arc. *siog

EAC

shao

Arc. *siog

LAC

cha

Arc. *ts a

Han

tsair

Arc. *dz ag

Han

T

f

tsair tsair

Arc. ? *dz ag T

Han

Arc. *dz ag

Han

tsair

Arc. *dz og

Han

poo

Arc. *p wa

Han

fuu

Arc. *piwo

Han

uei

Anc. *mjwai

Six Dynasties

jinn

Arc. *g ien

LAC

jiin

Arc. *g ien

Han

T

T

T

f

f

3.1. 2. The Modal Auxiliaries A striking feature of the modality of the verb in Classical Chinese is that it is formally marked only in the negative and then only in Archaic Chinese. By Han times the mood of the verb is indicated by periphrastic means and the nega­ tives lose their modal content, their role being confined thereafter to negation only. Three sets of forms of the Archaic negatives distinguish three modes, the indicative, the injunctive or hortatory, and the subjunctive. The positive r e ­ placements occur, usually in some insistent or contrastive sense. The Modal Auxiliaries are as follows: Indicative Mode negative form EAC bu wey feei

LAC moh foou

28

Arc. *pwot Arc. *miw9d

emphatic form fwu

Arc. *piwat

positive reflex form chyi

Arc. *g iag f

cherng

Arc. *dieng

cherng

Arc. *diλng

shyr

Arc. *d iet

shinn

Arc. *sien

i^

Arc. *. ier

Arc. *mwat

chiing

Arc. *ts ieng

Arc. *piug

chyng

Arc. *dz ieng

jen

Arc. *tien

shyr

Arc. *cUak

chyi

Arc. *g iag

i_

Arc. *. iet

i^

Arc. *. iλt

guh

Arc. *ko

Arc. *piwar

T

f

f

T

Indicative Mode negative form

emphatic form

LAC Han

positive reflex form Arc. *klwar

guoo jinq

Arc. *kiang

liang

Arc. *liang

dinq

Arc. *d ieng

sheen

Arc. *siam

?

Injunctive and Hortatory Mode negative form EAC wu

Arc. *miwo

emphatic form wuh

Arc. *miwat

positive reflex form dang

Arc. *tang

shanq

Arc. *diang

shanq

Arc. *diang

iong

Arc. *diung

yih

Arc. *ngia Arc. *ngia

MAC LAC moh

Han

Six Dynasties

Arc. *mwat

Arc. *piet

bih dee i ren rong

Arc. *diung

ll

Arc. *ngia

Arc. *tak Arc. *iiiam

ing

Arc. *. iang

shiu

Arc. *siu

jyh her

Arc. *tied Anc. *yap

urn

Anc. *. i'u

Compounded forms EAC EAC LAC LAC Han Han Han 29

Compounded forms Han Han Han Han Han Han Han Six Dynasties Six Dynasties See also 3. 3. Note 1 for

etc.

Subjunctive Mode negative form EAC wang

positive reflex form

Arc. *mjwang

ru

Arc. *σio

wu

Arc. *miwo

Arc. *diwar

mii

Arc. *mia

wei ^ shyh

Arc. *siok

shuh

Arc. *siag

s huh-j i

Arc. *siag-kiar

day

Arc. *d ag

you

Arc. *ziog

YiL yeou

Arc. *ziog Arc. *giug

huoh

Arc. *g wak

LAC wu moh

Han

30

T

f

goou

Arc. *ku

hour

Arc. *g u

shya

Arc. *g a

Arc. *miwo

ruoh

Arc. *niak

Arc. *mwat

yi

Arc. *ngia

wei

Arc. *gwia

jinn

Arc. *g ian

guey

Arc. *kiwed

wei

Arc. *ngwia

shyh

Arc. *siag

daang

Arc. *tang

f

f

!

Subjunctive Mode negative form

positive reflex form

Han

taang

Arc. *t ang

Six Dynasties

jiuh

Anc. *g iwo:

tuo

Anc. *t uat

T

f

!

In Han Timesbu

*pw9t becomes an all-purpose negative (i.e. non-modal) before verbs except for ye ou *miwo and u *giug which is negated by wu *. o. The Periphrastic Modal Auxiliaries occur initially in the verbal sentence and are as follows: chiang

Arc. *ts iang

"would that . . . "

EAC

wei

Arc. *diwar

"let there be . . . "

LAC

chyi

Arc. *g iag

"let there be . . . "

Han

yuann

Arc. *ngiwan

"wish that . . . "

Han

yaw

Arc. *. iog

"it is imperative that . . . " Han

yuh

Arc. *giuk

"wish that . . . "

EAC

syh

Arc. *dziog

"seems as though "

LAC

Jiang

Arc. *tsiang

"it may be that"

Han

T

f

3.1. 3. The Aspectual Auxiliaries Aspect is a view of the progress or incidence of the action of the verb i r ­ respective of its occurrence in time. The action may be viewed at the point of its conception (desiderative aspect), prior to realization (potential aspect), at its i n ­ ception (inchoative aspect), in progress (durative and continuative aspect), at the point of completion (perfective aspect) or at the point of successful completion (resultative aspect). The action may be viewed as a single or as a recurring i n ­ cident or as a matter of habit (aspects of incidence, of sequence and of customary aspect). The Aspectual Auxiliaries, which occur before the verb,are as follows: Desiderative aspect, "wish to" yuh

Arc. *giuk

LAC

yuh

Arc. *giwet

EAC

liau

Arc. *liog

EAC

Jiang

Arc. *tsiang

EAC

Potential aspect, "about to"

31

chiee

Arc. *ts ia

EAC

Jin

Arc. *kiom

Han

shinq

Arc. *g ang

Han

yuh

Arc. *giuk

Han

f

T

Compounded forms Han Han Potential aspect, "about to, but unrealized" > "almost, nearly" Li shi

Arc. *kior

LAC

Arc. *xiot

LAC

jinn

Anc. *g ian:

Six Dynasties

chiee

Arc. *ts ia

Han

Anc. *z wie

Six Dynasties

chii

Arc. *k ior

EAC

chu

Arc. *ts io

EAC

jaw

Arc. *d iog

EAC

shyy

Arc. *siog

EAC

tzuoh

Arc. *tsak

EAC

chwei Inchoative aspect, "begin to"

f

f

T

T

t

Continuative aspect, " s t i l l , continue to" yow

Arc. *giug

shanq

Arc. *diang

rong you suey

Arc. *diung

fuh

Arc. *b iok

Arc. *ziog Arc. *dziwod T

EAC EAC Han LAC Han Han

Compounded forms LAC Han Durative aspect, "for long, constantly, for ever, always"

32

jau-shih

Arc. *tiog-dziak

EAC

shyr

Arc. *diag

EAC

yeong

Arc. *giwang

EAC

Jong

Arc. *tiong

LAC

charng

Arc. *diang

LAC

charng

Arc. *d iang

Han

jaang

Arc. *t iang

LAC

jepu

Arc. *kiug

Han

jiow

Arc. *g iug

Han

yea

Arc. *ng

Han

ryh-yeh

Arc. *niet-ziag

Han

suh-yeh

Arc. *siok-ziag

EAC

suh-shih

Arc. *siτk-dziβk

EAC

suh-shyi

Arc. *siτk-siak

Han

suh-shih

Arc. *siok-dziak

Han

suh-yeh

Arc. *siok-ziag

Han

dann-shih

Arc. *tan-siak

Han

dann-muh

Arc. *tβn-mβg

Han

Arc. *siog

Han

J*

Arc. *kiad

EAC

Arc. *tsiλt

EAC

m

Arc. *ziag

EAC

m

Arc. *ziog

Han

yeh

Arc. *ngiβp

lai

Anc. *lai

Han Six Dynasties

T

T

f

"for a short time, only just" shao Perfective aspect, "already"

M

Compounded forms LAC Han Resultative aspect, "managed to, succeeded in" Arc. *tok der Arc. *siong shenq Momentary aspect, "at that/this moment"

33

LAC Han

fang

Arc. *piwang

EAC

shianq

Arc. *xiang

EAC

shianq

Arc. *xiang

LAC

shyh

Arc. *siek

LAC

shyh

Arc. *siok

LAC

jah

Arc. *dz ag

LAC

f

M

jann

Arc. *dz am

Han

jenq

Arc. *tieng

Han

diing

Arc. *tieng Anc. *d ieng

Han Six Dynasties

gu

Arc. *ko

EAC

guh

,

tvng. for the moment, for the time being"

f

Arc. *ko

Han

guh

Arc. *ko

Han

chiee

Arc. *ts ia

Han

jann

Anc. *dz am-

Six Dynasties

fang

Arc. *piwang Compounded forms

Han

T

T

Han Han Han Han Han Six Dynasties "at that moment it chanced that . . . " shyh juu duan

Arc. *tiuk

LAC LAC

Arc. *twan

Han

Arc. *siek

"one moment . . . the next . . . "

i

Arc. *. iok

EAC

tzay . . . tzay . . .

Arc. *tsog

EAC

yih . . . yih . . . nae . . . nae . . .

Arc. *nog

EAC

fang . . . fang . . .

Arc. *piwang

LAC

jah . . . jah . . .

Arc. *dz ag

Han

Arc. *ts ia

Han

i

chiee . . . chiee .

f

T

"in a moment, shortly, soon" shiuh

Arc. *dzio

EAC

shyu

Arc. *dzio

LAC

sun

Arc. *siok

EAC

Arc. *tan-siak Arc. *tβn-mβg

Han Han

"at any moment, imminently" dann-shin dann-muh 34

(with restrictive nuance) "then only . . . " juu Arc. *tiuk "at this very moment, at once"

LAC

chwan

Arc. *diwan

EAC

shyuan

Arc. *dz iwan

LAC

shyuan

Arc. *dziwan

Han

s we i

Arc. *dzwia

Han

shyn

Arc. *dziom

Han

duenn

Arc. *twan

Han

sun

Arc. *suk

EAC

chiuh

Arc. *ts iu

Han

m hi

Arc. *tsiet

Han

Arc. *kiok

LAC

jiuh

Arc. *g iwag

LAC

ian

Anc. *. i'm:

Six Dynasties

m

Arc. *kiop

Han

biann

Arc. *b ian

Han

jer

Arc. *tiap

Han

lih

Arc. *gliap

Han

T

!

?

T

Compounded forms Han Han Han Sequential aspect, "for the first time, for a second time, once again" etc.

35

chu

Arc. *ts io

EAC

shyy

Arc. *siog

EAC

shoou

Arc. *siog

LAC

been

Arc. *pwon

Han

yow

Arc. *giug

EAC

fuh

Arc. *b iok

EAC

jiann

Arc. *dz ion

EAC

chorng

Arc. *d iung

LAC

tzeng

Arc. *tsang

Han

genq

Arc. *kang

Han

reng

Arc. *niong

Han

T

T

T

!

Compounded forms Han Han Han Han Han Han Han Han "in sequence, one after another" lee i

Arc. *liwor /•N

Arc. *liek lih "in rapid sequence, repeatedly, frequently"

Han Han

bii

Arc. *pior

dong

Arc. *d'ung

Han

Arc. *lian Compounded form

Han

lian

Han

Han "in slow sequence, gradually, little by little" Un

Arc. *tsiom

Han

jinn

Arc. *tsiam

Han

jiann

Arc. *dz iam

Han

chyr

Arc. *d ior

Han

juann

Arc. *tiwan

Han

sheau

Arc. *siog

LAC

shao

Arc. *siog

LAC

shau

Arc. *sog

Han

f

!

Compounded form Han "in consecutive or alternate sequence, alternately"

36

geng

Arc. *kang

Han

day

Arc. *d og

LAC

dih

Arc. *d ieg

Han

dye

Arc. *d iet

LAC

yih

Arc. *d'iet

Han

!

T

T

"in sporadic sequence, occasionally" woang

Arc. *giwang-giwang

Han

taang

Arc. *t ang

LAC

daang

Arc. *tang

LAC

shyr shyr . . . shyr . A

Arc. *diag

Han

Arc. *3iog

Han

f

Compounded forms Han Han "relative sequence, beforehand, recently, early" suh

Arc. *siok

EAC

tzao

Arc. *tsog

LAC

tzao

Arc. *tsog

LAC

suh

Arc. *so

Han

shian

Arc. *sion

EAC

Arc. *sien

LAC

Arc. *dz ian

Han

how

Arc. *g u

LAC

suey

Arc. *dziwed

LAC

tsorng

Arc. *dz iung

LAC

shin

chyan "relative sequence, afterwards, in the end, at last" T

!

f

Han moh Arc. *mwat Customary or experiential aspect, "to have once, to be used to" "habitually" and thus "constantly" dean Arc. *tion charng Arc. *diang charng Arc. *diang

Note.

EAC MAC LAC

tserng

Arc. *dz ong

Han

herng

Arc. *g ang

LAC

shyy

Arc. *siog

Han

suh

Arc. *so

Han

jing wu-bu

Anc. *kieng

Six Dynasties

Anc. *miu-puot

Six Dynasties

!

T

and-

when used aspectually are negated with

"not/to have experienced/not to" they create In such formations as • an emphatic "invariably did, always did. " 37

Iterative aspect, "once, twice, thrice, daily, yearly" etc. i_

Arc. *. iot

Han

L

Arc. *.iot

Han

tzay

Arc. *tsog

Han

reng

Arc. *niang

Han

san

Arc. *som

LAC

syh

Arc. *siad

Han

shyr

Arc. *diop

Han

ryh

Arc. *niet

LAC

shyh

Arc. *siad

LAC

suey

Arc. *siwad

Han

Compounded forms LAC LAC LAC

"many times, frequently, often" reng

Arc. *niong

EAC

leu

Arc. *gliu

EAC

leu

Arc. *gliu

Han

shuoh

Arc. *suk

Han

duo

Arc. *ta

LAC

jow

Anc. *dz iou-

LAC

chin

Arc. *k iog

pyn

Anc. *b ien

LAC Six Dynasties

f

!

T

Compounded form Han "a few times, infrequently, seldom, rarely" shean

Arc. *sian

EAC

haan

Arc. *xan

MAC

shi

Arc. *xior

Han

Arc. *xiar

Han

Arc. *tiap

Han

meei

Arc. *mwag

LAC

donq

Arc. *d ung

Han

shi "each time, every time" jer

38

f

Compounded form Han Spatial aspect, "occurring everywhere" biann binq fang

Arc. *pian Arc. *b ieng f

Arc. *piwang Arc. *giwang-giwang

EAC LAC EAC Han

woang-woang jiau

Arc. *kog

EAC

]ie

Arc. *ker

EAC

bii

Arc. *piar

Han

fu

Arc. *p iwo

EAC

puu

Arc. *p o

LAC

jou

Arc. *tiog

LAC

!

f

Compounded forms LAC MAC Han Aspects of simultaneity, "at one and the same time" binq

Arc. *b ieng

EAC

torng

Arc. *d ung

EAC

jian

Arc. *kliam

LAC

f

T

Compounded form Han Restrictive aspect, "only, merely" jyr tih

Arc. *ti9k

EAC

Arc. *siog

EAC

shyh

Arc. *siek

LAC

chyh

Arc. *sieg

LAC

shyh

Arc. *diog

LAC

j y r

Arc. *d iok

LAC

shuu

Arc. *d iuk

LAC

cheu wei s we i duo

39

T

!

•A

Arc. *ts iu f

Arc. *diwor Arc. *siwor Arc. *ta

Han Han EAC LAC

twu

Arc. *d o

Han

dih

Arc. *d ia

Han

dih

Arc. *d ior

Han

dih jyr

Arc. *d ior

Han

Arc. *d ior

Han

dan

Arc. *tan

LAC

daan

Arc. *tan

Han

dann

Arc. *d an

Han

chwen

Arc. *diwon

Han

juan

Arc. *tiwan

Han

juan

Arc. ?*tiwan

Han

juan

Arc. *tiwan

Han

jeng

Anc. *tsiβhg-

Six Dynasties

jenq

Anc. *tsiβthg-

Six Dynasties

teh

Arc. *d ak

Han

jyy

Arc. *tiag

Han

jyy

Arc. *tiag

EAC

in

Arc. *tiag

Han

shyh

Arc. *tiek

LAC

jyy goou

Anc. *tsi:

Six Dynasties

Arc. *ku

LAC

f

f

f

!

f

T

T

Han Arc. *pw9t-kwa bu-guoh J Note. Tih only occurs in negated collocations, such as . 3.1.4.

or

The Auxiliaries of Manner The Auxiliaries of Manner are a relatively large class, formally charac­

terized (and formally distinguished from the Aspectual Auxiliaries described in 3 . 1 . 3) as a class by i) the possibility of taking the Marker of the Auxiliary of Maimer post-posed, and ii) the possibility of occurring reduplicated. However, a rule of economy operates so that many of the auxiliaries of manner occur in texts unmarked. Typical examples are jeng

*tiong

hu

*mwot

M

M

i n great numbers"

"suddenly"

LAC

oou

*ngu \ "unexpectedly" The Markers of the Auxiliaries of Manner are: van

40

%

Arc. *ngian

EAC

EAC

Han

yan

Arc. *gian

an

Arc. *.an

LAC

yun

Arc. *giwon

Han

ru

Arc. *nio

EAC

erl

Arc. *niog

EAC

ran

Arc. *nian

EAC

eel

Arc. *niar

LAC

ruoh

Arc. *niak

Han

m

Arc. *ziog

EAC

Han Certain of the markers of the auxiliary of manner occur in a substitutional role, taking the place of the auxiliary of manner in the sense of "in such and such a manner, thus, so. " The Anaphoric Substitutes for the Auxiliaries of Manner are: ruoh

Arc. *niak /\

ruoh tzy

Arc. *niak-tsiog

EAC EAC Arc. *tsiog EAC tzy Arc. *tsiar LAC tsyy *iiiak-tsiar Arc. Han ruoh tsyy EAC Arc. *diog shyh EAC Arc. *niak-diog ruoh shyh EAC Arc. *nio-diog r u shyh EAC Arc. *nio-tsiog ru tzy Han Arc. *nio-diag r u shyh EAC ru tsyy Arc. *ννio-tsiar EAC nae Arc. *nag EAC yun Arc. *giwan erl EAC Arc. *niog ran EAC Arc. *nian eel LAC Arc. *niar As will be seen from the above, "thus"rs occurs with varying degrees of economy, either as the copula, the demonstrative, or as an allegro form of both. 3.1.5. The Auxiliaries of Voice Voice in the verb is frequently formally unmarked, being imposed by the distribution of the post-verbal elements. Three voices axe distinguished, the ac­ tive, the passive and the ergative or causative. There are Auxiliaries of Voice for the passive and causative voices.

41

The auxiliaries of the passive voice are:

jiann

Arc. *kian

LAC

21

Arc. *tiag

Han

yeu

Arc. *zio

Han

bey

Arc. *b'ia

LAC

meng

Arc. *mung

Han

The auxiliaries of the causative voice are: bih

Arc. *pieg

EAC

Ping

Arc. *p eng

EAC

shyy

EAC

jyy

Arc. *sliog Arc. *tior *\

jyy

Arc. *tior

LAC

tzuoh

Arc. *tsak

EAC

jiau

Arc. *kog

LAC

linq

Arc. *lieng

Han

tina

Arc. *t ieng

Han

!

EAC

T

These occur in both ergative ("cause to") and permissive ("let" or "allow") usages. Wey

Arc. *gwia occurs in collocation with suoo

is used both passively and attributively (Han). Tzuoh

Arc. *sio when a verb Arc. *tsak also occurs

as an element in word formation in the creation of ergative verbs (see 2.1. 2). 3. 2. The Post-verbal Positions and their Particles hi the verbal sentence, there are two positions following the verb the dis­ positions of the elements of which determine the voice of the verb.

Interposed

between the first and second post-verbal positions are the Particles of the Postverbal Position. They are: IB

Arc. *giwo

EAC

yy hu

Arc. *. io

EAC (late)

Arc. *g o

EAC (late)

yi_i you

Arc. *ziog

Han

Arc. *d iog

Han

T

T

The particles of the post-verbal positions combine with certain demonstra­ tives and anaphoric substitutes in allegro forms. These are: 1st particle

42

2nd

yun

Arc. *giwon

EAC

yuan

Arc. *giwon

EAC

1st

particle

2nd

jan

Arc. *tian

EAC

du

Arc. *to

LAC

Arc. *tio

LAC

Are. *gian

EAC

yan

3. 3. The Auxiliaries of Agential State Immediately preceding the verbal complex in the verbal sentence are the Auxiliaries of Agential State. They are: keh

Arc. *k ok

"to be able or permitted to"

EAC

kee

Arc. *k a

"to be able or permitted to"

EAC

guoo

Arc. *klwar

"to be permitted to"

LAC

gaan

Arc. *kam

"to presume or dare to"

EAC

hwang

Arc. *g wang "to have time or leisure to"

EAC

shya

Arc. *g a

"to have time or leisure to"

LAC

keen

Arc. *k ang

"to be willing to"

EAC

T

f

T

T

T

kan

;

Anc. *k am

"to be fit or worthy to"

Six Dynasties

yinn

1

Anc. *ngien

"to be willing to"

EAC

neng

Arc. *nang

"to be able or competent to"

EAC

reen

Arc. *nian

"to be able to bear to"

LAC

ren

Arc. *niam

"to be able to"

Han

tzwu

Arc. *tsiuk

"to be adequate or sufficient for"

LAC

,

Kee and neng occur late in EAC. Compounded form LAC Note 1. Certain of these auxiliaries negated before a negated verb have mo­ dal overtones. These are: dare not not > "must" could not not > "must" can not not > "must" hi this they compare with the modal auxiliary dee i must not not be > "must be" Note 2. Kee when negated occurs as an allegro form in poo 8? (Six Dynasties). Note 3. An inversion when negated, viz. interrogative form.

43

etc., creates an

3.4.

The Agent and its Distributives In the agential complex in the verbal sentence, certain collectives and r e ­

strictives occur immediately following the agent. In Archaic Chinese these col­ lectives and restrictives contrast with those described in 2. 3.6. The contrast is blunted as the Late Archaic period merges into Han. The Agential Distributives are as follows: With the class-meaning "of the agents, a l l " bih

Arc. *piet

EAC

bii

Arc. *pior

LAC

bey

Arc. *b iog

LAC

binq

Arc. *b ieng

EAC

fang

Arc. *piwang

EAC

jinn

Arc. *dz ien

LAC

shi

Anc. *siet

EAC

geh

Arc. *klak

EAC

chian

Arc. *?k siam

EAC

shyan

Arc. *g cm

EAC

jiuh

Arc. *g iu

EAC

jeu

Arc. *kio

LAC

lie

Arc. *ker

LAC

jianq

Arc. *kong

LAC

gong gong

Arc. *kung

LAC

Arc. *g iung

Han

song

Arc. *dziung

Han

yeu

Arc. *zio

LAC

Jong

Arc. *tiong

LAC

tong

Arc. *t'ung

Han

!

T

f

T

T

f

!

Compounded forms Han Han Han Han Han With the class-meaning "of the agents, all equally . . . " i_ i-tii 44

Arc. *.iet Arc. *. iet-t lior !

EAC Han

i_

Arc. *.iêt

i-chieh

Arc. *.iët-ts iet

lis

Arc. *ker

EAC

liu

Arc. *kiu

LAC

jiau

Arc. *kog

Han

Han !

Han With the class-meaning "of the agents, both, both parties"

Compounded forms

Han Han Han

With the class-meaning "of the agents, many, most . . . " "for the most part" duo

Arc. *ta

LAC

du

Anc. *tuo

Six Dynasties

dan

Arc. *d ad

Han

shuay

Arc. *sliw8t

Han

liu

Arc. *glio

Han

liuh

Arc. *lio

LAC

poo

Arc. *p wa

Han

f

!

Compounded forms Han Han Han Han With the class-meaning "of the agents, some . . . there were those who . . . " "some . . . others . . . " ye ou

Arc. *giug

EAC

huoh i i

Arc. *g wok

EAC

shao

Arc. *siog

!

- Arc. *. iet With the class-meaning "of the agents, few . . . "

LAC LAC

With the class-meaning "of the agents, only . . . " dwu

Arc. *d uk T

EAC

With the class -meaning "of the agents, each separately . . . " Han Arc. *b iat bye T

45

With the class-meaning "of the agents, none, no one Arc. *mia mii

" EAC

wu

Arc. *miwo

EAC

moh

Arc. *mak

EAC

wang

Arc. *miwang

EAC

With the class-meaning "of the agents, none compares favourably with" i . e. "the best is" moh r u

Arc. *mak-iiio

LAC

Arc. *mak-niak Han moh ruoh Note. This form also has a conjunctive use in the form "rather than . . . better to . . . " (see 5.1. 2). Compounded forms EAC EAC EAC EAC LAC LAC Han Han Han This compounding of two negatives has the rhetorical force of, for example, "no one did not" > "every single one did" 3. 5. The Post-verbal Distributives When the elements that occur after the verb are determined for collectivity or restriction, the distributive occurs before the verb.

In Archaic Chinese the

Post-verbal Distributives contrast with the agential distributives, but the con­ trast is blunted as the Archaic period merges into the Han. The post-verbal dis­ tributives are as follows: With the class-meaning "all of the, the entire . . . "

46

bih

Arc. *piet

EAC

piann

Arc. *p ian

LAC

piann

Arc. *pian

LAC

piann

Arc. *pian

LAC

binq

Arc. *b ieng

LAC

T

T

bey

Arc. *b iog

LAC

shuay

Arc. *sliwat

EAC

shi

Anc. *siet

EAC

shyan

Are. *g em

EAC

٢e

Are. *ker

Han

jiuh

Are. *g iu

Han

3 inn

Arc. *dz ien

EAC

chyi

Are. *dz ior

Han

suoo

Are. *sak

Han

du

Are. *to

Han

f

r

f

f

T

With the class-meaning both Tr

liu

Tf

Arc. *kiu

Han

With the class-meaning "each" meei

Arc. *mwag

EAC

donq

Anc. *d ung

Six Dynasties

!

With the class-meaning "many, most, a certain amount of" duo

Arc. *ta

LAC

poo

Arc. *p wa

Han

!

With the class-meaning "more of the" Arc. *. iek yih With the class-meaning "few" Arc. *siog she au shao

Arc. *siog

Arc. *sog shau With the class-meaning "restriction, only . . . " Arc. *diwor wei

Han LAC LAC LAC EAC

dwu

Arc. *d uk

LAC

twu

Arc. *d o

Han

teh

Arc. *d ok

Han

chyr

Arc. *d iog

Han

teh

Arc. *diag

Han

f

!

T

r

Compounded form Han

47

3. 6. The Directive Particles The locative, whether occurring in the second post-verbal position, or placed before the verb, or before the auxiliaries of place^may be pre-posed by the Directive Particles in such senses as at, from, to etc. The directive par­ Tf

M

ticles also occur in such syntagmatic formations as "from A to B" and in certain metaphorical extensions of "place" as, for example, in "from this it can be seen that . . . " (Certain of the directive particles also occur in time phrases and are described in 3.11). The directive particles are: "from, by way of" you jwu

Arc. *diog

EAC

Arc. *d iok

Han

daw

Arc. *d 6g

Han

tzyh

Anc. *dz i-

EAC

you

Arc. *ziog

EAC

shoou

Arc. *siog

Han

tsorng

Arc. *dz iung

LAC

shyun

Arc. *dziwan

LAC

Jong

Arc. *tiong

Han

iξs

Arc. *ker

Han

f

T

f

T

Compounded form Han

"at" wei

Arc. *diwor

EAC

tzay

Arc. *dz og

EAC

tsair

Arc. *dz og

EAC

dang

Arc. *tang

Han

Arc. *?kio

Han

!

f

Compounded form Han "to, towards, up to . . . "

48

jyh

Arc. *tied

EAC

dii

Arc. *tior

Han

duey

Arc. *twod

Han

yeu

Arc. *zio

LAC

J™

Arc. *giwo

EAC

hu

Arc. *g o

Han

yu

Arc. *. io

LAC

shianq

Arc. *xiang

EAC

shianq

Arc. *xiang

LAC

shianq

Arc. *xiang

Han

nah

Arc. *. nβr

LAC

Arc. *giwer

LAC

Arc. *k iab

LAC

Anc. *ywBng

Six Dynasties

f

"distant from" wex

f

"across"

chiuh herng

"to the point where, as far as"

"near to"

shi

Arc. *xiat

EAC

chin

Arc. *xiot

Han

/-X

Arc. *g ion

Han

jinn

Arc. *dz ien

Han

Jong

Arc. *tiong

EAC

jinn

T

"throughout" !

Compounded forms EAC LAC Han Han LAC 3. 7. The Particles of Delegation and Reciprocity When an agent is delegated to act on behalf of another, the delegating agent is marked by a particle, hi EAC the delegating agent and particle occur after the verb, in LAC the delegating agent shifts to the pre-verbal position. The Particles of Delegation in the sense of "on behalf of, for, on account of" are:

49

wei

Arc. *diwor

EAC

day

Arc. *d og

LAC

yeu

Arc. *zio

Han

wey

Arc. *gwia

LAC

f

wey wey

Arc. *ngwia

Han

Arc. *giwod

Han

When two agents engage reciprocally in an action, this is marked with the Particle of Reciprocity, occurring before the verb. The particles of reciprocity are: shiu

Arc. *sio

EAC

shiang

Arc. *siang

EAC

jiau

Arc. *kog

EAC

huh

Arc. *g o

Han

T

Compounded forms EAC LAC Han 3. 8. The Particles of Subordination and their Conjunctive Use A very frequent extension of the simple verbal sentence in Archaic Chinese is by the insertion of a subordinate clause between the agent and verb of the main clause. A clause so subordinated is marked by the Particle of Subordination post-posed. The particles are: nae

Arc. *nag

EAC

yan

Arc. *ngian

EAC

Arc. *niog Arc. *tsek

EAC (late)

erl Han tzer In EAC the verb of the clause subordinated bv nae is often pre-posed with *kiod. the perfective aspectual auxiliary jih Compounded forms LAC LAC In a shift to a position between two clauses, particles of subordination be­ come Conjunctions of Subordination, in the sense of "A having happened, B hap­ pened.

n

These particles are:

50

erl

Arc. *niog

LAC

nay

Arc. *nag

LAC

3. 9. The Instrumental Particles, Instrumental Conjunctions and Causal Conjunctions In EAC instrumentation ( by means of") and cause ("because of") are two M

aspects of the same function.

They are not formally differentiated. As, later,

these functions become differentiated certain of the instrumental particles be­ come causal conjunctions, while certain forms of instrumentation develop spe­ cialized forms. The Instrumental Particles introducing an instrumental phrase, when this occurs between the agent and the verb of a verbal sentence,are: yonq

Arc. *diung

EAC

yuan

Arc. *diwan

Han

you

Arc. *diog

EAC

day

Arc. *d og

EAC

yii

Arc. *ziag

EAC

!

Arc. *siak shyh Note. Yonq in early EAC also occurs as "instrument;

EAC " or "instrument/

Of these particles, the following occur when, in subordinate clauses, the instrument follows the verb: yonq

Arc. *diung

EAC

yii EAC Arc. *zieg Of the instrumental particles, the following occur negated with wu or wu

in the sense of "to have no means whereby to" Han LAC Han

LAC Note. In Han the instrumental clause may be concluded with erl verb.

viz.

11

The particles placed between two proper names or their substitutes are instrumental in the sense of by the intervention of," "through the good offices ,T

rvf " i n thfi t r a i n o f " fitn. Thpsp nrp« n

51

in

Arc. *. ien

Han

tsorng

Arc. *dz iung

EAC

s we i

Arc. *dzwia

Han

T

daw

Arc. *d'τg

Han

dao

Arc. *d τg

Han

f

The instrumental particles introducing an instrumental phrase, in the sense "by availing oneself of "by taking advantage of" etc. are: in Arc. *. jen Han M

jieh

Arc. *kad

Han

jea

Anc. *ka:

Six Dynasties

cherng

Arc. *d iong

Han

T

Note. In also occurs self-standing as a substitute for the instrumental phrase "seizing the opportunity to . . . ". In the sense of "by trusting to" "by relying on" "by virtue of" etc. are: i_ Arc. *. ior Han yii Arc. *. ia Han lay Arc. *lβd Han Instrumental particles may introduce an instrumental phrase when "instru­ mentation" is given as "cause" in the sense of "because. " Such particles are: Arc. *diung Han yonq Arc. *zi9g EAC yn Arc. *dz iung LAC tsorng Arc. *. iλn Han in In a shift in distribution, certain of the instrumental particles may occur f

as Instrumental Conjunctions, between two verbal sentences. Where this is pur­ posive, in the sense of "in order t o , " the conjunctions come either between "means" and "purpose" or precede "means. " These conjunctions are: yong EAC Arc. *diung Yl_i EAC Arc. *ziog wey Han Arc. *gwia Where the relationship marked between the two sentences is resultative, in the sense of "thereby, as a result," the conjunction comes after "means. " These conjunctions are: yonq

52

Arc. *diung

EAC

iong

Arc. *diung

EAC

m m

Arc. *ziag

EAC

Arc. *ziog

Han

tsorng

Arc. *dz iung

LAC

T

you

Arc. *d iog

Han

you

Arc. *diog

EAC

f

Compounded forms Han Han The instrumental conjunctions which in collocation with the indefinite sub­ stitute suoo

provide for "the means by which" are: Han

In a further shift, the instrumental particles become Causal Conjunctions. In this usage they collocate with the demonstratives in the sense of "therefore. " Such collocations are: shyh-yii

EAC

tzy-yonq

EAC

EAC shyh-yonq When the demonstratives follow rather than precede the instrumental par­ ticles, they provide for "because of this. " Such collocations are: Han

LAC

Han

Han

Han Han

Han Han

Han

Han

The instrumental particles may occur as Causal Conjunctions, when intro­ ducing the clause of cause, in the sense of because. " These particles are: yii Arc. *ziog EAC you Arc. *diog Han tr

you yuan

Arc. *d iog

Han

Arc. *diwan

Han

tsorng

Arc. *dz iung

!

f

Han The clause of cause may be identified as such with the use of the Causal Auxiliary occurring at the end of the clause, either with or without the conjunc­ tion of determination, thus: "for . . . cause or reason" guh

Arc. *ko

EAC

Arc. *ti9g-ko EAC ΝY_guh Both the Causal Auxiliary and the instrumentais occur before the clause of

53

consequence as a Causal Conjunction, "therefore, for this reason" EAC EAC Han The Causal Auxiliary also collocates with an instrumental particle or with a demonstrative to create a Causal Conjunction in the sense of "therefore, for this reason," as follows: Han LAC The Causal Conjunctions, which in collocation with the indefinite substitute provide for "the reason for which" are:

suoo

suoo y i i

Han

suoo wey

Han

Han suoo you Note. The instrumental particle and the verb wei

Arc. *gwia "to be­

come, cause to become, make, create" in the distribution y i i , A wei B occurs in the sense of "take A to be B" both factitive "take to be" > "make" and putative "take to be" > "regard as. " This leads to the contraction of yji . . . wei . . . to yii-wei a verb occurring in both factitive and putative usage. Yii-we i is some­ (EAC) and wei (Han). The following forms are times contracted to wei encountered: yonq-we i

EAC

yii-we i

EAC

yii-wei

Han

yii-wey 3.10. The Particles of Exposure

Late Han

When an element in the verbal sentence occurs absolutely, that is at the head of the sentence, rather than in its usual place, the exposure is marked with the Particles of Exposure. The particles are: "as to . . . " yueh

Arc. *giwat

EAC

iue

Arc. *giwat

EAC

wei jyh

Arc. *diwar

EAC

Arc. *tied

LAC

ΝY^yu jyh-ru

Arc. *tied-. io

LAC

Arc. *tied-nio

Han

ry

54

ruoh

Arc. *niak

Han

Arc. *niak-piwo Han ruoh-fwi; 3. 11. Grammatical Words in the Time Position hi Classical Chinese "tense" is outside of the reference of the verb, just as "number" is outside of the reference of the noun. Time of occurrence (if such information is deemed to be relevant) in the verbal sentence is stated absolutely at the beginning of the sentence. For time of occurrence there is a comparative­ ly rich repertory of Auxiliaries of Time. It is useful to distinguish, among these auxiliaries, those that are self-standing and those that are determinative.

Pre­

ceding the auxiliaries of time the Particles of Time may occur and following the auxiliaries the Markers of Time. A complete paradigm of a time phrase con­ sists of /particle/determining auxiliary/se If-standing auxiliary/marker/, but with the tendency prevailing to economy, particularly in Archaic Chinese, the full paradigm rarely occurs. The Markers of the Time Indicators are: jee

Arc. *tia

EAC

yee

Arc. *dia

EAC

These are post-posed. Also post-posed with the possibility of occurrence of the determinative conjunction jy is: Arc. *diog LAC shyr The Auxiliaries of Time which occur self-standing (and which may or may. not occur with the markers yee "in the past, formerly" shyi

or jee

are

Arc. *siak

EAC

guu shianq

Arc. *ko

LAC

Arc. *xiang

LAC

shianq

Arc. *xiang

LAC

shianq

Arc. *xiang

EAC

naang

Arc. *nang

LAC

woang

Arc. *giwang

LAC

yea

Arc. *nga

Han *

tzwo

Arc. *dz ak

Han *

f

* Does not collocate with yee or jee. "just now" shianq-lai

55

Anc. *xiang-lai

Six Dynasties

"recently"

r,

jinn

Arc. *g ion

Han

shyan

Arc. *g an

Han

jian

Arc. *kan

Han

ryh

Arc. *niet

Han

nae

Arc. *nag

Han

T

T

nae

Arc. *nog

lai-shyr

Arc. *log-di8g

mey-shoan^ ing chern dann

Arc. *mwod-siang

Han

Han

at dawn" m

EAC

Arc. *miang

EAC

Arc. *dion

LAC

Arc. *tan

Han

Compounded forms Han Han

"at night" shih

Arc. *dziak

yeh

LAC

Arc. *ziag

Han

lin

Arc. *kiom

shyr

Arc. *diog

EAC EAC * Han *

"in the present, now"

shiann Arc. *g ian *Does not collocate with yee or jee f

Compounded forms LAC Han Han

"in the future" jiang-lai

Anc. *tsiang-lai

Six Dynasties

jyh-yu-iin

Arc. *tied-kiom

EAC

"hitherto" tzyh-guu

Arc. ?*dzi-ko

LAC

Compounded forms EAC 56

LAC LAC Tenceforth'' tzyh-jin tzyh-shyr

Arc. *?dzH-kiom

EAC

Arc. *?dz i-diag

EAC

T

Compounded forms EAC Han LAC LAC LAC LAC EAC "before this, earlier" shyy

Arc. *siog

EAC

chu

Arc. *ts io

LAC

shian

Arc. *sion

LAC

chyan

Arc. *dz ian

Han

been

Arc. *pwan

Han

f

T

*Does not collocate with yee or jee. "after this, next" tsyr

Arc. *ts ior T

LAC

Compounded form LAC "after this, later" how

Arc. *g u C ompounde d f or m !

Han Han

"sooner or later" Arc. *siok-siak suh-shyi suh -sh ill Arc. *siok-dziak "later, eventually, finally, at last"

LAC

chyi jiou

Arc. *kiog

EAC

jinq

Arc. *kiang

Han

*Does not collocate with yee or jee.

57

LAC

Jong daw tzwu

EAC EAC Han

Arc. *tiong Arc. *d og Arc. *tsiwat T

*Does not collocate with yee or jee. Compounded forms Han EAC Han Han Miscellaneous huoh huey jyr shaw

Arc. *g wek

"sometimes"

Arc. *g wad

"it so happened that" Han

Anc. *d i-

"it so happened that" Six Dynasties

Arc. *siog

"when young"

f

T

T

Han

LAC

Compounded form Han occur, but only conditionally, "should one

Note.

and . . . day . . . " "on such day as . . . " etc. (LAC).

The demonstratives also occur as Auxiliaries of Time, se If-standing.

This

usage is almost entirely confined to EAC, but examples are encountered down to Han. "at this time, now" tzy

Arc. *tsiag

EAC

shyr

Arc. *diag

EAC

yun

Arc. *giwan "from this time, henceforward"

EAC

tzyh-shyr

Arc. *?dz i-diog

EAC

tzyh-tsyy

Arc. *?dz i-ts iar

Han

tzyh-shyh

Arc. *?dz i-diog

LAC

you-shyh

Arc. *diog-dieg

LAC

,

T

T

f

Compounded forms Han LAC The auxiliaries of time that are determining (certain of which also occur self-standing) are:

58

"in past . . . last . . . " (-night) (-day = yesterday) (-year) etc.

(

woang

Arc. *giwang

shy i

Arc. *siak

chour

Arc. *d ipg

tzwo

Arc. *dz ak

chiuh

Arc. *k iab Compounded form

!

Han LAC

see below

!

T

LAC Han Han LAC

chour only occurs in this collocation in this sense;,

"in recent . . . " (-times) etc. jinn shyan

Arc. *g ian !

Arc. *g an f

Anc. *nzie eel "in the present" (day = today, year = this year) etc. jin

Arc. *kipm % Compounded form

Han Han Six Dynasties EAC LAC

"the next . . . the ensuing . . . " (-day = tomorrow) f - v e a r ï etc.

Arc. *giok

EAC

yih

Arc. *giak

EAC

lai

Arc. *log

EAC

ming

Arc. *miang

LAC

yih

Arc. *tan dann "in earlier . . . " (-times) etc. . . . Arc. *siag shyy Compounded form

Han L

A

C

LAC "in later . . . " (-years) etc., . . . " Arc. *mwat moh "on another . . . " (-day, -month, -year) etc.

LAC

ta

Arc. *t a

yih

Arc. *giag

Han

Arc. *g wak

Han

"some . . . or other" huoh

59

Han

f

T

Compounded forms Han Han The demonstratives also occur as determining auxiliaries of time, in the sense of "at this (-time, evening, etc. ). " tsyy

Arc. *ts iar

Han

shyh

Arc. *dieg

LAC

chyi

Arc. *g teg Compounded forms

Han

f

f

Han LAC EAC The self-standing auxiliaries of time that refer, not so much to the time of occurrence, but to the time elapsing prior to occurrence are: "(after-) a short time," "a short time (-later)," "ere lone. " etc. Arc. *miwad-kior wey-jii

EAC

wu-jii

Arc. *miwo-kior

EAC

shao

Arc. *siog

LAC

jeou-jy

Arc. *kiug-ti9g

Han

yeou-chiing

Arc. *giug-k iweng

Han

chiing-jy

Arc. *k iweng-tiog

Han

er-erl

Arc. *nga-ni9g

LAC

er-erl

Arc. *nga-niog

Han

er-erl

Arc. *nga-niag

Han

er-ran

Arc. *nga-nian

LAC

er-tzeh

Arc. *nga-tsok

LAC

wei-jian

Arc. *gwia-kan

Han

yeou-jian

Arc. *giug-kan

Han

!

l

Compounded forms LAC LAC Han The particles occurring with time words and phrases are: "at, in, on" wei

60

Arc. *diwor

EAC

tzay tsair s we i ruoh

Arc. *dz og

EAC

Arc. *dz og Arc. *dzwia

EAC Han

Arc. *niak

EAC

yii

Arc. *ziog

Han

Arc. *tsiet

Han

Arc. *tβng

LAC

Arc. *piwang

Han

Arc. *piwang

Han

Arc. *giwo

EAC

Arc. *.io

LAC

Arc. *d u

Han

Arc. *tied

Han

isL dang fang fang "by, up to" yu YH tour jyh

!

!

f

Compounded forms EAC LAC Han "later by . . . " jiuh chuh "throughout the . . . "

Arc. *g io

LAC

Arc. *kio

Han

Arc. *t io

LAC

Arc. *tiong

T

f

tong

Anc. *t ung

EAC Six Dynasties

yeong

Anc. *jiweng:

Six Dynasties

Anc. *kreng:

Six Dynasties

Anc. *kieng

Six Dynasties

Arc. *pwot-kwa

Han

Arc. *giwat

EAC

Arc. *giwet

EAC

Arc. *giwat

EAC

Arc. *g i8p

LAC

Arc. *kiog

Han

im

f

ling. . . " "in less than bu-guoo T3y the time that .,

!

yueh yuh iue

hi

H 61

f

Li

Arc. *g iog

Li

LAC

Arc. *kiag

chih

LAC

Arc. *xiot

chih

EAC

Arc. *kiat

m

Han

Arc. *kiad

Han

yuh

Arc. *biwat (?)

EAC

bih

Arc. *pior

LAC

day

Arc. *d ag

EAC

day

Arc. *d ad

LAC

shyh

Arc. *diad

EAC

shyh

Arc. *diad

EAC

tzuoh

Arc. *tsak

EAC

Arc. *d iar dii

Han

Arc. *tiar

Han

ixl

Arc. *tsiet

Han

Arc. *tsiek

Han

Arc. *tog

Han

Arc. *lior

Han

T

T

T

f

U daw li

Compounded forms LAC LAC Han

"wait until . . . " how

Arc. *g u

bu-jyh bu-jyi

Arc. *pwat-tied

LAC

Anc. *puot-g iap

wey

Arc. *miwad

wey-jyi

Six Dynasties Han

Arc. *miwad-g iap

wey-ji

Han

Anc. *mjwei-kji;

bu-ji

Six Dynasties

Arc.

lin

LAC

Arc. *bliam

Han

Anc. *dz iAnc. *kieiArc. *diog

LAC LAC LAC

"prior to"

"from . . . (forth)" tzyh jih you 62

f

Han

T

f

*pw9t-kiar

T

you

Arc. *ziog

LAC

you jiuh

Arc. *d iôg

Han

Arc. *g io

LAC

Jong tsorng

Arc. *tiong

Han

Arc. *dz iung

LAC

li

Arc. *liek

Han

!

!

r

Compounded form LAC Certain of the spatial auxiliaries (see 2. 7) occur with time words and phrases, both pre- and post-posed. Post-posed there is a possibility of occurrence of iy ¿ .

They are: Pre-posed

Post-posed

"previous" LAC/Har

Arc. *dz ian

chyan

T

Han LAC

Arc. *sion

shian

LAC

Arc. *diang shanq "following, after" how

\\

way

J

Arc. *g u

Han

Arc. *ngwad

LAC

Arc. *g a

LAC

Arc. *kan

Han

Arc. *g*an

Han

Arc. *tiong

Han

Arc. *nwob

Han

f

f

shiah "during" ¿ian

I

shyan

]

ney

The following auxiliaries of time also occur post-posed with the possibility of occurrence of y_ii or erl 'and from thence forward" woang

Arc. *giwang

LAC

lai

Arc. *log

LAC LAC Han

63

chyan

Arc. *dz ian

Han

hwan

Anc. *ywan

Six Dynasties

f

In addition to the spatial auxiliaries (see previous) moh may occur either pre- or post-posed to an auxiliary, with the meaning " i n the last days of, years of . . . etc. " (pre-posed) and, post-posed with the occurrence of jy "at the end of the . . . " similarly chu may occur post-posed, viz. ^ %J] with the meaning of "at the beginning of . . . " Pre-posed moh

Han

Arc. *mwat

chu 3.12.

Post-posed Han

Arc. *ts io Grammatical Words in the Place Position T

In the verbal sentence, the place of occurrence is stated absolutely at the beginning of the sentence. The place of occurrence may be a place-name or an Auxiliary of Place. Preceding place, the directive particles (see 3. 6) may oc­ cur.

Particularly in Early Archaic, certain demonstratives occur as auxiliaries

of place, self-standing, and certain combinations (either in discreet form or as allegro forms) of the directive particles and the demonstratives provide for ana­ phoric reference to place.

Certain spatial auxiliaries (see 2. 7) occur self-

standing as auxiliaries of place. The auxiliaries of place are: Arc. *b wang

"on all sides"

EAC

bye

Arc. *b iat

"elsewhere"

EAC

huoh

Arc. *g wok

"in some places"

Han

chuh-chuh

Arc. ^Ho-t'io

"everywhere"

Han

f

f

T

The demonstratives used as auxiliaries of place are: "here" tzy

Arc. *tsi9g

EAC

tsyy

Arc. *ts iar

EAC

shyh

Arc. *dieg

LAC

bii

Arc. *pia

EAC

i_

Arc. *. ier

EAC

bor

Arc. *b ak

EAC

T

"there"

f

Allegro forms of particle plus demonstrative, following place and reitera­ ting it ("in this place, here . . . at that place, there . . . " ) , are:

64

van

Arc. *gian

EAC

yan

Arc. *ngian

EAC

Arc. *giwan EAC K B The spatial auxiliaries that occur self-standing as auxiliaries of place are: Arc. *diang "above, on high" LAC shanq shiah

Arc. *g a

"below"

LAC

way

Arc. *ngwad

"outside, without"

LAC

ney

Arc. *nwob

"inside, within"

MAC

Jong

Arc. *tiong

"in the middle, within"

MAC

chyan

Arc. *dz ian

"in front, to the fore"

MAC

shian

Arc. *sion

"in front, to the fore"

LAC

how

Arc. * g

"behind, to the rear"

MAC

!

!

tu

3.13. The Markers of Accentuation The Markers of Accentuation indicate the imposition of a stress upon the word they follow or precede. The markers are: Pre-posed fwu

Arc. *b iwo

LAC

bii

Arc. *pia

LAC

T

Post-posed yee

lu jyy



3.14.

Arc. *dia

EAC

Arc. *tio

EAC

Arc. *tieg

EAC

Arc. *ziog

LAC

Arc. *gian van Arc. *giwan yun The Particles of Sentential Mood

Han Han

A class of words occurs finally and absolutely in the sentence the purpose of which is to indicate the mood of the speaker. The Particles of Sentential Mood are: "indicating a mood of surprise, wonder, indignation, and heightened emotion in general" tzai tzy jiu shiu

jyy jyy 65

Arc. *tsog

EAC

Arc. *tsiog

EAC

Arc. *tsio

EAC

Arc. *sio

EAC

Arc. *tieg

EAC

Arc. *tieg

LAC

jyy

Are. *t iag

LAC

m

Are. *tiar

LAC

a

Are. *?kiag

EAC

٧ ٧k

Are. *kiog

EAC

Are.

EAC

i_

Are. *. ia

EAC

yan

Are. *gian

Han

f

*ki8g

Are. *log lai "indicating a note of finality - nothing more to be said!

LAC

T

11!

Arc. *ziag

LAC

erl-yii

Arc. *niog-ziog

LAC

eel

Arc. *niag

LAC

Arc. *niar eel Arc. *giwon-niar yun eel "indicating a note of doubt, of interrogation, etc. " Arc. *g o hu !

LAC LAC EAC

hu

Arc. *g o

Han

yu ;

Arc. *zio

LAC

E?

Arc. *zio

LAC

ye

Arc. *zia

LAC

yun hu

Arc. *tio Arc. *giwon-g o

T

•A

f

LAC LAC

Certain negatives occur as particles of sentential mood in an alternativechoice type of questioning. They are: Arc. *piug foou fei

Arc. *piwar

Han Han

Arc. *pwat

Han Arc. *miwad Han wey Note. Foou combines with hu in an allegro form, fwu ^ Arc. *b iwo bu

T

( = p iug-g o) LAC. T

3.15.

f

The Metrical Particles In verse, a class of words, the Metrical Particles, occurs for purely met­

rical purposes. The function of such words is to make up feet in a line or to en­ hance the lyrical character of a verse. They are: shi Anc. *yiei 66

EAC

hu-erl

Arc. *g o-niag

EAC

sy

Arc. *sieg

E

A

C

sy

Arc. *sipg

E

A

C

Arc. *tsia

E

A

C

Arc. *ziag

E

A

C

jie

yii shie

67

T

Arc. * ?

LAC

4. Grammatical Words Occurring in the Determinative Sentence The determinative sentence is essentially the apposition of two substantival terms in a relationship either of class and member or of common inclusion in a class. Its predication is that of A is a member in a class B i . e. "A is B or M

M

M

"both A and B share an attribute in common" i . e. "A is like B. " The two terms are distributed as "determined term/determinant term. " Copulae may occur be­ tween the two terms.

The determinative sentence is also the structural form in

which cause and consequence sequences were originally cast, hence the develop­ ment from the copulae of causal conjunctions.

(In this there is a parallel with

the development from instrumentation to cause (see 3. 9),) 4.1.

The Copulae hi a negated assertion in Archaic Chinese in the determinative sentence

form, the use of the copulae is mandatory,

hi a positive assertion, by contrast,

simple apposition suffices, except where contrast, emphasis or polarity is i n ­ volved. In such cases the positive-reflex copulae may occur.

The copulae are:

i ) neerated. "A i s not TV

T

fee i

Arc. *piwor

EAC

feei

Arc. *piw9r

EAC

fei

Arc. *piwor

EAC

i i ) polar-positive, "A is B" Arc. *diwor

EAC

Arc. *sieg

EAC

Arc. *dieg

LAC

m

Arc. *tsiet

LAC

i_

Arc. *. ier

EAC

i

Arc. *. i or

LAC

wei sy shyh

i i i ) insistent polar-positive, "A is B" nae

Arc. *nog Arc. *nian -•s

ran iv) qualified copulae, "A is in fact, in truth B" yeun Arc. *ziwon

68

LAC LAC EAC

cherng

Arc. *dieng

EAC

cherng

Arc. *dieng

LAC

jenq

Arc. *tieng

Han

jen

Arc. *ξiλn

LAC

shinn

Arc. *sien

LAC

shyr

Arc. *d iet

LAC

shyr

Arc. *diok

LAC

goou

Arc. *ku

LAC

guh

Arc. *ko

LAC

f

Compounded form EAC v) modally qualified copulae, "A would be B"

T,

wei

Arc. *gwia

LAC

wey

Arc. *giwod

Han

Arc. *tsiang

EAC

A becomes or acts as B" tzuoh

Arc. *tsak

EAC

yu

Arc. *ziag

Han

tzaw

Arc. *dz og

EAC

wei

Arc. *gwia

LAC

iue

Arc. *giwat

LAC

Arc. *tang

Han

Arc. *d og

EAC

Arc. *. iok

LAC

!

"A should be B" dang M

A is perhaps or might be B day yih

M

!

Compounded tor m "is tantamount to" Han "may A not be B?" wu-wei "A is after all B" yih "A must be B" bih

Arc. *miwo-gwia

EAC

Arc. *ziak

Han

Arc. *piet Compounded form

LAC Han

vi) copulae with restriction, "A is only B" jyr jyy

69

Arc. *tiok

EAC

Anc. *tsi:

Six Dynasties

s we i wei *

Are. *diw9r

LAC

jyr

Are. *d iak

LAC

chyr

Are. *d iog

LAC

teh

Are. *d ok

Han

Are. *siwor !

T

T

EAC

tsair

Are. *dz og

Han

tsair

Are. *dz 9g

Han

dwu

Are. *d uk

Han

dann

Are. *d βn

Han

juan

Are. *tiwan

Han

bu-guoh

Are. *pwat-kwa

Han

!

T

T

T

Compounded forms EAC EAC Han Han Han Han v i i ) copulae of common inclusion "A is like B" or A is as though B" ru Arc. *nio ruoh Arc. *niak erl Arc. *nieg you Arc. *diog you Arc. *ziog, syh Arc. *dziog pin Arc. *p ieg bii Arc. *pior ley Arc. *liwod M

T

EAC EAC EAC LAC LAC Han EAC LAC Han

Compounded forms EAC LAC LAC LAC LAC LAC 70

LAC Note. The copulae of common inclusion are negated with bu viz. "surely A is "A is not like B made interrogative with chii viz. "better it were not to . . . " not like B and with the injunctive wuh viz M

TT

The copulae which occur also as Causal Conjunctions (i.e. where "is" > "is because") are: wei

Arc. *diwor

EAC

shyh

Arc. *dz iag

Han

wey

Arc. *giwod

Han

wey

Arc. *gwia

LAC

i_

Arc. *. ior

LAC

yii-we i

Arc. *ziog-gwia

LAC

nae

Arc. *nog

Han

T

Compounded forms LAC Han and negated "is not because" fei

Arc. "piwor

EAC

feei-i

Arc. *piwor-. ier

EAC

fei-wey

Arc. *piwor-gwia

LAC

wu-nay

Arc. * miwo-nag and modally qualified "perhaps because" day-wey

Arc. *d ag-gwia T

LAC Han

and restricted "merely because, not merely because" teh-wey (yii) Arc. *d ok-gwia/ziog Han t

Compounded forms Han LAC LAC 4. 2. Grammatical Words Occurring as the Determined Term 4.2.1.

Predications of Truth and Falsity

A shift of the copulae

and

to the position of the determined term

predicates the truth ("it is so that . . . ") or falsity ("it is not so that . . . ") of an assertion.

71

The copulae that occur in this usage are:

"it is so that . . . " wei " i t is not so Lthat . . . " fei fee i

Arc. *diwor

EAC

Arc. *. ier

EAC

Arc. *piwor

EAC

Arc. *piwor

EAC

Compounded forms "it is not only so that . . . " Han "it is not only so that . . . " Han "it is not only so that . . . " Six Dynasties "it is not only so that . . . " Six Dynasties "it is in fact so that . . . "

Han

Other copulae that make a similar shift to the position of the determined term are: "it is really or truly so that . . . " daan

Arc. *tan

EAC

chern

Arc. *dion

EAC

jaan

Arc. *tian

EAC

ye un

Arc. *ziwon

EAC

shyr

Arc. *diok

EAC

sheen

Arc. *siom

Han

Compounded form "it is not true that . . . "

Han

Grammatical words that occur as the determined term in similar senses are: yi

Arc. *ngia

"it is justly so that . . . "

woan

Arc. *. iwan

"it is plain to see that . . „ " EAC

day , ji

Arc. *d og

"it is probably so that . . . " Han

Arc. *kior

"perhaps it is that . . . "

LAC

shuh-ji

Arc. *siag-kior

"perhaps it is that . . . "

Han

f

EAC

4.2.2. Predications of Occurrence or Presence Certain modal auxiliaries occurring in the position of the determined term make predications denying occurrence or presence "there is not . . . there does not occur . . . " These are:

72

feei

Arc. *piwor

EAC

foou

Arc. *piug

LAC

mii

Arc. *mia

EAC *

wu

Arc. *miwo

EAC

moh

Arc. *mwat

LAC

* in syntagma only Compounded form "there is no place in which . . . " EAC Their positive counterparts are: wei

Arc. *diwor

EAC

yeou

Arc. *giug

EAC

ye ou

Arc. *giug

EAC

huoh

Arc. * g '

hour

Arc. *g u

w 8 k

f

E

A

C

E

A

C

Compounded forms "there never has been . . . "

EAC

"lest there be . . . "

EAC

"there is only . . . "

Han

"there is not nor has ever been" EAC "there must not be . . . "

EAC

"there would not be . . . " "let

Note.

there not be . . . "

EAC

"never will there not be . . . "

EAC

"it did in fact happen that . . . "

LAC

"it did in fact happen that . . . "

Han

"as though there was . . . "

Han

"can there be?" is incorporated in an allegro form, mieh

EAC Arc. *miat

(LAC). 4.3.

Grammatical Words in the Determinant Term Yeou shifting to the position of the Determinant Term becomes attributive

as follows: yeou

Arc. *giug

"is in existence" "did occur"

73

EAC

wey -[jy] -yeou

Arc. *miw9d-tiog-gi٧g

M

is non-existent"

"does not occur" EAC wang-yeou

Arc. *miwang-giug

"is non-existent"

"does not occur" LAC Similarly, the copulae shyh and fei shifting to the position of the determi­ nant term become attributive, as follows: shyh "is right! " Arc. *dieg fei "is wrong! " Arc. *piwor

LAC LAC

foou

"is not possible! " Han Arc. *piug Other grammatical auxiliaries that occur as the determined term are: Arc. *kiug-ziog

jeou

"is a matter of long standing"

LAC

Arc. *dξang-ziog "is a matter of long standing" Han shanq The demonstrative tsyy also occurs in the determinant term as follows: Arc. *ziog-ts iar

"is of this kind"

LAC

Arc. *ziog-ts iar "is of this kind" yii-tsyy 4.4. Anaphora in the Determinative Sentence

LAC

f

yjj-tsyy

!

When either of the terms of a determinative sentence are replaced by sub­ stitutes certain demonstratives occur.

These are:

"this (is)" shyr

Arc. *diog

shyh

Arc. *dieg

EAC

sy

Arc. *siog

EAC

tzy

Arc. *tsiog

LAC

shyr

Arc. *d iet

EAC

tsyy

Are. *ts iar

EAC

chyi

Arc. *gH°g

EAC

Arc. *pia

EAC

T

f

EAC

"that (is); he (is)" bii

74

5. Grammatical Words Occurring at the Inter-sentential Level At the inter-sentential level of analysis, there occurs i) conjunctions, ii) interjections, i i i ) self-standing negatives and affirmatives, iv) other self-stand­ ing auxiliaries which constitute encapsulized sentences, and v) certain markers of reported speech, citation and the like. 5.1. The Conjunctions In Earlv Archaic Chinese, sentences in sequence are conjoined in two and too" is principal ways, in disjunctive sequence (for which the EAC yow the prototype conjunction) and in which the sequence is purely additive, and in M

resumptive sequence (for which the EAC nae

"and so, and then" is the proto­

type conjunction) and in which the sequence is one oν dependence. In disjunctive sequence there is simple connection "and too, and furthermore" and concession "though . . . even so. " In resumptive sequence there is narrative sequence "and then, and so" and conditioned sequence "[if . . . ] then . . . " As the language developed, to disjunctive sequence was added conjunctions for alternative connection "or" and selective connection "either . . . or . . . " and an adversative

"but. " To conditioned sequence (which in Early and Middle A r ­

chaic is only marked in the apodosis) there was added a development from the causative and from certain modal auxiliaries, a conjunction introducing the pro­ tasis in the sense of "if, suppose that. " Most of these developments occur late in the LAC period or in Han times. Other historical developments in the evolution of sentential conjunctions have already been described.

These are: (a) the evolution from the instrumental

particles to instrumental conjunctions and from thence to causal conjunctions (see 3. 9); (b) the evolution of certain causal conjunctions from the copulae (see 4. 2); and (c) the evolution from the particle of subordination to the subordinating conjunctions (see 3. 8). The conjunctions of comparison have already been de­ scribed (see 2. 8). 5.1.1„ The Conjunctions of Disjunctive Sequence, Simple Connection The Conjunctions of Simple Connection are: "and too"

75

yow

Arc. *giug

EAC

yeou

Arc. *giug

LAC

huoh

Arc. *g'wok

EAC

M

Arc. *g4op

Han

wei yih fuh

Arc. *diw9r

EAC

Arc. *ziak

EAC

Arc. *b iτk

Han

f

Compounded forms Han Han Han "furthermore,

moreover"

chiee

Arc. *ts iα

LAC

erl

Arc. *niog

Han

jia-yii

Arc. *ka-ziog

Han

f

Compounded forms LAC LAC LAC Han "not only to . . . but also to . . . " Arc. *kiod... giug... 1* 5.1. 2. The Conjunctions of Disjunctive Sequence, Alternative Connection

LAC

The Conjunctions of Alternative Connection are: "or" ruoh

Arc. *niak

Han

yih

Arc. *. iok

Han

yih

Arc. *.teg

LAC

chiee

Arc. *ts ia

Han

yeu

Arc. *zio

LAC

?

For Alternative Connection with a selective element there are: "either to . . . or to . . . " wang

Arc. *miwang-g iug

LAC

wanq

Arc. *miwang-g iug

LAC

Arc. *. iog-tia

Han

f

T

yih "whether to . . . or to . . .

76

11

huoh

Arc. *g wok . . . huol

yih

Arc. *ziak . . . yih

f

Arc. *g wok

Han

Arc. *ziak

Han

f

"is it . . . or is it . . . " Arc. *. iok . . . yjih yih

Arc. *.iak

Han

Arc. *. iak

LAC

Showing preference are: "not to . . . but rather to . . . Arc. *. iak . . . yih yih T t

"rather than . . . better to . . .

T t

moh r u

Arc. *mak-nio

LAC

moh ruol

Arc. *mak-niak

Han

Arc. *pwot-niak bu ruoh "better to . . . rather than . . . "

Han

Arc. *nieng . . . miwo/pwot . . . Han ning Arc. *zio . . . pwat-nio... LAC yeu . . . bu-ru/ruoh . Two clauses may be presented as alternatives or as two facets of a similar thing by the use of "at the most (worst) etc. . . . at the least (less harmful) etc. " by the use of: . . . Arc. *d βd-ti/siog-ti Han dah-jee . . . sheau-jee f

snanq . . . snian . . . 5.1. 3. The Conjunctions of Disjunctive Sequence, Adversative

Arc. *diang/g a

Han

f

The Adversative Conjunctions are: "but, despite that, on the contrary" dann

Arc. *d an

Han

faan

Arc. *piwan

Han

guh

Arc. *ko

Han

erl

Arc. *niag

Han

Arc. *k iang

LAC

T

T

chiang In EAC an implied adversative is implicit in the use of

wei Arc. *pwot-diwor-pw9t tih Arc. *pwat-siog-pw8t "Not merely not to . . . [but to] . . . " for which a near parallel is found in Han usage with dann " An adversative is implied in is/was . . . etc. " (Han).

77

" "merely to . . . but not to . . . " g'iag-d'iet "but the fact of the matter

5.1. 4. The Conjunctions of Disjunctive Sequence, Concessive The Concessive Conjunctions are: i) Preceding the concession "conceding all to the contrary" > "after a l l " "contrary to expectation" > "even though" yih

Arc. *ziak

EAC

tzer

Arc. *tsok

EAC

tzyh

Anc. *dz i-

Han

s we i

Arc. *siwor

EAC

meei

Arc. *mwog

EAC

T

Compounded forms EAC LAC ii) Following the concession "even so" ran

Arc. *nian

Han

swei-ran

Arc. *siwor-nian

EAC

swei-eel

Anc. *swi-nzie

Six Dynasties

erl

Arc. *niog

Han

ran e r l

Arc. *nian-niog

Han

you shanq

Arc. *ziog

LAC

Arc. *diang

Han

you-shanq

Arc. *ziog-diang

LAC

vow

Arc. *giug

Han

fuh

Arc. *b iog

Han

jenq-tzyh tzyh

f

"A

Anc. *tsiang-dz i T

Six Dynasties

Six Dynasties Anc. *dz'iCertain of the above concessive conjunctions also occur as concessive aux­ iliaries when occurring with a noun in the sense of "an extreme case of something more generally implied" "even a . . . " i ) Preceding the noun

78

you

Arc. *ziog

EAC

s we i

Arc. *siwor

LAC

wei

Arc. *diwor

Han

Anc. *dz i-

Han

Anc. *ts'i*ng

Six Dynasties

T

tzyh ienct i i ) Following the noun

Arc. *diang shanq 5. 1. 5. The Conjunctions of Resumptive Sequence, Narrative Sequence

Han

The Conjunctions of Narrative Sequence are: "subsequent to and later than" > "and then . . . " "thereupon * 1

"subsequent to and consequent upon" > "and so" nae

Arc. *nag

EAC

erl

Arc. *niog

EAC

Arc. *diog

EAC

tzy

Arc. *tsiog

EAC

tzer

Arc. *tsok

MAC

shyr

Arc. *d iet

EAC

yuan

Arc. *giwan

EAC

yan

Arc. *ngian

EAC

chiang

Arc. *k iang

LAC

chinq

Arc. *k iang

Han

jean

Arc. *kian

LAC

jean

Arc. *kian

LAC

an

Arc. *. an

LAC

aim

Arc. *.an

LAC

bor

Arc. *b ak

EAC

shyr

\

T

T

f

T

Compounded form Han Han "having done so then . . . " jih

79

Arc. *kiod

EAC

jih-erl

Arc. *kiad-iiiog

LAC

jih-erl

Anc. *kiei—niog

LAC

yn

Arc. *ziog

Han

yii-erl

Arc.

*zi9g-niog

Han

5.1. 6. The Conjunctions of Resumptive Sequence, Conditional Sequence The Conditional Conjunctions are: i) Introducing the protasis "if, suppose that . . . " shyy

Arc. *sliog

EAC

shyh

Arc. *siag

Han

bih

Arc. *pieg

EAC

lina

Arc. *lieng

Han

nae

Arc. *nog

EAC

ruoh

Arc. *niak

LAC

ru

Arc. *nio

Han

tzer

Arc. *tsok

LAC

M

Arc. *tsiet

Han

sheh

Arc. *siat

Han

m

Arc. *kiom

LAC

goou

Arc. *ku

LAC

guoo

Arc. *klwar

LAC

jiuh

}

Arc. *g io

LAC

jea

)\

Arc. *ka

LAC

Arc. *ka-tiog

LAC

jea-shyy

Arc. *ká-sliog

Han

jea-linq

Arc. *ka-lieng

Han

iea»sheh

Arc. *ka-siat

Han

cherng

Arc. *cùeng

LAC

shinn sheen-ru

Arc. *sien

Han

Arc. *siom-nio

Han

sheen-ruoh

Arc. *siom-niak

Han

ru-sheen

Arc. *nio-siom

Han

" i f indeed, if really . . . "

f

The above combine in a variety of ways to form compounded conditional conjunctions as follows:

80

ru-shyy

Anc. *nziwo-si:

Six Dynasties

ruoh-shyy

Arc. *niak-sliog

LAC

ru-linq

Arc. *nio-lieng

Han

ruoh-linq

Arc. *niak-lieng

LAC

ii)

ruoh-goou

Arc. *niak-ku

LAC

ruoh-guo

Arc. *niak-klwar

LAC

dang

Arc. *tang

LAC

dang-shyy

Arc. *tâng-sliog

LAC

dang-ruoh

Arc. *tang-niak

LAC

charng-shyy

Arc. *diang-siag

Han

shianq-shyy

Arc. *xiang-sliag

Han

shianq-shyy

Arc. *xiang-sliog

Han

shianq-shyy

Arc. *xiang-sliag

Han

daang

Arc. *tang

Han

taang

Arc. *t ang

Han

chiee

Arc. *ts ia

Han

chiee -ru

Arc. *ts ia-iiio

Han

chiee-shyy

Arc. *ts ià-sliog

Han

yeou-ru

Arc. *giug-nio

Han

m

Arc. *tsiet

Han

jyi-shyy

Arc. *tsiet-sliag

Han

shyy-fwu

Arc. *sliag-b iwo

Han

jieh-shyy

Arc. *dz iak-sliog

Han

jieh-dih

Arc. *dz iak-d ior

Han

jieh-shyy

Arc. *tsiak-sliog

Han

jiow

T

Arc. *dz iog

Han

jiow-shyy

Arc. *dz iog-sliog

Han

jih

Arc. *kiad

Han

jih-shyy

Arc. *kiod-sliog

Han

T

f

f

f

!

f

f

f

f

Introducing the apodosis "[if . . . ] then . . . " Arc. *nog

EAC

tzer

Arc. *tsek

EAC

m

Arc. *tsiet

EAC

sy

Arc. *sieg

LAC

shyh

Arc. *dieg

LAC

jyy

Arc. *tieg

Han

tsyï jiow

Arc. *ts iar

Han

Arc. *dz4og

Han

jyy

Arc. *tior

LAC

nae

81

/A

f

wei iue

Arc. *diwar

EAC

Arc. *giwat

EAC

chyi

Arc. *g iag

LAC

erl

Arc. *niag

Han

guh

Arc. *ko

LAC

an

Arc. *. an

LAC

ann

Arc. *. an

LAC

ann

Arc. *.an

LAC

ian

Arc. *.ian

LAC

T

Compounded forms Han Han Han A combination of conjunction and demonstrative gives: "since this is so then . . . " Arc. *nio-tiog

EAC

ru-tsyy

Arc. *nio-ts iar

Han

ruoh-tsyy

Arc. *niak-ts iar

Han

ru-shyr

Arc. *nio-diog

EAC

ran-tzer

Arc. *nian-tsok

LAC

T

T

"when this is so. then onlv . . . " ran-how Arc. *nian-g u 5. 1. 7. Conditioned Concession f

LAC

Conjunctions combining both condition and concession are: "even if, even though"

82

tzonq

Arc. *tsiung

EAC

tzonq

Arc. *tsiung

LAC

tzuen

Arc. *tsiwon

EAC

tsaan

Arc. *ts om

EAC

tserng

Arc. *dz ong

EAC

dih

Arc. *d ior

Han

wei-wu

Arc. *diwor-miwo

LAC

wei-wu

Arc. *diwor-miwo

LAC

wei-wu

Arc. *diwor-miwo

LAC

wei-wuh

Arc. *diwor-miwot

LAC

f

T

f

chiee

Arc. *ts ia

Han

s we i

Arc. *siwor

LAC

jenq

Arc. *tieng

Han

!

Compounded form LAC Condition, concession and negation combine in the following: "though if it were not for . . . " EAC Arc. *miwor uei Han Arc. *pwot bu Before the apodosis, when concession and condition govern the protasis, are: " . . . even so . . . " you shanq

Arc. *ziog

LAC

Arc. *diang

LAC

yee

Arc. *dio

LAC

Compounded form LAC 5.1. 8. The Resultative Conjunctions Closely allied to the instrumental conjunctions (see 3. 9) are the Resultative Conjunctions.

These are:

"with the result that . . . " syh suey tzer

Arc. *siod

EAC

Arc. *dziwod

EAC

Arc. *tsok

EAC

Arc. *tsog tzay 5.1. 9. The Exceptive Conjunctions Conjunctions introducing a clause of exception are:

EAC

shee

Arc. *sia

"excepting . . . "

LAC

wu yeou

Arc. *miwo-giug

"not excepting"

Han

wu luenn

Arc. *miwo-liwon

"notwithstanding"

Han

fei

Arc. *piwor

"except that . . . "

Han

dwu

Arc. *d uk

"except for"

Han

guh

Arc. *ko

T

"with the exception of" Han Compounded form Han

83

5,2.

Interjections Interjections occur self-standing and represent sighs, sounds of reproach

or revulsion, and involuntary ejaculations of the Oh! Oooh! type. Indicating a groan or sigh are: tzy

Arc. *tsiar

EAC

tzyy

Arc. *tsiar

LAC

lie

Arc. *tsia

EAC

jie-jie

Arc. *tsia-tsia

EAC

jie-lai

Arc. *tsia-lag

LAC

jie-hu

Arc. *tsia-g o

LAC

jie-tzy

Arc. *tsia-tsiag

Han

jie-tzy

Arc. *tsia-tsiag

Han

jie-tzyy

Arc. *tsia-tsiag

Han

yu-jie

Arc. *giwo-tsia

EAC

i-jie

Arc. *. ia-tsia

EAC

i-yu

Arc. *. ia-zio

EAC

chyi-yu

Arc. *g iag-zio

LAC

f

f

Indicating surprise, wonder, pain or anger etc. , "Oh, Ah"

84

yih

Arc. *.ied

ai

Arc. *. ag

LAC

ai

Arc. *xiog

LAC

u

Arc. *. ak

LAC

yea

Arc. *. ak

LAC

heh

Arc. *xak

LAC

huoh

Arc. ?*g wak

Han

yih

Arc. *. iok

EAC

i_

Arc. *. iag

EAC

yih i-shi

Arc. *.iag

LAC

Arc. *. iag-xiag

EAC

ai

Arc. *xiag

LAC

shi

Arc. *xiag

LAC

shi

Arc. *xiag

LAC

shi

Arc. *xiag

Han

shi

Anc. *xji:

Six Dynasties

i_

Arc. *. iar

LAC

f

EAC

shiu

Arc. *xiwo

LAC

a ™

Arc. *. io

EAC

Arc. *xo

LAC

hu u gau yii u-hu

Arc. *. o

EAC

Arc. *kog

LAC

Arc. *ziag

EAC

Arc. *. o-xo

EAC

Arc. *. io-g o

EAC

Arc. *. io-xo

EAC

Arc. *. o-g o

LAC

Arc. *. o-g o

EAC

Arc. *. io-xuo

Han

Arc. *. io-xuo

Han

T

yu-hu yu-hu

f

u-hu

f

u-hu yu-shih yu-shih du duoh 5. 3. Self-standing Affirmatives and Negatives

Arc. *to

LAC

Arc. *twat

Han

Certain auxiliaries occur self-standing indicating assent or agreement "yes! " " i t is as you say! " etc., or of dissent or disagreement "no! " " i t is not so! " Others signify consent or approval. In sense of "yes!

?1

nuoh

Arc. *nak

LAC

yu

Arc. *diu

LAC

wei

Arc. *diwor

Han

we i-we i

Arc. *diwar-diwar

Han

guh

Arc. *ko

Han

foou

Arc. *piug

LAC

fuh

Arc. *b iwot

LAC

bu

Arc. *pwot

Han

wey

Arc. *miwod

Han

wang

Arc. *miwang

LAC

Arc. *nian

Li

Arc. *siom

H2

In sense of "no! " !

In sense of "true! " "quite so! " ran sheen

85

In sense of approval, "good!

TT

"approved!

shann

M

Arc. *dian

Arc. *k a kee Other Se If-standing Auxiliaries f

5.4.

LAC Han

Certain auxiliaries occur self-standing as encapsulized sentences. These are: hi sense of "to sum up" farn

Arc. *b iwam

Han

tzuey

Arc. *tswad

Han

T

tzoong-jy

Arc. *tsung-tiog hi sense of "the main essence is as follows . . . "

5.5.

Han

yaw

Arc. *. iog

Han

chyi-yaw

Arc. *giog-.iog

Han

yaw-jy

Arc. *.iog-tiog

Han

Particles Identifying Citations, Reported Speech, etc. The particles indicating reported speech are: iue

Arc. *giwat

EAC

yun Arc. *giwon The particle indicating a citation is:

Han

Are. *giwon

LAC

yun

The particle indicating a proper name, "x, so-called" is: Arc. *giwon yun The particle indicating "et cetera, and so on" is yun

86

Arc. *giwan-giwon

Han Han

6. Substitution 6. 1. The Pronouns The pronominal system of Archaic Chinese recognizes two persons (the person or person speaking and the person or persons addressed).

Neither gender

nor number is distinguished. In both persons, forms occur specialized in the de­ terminative role. Traces remain of a distinction between the agentive and deter­ minative role, but the distinction becomes obsolescent in the Early Archaic peri­ od when, thereafter, the two roles merge. The factor of status (see 2.4) leaves traces in an exalted and s elf-deprecatory form of the first person pronoun but these too become obsolescent in the EAC period. By the Late Archaic period two pronominal forms only survive — a self-standing and a determinative form. In Han times even this distinction is lost, the pronominal role being played by a l l purpose forms and determination being indicated by the use of the syntagmatic conjunction of determination. A reflexive series, which takes no account of person, provides for "agent acts upon himself, myself, yourself," etc. , but also occurs often with a pronoun, in an emphatic sense of "agent himself, myself, yourself, " usually where this is emphasized or is, in some way, contrary to expectation. In the pronominal system, pronominal substitution other than that of the first and second personal pronouns is performed by the anaphoric pronouns. The anaphoric pronouns substitute regardless of person, gender and number and are not confined to person, since they also provide for an impersonal " i t . " The class-meaning of the anaphoric pronouns is "substitution to avoid repetition. " In EAC the anaphoric pronoun has an agentive, a determinative and a post-verbal form.

After the EAC period the agentive and determinative role is subsumed

under a single pronoun. In Han times this distinction between pre - and postverbal forms is sometimes blunted. The first oerson oersonal oronouns are: i) se If-standing, non-status " I , we" YB

Arc. *dio

EAC

woo

Arc. *nga

EAC

ah

ii)

Anc. *. a determinative, non-status "my, our" wu

87

Arc. *ngo

1

Six Dynasties LAC

iii) status forms " I " (a) exalted form Arc. *nga

EAC

2

jenn

Arc. *d iom

EAC

3

Yi

Arc. *diog

LAC

Arc. *ngang

EAC

woo (b) deprecatory form

4 iv) agentive forms " I " arng

T

Note. (1) Archaistic after EAC; (2) has connotations of status only early in the EAC period; (3) becoming obsolescent in the EAC period and revived in Ch in ?

times for the imperial "we"; (4) obsolescent after EAC period. The second-person personal pronouns are: i) self-standing, non-status "you" ru ii)

Arc. *nio

Arc. *niak ruoh determinative, non-status "your" nae

Arc. *nog

EAC Han EAC

Arc. *niag erl iii) agentive and determinative

EAC

Arc. *niong rong iv) both agentive, determinative and self-standing

EAC

Ml

Arc. *niar

EAC

1

Note. (1) eel occurs in texts only and is not attested as an EAC feature from inscriptions. The reflexive and emphatic pronouns are: Anc. *dz itzyh

EAC

chin

Arc. *ts ien

EAC

shen

Arc. *sien

Han

gong jii

Arc. *kiong

EAC

Arc. *kiog

MAC

T

f

Note. In the Six Dynasties period, shen occurs as a first person pronoun, "I. " Compounded forms Han Han

88

EAC EAC Han Han Han Han The anaphoric pronouns are: i ) agentive chyi

Arc. *g ifg

EAC

chyi

Arc. *g iag

LAC

chyi

T

!

Arc. *g iog

LAC

Arc. *?k iog

EAC

Arc. *kiwat

EAC

Arc. *tiog

EAC

T

f

1

i i ) determinative jyue i i i ) post-verbal Jï

jy Arc. *îiog jy The demonstratives used anaphorically are:

EAC

shyr

Arc. *diog

EAC

shyh

Arc. *dieg

EAC

shyr

Arc. *d iet

EAC

sy tzy tsyy i^ bor

Arc. *si9g

EAC

Arc. *tsiag

EAC

T

Arc. *ts iar

EAC

Arc. *. ier

EAC

Arc. *b ak

EAC

!

!

Note. (1) Incorporating the determinative role after jyue becomes obsolescent. (2) EAC only. Certain auxiliaries, with the class-meaning "other than the place, person, object under discussion," occur self-standing as quasi-pronouns. "another, others, he, they" ta Arc. *t â ftuo Arc. *t o] yih Arc. *giog T

These are:

EAC

f

Often collocating with ta or yih is ren ,

89

EAC > which also

occurs self-standing as "others. " Chyi

Arc. *g iog also collocates with ren f

in the sense of "others" (Han) and with yu

for "the oth­

ers" > "the rest" (Han). Certain far-demonstratives also occur either self-standing or determining in the sense of that [person/sl "he, they. " These are: bii

Arc. *pia

EAC

bor

Arc. *b ak

EAC

fwu

Arc. *b iwo

LAC

f

f

The indefinite pronouns are: "a certain . . . so and so" moou jea

Arc. *mog

Han

Arc. *kap

Han

i_

Arc. *. iet

Han

hi addition to the status forms of the personal pronouns themselves, certain ranks and titles and certain kinship terms enter the pronominal system where, by conferring a fictitious extension of rank or kinship upon the person addressed or referred to, added deference is accorded to him. Status pronouns of this kind are: i) from the social or political hierarchy Arc. *kiwon "ruler" "my lord! " jiun Arc. *tsiag "son, baronet" "You sir" tzyy and so jiun-tzyy

Arc. *kiwon-ts^og

shyy-jiun

Anc. *si-kiuon

"prince"

"You sir" "Excellency"

EAC LAC EAC Six Dy­ nasties

fuu-jiun

Anc. *piu-kiuon

"Excellency"

Six Dy­ nasties

jiun-hour

Anc. *kiuon-y9u

"Excellency"

Six Dy­ nasties

jiun-wang

Arc. *kiwon-giwang

juu

Arc. *tiu

"Your Majesty" Han "lord"

and so juu-jiun

Arc. *tiu-kiwon

"Your Majesty" Han

ming-juu

Anc. *miwBng-tiu

"Sire! "

Six Dy­

nasties

90

Arc. *kung

gong

"duke"

"You sir"

Han

and so ming-gong

Anc. *miwtfng-kung

"Excellency"

shyy

Arc. *dz iang

"knight"

"You sir"

ching

Anc. *k ii3ng

"minister"

"You sir"

Six Dy­ nasties

T

T

EAC Six Dy­ nasties

ming-fuu

Anc. *miw^ng-piu

"Excellency"

Six Dy­ nasties

wang

Arc. *giwang

"king"

dah-wang

Arc. *d ad-giwang

fu-ren

Arc. *piwo~nien

"noble"

"You madame! " Han

fu-tzyy

Arc. *piwo-tsteg

"noble"

"You master! " LAC

dah-fu

Arc. *d ad-piwo

"noble"

"You my lord! " LAC

dah-ren

Arc. *d ad-nien

"great one"

"You sir"

f

T

"Your Majesty" LAC "Your Majesty" Han

!

Han

ii) from the family hierarchy "You Sire" used by rulers to other rulers shwu-fuh

Arc. *siok-b iwo

"paternal uncle"

LAC

shwu-shyh

Arc. *siok-dieg

"paternal family"

LAC

t

r.fiTnmimHpr!

frvrm

LAC "You sir! " used to a teacher or one of similar status shian-sheng

Arc. *si9n-seng

"senior in years"

LAC

"old man"

LAC

"You sir! " used to elders Arc. *sug soou "You sirs! " used to elders fuh-shiong

Arc. *b iwo-xiwang

Han

fuh-lao

Arc. *b iwo-log

Han

ah-ueng

Anc. *.a-. ung

T

T

Six Dynasties

Conversely, certain terms denoting lowly status and certain terms of a de­ rogatory kind, when fictitiously assumed by the speaker, provide for humble pro­ nominal forms. Humble forms of this kind are: " I " used by officials to a superior chern sheau-chern

91

Arc. *dien

"servant"

EAC

Arc. *siog-dien

"petty-servant"

EAC

jiann-chern

Arc. *dz ian-cfiën

"low-born servant"

Han

pwu

Arc. *b uk

"servant"

Han

min

Anc. *mien

"commoner"

Six Dy­

f

f

nasties guan

Anc. *kuan

shiah-guan

Anc. *g â-kuân

"official

Six Dy­ nasties

T

"petty-official"

Six Dy­ nasties

" I " used by rulers of themselves sheau-tzyy Arc. *siog-tsiag

"little child"

EAC

sheau-ren

Arc. *siog-nien

"petty person"

LAC

goa-réh

Arc. *kwâ-nien

"lonely person"

EAC

i-ren

Arc. *.iet-nien

"lonely person"

EAC

buh-guu

Arc. *pwat-kuk

"worthless"

LAC

eu

Arc. *kwo

"orphaned"

LAC

"concubine"

Han

" I " used by women to men in deference Arc. *ts iap f

chieh Note. group form.

prefixed to certain status pronouns provide a Examples are: "you, my uncles and cousins" "you, princes of my own surname" "you, gentlemen"

Deriving from the le se-majesté of raising the eyes "above the sash" when addressing a dignitary, addressing a spot below the dais or the feet gives rise to the following humble forms of address: bih-shiah tzwu-shiah

Arc. *b iar-g a

"Your Majesty" (to kings) Han

Arc. *tsiuk-g a

"You sir! (to others to

T

f

T

whom deference is shown) Han Note. Titles in the hierarchy and kinship terms are also used pronominally in non-fictitious situations as,for example, wang "king," " I , the k i n g . . . " ; "elder brother," " I , your elder brother"; bey-tzyy "servingshiong g i r l , " " I , your servant . . . "; lao-chern " I , an elderly retainer. " Here status is sufficiently established without recourse to fiction.

92

In the Six Dynasties period a further series of status pronouns occur where familiarity or affection is shown in the second-person forms by the prefixing of ah > ah-nu

Anc. *. a-nuo

"you" (to a younger person)

ah-muu

Ane. *. a-mau:

"you" (to a mother)

Anc. *. â-xiwâng

"you" (to an older brother)

ah-shiong 6. 2. The Demonstratives

The demonstratives of Archaic Chinese are deitic in type and occur in two forms, "near" and "far." Certain demonstratives are exclusively determinant forms, others exclusively se If-standing forms. The demonstratives are: near demonstrative, self-standing "this" * shyr

Arc. *d iet

EAC

shyr

Arc. *diag

EAC

shyh

Arc. *diog

LAC

tzy

Arc. *tsiog

EAC

sy

Arc. *sieg

EAC

Arc. *tsia

EAC

Arc. *ts iar

LAC

Arc. *kiem

LAC

* ÎÎÊ tsyy jin ah-duu

f

f

Anc. *a-tuo far demonstrative, self-standing "that" * bor

Arc. *b ak T

Six Dynasties LAC

tai Arc. *pia LAC Note. The entries marked with an asterisk above only occur self-standing, near demonstrative, determining, "this . . . " Arc. *diog shyr

93

EAC

shyh

Arc. *dieg

EAC

tzy

Arc. *tsiag

EAC

& sy sy

Arc. Hiog

EAC

Arc. *siag

EAC

Arc. *sieg

LAC

tsyy

Arc. *ts iar

LAC

i_

Arc. *. ier

EAC

chjri

Arc. *g4ag

Han

jin

Arc. *kiom

Han

f

far demonstrative, determining, "that . . . " Arc. *pia EAC bii Arc. *b'iwo LAC fwu Note. Certain of the above demonstratives occur also as reduplicative markers (see 2.1.1), syntagmatic conjunctions (see 2. 2. 2), as anaphoric pro­ nouns (see 4.4 and 6.1), as copulae (see 4.1), as time and place auxiliaries (see 3.11 and 3.12), as metrical particles (see 3.15), as anaphoric substitutes for manner (see 3.1.4) and in or as conjunctions (see 3. 9, 5.1. 5 and 5.1. 6). Certain demonstratives either with or without the copulae occur before verbs in the sense of "in this manner, thus" (see 3.1,4). Similarly, certain de­ monstratives occur with or without the copulae, before substantives in the sense of "of this kind, such," "such as. " These are: Arc. *niak ruoh

LAC

ru

Arc. *nio

ruoh tzy

Arc. *niak-ts iar

EAC

ruoh tsyy

Arc. *niak-ts iar

LAC

ru^tsyy

Arc. *nio-ts iar

LAC

Han !

T

T

ru-jy

Arc. *nio-ti8g

EAC

nae

Arc. *nag

LAC

Anc. *nz ie

Six Dynasties

eel 6. 3. The Interrogative Substitutes

Interrogative substitutes in Archaic and Classical Chinese have the classmeaning "substituting in an interrogative statement for the element to be sup­ plied as the answer. " The answer being a reiteration of the statement given as a question with the interrogative replaced by the information requested. One i n ­ terrogative substitute (and possibly others) occurs at all points and levels of dis­ tribution and might be characterized as an all-purpose substitute of general distri­ bution. But other substitutes occur under certain environmental conditions only (they are of conditioned distribution) and still others are specialized in fixed posi­ tions (that is they are of restricted distribution). A further class (mainly confined to EAC) consists of auxiliaries which have both interrogative and non-interroga­ tive roles. Apart from the last class, it is possible that the large variety of i n ­ terrogative substitutes encountered is attributable either to modifications of the all-purpose interrogative substitute with the incorporation of a particle of a par­ ticular position, or to phonological modification occurring under the influence of

94

the immediate constituents of the position. These distinctions are clear in the Early and Middle Archaic periods but towards the close of the Late Archaic period and particularly in Han times, cer­ tain of these distinctions become blurred. The interrogative substitutes are: i)

of general distribution "what?" "how?" "why?" her

Arc. *g â

EAC

hwu

Arc. *g o

EAC

1

Arc. *g at

EAC

2

T

T

ii) of conditioned distribution occurring initially only her

T

before the modal negatives only Arc. *g â shya

EAC

T

with the post-verbal particle u

Arc. *. âk

u-hu

Arc. *. ak-g o

LAC !

3

LAC

as or before modals only, "should?" "could?" iong tserng

Arc. *diung

LAC

Arc. *dz ang

LAC

T

Compounded forms "could? should?"

LAC

"is it so of neces-

Han

sity that?". "could it be that ? "

LAC

rhetorical and negative only, "surely it is not . . . " "surely one would not . . . " etc. swei-wu

Arc. *siwar-miwo

EAC

chii

Arc. *k i9r

EAC

ill

Arc. *kiar

LAC

!

Compounded forms EAC EAC Han

95

LAC EAC

i i i ) of restricted distribution substituting in syntagma, "of what sort or kind i s ? " her-deeng

Arc. *g a-tong f

Han

Six Dynasties Anc. *yasubstituting in the time position, "when?" "what time for?" Han an Arc. *. an her-wuh

substituting for proper names "who?" "whom?" "whose?" shwei

EAC Arc. *diw8r substituting in the agential distributive position, "which person?" shwu

Arc. *diok

Arc. *d iog chour substituting in the locative position, "whence?" "where?" f

LAC

5

LAC

yuan

Arc. *giwan

EAC

ian

Arc. *.ian

EAC

6

an

Arc. *. an Compounded form

LAC

7

"from or to whom?"

Han

substituting in the aspectual position, how often?" ,!

Arc. *kipr substituting in the SA position only, "can?" ninq Arc. *nieng

LAC EAC

Compounded forms Han Han Han Han substituting either before or incorporating the instrumental particle "by what means, how?" "for what ends, why?" = g'a-ziag) (note, her-yii -

96

guu

Arc. *ko

EAC

haw

Arc. *g °g

LAC

shi

Arc. *g ieg

LAC

jiuh

Arc. *g iwag

LAC

f

T

f

jiuh

Arc. *g io

LAC

jiuh

Arc. *g io

LAC

chyu

Arc. *g io

LAC

jiuh

Arc. *g io

Han

u

Arc. *. o

Han

hay an

Arc. *g ad

EAC

Arc. *. an

Han

f

f

f

T

f

Compounded forms Han LAC LAC LAC LAC Han Han Han LAC LAC LAC Han Han LAC EAC LAC occurring only with her is nay

an allegro form of

in turn incorporated in an allegro form, as follows: Arc. *nio-tiag-g a ru-jy-her f

Han nay-her is EAC

nay-her

Arc. *nad-g a

LAC

nay

Arc. *nar

LAC

T

Arc. *nan nan occurring only in this collocation is: Arc. *g iog-nio-diag chyi-ru-yi !

LAC EAC

incorporating the modal bu

(her-bu = g'a-pwat) "why not . . . "

"surely . . . " her

Arc. *g ap

97

f

LAC

Arc. *g ap f

gay

Arc. *g ap her incorporating the causal conjunction wey !

EAC LAC Arc. *gwia, "why?"

Arc. *sia

sheh

LAC

iv. grammatical auxiliaries with an interrogative form Arc. *kiar "a few" > "how few?, jii how few time s ? " Arc. *g*wang

hwang

LAC

"have time for" > "what time is there for?"

Arc. *siag-kiar

shuh-ji

EAC

"might" > "might it be that?"

LAC EAC

fei

Arc. *piwor

"is not" > "is it not?"

huoh

Arc. *g wok

"someone" > "which

T

person?" Note. Hwu (1) in EAC occurs either singly or with yu -

EAC and bu

Usages of hwu which are analagous to her-guh

are a feature of LAC. Hwu before nouns "what sort of ?" is Han. Her (2) ceases to be confined to the by Han initial position by LAC times and becomes interchangeable with her times. U (3) also occurs in Han times as a variant of her, Shwei (4) substi­ tutes for proper names in syntagma before nouns "whose?" in the agential posi­ tion, "who?" and for post-verbal elements, "of or to whom?" Shwu (5) occurs in blunted usage in Han times for shwei. Ian (6) spreads into other interrogative positions by Han times. An (7) is not restricted to "place" in Han times.

Shi (8)

in late LAC works also occurs in the locative position "whither?" 6.4.

The Indefinite Substitute The substitutional role of the indefinite substitutes is to provide for refer­

ence to an antecedent or following term (person, place, object) either implicitly or explicitly without actually naming it. The indefinite substitutes occur at both the syntagmatic and sentential level and at varying points within that level, in the sense of "which" "whom" etc. , and collocate with other particles and auxiliaries in varying refinements of sense. The indefinite substitutes are: Arc. *d iok EAC dyi Arc. *diog EAC iou !

98

you

Arc. *diog

Han

ye ou

Arc. *giug

EAC

huoh suoo

Arc. *g'wak

EAC

Arc. *óio

EAC (late)

Compounded forms "from which, whence"

LAC

"from which, whence"

LAC

"from which, whence"

Han

"from which, whence" I "reason for or means

Han LAC

by which"

LAC

"with whom"

EAC

"that which is called, = so-called"

EAC

Certain of the interrogative substitutes also occur in an indefinite in addi­ tion to their interrogative sense. These are: Arc. *diok shwu

"whoever, whichever"

Han

«•X

Arc. *djwar "anyone, everyone" shwei 6. 5. The Negatives as Verbal Substitutes

EAC

Certain of the modal and self-standing negatives substitute in the second of two statements for the verb of the first statement negated in the sense of "[some are A . . . ] [some are] not [A]" [whether to . . . or] not, [if] not [then . . . ]. The negatives that play this substitutional role are: foou

Arc. *piug

bu

EAC

Han Arc. *pwat Note. The negatives above also occur as particles of sentential mode in the alternative-choice form of questioning (see 3.14).

99

7. Blunted Usage During the Han Dynasty, certain Archaic texts which had become canonical became the models for a "classical style. " This "classical style" drew prece­ dents for usage indiscriminately from texts of the Early, Middle and Late Archa­ ic periods, with the result, for example, that Early Archaic usages, already obsolescent in Late Archaic times, re-emerge in Han classical style. In this process, some of the precision and nicety of the distinctions made in the Archaic originals was lost. Where such loss occurs it has been characterized in this dictionary as "blunted usage. " Blunting occurs in the use of the modal negatives, the substitutes (pro­ nouns, demonstratives and interrogative substitutes), the allegro forms, certain distributives and other auxiliaries. 7. 1. The Modal Negatives In Archaic Chinese, the negatives have forms which distinguish modal and stressed and unstressed usage. There are also forms specialized in other us­ ages (for example, the negated copulae, negated conjunctions, etc. ). With the Archaic-Han shift, the archaic negatives lose these specialized forms and negation is carried by an all-purpose form. (Bu

before all verbs

other than ye ou

"to occur or possess. " Wu negates yeou. ) Modality is expressed by periphrastic means. The archaic forms of the negatives, however, may occur in Han Classical style, often simply as stylistic variants for and also occur where, in strict archaic usage, the modal and oth­ and er specialized forms would occur. Thus, in Han usage

can be attested tó occur where in archaic the appro­

priate negative would be \ Other blunted usages of the negatives in Han and Six Dynasties archaising styles are:

100

feei

for

fei

for

fwu

for

mii

for

moh

for

wang

for

wey

for

wu

for

wu

for

moh

for

wuh

for

7. 2. The Substitutes In the archaising use of the archaic pronouns in Han and Six Dynasties there is a tendency toward the blunting of the distinction between pre - and post-verbal forms and between determining and self-standing forms. The following instances occur: woo

for

wu

for

yu

for

yu

for

jyue

for for

chyi

for

(see s. v. 6. 2)

Among the demonstratives, blunting takes the form of the disregard of the distinction between determining and self-standing forms. i_ for shyr for y-jy sy tzy s

Examples are:

for for for also occurs in time

Note. From confusion of the gloss ohrases.

In Archaic Chinese, the interrogative substitutes owe their variety to a se­ ries of realizations in contrasting environments.

In archaising styles these con­

trasts become blurred resulting in the use of:

7. 3. Allegro Forms

chii

for

ian

for

shwu

for

u

for

etc,

Certain words derive historically from the rapid enunciation and conse­ quent coalescence of commonly collocating auxiliaries. These allegro forms tend after a time to occur in blunted usage. Those which do so are as follows:

101

Allegro form

In blunted usage substituting for:

Constituents

as sentential particles

yan

and for

as pronoun

15 eel yuan yun ye eel 7.4. The Distributives In Archaic Chinese the distributives have distinguishing forms for the dis­ tributive occurring before a noun in syntagma and for a distributive occurring after a noun in the agential position. Further distinction is made when the dis tributive occurs before the verb, qualifying a noun that occurs post-verbally. Blunting of this distinction results in: Archaic

Blunted

geh 7.5.

Miscellaneous

1Í5

Other examples of blunted usage are: Archaic shiang

reciprocity

Han and Six Dynasties occurs parasitic ally, i . e. where no reciprocity is involved

yonq

M mee i

instrumental

used as stylistic variant

particle

for

syntagmatic con­

used also as a sentential

junction

conjunction

iterative "each

customary "used to"

time" yii

used interchangeably with

102

DICTIONARY

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a ar aa —>ah

AH (a ) 4

Archaic Chinese *. a; Ancient Chinese *. a; Gram. Ser. 1 (m); Radical and stroke 170. 5; Concordance 5. 82721; YSD 10.1; PSH - ; LC 283 2.1. 2. ELEMENT IN WORD-FORMATION, prefixed to family names and familikinship terms and interrogative substitutes for proper

ar names names.

TT

Meng's back and said,

!

[Lu] Su patted [LÜ]

. . . you are no longer the "Mr. " Meng of Wu-hsia

T n

(San Kuo Chin, Wu Shu, 54); "In the hall [he] informed his mother, I , your son, am not fated to sucf

ceed . . . " (Yti-t'ai Hsin Yung, 1); !

"His mother said to the daughter, I have just received a letter from f

His Excellency™ (YÜ-t ai Hsin Yung, 1); "[Her] elder brother heard of this and was depressed and troubled T

in heart" (Ytt-t ai Hsin Yung, 1) T

"[ = Liu Pei] said [to P ang T ung], I n that previous discussion !

f

f

who was in error V " (San Kuo Chih, Shu Shu, 37); "A-ling [i. e. Wang Hu-tzu] in these matters would be far too severe" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yti, 8); "In the Wang family, why is A-t u [i. e. Wang Hsi-tzu] still thought less of than [Wang] Ch u-chung?" (Shih Shuo Hsin YÜ, 8). T

f

6.1.

PERSONAL PRONOUN, first person, agentive form, " I " "It is merely because [you] have not met [him]. I have met Tzu-ching and still one cannot but Trespect him!" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yù\ 8). Note. Compare San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 30,

"Easterners say ah for woo" 6.1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, in collocation with nu viz.

status form,

second person. A familiar or affectionate form, to a younger person, "you" "You are vexed because your talents are not recognized" (Shih Shuo Hsin YÜ, 14); want me to let you go?" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 1).

105

"Do you

ah

ah

People in Wu are said to

Note. In the M

i . e. "use ah-nong for the first person I and ah-parng T

for the third person him " 6.1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, in collocation with ueng viz. f

T

f

status form,

second person, a form of respectful address to an elderly person, "aged sir! " etc. "Sire! should you tease a father on ac­ count of his son?" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 25). Note. Kinship terms prefixed by ah (see above 2 . 1 . 2) also occur as second person pronouns as for example: "you, mother" "It is not as you say mother! " (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 7). "you, older brother" "In your outward appearance you seem to be a man of tao, but in spirit you strive a little too hard" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 8). 5. 2. DEMONSTRATIVE, in collocation with duu viz.

"this [thing etc. ] "

"He said to the maidservant, 'Take this thing away! " (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 10);

"Reason must reside in this [i.e. in the Tripitaka]" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4); 1

"Conveying a likeness in painting a portrait lies precisely in this" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 21).

106

ai

ai —>ai air ae ay

AI (ai ) 1

Archaic Chinese *. og; Ancient Chinese *. ai; Gram. Ser. 938 (a); Radical and stroke 30. 7; Concordance 5. 88691; YSD 10.1; PSH 256; LC 58 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, "Oh! " "Ah! " "Foolish chatterer said, Ah! T

I know that and will explain it to you " (Chuang Tzu, 22); T

"Ah! a fool is no man with whom to make plans" (Shih Chi, 7),

—>ai air ae ay

AI (ai ) 1

Archaic Chinese *xiag; Ancient Chinese *xji; Gram. Ser. 938 (f); Radical and stroke 149. 7; Concordance 5. 08691; YSD 4. 58; PSH 303; LC 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, "Oh! " "Ah! " "The King of Wei said, Oh! why did you not tell me that you thought like this! " (Chan-kuo T

Ts e, Wei, hsia). !

107

T

an

an —>an arn aan ann

AN (an ) 1

Archaic Chinese *. an; Ancient Chinese *. an; Gram. Ser. 146 (a-c); Radical and stroke 40. 3; Concordance 3. 02340; YSD 10. 2; PSH 93; LC 65 sub, shyh, 4 . 1 . sub, iong, 6.3; See also 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "at ease" "leisurely" "peacefully" "securely" "In the end [they] will dwell securely" (Shih Ching, Hsiao "When you travel leisurely" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "O! you princes! you should not so constantly live at ease" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "As to ensuring that benefits accrue by simply staying still and that territories increase while sitting at ease . . . " (Chankuo Ts e, Ch in, shang). f

3.1.4.

f

MARKER OF THE AUXILIARY OF MANNER, post-posed to the auxiliary

of manner and occurring before the verb. "Soon [such people] are grievously impoverished" (Hstfn Tzu, 4). 5.1. 5. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, narrative sequence, "subsequent to and later than" > "subsequently" "then"; "subsequent to and consequent upon" > "con­ sequently" "so" "Elegantly [they] brought to fruition their culture, displaying it to the whole world, so that tyrannous states, as a consequence, changed of them­ selves" (Hsfln Tzu, 7); "King Wen executed [but] four [people], King Wu executed [but] two, and with the Duke of Chou the task [of executing rebels] was brought to an end. When [we] come to King Ch eng s time, then, as a consequence, no one was executed" (Hstfn Tzu, f

T

"Therefore the Former Kings and the sages thereupon set up for them a regulation which was based on the medium [period]" [Hstfn Tzu, 19).

108

an

an

5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the apodosis of a conditional statement, "[If] . . . , then . . . " "[Thus] if starving, they are fed; if cold, clothed; if ill-governed, then well-governed.

If these things are so, then that is giving life to the living" (Mo

Tzu, 10); "[If] one can neither love his teacher nor hold the rites up to esteem, one then would merely be studying a miscellany of knowledge" (Hsun Tzu, 1); "If

not exposed to the sun, then plant it with cherry and pear. If exposed to the sun, then plant it with plants of the hemp variety" (Kuan Tzu, 27). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring in the pre-verbal place position, and asking to or from what place?" > "whence?" "at which place?" > "where?" f,

"in what respect?" "When Heaven gave me birth, where was my ch'en [i. e. good luck] day? [i. e. under what unlucky star was I "When born?]" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); the skin is dead, to what would the hair adhere?" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 13); "Our ruler is dead, to what place can [I] return?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 25);

"From whence is good fortune to be got "Where could [we] use for us in this?" (Tso Chuan, A i 9) it? [i. e. of what use would it be?]" (Tso Chuan, Ch'êng 17); "Where could the sons go?" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring in the pre-verbal place position, "to whom?" "from whom?" in collocation with suoo viz. f

"To whom will that allow the farmers and weavers to sell their produce?" (Shih Chi , 119); "If the Son of Heaven does not come to their aid, to whom should they address their grievances?" (Shih Chi, 114):

. "From whom did you learn this?" (Shih Chi, 126).

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring in the instrumental position, and askine "in what wav?" "bv what means?" "how?" "How dare I , in this way, presume to look at [my forebear] the deceased emperor? [i. e. to look at with a view T

to comparing myself with him]" (Shih Chi, 54);

109

1

an

aim "[Ch en] P ing said, ' I f it had not been for Wei Wu-chih f

T

how would I have been recommended [to your Majesty]?' " (Shih Chi, 56); "Now the emperor wishes to change the heir to his throne, how can you, sir, sleep comfortably in your bed [while such a thing happens]?" (Shih Chi, 55); "Now [our army is] divided into three groups. If one of them is defeated, the other two will flee. How can they support each other?" (Shih Chi, 91);" I wish only to march east, how can I stay for ever pent up here?" (Shih Chi, 92). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the time and place position, and asking "when?" "what time for?" "where?" "whither?" "from what source?" "in what way?" "how?" and (where verb is passive) "by whom?" "by what?" "What time has pie] to be able to ferry any and everyone across rivers?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chti); "How can [he] practice polite conduct?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü); "When has there been one who being a True Gentleman could be procured with a bribe?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chti).

an arn aan —>ann

ANN (an ) 4

Archaic Chinese *. ân; Ancient Chinese *. an-; Gram. Ser. 146 (d); Radical and stroke 64. 6; Concordance 5. 50040; YSD 10. 5; PSH 93; LC 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the apodosis of a conditional statement [If] . . . then . . . (A form of condition occurs Tt

M

in LAC where the protasis is simply a noun with the meaning " i f it is a question of so-and-so, then . . .

M

of which the following is an example; see also sub. "What others regard as

loss, I myself recover and put in order" [lit. if, me, then] (Hstfn Tzu, 10).

110

arm

ann an arn aan —>ann

ANN (an ) 4

Archaic Chinese *. ân; Ancient Chinese *. ân-; Gram. Ser. 146 (e); Radical and stroke 75. 6; Concordance 3. 02360; YSD 10. 5; PSH 93; LC 65 5. 1. 5. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, narrative sequence, "subsequent to and later than" > "subsequently"; "subsequent to and consequent upon" > "consequent­ ly" "and so" "The Former Kings consequently formulated for them [i. e. the people] [the rules] of ritual and justice so as to make [social] divisions among them" (Hstfn Tzu, 4); "If

those who seek to gain power and to overthrow others resign from office, then those who are worthy and wise w i l l , as a consequence, come forward for office of themselves" (Hsttn Tzu, 9); "The Former Kings consequently set up ceremonial for them" (Hstfn Tzu, 19). 5.1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs either singly or in collocation with tzer viz.

Occurs before the apodo s is of a

conditioned sequence, "[If] . . . then . . . " "If right,then say so; if wrong, then say "If Ch in sent so" (Hsttn Tzu, 13); . them to the left, then left they went. If to the right, then to the right they went" (Hsttn Tzu, 18); "As far as your master Sung-tzu is concerned, then this is not so" (Hstfn Tzu, 21); "For aggression, if not motiva­ T

ted by the desire for personal fame, is motivated by the desire for profit" (Hsttn Tzu, 10); "If the world were to serve Ch'in, and if then Ch in acted f

justly . . . Ch in must restore the state of Chung-shan and install Sheng T

there" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Chao, shang). T

Ill

arng

arng

ang —•>arng aang anq

ARNG (ang ) 2

Archaic Chinese *ngang; Ancient Chinese "ngâng; Gram. Ser. 699 (a); Radical and stroke 26. 2; Concordance 5. 81820; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6.1.

PERSONAL PRONOUN, agentive form, first person, " I " "we" Ta Ya);

"We have tilled [with tood] the tou vessels" (Shih Ching, "We burn [it] in the stove" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); " I await my friend" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Others cross [the ferry], I do not" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 6.1. REFLEXIVE OR EMPHATIC PRONOUN, in collocation with tzyh viz. occurs pre-verbally. "[I] do not pity myself" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao).

112

bae

bae bai bair >bae bay

BAE (pai ) 3

Archaic Chinese *pak; Ancient Chinese *pek; Gram. Ser. 781 (a-e); Radical and stroke 106.1; Concordance 3. 72882; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC See also

sub, chyuan, 3.1.1.

2.3.1. NUMERAL, "a hundred", occurs both se If-standing and determining enu­ merable nouns and measure words and also in the formation of complex numbers. "Walls,of one hundred tu measures, arose everywhere" "Presented me with a hundred (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); sets of cowrie shells" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[To profit by] a hundred in a thousand . . . " (Mencius, la);

"[They]

merely did not tlee a hundred paces - nothmg more" (Mencius, la) "Many generations hence" (Mencius, 2a); "A few days ago, in Ch i, the king T

sent you a gift of a hundred chien-chin [coins] but you declined to accept i t " (Mencius, 2b). 2. 3.2. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, used in an indefinite sense, occurs before nouns, "a large number of" "many" "Roots and branches for many generations" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "May you not think too much of [your] many anxieties" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); the many rites" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); hence" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

"In order to consummat< "Many years

2.3.6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, synthesizing, occurs before nouns, "all of the various" "[May] all the black-haired ones, all the various "Soon [we shall] be clans . . . " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); sowing all the various edible grains" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "O! all you gentlemen! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The people [ = all the various surnames] feel pleased and thereby serve their superiors" (Han Shu, 3).

113

bann

bann

ban barn baan —>bann

BANN (pan ) 4

Archaic Chinese *pwan; Ancient Chinese *puan; Gram. Ser. 181 (a); Radical and stroke 24. 3; Concordance 1. 60500; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2. 3.1.

NUMERAL, fraction form for "a half" "The duke pressed his gift on him, so [he]

accepted a half [of the sixty cities proffered]" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 27) "The Meng family took a half of it [ s part]" (Tso "We T

Chuan, Chao 5); could win if we deployed all Lu s forces against a half of the Ch'i forces" !

(Tso Chuan, A i 14);

"[So treated], more

than half of the horses had died" (Chuang Tzu, 9); "Food for one person per month would be one picul and a half" (Han Shu, 24a). Note. Bann also occurs in a determinative role before nouns in the sense of "half-way" - across a ford, - through the night,. - down a road, etc. * "When they are half-way across the ford, [we] "Half­ can attack [them]" (Tso Chuan, Ting 4); way there, [he] was made to proceed with [only] two chariots" (Tso Chuan, Ai 8);

"However, half-way

through the night a strong man may come and carry it off on his back" (Chuang Tzu, 6).

114

baw

been

bau baur bao —>baw

BAW (pao )

Archaic Chinese *b og; Ancient Chinese f

*b au-; f

Gram. Ser. 1136 (a); Radical and

stroke 72.11; Concordance 3. 88363; YSD 1. 2; PSH - ; LC 222 3.1.4.

AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "suddenly" "abruptly" "Ever since I came to your household as a bride, I have never heard that there were any noble­ men among your ancestors.

If now, suddenly, you acquire a high-sounding

title, I fear that that would be ill-omened.

It were better that you were

subordinate to someone else" (Shih Chi, 7); "On his descent [from T ai-shan] a rainstorm suddenly began T

[and he] took shelter beneath a tree" (Shih Chi, 6).

ben bern —>been benn

BEEN (pen ) 3

Archaic Chinese *pwan; Ancient Chinese *puon:; Gram. Ser. 440 (a); Radical and stroke 75. 1; Concordance 1.50090; YSD 1.3; PSH - ; LC 154 See also

sub, shoou, 3 . 1 . 3. 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "for the first time" > "first"; "from the first" > "from the beginning" "from earliest times"; "at first" > "in origin" "originally" "[Kuan Ying when in Jung-yang] found out that [it was] Wei P o [who] had first counselled the King of Ch i to r e ­ T

T

"He who first ad­ volt" (Shih Chi, 52); , vised [me] to make [my] capital in the territory of Ch'in was Lou Ching" "[Chang] Ts ang had (Shih Chi, 99); loved books from the very beginning. There were none that he had not T

looked into" (Shih Chi, 96); "When Chancellor Ch en was young, he had from the very first !

115

been

bey been fond of the teachings of the Yellow Emperor and Lao Tzu" (Shih Chi, 56) "It was originally through Jen Hsiao that the Commandant T o became King" (Shih Chi, 113); T

"The reason why, ultimately, the heir apparent was not changed was because of the i n ­ fluence of these four men whom the Lord of Liu had originally summoned" "P'eng Yueh originally

(Shih Chi, 55);

conquered the region of Liang and won great merit" (Shih Chi, 90). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in collocation with you viz. > Late Han Paraphrase of (Mencius. la) "He who first made grave images" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzü Chang-chti). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, "from the first . . . " "prior to this . . . " "Prior to this, [the new empress] had given birth to four sons, Ytf, Huo, An and Lin" (Han Shu, 99b); "Fang-chin, before this, was on the closest of friendly terms with me [ « Yeh Chang]" (Han Shu, 60); "If, from the first, my advice had been taken, would the enemy Ch'iang have come to this?" (Han Shu, 69).

be i be ir bee i —>bey

BEY (pei ) 4

Archaic Chinese *b'teg; Ancient Chinese *b'ji-; Gram. Ser. 984 (d-e); Radical and stroke 9.10; Concordance 5.90325; YSD 1. 2; PSH - ; LC 185 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all . . . " " A l l the Feudal Lords have heard this declara­ tion" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 13); "If the ruler has instruments [bells and drums] cast and the people all take pleasure in them then that is 'being in tune' " (Kuo Yfl, Chou YÜ).

116

bey

bev 3.5.

POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, " a l l " 0 f dangers and difficulties, fhe, the M

Lord of Tsin] has experienced them all" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 28); "When these four [prerequisites] have all been incorporated, then it will not be difficult after a short space of time to achieve true kingship" (Kuan Tzu, 16); "That being so, Chung-tzu finally left [having fulfilled] all of the courtesies befitting guest and host" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Han); "Emperor Hsiao-wen put into practice this Way in all its entirety. T

Men everywhere benefited from its grace. It was the great glory of the Han" (Han Shu, 86).

be i beir beei —>bey

BEY (pei )

Archaic Chinese *b ia; Ancient Chinese *b jie; Gram. Ser. 25 (e); Radical and f

T

stroke 145. 5; Concordance 5. 09340; YSD - ; PSH 856; LC 191 3.1. 5. AUXILIARY OF VOICE, passive voice, occurs before the verb. " L i Fu, with a force of many tens of thousands^has been defeated five times beyond his own borders; thus we, a major feudal power, have been surrounded by Chao" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'i, hsia); "If one day [your] state were attacked, even if [you] wished then to pay homage to Ch in, i t would not be possible" T

"Through (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch i, shang) level banks [streams flow] for a thousand miles, none but have been diked" f

(Shih Chi, 117); cently been attacked.

Your Excellency should leave" (Shih Chi, 113); "After Szu-ma ChHen had been mutilated . . . " (Han

Shu, 62); Chang-chfl)

"Forever controlled" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu "T ai-tsu !

was struck by a stray arrow and the horse he was riding was wounded" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu 1). 117

bey

bey

be i beir bee i —>bey

BEY (pei ) 4

Archaic Chinese * ? piar; Ancient Chinese * ? ; Gram. Ser, -cf. 579; Radical and stroke 159. 8; Concordance 3. 77504; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC See also

sub, deeng, 2. 3.5. 2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, occurs in the distribution "enumerated noun/numeral/group marker" in two senses, i) "of . . . a group of so many" and ii) "so many groups of . . . " i) "A party of so many" "A party of ten Han envoys arrived in Liang" (Shih Chi, 108); "Ch'ang-ch'iang, King of Tien, detained them, and on their behalf sent a party of ten or more men to seek a road to the west" (Shih Chi, 116); "Chao Kao sent a party of his retainers, some ten or so men, who pretended to be assistants of a plenipotentiary of the Imperial Secretary" (Shih Chi, 87). ii) "So many parties" "In a l l , within the space of one year, the Han sent some ten or more large parties and five or six small parties of envoys" (Shih Chi, 123); "Han embassies detained by the Hsiung-nu numbered from first to last some ten or more parties" (Shih Chi, 110); "Some ten or more parties of envoys have been sent, only to be put immediately to death" (Shih Chi, 89). Note. Bey with the same meaning occurs in collocation with i^ the sense of "a group" and with wei

in

"as a group" for example: "Of the

various parties of envoys sent to foreign states, the major groups num­ bered several hundreds and the minor groups a hundred or so men" (Shih Chi, 123); "When the Han send an embassy the party comprises only a few hundred men, yet they are always short of food and more than half of them die of starvation" (Shih Chi, 123).

118

bey

bey

2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, occurs in the distribution "numeral/ enumerating auxiliary/group marker" in the sense of "so many groups or sets of . . . " "hi the eighth year of the chien-ch u T

period [i. e. 84 A. D. ) in the seventh month, the official artificers of Chiyin made [these] bronze lamps, one chih high, ten sets in a l l , weighing eight chin, fourteen ounces" (Inscription on a Han bronze "In the second year of the yuan-ch u T

period [i. e. 115 A. D. ) in the fourth month, there were made [these] stone catapult mechanisms as rewards to the frontier regions to the number of 1824 sets" (Inscription on a Han bronze 2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, occurs in the distribution "group mark­ er/numeral/enumerating auxiliary" in the sense of "a group of so many . . . " "[Han Hsin] was indicted and condemned to death; thirteen of the men in the group [of those condemned] had already been beheaded and the turn of [Han] Hsin had come" (Shih Chi, 92); "The ssu-k ung of the Tung-hai Palace had made [these] bronze dishes, lamps, etc. weighing five chin, twenty sets in a l l " f

(Inscription on a Han bronze 2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, occurs post-posed to proper names, pronouns, etc. in the sense of " I and those associated with me" "It, and others like i t " "So-and-so and his party or faction" etc. "[Scenes] of this kind [are found] in hundreds, thousands of settings" (Shih Chi, 117).

119

biann

biann

bian byan bean —-> biann

BIANN (pien ) 4

Archaic Chinese *b ian; Ancient Chinese *b iah; Gram. Ser. 221 (a); Radical and !

T

stroke 9. 7; Concordance 5. 90744; YSD 1.13; PSH 897; LÇ 219 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this very moment" > "at once, immediately, straightaway" "The young men wanted to set up [Ch en] Ying and make [him] king at once" (Shih Chi, 7); T

"Yang P u had a letter sent to the r

throne expressing a wish to lead his troops in an attack on the Eastern Yüeh immediately" (Shih Chi, 114);

"The

emperor immediately ordered a punitive attack on the south-western barbarians" (Han Shu, 6);

"Why did Your Grace not see Mencius straight away?" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Changf

chtf); "They did not also ask [me] who should [attack Yen] but, of their own volition, immediately went off and attacked i t " (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); f

"The reason why Yang Huo sent a gift of food when he saw that Confucius was not at home was because he wished to make Confucius come to him to return the visit.

He was afraid that [if Confucius were at home]

he would immediately bow to the messenger [and thus fulfill his obligation to return the visit]" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang -end). f

120

biann

biann bian byan bean —> biann

BIANN (see also piann)

(pien ) 4

Archaic Chinese *pian; Ancient Chinese *pien-; Gram. Ser. 246 (b); Radical and stroke 60. 9; Concordance 5. 29024; YSD 1.14; PSH 865; LC 219 See also

sub, jiau, 3.1. 3.

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, occurs both singly and in collocation with jou and jiau viz. viz. spatial aspect, occurring everywhere" > "on all sides" "in all directions" etc. "May all the people of the many clans 4

everywhere be moved by your virtue" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "The oeoüle of the house, on all sides, re Drove me" (Shin "Bowed to them all round" (Tso Chuan, Ching, Kuo Feng) Hsiang 23)

"Offering a cup of wine all round to the

nobles, he said . . . " (Tso Chuan, Chao 20); "In the empire, everywhere, [the states] resorted to arms" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'i, hsia);

"[He] made

the writing system uniform, built palaces and residences everywhere "He throughout the empire" (Shih Chi, 87); travelled with his magical arts everywhere [visiting] the Feudal Lords" (Shih Chi, 28)

"His body was

pickled, placed in jars, and sent to the Feudal Lords everywhere as gifts " (Shih Chi, 91); "[I] fear that the people living in distant valleys and remote mountain regions will not everywhere get word of this" (Shih Chi, 117); T

"He allowed the guests from foreign coun­ tries everywhere to be shown the stores in the granaries and treasuries" (Shih Chi, 123).

121

T

bih

bih bi byi bii >bih

BIH (Pi ) 4

Archaic Chinese *pieg; Ancient Chinese *pjie:; Gram. Ser. 874 (c); Radical and stroke 9. 8; Concordance 5. 90234; YSD 1. 7; PSH - ; LC 125 3.1. 5. AUXILIARY OF VOICE, causative voice, occurs between causal and acting agent; ergative, in the sense of "make, or cause A to B" and permissive, in the sense of "allow, or let A do B" "[May this cause = ] allow you to fulfill your natural span of years" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya);

"[You] should not

allow the wall to be destroyed" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya);

"[You]

should not let the people suffer" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "[Youl should not allow [theml to be too lax" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[They cause =] allow one to live at rest" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"[You] should cause the people not to go astray, i . e. you should not allow the people to go astray" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[May the] spirits strike him dead [and] make [him] lose his subjects" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 11); "Repair the walls of Ch'eng-chou [and cause/ garrison/not to overwork =] so that the guards need not overwork" (Tso Chuan, Chao 32). 3.1. 5. AUXILIARY OF VOICE, as above, but understood putatively, "cause to be" > "believe to be" "regard as" "consider" "He considers himself alone to be good" (Shih Ching, Ta Yak

Ching, Ta Ya);

. "[He] considers the people to be utterly foolish" (Shih "Perversely, [you] think me obdurate"

(Shih Ching, Ta Ya). Note. The auxiliary of the causal voice is negated with a non-indicative negative. 5.1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned seauence. " i f . suppose" "If I acquiesce in i t , later on I should be limited [ = constrained] by i t " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

122

bih

bih bi byi bii —>bih

BIH (Pi ) 4

Archaic Chinese *piet; Ancient Chinese *piet; Gram. Ser. 405 (a-b); Radical and stroke 61.1; Concordance 1. 03010; YSD 1.10; PSH 845: 848; LC 248 See also >

sub, iong, 6.3;

sub, shiu, 3.1. 2.

2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly did not" "certainly should not" "never did" "under no circumstances" "on no account" etc. "[He] would certainly not escape [retribution]" (Tso "The men of Ytin have Chuan, Yin 4); encamped in their own suburb and will certainly not be on their guard" (Tso "You,sir, should certainly not be trou­ Chuan, Yin 11); "[You] certainly bled [about i t ] " (Tso Chuan, Chuang 24); should not go home" (Mencius, 2b); "[He] would certainly not accept i t " (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl). f

"there must be" 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before yeou viz. "certainly will be" etc. "There must be a reason" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Afterwards, there certainly will be disaster" (Mencius, la); "There will certainly be Heaven's retribution fto contend with]" (Mencius, lb); "After five hundred years, there certainly should have been a true king arising" (Mencius, 2b). 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, injunctive or hortatory, polar-positive, occurs be­ fore the verb, "ought" "should" "must" "[We] must revere them" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[We] must announce [it] to our parents" (Shih Ching, Kuo "[You] must be respectful, must Feng); be careful, and ought never to disobey your husband" (Mencius, 3b); "The state must cultivate good government, the prince must practice Humanity" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü). f

3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in collocation with shiu viz. and dang viz "Thus [one] must use the square and

123

bih

bih compass, then only can [one] make a perfect square or circle" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü); ploy a jade worker able to work it [i.e. the large jade] (Chao Ch'i, MengM

"[You] must go to court" (Chao Ch i,

tzu Chang-chü);

T

Meng-tzu Chang-chfl). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in statements other than direct i n ­ junctions, when indicating necessity, inevitability, etc.; "must necessarily" " i n ­ variably" "certainly" "Sorrow of a certainty will overtake him" (Tso Chuan, ; "[In King Wen's ordinances he]

Chuang 20); . . .

always gave priority to these four classes" (Mencius, lb); "[The king] has always instructed his courtiers as to where he was going" (Mencius, lb);

•"[But if! he fights, [he] invari­ "When speaking pie] invari­

ably wins" (Mencius, 2b);

ably praised Yao and Shun" (Mencius, 3a). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but negated with bu

or wey

"no

necessity to" "need not" "The words of a great man do not need to be given credence nor do his actions need to get r e ­ "If the army sults" (Mencius, 4b); left it would not necessarily return and if it came to a battle it would not necessarily win" (Ku-liang Chuan, Hsi 26); "It is not an easy matter to stop breaks in the dikes forcibly by human labour, and to do so is not necessarily in ac­ cord with Heaven [ s w i l l ] " (Shih Chi, 29); "[The !

Duke of Chou] did not necessarily know that he [Kuan Shu] would rebel" "Is never necessarily the

(Chao ChH, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt); same" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt). !

3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but occurring before the instrumental particle and delegating particles and the causative auxiliary. "[He] would certainly seek pasture and fodder for them [i.e. for his friend s livestock]" (Mencius, 2b); 1

" I always share [my food and clothing] with others" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 10); us?" (Tso Chuan, Wen 10); .

"Why must [we] allow [them] to humiliate

, "[We] must not let them [i.e. the State of Yu] gain possession of them [i.e. the state treasures]" 124

bih

bih (Tso Chuan, Wen 10); M

The dwelling-place of the Son of Heaven must be spoken of in these extrav­

agant terms" (Kung-yang Chuan, Huan 9); "When the Son of Heaven marries a daughter to a Feudal Lord [he] must ensure that a Feudal Lord of the same surname [as the bridegroom] makes the arrangements" (Kung-yang Chuan, "[In order to] preside Chuang 1); over [the marriage of the] king s daughter, [he] had, on her behalf, to T

change [the locale of] the reception hall" (Kung-yang Chuan, Chuang 1); "When a [lady of the rank of] fu-jen is mentioned, [she] must be [referred to] by her clan name" (Ku-liang Chuan, 4.1.

Hsi 8). COPULA, emphatic, occurs when the truth of the predication is insisted

upon, "must be" "will certainly be" "This will certainly be unsuccessful" (Tso Chuan, Wen "This man will certainly be the one who brings about the downfall of T'eng" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 6); "Will [the victor] of necessity be Tsin?" (Tso Chuan, Ch eng 2); !

"Why must it be this [woman]?" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 2); "[Your] casualties will certainly be heavy" (Han Shu, la).

bi byi bii —>bih

BIH (Pi ) 4

Archaic Chinese *b iad; Ancient Chinese *b iai-; Gram. Ser. 341 (a-c); Radical f

T

and stroke 66. 7; Concordance 5. 62940; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2.4.

STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before nouns when used by princes and nobles

speaking of themselves, or of their own states to nobles of another state etc. in self-deprecation "mv flit, tattered!" "My fish-traps are set in the bridge" (Shih Ching, Kuo "You sir, armed with your prince's edict, condescended to visit our city" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 4); . " I [i.e. the Lord of Ch i], leading f

125

bih

bih my levies, will place them under the command of [your] officers" (Tso Chuan, Chao 25);

"Although my

state is "narrow" it comprises three thousand H square" (Han Shu, 35); "When I asked Liang Yuan what he i n ­ tended by surrendering [to us] he replied . . . " (Han Shu, 99a).

bi byi bii —>bih

BIH (see also bii)

(Pi ) 4

Archaic Chinese *pior; Ancient Chinese *pji-; Gram. Ser. 566 (g); Radical and stroke 81; Concordance 5. 71710; YSD 1. 8; PSH 857; LC 133, 186 See also 3.11.

sub, j i , 3.11.

sub, deeng, 2. 3. 5;

PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces a time phrase in

the sense of "by the time that . . . " "By the time that he had returned" (Mencius, lb); "[I] wish by the time of my death to have ex­ punged it [the disgrace] in one fell swoop" (Mencius, lb); "Furthermore, by the time of the dissolution [of the body], to feel that the earth has not been a l ­ lowed to come into proximity with the corpse is surely reassuring! " (Mencius, 2b); "Pao Shu said, By the time that he arrives [at such f

understanding] will the state not be destroyed?' Kuan Chung said, 'No! " (Kuan Tzu, 18); T

"By the time the envoys had arrived [at An-hsi] they had passed through twentv or thirtv cities inhabited bv lare-e numbers of neoüle" ÍShih Chi. 123); "By the time pie] reached Ch'engyang [he] had a force of over a hundred thousand troops" (Han Shu, 35) "He himself reckoned that by the time [the con­ victs] should arrive [at L i Shan] all would have escaped him [from his 3.11.

charge = ] " (Han Shu, la). PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, as above, but in collocation

with j j r i viz.

EES

bih

bih "In three years I could endow [the "By the people] with courage" (Analects, 11); time of the burial [he] had changed his mourning garments three times" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 31);

"By the time that [the young prince] is three months old, if the music requested by the queen is not that prescribed by the Rites, the Master of Music returns his lute to its case and pleads lack of practice" (Ta Tai L i Chi, 48) "It would not be difficult to achieve these things within three years" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 6).

bi byi bii —>bih

BIH (Pi ) 4

Archaic Chinese *piet; Ancient Chinese *piet; Gram. Ser. 407 (a-c); Radical and stroke 102. 6; Concordance 1. 88508; YSD 1.11; PSH 848; LC 248 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, a l l " " A l l have come and have already gone up" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); Chuan, Yin 11);

"The entire Cheng army scaled the wall" (Tso

Ai 2);

"At which, the Confucians and Mohists both "The ten thou­

"When his troops had all entered the city, the populace became aware of it [i.e. his purpose]" (Tso Chuan, arose" (Chuang Tzu, 11)

sand things all being put in their appropriate place, not one was capable of reverting" (Chuang Tzu, 33); "His courtiers and those being received in audience all congratulated him" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, ChUn, shang):

"The nobles all having received

fiefs already . . . " (Shih Chi, 53) "If all copper reverts to the state, then the state can by stock­ piling copper regulate the money value of the coinage" (Han Shu, 24b). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but determines elements following the verb; for more than one entity = "all of the . . . "; for a divisible entity = "the entire . . . "

127

bii

bih M

Then the people will abandon all their faults" "On the subject of sword

(Shu Ching, K ang Kao); !

fighting [I] have informed your Majesty all [I know] of i t " (Chuang Tzu, 30).

bi byi bii —>bih

BIH (Pi ) 4

Archaic Chinese ^ i o r ; Ancient Chinese *b iei:; Gram. Ser. 566 (c ); Radical f

1

and stroke 170. 7; Concordance 5. 82770; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6.1.

STATUS PRONOUN in collocation with shiah viz.

used when ad­

dressing kings in deference, "your Majesty" or in referring to kings in deference "his Majesty"

"Your Maiestv is magnanimous and humane" (Han Shu,

33); Yi-chi boiled alive" (Han Shu, 33);

" I had his Majesty's envoy L i

"It was with people such as these that you, your Majesty, gained the em­ pire" (Han Shu, lb).

bi byi —>bii bih

BH (Pi ) 3

Archaic Chinese *pia; Ancient Chinese *pjie:; Gram. Ser. 25 (g); Radical and stroke 60. 5; Concordance 5. 29340; YSD 1. 5; PSH 843; LC 123 3.12.

FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, used as an AUXILIARY OF PLACE, se If-standing,

"that [place]" > "there" "Here, I will attend to my hus­ bandry with enlightenment; there, [do you] enrich our peoples" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao)

"There, there are handfuls left behind; here, there are ears of corn overlooked" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "There, we gather cloth-grass" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

128

bii

bii

3.13. MARKER OF ACCENTUATION, precedes the word upon which stress is made. "The Tao is not far away for the people are able to live by i t . The Tao is not a separated thing for the people depend on it for knowledge" (Kuan Tzu, 49). 4.4.

DEMONSTRATIVE, used anaphorically as the determined term ot a deter­

minative sentence; "he [is] . . . " "they [are] . . . " "What kind of man is he?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 6.1.

FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, used as a personal pronoun, "other than the

speaker or person addressed" "he, they, him, them" "They seek in me a pattern" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya; "He is a man, I too am a man. Why should I be afraid of him?" (Mencius, 3a) . "Were he to ask me which [state] might attack them, then [I] would answer him . . . " (Mencius, 2b); "How could they know this?" (Mencius, la); "If Yi-wu [ - Kuan Chung] accepts it [office in Lu] then they [i.e. Lu] will know that they can weaken Ch i" T

(Kuan Tzu, 18);

"Even

though they said nothing of i t , could I help but feel the shame in my heart?" (Han Shu, 31). 6.2. FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, self-standing, "that" "those" "Those [states, i.e. Ch u and Tsin] exact [corvée T

labour] during the peoples' [sowing and reaping] times" (Mencius, la) "That was one time, this is another" (Mencius, 2b); "[If it were] merely a matter of taking it from that to give to this, then . . . " (Mencius, 6b); "In the Spring and Autumn Annals there are no just wars. But if i t is a question of that [war] being better than this, then there are such cases" (Mencius, 7b). 6.2. FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, determinative form, in determinative usage, "that . . . those . . . " "[IJ climb that Northern H i l l " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Drifting is that cypress boat" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "That lord of ours! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

129

bii

bii

"[Hsiang] surely would not have been allowed to oppress those people! (Mencius, 5a);

"That

!!

king was not [even] able to avail himself of your advice sir, to employ me" (Shih Chi, 68). Note. Bii before personal names is pejorative, as for example in: "That man Chao Kao has been flattering and deceiving [the emperor] for a long time" (Han Shu, 31).

bi byi —>bii bih

BE

(see also bih)

(Pi ) 3

Archaic Chinese *pior; Ancient Chinese *pji:; Gram. Ser. 566 (g); Radical and stroke 81; Concordance 5. 71710; YSD 1. 8; PSH 857; LC 133, 186 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, iterative collective, occurs before measure words of time to indicate "in series" " . . . in succession" "for successive" "The duty of a Feudal Lord to the Son of Heaven is to pay an ordinary visit to court every year and a special visit every three years" (Li Chi, 3); "Recently, for several years in succession, the harvest "In

has been good" (Shih Chi, 28);

his seventeenth and eighteenth years, for two years in succession he came to court" (Shih Chi, 58);. "Today the House of Han is in decline. For successive generations there has been no natural heir" (Han Shu, 99a); "In the next four years, We i Ch ing, in successive f

!

years, attacked the Hsiung-nu with a force of over a hundred thousand men" (Han Shu, 24b); "In the fief of Liang and in P'ing-yuan commandery for successive years there had been damage from floods. Cases of cannibalism had oc­ curred" (Han Shu. 24a). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, occurs both singly and r e ­ duplicated viz. "repeatedly 1

130

sequential aspect, "in rapid sequence" > "frequently"

bii

bii

"Recently, for several years there repeated­ "The

ly have been bad harvests" (Han Shu, 4); districts have frequently suffered from earthquakes" (Han Shu, 11); "Earthquakes frequently occur" (Han Shu, 75); .

" "For the last three vears there have repeatedly been eclipses" "[Then it would (Han Shu, 36); mean that] we frequently hear of Heaven s wrath, but rarely hear of Heav­ en's pleasure" (Lun Heng, 23). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, spatial aspect, "occurring everywhere" > "on all sides" "in all directions" etc. 1

"Because of this, from everywhere, select upright scholars . . . " (Ta Tai L i Chi, 48); "Thus it was that in the days of T'ang and Ytt they could everywhere [find worthy men] to reside in and receive feoffs" (Han Shu, 99a). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, a l l " "All [of these functions] are imparted to us by Heaven" (Mencius, 6a), (certain texts read "Hearing the call to battle, [Ch'in people] stamp their feet and bare their breasts to op­ pose naked swords. They trample on blazing coals in their determination to die in the van. A l l [Ch'in people] are like this" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'in, 4.1.

hsia). COPULA OF COMMON INCLUSION, occurs either singly or in collocation

with r u viz ity.

"A is like, is comparable to B" i.e. both share a common qual­ "Wealth comparable to that of Wei Jan or Lord Shang"

(Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'i, hsia); "They are like those who 'shout down wind'; their voices are no louder [but "Conduct like that they are better heard]" (Shih Chi, 124); of Po Y i " (Ch'u Tz'u, Chiu Chang). 4.1.

COPULA OF COMMON INCLUSION, as above, but where the shared quality

is one of manner "To do A in like manner to B" "Eunuchs and servitors were [rewarded] [in] the same [way] as the 1 ang-chung" (Han Shu, 2);

131

bii

binq "So he also exempted Feng from all taxes, as pie had exempted] P'ei" (Han Shu, lb).

bing byng biing —>binq

BINQ

4 (Ping ) Archaic Chinese *b ieng/pieng; Ancient Chinese *b ieng:/piâtng; Gram. Ser. 840 (and

T

T

(a-c), 824 (a-d); Radical and stroke 1.8 (and 51. 5, 117. 5, 9. 8); Concordance 5.23230, 3.91270, 5. 01010; YSD 1.14; PSH 849, 853, 856; LC 103, 171, 172 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, aspect of simultaneity, "at one and the same time" and from "all at once" > "together" and in extended sense "indiscriminately, equally" "[They] together with [the others] will receive its bless­ ing" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); J

"[All] indiscriminately will

be made serfs" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Side-byside we drove, pursuing a brace of boar" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); • "Together we sit, playing the lute" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "A worthy prince and his people, both equally plough to feed themselves" (Mencius, 3a); "The people use them [the five basic materials] equally" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang "[When] neither virtue nor the 27): legal sanctions are upheld, [then] hostility and treason will both take place" " I regard (Tso Chuan, Ch eng 17); T

it as a matter of shame to be a king at one and the same time as [the King of] Chung-shan" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Chung-shan); !

"And so the Feudal Lords simultaneously arose" (Shih Chi, 6). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, spatial aspect, "occurring everywhere" > "on all sides" "in all directions" etc. "At the succession of all princes, the ministers go forth, everywhere paying friendly visits" (Tso Chuan, Wen 1); "[When] there is universally a spirit of contention . . . " "Once

(Tso Chuan, Chao 6);

again he possessed the whole of T ai-ytfan, making Tsin-yang the capital !

as in former times" (Han Shu, 47).

132

bor

binq 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, a l l "

" A l l of my oracles are auspicious" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "Even more so now that all my oracles are aus"Both [Wen and picious" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); ; Wu] received this very great foundation" (Shu Ching, L i Cheng); "Formerly, my royal ancestor Hsiung Yi and Lù" Chi, Wang-sun Mou Hsieh-fu and Ch in-fu all served King K ang" (Tso Chuan, Chao 12); "[We have] all of us been running about, everyone sacrificing f

!

to the hills and streams" (Tso Chuan, Chao 7); "This made all my brothers think of rebelling" (Tso Chuan, Chao 32), 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but determines elements following the verb; for more than one entity = "all of the . . . "; for a divisible entity = "the entire . . . " "The kings of old knew that life was not for ever and so they established [as their officials] both the sagely and the wise" (Tso Chuan, Wen 6); " I [Szu-ma Ch ien] have discussed in order all these things" (Shih Chi, 12); "Establishing all the bold and the brave !

and making them its [i.e. the Hsia dynasty s] officers" (Han Shu, 49). !

bo —>bor boo boh

BOR (Po ) 2

Archaic Chinese *pak; Ancient Chinese *pBk; Gram. Ser. 782 (i); Radical and stroke 9. 5; Concordance 5. 90282; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, occurs in the distribution "enumerated noun/numeral/enumerating auxiliary";

"an enumerable instance of" restricted

to enumerations of men of hisrh rank. "Four statesmen" (EAC, Inscription 13); tion 13); see EAC p. 28). 133

I "Thirteen Y i [ i . e . Yin] statesmen" (EAC, Inscrip"Seven nobles of Cheng" (EAC, Yi-hour Tseh Goei,

bor

bor bo

BOR

—i>bor

boo boh

(Po ) 2

Archaic Chinese *b ak; Ancient Chinese *b âk; Gram. Ser. 771 (p); Radical and f

f

stroke 140.13; Concordance 3. 33034; YSD 1.1; PSH 859; LC 269 3.12. FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, used as an AUXILIARY OF PLACE, at that M

place" "there" "There, [we] gather the cress" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung); "There, at that place, [I] will look out for him" (Shih "There, [he] accompanied [me] to my Ching, Hsiao Ya); threshold" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "There, at that place, we gather them [i. e. plantains]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). "at 5.1. 5. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, in collocation with yan viz. that point" > "thereupon" "whereupon" "Whereupon [I] go home and bathe" (Shih Ching, Hsiao 6.1.

Ya), FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, in pronominal use in the verbal sentence, "he"

"she" "they" "He attacks the Western Jung" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[When] to them, at such times, [I] go and complain, [I] encounter their anger" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "She, at this point, goes home" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "They [the servants] wash my personal clothing" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng)

134

bu

bu bu (toneless)

BU (pu°)

Archaic Chinese *pwat; Ancient Chinese *puot; Gram. Ser. 999 (a-d); Radical and stroke 1.3; Concordance 1. 70600; YSD 1.16; PSH 866, 873; LC 241 (In Modern Standard Chinese, bu is read buh before first, second and third tone words, and bwu before fourth tone words. ) sub, bih, 3.1.2; sub, chii, 6. 3; See also sub, guoh, 2.3.1, 3.1.3, 3.11, 4 . 1 ; 3.1.3; sub, her, 6. 3; i

sub, hwu, 6.3; sub, j y i , 3.11;

jyh, 3.1.2, 3.11; moh. 3.4: > sub, neng, 2.3.4; 5.1.6 sub, r u , 4. 1, 5.1. 2; ytshinq, 3.1.4; sub. shiu, 3. 1. 2; shya, 3.1. 2; sub, shya, 6. 3;

sub, chyh,

sub, guu, b. 1;> sub, j i 3.11; sub. sub sub, maan, 2. 3.1; sub, ninq, 6. 3; sub, ran, sub. sub, ruoh, 4 . 1 , 5.1.2; sub, shya, 3.1. 2; sub.

sub, t i n , 3.1. 3; sub, wei, 5.1. 3;

sub, tserng,

sub, wu, 3.1. 3; sub, wang, 3.4; sub, yng, 2. 3.1. 2.3.4. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, indicating approximate number, occurring be­ fore numerals "approximately" "not quite" etc.

2.5;

"Within the space of less than a year Ch en Sheng and Wu Kuang had risen in revolt" (Shih Chi, 118). 2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated attribute. f

[lit. not/come to court/ = ] "ungoverned" as in "To embrace all those regions not [as yet] under our jurisdiction" (EAC, Inscription 12);

"restless" as in

"Thev are

"unruly" as in very lax and restless" (EAC, Inscription 12); "It is not that the virtue I have r e ­ ceived [ = with which I am endowed] is unruly" (Shu Ching, To Shih); "[He is] an insincere person" (Shih "insincere" as in Ching, Kuo Feng);

"[You] said

"faithless" as in

I was faithless" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated auxiliary of manner. "frequently" "often" as in shame" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Often been put to "ceaselessly" as in

"The cocks crow ceaselessly" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 135

bu

bu

2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated noun. ."The wicked­

, not good" i.e. "wickedness" as in M

"untrustworthiness" as in

ness of others" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"The untrustworthi­ ness of the premier is well known among the Feudal Lords" (Tso Chuan, Chao 1);

, "lawlessness" as in "Arms are a commodity of long standing.

They are the means of terrorizing lawlessness and shedding lustre on the virtues of civilization" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 27); as in

"unfilial behaviour" "Therefore if

unfilial conduct and lack of parental affection became non-existent, would such things as theft and robbery continue to exist? " (Mo Tzu, 14). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, negative, occurs before the verb. "It was because God did not favour [Yin]" (Shu Ching, To " . . . and so, [I] will not attack [you further]" (Shu Ching,

Shih); To Shih);

"For this reason God did not protect "[We] seek for her [but] do

[him]" (Shu Ching, To Shih);

"[You] do not think

not find [her]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Since [you] did of the old days" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); not take pleasure in me . . . " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "ill did not think that you would go back [on your promise]" (Shih Ching, Kuo "The unworthy man, though Feng); . he may possess these things, does not enjoy [them]" (Mencius, la); "Further [it] will not come to this" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 27); "Having borrowed [it] [you] will not return [it]" (Tso "When Chuan, Chao 1); [we] do not know from whence disorder arises, then [we] cannot bring 3.1.2.

about good order" (Mo Tzu, 21). MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but occurring before modal auxiliaries

sub, shiu, to negate them. See, for example, sub, dang. 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but occurring before the auxiliaries of agential state. See, for example, sub, kee Note. SA" reversed, i . e. "SA, rogative. r

sub, neng, etc. 1

turns from indicative to inter­

"Can [he] fail to recognize me?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

136

bu

bu "Could he not have sent [me] word?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY (see Introduction 3. 3. Note 1) in collocation with , injunctive or hortatory, the auxiliaries of agential state also negated with bu negative, emphatic form, occurs before the verb. not/able/not > "cannot but . . . " "must" see sub, neng; not/can/not > "cannot but . . . " "must" see sub, kee; . not/presume/not "dare not but . . . " "have to . . . " see sub, gaan. 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but occurring before the copulae r u "A is not like B" extended to "A is no match for B" > "Rather than and ruoh. A, better B" (see also sub, r u and ruoh). Kuo Feng);

"[My clothes] are not like your clothes" (Shih Ching, "[They] are not like us who have a father "[They] are not like

in common" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); Shu! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 3.1. 2. NON-MODAL NEGATIVE, except before yeou

(see Prolegomenon).

After the Archaic-Han shift (see Late Han) bu (i) ceases to have modal connota­ tions (i. e. distinguishing between indicative and non-indicative forms) and be­ comes an all-purpose negative subsuming the functions of the indicative, injunc­ tive and subjunctive negatives of Archaic Chinese, (ii) ceases to distinguish be­ tween stressed and unstressed and self-standing forms and (iii) occurs before "must" "must not" etc. modals as a simple negation, for example 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, making an alternative choice ques­ tion. "Is A so or not?" "If we are to act in this way, is there any ancient precedent for it or not?" (Han Shu, 68); "On hearing that Ch'ao Ts o was dead, did Wu and f

Chu lay down their arms or not?" (Han Shu, 49); your Majesty say this, or not?" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü);

"Did

f

"Are [they] in an adequate position to mock those who fled a hundred paces, or not?" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü). T

5.1. 7. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned concession, negative form, "though if it were not . . . " (cf. uei "Though if it not be from [my] minister,

137

bu

bu [then I] have no one from whom [I] can enquire about this" (Chan-kuo Ts'e,

Ch u). 5. 3. SELF-STANDING NEGATIVE, "no" " i t is not so" f

"[Wu] Pei said, No! I have f

simply come to suggest a scheme to your Majesty " (Shih Chi, 118); f

"Chung-ch'ing temporizing said, I t is not so " (Han !

Shu, 97b); f

T

"The emperor asked,

Have the prefect and commandant rebelled?

T

The answer was No! " (Han T

T

Shu, lb). 6. 5. REPLACEMENT FOR NEGATED VERB, in selective statements, "whether to . . . or not" "some . . . some did not" (compare foou "Some complied, other s did not" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Yen, T

" . . . to examine [the question as to]

shang);

whether Tso [ s Commentary] can be authorized or not" (Han Shu, 36). T

6. 5. REPLACEMENT FOR NEGATED VERB, as above, but in conditioned state­ ments, "if not, then . . . " "If not then I will not come for an audience" (Chan-kuo

government [to him].

"When the king is of age [you can] hand over the If not then [you could] immediately 'face south'

refer to yourself with the royal I and thus become King of Ch u" (ChanT

f

f

kuo Ts'e, Ch'u); "Further, [he] would prefer to appoint [his] own brothers, or if not then a descendant of the Chao ruling house" (Shih Chi, 89); "If not, then your side all of you will become his prisoners" (Shih Chi, 7); will be trouble from fire" (Han Shu, 68).

"If we do not do so, there

6. 5. REPLACEMENT FOR NEGATED VERB, as above, but in a reiterated statement, where the verb is not repeated. "Kuan Chung said, In my [view] [we T

should] not [attack Sung] " (Kuan Tzu, 18). T

"Recently eyes in Han and Liang have never been dry, of the people of Ch i only is this not so" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch'i, !

shang). 7. 1. BLUNTED USAGE (see Prolegomenon)

138

!

bye

bye bie —>bye biee bieh

BYE (Pieh ) 2

Archaic Chinese *b iat/b iat; Ancient Chinese *b iàt/piât; Gram. Ser. 292 (a); T

?

r

Radical and stroke 18. 5; Concordance 5. 82221; YSD 1. 12; PSH 850; LC 260 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, selective, "of the agents, each separately" "After the Ch i forces had returned home, the Ch u forces, singleT

T

handed, pursued [the defeated Ch'in army] northwards. [Ch u] sent the T

Governor of P ei and Hsiang Yù* separately to attack Ch'eng-yang and put its inhabitants to the sword" (Shih Chi, 8); T

"[His] father, [Tung] Kung and his younger brother [Tung] K uan-hsin together with the dependants of the f

family moved to Ho-p u; his mother separately returning to her native r

district of Chíí-lu" (Han Shu, 63); [Ch'en] Liang and [Chung] Tai went directly to the Shan-yü s court, while the people separately took up posif

tions on the Ling-wu River and encamped there in the open" (Han Shu, 94). 3. 12. AUXILIARY OF PLACE, self-standing, "apart from the place under discussion" > "elsewhere" "Elsewhere, [do you] seek for knowledge from the former Wise Kings of antiquity" (Shu Ching, K ang Kao). f

139

cha

cha —>cha char chaa chah

CHA (ch'a ) 1

Archaic Chinese *ts a; Ancient Chinese *ts a; Gram. Ser. 5 (f-g); Radical and T

T

stroke 48. 7; Concordance 3. 91370; YSD 5.41; PSH - ; LC 213 3. 1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "to a lesser degree" "slightly" "somewhat" "a little more" "He who is wreaking havoc in our governance is the con­ troller of the two metropolitan districts. If in fact Kuang Han is allowed to share control with him this will merely ease things but slightly" (Han Shu, 76); 'South of the border, proceeding directly through thick hills and valleys, communica­ tions are rather difficult to maintain" (Han Shu, 94); "A new road was constructed from Wu-ch uan north linking up with the pass at Yíí-men, reducing the "The [inscrip­ journey somewhat" (Han Shu, 96); !

tion on the ] second [of the po-chin coins] reads Hn weight, slightly less " T

"[They] could be de­

(Han Shu, 24b);

stroyed in a single coup [so that it would be] fairly easy to achieve success" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 1). 3. 1. 4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, collocates with yeou

"according to

rank" "[Each] according to rank should furnish stallions" (Han Shu, 24b);

"[Sang

Hung-yang requested that] the people be allowed to present grain to the Kan-ch üan [granary] each according to his rank, thereby to gain lifetime T

exemption [from conscription]" (Han Shu, 24b).

140

chair

charng

chai —> chair chae chay

CHAIR

(ch'ai ) v 1 Archaic Chinese *dz €r; Ancient Chinese *dz ai; Gram. Ser. 593 (z-a ); Radical and stroke 9.14; Concordance 5. 90071; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2

!

!

2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, occurs post-posed to proper names, pronouns, etc. , in the sense of " I and those associated with me" " I t , and others like i t " "So-and-so and his party or faction" etc. "But, this is a problem for your great state! What can people of our kind know about such things?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 24); "People such as we are concerned only with [our next] meal. Even in the morning we do not plan ahead for the evening let alone plan for the long term" (Tso Chuan, Chao 1); "Petty men of our sort merely eat and carry out instructions" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 30); "[Even] petty people of our kind, all have a cottage where we can escape from the hot sun and the rain, from cold and heat" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 17).

chang

CHARNG

—i>charng

chaang chanq

2 (ch ang ) Archaic Chinese *diang; Ancient Chinese *ziang; Gram. Ser. 725 (f-h); Radical f

and stroke 30. 11; Concordance 3. 60083; YSD 5.42; PSH 449, 832, 833; LC 98 See also

sub, her, 6. 3.

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, customary or experiential aspect, "to have ex­ perience of" "once to have" "to be in the habit of" "to be used or accustomed to" "Formerly, Mencius used to talk with me while we were in Sung and in my heart I shall never forget [the things he said]" (Mencius, 3a); " I used to hear about these great feats of valour from the mas­ ter" (Mencius, 2a);

141

charng

charng

" I have not studied the rites appropriate to a Feudal Lord, but still I used to hear of them" (Mencius, 3a); "Confucius once had been a granary clerk" (Mencius, 5b); "You,sir, were once Prime Minister of Ch u" (Han Shu, 49); T

"He who has once been in an exalted and favoured position . . . " (Han Shu, 12);

"I

once studied the Yi Ching. Please allow me to prognosticate this" (Han Shu, 65);

"The First Emperor of the Ch'in had

once said . . . " (Han Shu, la). "never

Note. ASPECTUAL charng is always negated with wey viz. within experience," i . e. "never to have"

"Except on public business [Tan-t ai Mieh-ming] never has come to my [i. e. Tzu Ytfs] house" T

(Analects, 6);

, " I [Shun-yü* K'un] have never encoun-

tered such a person" (Mencius, 6b). 3. 1. 3, ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, customary or experiential aspect, when occur­ in statements of occurrence or presence, "there has been" ring before ye ou, "there once was" etc. "No doubt in times past there has been [the custom of] not burying one's dead relatives" (Mencius, 3a); "That is why there never ; i had been a three year term of office that was completed" (Mencius, 5b); i

"Later on [Ch in sent] those who had once been registered in T

the markets and later still the grandparents and parents of those who had once been registered in the markets" (Han Shu, 49). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above, negated by wey and preceding a negated verb, viz.

has the rhetorical force of an insistent positive,

"ne ver /has/not" > "always has" "invariably did" "Whenever a True Gentleman has come here, I [never-have-not - ] invariably have man­ aged to have audience with him" (Analects, 3); " I have never failed to offer instruction to any­ one from the student with his dried meat [offering] upwards [ i . e . from the lowest to the highest]" (Analects, 7);

142

charng

charng M

The men of old [never-did-not = ] invariably did wish to hold office

11

"At the beginning [each dynasty] (Mencius, 3b); invariably conducted itself with awe and reverence" (Shih Chi, 28); "Ever since the rise of the emperors of old, [was there ever not, i . e. = ] was it not always so that there were established supporting ministers with whom [the emperors] accomplished Heaven's task?" (Han Shu, 16). 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, in collocation with shyh viz. conditioned sequence, occurs before the protasis of an unfulfilled conditional statement "if" "suppose" etc. "Suppose [we] dispensed with the foresight of Chan Tzu and got a simple lad not yet full grown to examine it [i. e. the ox] then he too would know that the ox was black and that the cloth wrapped around its horns was white" (Han Fei Tzu, ••• "If we were to look at the writings of antiq­ 20); uity . . . " (Ltt Shih Ch'un-ch'iu, 26); "If [one] were to make a comparison of the power and strength, as far as size and numbers are concerned, of the states east of the mountains and those of Ch'en She, then the two could hardly be mentioned at one and the same time , [i.e. the comparison would be ludicrous]" (Shih Chi, 48). 1

chang —>charng chaang chanq

CHARNG

2 (ch'ang ) Archaic Chinese *diang; Ancient Chinese *ziang; Gram. Ser. 725 (e); Radical and stroke 50. 8; Concordance 3. 60031; YSD 5.42; PSH 449, 832, 833, 838; LC 97 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, customary or experiential aspect, "to have experience of" "once to have" "to be in the habit of" "to be used or accustomed to" "Never taking precedence over others, but ever following in their train" (Chuang Tzu, 33); 143

charng

charng "You,sir, once spoke about this in Liang" (Chuang Tzu, 4);

" I once travelled out to sea and visited such [immortals] as An-ch i and Hsien-men" (Shih Chi, 28) • "During the reign of Emf

peror Ching, the [Marquis of] Wei-ch i had received a testamentary edic !

which said . . . " (Shih Chi, 107); "[She, the shamaness] stayed within the curtains of her chamber at times giving utterance in the day time but usually at night" (Shih Chi, "Kung-sun Ch'ing, bearing

28); i

i

the seals of an imperial envoy, had once gone on ahead looking for spirits at famous mountains" (Shih Chi, 28); "Once [he] ran into trouble in the salt-flats of Lien-shao" (Han Shu, 8). i Note. ASPECTUAL charng is always negated with wey viz "never within experience" "My physical body has never deteriorated" (Chuang Tzu, 11) 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, durative, "always" "constantly" "invariably" "He who loves others will always be loved by others" (Mencius, 4b); i »

"For when the ritual wine is drunk the [party] begins in an orderly manner, but invariably ends up in disorder" (Chuang Tzu, 4); "For this reason Mo-tun was constantly coming and going invading and plundering the Tai region" (Shih Chi, 110); "Any violations of the treaty, or estrangements in our bonds of kinship have always been on the side of the Hsiung-nu" (Shih Chi, 110);. "It is possible to meet the immortals, but when your Majesty has set out to do so you are always in a hurry and for this reason you do not succeed" (Shih Chi, 28);

"After this, [the em-

peror] invariably performed the Suburban Sacrifices once every three years" (Shih Chi, 28).

144

charng

cheang

chang —> charng chaang chanq

CHARNG (ch'ang 2)

Archaic Chinese *d iang; Ancient Chinese *d iang; Gram. Ser. 721 (a-e); Radical and stroke 168; Concordance 3. 87290; YSD 5.45; PSH - ; LC 98, 227 T

T

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, durative aspect, "for a long time" "for ever" "[The Sage Kings] employed their people having encouraged them and so they ruled the world for a long time" (Kuo YÜ, Lu YÜ); "If [you] do this [then you] will inevitably be highly esteemed for long in the State of Ch'u" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch u); "If things go well [your king] will be enabled for long to remain King of Yen" (Han Shu, 34); "[If] your Majesty's ambition f

is [merely] to remain the ruler of the Han area for ever [then] you have no use for [Han] Hsin s services" (Han Shu, 34). T

chiaiig chyang —> che ang chianq

CHEANG 3

(ch iang ) Archaic Chinese *g iang; Ancient Chinese *gHang:; Gram. Ser. 713 (a-b); Radi­ !

!

cal and stroke 57. 9; Concordance 5.12662; YSD 4. 50; PSH - ; LC 99 3.1.4.

AUXILIARY OF MANNER, by force" "under constraint" etc. "Han has forced Chou [ - us ] to accept territory [from her] intending thereby to make Chou [ - us ] suspect in Ch in" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Tung Chou); "[Ch en] Ying declined [their offer] pleading inability so [they] pro­ ceeded to appoint him by force [as their leader]" (Han Shu, 31); "Though [you] are i l l [you should] force yourself to come to fr

T

f

T

the capital and offer [your] congratulations" (Han Shu, 34): "The young men forcefully pressed their request" (Han Shu, 34); "[Pu] Shih did not wish to become an official, but the emperor appointed him against his wishes" (Han Shu, 24b): "At times they compelled the people by force to buy them" (Han Shu, 24b),

145

cheang

chenq

chiang chyang —>cheang chianq

CHEANG (ch'iang3)

Archaic Chinese *kiang; Ancient Chinese *kiang; Gram. Ser. 710 (h-i); Radical and stroke 102.14; Concordance 5. 12118; YSD 4. 50; PSH - ; LC 3. 1.4.

AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "by force" "under constraint" etc. "He who forcibly persuades his ruler to do something he cannot do,

or prevents him doing what he cannot stop doing, is in danger" (Han Fei "And so [the king] sum­ Tzu, 12); moned the Lord of Wu-an to audience forcibly getting him out of bed and said to him . . . " (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch in, hsia); f

T

"The people do not submit [willingly] but are merely suborned by his might. This is nothing more than rendering homage under duress" (Han Shu, 34); "When he drank with someone he made them drain the goblet. If they could not manage this he forcibly made them drink" (Han Shu, 92).

cheng cherng cheeng —> chenq

CHENQ (see also cherng)

(ch'eng^ )

Archaic Chinese *d iong; Ancient Chinese *dz4ang; Gram. Ser. 895 (a-c); Radi­ ,

cal and stroke 4. 9; Concordance 1. 20600; YSD 5. 47; PSH - ; LC 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, occurs in the distribution "enumerated noun/numeral/enumerating auxiliary" "an enumerable instance of"; restricted to coaches and carriages "a team of four" for horses. "His body was buried at the East Gate of Yi borne in a single carriage" (Kuo Yfl, Chou Yfl); "He had teams of horses for twenty carriages and intended simply to stay in Ch'i t i l l his death" (Kuo Yfl, Tsin "Pao Shu ordered Yfl); twenty chariots to go ahead and ten to bring up the rear" (Kuan Tzu, 18);

146

chenq

chern "Hsiang-tzu fled in a single carriage" (Chan"Six or seven hundred kuo Ts'e, Ch i, hsia); war-chariots" (Han Shu, 31); "Ch i and Ch u sent [gifts of] chariots each sending fifty vehicles" (Han Shu, 33); "The coaches of the retainers who followed T

!

f

him numbered some thousand or more vehicles" (Han Shu, 34); "A thousand war-chariots and a hundred thousand cavalry and infantrymen" (Han Shu, 4).

chen —>chern che en chenn

CHERN (ch en ) !

2

Archaic Chinese *ction; Ancient Chinese *zien; Gram. Ser. 455 (h); Radical and stroke 72. 7; Concordance 3. 88892; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, "at dawn" "At dawn [he] set out" (Tso Chuan, Hsttan, 2); "He arrived, stayed the night at the posting station and, at dawn, representing himself as an envov of the King of Han galloped into the Chao encampment" (Shih Chi, 92); "At dawn [he] attacked the Han armies" (Han Shu, la); "[Hsiang] YÍÍ at dawn made his early morning report to Sung Y i , the supreme-commander" (Han Shu, 31); "The emperor went hunting at day-break, but the Prince of Chao could not get up as early as that" (Han Shu, 97).

147

chern

chern

chen —>chern cheen chenn

CHERN (ch'en ) 2

Archaic Chinese

*d i8m; f

Ancient Chinese *d ipm; Gram. Ser. 656 (b-d); Radical ,

and stroke 85. 4; Concordance 5. 01010; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes in the sense of "very" etc. "As a person [he] was very courageous" (Han Shu, 69).

chen —> chern cheen chenn

CHERN (ch en ) T

2

Archaic Chinese *dien; Ancient Chinese *zien; Gram. Ser. 377 (a-f); Radical 131; Concordance 2. 81223; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC sub, jiann, 6.1;

See also 6.1.

sub, lao, 6. 1;

sub, sheau, 6.1.

STATUS PRONOUN, " I , your subject" " I , your servant" used by a speaker

when addressing a prince or ruler, or to one to whom deference is paid. "But I in fact know of your Majesty s 1

inability to bear [to see an animal suffer]" (Mencius, la); "[But] when I first arrived at the frontiers [of your Majesty s T

" I can tell state]" (Mencius, lb); [you] that the general, the Lord of Wu-hsin, is certain to meet with defeat" (Han Shu, 31);

" I request that vou will send me" (Han Shu,

34);

"Tung-fang So has said

that the emperor intends to kill us a l l " (Han Shu, 65); " I , [Tung-fang] So, as a child lost my parents" (Han Shu, 65); " I , since my youth,have been fond of reading mens' fortunes in their faces.

I have read many fortunes; none of

them compares with yours, Chi. Would that you were sparing of yourself. I have a daughter.

I would like her to be a maid [a self-deprecating way

of saying a wife ] for you" (Han Shu, la). !

148

1

T

T

cherng

chern chen —>chern cheen chenn

CHERN (ch'ên ) 2

Archaic Chinese *dian; Ancient Chinese *zien; Gram. Ser. 455 (a-g); Radical and stroke 161; Concordance 4.12190; YSD - ; PSH 831; LC 4. 2. 1. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of truth and falsity, "true it is that "Truly! that great lady with magic power instructs us" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

cheng -> cherng cheeng chenq

CHERNG (ch'eng2)

(see also chenq)

Archaic Chinese *d iang; Ancient Chinese *dz J.ang; Gram. Ser. 895 (a-c); RadiT

T

cal and stroke 4. 9; Concordance 1. 20600; YSD 5. 47; PSH - ; LC 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, occurs introducing an instrumental phrase in the sense of "by taking advantage of" "by availing oneself" "by exploiting" "by using" "By taking advantage of the summer flood water we could [ship] down the Yang-tze and reach Ying in five days" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Yen, shang); "Then Chao, by taking advantage of the ravages suffered by Ch'in and Ch u,could get its own way in the whole empire" T

(Han Shu, 31);

"The officers

and men of the forces of the feudal states, taking advantage of their victory [over Ch in] treated [the Ch in troops] as slaves" (Han Shu, lb); "By taking advantage of the urgency of the emT

T

peror's needs what is sold to him always doubles in price" (Han Shu, 24a).

149

cherng

cherng

cheng —>cherng cheeng chenq

CHERNG (eh'êng 2)

Archaic Chinese *dieng; Ancient Chinese *ziâng; Gram. Ser. 818 (a-d); Radical and stroke 62. 3; Concordance 2. 50720; YSD - ; PSH 830; LC 102 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly did not" "certainly should not" "never did" "under no circumstances" "on no account" etc. "[You] assuredly will not thereby prosper" (Shih Ching, 3.1.2.

MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar -positive, occurs before the verb.

Used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particularly when this might be thought to be refuted, or contrary to expectation, "did in fact" "did in reality" "actually did" etc. withdrawn/[And] the famine Hsiao Ya). 4.1.

"[But], the arms in fact have not been in fact has not been relieved" (Shih Ching,

COPULA, emphatic, occurs when the truth of the predication is empha-

sized, "A is indeed in truth B" How rich! /how elegant! /truly is/this/ shell/brocade Hsiao Ya).

150

"The shell brocade is really rich and elegant" (Shih Ching,

cherng

cherng

cheng —>cherng cheeng chenq

CHERNG (ch'êng 2)

Archaic Chinese *dieng; Ancient Chinese *ziang; Gram. Ser. 818 (h); Radical and stroke 149. 7; Concordance 5. 08501; YSD 5.45; PSH 830; LC 101 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, occurs before the verb. Used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particularly when this might be thought to be refuted, or contrary to expectation, "did in fact" "did in reality" "actually did" etc. "To Hsieh, [he] in fact returned" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "[Your] minor officials in truth can applaud your magnanimity" (Han Shu, 49); "Water does not in fact differentiate between east and west" (Chao Ch i, T

Meng-tzu Chang -chu*). 4 . 1 . COPULA, emphatic, occurs when the truth of the predication is emphasized, "is in fact" "is in truth" "You sir! are indeed a man of Ch i" (Mencius, 2a); T

" I , Shyh am indeed a petty person" (Mencius, 2b); "[Yet], these scholars [Confucius and Mo Tzu] are in fact noble" (Chuang Tzu, 29);

"You sir! are indeed a

humane man" (Kung-yang Chuan, Hsuan 6); "Is this in fact your state?" (Kung-yang Chuan, Chao 31); "This is indeed the very basis of family selfsupport and the abolition of criminal punishment" (Han Shu, 10). 5. 1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the verb in the protasis of a conditional statement, " i f indeed" " i f in fact" "If indeed things were like this then the people would return to him as [surely as] water flows downwards" (Mencius, la); "If in reality rulers in their undue fondness for knowledge lacked Tao then the whole world would be thrown into confusion" (Chuang Tzu, 10); "The Son of Heaven said, Ah! if I really could T

become like the Yellow Emperor I would think no more of my wife and

151

cheu

cherng children than I would of a cast-off shoe " (Shih Chi, 28); 1

"If you really could carry on his [Shao-weng s] T

arts is there anything I would begrudge you?" (Shih Chi, 28); "If in fact water could be obtained [the land] could be made to yield ten piculs per acre" (Shih Chi, 29); "If in fact [things turn out] as you say [I] would not dare forget my obligation to you" (Han Shu, la); "If indeed [you] can do the thing which is good, even though you lose territory, among the generations that will succeed you it is possible that there will be a true king [among them] just as with the House of Chou" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü); "If the people in fact lack a con­ stant mind [then] . . . there is nothing of which they would be incapable" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü).

chiu chyu —>cheu chiuh

CHEU (ch'ü ) 3

Archaic Chinese *ts iu; Ancient Chinese *ts m:; Gram. Ser. 131 (a-d); Radical f

f

and stroke 29. 6; Concordance 5. 77843; YSD 6. 74; PSH 679:684; LC 146 3.1.3.

ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "merely" "only" "The chancellor merely filled that post [ i . e. he was a figurehead]. All decisions on the affairs of empire were made by [Chang] T ang" (Shih Chi, 122); f

"The favour enjoyed by [Chou Wen - ] jen was merely greater than that of the others, but in practice it was not very extraordinary" (Shih Chi, 125); "As a result many ministers and nobles engaged in flattery merely to accommodate the Son of Heaven" (Han Shu, 24b); cottage need not be large, merely enough to contain a bed and sleeping mats" (T ao Ch'ien, I chü, i ) . T

rea

chian

chian

—> chian chyan che an chiann

CHIAN (ch'ien ) 1

Archaic Chinese *k siam?; Ancient Chinese *ts iam; Gram. Ser. 613 (a); Radi­ f

T

cal and stroke 9.11; Concordance 5. 99992; YSD 6. 68; PSH - ; LC 118 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, a l l " "Is there anyone [I] can appoint to look after [this]? All said, Yes, [there is] Kun " (Shu Ching, Yao Tien); !

f

"The king said, Who will at­ 1

tend to my works? All said, Ch uei! " (Shu Ching, Shun Tien); "[I] enquired of and consulted with [my ministers]. All were in T

T

!

T

accord" (Shu Ching, Ta Yíí Mo).

—> chian chyan che an chiann

CHIAN (chHen*)

Archaic Chinese *ts ien; Ancient Chinese *ts ien; Gram. Ser. 365 (a-d); Radical T

!

and stroke 24.1; Concordance 1. 20300; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2. 3.1. NUMERAL, "a thousand" occurs both self-standing and determining enu­ merable nouns and measure words and also in the formation of complex numbers. "Not thinking a journey of a thousand miles too far" (Mencius, la); sand" (Mencius, la); eral thousand men" (Mencius, lb);

"[To profit by] a thousand in ten thou"[Those affected number] some sev"Even [if

the enemy] numbered thousands of ten thousands of men [I] would advance" (Mencius, 2a).

153

chiang

chiang CHIANG

—> chiang chyang cheang chianq

(chHang )

(see also jiang)

Archaic Chinese *ts iang; Ancient Chinese *ts4ang; Gram. Ser. 727 (f); Radical f

and stroke 41. 8; Concordance 5. 27230; YSD 6.41; PSH 609, 681: LC 94 3.1. 2. PERIPHRASTIC MODAL AUXILIARY, occurs initially in the verbal sen­ tence, "would that" often as a polite form of supplication. "Would that he would come and bring [me] food" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); Shu! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Would that you would not repeat i t , "[I] begged that you would

not be angry! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng):

"Allow us please

to await your Majesty s commands" (Kuo Yfl, Tsin Yfl). 1

—> chiang chyang cheang chianq

CHIANG (ch iang*) !

Archaic Chinese *k iang; Ancient Chinese *k iang; Gram. Ser. 712 (a-d); Radical T

T

and stroke 123. 2; Concordance 3. 91390; YSD 4. 50; PSH 370; LC 100 5. 1. 5. CONJUNCTION OF RESUMPTIVE SEQUENCE, "and then . . . " "and so . . . " "All the others vie in greed and gluttony to press forward, surfeited, but unsatisfied in their demands, and so excusing themselves they judge others harshly, each s t i r ring himself to envy and malice"

(Ch u Tz u, L i Sao); T

T

"Those who make up the set at court are coarse and hard and so will never understand the thoughts I cherish" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang); T

T

"And so my soul longed to return. Was there ever a moment that I did not think of turning back? " (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang); f

T

"Such was my

154

chiee

chiang

fealty to put prince first and self last, and so the others regarded me as a foe" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang); " [ I served] with all my heart, careless of all else, and so could not defend T

T

myself" (Ch'u Tz u, Chiu Chang). 5. 1. 3. CONJUNCTION OF RESUMPTIVE SEQUENCE, as above, but with a con­ T

cessive [ and though ] or slightly adversative fbut yet ] nuance. !

1

T

"Spirit and substance indeed can be preserved and though I live in obscurity, my fame can still shine forth" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang); "Even so, half-way [you] turned back" (Ch u Tz'u, Chiu Chang); y

T

T

" [ I thought to] send word by the homing birds, but [they] flew so fast and high it was difficult to get to them" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang); T

T

"Alone, as the years pass, I shall encounter sorrows but yet my high-mettled heart will still not change" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang). T

chie chye —>chiee chieh

T

CHIEE (see also jiu)

(ch ieh ) !

3

Archaic Chinese *ts ia; Ancient Chinese *ts j.a:; Gram. Ser. 46 (a-g); Radical T

T

and stroke 1.4; Concordance 2. 87113; YSD 6. 55, 6. 60; PSH 651, 655; LC 44, 167 See also

sub, fun, 5.1. 1;

sub, guh, 3. 1. 3;

sub, guh,

3.1.3. 2. 2. 1. SYNTAGMATIC CONJUNCTION, simple connection, occurs between two verbs or attributes, "and" "[They] make you prosper and flourish" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung);

"Very wide and large" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung); " I chant and sing" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The waters of the Yellow River [flow] clear and rippled"

(Shih Ching, Kuo Feng)

"Very handsome and good" (Shih

"To be Ching, Kuo Feng); rich and honoured bv being uniust is to me fas unreal asl a floating cloud" (Analects, 7) 155

"[If a man s 1

chiee

chiee gifts] make him proud and miserly the rest is not worth a glance" (Analects, "One certainly cannot 8); both engage in agriculture and engage in the tasks of artisans" (Mencius, 3a);

2. 3.4.

"[He is] both humane and wise" (Mencius, 2b).

AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, indicating approximate number, occurs be­

fore numerals, fractions and measure words, "approximately" "roughly" "He overthrew the armies of three kingdoms, incorpora­ ted the territory of the two Chou, arrested the head of the House of Han and took away his territory. [His territorial gains amounted to] approximately half of the [known] world" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch i, hsia); "You sir, have served approxi­ T

T

mately ten masters all of whom [you] have flattered to their face in order to gain honours for yourself" (Shih Chi, 99); " . . . the state treasury [held] close to ten million in gold and cash" (Shih Chi, 58); "After this, Lu Wan, King of Yen, rebelled again and led his party of some ten thousand or so men to surrender to the Hsiung-nu" (Han Shu, 94);

"Both [Yin and Chou were

dynasties] which, for approximately a thousand years, ruled the empire" "His horde [numbered] approximately one (Han Shu, 4); thousand men" (Han Shu, 10). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, potential aspect, "about to" "going to"; when interrogative, "would?" "shall?"; and where the mode of the verb is subjunctive, "would" "could" "might" "Shall [we] go and look?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[You] could with [your lutes] prolong the day" (Shih Ching Kuo Feng); him" (Mencius, 3a);

"When fl] am better I will go and see "If that is so, then

a sage might e r r ? " (Mencius, 2b); "Would you call the elderly person himself righteous, or the per­ son righteous who treated him as an elderly person should be treated?" "[He] was going to marry into (Mencius, 6a); the family of Kung-sun Tuan" (Tso Chuan, Chao 1); "To be about to fall into a well is not falling into a well" (Mo Tzu, 45);

156

chiee

chiee "The King of Chao and Ch en Yfl, Lord of f

Ch eng-an,learning that the Han forces were about to attack them, gathered !

an army at the mouth of the Ching gorge ostensibly numbering two hundred "If [T ien thousand men" (Shih Chi, 92); f

Heng] does not come [we] will raise a force and bring down punishment upon him" (Shih Chi, 94); "[Han] An-kuo, at this time, [had a force of] over a thousand horsemen, but, even so, they were about to be wiped out when it so happened a relief force from Yen arrived" (Shih Chi, 110); "The Han general Han Hsin at the head of the troops was about to proceed eastwards to attack Ch i" (Shih Chi, 94). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in collocation with yuh viz !

"Because of the submission of Cheng, Tsin were going to summon the feudatory to a meeting so that they might cultivate good relations with Wu" (Tso Chuan, "[I] may wish to keep in

Hsiang 3);

touch from abroad and might leave our prince" (Tso Chuan, Chao 25);

this time the Chou Son of Heaven sent the meat sacrificed to Wen and Wu to King Hui of Ch'in. King Hui sent Hsi Shou to attack Wei.

He took their

general Lung Chia prisoner, seized Wei s territory at Tiao-yin and was !

just about to lead his troops eastwards . . . " (Shih Chi, 69); ^ \ JL 4"^L " I shall put him to rights" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chti). f

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "for the moment" "for the time being" "in the meantime" "When the Han envoy arrived [Ch'i] ceased its preparations for a defensive battle, relaxing with wine, in the meantime sending an envoy to conclude peace with Han" (Shih Chi, 94); "[The Emperor of] Han is searching for you general, most urgently. The trail will be traced in the meantime to my house" (Shih Chi, 100); "If your Majesty does not want us, the Hsiung-nu, to approach your frontiers then [you should] for the time being order your officials and people to withdraw

157

chiee

chiee from the frontier a good distance away" (Shih Chi, 110); "For the time being [they, Chang Erh and Ch en YÜ] have made Wu Ch'en king on account of his being !

the oldest so as to gain the support of [the people of] Chao" (Shih Chi, 89); "The two dragons are fighting just now. For the time being [I] shall await the outcome" (Shih Chi, 90); "Gentlemen, wait meanwhile for me. I will not for"You get you" (Shih Chi, 99); must treat him with extraordinary care or he, in the meantime, will succeed to your position" (Shih Chi, 96); "Han Hsin took leave of him saying, 'Do, you sir, rest for the time being, while I think this matter over?' " (Shih Chi, 92); "So [I] stayed for the time being" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang f

chü)

"Sit down for a moment" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü); "[Let me] lighten them [i. e. taxes] for the time being" !

(Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt). T

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, with the auxiliary occur­ ring in pairs, "one moment . . . the next . . . " "now . . . now . . . " "P'eng Yueh at this time occupied the territory of Liang. Finding himself in the middle he was one moment for Han and the next for Ch u" (Shih Chi, 94); "[They] fought a running battle for eight T

days retreating as they fought" [lit. one moment/lead out/next moment/ battle/continuous/fight/eight/days] (Shih Chi, 109); "Learning that [Han] Hsin was dead, he was at once pleased and saddened by the news" (Shih Chi, 92); "The emperor, now angry, now pleased [ = half in anger] cursed [Hsiao] Ho saying . . . " (Shih Chi, 92); "In narrow passes and twisting defiles [the Hsiungnu's] hit and run tactics [are tactics that] the Chinese cavalry cannot match" [lit. one moment/gallop/next moment/fire] (Han Shu. 49). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, potential aspect, "about to but unrealized" "almost" "nearlv" "The roof-tiles on the East Gate were almost totally destroyed [in the great wind-storm]" (Han Shu, 99a).

158

chiee

chiee

5. 1. 1. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, simple connection, "furthermore" "moreover" "and too" "Beasts eat their own kind and further, men despise them [for i t ] " (Mencius, la); "If [I] were to pervert my teaching to follow those people, what would be said of me? Furthermore, you sir! are in error, for among those who have perverted themselves there will never be one who could put others straight" (Mencius, 3b); 'Chien and Chou blamed others.

Their ruin came swiftly.

Fur­

thermore, when a state meets with ill-fortune [its rulers should] speak of themselves as ku [ i . e. orphaned] which is as the rites require" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 11); " I should like to discuss this matter with you uncle! Moreover, when I fled, you, my uncle, had no words of private advice for me and now that I have re-entered the state you still do not think about me" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 14); "Furthermore, the reason for which I encamped at Po-shang is to await the arrival of the nobles there" (Han Shu, la). 5.1.1. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, as above, but in collocation with fwu viz. ; with erl viz.

and with yow viz. "Moreover when the lowly born prevent the highly

born . . . " (Tso Chuan, Yin 3 "Moreover when the Feudal Lords have Deen summoned so as to give honour to virtue and having met, standing is given to villainy, what will there be to show to those who follow after?" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 7): "si

"Furthermore when a major state attacks a minor state and makes a sacral vessel from the spoils it has taken . . . " (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 19); "And furthermore [the succession] is not in accord [with propriety]" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 8); "Moreover if one delights in the use of the sight then [it leads to] excess in the love of colour" (Chuang Tzu, 11); "Furthermore the possession of riches and plenty in great profusion is for no other reason than this . . . " (Hsttn Tzu, 10); 159

chiee

chiee "Furthermore if, in coming to the relief of Ch i, he [Han Hsin] submits without a fight, what merit would I T

gain? But if we fight and I defeat him I could get half the territory of Ch i T

so why should I halt?" (Shih Chi, 92); "j^urtner [it was] i wno made [mmj ao it. [(jn'aoj i s ' o is innocent" "Further (Shih Chi, 96); wherever one goes, in many isolated cities there is a scarcity of food" (Shih Chi, 123); "And further to mobilize troops without knowing the circumstances inherent in the situation w i l l , in the case of battle, r e ­ sult in loss by capture, or in the case of garrisoning outposts result in heavy losses [from sickness]" (Han Shu, 49); "Therefore the people had a sense of shame and,further, of respect" (Han Shu, 91). 5. 1.2. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, alternative connection, occurs between sentences in selective sequence, " . . . or . . . " "[If] at a burial, when the cortege arrives at the path leading to the tomb, there is an eclipse of the sun then should there be any change [in the ceremony] or not?" (Li Chi, 5);

1, . s"Does your Majesty think the world should honour Ch'in or should it KJL

honour Ch i?" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch i, hsia) ^ "Do you intend to help Ch'in in !

T

!

attacking the nobles, or [do you] intend to lead the nobles in destroying Ch'in?" (Shih Chi, 97); "The sage of the House of Han will be one of Emperor Kao's grandsons, or one of his great-grandsons" (Shih Chi, 28); "The Second Emperor said, ' I am at the moment being entertained in private. No sooner do you [the chancellor], arrive than you have a r e ­ quest to make. Surely you are not trying to belittle me or to press me?' " (Shih Chi, 87). 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the protasis of a conditional statement, " i f . . . [then] . . . " "If Ch'in once again is allowed to have its way in the world then it will devour those 160

chiee

chiee of us concerned [in rising against Ch'in]" (Shih Chi, 94)

"If the goods you provide are of full measure and good quality then nothing further will be done, but if there is short measure or poor quality then when the crops ripen in autumn, we shall trample your crops with our horsemen" (Shih Chi, 110); „ "If one wishes to promote the government of the sages then this reposes solely in the selection for office of the right generals and "If ever

ministers" (Shih Chi, 110);

[a man like] Yung Ch ih is to be made a marquis, then we have nothing to f

be apprehensive about" (Han Shu, lb). 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, as above, but in collocation with r u viz. and with shyy viz. . "Suppose Huan had been placed on the throne then the fear would have arisen that the nobles would not be able to assist so young a ruler" (Kung-yang Chuan, Hsi "If [they] being your own sons can be cast out then the princes now dead will cast me out" (Kung-yang Chuan, Yin 3). 5.1. 7. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned concession, occurs intro­ ducing the clause of concession, "even if" "even though" "Even though the three kings of the region of Ch in were [formerly] Ch'in's generals and had T

commanded Cn'in s young men for many years, the casualties they sus­ 1

tained were innumerable. And too, they deceived their men into surren­ dering to [the other] Feudal Lords" (Shih Chi, 92); JJ

aft.

^

i

J-

o

-T_

. y>

^ i -

~*

"The Chao forces have already occupied advantageous ground and built defence works. Even though they have not seen the flags and drums of our commanding general, they would be un­ willing to attack our advance column, fearing that as soon as we encoun­ tered resistance we would retreat" (Shih Chi, 92); "Even though the King of Han cannot be trusted he has been several times

161

chieh

chiee

in the hands of Hsiang [YÍ1] King [of Ch u], but Hsiang YÜ has pitied him T

and released him alive" (Shih Chi, 92); "Even though we seized these lands from the Hsiung-nu they are only swamps and salt-wastes and quite uninhabitable" (Shih Chi, 110). 5. 1. 7. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, as above, but in collocation with vou viz. "Even Kuan Chung could not be [peremptorarily] summoned to court, how much less [I] who would not [stoop] to be a Kuan Chung?" (Mencius, 2b); Even though we see ,T

Vhiteness by the use of the eye and by light, we do not see light" (Kung1

sun Lung-tzu, Chien Pai Lun); "Even such things as meteors and fish hawks are recorded in de­ tail and how much more should human [affairs be dealt with in the same way]?" (Ku-liang Chuan, Hsi 16).

chie chye chiee —> chieh

CHIEH (chHeh ) 4

Archaic Chinese *ts iet; Ancient Chinese *ts iet; Gram. Ser. 400 (f); Radical and !

f

stroke 18. 2; Concordance 5. 31720; YSD 6. 67; PSH - ; LC See also 3.1.4.

sub, i , 3. 1. 3, 3. 1.4, 3.4;

sub, i , 3.1. 3.

AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "rigorously" "acutely" "with the strictest

attention to detail" "thoroughly" "To study widely to make one's purposes those of integrity, to question closelj to further one's own reflections, in these things Humanity resides" (Ana­ lects, 19); "If I were to make a plan for your Majesty with great thoroughness . . . " (Chan-kuo Ts e, Chao, shang); T

" I would be in the most acute distress about this and could not go on living" (Shih Chi. 105k "[Wang] Mang was exceedingly angry and reproached [Wang] Kuang most thoroughly" (Han Shu, 99a).

162

chien

chieh

chie chye chiee —> chieh

CHIEH (ch ieh ) T

4

Archaic Chinese *ts4ap; Ancient Chinese *ts iap; Gram. Ser. 635 (a-c); Radical r

and stroke 38. 5; Concordance 3. 01940; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6. 1. STATUS PRONOUN, usedin self-deprecation by women, " I " "my" " I , too, am afraid.

I have

heard that foreigners have a saying . . . " (Kuo-yü, Tsin Yíí); "Now I , myself, know that I am pregnant, but no one else does" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'u); "[My] younger brother was a most worthy man. I cannot allow his memory to be wiped out by being sparing of my own self for he would not have wished that" (Chan-kuo "If I , by Heaven's favour, am to have Ts e, Han); "That is why I took the a son . . . " (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch'u); T

T

liberty of [allowing him] to come with me" (Han Shu, 34).

chie chye chiee —> chieh

CHIEH (ch'ieh ) 4

Archaic Chinese *ts iat; Ancient Chinese *ts iet; Gram. Ser. 309 (a); Radical and f

f

stroke 116. 17; Concordance 3. 02933; YSD 6. 66; PSH - ; LC 258 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before the verb as a mark of deference to the status of the person addressed, "with all deference . . . " "with due respect . . . " "though I say so myself" "with all humility" "Though [I] say so with all deference [I] am com­ "Formerlv,

parable to our Lao P'eng" (Analects, 7); '•J

INI

though I say so myself, [I] have heard about this" (Mencius, 2a); "Now [I] wish, with all deference, to make a request" (Mencius, 2b);

"If it is a question of the

justice [of these decisions], then I , Ch'iu, with due respect decided that myself" (Mencius, 4b);

163

chieh

chih "Though I say so myself, I think the heir apparent should pay the strictest attention to these four [arts]" (Han Shu, 49).

chi chyi chii —->chih

CHIH (see also jyi)

(eh'i ) 4

Archaic Chinese *k iag; Ancient Chinese *k ji; Gram. Ser. 910 (a-b); Radical and !

T

stroke 7. 6; Concordance 1. 70101; YSD 4. 11; PSH 357, 371; LC 189, 275 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, iterative aspect, "many times" > "frequently" "often" "Duke Mu f r e quently enquired after and sent gifts of food to Tzu Szu" (Mencius, 5b); "[She] made this request [i.e. for the appointment of Tuan as heir to the throne] frequently to Duke Wu" (Tso Chuan, Yin 1); "The State of Kuo is not one that cultivates [these virtues], [but] repeatedly engages in warfare.

Famine will overtake them"

(Tso Chuan, Chiang 27);

"For this rea-

son a true prince should never think it shameful frequently to ask questions" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch i, shang). T

T

chi chyi chii •—:>chih

CHIH

4 (eh'i ) Archaic Chinese *kiat; Ancient Chinese *kiat; Gram. Ser. 517 (h); Radical and stroke 149. 3; Concordance 5. 08911; YSD 4.48; PSH 276; LC 253 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly did not" "never did" "under no circumstances" "on no account" "The [prince] of K ang-chù" T

[Trans-Qxiana] was arrogant and was totally unwilling to make obeisance to the envoy" (Han Shu, 66);

"[Wang] Mang, because his coinage gained no currency whatever, issued a further

164

chin

chih communique" (Han Shu, 99b); "Earlier, it had become known in the capital that bandit bands in Ch ing and Hsíí Provinces of some several hundreds of thousands of men, but with no written instructions of any kind . . . " (Han Shu, 99c); "But the authorities have T

made no investigations whatever" (Hou Han Shu, 4). 3. 11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase in the sense of "by the time that" "up to" "Emperor Chao was already of age but to the end en­ trusted the government to [Ho] Kuang. By the thirteenth year the people were replete and the barbarians under submission" (Han Shu, 68); "From the beginning of Han up to the ching-ning period (i. e. from B. C. 206-33) Emperor Hsiao Ching had the greatest number, roughly one eclipse every "Up to the present, thirty-seven months" (Han Shu, 36); [their behaviour] has not changed" (Han Shu, 10); "From the reigns of Yuan and Ch'eng up to the Wang Mang period . . . " (Han Shu, 91).

chi chyi chii

CHIH (ch'i ) 4

—i>chih

Archaic Chinese *xiat; Ancient Chinese *xiat; Gram. Ser. 517 (k); Radical and stroke 162. 3; Concordance 2. 09910; YSD 4.48; PSH 276; LC 252 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly did not" "certainly should not" "never did" "under no circumstances" "on no account" etc. "[K'ung] Jung, sustained by his noble spirit, set his mind on paci­ fying the troubles, but with all his talents and intentions achieved absolute­ ly nothing" (Hou Han Shu, 100). 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, "as far as" "up to" etc. "Everywhere under 165

chin

chii Heaven, as far as its four extremities, let there be no place left unvisited

TT

(Han Shu, 99b). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces a time phrase in the sense of up to the time when" "until" "May there have been no fault, no r e ­ gret, right up to the present" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); M

"From the time of his possessing the empire until [the day he] lost it . . . " (Kuo Yü, Chou Yíí).

chi chyi —>chii chih

Cffil (ch i ) 3

f

Archaic Chinese *k iar; Ancient Chinese *k iei:; Gram. Ser. 588 (c); Radical and T

T

stroke 30. 8; Concordance 3. 04882; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, inchoative aspect, "begin to" "[When I] Shao began to enter service" (EAC, Inscription 8); Ching, Ta Ya);

"Whereupon, and only then, pie] began to march" (Shih

"If in the border tracts there is no overlord, then [the people] will begin to think of the resort to arms" (Kuo Ytt, Tsin Yii);

"Then [he] began to serve

Prince Hsien" (Inscription on the K'ung K uei tripod cited in L i Chi, 22). T

chi chyi —>chii chih

CHII (ch i ) T

3

Archaic Chinese *k iar; Ancient Chinese *k jei:; Gram. Ser. 548 (a); Radical and f

T

stroke 151. 3; Concordance 3. 28111; YSD 4.46; PSH 417; LC 137 See also

sub, chyu, 6.3; j

sub, jiuh, 6.3;

sub, jiuh, 6. 3;

sub, ruoh, 4. 1. 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting, in statements of truth and falsity, in the determined term; a statement said to be true or false is thereby made interrogative. The anticipated response is a firm denial, thus: "Surely it 166

chii

chii

is not true that . . . ?" (answer anticipated, "It is not true"). A negated statement by contrast, when made interrogative in this way, has an anticipated response of f i r m affirmation thus: "It is certainly true is it not that . . . ?" (answer anticipated, "It is true"). Three forms occur. They are i) the positive reflex of "Surely it is not true that . . . ?

ii)

and i i i )

f

" I surely do not work not knowing what I do?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya);

"[This] is surely not difficult to "[But] this is surely

understand?" (Mencius, 6b); not an intrinsic property of water?" (Mencius, 6a);

"My parents surely would not wish me to be so poor?" (Chuang Tzu, 6). "Surely it is true that . . . ?"

ii)

"It is surely so that we do yearn to go home, but we fear these interminable [orders]?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "It is certainly so that [I] do think of you?" (Shih Ching, "It is surely true to say that

Kuo Feng);

Confucius did want the Middle Way?" (Mencius, 7b); "Surely this too, is sad?" (Chuang Tzu, 22). iii) "Surely it is not true that . . . ?" "It is surely not true that when [we] eat fish, it must be a bream from the Ho?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "It is surely not true that when we take a wife . . . ? " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); " I have heard that Master Chou said that [Emperor] Shun had double pupils in his eyes and ] have also heard that Hsiang Ytf had them too. But [Hsiang] Yif was certain­ ly no descendant of [Emperor Shun^]?" (Shih Chi, 7). Note. Unlike ii) above, occurs before unnegated statements with the force of a heightened positive assertion "is it not true? > " i t most certainly is true" "These surely [are the sort of men] whom people speak of as numbered among the worthy and eminent" (Shih Chi, 124); destiny?" (Han Shu, 97a); man?" (Han Shu, 33). 167

"Is this not a question of "Was he not indeed a worthy

chii

chii

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with the aux­ iliaries of agential state

"would [one] presume not to" > "certainly ,"would [one] be able not to" > "certainly would

would not presume to"; "would [one] be adequate to" > "certainly is not adequate not be able to"; to" "[I] certainly would not presume to begrudge them! " "[He] surely cannot take his

(Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); pleasures alone?" (Mencius, la);

"Your teaching

sir, is certainly not worth valuing" (Chuang Tzu, 29); " I would surely not dare to rebel! " (Han Shu, la). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with the r e strictives,

and

"surely it is not only . . . "

"surely it is not merely . . . " "Surely it is not only of people that this is so" (Mencius, "Surely it is not true that only our physical frame can suffer deafness and blindness. In the matter of knowledge, there can be deafness and blindness too! "What was stolen was

(Chuang Tzu, 1);

surely not only his state! " (Chuang Tzu, 10); » -7 JL "For life itself is surely not merely of equal value with the Lord of Sui's [pearls]" (Chuang Tzu, 28); "Today the empire's worthy men are both wise and able.

[Such qualities] are surely not merely those of the men of old?"

(Han Shu, lb). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with "sign of reported speech" thus say, to describe" and

"to "can it

really be said that?" > " i t surely cannot be said that . . . " &

_

^Jt

.

.

,

,

"[He] certainly does not say that he is acting out of seas-

"[I] certainly do not on! " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); say that [I] have no robes. [I] have six! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "It certainly cannot be said that [such a man] helps things but slightly" (Mencius, 7a); "Gold is heavier than feathers but it certainly cannot be said that the gold for a clasp would weigh more than a cartload of feathers" (Mencius, 6b).

168

chii

chii

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in statements of occurrence or presence in the determined term, where the determined term is "is it not so that there is?" (anticipated answer "there is not") > "surely "is it not so that there is not?" (anticipated answer there is not . . . I " (

"there is") > "surely there is! " "There are,in truth, people living there, [but they] are not to be compared with Shu! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[If] you do not care for me, there certainly are others [who do care]! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Surely there is no other reason! " (Mencius, lb). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in statements of cause and consequence; either singly or in collocation with we^ "surely not viz. because of . . . " "Surely this is not because [they] think Humanity and Justice matters too delicate to mention! " (Mencius, 2b); "It is surely not because of this! " (Mencius, la); ^ "It is surely not because of these things that your Majesty [has behaved in the manner previously described]! " (Mencius, la). Note. In wey "on account of" > "because of" but also "on account of" > "in behalf of" and "on account of" > "so as to"; hence also "it cer­ tainly cannot be for . . . " "It is surely not for strangers. It is for my brothers and not for anyone else" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Surely not in order to oppress the farmer! " (Mencius, 3a). 7. 2. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in Han usage occurring in blunted senses becoming; simplv interrogative. i) Substituting in the agential distributive position "Of the men of Ch i, who respects the king as much as I do?" which is a paraphrase of T

"Of the men of Ch i, no one respects the king as much as I do" T

(Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl). ii) Replacing which is a paraphrase of ,"How could Shun have prevented him?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu

169

chii

chiing Chang -chii). iii) Added gratuitously which is a paraphrase of "Is this something I could hear about?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt). "This is, is it not, an ex­ ample of what is called 'performing sacrifices' without having the neces­ sary virtue" (Shih Chi, 28).

ching chyng —>chiing chinq

CHUNG 3

(ch ing ) T

Archaic Chinese *ts ieng/dz ieng; Ancient Chinese *ts j.a'ng:/dz j.a*ng; Gram. Ser. T

f

T

T

812 ( k ) ; Radical and stroke 149. 8; Concordance 5. 08523; YSD 6. 71; PSH 682, 1

830; LC 171

2 . 4 . STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before the verb as a mark of deference to the status of the person addressed when making a request or tendering advice. "Might I ask about the details? . . . would that I could avail myself of these words! " (Analects, 12); " I beg that your Majesty would weigh these things in your "Would that your Majesty mind" (Mencius, la); were not so fond of these trivial acts of fearlessness" (Mencius, lb); "Your Majesty,and I say this with all deference, must choose from among these two courses! " (Mencius, lb); "My lord! would that you did not accede to this request" (Kung-yang Chuan, Hsi 2). 3 . 1 . 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, occurs before the verb. Used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particular­ ly when this might be refuted, or contrary to expectation; "did in fact" "did in r e ­ ality" "actually did" etc. "If

kings, great men, knights and gentlemen of the world really intend to en­ rich their kingdoms and estates . . . " (Mo Tzu, 12).

170

chiing

chiing

ching chyng —> chiing chinq

CHÏÏNG (ch'ing ) 3

Archaic Chinese *k4weng; Ancient Chinese *k iwâ'ng; Gram. Ser. 828 (a); RadiT

cal and stroke 181. 2; Concordance 5. 71793; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 172 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, occurs either singly, with the markor in collocation with jy, viz. er of time phrases, jee (note. Chiing may also be preceded by how or j i u this"

or ye ou, viz, "shortly after

"Shortly after this [Li Kuang], resentful because the general-in-chief [Wei] Ch ing had hated L i s father, struck and injured the general-in-chief" "Shortly after this he went to his (Shih Chi, 109); home to live [i. e. retired from court] and stayed there several years" T

!

[Shih Chi, 109);

"Shortly after this Mo-tun died" "Sometime after this

(Shih Chi, 110);

when Chao Yao was in attendance upon Emperor Kao-tsu . . . " (Shih Chi, "After a short time the Lord of P ei 96); !

arose and went to the privy" (Han Shu, la); "A short time ago my officials, according to the justice due from subjects, sent me a memorial recommending that commoners from the districts should be transported [to the mausoleum] to perform the sacrifices there" (Han Shu, 9). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, as above, but from a short time [later] > "a M

M

short time ago > "recently" M

" I have heard recently that all our generals are still diffident in their comings and goings" (San Kuo Chih Wu Shu, 26).

171

chin

chin

—>chin chyn chiin chinn

CHIN (ch'in ) 1

Archaic Chinese *ts ien; Ancient Chinese *ts ièn; Gram. Ser. 382 (o-p); Radical T

f

and stroke 147. 9; Concordance 5. 06813; YSD 6. 69; PSH - ; LC See also

sub, chin, 6.1

6.1. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN, used where the agent acts in person, usually where this is contrary to expectation or particularly emphasized. - The king gave him his charge in person" (Shih Chine:. Ta "[He] went in person to meet [her] at the River Wei" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); M

"The Son of Heaven [therefore] went in person to Mount T ai and on the day chia-tzu of f

the eleventh month, when the winter solstice fell on the first day of the month,sacrificed in the Bright Hall to God on High, but he did not renew the feng and shan sacrifices" (Shih Chi, 28); "It so happened that at the time [Kung-shu] Tso was i l l , King Hui of Wei personally went to enquire about his illness" (Shih Chi, 68); "Emperor Wu personally inspected his [Chao s] T

wounds" (Han Shu, 69)

172

ching

ching

—> ching chyng chiing chinq

CHING (ch'ing ) 1

Archaic Chinese *k ieng; Ancient Chinese *k iâiig; Gram. Ser. 831 (o); Radical f

T

and stroke 159. 7; Concordance 5. 50174; YSD 4. 51; PSH - ; LC 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "lightly" "with impunity" "carelessly" "At that time the people of Ch in were accustomed to the old ways when the guilty could es­ T

cape punishment and men of no worth gain honours and recognition, so that they broke the new laws with impunity" (Han Fei Tzu, 14); "The nobles would say I was cowardly and come with impunity to attack me" (Han Shu, 34); "They cause subjects to disobey their rulers with impunity and to leave their villages on slight pretexts" (Han Shu, 24a).

—> ching chyng chiing chinq

CHING (ch'ing ) 1

Archaic Chinese *k iang; Ancient Chinese *k reng; Gram. Ser. 714 (o-p); Radical T

T

and stroke 26. 9; Concordance 5. 82222; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6.1.

STATUS PRONOUN, used as a familiar form between equals "you sir! " "Why are you so wasted away?" (Shih Shuo Hsin YÜ, 28);

"What do you think of your older brother?" (Shih

Shuo Hsin Yti,

"You delight in gossip; I can no longer tell you anything" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 9). Note. This usage became general in the 4th century A. D. When the pro­ priety of a wife addressing her husband in this way is questioned, she replies 1

" I am at­

tached to you, I love you, and therefore I address you as ching. If I am not to do so, then who should address you as ching?" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 35),

173

chinq

chinq

ching chyng chiing —> chinq

CHINQ

4 (ch ing ) Archaic Chinese *k iàng; Ancient Chinese *k iang-; Gram. Ser. 753 (a-b); Radi­ T

!

f

cal and stroke 61. 11; Concordance 4. 02342; YSD 4. 50; PSH 370; LC 100 5. 1. 5. CONJUNCTION OF RESUMPTIVE SEQUENCE, "and then . . . " "and so . . . " "How admirable . 1

The holy dragon lies hidden in the depths, then, awaiting an [opportune] cloud,he will rise up" (Han Shu, 87a); "[He] met at summer s end the frost of suspicion and 1

so,lost in melancholy; was deprived of glory" (Han Shu, 87a). 5. 1. 5. CONJUNCTION OF RESUMPTIVE SEQUENCE, as above, but with a slight adversative nuance "and yet" "however" "Straight and high, as though to reach Heaven; its height, however, could not be reckoned" (Han Shu, 87b).

ching chyng chiing —>chinq

CHINQ (ch'ing ) 4

Archaic Chinese *k ieng; Ancient Chinese *k ieng-; Gram. Ser. 832 (d); Radical f

T

and stroke 121.11; Concordance 3. 34982; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly did not" "certainly should not" "Certainly there will not be anything that should not be" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

174

chiuh

chiuh chiu chyu cheu —> chiuh

CHIUH (ch ti ) f

4

Archaic Chinese *k iab; Ancient Chinese *k iwo-; Gram. Ser. 642 (a-b); Radical t

f

and stroke 28. 3; Concordance 3. 37600; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, "distant from" "The frontier of Lu is fifty U from the capital" (Kuan Tzu, 18); ^ "Fifty l i from the capital [he] built a barrier" (Kuan Tzu, 18); "Seven l i from Hsien-yang [Po Ch i] was strangled to death" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch in, hsia). T

f

3. 11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, determining, occurs before nian, viz. "the past year" -"In the past year destructive drought, frost, locusts and famine have once again been visited on us" (Han Shu, 99c).

chiu chyu cheu —> chiuh

CHIUH (ch'tf ) 4

Archaic Chinese *ts iu; Ancient Chinese *ts iu-; Gram. Ser. 131 (g-h); Radical !

!

and stroke 156. 8; Concordance 2. 39743; YSD 6. 72; PSH - ; LC 241 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this very moment" > "at once" "immediately" "straight away" "Prepare at once for a journey. to the capital to be Prime Minister" (Shih Chi, 54);

I am going

"You [the Emperor] should raise [Wang] Hsin to the marquisate at once" (Shih Chi, 57);

"The King of Wu sent a messen­

ger straight away with an order which said . . . " (Shih Chi, 65); "Boil this man alive at once" (Han Shu, 37).

175

chorng

chorng

chong —> chorng choong

CHORNG

2 (ch ung ) Archaic Chinese *d iung; Ancient Chinese *d iwong; Gram. Ser. 1188 (a); Radi­ (see also jonq)

rhnnn

T

T

f

cal and stroke 166. 2; Concordance 1. 20704; YSD 5. 37; PSH - ; LC 182 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, occurs before measure words of time to indicate "in series" "in succession" "for successive" "Your Majesty not only has no obligations [incurred] over successive gen­ erations with Han and Wei, but has resentments which have accrued over successive generations" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch in, shang). T

f

3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "for a second time" "once again" . „ "If Ch u once again get their own way at Chin s f

1

expense . . . " (Tso Chuan, Chao 1);

"Dare [I] not once

again make obeisance?" (Kuo Yft, Lu Yíí); "The King of Ch'u sent an envoy to announce the breaking off of relations with Ch i. f

The envoy had not yet returned be­

fore he sent a second time to announce the breaking off of relations" (Chankuo Ts e, Ch'in, shang); "A chief of the T

Yíieh-shang, [whose speech] had to be re-interpreted, presented as tribute a white pheasant" (Han Shu, 99a).

176

chour

chour chou —>chour choou chow

CHOUR (ch'ou^)

Archaic Chinese *d iog; Ancient Chinese *d iau; Gram. Ser. 1090 (1); Radical and T

T

stroke 102.14; Concordance 5. 88335; YSD 5.42; PSH 513; LC 115, see also 20 and 30 2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, occurs in the distribution "group mark­ er/numeral/enumerating auxiliary" in the sense of "a group of so many . . . " "Thirteen men of his group •

i

had already been beheaded when [Han] Hsin s [turn] came" (Han Shu, 34). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, determinative, in collocation with shyi, viz. T

"yesterday" "a day or so ago" "In yesterday s affair of the sheep, you sir! were in charge" (Tso Chuan, Hsíían 2); f

"A night or so ago I dreamed that I was seated be­ tween the pillars [of the hall]" ( L i Chi, 2); "When Lai Tan came yesterday and met me at the gate . . . " (Lieh Tzu, 5). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the agential position and for post-verbal elements in the pre-verbal position and asking "which person?" "who?" "on whom?" "to whom?" "The emperor said, O which of you will at­ tend properly to my affairs? " (Shu Ching, Yao Tien); f

1

"The emperor said, 'which oi you will attend properly to my pub­ lic works ? " (Shu Ching, Shun Tien); T

"The emperor said, O which of you will attend properly to this? [Such a f

person I] would raise and employ " (Shu Ching, Yao Tien): 1

^"Which of you would dare not to comply with r e ­ spect to the king's gracious charge" (Shu Ching, Yuen Ming); " A l l the clans are hostile to us, on which one are we to depend?" (Shu Ching, Wu-tzu chih Ko); "None [of the seventy-two rulers of antiquity] by practicing good failed to prosper, but which of them by practicing evil was able to survive?" (Shih Chi, 117).

177

chu

chu

—>chu chwu chuu chuh

CHU (ch'u ) 1

Archaic Chinese *ts io; Ancient Chinese *ts iwo; Gram. Ser. 87 (a-d); Radical T

!

and stroke 18. 5; Concordance 5. 09720; YSD 5.48; PSH - ; LC 35 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, inchoative aspect, "begin to" "Now the king has begun to take service under his mandate" (Shu Ching, Shao Kao); "The Duke of Chou began to work on the foundations in order to build a capital in the Eastern Territories at Lo" (Shu Ching, K ang Kao); f

"When the guests began to take [their] places" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "for the first time" > "first"; "from the first" > "from the beginning" "from earliest times"; "at first" > "in origin" "originally" "She who originally gave birth to our people" (Shih Ching, "Whereupon for the first time [the duke] offered six feather-dancers [in the shrine ceremonies; and first employed six rows of dancers" (Tso Chuan, Yin 5); •UiilElalPiEU

Lords have for the first time been destroyed.

But the territories of Yen,

Ch i and Ching are far distant. If kings are not appointed for them, there will be no way of pacifying them" (Shih Chi, 6); f

"The next year the present emperor for the first i

time went to Yung and performed the Suburban Sacrifice at the Five Altars" "From the time that (Shih Chi, 28); the present emperor first came to the throne, you,sir, have been continu ally employed in government" (Han Shu, 49);

"In

the eighth month, for the first time, the poll-tax was imposed" (Han Shu, la). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, se If-standing, occurs where the narrative is inter­ rupted and a retrospection to an event prior to the events being described, is i n ­ serted, "prior to this" "on a previous occasion" etc.

178

chuh

chu

"Prior to this [i. e. to the event narrated] the duke had built a tower overlooking the Chang family [residence]" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 32); "Prior to this, Shen Hou, a native of Shen,had found favour with King Wen "No sooner had of Ch'u" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 7); the edict been issued than ministers came in with remonstrations" (Chankuo Ts'e, Ch i, shang); f

"On a previous occasion, when the Son of Heaven was performing the feng sacrifice at Mount T ai, [he was T

shown] at the north-east foot of Mount T ai the site of the Ming T ang of T

f

olden days, but it was difficult of access" (Shih Chi, 28); "Prior to this, some ten or so years ago, the Yellow River had burst its banks at Kuan" (Shih Chi, 30); jfty "Previous to this King Huai had given a formal undertaking to his generals [which stated that] the first to enter and suppress Kuan-chung should be made king" (Han Shu, la). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, occurs post-posed to a time phrase, "at the begin­ ning of" "Up to the beginning of Emperor Wu's reign, for a period of seventy years, the state suf­ fered no serious trouble" (Han Shu, 24a).

chu chwu chuu —>chuh

CHUH (ch u ) T

4

Archaic Chinese *t io; Ancient Chinese *ts iwo:; Gram. Ser. 85 (a-b); Radical f

!

and stroke 141. 5; Concordance 3. 70840; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC See also

sub, her, 6. 3.

3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs introducing a time phrase in the sense of "after . . . " " . . . later" "A year later, the kung-tzu Y i wu also fled the state" (KuoYÜ, Tsin YÍÍ);

"Five

years after returning from the battle of Chi-sang . . . " (KuoYÜ, Tsin Ytf).

179

chuh

chwei

3.12. AUXILIARY OF PLACE, reduplicated, "everywhere" ^.

^

v.

"In the provinces everywhere there were

'soldiers of fortune' " (Han Shu, 92) "Among the people of Wu, Yen Po-hu and others formed groups each of some ten thousand men. Everywhere they gathered in garrisons" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 46); "Now, on the other hand, let us abandon the ships and take to the land [with our troops] and everywhere construct forts" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 58).

chuan —:>chwan choan chuann

CHWAN

2 (eh'uan ) Archaic Chinese *diwan; Ancient Chinese *ziwâCn; Gram. Ser. 168 (m-n); Radical /

and stroke 162. 9; Concordance 2. 09220; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this very moment" > "at once" "immediately" "straight away" i "Why is [he] not struck dead at once?" (Shih Ching, Kuo "The theme [of my poem] is that the man lacking in propriety should instantly be put to death" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 19).

chue i —>chwei choei chuey

CHWEI (eh'ui ) 2

Archaic Chinese *dwia; Ancient Chinese *zwie; Gram. Ser. 31 (a); Radical and stroke 32. 5; Concordance 1. 20704; YSD 5. 50; PSH - ; LC 30 2. 3.4. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, approximate number, occurs before numerals and measure words in the sense of "almost" "nearly" "Those which [the emperor] wrote himself comprised almost a hundred fascicules" (San Kuo Chi, Wei Shu, 2);

180

chwen

chwei

"They firmly held the Po and Han region for almost thirty years" (San Kuo Chi, Wei Shu, 8). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, aspect of potentiality unrealized, "almost" "nearlv"

"The present city

reaches the sea-shore. The sea has encroached from the north so that the city is almost half under water" (Shui Ching Chu); "The yang influence is almost exhausted, and time presses" (Hou Han Shu, 65); "Now Tung Cho is just about to arrive. Why do you, sirs, not return to your kingdoms beforehand?" (San Kuo Chih, 99); "Now the important thing [a change of o-overnmentl is iust about to be realized, why abandon this now and quit?" "Now [Sun] (San Kuo Chih, Shu Shu, 32); Hao has almost arrived [i. e. will be here any moment], I propose even so to befriend him" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 48).

chuen —>chwen choen chuenn

CHWEN

2 (ch un ) Archaic Chinese *diwan; Ancient Chinese *ziuen; Gram. Ser. 427 (n-o); Radical T

and stroke 120.4; Concordance 5. 66510; YSD 5. 50; PSH - ; LC 60 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to" "merely to" "exclusively to" "purely to" -/ > »

— — ^



•>§



-

"The House of Han, ever since it established its system,has had that system contaminated by the principles of the Paramount Princes. Why does it not avail itself exclusively of virtuous teach­ ing and adopt the policies of Chou?" (Han Shu, 9); "[Scholars in retirement] simply steal and enjoy a groundless reputation" (Hou Han Shu, 51).

181

chyan

chyan

chian —>chyan che an chiann

CHYAN (ch'ien ) 2

Archaic Chinese *dz'ian; Ancient Chinese *dz'ien; Gram. Ser. 245 (a-d); Radical and stroke 18. 7; Concordance 3. 91822; YSD 6. 68; PSH - ; LC 67 2. 7. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, determining, used attributively, occurs before nouns, "former" "front" [before proper names, "the late . . . " ] "In the front ranks many were killed" (Tso Chuan, A i 2) "Yet Mencius' latter funeral [for his mother] exceeded in lavishness the former funeral [for his father]" (Mencius, lb); "[He] still con centrâtes on study to make up for the ill-consequences of his former con­ duct" (Chuang Tzu, 9); "The achievements of Lord Wen and the service rendered by Duke Wu can be called 'the teachings of the former [ones]' " (Kuo YÜ, Tsin Yti); "The late King Ch'en (i.e. Ch'en She] and Hsiang Liang both suffered defeat" (Han Shu, la); "The senior ministers should report this, having investigated previous proposais . . . " (Han Shu, 99a); "His courtiers supporting him, [Wang] Mang proceeded south from the Front Hall" (Han Shu, 99a). 2. 7. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, post-posed to a noun, occurs with or without the syntagmatic determinative conjunction jy ^

"in front of" "before" 'Shih Chi sent

Kung So and Han Ch'uan's troops to lay ambushes in seven places in front of the city of Ko" (Tso Chuan, Hsíían 12); "They had sealed off its [i.e. the Pass's] entrance [lit. in front of it] and cut into the trees to the rear of the Pass without actually felling them" (Tso Chuan, Chao 23); "Shen Hsi made obeisance before the king's horses and said . . . (Tso Chuan, Hsüan 15);

T

"Someone

shot Yang Yüeh from the front of the gate and killed him (Tso Chuan, Ting M

"[If one] speaks of Yao and Shun 8); in front of Tai Tsin-jen . . . " (Chuang Tzu, 25);

182

chyan

chyan

"His lordship s malady lies to the front of the ear and be!

low the eve" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch'in, shang). T

3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, relative sequence, "previously" "beforehand" "first to" "What ril said earlier was merelv said in iest" (Ana"Why sister, were you pre-

lects, viously so haughty and latterly so humble?" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch in, shang); T

"He who first has offended and later been forgiven will surely serve your Majesty with gratitude" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Tung Chou); "On the ping-yin day [those who] previously had committed f

crimes, excluding those meriting the death penalty, all were to be granted amnesty" (Han Shu, lb);

"The pres-

ent King of Wu having previously become estranged on account of his son and heir . . . " (Han Shu, 35); ^ « "[Hsiang] Liang previously had sent [Hsiang] Yù* with a separate force to attack "His son had earlier Hsiang-ch eng" (Han Shu, 31); !

been charged with involvement in an affair and been put to death" (Han Shu, "The mother of the empress 54); had died earlier and was buried north of Li-yang" (Han Shu, 97). 3. 11. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, occurring as an AUXILIARY OF TIME, selfstanding, "prior to this" "previouslv" "Previously, when Emperor Ai had ascended the throne, turning his back on [your] favour and beneficence . . . " (Han Shu, 99a). 3.11. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, occurring as a PARTICLE IN TIME PHRASES, determining, occurs i) before measures of time

etc. , "past . . .

"previous . . . " " . . . earlier"; ii) before a demonstrative "before this" "Sometime ago in Ch'i the king sent you a gift of a hundred yih, but you declined i t " (Mencius, "In days past [II wanted to meet [you]

2b);

but [I] was never able to" (Mencius, 2b);

"In past

years [when my] state was devasted [and my] people starving . . . " (Chan"Before kuo Ts e, Ch in, hsia); T

f

this there had been an incident and after it there was another" (Kung-yang Chuan, Chuang 4) 183

"In

chyan

chyaii former times the Ch'in transported people from the central prefectures to the three commanderies of the Southern Regions" (Han Shu, lb); "In days gone by the world was in great confusion" (Han Shu, lb)

"During the past year pie

had] slain P eng Ytieh, last year pie had] slain Han Hsin" (Han Shu, 34). f

3.11. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, occurring as a PARTICLE IN TIME PHRASES, post-posed with the possibility of occurrence of the conjunction of determination or y ü , viz. "prior to" "before" jy, viz. "Of the times prior to Emperor Kao-hsin, they are remote. There are no records to be had of them" (Shin Chi, 30): i



"Prior to the Ch in Dynasty [the record] is too broad and r e ­ mote. There are no detailed records to be had of them" (Shih Chi, 49); "Those charged with indictments dating prior to the third year of the latter reign T

period of Emperor Hsiao-ching are not to be brought to t r i a l " (Han Shu, 6). 3. 12. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, occurring as an AUXILIARY OF PLACE, occurs self-standing "in front" "to the fore"; also occurs in the second post-verbal (i. e. the locative) position. "[I] see it in front [of me but] suddenly [it is] behind [me]" (Analects, 9);

"When taking [your] place at court, see these principles [rangedl in front of you" (Analects, 15);

"[On the march] in front

are the standard bearers keeping a lookout, in the centre are troops to support them and in the rear is the main force" (Tso Chuan, Hstian 12); "A stag sprang up in front of him" (Tso Chuan, Hstian 12); "[Horses had] the irksomeness of bit and breast-band in front and the fear of crop and whip behind" (Chuang Tzu, 9); "If you do not subjugate Yuan, Yuan will at­ tack you from the rear. With a powerful Ch in army in front of you this !

would be a dangerous move" (Han Shu, la); of us there is a great snake blocking the path" (Han Shu, la)

184

"Ahead

chyi

chyh chy chyr chyy —> chyh

CHYH (ch'ih ) 4

Archaic Chinese *sieg; Ancient Chinese *sie-; Gram. Ser. 864 (e); Radical and stroke 124.4; Concordance 2. 34720; YSD 5. 39; PSH 801; LC 183 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive, occurs negated with bu viz "not only . . . " or with the negative interrogative substitute shi viz. "surely not merely to . . . " "[If your questioner wants] to deduce from this that a comparison be made between the importance of eating food with the less importance of the rules that govern the eating of food, then surely it is not merely eating food that is important! " (Mencius, 6b); "A child obeys its parents going anywhere he is told to. But the Yin and Yang as far as mankind is concerned are not merely mankind's parents" (Chuang Tzu, 6).

chi ->chyi chii chih

CHYI (see also j i )

(ch i ) !

2

Archaic Chinese *g iag; Ancient Chinese *g ji; Gram. Ser. 952 (a-e); Radical and T

T

stroke 12. 6; Concordance 3. 37903; YSD 4. 38; PSH 354, 373, 426; LC 7 See also

sub, chii, 6.3;

sub, jong, 3. 11; sub, tzuey, 2. 8; sub, yaw, 5.4;

sub, how, 3. 8;

sub, shyr, 5. 1. 3; . sub, wang, 5. 1. 2; sub, yu, 5. 2;

sub, jiou, 3.11; sub, tsyh, 3.11; sub, wanq, 5.1. 2;

sub, yu, 6.1.

2.1.1. REDUPLICATIVE MARKER, occurs pre-posed to an attribute* to indi­ cate identical reduplication. "Drifting - far distant" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); TI

Strike the drums, turn-turn" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"A maiden endearing" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); ful, a-tremble (Shin Ching, Kuo Feng). M

* Attributes include onomatopoeic words. 185

"Fear-

chyi

chyi

2. 1.1. REDUPLICATIVE MARKER, occurs post-posed to an attribute to indicate identical reduplication. "[They] feel chilly in the wind" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The dry ones are sun-scorched" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); " Ah! Ah! [i. e. sadly] [she] sighs" (Shih Ching, Kuo T

T

Feng). 2. 2. 2. SYNTAGMATIC CONJUNCTION, determinative, occurs between two nouns or noun substitutes. "The successor of the Duke of Chou" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao); Ching, K ang Kao); T

"My younger brother! my child! Feng! " (Shu "If not in this

his lifetime, will it be in that of his descendants?" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 22); "All [matters of] this kind fall within the duties of the Master of Music" (Ta Tai L i Chi, 48). 3.1.2.

MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, used to replace bu

>

where a contrast is emphasized between negation and non-negation. "In reality it is true is it not?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Why now should [I] be sad?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[If today we] do not make merry, by then "[You] clearly

[we] will be dead" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

will die! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 3.1. 2. PERIPHRASTIC MODAL AUXILIARY, occurs initially in the verbal sen­ tence "let there be . . . " usually in the form of an injunction. "Let the [matter of] L i Ssu be referred to the palace commandant" (Shih Chi, 87); "Let orders be given to the Feudal Lords to build their own . L

rest-houses at the foot of Mt. T'ai" (Shih Chi, 28); ."Let there be a general amnesty granted to the empire of the kind enacted in the yi-mao year [120 B. C. ] " (Shih Chi, 28); "Let orders be given to all officials to treat well those who hold high rank and thus conform to my wish­ es" (Han Shu, lb). 3.11.

DEMONSTRATIVE used as an AUXILIARY OF TIME, determining, occurs

before nian, viz.

186

"that year" how, viz.

"after that" etc.

chyi

chyi "hi the end [they will] dwell in safety" (Shih Ching, Hsiao "The next year [Chang] ChUen was appointed colonel of the guard and was sent with General L i [Kuang] on an expedition out of Yupei-p ingto attack the Hsiung-nu" (Shih Chi, 123); T

A>

X



w .»



C\

"After that the people of Yueh opened up direct lines of com munication [to him] and supplied [his troops] with food" (Shih Chi, 113); "In the winter of the year following the emperor held a consultation [with his ministers]. He said . . . " (Shih Chi, 28) "That winter the Ting-ling robbed [Su] Wu of his livestock" (Han Shu, 54). 4.4.

PRONOUN used anaphorically as the DETERMINED TERM in the deter­

minative sentence, "he [is]" "they [are]" etc. "Because he is refined" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "They [the stallions] are big and heavily built" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"He [my lover] is a whirlwind" (Shih

Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"He is a prince indeed! " (Shih Ching,

Kuo Feng). 6.1.

ANAPHORIC PRONOUN, agentive form, makes no distinction of person or

number, " I " "we" "you" "he" "she" " i t " "they" "Feng, my child! . . . go and exert your mind [in governing the people] . . . then you will control the people" (Shu Ching, K ang Kao); !

"Your Grace dare not but treat with reverence the grace of Heaven . . . You have become the fit mate of our Chou house for Heaven* s grace" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao); " I , a young man, have inherited boundless and innumerable duties . . . even less should I think that I would be able to grasp and comprehend the ordinances of Heaven" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "They sing in unison" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[Was not] it [i.e. the making of grave images] not without serious consequences?" (Mencius, la); "The Duke of Chou sent him, knowing that he would rebel, did he?" (Mencius, 2b); Chuan, Hsiang 21).

187

• i.

.

-j»

"Will he abandon me only?" (Tso

chyi 6.1.

chyi ANAPHORIC PRONOUN, determinative, in syntagma forms possessives. "Her household" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng): "Our place" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Your egret feathers" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Their peoples" (Mencius, la);

"His towe]

(Mencius, la);

6.1.

"Its great trunk" (Chuang Tzu, 3.43); ANAPHORIC PRONOUN, replaces the agent in the agential position, when

the agent is exposed. "As for me, I wish to model myself upon the Former Kings in receiving [i.e. bringing under mi governance] our people and our territories" (EAC, Inscription 13); J'Your Grace! may you and enjoy a myriad years of life in which to revere the grace of Heaven" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao); "Sir! may you not dissipate the achievements of your royal ancestors'. " (Tso Chuan, Yin 3)

"Would^my lord, that you repented of this" (Tso "Surely Sung will flourish again! " (Tso "As to the cock, does it

Chuan, Chuang 11);

not fear that it will be used by men for sacrifice?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 22); "Master! you must take warning! " (Tso "You should sacrifice here, my lord! "

Chuan, Chao 1); 6.1.

(Shih Chi, 28). PRONOMINAL AUXILIARY, occurs in collocation with ren viz.

"others" and in collocation with yu viz.

'the rest of them"

"Can you not, while loyally planning in your present master's interest, plan a little extra in mind?" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'in, shang); "The emperor having already enfeoffed thirty or so of his subjects who had great achievements, the rest vied with each other to claim achievement" (Han Shu, "These two [elderly statesmen] were, as it were, the fathers of the empire, the rest all being the empire's children" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "Then others will say, how smug (he T

T

is, he] regards what others say with contempt " (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu 1

Chang-chfl).

188

T

chyi

chyi Note.

is also used attributively, for example: "the other fingers" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü). 6. 2. DEMONSTRATIVE, determining, "this" "this sort of" !

"However, this affair is already in the past" (Shih Chi, 110); "[Mencius was] pleased that this man's virtue had been efficacious and he could not sleep for the pleasure he felt for him (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü); M

" I do not think this person's conduct is pure and so I do not teach him. But such a man will be affected by this and, retiring from m presence, cultivate learning on his own and so become humane and just. This too is a way for me to teach him" (Chan Ch'i. Mens:-tzu Chane-chin "The crowd all like and admire him. This sort of person thinks his own cause of conduct right, but he lacks the reality of humanity and justice" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü); "[King Wen] obtained the services of this man and employed him as a minister" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chü).

chi —>chyi chii chih

CHYI (see also ¿i )

(ch'i ) 2

Archaic Chinese *g'iag; Ancient Chinese *g'ji; Gram. Ser. 952 (k); Radical and stroke 74. 8; Concordance 5. 39825; YSD 4.45; PSH 354, 373, 426; LC 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, used to replace bu where a contrast is emphasized between negation and non-negation. "If I do find him then I can [carry out my intention], if not, then I shall kill myself" (LÜ Shih Ch'unch'iu, 19). 5.1.6.

RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, occurs before the apodosis,

"[if . . . ] then . . . "

189

chyi

chyi

M

Thus a change of feeling or manner

[should be betrayed] sufficient to differentiate an auspicious or inauspicious matter, or to make plain the boundaries of an appropriate dignity or hum­ bleness, or of nearness or distance of kinship. should cease there.

[If this is done] then it

To go beyond that is perverse" (Hsun Tzu, 19); "Thus if [we talk] of

great physical strength then we cite Niao Hu, if of outstanding swiftness then we speak of Ch'ing Chi, and if of bravery then we [think of] [Meng] P en and [Hsia] Y٢" (Shih Chi, 117). ANAPHORIC PRONOUN, agentive, substitutes regardless of number and !

6.1.

person in the verbal sentence, "he" "they" " i t " etc. "He cares nothing for right and wrong, says nothing of the crooked and straight, his intention being merely to score off his opponent" (Hsun Tzu, 23); "But they and we have concluded a treaty" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Wei, shang); f

"The important thing is that your Majesty brings about a situation in which the conditions that make for a landslide in the empire are non­ existent, nothing more" (Shih Chi, 112); Their fulfillment [i.e. of your presages] has continuously come about" (Shih Chi, 117).

chi —>chyi chii chih

CHYI (see also j i )

(ch i ) f

2

Archaic Chinese *g iag; Ancient Chinese *g j i - ; Gram. Ser. 952 (z); Radical and ,

f

stroke 120. 8;.Concordance 3. 37963; YSD - ; PSH 373, 426; LC 28 6.1.

ANAPHORIC PRONOUN, agentive, substituting in the verbal sentence i r ­

respective of person or number. "Sir, will you, on my be­ half, promote him to one of the three banner positions?" (Chuang Tzu, 28).

190

chyng

chyi chi —>chyi chii chih

CHYI (ch i ) f

2

Archaic Chinese *dz iar; Ancient Chinese *dz iei; Gram. Ser. 593 (a-e); Radical T

f

and stroke 210; Concordance 3. 01771; YSD 6. 59; PSH - ; LC 57 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but de­ termines elements following the verb; for more than one entity = "all of the . . . "; for a divisible entity = "the entire . . . " "Your Majesty has cut down on food consumption and other expenses paid from the privy purse for the relief of the commonalty, been liberal about the terms for loans and taxes, yet the peo­ ple do not cultivate all of the arable lands" (Shih Chi, 30).

ching —>chyng chiing chinq

CHYNG 2 (ch ing ) T

Archaic Chinese *dz ieng; Ancient Chinese *dz iβng; Gram. Ser. 812 ( l ) ; Radi­ !

T

1

cal and stroke 61. 8; Concordance 5. 60522; YSD 6. 70; PSH 830; LΗ 102 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, occurs before the verb. Used when i n ­ sistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particularly when this might be refuted, or contrary to expectation, "did in fact" "did in reality" "actu­ ally did" etc. _ "[They] really do not know it is unjust and for that reason record their judgment to pass on to posterity" (Mo Tzu, 17).

191

chyr

chyr chy —>chyr chyy chyh

CHYR (ch ih ) f

2

Archaic Chinese *d iag; Ancient Chinese *d i; Gram. Ser. 961 (p); Radical and !

T

stroke 64. 6; Concordance 5. 50330; YSD - ; PSH 466; LC 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, restrictive, occurs before the verb but determines elements following the verb, only . . . M

n

M

Qnce across the river, [Hsiang Yti] sank all the boats, smashed the cook­

ing pots and set fire to the huts, [taking] only three days rations . . . " (Han 4.1.

Shu, 31). COPULA, with restriction, "A is only B" "These [teachings] being merely the source from which evil doctrine arises are the principles pursued by tyrants" (Mo Tzu, 35); j"It is simply that I am not a Chang Mengt an, though if I were . . . " (Chan-kuo Ts e, Yen, shang). T

T

chy —>chyr chyy chyh

CHYR (see also jyr)

(ch ih ) f

2

Archaic Chinese *d iar; Ancient Chinese *d i; Gram. Ser. 596 (d); Radical and !

T

stroke 162. 11; Concordance 2. 09852; YSD 5.13; PSH 511; LC 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, in slow sequence "gradu­ ally" "little by little" "[And so] the fortunes of the L i family gradually declined" (Shih Chi, 109).

192

chyu

chyuan

chiu —>chyu cheu chiuh

CHYU (ch'tf ) 2

Archaic Chinese *g'io; Ancient Chinese *g'iwo; Gram. Ser. 95 (g); Radical and stroke 85. 9; Concordance 3. 01361; YSD 4. 33; PSH 421; LC 194, 195 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring either singly or in collocation her viz, substituting in the i n ninq viz. with chii viz. strumental position and asking "by what means?" "how?" "why?" "How can [such a king] manage to escape from involvement?" (Hs٧n Tzu, 9); "Further, while Lord Su [Su Ch'in] is still alive how could I [Chang I] do "If I had this?" (Shih Chi, 70); been living in China would I not have compared favourably with the Han Emperor?" (Shih Chi, 97);

"How can one find

such a man within the bureau?" (Han Shu, 77).

chiuan —>chyuan cheuan chiuann

CHYUAN (ch'tfan ) 2

Archaic Chinese *dz'jwan; Ancient Chinese *dz'iwβn; Gram. Ser. 234 (a-b); Radical and stroke 11.4; Concordance 2. 90770; YSD 6. 74; PSH - ; LC 74 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, identifying, occurs before nouns, "all of the . . . " "the entire" "[You] have resisted the entire army of Ch'i for a whole year without relief.

This

is a defence worthy of Mo-tzu (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch'i, hsia). M

f

Note, hi historical writing, chyuan is prefixed to names of states to distin­ guish the period when a state was still intact, for example, "Undivided Tsin" i.e. rsin prior to its partition into three, or the period after the original state had incorporated other states, for example, "United Ch'in" i.e. Ch'in after the anlexation of the six states it had annihilated. " . . . and you, with Yen intact, would

193

chyuan

chyuan

control the outcome" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Yen, shang); "From the begin ning of the period while Yen was still undivided, [Yen] had invaded and taken under its governance the regions of Chen-p an and Ch'ao-hsien, ap­ T

pointing officials to rule for them and fortifying their frontiers" (Shih Chi, "The states 115); of Nan Yueh and Ch ao-hsien, ever since the times of United Ch in, have T

T

been dependents of ours as sons and subjects" (Shih Chi, 25); "In the days of undivided Chao . . . " (Han Shu, 51). 3.1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "in an intense degree" "utterly" "totally" "completely" "profoundly" "thoroughl v " «te. "The enemy as a result will totally subdue these tired troops" (Shih Chi, 108); "When you treat an illness, in diagnosing if it be fatal or no, can you be totally without e r r o r ? " (Shih Chi, 105). 3.1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, as above, but in collocation with "of a total cer-

wann "ten thousand" or bae "one hundred" viz. tainty"

"This is not a situation which the Son of Heaven should even approach in the first place even though for a certainty there were no danger" (Shih Chi, 117); " I can for a certainty seize the empire" [lit. my/taking/empire/can/be certain] (Shih Chi, 91); "Han for a certainty can seize the empire" (Shih Chi, 91);

"If his plan were less than cer-

tain of success surely he would not go ahead with i t ? " (Han Shu, 49).

194

chyun

chyun

chiun —>chyun che un chiunn

CHYUN (ch ùn ) !

2

Archaic Chinese *g iwan; Ancient Chinese *g iuan; Gram. Ser. 459 (d-e); Radi!

T

cal and stroke 123. 7; Concordance 4. 85853; YSD 4. 51; PSH - ; LC 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, synthesizing, occurs before nouns "all of the various" Ching, Ta Ya);

"The princes [of varying rank] and former rulers" (Shih 'Pursuing the ways of all his peers" (Shih

Ching, Ta Ya); (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"All of the peoples of the hundred clans" "Dare subjects forget

their ruler?" (Tso Chuan, Ai 6);

"All the sons of

dukes fled to Hsiao" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 12); "After the Yellow Emperor had become an i m mortal and ascended to Heaven, his ministers made a grave for his robes and hat" (Shih Chi, 28); "The Confucian scholars selected material from the Book of Documents, the Offices of Chou, and the Institutes of Kingship to show that the feng and shan sacrifices were sacrifices made at a distance at which a bull was shot" (Shih Chi, 28).

195

daan

daan dan darn —>daan dann

DAAN (tan ) 3

Archaic Chinese *tβn; Ancient Chinese *tan:; Gram. Ser. 148 (a); Radical and stroke 8.11; Concordance 3. 01873; YSD 2.10; PSH 469; LC 154 2.5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "very" "abundantly" "really" "truly" "so" "O! minister of war you are so obtuse! " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

"The enduring fragrance so appropriate! "

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to" "merely to" "It is not merely a matter of turning upside down and nothing more . . . " (Han Shu, 48); in fact we were to order our troops into battle, though we could not wipe out the Hsien-ling, but merely are able to prevent the enemy from ever en­ gaging in minor banditry, then ordering them into battle would be accept­ able" (Han Shu, 69); "Though we cannot destroy them a l l , we have merely to seize their livestock, capture their women and children and retreat and in winter attack them again" (Han Shu, 69): "Though their bands were num­ bered in the tens of thousands [their leaders] merely referred to them­ selves as 'attendants on the great man " (Han Shu, 99c). 1

3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "vainly" "fruitlessly" "for no good reason" and also "alone" "by oneself" "This is fruitless­ ly expending energy on the one hand and confusing students on the other" (Han Shu, 87b);

["[I, Yi] Feng indeed

find it difficult alone to effect a change" (Han Shu, 75). 4. 2.1. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of truth and falsity, "true it is that "Is it not true that this is so?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

196

daang

daang

dang darng —> daang danq

DAANG

3 (tang ) Archaic Chinese *tang; Ancient Chinese *tang:; Gram. Ser. 725 (r); Radical and stroke 203. 8; Concordance 3. 60061; YSD 2. 30; PSH 457; LC 171 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive, occurs before the verb "might" "could" etc. "Fearing that he [Han Hsin] might not come, [the Empress Ltf] made plans with Prime Minister Hsiao [Ho]" (Shih Chi, 92); "If we seek it in antiquity or search for it in Heaven we might be able to see i t " (Han Shu, 56); "If it be said that this is something human strength cannot achieve, the spirits might be able to do so, might they not?" (Han Shu, 87b). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "in sporadic sequence" > "occasionally" "from time to time" "For the eclipsing of the sun and moon, the unseasonal coming of wind and rain, strange stars appearing occasion­ ally, [these are things that] no age has not had occurrences of" (Hsttn Tzu, 17). 5.1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, "supposing that" "given that" "Supposing that we could have at the same time the virtue of King Wen and the virtue of [King] Chao [of Yen] surely that would be great!

197

fT

(Hou Han Shu, 95).

dan

dan

da dar daa —>dah

DAH (see also tay)

(ta ) 4

Archaic Chνnese *d ad (also t βd and d'βr); Ancient Chinese *d βi (also t β i and T

T

T

f

d'); Gram^ Ser. 317 (a-e); Radical and stroke 37; Concordance 1. 30900; YSD 2o 1; PSH - ; LC 205, 206

See also

sub, du, 3. 1.4, 3. 5; sub, sheau, 2. 3. 6;

6.1;

sub, fu 6.1; sub, shuay, 2.3.4, 3.4;

sub. ren sub.

t i i , 3.4:

sub, wang, 6.1. 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before nouns when used by princes addressing

other princes, by nobles speaking of a state other than their own etc. ; "your . . . " [lit. "great"] but used purely conventionally to confer status on the person ad­ dressed. "[But I] empty-handed in your state" (Shih Ching, Kuc "Rather than give them to Ch in, Feng); better send them to your state" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Tung Chou). 2.5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "very" "abundantly" !

T

"really" "truly" "so" "Very distressed" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya);

"Most un­

reliable" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 3.1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "in an intense degree" "utterly" "totally" "completely" "profoundly" "thor­ oughly" etc. "Impartial Heaven sent down in great measure destruction upon Yin" (Shu Ching, To Shih); " T i Hsin King of Shang was intensely hated by the people" (Kuo Y٢, Chou Yii): upon them" (Tso Chuan, Huan 12)

"Imposed an overwhelming defeat

"As to the old man [his] ministers spoke [to him] about, [he] fully believed him to be an immortal being" (Shih Chi, 28); "Chang Ch ing approved of it wholeheartedly" (Han Shu, f

35);

"The emperor laughed uproariously" (Han Shu, 65); "Inflicted a great defeat on them" (Han Shu, la); "[He] was surrounded by the enemy on a large scale" (Han Shu, la).

198

dah

dah

3.1. 1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, as above, but occurring before aspectuals, the auxiliaries of manner, etc. "[You] so adequately can nurture" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); "In the most grand manner to govern" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, occurs either singly or in collocation with dii viz, or the most part"

or with shuay viz.

"of the agents, most" "for "What the people eat is for the

most part beans and [what they] drink mostly soup made from bean leaves" "Their

(Chan-kuo Ts'e, Han);

customs for the most part are the same as ours in China" (Shih Chi, 123); "At this merchant families of the middle ranks and above were for the most part ruined" (Shih Chi, "In the empire, for

30);

the most part,very nearly everyone was coining white metal and copper cash" (Han Shu, 24b); "At this, merchants of the middle and upper ranks for the most part were "Those in ruined" (Han Shu, 24b); the middle and upper ranks of the well-to-do classes were practically all arraigned" (Han Shu, 24b); "Within the Pass, the rich traders and great merchants for the most part were members of the T ien family" (Han Shu, 91). T

5.1. 2. CONJUNCTION OF DISJUNCTIVE SEQUENCE, occurs with jee paired with

,T

and

at the most, worst, etc. . . . " "at the least, less

harmful, etc "At the most your Ancestral Shrines would be overturned ano! destroyed. At the least you your­ self left lonely and in peril" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch in, hsia); "At the most [my] states would be in jeopardy, at the T

T

least my title as king may have to be set aside" (Chan-kuo Ts e, ChungT

shan).

199

dan

dan

—>dan darn daan dann

DAN (tan ) 1

Archaic Chinese *tan; Ancient Chinese *tan; Gram. Ser. 147 (a-d); Radical and stroke 30. 9; Concordance 3. 88856; YSD - ; PSH 456, 469; LC 64 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "very" "abundantly" "really" "truly" "so" "Making you so very richly endowed" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "merely to" "only to" "[He] will only be ensuring for himself a violent death" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 27);

«%

-te.

.

_ *n

_

»

. ^ M

«

"They sought with all their strength and wealth merely to bring back a single day's peace, yet could not get i t " (Chuang Tzu, 29). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "alone" "unaccompanied" "single-handed" "empty-handed" "[Wang] Kung unaccompanied [by his troops] took his wife and children and fled into hiding" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 28); "[Chu-K'o] Tan was hard-pressed; alone, he got on his horse, took his sub­ ordinates and rushed the gate of the inner city and fled (San Kuo Chih, Wei "[Ch'in] Yang and [Ch'in] Hu, unShu, 28); M

accompanied by their troops,escaped over the city wall" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 28).

200

iang

dang

—> dang darng daang danq

DANG (tang ) 1

Archaic Chinese *tang; Ancient Chinese *tang-; Gram. Ser. 725 (q); Radical and stroke 102. 8; Concordance 3. 60085; YSD 2.12; PSH 449, 832, 833, 838; LC 92, 93, 225 See also 3.1.2;

sub, shiu, 3.1. 2;

sub, bih, 3. 1. 2;

sub, bu,

sub, shanq, 3.1. 2.

3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, injunctive or hortatory, polar-positive, occurs be­ fore the verb, "ought" "should" "must" Man/should not/in/water/be reflected/should/in people/be reflected > "Rather than see his reflection in water a man should see himself reflected in the common people" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); 25);

" I Chu ought to deal with this" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang " I ought to have

followed [the emperor] in death but could not, as a son I have been unfilial' (Shih Chi, 87); > "Would a dog who hunts deer even cast a glance at a hare?" (Han Shu, 97); "Therefore in the cultivation of one's metier one must conscientiously cultivate the good in i t " (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang ch٧);

"All who rebuke

their prince to correct him and find their rebuke unheeded should resign their offices and leave" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tz٧ Chang-ch٧); "He who practices humanity and finds it is not reciprocated by others should blame [not others] but himself for the fact" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-ch٧); "Therefore, being in two minds he asked Mencius, 'ought [I] to destroy i t ? ' " (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang ch٧);

"hi my mind, why must I

fear men of that sort?" (Chao Ch'i, Mensc-tzu Chans:-ch٧). 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurring either pre - or post-verbally before the locative "at" " i n " "There were men at the gate tower weeping" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'i, hsia);

201

dang

dang

"If now you allow the Hsiung-nu with any frequency to'pasture their herds or hunt in the border regions whether in Tai or Yen or Shang-chûn, Pei-ti or Lunghsi, . . . " (Han Shu, 49);

"At

the place where the meteor fell, they beheaded both Yuan and his son" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 8). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introducing a time phrase in the sense of "at" "in" etc., occurs in collocation with jy-shyr viz.

in

varying degrees of economy. "During the reign of Emperor Yao" (Mencius, 3b); "When [I] was in Sung I was about to set off on a long journey . . . " (Mencius, 2b); "Today if a major state were to put humane government into effect . . . " (Mencius, 2a);

"At that time

there were no footpaths in the hills . . . " (Chuang Tzu, 9); "At the present moment we cannot [afford] a struggle with Tsin" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 9); the present moment Chao cannot be attacked" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch'in, hsia); T

"At this time the Ch u forces had supremacy over the Feudal Lords" (Shih Chi, 7); !

"At that time the virtue of the former emperors had not "At this

as yet run out" (Shih Chi, 112); time Ch'in was at its richest and strongest" (Han Shu, 49);

"At this time hearing of the critical situation of Chao, Yen Ch'i and Ch'u came to Chao's relief" (Han Shu, 32); "At that time the accomplishments of the kings of the three dynasties could not approach this" 4.1.

(Han Shu, 49). COPULA, "A should be B" "Ah! a great man should be like this [i. e. that is the way a great man should be]" (Han Shu, la).

5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, used either singly or in collocation with shyy viz.

or with ruoh viz.

occurs before

the protasis of a conditional statement "when" "at such times as" "if" "supposing that"

202

dang

dang "If all men took their parents as their V-» model, what would happen then?" (Mo Tzu, 4) "If a ruler in fact desired good government in the world and hated its disorder, [then] when [it is a question of] the making of clothing he cannot but exercise restraint" (Mo Tzu, 6) "Suppose that in such cases Heaven sends immoderate heat or cold, untimely snow, frost, rain or dew, then the crops will not "Supposing ripen . . . " (Mo Tzu, 12) [this to be] so [then rulers] cannot afford not to understand [the principle of] identifying with the superior" (Mo Tzu, 12); "Therefore when identifying with the superior becomes a tenet . . . " (Mo Tzu, 13)

"When we enquire

as to whence disorder arises [then we find] it arises from a failure to prac tice mutual love" (Mo Tzu, 14); "When all love each other equally, when all work for the benefit of each other, then this is the pattern set by the sage kings, this the way to achieve order in the world" (Mo Tzu, 16); "Suppose a case like this, of two men whose words can be relied upon, and whose conduct matches their pretensions . . . " (Mo Tzu, 16); "If it is a case of a son not serving his father, a younger brother, his older brother, a minister, his prince, then gentlemen throughout the world will unanimously describe this as in­ auspicious" (Mo Tzu, 27); "Suppose a tiger or leopard had lost both claws and teeth then a man certainly could control i t " (Han Fei Tzu, 52).

203

dann

dann

dan darn daan —>dann

DANN (tan ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d'an; Ancient Chinese *d'an:; Gram. Ser. 149 (e); Radical and stroke 9. 5; Concordance 5. 90812; YSD 2.10; PSH 469; LC 154, 155 See alsc

sub. fei, 4. 2 . 1 .

2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, restrictive, occurs before nouns in an exclu­ ding sense, "only a . . . " "nothing but . . . " "Only the number of layers and the decoration of the coffin were different" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Changch٧). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "merely to" "only to" "The Hsiung-nu concealed their able-bodied men, their fat cattle and hor­ ses, only allowing their old men, boys and lean stock to be seen" (Shih Chi, 99); "It is only by hearing his voice that the Son of Heaven is revered; none of his ministers see his face" (Shih Chi, 87); "The ordinary person merely cannot apply them in practice" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-ch٧); '[He] merely possesses a noble title, nothing more" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-ch٧): T

"Merely settled their disputes" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang 'Rulers merely provide food for their dogs f

ch٧)

and pigs" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tz٧ Chang-dann

DANN (tan ) 4

Archaic Chinese *tan; Ancient Chinese *tan-; Gram. Ser. 149 (a-b); Radical and stroke 72.1; Concordance 1. 88102; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, durative aspect, in collocation with shih viz. and with muh viz. ally" etc,

"from dawn to dusk" > "constantly" "continuM

[Su] Wu on hearing

this [i.e. of the emperor's death], faced south, wailed aloud, emitting blood, weeping continuously" (Han Shu, 54) "The King of Chao at all times served the emperor his meals in person" (Han Shu, 32). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, in collocation with muh viz.

momen­

tary aspect, "either dawn or dusk" > "at any moment" "imminently"; or with shih viz,

with the same meaning. M

You, sir,

have travelled and know that a butcher of dog-meat can get dainty tid-bits at any time to succour his parents" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Han); T

^

w

-

"Chou Chang's army has been defeated and Ch'in's troops will arrive at any moment . . . " (Shih Chi, 48); "At the beginning you and I were friends sworn to the death, but now the king and I at any mo­ ment will be killed . . . " (Shih Chi, 89). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, used either sinelv or in collocation with pyng viz. and with ming viz. "at dawn" "[They] have not dared taste the food from dawn up to now" (Shih Chi, 107); "At dawn five days later [Chang] Liang went [to the appointed place], but the old man was already there ahead of time" (Shih Chi, 55); "Not until dawn did L i Kuang man­ age to return to the main force" (Shih Chi, 109); "At daybreak [he] entered the foothills to ride and hunt deer, boar, fox and hare" (Han Shu, 65). 206

dann

danr "one morning" occurs hypothetic ally in the sense of "should

Note.

one morning . . . " as for example in: " I really fear that should the day dawn that I no longer enjoy the protection of you, the empress, I should then not know if I am to die or to live" (Han Shu, 99c) 3.11.

AUXILIARY OF TIME, determining, occurring in collocation with ryh viz. "next day" "tomorrow"

"The next day non-family guests

arrived and sat with him chatting" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch i, shang); T

T

"Please allow me to speak to the Marquis of Wei-ch i so that he make preparation for your entertain­ !

ment [and I hope] that you, sir, will honour us with your presence early to­ morrow morning" (Shih Chi, 107); "[P eng Ytteh] agreed to meet with [them] at daybreak on the fol­ T

lowing day [insisting] that any who arrived late should be beheaded" (Shih Chi, 90); "The troops, alarmed in the night, were frightened.

By dawn next day,

here and there among themselves, they pointed and stared at [Ch en] Sheng !

[and Wu] Kuang" (Han Shu, 31); "Tomorrow you must come early and make your apologies" (Han Shu, la).

dan darn daan —:> dann

DANN (tan ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d an; Ancient Chinese *d an:; Gram. Ser. 203 (g); Radical and stroke 149. 7; Concordance 5. 08141; YSD 2. 11; PSH 472; LC 155 T

f

2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before nouns and verbs, imposing a sense of gravity or portentousness (usually defined as "great" "greatly" but otherwise meaningless except in the sense described above). Heaven/thereupon/ greatly/decreed/King Wen/ de str oy / great/Yin/gr e atly / r e ce ive /their/man date > "Heaven then decreed that King Wen should destroy Yin and that he should receive [from them] their mandate" (Shu Ching, K'ang Kao);

207

dann

dao >¿

y$Li Greatly/made excessive/his excesses > His depravity was f,

immense" (Shu Ching, To Shih); | j ¿ ^

5^ ^

"Give the utmost

protection to the people bequeathed to us by Kings Wen and Wu" (Shu Ching, LoKao);|j¿ %

^

% 1% "[King Wen] first ascended a high bank"

(Shih Ching, Ta Ya); ^

^

jfj^ ^

"[She, Hou Chi s mother] fulfilled 1

her months [of gestation]" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); M . %

-f

jfc

"t

T h e

y]

laid him [Hou Chi] in a wood on the plain" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "In Hou Chi s husbandry" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); %^ Jfo

IL

T

J^v >|i| "When we perform the sacrifices, what do we do?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya).

dau daur ~>dao daw

DAO 3

(tao )

Archaic Chinese

*d 6g; Ancient f

Chinese *d au-; Gram. Ser. 1048 (d-e); Radical f

and stroke 41.13; Concordance 3. 09303; YSD - ; PSH 464; LC 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, interposed between two proper names or substitutes, in the sense of "by the intervention of" "through the good offices of" etc. ¿

$

4S&

iJÔL

M

h

-f $ "

T h ec h

'

us h a m a n W e i t h r o u g h

the good offices of Y i K uan was received in audience by Duke Ching" (Yen f

Tzu Ch un-ch iu, Chien p ien). T

208

T

T

daw

daw DAW

dau daur dao —>daw

(tao ) 4

Archaic Chinese *tog; Ancient Chinese *tau-; Gram. Ser. 1132 (a-b); Radical and stroke 18. 6; Concordance 5. 77220; YSD 2. 9; PSH - ; LC 222 3.11.

PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces a time phrase in

the sense of "coming now to . . . " "down to" "By the time that seven years has elapsed, in the year following there will be a saving of five years" (Han Shu, 75); "From the time that I received the mandate to ascend the throne i

[as the true Emperor], up to the fifth year of the [Shih] chien-kuo period... " (Han Shu, 99b).

dau daur dao —>daw

DAW (tao ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d og; Ancient Chinese *d au:; Gram. Ser. 1048 (a-c); Radical f

T

and stroke 162. 9; Concordance 2. 09983; YSD 2. 8; PSH 464 , 474; LC 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurring either pre- or post-verbally before the locative "from" "by way of" "Six black cranes came from the south" (Han Fei Tzu, 10);

"Once conditions within the

four seas are understood [the sage] can observe the yang from the yin" (Haï Fei Tzu, 8); j\>

"Let a minor state

[act] from these [premises] and then good fortune [will be theirs] even though they do not sacrifice to their gods" (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch'i, hsia); f

"To attack Ch'u from She-ku, [you would need to] travel three thousand l i to attack the stronghold of Min-yi, a long journey and a very difficult assault to mount" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Wei, hsia);

209

daw

daw "If [Ch'in] attacked from Ho-wai [she would need to] leave Ta-liang to her rear and seek a decision in the suburbs of Ch'en with Shang-ts'ai and Chao-ling [threatening] her right flank and that is something which Ch'in would be afraid to do" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Wei, hsia); "The emperor asked [the envoy] '[you] are come from battle headquarters; when Wu and Ch'u heard that Ch'ao Ts'o had been put to death, did they lay down their arms or not?' " (Han Shu, 49);

"The t'ai-we i Chou P'o entered [Tai] by way of T'ai-yüan" (Han Shu, lb 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, as above, but in collocation with the indefinite substitute suoo viz. tute shi viz.

"that from which" or with the interrogative substi"from what?"

"That from which good government originates is wealth, that from which wealth originates is strength and that from which strength originates is f i r m control" (Kuan Tzu, 29); "Why have you abandoned your kingdom so early while still so young; from whence [ = how is it that] you have arrived at this position?" (Yen-tzu Ch'un-ch'iu, Tsa shang); "Even though you may know this, from what [ « how] do you know that he [i. e. Shun] did not act out of self-interest?" (Lfl Shih Ch'un-ch'iu, Szu-hsùn Lun); "Duke P'ing asked, 'where did this [music] come from?' Master K'uang replied, 'this is one of the licentious pieces composed by Master Yen for [King] Chou' " (Han Fei Tzu, 10); "Ch'ien Tzu said, 'this [boy?] his mother is lowly born'. She is a servantgirl from Ti.

[From what =] How could he be nobly born? " (Shih Chi, 43 1

3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, interposed between two proper names or substitutes, in the sense of "by the intervention of" "through the good offices of" etc. "K'ung Tzu, through the good offices of Mi-tzu Hsia, met Lady L i .

This is an example of 'tak-

ing advantage of " (Ltf Shih Ch'un-ch'iu, 15). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, i n the end "finally" "ultimately" M

210

M

day

daw

"Ultimately it will result in misfortune" (Shu Ching, Ch٧n Shih, Chin-wen version).

dai dair dae —>day

DAY (tai ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d'og; Ancient Chinese *d'ai-; Gram. Ser. 918 (i-j); Radical and stroke 9. 3; Concordance 5. 90300; YSD 2. 8; PSH 799; LC 3. 1.3.

ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "in alternate sequence" >

"in turn" "one after another" "alternatelv" "From this time Ch i and Ch'u took T

turns in meting out punishment on L u " (Kuo Y٢, Lu Y٢); "Make the son and the father each in turn reside in Ch'in" (Kuo Y٢, "Calamities from Heaven Tsin Y٢); [flow-shift =] are liable to occur anywhere, each state in turn experiences "The upper pair them" (Kuo Y٢, Tsin Y٢); [of limbs = the arms] are raised each in their turn, the lower pair [ot limbs = the legs] each in their turn take a stride" (Kuo Ytt, Tsin Y٢). 3. 7. PARTICLE OF DELEGATION, occurs between acting agent and delegating agent, "on behalf of" "for" "on account of" " I grieve for the two of you" (Tso Chuan, Chao This/behalf of/commander/take/fame "This would

i);

i

be taking to myself the acclaim due to the army commander" (Tso Chuan, "So accordingly thev brought up the rear for Ch eng 2); "Why did him" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 18); T

you not do the shooting for me?" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Hsi Chou); "This would be for me to rule the people for you, a thing a loyal minister would not do" (Yen-tzu Ch'un-ch'iu, Tsa hsia). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, occurs introducing an instrumental phrase occurring between the agent and verb of a verbal sentence by "Strong people by [agriculture] live" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya). M

211

M

day

day

dai dair dae —>day

DAY (tai ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d'ag; Ancient Chinese *d'ai:; Gram. Ser. 976 (l ); Radical and 1

stroke 78. 5; Concordance 5. 72681; YSD 2. 5; PSH 463; LΗ 148 MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive, polar-positive, occurs before the

3.1.2.

verb, "might" "may" "perhaps" " i f it were"; also used as a polite injunctive "should perhaps" "ought perhaps" etc. "But [you] might perhaps not be able to do so a second "It may well be more serious than

time!" (Mencius, 7b)

"If you mj

that! " (Mencius, la);

lord proceed in this way you may never succeed" (Chuang Tzu, 24); "It may well be that the master is going to be i l l " ( L i Chi, 2);

"The empire

will not submit [to such conduct]; I personally might well be imperilled and the spirits of the land will not accept their sacrifices" (Shih Chi, 87). 4.1.

COPULA, "A is perhaps, is virtually, is almost B" "It may be that the Lord of Wei is innocent" (Kuo Ytt, LuYti);

"To give credence to the words of the Three Hsi might well be certain disaster" "In my humble (Kuo Ytt, Chou Ytt); opinion [the hunts of] Ch i are virtually impossible to compare [with those T

of Ch'u]" (Shih Chi, 117); . "Though their fame was great. though they attracted adherents in great numbers, the path they followed was almost totally different from that followed by T'ai-po and Yen-ling Chi"In our opinion this is tzu" (Shih Chi, 89); virtually impossible" (Shih Chi, 117). 4.1.

COPULA, as above, but in collocation with the directive auxiliary, yu viz. "A is close to being B" "A is tantamount to B" "Then to return comes close to being improper" "He who sees one is close to being (Mencius, 4b); a Paramount Prince" (Chuang Tzu, 19); "To say that those who i n -

212

day

day

vented straw grave furnishings were well-intentioned, but that those who invented grave images were inhumane, are not [such practices] tantamount to the use of human beings [as objects to be buried with the dead]?" ( L i Chi, 2). 4.1.

CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, used singly or in collocation with wey viz.

• "is perhaps" "is probably because" "Those who had put out to sea in search of the Islands of P'eng-lai reported that the reason they could not get to them, though the islands were not far distant, perhaps was because the emanations of the island were not visible" (Shih Chi, 28); "Looked at in this way, the earthquake came perhaps because of [the actions of Hung] Kung and his faction" (Han Shu, 36). 4. 2.1.

DETERMINED TERM, " i t is probably so that . . . " " i t is perhaps . . . "

"it may be that . . . " "It is likely that [she] will be going home [as a bride] with a young nobleman" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"It is

perhaps not that" (Mencius, 7b);

"The lady s illness is serious, it may be that she will never get up again from T

her bed" (Han Shu, 97).

dai dair dae —>day

DAY (tai ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d ag; Ancient Chinese *d ai:; Gram. Ser. 976 (ni); Radical and f

f

stroke 162. 5; Concordance 2. 09681; YSD 2. 7; PSH - ; LC 149 3.11.

PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase

in the sense of by the time that . . . " By time that/ice/not yet/melt "Before the ice melts" tT

(Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Before the sky had

darkened with rain" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 3.11.

PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, as above, but with modal

nuance "may the time come when . . . "

EH

day

day M

May it come to the point when he will speak of it (Shih fT

Ching, Kuo Feng).

dai dair dae —>day

DAY (ta'i ) 4

Archaic Chinese * d 8 d / d i 8 d ; Ancient Chinese *d ai-/d iei-; Gram. Ser. 509 f

T

T

!

(c-d); Radical and stroke 162. 8; Concordance 2. 09562; YSD 2. 7; PSH 475; LC 204 3. 11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase in the sense of "when it came to" "by the time that" "In the past, at a time when our Duke Hsien and Duke Mu were on good terms . . . " (Tso Chuan, Ch eng 13); "But when the Prince of Miao promulgated the five punishments they un­ !

settled the empire" (Mo Tzu, 12); "It is my earnest wish, my lord, that be­ fore the forces of Ch u and Chao reach Liang [you would] quickly take Wei f

with a small thrust" (Shih Chi, 72); "Because of this, by the time that the emperor had ordered the arrest of all who had been i m ­ plicated in the revolt of the King of Chao, Chao Wu and his party, some ten men or more, were vying with each other to be the first to commit sui­ cide" (Han Shu, 32);

"When we

come to Ho L٢, King of Wu, he, in contraventio n of the rites, was buried with lavish ostentation" (Han Shu, 36).

214

dean

dee i

dian dyan —>dean diann

DEAN (tien ) 3

Archaic Chinese *tian; Ancient Chinese *tien:; Gram. Ser. 476 (a-c); Radical and stroke 12. 6; Concordance 3. 57906; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, customary or experiential aspect," habitually" > "invariably" "always" "constantly" "Constantly obey my proclamations! " (Shu Ching, K'ang Kao) ings" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao),

de i de ir —->deei dey

"Feng! you must constantly heed my warn-

DEE I (see also der)

(tei ) 3

Archaic Chinese *tak; Ancient Chinese *tak; Gram. Ser. 905 (d); Radical and stroke 60. 8; Concordance 2. 29832; YSD 2.4; PSH 447; LC 276 3. 1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, injunctive or hortatory, polar-positive, occurs be­ fore the verb, "ought" "should" "must" "Tzu-k uai ought not to have given the State of Yen to another and Tzu-chih !

ought not to have accepted it from him" (Mencius, 2b); "[A gentleman] ought not to receive [it] in his own house" (Mencius, "Wherever [the armies] went [the troops were told] that they must not treat the people as enemies or en­ gage in looting so that Ch in s subjects were pleased [with them]" (Han Shu, r

!

la). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in permissive senses, "let" "allow" "mav "might" TΞ

"[You] may see [it] but may not take [it] away" (Shih Chi, 118);

"The

empress dowager had Tou Ying s name removed from the roster at the f

nalace rate so that hf> mip-ht not. nomfi to nnnrt and rvrfifpr h i s rpmipsts"

215

deei

deeng (Shih Chi, 107); "By Hsiung-nu law, unless a Han envoy surrendered his credentials and had his face tattooed in black he might not enter the Shan-ytfs tent" (Shih Chi, 110).

3. 3. MODAL AUXILIARY (see Introduction 3. 3. note 1) when negated and occurring before a negated verb, viz.

"cannot but be" > "must be" "The enlightened

ruler ensures that the [subjects of his] empire cannot but observe [the state of affairs] on his behalf" (Han Fei Tzu, 14); "A man of merit cannot but be rewarded and a man of ability cannot but be given office" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Crrin, hsia); "If a prince be in error the recorder must record it. In the proper carrying out of the function of his office the recorder must record error" (Ta Tai L i Chi, 48). deng derng —> deeng denq

DEENG (têng ) 3

Archaic Chinese *tang; Ancient Chinese *tang:; Gram. Ser. 961 ( i ) ; Radical and 1

stroke 118. 6; Concordance 3. 66330; YSD 2. 15; PSH 455; LC 173 See also

sub, her, 6. 3. 2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, occurs post-posed to proper names,

pronouns, etc. , in the sense of " I and those associated with me" " i t and others like i t " "so-and-so and his party or faction" etc. "But in fact it was not the king who revolted. It was I and my party alone who did this" (Shih Chi, 89); "It is we who are at fault" (Shih Chi, 89); "Men like him [i. e. Ch ing Pu] and ?

his kind are not adequate enough to plan with about affairs of state" (Shih "Kuan Kao and others had a man concealed in the wall [of the posting-station at] Po-jen" (Shih Chi, 89); "Let the Shan-yü mention no more the matter of Chang Ni and similar other [Hsiung-nu chiefs who have surrendered 216

der

deeng

"He captured

to us]" (Shih Chi, 110)

the T un-t ou King, the Han King, and so forth, three such men in a l l " (Shih Chi, 111); !

T

"The troops having crossed the desert, fifty thousand men and horses in a l l , they were to join the p'iao-chi [General Ho Ch ù*-ping] and his forces and together to attack the Shan-yü of the HsiungT

nu" (Shih Chi, 111). 2. 3. 5. NUMERICAL GROUP MARKER, as above, but in collocation with bey viz.

or with bin viz. "[He] saw that Weng Hsu* was sharing a place with some five people of the singing and dancing sort [i.e. with actors]" (Han Shu, 97b); "The officials impeached [Wei Hsüancheng] in a memorial to the throne.

[He] and those with him, several men,

were all deprived of their titles as Kuan-nui Marquises" (Han Shu, 73); "One cannot get many men like [Ni] Heng and his kind" (Hou Han Shu, 110b); "Men of this sort will inevitably on this account abuse their cleverness and exploit their authority" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 52).

de —>der dee deh

DER (see also deei)

(tê ) 2

Archaic Chinese *tok; Ancient Chinese *tak; Gram. Ser. 905 (d); Radical and stroke 60. &; Concordance 5. 29832; YSD 2.4; PSH 447; LC 276 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, resultative aspect, "succeed in" "manage to" "It would bring about [their] not being able to conduct successfully their farming operations so that thereby [they] might maintain their parents" (Mencius, la); "If pie] had informed [his parents he] would never have managed " . . . then [they] did to marry" (Mencius, 5a); not manage to see them often" (Mencius, 7a); "So that [I] have managed as a result to arrive at this [my present positionl" "Four hundred men only managed (Shih Chi, 92) 217

der

dih to return to safety" (Shih Chi, 110); "His friend . . . seized and took him off and thus he managed to es­ cape from death" (Shih Chi, 111); "The Yileh-chih are to the north of me; how can Han send envoys there?" (Shih Chi, 123).

di dyi dii —>dih

DIH (ti ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d ia; Ancient Chinese *d i-; Gram. Ser. 4 (b ); Radical and f

f

1

stroke 32. 3; Concordance 5. 37310; YSD 2.18; PSH - ; LC 189 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to" "merely to" used only when the verb is iniunctive. "You [the hsi-ts'ao] must simply bear with i t " (Han Shu, 74).

di dyi dii —>dih

DIH (ti ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d ior; Ancient Chinese *d iei:; Gram. Ser. 591 (a-c); Radical f

f

and stroke 57.4; Concordance 3. 90752; YSD - ; PSH 470; LC See also

sub, jieh, 5.1. 6.

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to" "merely to" used only when the verb is injunctive. " L i [I-chi] said, 'Simply tell [him what I said] ; so the cavalryman, at an 1

informal moment, spoke [to the governor! as L i I-chi had instructed" (Shih Chi, 97); "Do you. sir, simply lav your bet and I can ensure that you will win" (Shih Chi, 65); "The emperor said, 'Madame has only to be received by me once' " (Han Shu, 97); 218

dih

dih "If now you wish preferment simply follow my advice and make yourself agreeable [to Shih] Hsien and then you will be received in

audience" (Han Shu, 48). 5. 1. 7. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned concession, "even if" Now your Majesty and [the King of] Wu propose to march west.

,T

But even if this undertaking succeeds, the two of you will be divided by quarrelling and your troubles will only just have begun" (Shih Chi, 106).

di dyi dii ->dih

DIH (ti ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d iar; Ancient Chinese *d iei-; Gram. Ser. 591 (e); Radical !

!

and stroke 118. 5; Concordance 3. 66752; YSD 2.17; PSH 470; LC 203 2. 3.1. NUMERICAL MARKER, occurs before ordinals to create a cardinal number. "Emperor Wen accordingly made [Chou] Po Marquis of Chiang the Chancellor of the Right, in rank to be firsthand transferred [Ch'en] P ing to the position of Chancellor of the Left, in rank to be second" (Shih Chi, 56); T

"hi his administration of justice [Chia Yi] was the first [ = preeminent] in the world" (Han Shu, 48); "[Chu-ko] Ch iao whose courtesy name was Po-sung was T

the second son of Chu-ko Liang s older brother, Chin" (San Kuo Chih, Shu T

Shu 32). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to" "merely to" used onlv when the verb is iniunctive. "[He] sent secretly to the place where [Ch en] Hsi was saying, Do you simply T

r

mobilize your troops while I will help you from here " (Shih Chi, 92); T

"Do you sir, just go. As for me I too will escape and see that my family escape

219

dih

dih too.

What is there to worry about?" (Shih Chi, 101); "Emperor Wen said, Do you^sir, simply go f

on ahead and I will arrange to send someone to recall you " (Shih Chi, 96); 'Your Majesty f

needs only to set out, affecting to be journeying for pleasure to Lake Yttnmeng and arrange for the nobles to meet you at Ch en" (Shih Chi, 56). T

5.1. 7. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned concession, "even if" "even supposing"

"YoUjSirs, are late already because of the rains we have met with and to be late is punishable by death. Even sup­ posing you merely avoided the death penalty, of a certainty six or seven in every ten of you will die on garrison duty [in any case]" (Shih Chi, 48); "Chang Ch'ing, even if we both go to Lin-ch'iung and there borrow money from my relatives, we still might have enough to live on.

Why should we inflict misery on ourselves as we do here?" (Shih Chi,

117).

di dyi dii —>dih

DIH (ti ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d ieg; Ancient Chinese *d iei:; Gram. Ser. 870 (e); Radical and f

f

stroke 162.10; Concordance 2. 09810; YSD 2.17; PSH - ; LC 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "in alternate sequence" > "alternately"; "in consecutive sequence" > "in turn" "one after another" "[Yet we] do not concern [our­ selves] about mighty Ch'in, but tire and weaken each other in turn" (Chankuo Ts e, Ch'i, shang); T

"The stars in their series appear

220

dii

dih

following each other, the sun and the moon shine each in their turn. The four seasons reign each in succession, the yin and the yang effect the greal changes and wind and rain everywhere appear" (Hsttn Tzu, 17);

"[Chiang] Hung and his two brothers Hai and Chiang were all noted for their filial behaviour. They were inordi­ nately fond of one another and always slept together. When they each mar­ ried, such was their love for each other that they could not sleep apart, but in order to provide for the family succession, they went by turns to the womens' quarters" (Hou Han Shu, 83); "In the present age cleverness and scheming run hand in hand, deceitful stratagems are used one after another" (Ltt Shih Ch'unch'iu, 3).

di dyi —->dii dih

DH (see also jyy)

(ti ) 3

Archaic Chinese *tiar; Ancient Chinese *tiei:; Gram. Ser. 590 (c); Radical and stroke 53. 5; Concordance 4. 02830; YSD 2.16; PSH - ; LC 128 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase in the sense of "bv the time that . . . came" "When spring came Lin Lei put on his fur gown" (Lieh Tzu, 1).

221

dii

dii di dyi —>dii dih

Dû (also written ¡

(ti ) 3

Archaic Chinese *tiar; Ancient Chinese *tiei:; Gram. Ser. 590 (g); Radical and stroke 64. 5; Concordance 5. 37830; YSD 2.16; PSH - ; LC 128 See also

sub, dah, 3.4.

3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE OCCURRING POST-VERBALLY before the locative "to" "Hsiang Liang had once been put under arrest in Yüeh-yang and had asked Ts'ao Ch'in the prison warden of Chi to write a letter to Ssu-ma Hsin the prison warden of Yüeh-yang on his behalf with the result that the affair was settled satisfactorily"

(^Lh_chi»

7

); "King Chao of Ch'in

had imprisoned the Lord of Meng-ch'ang and was planning to have him killed. The Lord of Meng-chang sent a messenger to a favoured concubine of King Chao to seek for his release" (Shih Chi, 75); "A rich man in Waihuang had a very beautiful daughter. He had married her to a labouring man, but she had deserted him and gone to the home of a retainer of her father" (Shih Chi, 89) [They] sent inter M

prêter s for [Chang Ch'ien] to take him to K'ang-chtt" (Han Shu, 61]

222

dinq

diing ding dyng —> diing dinq

DHNG (tins: ) 3

Archaic Chinese *tieng; Ancient Chinese *tieng:; Gram. Ser. 834 (a-f); Radical 206; Concordance 2. 22883; YSD 2. 20; PSH 456; LC 171 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this or that moment" > "at that moment, just then"; "at this moment" > "just now"; and in conditional clauses "at such moment as, when" "Your Majesty's years are just now at their "[Shih] Hsien just now prime" (Han Shu, 48); is highly honoured. The emperor trusts and uses him" (Han Shu, 48); "Scholars because of this said, T

You should not discuss the Shih Ching; K'uang [Heng] will be here at any

moment™ (Han Shu, 81): "However, from the very moment that the Three Kingdoms were set up right up to the present each has attacked the other ceaselessly. There has not been a single year of peace" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 48); "At this moment the empire is on the point of boiling over [with discontent]" ( San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 52).

ding dyng diing —> dinq

DINQ (ting ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d ieng; Ancient Chinese *d ieng-; Gram. Ser. 833 (z-a ); f

f

1

Radical and stroke 40. 5; Concordance 3. 02790; YSD 2. 20; PSH - ; LC 232 3.1.2.

MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, occurs before the verb;

used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particu­ larly when this might be thought to be refuted, or contrary to expectation "did in fact" "did in reality" "actually did" etc. "Learning that Ch en She was in fact dead, he accordingly installed Hsin, T

grandson of [the former] King Huai, as King of Ch'u" (Shih Chi, 8); 225

donq

dinq

"Hsiang Liang arrived in Hsieh and learned that the King of Ch en ( = Ch'en She] was in fact dead. He accord­ f

ingly installed King Huai of Ch u. He himself took the title of Lord of Wuf

hsin and made [ - Ch'ing] Pu Lord of Tang-yang" (Shih Chi, 91).

dong dorng doong —> donq

DONQ (tung ) 4

Archaic Chinese *d ung; Ancient Chinese *d ung:; Gram. Ser. 1188 (m); Radical f

T

and stroke 19. 9; Concordance 5. 27324; YSD 2. 25; PSH - ; LC 120 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, iterative aspect, "each time" "every time" "Further, weapons are implements of bad omen and although [one] might win what one wants [with them] each time [one does so] there is the ill-factor of loss" (Shih Chi, 25); "[Wang Mang] too wanted every time to imitate the ancients, heedless of the exigencies of the times" (Han Shu, 24a);

"In all matters he was

un-self-seeking and each time [honours were proffered him] he firmly de­ clined them" (Han Shu, 99a); "You succeed every time - affairs finding their proper solution" (Han Shu, 99a). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, occurs pre-verbally but determines postverbal elements, "each . . . " "every . . . " "Thereupon [he] wrote the Judgments on the Spring and Autumn treating some two hundred and thirty cases each of which he matched with the classic explaining them in great detail" (Hou Han Shu, 78); "The em peror often asked him about state problems. [Yen] Tu replied surreptitiously [i. e. without letting the rest of the court hear]. Based on the Classics he gave his opinion on each [question] " (Hou Han Shu, 94).

224

du

du —>du dwu duu duh

DU (tu ) 1

Archaic Chinese *to; Ancient Chinese *tuo; Gram. Ser. 45 ( e ^ g l ) ; Radical and stroke 163. 9; Concordance 5. 38822; YSD 2. 20; PSH 448, 754; LC 56 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives

and

"certainly did not" "certainly should not" "never did" "under no circumstances" "[Wei] Chiai saw Hsieh [Yu-ytt] and was much taken with him. Never again did he heed [General] Wang, with the result that he had direct access to Wei and spoke to him in private" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4); "[Liu] Chien said absolutely nothing" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 5) "When Yuan Hung first composed the fu poem Eastern Expedition he made no mention whatever of Duke T ao" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4); "Why, just now, did you say absolutely nothing?" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4); "Being presented to him, he made no enquiries whatever f

about his sickness" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 5); "One can have no dealings whatever with lowly born people" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 5); "The two small children both repeated what the host and his guests had said with no errors or omissions whatever" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 12). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, in collocation with dah viz. respects" "in most respects"

"in many

"[His followers] in many respects were similar to the Yellow Turbans" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 8). 3. 2. ALLEGRO FORM, being a contracted form of the anaphoric pronoun jy and the directive particle yu viz. "[hi any] plot to conceal him [i. e. Shun] from our ruler, the gain would be all mine" (Mencius, 5a); ^

"If we look carefully at their [i.e. the Chou Dynas­

ty's] beginnings and follow them to their final outcomes . . . " (Shih Chi, 117).

225

du

duan

3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, many, most, all' "Of [your] pupils, [all of them have not yet = ] none »

"[My

t

have yet offered an explanation" (Shih Shuo Hsin Y٢, 4);

pupils] all understand it already" (Shih Shuo Hsin Y٢, 4) "Whereupon, everyone strove to emulate [him] many putting down on paper their estimation for him" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4);

"Everyone had forgotten that

General [Wang]'was behind the curtain" (Shih Shuo Hsin Y٢, 27). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, occurs before the verb, but determines elements which occur after the verb "all of the . . . " "the entire . . . " A 'balanced standard' T

[bureau] was established in the capital for the reception of all goods trans­ ported to it from [other parts of] the empire" (Shih Chi, 30). 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, "Ah! " "The emperor said, 'O! who will attend properly to my affairs?' Huan Tou replied, Ah! Kung Kung, [who] on all sides has acquired and displayed ?

merit! " (Shu Ching, Yao Tien); "Kao Yao said, 'Ah! it lies in knowing others and in reassuring the people " (Shu Ching, Kao Yao Mo); "YΝΝ said. Ah! T

1

f

your Majesty, be very careful of the fact of your occupying the throne " T

(Shu Ching, Kao Yao Mo).

—> duan dwan do an duann

DUAN (tuan ) 1

Archaic Chinese *twan; Ancient Chinese *tuan; Gram. Ser. 168 (d); Radical and stroke 117. 9; Concordance 5. 01220; YSD 2. 24; PSH - ; LC 65 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, at that precise moment" ff

> " i t chanced at that moment" "by chance" " i t so happened that" "Miserable person that I am, it just happened that by meeting Ching Ning I was received in audience" (Han Shu,

226

duenn

duan

'It so happened that I was seated deep in thought . . . "

97aV

(San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 57).

duen dwen doen —> duenn

DUENN (tun ) 4

Archaic Chinese *twan; Ancient Chinese *tuan-; Gram. Ser. 427 (j); Radical and stroke 181.4; Concordance 5. 51793; YSD 2. 25; PSH - ; LC 216 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, occurs in the distribution "numeral/e­ numerating auxiliary/enumerated noun" "an enumerated instance of" restricted to meals. " I heard that you sir were sacrifi­ cing [food] to your ancestors and I merely hoped to beg a meal from you! " /Shih

fihnn

H s i n Vff

22\

3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this moment" > "at once" "forthwith" "immediately after" " I have been ineffective in carrying out my task. My duties as Minister of Works in particular increasingly were deteriorating, until the moment arrived when the troubles came from the earthquake.

I

beg leave to resign" (Han Shu, 99b); "For what the Son of Heaven always respects and what the populace regard with favour is for a man condemned to death to die without complaint. But how can a man of low birth act in this way and not regret it the next moment" (Han Shu, 48); M

No sooner had T ao met him than he

changed his [unfavourable] opinion of him.

f

They conversed and feasted all

day long. It was at that moment that [the] affection and esteem [he later enjoyed] came to him" (Shih Shuo Hsin Y٢, 14).

227

duey

duo

due i dwei doei —> duey

DUEY (tui ) 4

Archaic Chinese *twad; Ancient Chinese *tuai-; Gram. Ser. 511 (a-g); Radical and stroke 41.11; Concordance 5. 07300; YSD 2. 24; PSH - ; LC 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurring pre-verbally before the locative, "to" "before" "Shih Po entered and said to the Prince of Lu . . . " (Kuan Tzu, 18);

"On emerg­

ing [from the court] he said to his followers, 'come and drink wine with my son-in-law' " (Han Shu, 97); "The emperor gave a banquet and belittled Sui Ho before everyone saying he was a rotten Confucian" (Han Shu, 34); "[Kuan] Kao said to his jailors . . . " (Han Shu, 32); "In former days Confucius spoke to Duke A i of Lu about both Chieh of Hsia and Chou of Yin's tyranny over the world" (Han Shu, 36);

"[You] cursed a father to his son"

(Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 5).

—>duo dwo duoo duoh

DUO

Archaic Chinese *ta; Ancient Chinese *ta; Gram. Ser. 3 (a-c); Radical and stroke 36. 3; Concordance 4. 82220; YSD 2. 2; PSH 774; LC 15, 85 See also

sub, shuay, 3.4.

2. 3. 2. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, indefinite number, occurs before nouns, "a large number of, many" >but sometimes " a l l , the entire" "May my sons and grandsons for all generations eternally treasure [this vessel]" (EAC, Inscription 2) "In [its] depths there are many fish" (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "In the king's business [there are] many difficulties" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya) "[The gods] bestow on you many 228

duo

duo blessings" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

Note. In EAC, in certain stock collocations for example "all "all kingdoms", duo is not so much "many" as "all", see EAC knights" 2. 6. 7. 5. Note 2. 3.1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "in an intense degree" "utterly" "totally" "completely" "profoundly" "thor­ oughly" etc. "Let this be done with the utmost obedience" (Shu Ching, To " I would not have spoken so much in "[May Heaven] bring

Shih): this way" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao);

upon you much increase" [lit. cause/you/greatly/increase] (Shih Ching, "Thus causing much trouble" [lit. thus/in Hsiao Ya); great degree/make/trouble] (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, iterative aspect, "many times" > "frequently" "often" "Sung was constantly importuning Cheng for bribes" (Tso Chuan, Huan 13); "[Chi] An was often i l l and kept to his chamber, unable to go out" (Shih Chi, 120). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "merely" "just" "only" "[He] merely reveals that he does not know his own measure" (Analects, 19); "He said, I today have in fact made a great er T

r o r , but of what use is it to repine?

[We must] simply leave with Ch'in the

prisoners'. He then ordered a general retreat" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 14). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, many" > "most" "In a prosperous year the younger generation for the most part are dependable, but in a bad year they are for the most part rebellious" (Mencius, 6a) "Many of the Feudal Lords are plotting to attack me" (Mencius, la);

"Many of the nobles

laughed at him and none but Yen-tzu believed him" (Tso Chuan, Chao 2); "Many of the magicians asserted that, among the emperors of antiquity, there were those who had made their capitals at Sweet Springs" (Shih Chi, 28)

229

duo

duoh M

Many of the people were illicitly minting coins. In

the region of Ch u it was particularly serious" (Shih Chi. 120); T

"Many men spoke on his behalf" (Shih Chi, 89): . "[They reported that] . . . his magic was exhausted and [his claims for it],for the most part, not borne out by the facts" (Shih Chi, 28); "Many of the people starved to death" (Han Shu, 24a). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but de­ termines elements which occur after i t , in the sense of "many of the . . . " "most of the . . . " "[The force would be] not only insufficient to inflict damaere on the Wu forces. but there would also result the slaying of many of our knights" (Tso Chuan, A i 8); "Accordingly [he] stationed a large number of guards in armour there" (Tso Chuan, Ting 10);

"[He] gathered together many adherents"

(Tso Chuan, Wen 14).

DUOH

duo dwo duoo —>duoh

(to ) 4

Archaic Chinese *twot; Ancient Chinese *tuat; Gram. Ser. 496 (h); Radical and stroke 30. 5: Concordance 5. 88281: YSD 5. 32: PSH - : LC 256 5. 2. INTERJECTION, se If-standing, "Oh! " "Alas! " "[Tung-fang] So mocked him saying, Ah! a beardless face, yet it mouths slander! " (Han Shu, 65); T

T

" L i Cheng said, Ah! You [Li Ling] have T

suffered much' " (Han Shu, 54): "[Yuan] T'an fell off his horse and turning round to look said, Ah! You have overtaken me! yet I can make you rich and honoured " (Hou Han Shu, 104b). T

t

dwu

dim du dwu —>duu

DUU (tu )

rhih

3

Archaic Chinese *to; Ancient Chinese *tuo:; Gram. Ser. 45 (y-a ); Radical and stroke 32. 9; Concordance 5. 37382; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6. 2. DEMONSTRATIVE, used in collocation with ah viz.

, see sub, ah.

du —>dwu duu duh

DWU (tu ) 2

Archaic Chinese *d uk; Ancient Chinese *d uk; Gram. Ser. 1224 (i); Radical and T

!

stroke 94.13; Concordance 5.42825; YSD 2. 21; PSH 458; LC 237 See also

sub, chii, 6.3;

or

sub, fei, 4 . 1 , 4 . 2 . 1 ;

sub. wei, 2.3.6, 3.5. 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, restrictive, occurs before nouns and enumer­ ated nouns in an excluding sense, "only . . . " "nothing but . . . " "Surely there has been some­ thing you have regretted? . . . Only this, nothing more" (Shih Chi, 109); "Only his old friends moved off their mats [to pay him obeisance]" (Shih Chi, 107); "It is not only sheep [that flourish with careful tending] governing oeoole too is like this" (Shih Chi. 30V. •



>i

/

"When fthevl had left

the camp gate none dared go further. With only two companions and some ten attendants, [Kuan Fu] galloped off to the Wu army encampment" (Shih Chi, 107); "Only at the fifth month colt-sacrifice, when the emoeror in oerson oerformed the suburban sacrifice, were [they] to use real colts" (Shih Chi, 28); "Only [the King of] Eastern Ou sided with Wu" (Shih Chi, 114); "The only one [I] was concerned about was [Ltν] Ch an" (Han Shu f

3); "Today, of the [surviving] sons of Emperor Kao, there is only the King of Huai-nan and your Majesty" (Han Shu, 4). 231

dwu

dwu

3. 1. 4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "bv oneself to" "in private to" "single-handesrllTr' '

"o 1Ano''

Q I C A

''Û"mrvf T r _ V » o t i ^ n r l "

"With whom will I live alone?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Alone I travel, friendless" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng) "[I] am going alone" (Tso Chuan, Wen 12); "Surely [he] cannot take his pleasures by himself! " (Mencius, la); "Kao-tsu, at this, was inwardly delighted and felt more confident" (Han Shu, la). 3. 1.4.

AUXILIARY OF MANNER, as above, but in collocation with shen viz. and with tzyh viz. "Lost his entire army,

four thousand m a n . fhutl he h i m s e l f fisnaned and r e t u r n e d Tto the nanita! 1

empty-handed" (Han Shu, 6); "[Hsiang] YÜ wanted to challenge the King of Han to fight [a duel] single"Play music alone" (Chao Ch i,

handed" (Han Shu, la);

!

Meng-tzu Chang-chti). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, restrictive, "the agents alone, to the exclusion of all others" "of the agents, only . . . " "He himself alone, he considers to be good" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya):

"Only I dwell in grief" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Why is it only I who suffers harm?" (Shih Ching,

Hsiao Ya);

"[That fact] alone, how can you allow it to be true?" "You alone did not congratulate (Mencius, la); "You have a (Tso Chuan, Hsüan 11); mother to give it to, alas! I myself, have no mother" (Tso Chuan, Yin 1); m

e

M

"Have vou sir. alone, not seen . . . \i. e. are vou the onlv one who hasnH seen . . . ? ] " (Chuang Tzu, 3); "The rites ended, the Son of Heaven alone [i. e. unaccompanied by the courtl with an attendant, the carriage officer Tzu-hou, ascended T ai-shan" (Shih Chi, 28); T

"It was General Kuan, he alone who did not offend against friendship f s obligations]" (Shih Chi, 107);

"You

sir alone laughed. Why was this?" (Yen-tzu Ch un-chiu, Chien shang). y

232

dye

dwu

3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, restrictive, occurs before the verb but determines elements following the verb, "only . . . " "Why give bribes only to them?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang "Will he abandon me only?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang

30); 21);

f,

[Pu Shih] took only a hundred or so oí the sheep

thev had raised" iShih Chi. 30V. "Ch'en Yù* too bore resentment against [Hsiang] YÜ [because] only he [Ch en !

Yîfl had not been made a king [i. e. everyone but Ch en Yti had been made a f

king]" (Han Shu, la); "Later, government income falling short of needs, only the salt and iron bureau was reinstated" (Han Shu, 24a). 4. 1. COPULA, with restriction, occurs either singly "A is merely B" or in "is not merelv" collocation with fei viz. "The virtuous conduct and awesomeness of rulers is not merelv ia matter of their] ability fully to be thought worthy by others" (Kuan Tzu, 16); "Now [Chang] Erh is a kmg, [ I , Clren] YÜ am merely a marquis" (Han Shu, 32). 5.1.9. EXCEPTIVE CONJUNCTION, introduces an exception, "except for" "None of the generals thought it an advantage to be first to enter Kuan [-chung] except for fHsiang] Yii who resented the defeat inflicted by Ch in upon Hsiang !

Liang" (Han Shu, la).

die —>dye diee dieh

DYE (tieh ) 2

Archaic Chinese *d iet; Ancient Chinese *d iet; Gram. Ser. 402 (k); Radical and T

T

stroke 162. 5; Concordance 2. 09290; YSD 2.19; PSH 473; LC 258 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "in alternate sequence" > "alternately"; "in consecutive sequence" > "in turn" "one after another" "[He] acted alternately as guest and host" (Mencius, 5b); "When we call out Huang! 1

233

f

dvi

dye

then answer us . . . They called three times and each time [the three men] answered in turn" (Tso Chuan, Chao 17); "As to the rise each in their turn of the three kingly houses and the flourishing each in their turn of the five Para­ mount Princes, neither came about by a preoccupation with self" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Yen, shang);

"Gongs and drums striking up in se­

quence" (Shih Chi, 117); "The feudatories were still numerous and the virtue of Chou had not yet waned so that though the five Paramount Princes arose each in his turn thev one after another showed deference to the House of Chou" (Shih Chi, 87); "Let the brothers be king in turn and thus ensure that the kingdom comes to [the youngest brother] Chi Tzu" (Kung-yang Chuan, Hsiang 19); "In antiquityT ang and Yu having per­ ished, the three dynasties each in their turn flourished" (Han Shu, 36). T

di —>dyi dii dih

DYI (ti ) 2

Archaic Chinese *dHok; Ancient Chinese *d iek; Gram. Ser. 1079 (q); Radical !

and stroke 162. 5; Concordance 2. 09584; YSD 2.18; PSH 64, 67, 72, 474; LC 273 6.4.

INDEFINITE SUBSTITUTE, occurs when a verbal clause is downgraded to

a relative phrase and substitutes for elements which, in the verbal clause, would occur in the oost-verbal DOsitions. "which" "whom" etc. "Those whom Heaven indulged and protected as its own children" (Shu Ching, Shao Kao);

"Those who were

raised by Heaven and placed under its protection" (Shu Ching, Shao Kao).

234

eel

eel EEL

el erl —>eel ell

(erh ) 3

Archaic Chinese *niar/nia; Ancient Chinese *nzie/nzie:; Gram. Ser. 359 (a-b); Radical and stroke 89.10; Concordance 2. 72440; YSD 10.12; PSH 580; LC 125 See also 3.1.4.

sub, yun, 3.14;

sub. swei, 5. 1.4.

MARKER OF THE AUXILIARY OF MANNER, post-posed to the auxili­

aries of manner and occurring before the verb, preceded by erl "Tzu-lu hastily replied saying, . . . " (Ana­ lects, 10);

M

The Master, well-pleased,

smiled saying, . . . (Analects, 17); "If offered in an insulting manner, the traveller will not accept i t " (Mencius, 6a). M

3.1.4.

MARKER OF THE AUXILIARY OF MANNER, post-posed to the auxili­

aries of manner, but occurring after the verb. "As though something stood [before me] loftily" (Analects, 9);

"[He] spoke meticulously, though

cautiously" (Analects, 10). 3. 1.4. MARKER OF THE AUXILIARY OF MANNER, post-posed to the auxili­ aries of manner, where the auxiliary is used as an attributive verb "to behave like . . . " "to behave in such and such a manner" "is . . . like" "Tzu-szu thought that freceivinel gifts of sacrificial meat made him like a servingman, constantly bowing" (Mencius, 5b). 3. 1.4. ANAPHORIC SUBSTITUTE FOR THE AUXILIARIES OF MANNER, occurs before the verb, "in such a manner" "thus" "so" "It is not that the endowment which de­ scends irom Heaven [upon them] is [like this = ] in this respect any differ­ ent" (Mencius, 6a); . " I knew beforehand that pie] would behave in this impious way" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 1). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, determining, occurs before such words as shyr viz. and ryh viz. "recently", and also before yeh viz. and shih viz. "on recent nights . . . "

235

eel

eel "Hitherto, Wu Hsing-ch'en had been the hsien-ling and had had to accompany a traveller across the River Chê" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 6); " I am conscious of the fact that, hitherto, not a single seat was occupied ' (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 13) " I had hoped previously that the world would not again stand in the way of talented men" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 8); "On recent nights the wind had been quiet and the moon bright" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 8); "Recently, moreover [he] had 1

said. from todav we surelv will not be troubled further bv this' " (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 10); f

" I did not say I must do this, I merely expressed a wish for something I previously could not get" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 16); "Of late, at night he had been exceptionally tired with the result that he became seriously i l l " (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4). 3. 14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, being an allegro form of e r l - y i i "a note of finality in the voice" "only this and nothing more" " I am concerned only for you my lord" (Mencius, 5a); "However, if there simply is no sage then is there simply not to be a sage?" (Mencius, 7b); "Our forces have rations for seven days only" (Kung-yang Chuan, Hsttan 15); "If my lord you take my advice, then today you will take K uo and tomorrow take Yü, simply f

that! Why, my lord,are you troubled about this?" (Kung-yang Chuan, Hsi "[This is] 2); merely taking your horses from an inner stable and tethering them in an outer one. What my lord will you lose by that?" (Kung-yang Chuan, Hsi "Why was i t [i. e. Hsia-yang] treated 2); as a state? Simply because the ruler's survival was bound up in it! " (Kungyang Chuan, Hsi 2); "It is not that my strength is insufficient to install him, but that, as a matter of iustice. I could not in fact do so" iKuns-vaner Chuan. Wen 11): "Whv does the text call this its domicile? Simply because it was born and raised there! " (Ta Tai L i Chi, 47).

236

eel

eel

6. 1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, second person, non-status form, occurs in both determinative and agentive usages, "your" determinative "Your new wife" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

i)

yard" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Your court­

"[You] came with your "Why not, each of you.

cart" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng; speak of your intentions" (Analects, 5);

"Your strength" (Mencius, i"The House of Lu are your kinsfolk" (Tso Chuan, Wen

5b);

"Your ugliness" (Chuang Tzu, 17).

15); ii) agentive

"You make use of unkind jests" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Formerly, [when] you went out [to seek] a habitation . . .

r

"You begrudge (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); [the loss of! the sheep, I begrudge the [loss of thel rite itself" (Analects, 3): "This is not something to which you have attained" "You have a mother to (Analects. 5): ν give it to. Alasξ I myself have no mother" (Tso Chuan, Yin 1); "How do you know?" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 32); "Do you wish to treat me as the King of Wu was treated?" (Tso Chuan, Ting 10);

"How dare you compare me to

Kuan Chune:! " (Mencius. 2a). 6. 1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, as above, but occurring with the determinative ooniunrvHon.

"[They] reach to [all of! your locations" (Shih Ching, Shang Sung):

"[When] you travel at leisure" (Shih Ching,

Hsiao Ya); "To attain distance when shooting with a bow is a matter of your ohvsical strength, but to score a bull s-eve is a matter of vour skill" (Chao 1

Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt). T

6.1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, as above, but used in apposition. "The king said, !

TTl nrnolflim to vnn. thp knights of Y i n

that T havp» no w i s h t.n kill vnn now

(Shu Ching, To Shih);

"You, the rulers

of the states, and you, their officials . . . " (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "O! vou, [my] friends" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); \ will meet you, [my] new bride" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 237

!

n

eel

eel 6.1.

PERSONAL PRONOUN, as above, but occurring post-verbally. Ya); Hsiao Yak

'Good it was that I encountered you" (Shih Ching, Hsiac May Heaven protect and establish you" (Shih Ching, M

"Ever since I went to you,

for three years I have suffered poverty" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); " I would not conceal [this] from you" (Analects, 13); J "If someone were to give recognition to you, then what would you do? " (Analects, 11); "That which emanates from you will return again to you" "You are you and I am I " (Mencius, 5b): "Have you not made me wait for you?" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 2). 6.1.

PERSONAL PRONOUN, as above, but occurring pre-verbally as a substi­

tute for the first post-verbal element "you" "The sworn statement said, We [agree that we] will not deceive you and that you need have no anxiety

T

about us " (Tso Chuan, Hs٧an 15); "At the time of the rebellion of Po-yu, being occupied with affairs of state [we] did not punish you" (Tso Chuan, Chao 2). T

6. 1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, as above, but occurring: after the causal auxiliarv. after the auxiliary of delegation, or after a svntagmatic conjunction. "To become, for you, a treasure" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "May [this] allow you to fulfill your natural span of years" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); ^ "[I] have composed for you [this] song" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); to be richly endowed" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"May fHeavenl make you "Predict

for you a hundred blessings" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Opening up for you a domain" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung);

"[I]

with you [were to have] died together" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[I] and you will grow old together" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); ity] ." (Analects, 7); (Tso Chuan, Hsi 30). T

238

"It is surely only you and I who have this [qual" I will make you ministers"

eel

eel fi 2 .

DEMONSTRATIVE, incorporating the copula, like this" > "thus" "so" M

"[If it were] not so, then why have we arrived at this [the state we presently are in]?" (San Kuo Chih, Shu Shu, 47). 7. 3. IN BLUNTED USAGE, occurs in Han as a stylistic variant of

etc.

"Whv was rthisl recorded? [Bv wav of! censure. What is censured? [The fact that] a king should not ask for anything and [he] asked for carriages which is contrary to the rites" (Kung-yang Chuan, Huan 15); "For what did [he] seek vengeance? For his remote forebear Duke Ai who, at the court of Chou, was sentenced to death by boiling" (Kung-yang Chuan, Chuang 4); "Why is the location mentioned? fact.

To conceal the

What fact was concealed? The murder of a prince" (Kung-yang "Ch'ên Ch'i said,

'This is our prince; the nobles had no choice. All in turn faced north and made obeisance treating him [Yang-sang] as their prince' " (Kung-yang Chuan, A i 6).

el erl >eel ell

EEL (erh ) 3

Archaic Chinese *iíi9g; Ancient Chinese *nzi:; Gram. Ser. 981 (a-b); Radical 128; Concordance 2. 73113; YSD 10.16: PSH 577; LC 127 3. 14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, being an allegro form of e r l - y i i "a note of finality in the voice" "only this and nothing more" "Each man individuallv has within himself a capacity for nobility. It is simply that he does not set his mind upon i t , nothing more" (Mencius, 6a);

"It is

simnlv that thev did not Trun fori a hundred paces, nothing morel " (Mencius, la);

"It was nothing more than the fact that I

dared not ask for i t " (Mencius, 2b);

239

"Wen-

eel

ell ch êng ate horse liver and died, that was a l l (Shih Chi, 28); !

M

"A man's success or f a i l ure is like these rats. It simply depends upon the position he finds himself in! 7. 3.

M

(Shih Chi, 87).

PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, as above, but in blunted usage. "If the goods you provide are of full measure and good quality then nothing further will be done, but if there is shor measure or poor quality, then when the crops ripen in autumn, we will trample your crops with our horsemen! " (Shih Chi, 110): "Those who come to serve Ch in from the feudal states, for the most part come to spy on beT

half of their masters" (Shih Chi, 87): "At the present time, authority in the empire, whether for survival or ruin, lies with vou, with m v s e l f TKaol and the c h a n c e l l o r .

T bee" vou to consider this!

M

/Shih C h i .

87).

el erl eel —>ell

ELL iêrhS

Archaic Chinese *niar; Ancient Chinese *nzi-; Gram. Ser. 564 (a-d); Radical 7; Concordance 1.10100; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC sub, i , 2. 3. 2, 3. 1.4. See also 2. 3.1. NUMERAL, "two," occurs both self-standing and determining enumerable nouns and measure words and also in the formation of complex numbers. "Your Majesty, with all deference, [must] choose from among those two [courses!" (Mencius, lb); "These two old men were the most distinguished of the elders [of their day] in the world" (Mencius, 4a); "Emperor [Yao] commanded his own children, nine sons and two daughters . . . " (Mencius, 5a): suns in the sky" (Mencius, 5a);

240

"There are not two "The

ell

ell

prince avails himself of one of these, remitting the other two" (Mencius, "For the remaining officers, twenty-five 7b); "On the second day he acres" (Mencius, 3a); led his force out of the city and fought a battle with [the Ch'in forces! and "That is the second of your defeated them" (Han Shu, la); crimes" (Han Shu, la). "several" 6.1. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, in collocation with san viz. occurs before status pronouns, creating a collective form. "Do you comply with the [other] gentlemen [at court] and be reverential" (Tso Chuan, Hsuan 17); "Our orince and his several ministers will listen to what it is that you two princes seek" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng "Do you.gentlemen, treat this with reverence" 4); (Kuo Yd, Tsin YU); "My nobles', should you not be most careful in this?" (Kuo Yfl, Tsin YG); "Do you.my nobles, be governed by your convictions. Do not be negligent" (Han Shu, 49); Note. Where ell-san occurs, other than before status pronouns, ell and san are in alternative connection, "two or three" for example : "Chou Wen was defeated and fled through the Pass, halting and making camp at Ts'ao-yang for two or three months" (Shih Chi. 48): I ) "If bv ill-chance there were droueht over an area of two or three thousand square li ... " (Han Shu, 24a). i

241

ell

er

el erl eel —>ell

ELL

(erh )

Archaic Chinese *niar; Ancient Chinese *nzi-; Gram. Ser. 564 (g-h); Radical and stroke 154. 5; Concordance 2.30193; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC -

"two" "The upper two [limbs, i.e. the arms] are raised each in their turn, the lower two [i.e. the legs] each in their turn take a stride" (Kuo Yu, Tsin Ytl).

2. 3.1. NUMERAL, alternative form of

e —>er ee eh

ER

(o2, ngo2)

Archaic Chinese *nga; Ancient Chinese *nga; Gram. Ser. 2 (h); Radical and stroke 9. 7; Concordance 5. 90250; YSD 3. 31; PSH 441; LC 86 3. 11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standine. occurrine- in collocation with erl viz. • or with tzer viz. "after a short while" > or ran viz, "suddenly" "a little later" "If suddenly non-existence had existence, we would not know the reality of existence and non-existence or what did exist and what did not exist" "Not long after, Tzu Ytt fell ill" (Chuang Tzu, 2): "Suddenly a tumour ap(Chuang Tzu, 6); peared on their left wrists" (Chuang Tzu, 18); "At first there was no existence. Then life came into being and with life, a little later, death came into being" (Chuang Tzu, "Suddenly fll awoke and Fitl 23); "Soon, was indeed me, Chou!" (Chuang Tzu, 2); [such people] are grievously impoverished" (Hstfri Tzu, 4); "Soon after his house in fact caught fire" (Han Shu, 68).

242

er

erl e —>er ee eh

ER

(o 2 )

Archaic Chinese *nga; Ancient Chinese *nga; Gram. Ser. 2 (1); Radical and stroke 109. 7; Concordance 5. 88253; YSD - ; PSH 441; LC 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, occurs in collocation with erl viz. "after a short while" > "suddenly" "a little later" "After a short while he said, 'You there! you there! harness the horses at once' " (Kung-yang Chuan, Ting 8).

e —>er ee eh

ER

(o2)

Archaic Chinese *nga; Ancient Chinese *nga; Gram. Ser. 2 (q); Radical and stroke 142. 7; Concordance 5. 56252; YSD 3. 31; PSH 441; LC 86 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, occurs in collocation with erl viz. "after a short time" "ere long" "Earlier, as a young woman, for a short time I was much favoured" (Han Shu, 97).

el —>erl eel ell

ERL

(erh2)

Archaic Chinese *mag; Ancient Chinese *nzi; Gram. Ser. 982 (a-b); Radical 126; Concordance 3. 72820; YSD 10. 5; PSH 496 : 521; LC 10 See also

, sub, chieh, 5.1.1; sub, er, 3.11; sub, how, sub, huey, 2. 4; sub. jih, 3.1. 3; lai, 3.11; sub, ran, 5.1.4; 3.9; sub, woang, 2. 7; j sub.

243

sub. er, 3.11; sub. er, 3.11; 3. 8; sub. hu, 3.15; sub. jih, 5.1.6; . sub. sub, shinq, 2.4; sub, tsorng, yii, 3,14, 5.1.5.

erl

erl

2. 2. 1. SYNTAGMATIC CONJUNCTION, occurs between two verbs or attributes "and" "[They] make you prosper and flourish" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung). 2. 2.1. SYNTAGMATIC CONJUNCTION, occurs between two nouns "and" "As a person, Kao-tsu had a prominent nose and a well-rounded [ - 'dragon-like' 1 forehead" (Han Shu, la); "When i j - i -i Ihel heard that the King of Han had incorporated Kuan-chung [under his command] and that Ch'i and Liang had rebelled against him, [Hsiang] Yfl was very angry" (Han Shu, la). 3. 1.4. MARKER OF THE AUXILIARY OF MANNER, post-posed to the auxiliaries of manner and occurring before the verb. "Reverently listen to it" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[Would that] [kindlily =] in kindness [he] would love me" (Shih "Your Majesty rudely offends Ching, Kuo Feng); people" (Han Shu, Ib). 3.1.4. ANAPHORIC SUBSTITUTE FOR THE AUXILIARIES OF MANNER, occurs before the verb "in such a manner" "thus" "so" "[I] thus shall guard against future sorrow" (Shih Ching, "Thus there were no long-drawn-out sighs" Chou Sung); "Thus causing much trouble" (Shih (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); Ching, Hsiao Ya). 3. 3. PARTICLE FOLLOWING THE AUXILIARIES OF AGENTIAL STATE (see note below). "The rites observed were for the most part taken from those used by the chief priest when sacrificing to God on High at Yung but they were sealed and stored away, being kept secret. It was not possible, at the time, for the rites to be placed on record" (Shih

Chi, 28); "By the time of the unification of the world by Ch'in, [the emperor] gave orders to the officials charged with such matters in the past in the Office of Sacrifices to pay service to Heaven and Earth, to famous hills and to the great rivers. It was thus possible for

244

erl

erl

the [services to the] gods and spirits to be put into their appropriate rankings" (Shih Ching, 28). Note. The occurrence of erl between SA and verb only occurs when a verbal clause often concluded with -tiL> is downgraded to syntagma form as the determinant element in a determinative sentence. Thus example 1 above is strictly "[The rites] at the time/Were] unable to be recorded. " 3. 8. PARTICLE OF SUBORDINATION, occurs at the end of a subordinate clause inserted between the accent and verb of the main clause. "[K] being drunk [they] leave ..." (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "When the mulberry sheds its leaves, thev Fthe leavesl having vellowed. fall" (Shih Ching. Kuo Feng); "[He who] being a man lacks proper deportment" (Shih Ching, Kuo "In advancing towards him [I] Feng); "[Do saw nothing awe-inspiring in him" (Mencius, la); you] having provided security for the people, rule as a true king" (Mencius, "It was like [one who] being innocent is la); "Having turned sent to the execution yard" (Mencius, la); [the matter over in my mind] [I tried to] recall fi. e. my thoughts] on that "Lieh Tzu travelled occasion" (Mencius, la); "[The bird] being aroused riding the winds" (Chuang Tzu, 1); takes to the air" (Chuang Tzu, 1). Note. A time phrase occurring in an erl-clause has the class-meaning "the time period designated having been reached, or having elapsed. " A place phrase similarly has the class-meaning "the agent having reached, or being present at." "Autumn having arrived [we] begin the ch'arng sacrifices" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung); "Summer having come fwe] put cross-bars on the horns of the white bulls and the red" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung); "Will [you] not be following me after a few days?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 6); "Therefore a considerable period of time had elapsed before he lost it" (Mencius, 2a); "[The superior man] being in the centre of the path takes his stance there; those who are able follow him" (Mencius, 7a); "After this some hundred years or so were to pass before

245

erl

erl

Confucius was to transmit his teachings on the Six Classics" (Shih Chi, 28); "Eight vears after i

i

~

[the death of Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju, the Son of Heaven] proceeded first to perform rituals at the Middle Peak and then to perform the feng sacrifice to T'ai Shan" (Shih Chi, 117); "[Anyone] by this time who is not enjoying the fruits of a fiefdom is not a true hero" {Shih Chi. 89^. 3. 8. CONJUNCTION OF SUBORDINATION, occurs between two verbal sentences where the first sentence is subordinate to the second. "[Though it] is known, [he] does not desist" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "King Wen having built a tower and fish pools with the peoples' labour, the people delighted in it" (Mencius, la); "Superiors and inferiors contending about profits, the state itself is endangered" (Mencius, la). 3. 9. CONJUNCTION, concluding an instrumental phrase. (This is a Late Han introduction, it is not attested for Archaic Chinese.) ."Thus it is that the great officers, in accordance with the world's wishes, wish to receive your Majesty and place you on the throne" (Han Shu, 4); "Others by the example shown know about it" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt); "Therefore by virtue of their respective suitability they are mentioned" (Chao Ch'i, Mengtzu Chang-chtt). 4.1. COPULA OF COMMON INCLUSION, "A is like B" "Letting their sashes trail like a train" (Shih Ching, "Why is [she] [in Hsiao Ya); such manner =1 so like Heaven, why so like a god?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 5.1.1. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, simple connection, occurs between two sentences, in the sense of "and" "too" "furthermore" "Furthermore, the sole reason why I have encamped at Po-shang is to await the arrival of the nobles there and to conclude an agreement with them" (Han Shu, la);

246

erl

erl

"At dawn [he] rode into the fortified camp of Chang Erh and Han Hsin and took from, them their army" (Han Shu, la). 5.1.3. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, adversative, "but" "[You, Hsiang] YU should, having rescued Chao, have returned and reported, but without authority vou took over the troops of the nobles and entered the "[P'eng] Pass" (Han Shu, la); Yueh after all expected to be made king, but your Majesty did not decide [to do so] earlier" (Han Shu, Ib). 5.1.4. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, concessive, follows the concession "even so" "yet" I

"Worthv men alreadv with me had shared in the pacif ication of it [ - the empire] yet [you] do not, with me, share in the [duty] of bringing peace and profit to it. Is this permissible?" (Han Shu, Ib); "Agriculture is the empire's basic [economic activity! upon which the people depend for their livelihood. Yet some of the people do not concentrate their efforts upon the basis, but occupy themselves with secondary [forms] of economic activity" (Han Shu, 4). 5.1.5. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, narrative sequence, "as a consequence" "and so" "subsequent to" "thereupon" "Do not treat news of yourself as gold or jade and so have a mind to stay away" (ShihChing, Hsiao Ya); "The time passed and [they] did not come and so caused much trouble" (ShihChing, Kuo Feng); "And so the words 'T'ien Tao' on the seal were to indicate [that Luan Tal acting on behalf of the Son of Heaven was to open up a path for the heavenly spirits" (Shih Chi, 28); "The Ch'u armies were in great disarray and so the King of Han managed, with several tens of cavalrymen,to escape" (Han Shu, la). 5.1.6. CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, introduces the apodosis "[when ... ] then ..."

247

erl

en

"When he heard Shu-sun T'ung's remonstrance then [he was] fearful but on receiving the rejoinder of Chancellor Ts'ao, then he rejoiced in heart" (Han Shu, 2). 6.1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, second person, non-status form, determinative "vour" "Your authority" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Your duties" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya) "Put away your evil speech and learn the good speech of your village headman" (Mo Tzu, 12); "If you [T'ien Chia] do not return to your post, I will execute [all the members ofl your family" (Shih

Chi. 108V. "If vour officials became prestigious or wealthy, it brings harm on vour [the ruler's] house and ill-fortune upon your state" (Han Shu, 36, citing Shu Ching, Hung Fan). 6.1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, as above, used as an agentive form. "Day and night expecting that you will come to my assistance" (Han Shu, 34).

248

faan

faan

fan farn —>faan fann

FAAN (fan3)

Archaic Chinese *piwan; Ancient Chinese *phvBn:; Gram. Ser. 262 (a-d); Radical and stroke 29. 2; Concordance 4. 12840; YSD 1. 39; PSH - ; LC 154 3. 1. 4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "perversely" "[Han Fei was incensed at a ruler who ... ] seeking men so as to employ the worthy, perversely promoted unstable elements placing them above men of merit and integrity" (Shih Chi, 63). 5.1.3. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, strongly adversative, "but" "on the contrary' "Before arriving and seen from afar they appear to be clouds; as one approaches, the three sacred mountains [arej.on the contrary, situated below the water" (Shih Chi, 28); "[He] regretted his [former l lauure at P'an-yu, but [contrary to expectation! this merely aroused suspicion" (Shih Chi, 115); "Shen Yi-ch'i accompanied by the T'ai-kung and the Empress Lu set out [for the capital] by unfrequented roads, but happened upon the Ch'u army [instead]" (Han Shu, la); "It is like wanting to hasten the growth of plants, but on the contrary to cause them to wither to death" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Changchti "I wished to observe the protocol and so did not break ranks to speak to him, but [he] to the contrary thinks I behaved with laxity" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-cb.il); "But the setting up ot frontier -barriers today, on the contrary, is used to imposi taxes" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt).

249

fan

fan

—>fan farn faan farm

FAN

(fan1)

Archaic Chinese *p'iwan; Ancient Chinese *p'iwBn; Gram. Ser. 195 (b-c); Radical and stroke 102. 7; Concordance 3. 26884; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, preceded by a numeral, follows the verb in the sense of "a time, or turn" "When Huan [Prefect of the] Nan Commandery and Yin [Prefect of] Ching-chou engaged in conversation, they disagreed attacking each other's position. But after a year or so had passed [they disagreed] but once or twice (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4); "Accordingly pie] pointed out [to his pupil] repeatedly [lit. several tens of times] objections [that could be opposed to his rival's exposition]" (Shih "Sir, after four [more] Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4); rounds [of discussion, you] will be of the same mind" (Shih Shuo Hsin Y(i, 4),

250

fang

fang

—>fang farng faang fanq

FANG (fang )

Archaic Chinese *piwang; Ancient Chinese *piwang; Gram. Ser. 740 (a-f); Radical and stroke 70; Concordance 3. 01220; YSD 1.40; PSH 889; LC 90 See also

sub, her, 6. 3. 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this or that moment" > "at that moment, just then" "at this moment, just now"; and in conditional clauses, "at such moment as. when" "The millet was, iust then, in full flower" (Shih Chine, Hsiao Ya); "Like a river iust at the flood" (Shih Chine, Hsiao Ya); "At that very moment [he] was just about to smite them" (Mencius, 3a); "The states of Ch'en and Ts'ai were at that moment on friendly terms with Wei" (Tso Chuan, Yin 4V. "At the time it was hot, so having dug a pit and placed ice in it, [he] slept in it" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 21); "Duke Huan of Ch'en is at the moment in favour with the king" (Tso Chuan, Yin 4); "Heaven is iust now scivina: nower to Ch'u" (Tso Chuan. Hsflan 15 \: "The army of Ch'u is at present powerful" (Tso Chuan, Hsflan 15); "The Imperial Secretary Chang T'ang at this time was at the height of his power" (Shih Chi, 30); "At this time the Han had just then several times sent generals to attack the Hsiung-nu" (Shih Chi, 30); "The empire at this moment has a crisis. How can you [Tou Ying] think of declining?" (Shih Chi, 107). 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "for the moment" "for the time being" "in the meantime" "I shall in the meantime be giving consideration to your accomplishments" (Shih Chi, 91); "Now that Prince Yfln is fully grown, I am going to build [a house] in the T'ou Ch'iu district and pass my old age there" (Shih Chi, 33); "The King of

251

fang

fang

Huai-nan was in the meantime going hunting, but seeing the pickled flesh was filled with terror" (Shih Chi, 91). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in collocation with chiee viz.

"[Suppose that! two tigers meanwhile are going to eat an ox. They are certain to dispute about the choicest pieces and if they dispute they will fight and if they fight the stronger will be wounded and the weaker will die" (Shih Chi. 70); "It was bv reiving on vou.sir, that I gained recognition, meanwhile FI1 shall be repaying your kindness. Why must you leave?" (Shih Chi, "[He] said [he] would in the mean70); time be conducting the government by heeding your advice sir! " (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, with the auxiliary occurring in pairs "one moment ... the next ..." "now ... now ..." "The moment we are born we die, the moment we die we are born" (Chuang Tzu, 2). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, spatial aspect, "on all four sides" > "everywhere" "Go everywhere in the world as far as the extremities of the seas" (Shu Ching, Li Cheng); "Kung Kung everywhere has gathered and displayed his accomplish"The turbulent ments" (Shu Ching, Yao Tien); floods everywhere cause damage" (Shu Ching, Yao Tien); "Kao Yao everywhere reverently carries out his duties and everywhere applies the model statutes with en"The lower lightenment" (Shu Ching, Yi Chi); . orders arise on all sides and fight against each other" (Shu Ching, Wei Tzu). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all" "In antiauitv the late sovereigns of Hsia all sincerely cultivated their virtue" (Shu Ching, Yi Hstin); "As brothers [they] all came" (Shu Ching, Tzu Ts'ai); "Those who had been severely punished all declared their innocence to [God on] High" (Shu Ching. Lfl Hsing). 252

fann

fang

3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs introducing the time "at phrase in the sense of "at" "in", restricted in occurrence to jin viz. present" "At the present time it is Ch'in who is "At dominant in the world" (Shih Chi, 83); the uresent time the cherries are ripe and they could be used as a sacred offering" (Shih Chi, 99); "At the present time the Ch'u forces can most easily be overcome, but if we [Han] to the contrary retreat and allow our advantage to be snatched from us, I think myself it would be a grave error" (Shih Chi, 97); "At the present time the good men praise your lordship and for this reason you have attained to the chancellorship" (Shih Chi, 107).

fan farn faan —>fann

FANN (fan4)

Archaic Chinese *pUwam; Ancient Chinese *p'iwBm-; Gram. Ser. 641 (b); Radical and stroke 85. 5; Concordance 5. 01990; YSD 1.40; PSH - ; LC 3. 1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "airily" "vaguely" "in very broad terms" "[Ts'ao Chung-shu] had for long been on friendly terms with the ch'iang-nu General Sun Chien. [Wang] Mang, suspecting that [Sun] Chien was hiding [Ts'ao],questioned [Sun] Chien in very broad terms [i. e. without specifically mentioning his suspicions]" (Han Shu. 92).

253

farn

fanq FANQ

fang farng faang —>fanq

(fang )

Archaic Chinese *piwang; Ancient Chinese *piwang-; Gram. Ser. 740 (i); Radical and stroke 66.4; Concordance 5. 02940; YSD - ; PSH 889; LC 3. 11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs introducing a time ohrase in the sense of "at" "in" "Duke Huan, in spring, in the third month, went on a tour of inspection in the country" (Kuan Tzu, 20).

FARN

fan —>farn faan fann

(fan2)

Archaic Chinese *b'iwam; Ancient Chinese *bMwBm; Gram. Ser. 625 (a-c); Radical and stroke 16.1; Concordance 1. 88210; YSD 1. 37; PSH 896; LC 118 2.3.6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, identifying, occurs before nouns, "all of the ... " "all who ..." "All of the booty, sorted by kind" (EAC, Inscription 14); Ching, K'ang Kao);

"All people who deliberately break the law ..." (Shu "All states everywhere, large

and small ..." (Shu Ching. To Shih); Chou" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"All of the officers of "[Of] all the men of today ..." "All these who have drunk wine" "All of the feudatory's satel-

lite states" (TsoChuan, Hsiang 27);

"All those

who covenant together with us" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 9); "All of the [above-mentioned] six [categories of] sacrifices are each under the jurisdiction of the Master of Invocations" (Shih Chi, 28). 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, identifying, occurs before numerals, "a total of ..." follows:

254

"in all ... ". Farn occurs in three types of distribution as

farn

farn (i) Enumerated noun/farn/numeral/enumerator

"When [Wei Ch'ing's] troops had crossed the desert a force of men and horses totalling fifty thousand cavalrymen, they together with Ho Ch'tl-ping and others were all to attack the Shan-yfl of the Hsiung-nu" (Shih "Four times his fief Chi, 111); was increased to a total of fifteen thousand one hundred families in all" (Shih Chi. Ill); "The more important [leaders] [command] ten thousand horsemen, the less important [leaders! several thousands, a total of twenty-four leaders in all" "[When he] (Shih Chi, 110); surrendered to the Han [he commanded] a total of over forty thousand men, though it was said to be a hundred thousand" (Shih Chi, 110); "They were to fatten the horses on grain and despatch a force of a hundred thousand cavalry together with horses to carry baggage and equipment, a total of a hundred and forty thousand beasts in all" (Shih Chi, 110); "The Han forces killed or captured a total of more than seventy thousand of the enemy" (Shih Chi, 110); "This year there was expended a total of more than ten billion [cash]" (Shih Chi, 30). (ii) Farn/enumerated noun/numeral/enumerator "One grade in rank was to cost one hundred and seventy thousand [cash], the total value [of the sale] amounting to over three hundred thousand [catties of] gold" (Shih Chi, 30); "When the general-in-chief and his army returned to China, a total of nineteen thousand men had been killed or captured" (Shih Chi, 111). ]/numeral/enumerated noun (iii) Farn/r ... "Within twenty-four years in all five marquises were deprived of their titles" (Shih Chi, 111); "[Su] Wu was detained among the Hsiung-nu for nineteen years in all" (Han Shu, 54). 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, as above, but determining a numeral before a verb; farn/numeral/verb, "a total of ... times" "The commander-in-chief 255

farn

feei

[Wei] Ch'ing seven times in all went out to attack the Hsiung-nu" (Shih Chi, 111); "In all, six times he devised ingenious strategies for each of which he was at once granted additional cities, so that six times his feudal holdings were increased" (Shih Chi, 56). 5. 4. SELF-STANDING AUXILIARY, "to sum up ..." "To sum up, the reason that I have come is to be a father to you and to save you from further harm. It is not to exploit or tyrannize over you so do not be afraid! " (Sfaih Chi, 8). Note. In Late Han, farn "all" becomes "everyday" "commonplace" "ordin-

ary. " "By way of illustration, the pj jade of the Ho family though of comparable size and thickness with an ordinary jade pi could hardly be thought equal in value" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chC); "Rulers of the ordinary sort" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); j "Ordinary men" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl).

fei feir —>feei fey

FEEI

(fei ) t£

• "\

Archaic Chinese *piwar; Ancient Chinese *pjwei; Gram. Ser. 579 (c); Radical and stroke 22. 8; Concordance 2. 81770; YSD 1. 35; PSH 877; LC 138 2.6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated noun. "inhuman" as in "[We] alone are treated as [not"unpeople =] as though we were inhuman" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); speakable" as in "What is improper to say should not be said" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

256

feei

feei

2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated attribute. "Like an unwashed dress" (Shih 'unwashed' as in Ching, Kuo Feng). 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, negative, universal rather than particular denial, "not at any time" > "never", "not so far" > "not yet" "Never altered his plans" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Never still, never at rest" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Never "Never slacking day nor night" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); at peace, never relaxed" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya). 4.1. COPULA, negated form, "... is not ..." "His charge is not to be taken for granted" (Shih Ching, "Disorder is not [something that is] sent Ta Ya); "[Is it true that] down from Heaven" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "My the ancestors are not men?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); heart is not a looking-glass" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). "is not because" 4.1. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, in collocation with i, viz. "It is not because rtheyl trail them fi. e. their sashes]" "It is not because fthevl curl it (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); [i.e. their hair]" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 4. 2.1. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of truth and falsity, "it is not so that ... "How sad it is! I cannot speak/It is not a question of putting out my tongue/But rather of [unduly] distressing myself" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "It is not a question of their being courteous and respectful/But rather of their being a [source of] grief to the king" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "It is not tarragon, it is wormwood" (Shih Chins. Hsiao "It is not that [he] is angry, [he] is disciplining us" Ya); (Shih Ching, Lu Sung). 4.2.2. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of occurrence or presence, "there is not ..." "It is certainly not for strangers, [but for] my brothers - there are no others" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "If there is not sunshine it will not dry" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[But] there are not [any whom] I love and cherish" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 257

feei

feei

7.1. BLUNTED USAGE. The following, in which 6| occurs for buX\ is a hapax legomenon in Late Archaic. "High Heaven has sent down disaster, causing our two princes to meet, not with gifts of silk and jade, but by the raising of arms" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 15). occurs in archaising Han writing as a stylistic variant of , for example, "I dare not relax or be negligent" (Han Shu, 9).

fei feir —>feei fey

FEEI (fei3)

Archaic Chinese *piwar; Ancient Chinese *pjwei:; Gram. Ser. 579 (e); Radical and stroke 75. 8; Concordance 3. 77360; YSD - ; PSH 875, 877; LC 2.6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated attribute (like un-; -less; etc.). "not gone" > "extant, still living" as in "The rulers of states in our Western Territories still living" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao). 2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated noun. "Those who have no duties, i. e. the unemployed" as in "Their ministers ssisted them. Those who had no duties dared not be idle or take their "Listen as ease" (Shu Ching. Chiu Kao); ( I instruct you about those things which are contrary to the customs of the "He brought to light irregupeople" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao); lar practices" (Shu Ching, LttHsing). 4.1. COPULA, negated form, "... is not ..." "Heaven is not to be relied on" [that is, taken for granted] (Shu Ching, Ta Kao).

258

fei

fei

—>fei feir feei fey

FEI

(fei1)

Archaic Chinese *pjiw3r; Ancient Chinese *pjwei; Gram. Ser. 579 (a-b); Radical 175; Concordance 5. 70700; YSD 1. 33; PSH 875; LC 32

sub, moh, sub, chii, 6.3. note; sub, dann, 4.1; 3.4; sub, tzyh, 5.1. 7; sub, wu, 3.4. sub, wane, 3.4; 2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated noun. "Do not employ [procedures! contrary to custom or to good counsel" (Shu Ching, K'ang Kao); "FHel was reckless in [his] irregular practices" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); "If [you] know it to be an injustice ..." (Mencius, 3b); ; "He did not hanker after [things that were] un— i i just, or act upon [matters] that contravened his superior ['s wishes]" (Kuoytt, Tsin Yfl). 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, interrogative, occurs either singly or in collocation with hu viz. "is it not so?" See also

"These words are the antithesis of the truth are they not?" (Han Shu, 64); "This [the use of self-deprecatory terms! - is it not taking the ignoble as the root? [It is] is it not?" (Tao Te Ching, 39). 4.1. COPULA, negated form, " . . . is not ... " "If someone commits a minor offence, which is not inadvertent [but] is of intent ..." (Shu Ching, K'ang Kao); "[No one is not =] all are chargeable at law" (Shu Ching, To Shih); "[Nothing is not =] all these I - •* things are your achievements" (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "You, sir, are not me" (Chuang Tzu. 17); 'Success or failure in office is not within the ability of the individual [to determine]" (Mencius, Ib); : "To lack feelings of shame and disgust is not an attribute of human beings" (Mencius, 2a); "The Shan-yfl grew increasingly arrogant and behaved with great rudeness. [This] was not what the Han had hoped for" (Shih Chi, 110); # "The

259

fei

fei

officials and people of Yen are not euiltv" (Han Shu. la). 4.1. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, used either sinelv or in collocation with wev viz. "not because" or with ivr viz. or with dwu viz. "not aerely because" "When I care for you and direct you, it is because [I want you] to enjoy peace and security. It is not because you have committed an offence and I want to bring you to justice" (Shu Ching, P'an Keng); "Therefore the king's failure to practice true kingship is because he does not. it is not because he cannot [practice it]" (Mencius, la); "[Funeral observances were followed by all] from the Son of Heaven down to commoners, not merely because of a desir to impress, but because having done so it met a response in men's hearts" (Mencius, 2b); "It is not because I would dare to begrudge myself [ = think of my own safety! but because I fear that my abilities being slender, I would not be able to euarantee the safetv of vour menfolk" |

-

I

-^

*

-•

is no one with whom you can make plans" (Han Shu, la); "Unless [we are allowed to build] on a majestic scale, [we] have nothing by which to stress our prestige" (Han Shu, Ib); "Except it be your own son or younger brother, no one can be sent to rule in Ch'i as a king" (Han Shu, Ib); "Unless it is done methodically, where can [we] turn for a possible [solution]?" (Han Shu, 24b).

262

fei

fei

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, deployed as in 4.1 above, but used interrogatively, "is it not?" "[He who] should be loved is [he] not the prince? [Those whol should be held in awe are [they] not the people?" (Shu Ching, Ta YO Mo); "Is it not because he has no thoughts of self that he is able to fulfill his self?" (Tao Te Ching, 7); "Where does the fault lie? Is it not that my virtue is slight and my teaching is unclear?" (ShihChi, 10). 7.1. BLUNTED USAGE.occurs in archaising style as a variant for etc. i) used for "This is what might be called not encountering an appropriate time [i.e. untimely]" (Chuang Tzu, 20); "Even if you gained this Han territory, [you -] the Shan-yfl would never be able to occupy it" (Shih Chi. 110) "This wasteland which lies between the Hsiungnu frontier and ours is inaccessible to you. I wish to take possession oi it" (Shih Chi, 110). ii) used for ^ "If the people have no prince, who will cover them? H the prince has no people, he has none to guard his kingdom" (Shu Ching, Ta Yfl Mo); "The immortals would not seek out the ruler of men. it is the ruler of men who should seek them" (Shih Chi, 28); "FHel has no sense of the rules of oroorietv that should be observed by superiors and inferiors" (Han Shu, 33). iii^ used for

32);

"A child cannot be trifled with" (Han Fei Tzu. "Those

who have not yet attained the rank of ta-fu of the seventh grade, and ranks below that, are all to be exempt from taxes, both their own and those of their households,and need not do public service" (Han Shu, Ib);

263

foou

fen FEN

—>fen fern feen fenn

(fen1)

Archaic Chinese *piw8n; Ancient Chinese *piuen; Gram. Ser. 471 (a-e); Radical and stroke 18. 2; Concordance 2.90720; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 214 2. 3.1. NUMERICAL MARKER, occurs between denominator and numerator in the creation of fractions. "[He was] sent with a third [of his usual retinue]" (Tso Chuan, Ai 8); "Of those who manage to keep their kingdoms not one in ten thousand suc"[He] enfeoffed ceeds" (Chuang Tzu, 11); (his] three kinsmen with half of the empire" (Han Shu, 35). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "separately" "each in his several way" "Thereupon [the emperor] sent the commissioners Ch'u Ta and Hsfl Yen and others to proceed, each in his several way.to the provinces and fiefs" (Han Shu, 24b); "Then [the emperor] sent;on their several missions, parties of a yfl-shih, a t'ing-wei and a cheng-chien" (Han Shu, 24b).

fou four —>foou fow

FOOU (see also fwu

(=

))

(fou ) .f

O.

Archaic Chinese *piug; Ancient Chinese *pigu; Gram. Ser. 999 (e-f); Radical and stroke 30.4; Concordance 3. 76881; YSD 1.36; PSH 866, 873; LC 176, 242 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, negative, indicative. "Among the people of Miao, without resorting to admonition or instruction the penal code was applied" (Mo Tzu. 12, citing LtTHsing); /

•«*

-*4

"The state being established and its capital set up, then began [the appointment] of kings and princes but not to make them proud.

264

[Then] were appointed ministers and

foou

foou

officials, but not to allow them to remain in idleness" (Mo Tzu, 12, citing Hsiang Nien). in this usage occurs only in these passages. Note. 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, interrogative, "or not?" "I do not know if you can arrange for us to see each other or not?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang"He asked, 'According to the way chtl); of the True Gentleman, is it obligatory to give office [to a gentleman] or "fSo that I not?' " (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf); may] know if he is willing to come or not?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Changchfl). 4. 2.2. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of occurrence or presence "there is not ..." "FSsul Yueh said, Tin me] there is not virtue. [I] should disgrace the imperial throne' " (Shu Ching. Yao Tien); "[Where there is] virtue there is good government. [where] there is not virtue [there is] disorder" (Shu Ching, T'ai-chia). Note. in this usage occurs only in these passages. 4.3. DETERMINANT TERM, "is not [allowable, possible, etc.]" "For the branches to be orderly when the root is disordered is not [possible 1" (Li Chi. 39k 5. 3. SELF-STANDING NEGATIVE, "no" "I do not concur" in contrast to nuoh "yes" "I concur" etc. "The king said, 'No', how could I be pleased about this?' " (Mencius, 2a); "No*. I do not do it for these reasonsi" (Mencius. 2a): "No! it was because of the lavishness of the inner and outer coffins and of the shrouds" (Mencius. Ib). 6. 5. REPLACEMENT FOR NEGATED VERB OR ATTRIBUTE, in selective statements, "whether to ... or not" "some are ... some are not" "Some are wise some are not [wise]" (Shin Ching, Hsiao

Ya): Kuo Feng); Kuo Feng); (Mencius. 2b);

265

"Which shall [I] wash,which not [wash]?" (Shih Ching. "Others cross [the ferry],! do not" (Shih Ching, "Then should I get rid of it or not?" "If this were so, would you be

foou

foou moved or not?" (Mencius, 2a); "A party from Tsin made an incursion into Cheng to see whether Cheng could be attacked or not" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 30); "Whether I see it or not, it will be settled this year" (Tso Chuan. "They do not ask whether (he] will do or not" Hsiang 30); ; "Some Feu(ShihChi, 87); dal Lords came to court, others did not. The Son of Heaven was unable to control this" (ShihChi, 6).

6. 5. REPLACEMENT FOR NEGATED VERB, but in conditional statements, "if not, then ..."

"[if not . . . ] then not" "If [a defeat] is reported then it is recorded, but if not then not" (Tso Chuan, Yin 11): "If the Feudal Lords enjoy success in battles with the barbarians, they offer [the spoils]

to the king. The king uses the spoils to intimidate other barbarians. But if it is a question of the central states themselves [the victor] does not [offer the spoils etc. ]" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 31); "A petty person would be afraid, but a gentleman would not" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 26);

"When justice pre-

vails then ministers take office, if not, then they take themselves off" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 26); "If you gentlemen wish to regard me [as your prince] then say so at once, if not, then say so at once" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 18); "By their worthiness, Chi [An] and Cheng [T'ang-shih] when they wielded power had adherents by the score, but when they were without power, then not [i. e. they had no adherents]" (Shih Chi, 120); "K [theyl are not [learned] then those who study [under them] will have nothing to pass on [to others]" (Han Shu, 10);

"H not, then I must ask

you to cut your own throat before anything happens" (Han Shu, 37). 6. 5. REPLACEMENT FOR NEGATED VERB, as above, resuming a verb but in negated form. Effectively, foou in these contexts substitutes for "

verb" the

verb having occurred previously in unnegated form "But having turned round, fyoul do not come in. [Your] not [doing so] is difficult to understand" [

266

foou

fu

(Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "When a prince says of a certain course of action that it is approved when there is in it something that should not [be approved], then his minister should bring forward what should not [be approved] so that the [final] approval might be perfect" [ ] (Tso Chuan, Chao 20).

—>fu fwu fuu fuh

FU

(see also fwu)

(fu1)

Archaic Chinese *piwo; Ancient Chinese *piu; Gram. Ser. 101 (a-d); Radical and stroke 37.1; Concordance 1. 50900; YSD 1.43; PSH 880; LC 50 See also sub, lao, 6.1. 2.1. 2. ELEMENT IN WORD-FORMATION as suffix to nouns forming vocational names and other names for social groups. "farmer" "a noble" "a commoner" "a rebel" (Tso Chuan, passim). "... so as not to allow incorrupt officials to be kept for long periods out of office while the covetous .jh — ones perpetually profit from it" (Han Shu, 5); "a farmer" as in ••• "He asked a farmer one Lao Ku saying ..." (Hsin Hstt, Shuo Fan, Tsa-shih). 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, occurs in the distribution enumerated noun/numeral/numeral auxiliary; "an enumerable instance of" restricted to human beings. "One hundred and fifty freemen and slaves" (EAC. Inscription 13); "Six hundred and fifty-nine freemen and slaves, from chariot-drivers down to commoners" (EAC, Inscription 13). "you madame" 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, in collocation with ren viz. "my lord, my lords! " with tzyy viz. "masterl " with dah viz. etc. "You madame will become the most noble lady in the empire" (said to a minor official's wife) (Han Shu, la); "butcher" "a madman"

267

fu

fuh

"Do you master proceed to the mat and I will attend to your Instruction" (Yen-tzu Ch'un-chiu. Chien shang); "Had it not been for you my lord, I might well have committed a grave crime" (Yen-tzu Ch'un-chiu, Chien shang); "In the past you, master,have taught me about the impropriety of acting without reference to the rites" (Yen-tzu Ch'un-chiu, Chien shang).

—>fu fwu fuu fuh

FU

(fu1)

Archaic Chinese *p4wo; Ancient Chinese *p'iu; Gram. Ser. 102 (t1); Radical and stroke 66.10; Concordance 5. 52944; YSD - ; PSH 895; LC 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, spatial aspect/'occurring everywhere"> "on all sides" "in all directions" etc. "Should [you] not, everywhere, seek [the wisdom] of the Former Kings?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

fu fwu fuu —>fuh

FUH

(fu4)

Archaic Chinese *b'iw3t; Ancient Chinese *b'iuat; Gram. Ser. 500 (m); Radical and stroke 30. 5; Concordance 5. 88555; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 252 5. 3. SELF-STANDING NEGATIVE, "no1. " "The emperor said, 'Ono! [he] neglects [my] charges, pie] ruins [his own] kin' " (Shu Ching, Yao Tien).

268

full

fuh

fu fwu fuu —>fuh

FUH

(fu4)

Archaic Chinese *b'iok/b'iog; Ancient Chinese *b'iuk/b'i8u; Gram. Ser. 1034 (d-f); Radical and stroke 60. 9; Concordance 5. 29942; YSD 1.48; PSH - ; LC 238 See also ; sub. vow. 5.1.1; sub. reng, 3.1. 3. 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, continuative aspect, "continue to, still" and when negated "not any longer, not any more" "Only [the ruler of] Tien continued to be favoured and to rule as a king" (Shih Chi, 116); "Surely it cannot still be called 'external'.' " (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); "It surely cannot be, that he can continue to do harm to his body?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); "Rich and highly placed vet still possessed of virtue" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl): "[He] did not eat dates any more" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); road" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf); "But in [his] heart fhe] wanted to leave and so did not accept a salary any more" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "for a second time" "once ap-ain" "[He] was going to bring them in again" (Mencius,

4a); "Fourteen generations later, Emperor Wu-ting obtained the services of Fu Ytieh as his minister and Yin once again flourished" (Shih Chi, 28); "[Kaotsu] summoned all the former religious officials of the Ch'in Dynasty and re-established the posts of Master of Invocations and Grand Supervisor, to perform the rites as in the past" (Shih Chi, 28); "Ch'in was originally joined with Chou, but having been ioined thev separated. After five hundred vears thev will "mtendinff to rebe joined again ..." (Shih Chi, 28); capture it" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); "Offered him again" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf); "Went again

269

fuh

seeking an interview" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-cM); "Put into practice again the ancient ways" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Changchfl); 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in collocation with genq viz. or tzay viz 'Accordingly he shot at it again, but simply could not penetrate the rock a second time" (Shin Chi, 109); "It is my wish that [you] do not speak of this again" (Han Shu. 54). 5.1.1. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, simple connection, occurs singly, or in collocation with yow viz. and with chiee viz. ; occurs between the agent and verb of the second of two sentences "also" "too" "as well" "in addition" "furthermore" "[He] also occupied the regions of Feng and Hao... " (Shih Chi, 110): "The Han also sent the yin-yfl General [Kung-sun] Ao to proceed north from Hsiho ..."(Shih Chi, 110); "When [K'un-mo] had grown to manhood he was given command of troops and several times won distinction in battle. The Shan-yu also gave to him the people his father had ruled so that he might keep guard at the western forts" (Shih Chi, "But now, too, Fyoul have incorpo123); rated territory from Yen ..." (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf); "Having chased [the stray pig] and returned it and put it in its sty that will suffice. But in addition, to go on and hobble it ..." (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); "[They] merely attached the document [to the sacrifice], but did not perform the blood-smearing ceremony as well" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-ditt); "His elders and his officials furthermore said, ..." (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chC); "They did not also ask me who should [attack Yen] but of their own volition immediately went off and attacked it" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chC). 5.1.4. CONCESSIVE CONJUNCTION, follows the concession, "even so" "[Despite Wang Mang's promises] even so, [the nobles] were unable to draw the full amount" (Han Shu. 99b). 270

fuh

fuu

fu fwu fuu —>fuh

FUH

(fu4)

Archaic Chinese *b'iwo; Ancient Chinese *b'iu:; Gram.- Ser. 102 (a-e); Radical #* f\ and stroke 88; Concordance 2.90400; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC sub. shwu. 6.1. See also or with lao viz. 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, in collocation with shiong viz. used in addressing elders, or men to whom it is intended to pay deference "you sirs!" "The entire [ = sole] reason why I have come is on behalf of you gentlemen, to eliminate the things "You which harm you" (Han Shu, la); gentlemen have for long suffered bitterly under the harsh laws of Ch'in" (Han Shu, la); "I give you gentlemen a solemn undertaking that the law shall have three articles only" (Han Shu, la).

fu fwu —>fuu fuh

FUU

(fu3)

Archaic Chinese *piu; Ancient Chinese *piu:; Gram. Ser. 136 (c); Radical and stroke 53. 5; Concordance 4. 02930; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC See also l sub. ming, 6.1. 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, appended to the family name as a mark of respect, "excellencv x" "His Excellency — -, Wu is an experienced [servant of a] sage king, the outstanding administrator of an enlightened age" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytf, 8). 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, in collocation with iiun viz. "Your excellency" used in addressing a prefect, etc. "It would be the popular wish that your

271

fuu

f\\n i

excellency proceed first to the secretariat" (Shin Shuo Hsin Ytf. 1); "H your excellency will look no further into the matter, then we have no one to whom to complain" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 10).

fu fwu —>fuu fuh

FUU

(fu3)

Archaic Chinese *piwo; Ancient Chinese *pni:; Gram. Ser. 102 (n-q); Radical and stroke 101.2; Concordance 1. 50224; YSD 1.47; PSH 895; LC 146 3.1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "slightly" "hardly" "barely" "Just over a month later she was made empress. She had just attained the age of six years" (Han

Shu, 97a);

"The officials had barely received

this edict and read its contents ..." (Han Shu, 97b); "[At that time] the empire [i.e. the Chou Dynasty] had only just passed through two generations fof rulers!" (Han Shu, 75).

fu —>fwu fuu fuh

FWU

(fu2)

Archaic Chinese *b'iuk; Ancient Chinese %'iuk; Gram. Ser. 935 (a-b); Radical and stroke 9.4; Concordance 5. 90390; YSD 1.50; PSH - ; LC 237 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before the verb as a mark of deference to the status of the person addressed, "with all deference ..." "with due respect ..." "though I sav so mvself ..." "with all humilitv ..." "With all humility, Fwel have heard that the Chou enfeoffed eight hundred, equally ranking with the Chi clan, to serve the empire" (Shih Chi. 60); "We your subjects, with

272

fwu

fwu

all humility, have deliberated [among ourselves] about this matter. [We think that] your Majesty is the most appropriate person to offer the sacrifices in the ancestral shrine of Kao-tsu" (Han Shu. 4); 'Til with all humility faddressl the steps of the throne of the Great Empress, personification of the beauty of overflowing virtue" (Hou Han Shu, 84); "I think of [your Majesty's] pure and rich sagely virtue, you have received Heaven's blessing and lived up to the ancient [prescripts]... " (Han Shu, 99a); "I [Ch'en] Ch'ung have read the date on the imperial edict and I have reckoned the time [to be that of the time of the victory]" (Han Shu, 99a).

fu —>fwu fuu fuh

FWU

(see also fu)

.{, £1.

(fu )

Archaic Chinese *b'rwo; Ancient Chinese *b'iu; Gram. Ser. 101 (a-d); Radical and stroke 37.1; Concordance 1.50900; YSD 1.43; PSH 880; LC 50 See also

sub, chiee, 5.1.1; sub, fei, 3.14; sub, shyy, sub, ruoh, 3.10. 5.1.6; 3.13. PARTICLE OF ACCENTUATION, precedes the accented word. "For weapons are like fire" (TsoChuan, Yin 4); "Who would oppose the king?" (Mencius, la); "Does the king know about seedlings?" (Mencius, la); "If it is a matter of results then that lies with Heaven" (Mencius, Ib); "As for the knight, he too,without the royal warrant for doing so, of his own volition gave it to his son" (Mencius, 2b); "For a man must first bring contempt on himself before others despise him" (Mencius, 4a); "Those who know me think I am loyal, but those who do not know me think I am disloyal" (Shin Chi, 112); "It is true, for of all my friends among the highest officers none is closer to me than [Chi] An" (Shih Chi, 112).

273

fwu 3. 14.

fwu PARTTOT/R CW SJWnWrTAT. MHnn

ho-mo- on alloo-yn fnr-m nf fnnii-tiu

"is it not?" "is it not so?" etc. "The duke said, 'It was due to your efforts was it not?' " (Kuo-yfl, Tsin Ytf); "He was a gifted scholar was he not?" (Chuang Tzu, 33); "This is my lot in life is it not?"(Chuang Tzu. 7); 'Three years of mourning is after all rather a long time is it not?" (Li Chi, 2); "Then my son must often have been negligent in observing the rituals has he not?" (Li Chi, 2); "If I were to sing would you allow me or not?" (Shih Chi, 47). 6.1. FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, occurring either singly or in collocation with ren or fu viz. or used as a personal pronoun "that person" "those persons" "he" "thev" "If we let him go and learn about it, he will, alter all, me better know how to govern" (Tso "Though all of us Chuan, Hsiang 30); were to observe the rituals they would still think us uncouth" (Tso Chuan, "But for his help I should not Chao 16); have attained my present position" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 30); "In that case, they [those two men] are ministers upon whom fthe safety of] the state of Lu's altars [depends]" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 16); "Further, we rely on Sung for our security. If there is trouble then thev can resist to the death. If we fight together with Sung, [we] can [defeat] even twice the force that Ch'u has" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 27); "That man is well versed in the rites, why does he wear a silk gown over his furs when mourning?" (Li Chi, 2) "Those two men are the recipients of their lord's charge. I cannot on that account attempt [to rebel against the lord]" (Kuan Tzu, 18). 6.2. FAR DEMONSTRATIVE, self-standing, "that, those" "This particular saying is far superior to those other two sayings" (Hsin Hsu", Shuo Fan, Tsa-shih).

274

fwu

fwu

fu —>fwu fuu fuh

FWU

(fu 2 )

Archaic Chinese *piw9t; Ancient Chinese *piuat; Gram. Ser. 500 (a-c); Radical and stroke 57. 2; Concordance 1.55004; YSD 1.49; PSH 879; LC 251 See also

sub, moh, 3.4;

sub, wang, 3.4;

sub, wu,

3.1.2. 2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated noun. "restlessness" as in

"You the masses

created this restlessness yourselves" (Shu Ching, P'an Keng). 2. 6. PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, forming a negated attribute. "unpitying" i.e. "impartial" as in "Impartial Heaven has long delayed sending down harm upon our house" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao). 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, negative, emphatic form, occurs before the verb. "It is my wish that I do not make my royal ancestors unhappy" (EAC, Inscription 12); "Grandson of King Wen! In nothing did he not adhere to the model [of his grandfather]" (EAC, Inscription 2);

"If I do not

take this very seriously what will it bode for the state?" (EAC. Inscription

12); Keng);

"Why did you not tell me?" (Shu Ching, P'an

'TYoul do not raDoearl in person. Fvoul do not [take action] yourself" (Shih Ching. Hsiao Ya); "[You] do not think of your heritage" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "There is not a man [whom Heaven] will not overcome" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "The hungry do not eat, the weary do not rest" (Mencius, Ib);

"At first I respected you sir'. ... now I do not respect you" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 11); "When [the doctor! does not know from whence the sickness conies, then he can not effect a cure" (Mo Tzu, 14);

"Though [you] argued [your

case] unsuccessfully, [you] still were not able to die for it" (Shih Chi, 107); "In Ch'ang-an, of all the gentle-

275

fwu

fwu

men in the capital there were none who did not praise him" (Shih Chi. 107); "How is it that the Empress Dowager does not sympathize with the King of Liang, who as a son is so filial and as a subiect is so loyal?" (Shih Chi, 108); "General [Wei Ch'ingl engaged the Shan-yti in battle, but the Shan-ytt fled and not able to catch him, Wei Ch'ing turned back" (Shih Chi, 109); "Ever since Ch'in times fit has been Han policy! to let [YGeh] alone and not to incorporate them" (Shih Chi, 114). 7.1. BLUNTED USAGE, in Han Classical style as variant for , " ... failing to follow up a tactical advantage, falling to complete a tactical withdrawal ..." (Han Shu, 4a); "The Hsiung-nu with their [small] bows cannot reach [us] with [our] strong bows and long pikes and our long range of fire" (Han Shu, 4a); "My enlightenment [is such that] I cannot provide a beacon [for others] and my wisdom [such] that I cannot effect good government" (Han Shu, 4a),

276

gaan

gaan

gan garn —>gaan gann

GAAN (kan3)

Archaic Chinese *kam; Ancient Chinese *kam:; Gram. Ser. 607 (a-c); Radical and stroke 66. 8; Concordance 5. 77943; YSD 3. 6; PSH 330; LC 179

sub, u, 6. 3. _ sub, her, 6.3; sub. chii, 6. 3; 3. 1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY (see Introduction 3. 3. Note l),when negated before a negated verb, injunctive or hortatory; "not/dare/not?' > "dare not but ..." "must, have to" "Your Grace did not dare not to revere the grace of Heaven" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao); • "I fear God on High. I would not dare not to punish [Hsia]" (Shu Ching, T'ang Shin); "[In sacrificing], in the matter of the sacrificial animals [they] would not dare otherwise than to use healthy plump animals" (Mo Tzu, 12); "[Then] inevitably [Ch'in] would not dare not to obey [Chao]" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Hsi Chou); "The population would not dare not to obey you" (Han Shu, la). 3. 3. AUXILIARY OF AGENTIAL STATE, occurs before the verbal complex, "to dare or presume to" See also

"I the Recorder Ling have taken the liberty to make known the graciousness of the governor, the Duke of Ming"-(EAC. Inscription 7); "Dare we seek the throne?" (Shu Ching. To Shih); "It is not that I. a small child, would presume to raise a rebellion fof mv own volition]" (Shu Ching, T'ang Shih); "[II have presumed to sacrifice this dark victim and presumed clearly to report it to the spiritual sovereign of High Heaven" (Shu Ching, K'ang Kao); "[They] dare not joke or chat" (Shih Ching, Hsiao YaA; "[I] surely would not dare to begrudge them" (Shih Ching. Kuo Feng); "[I] Ch'ih am puzzled. Might I presume to ask ... ?" (Analects, 11); "Then only would "How dare he [he] presume to enter" (Mencius, Ib); "Who dare insult him?" oppose me?" (Mencius, Ib);

277

gaan

gau

"You should not presume to behave (Mencius, 2a); like a guest" (TsoChuan, Chao 2), 3. 3. AUXILIARY OF AGENTIAL STATE, as above, but occurring before the instrumental particle, or the syntagmatic conjunction. "If it is not in accordance with the teaching of Yao and Shun [I] would not dare to expound it before the king" (Mencius, 5b); "How could I presume to be on terms of friendship with your Majesty?" (Mencius. 5b);

"They honoured the king's son but dare not swear a blood-oath with him" (Ku-liang Chuan. Yin 5); "He did not presume by virtue of his wealth and honours to behave arrogantly to other gentlemen" (Shih Chi, 77). Note. In certain contexts the use of gaan "presume, take the liberty of" does little more than indicate the status of the speaker as of an inferior addressing a superior. 3.3. AUXILIARY OF AGENTIAL STATE, as above, when negated, an inversion of the elements "modal negative/auxiliary of agential state" viz. "auxiliary/negative" creates an interrogative form (see Introduction 3. 3. note 3). "Dare I not twice make obeisance?" (Kuo-yg, Lu Ytt); "Dare I not accept [from you] my duties?" (Kuo-yfl, Tsin Ytt): "Dare he do other than make obeisance from below?" (Kuo-yfl, Tsin Ytt); "Dare I do otherwise but to consent?" (Y^nJ4zu_Ch]un::chHu, Chien hsia).

—>gau gaur gao gaw

GAU

(kao1)

Archaic Chinese *kog; Ancient Chinese *kau; Gram. Ser. 1040 (a-b); Radical and stroke 106. 5; Concordance 3. 28133; YSD 3.4; PSH 350; LC 76 5.2. INTERJECTION, self-standing "Ah!" "When a man dies [we] climb to the rooftop and shout aloud saying, 'Ah', so-and-so, come back!'" (Li Chi. 7).

278

gay

gay

gai gair gae —>gay

GAY

(kai4)

Archaic Chinese *g'ap/kab; Ancient Chinese *yap/kai; Gram. Ser. 642 (q-r); Radical and stroke 140.10; Concordance 3. 33373; YSD 3. 2; PSH 272, 341; LC 207 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, being an allegro form of , occurs initially in the sentence in the sense of "Why not ...?"; often in rhetorical senses, for example, "Why not?" > "Surely one should ..." "Was it not because ... ?" > "Surely because ..." "No doubt ..." "So then Fwel returned home', (and surely we should!)" (Shih Ching. Hsiao Ya); "Better not give it a thought:" [lit. why not/after all/do not/think] (Shih Ching. Kuo Feng); "It may well have happened, but I myself have not seen it" (Analects, 4); "... (hel never failed to eat to repletion, but this was surely because [he] would hardly presume to do otherwisel " (Mencius, 5b); "No doubt in earlier generations there used to be the custom of not interring one's kin" (Mencius. 3a): "Sir! should you not tell the duke your wishes?" (Li Chi, 2); "No doubt ther.e were such sacrifices in the time of the Yellow Emperor, but even so. at the end of the Chou period they sacrificed the Suburban Sacrifices there" (Shih Chi, 28); "The vessels used in the rite were not described in the records which no doubt made it difficult to speak of the rite" (Shih Chi, 28); "No doubt there have been those who reached [the islands] and that the immortals and the elixir of immortalitv are reallv there" (Shih Chi. 28^: "Is it not so that when men talk of the prime exemplar of making a livelihood they speak of Po Kuei?" (Shih Chi, 129); "For have we not heard 'when Heaven grants and we fail to accept, we, by contrast receive ill-fortune1?" (Shih Chi, 92); "Therefore [the Hsiung-nu] give the richest foods to the able-bodied so is it not natural 279

gay

geh

that the able-bodied regard themselves as the nation's defenders?" (Shih

Chi, 110); it deenlv" /Shih Chi. 112\.

"Emperor Kao no doubt regretted

6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but used as a copula interrogatively, "Is not A, B?" > "Surely A is B" "[They] say 'is not Heaven high above us? ' " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"[They] say 'are not the hills low?' " (Shih

Ching, Hsiao Ya); "In this world can a man really regard power and position, wealth and hon.!_

ours as a matter for derision?" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'in, shang); "FThisl Lord of Feng was no other than the father of the emperor's father" (Han Shu, Ib).

ge ger gee —>geh

GEH

(ko4)

Archaic Chinese *kar: Ancient Chinese *ka-: Gram. Ser. 349 (a); Radical and stroke 9.1; Concordance 1. 90200; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 222 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, occurs in the distribution enumerated noun/numeral/numeral auxiliary; "an enumerable Instance of"; usually restricted to poles, arrows, but also used more generally. "While the two [grandsons of Dukel Hui were strong and vigorous it was still possible, but now thev are further weakened [by the loss of] one of them" (TsoChuan, Chao 3); "It is like a tr

I

'

herd of wild animals, which when one of them is hit bv an arrow causes the entire herd to run" (Kuo Yfl, Wu Yfl); quiver and fifty arrows" [lit.

Tzu. 15);

280

carry/quiver/arrows/fifty/pieces

"Bearing a of] (Hstin

"Ten thousand bamboo poles" (Shih Chi, 129).

geh

geh

ge ger gee —>geh

GEH

(ko4)

Archaic Chinese *klak; Ancient Chinese *kak; Gram. Ser. 766 (a-c); Radical and stroke 30. 3; Concordance 2. 24881; YSD 3.1; PSH 329; LC 268 See also

sub, jie, 3.1.3. 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, identifying, occurs before nouns, "all of the ... " "[The emperor] allowed the foreign visitors to go everywhere observing the accumulation of wealth stored in all the granaries and storehouses" (ShihChi, 123). J. 3.6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, synthesizing, occurs before numerals, "of each kind, so many ..." "When Chao falls enfeoff these two gentlemen each with one district of ten thousand families" (Chan-kuo Ts'e. Chao, shang); "For sacrifice he used a red colt with a black mane, a yellow ox and a ram - one of each" (Shih Chi, 28); "[He] captured one prime minister of a state, two chancellors and of generals and officials of the rank of two thousand piculs - three of each" (Shih Chi, 57): "Ch'i and Chao sent [gifts of] chariots, each sending fifty vehicles" (Han Shu. 33). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all, each one" etc. "Of the people, each one has a mind [of his own]" (Shih Ching. Ta Ya); "Let each of you be most careful of your person" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "And too, every [woman] embarks on the journey [of marriage]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The [delegates of] Ts'in and Ch'u each occupied his own side [of the pavilion]" (TsoChuan, Hsiang 27); "The three gentlemen each broke up his establishment of war chariots" (Tso Chuan. Hsiang 11); "For every man there is a partner in life [that suits him]" (Tso Chuan, Huan 6); "The nobles each caring for their own estates do not care

281

geh

geng about the estates of others" (Mo Tzu, 14); "Let orders be given to the Feudal Lords that each build a lodge [for himself] at the foot of Mt. T'ai" (ShihChi, 28); i

i



"After this the nrovinces and feudal kingdoms each set about clearine their

roads and repairing their palaces and towers and places in famous mountains where gods were worshipped, hoping to be favoured [with a visit from the emperor]" (Shih Chi, 28); " . . . and too, [if] each [ruler of antiquity] had merely enjoyed glory in his own time, if they all had thought only of the fulfillment of their own "Each [scholar] exyears ..." (Shih Chi, 117); pressed a different opinion [and so their recommendations] were difficult to carry out" (Shih Chi, 28). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, as above, but with geh reduplicated "The nobles each and every one came forward and spoke of Chao Hsi's perfect uprightness and great kindness" (Hou Han Shu, 56). Note. Throughout Archaic Chinese, geh follows the noun it distributes (as in paragraph 3.4 above). The shift of geh to a pre-nounal position is a feature of Han Chinese, as is the occurrence of geh reduplicated and in collocation. (See

7.4)

—>geng gerng geeng genq

GENG (see also genq)

(king1)

Archaic Chinese *kang; Ancient Chinese *fceng; Gram. Ser. 745 (a-b); Radical and stroke 73.3; Concordance 1. 70504; YSD 3. 8; PSH - ; LC 100, 228 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "in alternate sequence" > "alternately"; "in consecutive sequence" > "in turn" "one after another" "But still many strange and dubious magicians from the coastal areas of Yen and Ch'i came one after the other to report supernatural happenings" (Shih Chi. 28); "Magicians one after another said that [the emperor] might be able to make 282

genq

geng

contact with the spirits of P'eng-lai" (Shih Chi, 28); "And so the five Paramount Princes arose each in their turn" (Shih Chi, "Envoys from foreign lands 112); in the north-west came and went in succession" (Shih Chi, 123); "And so the five Paramount Princes arose one after the other, each in his turn navine deference to the House of Chou" (Shih Chi, 87); "The Son of Heaven [having] returned from performing the Shan sacrifice took his place in the Bright Hall where all his ministers in turn offered [These their congratulations" (Shih Chi, 28); were capital cities] which kings, each in their turn, occupied" (Shih Chi,

129); "He was host to famous scholars, associated with numbers of generals, premiers, ministers and nobles so that those in office one after another recommended him" (Han Shu, 99); "... and envoys from foreign countries came and went one after the other" (Han Shu, 61).

geng gerng geeng —>genq

GENQ (see also geng |£_ )

(keng4)

Archaic Chinese *kang; Ancient Chinese *keng; Gram. Ser. 745 (a-b); Radical and stroke 73. 3; Concordance 1. 70504; YSD 3. 8; PSH - ; LC 100, 228 See also sub. fuh, 3.1.3. 3.1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "in an intense degree" "utterly" "totally" "completely" "profoundly" "thoroughly" etc. "[If you] do not grant rCh'in's] request then [you] forfeit the obligations due to you for your former meritorious deeds and in the end [you] will suffer in even greater measure [at Ch'in's hands]" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Han); "When people heard of his power to ensure immortality they presented him with gifts in

283

genq

goa large measure so that he always had more than enough money, food and clothins" (Shin Chi. 28k "FThevI could not serve others with bribes ... and certainly could not effect good government by perverting the law" (Han Fei

Tzu, 11). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "for a second time" > "once again" "Tsin will not make the attempt again" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 5)

"Attack them [i.e. Tsin] again and I will speak

[to the marquis] on your behalf" (Tso Chuan, Wen 1);

"Shusun Chao-tzu had twice received a charee at>t>ointine him a minister. When P'ing-tzu invaded Chu° and achieved a victory over them he received once again this, his third charge" (Tso Chuan, Chao 12): "His relatives and other gentlemen explained once more to [Cho] Wang-sun, saying ..." (Shih Chi. 117); "The A-fang Palace was not completed, but when it was complete [the emperor] intended to choose once again an auspicious name for it" (Shih Chi, 6); "Better send this time an outstanding person who will act on just principles in proceeding west" (Han Shu, la).

gua gwa —>goa guah

GOA

(kua3)

Archaic Chinese *kwa; Ancient Chinese *kwa:; Gram. Ser. 42 (a-b); Radical and stroke 40.11; Concordance 3. 02723; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2.3.2. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, indefinite number, occurs before nouns, "a small number of, few" "a small amount of, little" "In nurturing: the mind nothing is so good as [having! lew desires" (Mencius, 7b):

"The State of

Ch'i has but few armoured troops" (Kuo Ytf, Ch'i Ytf); "The less virtue, the smaller the amount of knowledge [a man has] so will his funeral increase in lavishness" (Han Shu, 36).

284

goei

goa

2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before nouns when used by princes speaking of themselves in self-deprecation, nobles speaking of their own state to nobles of another state, "mv lonelv ..." "mv petty" etc. "I, your older brother Ti. e. Kine Wul. exerted himself and so you my child Feng are here "[He in these eastern territories" (Shu Ching. K'ang Kao); was] a model to our queen" (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "These two men in fact assassinated our prince" (Tso "Your Highness condescended Chuan, Yin 5); to confer his favour on our noble [the prince] Wei" (Tso Chuan, Chao 1); "The Chancellor has often spoken of you, General. What sort of strategy is it "I that you wish to teach me?" (Shih Chi, 92); have personally proclaimed [a period of] mourning [for Emperor Yi]" (Han

Shu, la); "If Fvoul members of the imperial house. senior ministers and nobles think that Tthe succession! should be to me then I would not presume to decline it" (Han Shu, 4). 7.2. BLUNTED USAGE. By the time of the Six Dynasties goa-ren is used not only by princes but by others, as for example in: "You gentlemen should not behave in this way. You will cause embarrassment to my son-in-law" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4).

guei gwei —>goei guey

GOEI (kuei3)

Archaic Chinese *kwia; Ancient Chinese *kjwie:; Gram. Ser. 29 (b); Radical and stroke 149. 6; Concordance 5.08211; YSD 3. 22; PSH - ; LC 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "falsely" "The Han sought for [the return of] [Su] Wu and his party, but the Hsiung-nu falsely declared that [Su] Wu was dead" (Han Shu. 54).

285

gong

gong —>gong gorng goong gonq

GONG (kung1)

Archaic Chinese *kung; Ancient Chinese *kung; Gram. Ser. 1173 (a-f); Radical and stroke 12. 2; Concordance 2.90600; YSD 3. 23; PSH 339; LC See also ty >£ sub, ming, 6.1 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, post-posed to a proper name as a title of respect, "his excellency x" "his lordship x" "At the same time [he] killed his lordship Ts'ung" (Han "[Hsiang] Yti sent his lordship Shu, la); Chung to defend Ch'eng-kao" (Han Shu, la). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, "of the agents, all" "This is something that ways of thought are "This is all troubled by" (Hsftn Tzu, 21); something that is clearly understood by all the people" (Huai-nan Tzu, 9); "These are matters that all rulers are troubled by" (Han Fei Tzu, 11); 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "openly" "publicly" "flagrantly" "Robbers move about openly and no precautions are taken against noxious influences" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 31); "FHel did not mend his faults and reform himself but grew increasingly arrogant, flagrantly [engaging in the illicit] minting of cash from the ore in the mountains and boiling of sea-water to extract salt" (Han Shu, 35). 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, "your grace" when addressed to one of the rank of duke, but also used in the looser sense of "you sir!" when showing deference to a senior. "Who ordered you sir to do this? The king in truth had nothing to do with the plot, yet he has been included with those arrested. If you sir and those associated with you are all put to death, who will there be to testify that the king is innocent?" (Shih Chi, 89); "His father said, 'The Liu family are safe but the Ch'ao family are in danger. When I have

286

gong

gong

gone, do you. sir .return to the family!' " [said by a father to a son holdini high office] (Han Shu, 49); "Gentlemen! we have run into rain and can none of us rendezvous on time a matter punishable with beheading" (Han Shu, 31); "I know you sir, to be a superior person" (Han Shu, 31); "You sirs may all go" (Han Shu, la); "FI should! send a convict whose sentence has been remitted to fight with you. Why should I suffer the trouble thus of fighting a duel with you?" (Han Shu, la); "If you will lead our troops for us, [I] will make you commanderin-chief" (Han Shu, la).

—>gong gorng goong gonq

GONG (kung )

Archaic Chinese *kiong; Ancient Chinese *kiung; Gram. Ser. 1006 (e-f); Radical and stroke 158. 3; Concordance 5. 22123; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6.1. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN, used either singly or in collocation with tzvh viz. either i) agent acts upon himself or ii) agent acts in person usually nont.rarv to fomentation

i)

Hsiao Ya); Feng)

"But that I should merely distress myself" (Shih Ching, "[I] feel pity for myself" (Shih Ching, Kuo

• •• "Duke Wen personally donned mail and helmet and set out cross-country ..." (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 13); "Did not put his mind to ploughing in person" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-cliff). 6.1. EMPHATIC PERSONAL PRONOUN, when preceded by personal pronoun or status pronoun, "I, myself" "you, yourself" etc. "I too will bring down the punishment of Heaven upon you yourselves" (Shu Ching, To Shih); "Why does he strike us personally?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); ii)

, "I, myself, am not liked" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

287

gonq

gong "If it were not for you yourself my lord ..." (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"At present I understand the officials at the shrines pray for good omens, all of this to bring luck upon my person" (Han Shu, 4). Note, "pronoun-gong" occurs in reverse when gong is used attributively, "our own ..." as in:

"Our own ruler was murdered by Ch'i" (Ku-liang Chuan, Chuang 1).

gong gorng goong —>gonq

GONQ (kung )

Archaic Chinese *g4ung; Ancient Chinese *g'iwong-; Gram. Ser. 1182 (c-d); Radical and stroke 12.4; Concordance 3. 37901; YSD 3. 23; PSH 350; LC 182 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all" "all acting together" etc.

Occurs either singly or in collocation with yeu viz.

Ch'in" (Shih Chi, 90);

"Today the whole world is in revolt against "For a long time now

the whole world has suffered at the hands of Ch'in" (Shih Chi, 92); "The surprise force of two thousand cavalry despatched by [Hani Hsin, all lying in wait for the Chao forces to abandon camp, now rushed forward to exploit the advantage" (Shih Chi, 92); "When the five men together reassembled his [severed! body all rthe parts! proved to be so [i. e. to belong to the body of Hsiang Yfl]" (Shih Chi, 7); "With the elders leading on the young men together they slew the magistrate of P'ei" (Han Shu, la); "They declared their purpose to be to march west and jointly to punish [Ch'ao] Tso, recover their former territories and then disband" (Han Shu. 35^: "And so. ioinine together thev all appointed FHsians:! Yfl as actinsrsupreme-commander" (Han Shu, 31).

288

goou

goou gou gour —>goou gow

GOOU (kou3)

Archaic Chinese *ku; Ancient Chinese *kau:; Gram. Ser. 108 (h); Radical and stroke 140. 5; Concordance 3. 33221; YSD 3.4; PSH 356; LC 176 See also sub, fei, 5.1. 9. 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive, polar-positive, occurs before the verb "might" "may"; also used as a polite injunctive "should" "ought" etc. "May [he] never hunger or thirst" (Shih Ching. Kuo Feng); "[You] really should not believe rtheml" (Shih Chine. Kuo Feng). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to, merely to" "When [Prince Ching of Wei] first came into his patrimony he said, 'It is merely gathered together.' When it increased a little he said, 'It iust suffices.' When it comprised exeat riches he said. 'It merelv alves pleasure'" (Analects, 13); "When a major state visits a minor state a pavilion is built for them. But when a minor state visits a major state it should merely con struct a temporary shelter" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 28); "[Wang] Mang knew that these people could not be employed, but he wished merely to exploit their reputations" (Han Shu 99b). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "vainlv" "falselv" "thourfitlesslv" "for no good purpose" "H having abandoned Lu [you] falsely reassure the Feudal Lords ..." (Kuo Yfl, Lu Yd); "[Such was their sense of] justice [that they] did not vainly accord with the [mores of their] time" (Shih Chi, 124); "This was not economy practiced in vain, it was in fact for the benefit of the corpse" (Han Shu, 36); "[Our wishes] have been frivolously agreed with and thoughtlessly obeyed" (Han Shu, 9); "In battle, if vie tory is not certain one should not fruitlessly engage weapons. If success is

289

goou

goou

not to be had one should not, for no good purpose, weary one's forces" (Han Shu, 69). 4.1. COPULA, "A is indeed, is in fact, B" "By good fortune Fyoul are ir fact a son of the king. That is why they seek you out" (Kuo Yfl. Tsin Yfl). 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the verb in the protasis of a conditional statement "if indeed ..." "K indeed the mind is set on goodness, no evil will ensue" (Analects, 4); "If in fact we can save ourselves and the state altars are not damaged, then [we shall have accomplished] much" (Tso Chuan, Huan 5); "If good faith is not continuous, then swearing a bloodoath is of no avail" (Tso Chuan, Huan 12); "IE vou release me. I shall, with vour permission, effect vour restoration" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 14); "H indeed the heart has no flaw why regret that one has no family?" (Tso Chuan, Min "If you allow the Kuo family to i); continue [here] then I, with your permission, will surrender the city" (Tso "If in fact vou were to put Chuan, Hsi 29); profit first relegating justice to a secondary place, then ..." (Mencius, "Though la); one may have the virtue, if he is not installed as ruler, I should not presume to take part in the rituals or music with him" (Li Chi, 28); "If this is the case, then what is it you want to achieve by doing this?" (Shih Chi, 30); "If really my heart is straight and true though far and distant my abode - what ails?" (Ch'u Tz'u, Chiu Chang). 5.1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, as above, but in collocation with ruoh viz. "if indeed" "My lord ii indeed the states on all sides occasion no anxiety men l wisn to avail myself of your favour to make a request to the feudatory" (Tso Chuan, Chao 4); "If indeed we are provided with an answer that we can report to our prince, that is due to your prince's kindness" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 2);

290

gu

goou

"If superior and inferior -• »

fir*-

&

do not concur [as to what] justice [is], then rewards and commendation will not be sufficient to encourage the doing of good" (Mo Tzu, 12).

GU

—>gu gwu guu gun

(ku1)

Archaic Chinese *ko; Ancient Chinese *kuo; Gram. Ser. 49 (g-h); Radical and stroke 38.5; Concordance 5.34381; YSD 3.9; PSH 307, 322, 328; LC 54 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "for the moment" "for the time being" "in the meantime" "For the time being [you] should instruct them" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao);

"I in the meantime pour wine

from the bronze lei" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "For the moment let [us] implant virtue in the state thus to await an able [ruler]" (TsoChuan, Hsi 15); "Should we not for the time being concentrate on cultivating our virtue and bide our time?" (Tso Cnuan, Chuang 8) "You sir will regret in the meantime the intention of Tzu Hsi to to be disloyal" (Tso Chuan, Chao 1); be" (Mencius, 2a);

"For the moment let this "You sir can sleep se-

cure and be happy in the meantime" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'i, hsia); "Will you return in the meantime to the capital and unite our people?" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'i, hsia).

291

gu

gu

—>gu gwu guu guh

GU

(ku1)

Archaic Chinese *kwo; Ancient Chinese *kuo; Gram. Ser. 41 (c); Radical and stroke 39. 5; Concordance 5.13890; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before nouns when used by princes speaking of themselves in self-deprecation, "my" "Ch'i took advantage of the disorders in my country and attacked and overthrew it [i.e. Yen]" (Chankuo Ts'e, Yen, shang). 2.5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "very" "abundantly" "really" "truly" "so" "Chang Han was very puzzled" (Han Shu, 31). 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, used by princes of themselves in self-deprecation, "I", or by subjects referring to their prince to those of other states, "our prince" "The Viscount of Ch'u said, 1 'This was my fault and forgave them all" (Tso Chuan. Huan 13); "I have indeed failed in a sense of reverence ... to have spoken of himself as ku was ritually correct" (Tso Chuan, "Our prince and his Chuang 11); several ministers were heart-broken and unable to think ol proper meas"They faced south [the ures to take" (Tso Chuan, Chao 7); stance of a prince] and when referring to themselves said 'ku' " (Shih Chi, 90).

292

guey

guan —>guan gwan goan guann

GUAN (kuan1)

Archaic Chinese *kwan; Ancient Chinese *kuan; Gram. Ser. 157 (a-d); Radical and stroke 40. 5; Concordance 3. 02882; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, occurs either singly or in collocation with shiah viz. "I" when used by an official to a senior official. "While [the deceased] was alive, I never met this gentleman!" (Shin Shuo Hsin Yfl, 17); "My

mother is almost a hundred years old and has for long been ill. If you would favour me by examining her, she might have a chance to live" (Shih "I have rarely seen such fullShuo Hsin Yft, 20); ness of virtue" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl. 16); "I have this day found a T'ai-chang Po-shih for you - an excellent choice! " (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4).

guei gwei goei —>guey

GUEY (kuei4)

Archaic Chinese *kiwad; Ancient Chinese *kjwei; Gram. Ser. 540 (b); Radical and stroke 154. 5; Concordance 3. 57895; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 191 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive, occurs before the verb, "should" "would" etc. "[ ... so that we 1 should join with Ch'in to attack Ch'i" (Chan-kuo Ts'e. Tung Chou); i „ "This advice you should be able to put into practice" (Shih Chi, 92); "Man must pursue his fated course and should accept its propriety" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "In learning [a prince] should humble himself and when his teacher instructs him he should treat him as an equal" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Changchtt). 293

gull

guh

gu gwu guu —>guh

GUH

(ku4)

Archaic Chinese *ko; Ancient Chinese *kuo; Gram. Ser. 49 (f); Radical and stroke 31. 5; Concordance 2. 88381; YSD 3.9; PSH 266, 307, 322, 326, 328; LC 199 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, used either singly or in collocation with yii viz. occurs before attributes, "very" "abundantly" "really" "truly" "so" "General Yang P'u in command of a Ch'i force came by sea, but he had lost by defeat or desertion a great many men" (Shih Chi, 115); "And so arriving first at Ferghana ^ he breached the water courses diverting the water. Ferehana thus was suffering very great hardship" (Shih Chi, 123); "As an official, Li Ssu has been committing offences which merit the death penalty for fal very long ftimel" (Shih Chi. 87): ''The disgrace of this is very great" (Shih Chi, 94); "The districts of Liang and Ch'u suffered very frequently" (Shih Chi, 30); "From the times of undivided Tsin [5th century B. C. ] i they suffered severely from their violence" (Shih Chi, 129). 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly not" "The people are most displeased" (Kuo Yfl, Tsin Yfl); "In ploughing and working with your hands you certainly do not measure up to others" (Han Shu, 65).

3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, occurs before the verb; used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particularly when this might be thought to be refuted, or contrary to expectation, "did in fact" "did in realitv" "actuallv did" etc. "If we do not agree, then we will in fact have to drag our people [into battle]" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 27); "You were in "I did wish to see him" (Mencius, 3a); "Had fact going to court" (Mencius, 2b); • 294

guh

£Uh

you not come, I was in fact going to return in loyalty to our prince" (Kuo "If they had been Yfl, Tsin Ytf); other horses would thev not in fact have overturned the carriage and injured me?" (Shih Chi. 102); "Can anyone who in fact has good looks, as Ch'en P'ing has, for long remain poor and obscure?" (Shih Chi, 56); "I should first have ordered [his] execution and then informed [the emperor] but I asked permission first. I did indeed

err! " (Han Shu, 49). momen3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, in collocation with chiee viz tary aspect, "for the moment" "for the time being" "in the meantime" "It is not that I have forgotten the achievements of [your] officers. I have been considering in the meantime how to reward them" (Shih Chi, 111). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "firmly" "adamantly" "of a certainty" etc. "IToul Ying appeared before the emperor, firmly declined [the proffered appointment] and pleading ill-health ..." (Shih Chi, 107); "I most certainly knew that I would be executed on my return but [I acted as I didl to save alive thirty thousand of your Majesty's men" (Shih Chi, 108); "[Li] Kuang was aware of this at the time and firmly excused himself to the general-in"[The grand commandant] firmly chief" (Shih Chi, 109); prevented him" (Shih Chi, 107); "Each time envoys have been sent to Yen they have been assassinated so that [Yen] might forcibly demand the territories she seeks" (Han Shu, 32): "I knew for certain that FHanl Hsin was a coward" (Han Shu, 34). 4.1. COPULA, "A is in fact, in certainty, B" and when negated, "most certainly is not" "I would not be so bold as to request it, but it certainly is what I wish" (Mencius, 2b); "Because the village headman is of course the most worthy man in the village" (Mo Tzu, 12); "Because of family connections I have graciously been allowed to serve your Majesty, but I am not in fact fit for office. All 295

guh

guh

that Wei Ch'i says is true" (Shih Chi, 107); "[Because you] wear hats, what in fact does that make you?" [lit. hat/in fact/what?/ equal to] (Shih Chi. 110); "The people of Yfleh fight among themselves. It is in fact their normal behaviour" (Shih Chi, 114). "there is in fact" 4. 2. 2. COPULA, as above, but occurring before yeou "there certainlv was" etc. "Did such a thing really happen?" (Kuo Yfl, Chou Yfl). 5. 3. SELF-STANDING AFFIRMATIVE, "it is as you say! " "yes" "Yes1. I have wanted to speak about this for a long time" (Shih Chi, 87); "Yes! but I have heard that an enlightened ruler understands his subjects" (Shih Chi. 87^: •

"[Chao] Ts'o said, 'Yes! but if I had not [acted] in this way, the Son of Heaven would not have been revered and the Imperial Temples not secure1 (Han Shu, 49).

gu gwu guu —>guh

GUH

(ku4)

Archaic Chinese *ko; Ancient Chinese *kuo-; Gram. Ser. 49 (i-j); Radical and stroke 66. 5; Concordance 5. 38941; YSD 3.12; PSH 266, 307, 322, 326; LC 197 See also sub, shi, 6. 3; sub, yih, 6.1. sub. her, 6. 3; 3.1. 5. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "for good cause" "deliberately" "with a reason in mind" "of intent" "For commodities other [than food], if any have bought intentionally cheaply and sold deliberately dearlv. then let them be indicted for having received bribes "[Wu] and behaving like robbers" (Han Shu, 5); Kuang deliberately mentioned several times his intention to escape" (Han Shu, 31); "In the capital needlessly and falsely it was said that a flood was coming" (Han Shu, 10);

296

guh

guh

"Though Mencius knew in his heart what the king had in mind, the reason why he deliberately asked the king about it was that he wished to make the king say so himself" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf). 3. 9. CAUSAL AUXILIARY, occurs at the end of the term of cause either with or "for r^anse rvr reaswithout the determinative conjunction jy viz. -•• on" >"because" "That I thus call on you to cherish this new city is after all because of you" (Shu Ching, P'an Keng); "Because of the Hsien-yun" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Because of our marriage" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "If it were not because of our prince ..." (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The Son of Heaven, because of the empress dowager, cannot bear to bring you to justice" (Shih "However to Chi. 108); many they are precious because they are used by the ruler" (Han Shu, 24a). 3.9. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, in collocation with y_ii viz. yJL $£. "therefore" "for this reason" ""Pm" this reason all were allowed to re-

turn home without being punished" (Shih Chi, 114); "For that reason [they] did not support Ch'u" (Shih Chi, 114); : His] generals for this reason felt no personal attachment to him" (Han Shu, 31); "His flags were all red because the snake which was killed was the son of the White Emperor and the snake which did the killing was the son of the Red Emperor" (Han Shu, la). 3.9. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, occurs before the clause of consequence, "there fore" "it is for this reason that ..." "Because Yin's border feudatories and governors and Yin's elders and princes all became lax through the drinking of wine, therefore Yin failed in discipline among its officers" (EAC, Inscription 13); "For this reason they would not act upon it" (EAC, Inscription 2); "It was for this reason that Heaven sent down destruction upon Yin" (Shu Ching. Chiu Kao); "It

297

2uh

guh

is for this reason that up to the present, we have been able to receive and

retain Yin's mandate" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); "[Because the oxl was like an innocent person soine to the place of execution. Til therefore replaced it with a sheep" (Mencius, la); "The arrowmaker's sole concern is lest his arrows should not inflict damage. The armourer's sole concern is lest his armour should admit damage. [It is a similar conflict for] the shaman and the coffin-maker. [The one is interested in his client's recovery and the other in his death.] Therefore [in the choice of] a profession [one] cannot be too careful" (Mencius, 2a). "therefore" 3. 9. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, in collocation with shyh viz. "for this reason" "For this reason the worthy ruler must be polite and restrained, courteous to inferiors and in his exactions from the people keeping within due bounds" (Mencius, 3a); "Po-yi would not serve a ruler of whom he did not approve ... therefore even if a Feudal Lord sending him elegant invitations [pressed] him to come, he would not receive [such invitations]" (Mencius, 2a). 5.1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs between protasis and apodosis of two clauses in condition sequence, "[if ... ] then ..."

a son's not serving his father, a younger brother his older brother, a minister his prince, then gentlemen throughout the world will unanimously describe this as inauspicious" (Mo Tzu, 27). Note. In Han usage guh often occurs for ^ "ancient" "former" and occasionally for 4 "only" ... "[Ch'en] Sheng's former Master of ^^t Purification the general L(f Ch'en ..." (Han Shu, 31); , "He was of the clan to whom the T'ien family, the former 'Ch'ang Kings of Ch'i, belonged" (Han Shu, 33); an was the former Hsien-yang" (Han Shu, 34). . I

298

~guh

GUH

(ku4)

Archaic Chinese *ko; Ancient Chinese *kuo-; Gram. Ser. 53 (g); Radical and stroke 181.12; Concordance 5. 07797; YSD 3.18; PSH 307, 323, 326, 328; LC 201 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly did not" "certainly should not" "never did" "under no circumstances" "on no account" etc. "You people who live in earth houses should certainly not talk so much" (Shin Chi, 110); > "We shall now put this city i to the sword and with feet steeped in blood will advance. There will be singing in the front ranks and dancing in the rear. Will that not be most enjoyable?" (Han Shu, 99c). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, in collocation with chiee viz, tary aspect, "for the moment" "for the time being" "in the meantime"

momen-

"At one time I drank wine at your table. I did not [however] steal your jade. [But] you had me flogged [for stealing it]. You [had better] guard well your kingdom for in the meantime [I] shall be stealing your cities" (Shih Chi, 70). 5.1. 3. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, strongly adversative, "contrary to expectation" > "but" "on the contrary" "Tzu-chih facing south carried out the kingfs duties, while [King] KTuai pleading old age did not concern himself with the government, but became a subject. Affairs of state were all decided by Tzu-chih" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Yen, shang); "On the contrary, it is only a question of the sort of strategy we use. One need not study old-fashioned books on military law" (Shih Chi, 111); "But my death would be profitless" (Shih Chi, 89).

299

guh

guh

5.1. 9. EXCEPTIVE CONJUNCTION, "with the exception of" or "despite the foregoing" > "but" "despite that" |

» ^—

T|

•>•

1*-

-

-*

"I have travelled hither and thither at sea and visited An-ehTi, Hsien-men and other immortals, but they considered me a man of ignoble origin and would not trust me" (Shih Chi, 28); "Do you,sirp[not wish to accept because] you feel that the governship of Huai-yang is too insignificant a post? Well, I will then summon you to court [as you request]. But there is discord between the officials and the people in Huai-yang and I simply thought that with your prestige you would be able to compose matters with very little effort" (Shih Chi, 120);

"This

strategy is [described inl the Art of War, but you gentlemen have failed to notice it" "There is a world of difference between being a minister and being a prince, but [these ministers of Chao] had only recently established their power and dare not divide the land into three and set themselves up as kings" (Shih Chi, 89); "Except that I fear that my plan would not necessarily prove practical" (Shih Chi, 92); ">i — "Today, my family to the third degree of kinship have all been sentenced to

death. Would I give my own kin for the kingTs sake? But the king in fact did not revolt. It was I and my party alone who did this" (Shih Chi, 89); "There are many men in the world who gather courage and • ' i draw their swords in the hope of doing what your Majesty did, but their strength is unequal to the task" (Shih Chi, 92).

300

guoh

guoh

guo gwo guoo —>guoh

GUOH (kuo4)

Archaic Chinese *kwa; Ancient Chinese *kua-; Gram. Ser. 18 (e); Radical and stroke 162. 9; Concordance 2. 09822; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 157 2. 3. 1. NUMERICAL MARKER, occurs before numerals and measure words in collocation with bu viz. Jr llS. and wu viz. £k JiSfT, "not to exceed ..." "no more than . . . f f . Unnegated before numerals, guoo indicates "over" "in excess of" etc.

"The duration of a stay in jail does not exceed ten days [and the number of! men imprisoned in the entire state is merely a handful" (Shih Chi, 92); "For pulling the funeri >al cortege, digging and filling in the earth and building the tomb mound, there should be no more than three hundred men used for the whole affair" (Han Shu, 5); "Over half died" (Han Shu, 24a). 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, preceded by a numeral, follows the vert in thfi sfmsfi of "a time, or turn" "This was said at the time, but not repeated a second time" [lit. time/said/this/not/again/[say ]/one time] (Shih Shuo "Now I would like to give it thought Hsin Yfl. 34); once more" (San Kuo Chin. Wu Shu, 63); "If [each] morning the teeth are (?) ground three hundred times, [they] will never be moved" (Pao P T u Tzu, nui-pTien 15). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, in collocation with bu viz. aspect, "not to exceed" > "merely to, only to ... "

restrictive

"Your Majesty is able merely to command [a force of] ten thousand [troops, but not more! ]" (Han Shu, 34); "Further, the reason his Majesty wishes to see me is because he merely wishes to take one look at my face [to see what I really look like], but nothing beyond that! " (Han Shu, 33).

301

+guoh

guoo

3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, in collocation with bu viz. introduces the time phrase in the sense of Min less than ..." "In less than a month, fl] could take it Fi. e. Yung-shih] for certain" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Hsi Chou). 4.1. COPULA, with restriction, in collocation with bu viz. "is merely" "is no more than" "The office [I held] was merely that of an attendant"

(Han Shu, 34),

guo gwo —>guoo guoh

GUOO (kuo3)

Archaic Chinese *klwar; Ancient Chinese *kua:; Gram. Ser. K351 (a-b); Radical and stroke 75.4; Concordance 1. 88604; YSD 3. 20; PSH 339; LC 159 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, occurs before the verb; used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particularly when this might be thought to be refuted, or contrary to expectation, "did in fact" "did in reality" "actually did" etc. "My lord would have come to see you ... but did not in fact come" (Mencius, Ib); "They intended to build a city-wall for Cheng, but the workmen fell sick. Someone at night climbed a hillock and shouted, 'There is trouble in Ch T i! T so that they did not actually build the wall but returned rto Ch f il" fTso Chuan. Hsi 16); "The duke [not only] paid no heed [to advice to the contrary] but in fact had the weapons made" (Kuan Tzu, 18); "Men in very truth cannot do without learning" (Shin Chi, 120):

"When [Hsiang] Yfl learned that the King of Han was in Yfian, he did withdraw his troops to the south" (Han Shu § la); "[Hsiang] Yd in fact suspected Ya-fu" (Han Shu, la).

302

guoo

guoo

3. 3. AUXILIARY OF AGENTIAL STATE, "to be permitted" "This is something that should not be done" (Kuo Yu, Tsin YE). 4. 2. 2. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of occurrence or presence, occurs "there is in fact"; also in either singly or in collocation with yeou viz. statements of truth and falsity (see 4. 2.1) singly or in collocation with shyh viz. "it is in fact ..." "it proved to be true that ..." "When he went to look into it, there was in fact such a presentation jade cup inscribed f Long life to the Lord of Men1 " (Shih Chi, 28); "That having happened they studied the inscription. It was in fact a vessel that had belonged to Duke Huan of Ch f i" (Shih Chi, 28); "The Son of Heaven, however, knew the handwriting and cross-examined the man [who presented it]. It was in fact a fraudulent document" (Shih Chi, 28); "They must be hunters of eagles ... he killed two men and took one alive. The men were, in fact, Hsiung-nu hunters of eagles" (Shih Chi, 110); "Emperor Kao paid no heed and so he rode north to the Tai valley. There was in fact [as he had been warned] an encirclement [of his troops by the enemy] at P!ing-chTeng" (Shih Chi, 112). 5. 1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs either singly or in collocation with ruoh viz. Occurs before the verb of the protasis of a conditional statement, "if in fact ..." "If in fact we do raise him to the marquisate, the Chi family will certainly have occasion for sorrow" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 31); "If in fact we encounter [the enemy] we will certainly be defeated" (Tso Chuan, Hstfan 12); "If one can in fact proceed in this way, though dull he will assuredly be enlightened, though weak become strong" (Li Chi, 28).

303

guu

guu

gu gwu —>guu guh

GUU

(ku3)

Archaic Chinese *ko; Ancient Chinese *kuo:; Gram. Ser. 49 (a-e); Radical and stroke 30. 2; Concordance 3. 30881; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, "in the past" occurs with the marker of time phrases jee or yee "In the past [a man] refrained from speaking fearing the disgrace of failing to live up to his word" (AnaM lects, In the past the common people had three faults; today certain of these have been "In antiqlost" (Analects, 17); uity a rubric [stated] 'To conquer self and submit to the ritual is ren "In [perfect humanity]' " (TspChuan, Chao 12); ancient times the [thickness] of the inner and outer coffin was not prescribed" (Mencius, 2b); "In antiquity a major feudal lord might engage in friendship with a knight what do [you] think about that?" (Mencius, 5b). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, in such collocations as 9 "from antiquity to the present" "hitherto" etc. "From of old all must die [i. e. it has ever been thus, all men must die]" (Analects, 12); "Hitherto [these regulations] have not been broken at any time" (Tso Chuan, Chao 13); "Hitherto this has never occurred" (Hsun Tzu, 8). I

304

guu

guu

gu gwu —>guu guh

GUU

(ku3)

Archaic Chinese *kuk; Ancient Chinese *kuk; Gram. Ser. 1226 (i); Radical and stroke 115.10; Concordance 5. 36840; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, in collocation with bu viz. used by princes speaking of themselves, as a humble form, "I" "me" "The king said, MEven so I would like to hear it [ = your answer]1 " (KuoYfl, Tsin Ytf); "I have obtained lands at Shang-ytt some six hundred li square" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch f in, shang); "In the battle today I was wounded" (Lfl Shih Ch'un-ch'iu, 15); "Now I am a ruler of the lowest sort, but my courtiers even so do not compare favourably with me. I fear that my state will be destroyed" (Hsin Hsu*, Shuo Fan, Chun-tao).

gu gwu —>guu guh

GUU

(ku3)

Archaic Chinese *ko/ka; Ancient Chinese *kuo:Aa-; Gram. Ser. 38 (b); Radical and stroke 154. 6; Concordance 3. 78897; YSD - ; PSH 266; LC 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in collocation with the instrumental particle yonq viz. substituting in the instrumental position and asking "why?" "Why not sell [me as a slave]?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

305

hao

haan

HAAN

han harn —>haan hann

(han3)

Archaic Chinese *xan; Ancient Chinese *xan:; Gram. Ser. 139 (f1); Radical and stroke 122. 2; Concordance 3. 02930; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, iterative aspect, "few times" > "rarely" "infrequently" "seldom" "Shu shoots infrequently" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The Master rarely spoke of profit, fate "Where the foot of man but and goodness" (Analects, 9); seldom treads" (Shih Chi, 117); "The • • i penal laws were seldom invoked and offenders became rare as a result" "For (Shih Chi, 9); approximately two years and a half it has appeared but once. A matter rarely occurring in either the £ast or the present" (Han Shu, 36). Note, "aspect/verb" in the example cited from Shih Ching is inverted to bring haan into the rhyming position. See The Language of the Book of Songs, 1

3.3.2.9.

hau haur —>hao haw

HAO

(hao3)

Archaic Chinese *xog; Ancient Chinese *xau; Gram. Ser. 1044 (a-e); Radical and stroke 38. 3; Concordance 5. 34130; YSD 3. 38; PSH - ; LC 157 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "in a pleased, delighted, genial manner" "ingratiatingly" and when negated "grudgingly" "reluctantly" "Today within the Passes [the people] usually sow wheat reluctantly" (Han Shu, 24a); "The king's countenance changed and he looked at [Wang] Tsuen, intending to kill him, but then he said ingratiatingly ..." (Han Shu, 76).

306

hay

haw hau haur hao —>haw

HAW

(hao4)

Archaic Chinese *g!og; Ancient Chinese *yau; Gram. Ser. 1041 (q); Radical and stroke 141. 7; Concordance 5. 82711; YSD 3. 37; PSH 272; LC 53 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the instrumental position and asking: "how?"

"\ ~ "Duke Ai of Lu asked Confucius, T Are such things as sashes and formal hats of any advantage in the [cultivation of] humanity?1 Confucius shuffling uneasily said, !How si^can [you ask a question] like that?1" (Hsun Tzu, 31).

hai hair hae —>hay

HAY

(hai4)

Archaic Chinese *gfad; Ancient Chinese *yai-; Gram. Ser. 314 (a-b); Radical and stroke 40. 7; Concordance 3. 02581; YSD 3. 35; PSH 269; LC 257 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, being an allegro form of her-yii substituting in the instrumental position and asking TTby what means" > "how?"; "for what ends" > "why?" "What will it bode for the state?" [lit. state /will /by what means/have-good-fortune?] (EAC, Inscription 12); "Why does the king not disobey the oracle?" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "What shall [I] wash, what not?" [lit. take-what/wash/ take-what/not] (Shin Ching, Kuo Feng).

307

heh

henq

he her hee —>heh

HEH

(heh4)

Archaic Chinese *xak; Ancient Chinese *xBk; Gram. Ser. 779 (b); Radical and stroke 30.14; Concordance 5. 88321; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 270 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, "a startled cry! " M

An owl had obtained a putrid rat when the fabled bird passed overhead. Looking up and seeing it, the owl cried Oh! ft (Chuang Tzu, 17).

heng herng heeng henq

HENQ (see also herng)

(heng4)

Archaic Chinese *gfwang; Ancient Chinese *yweng; Gram. Ser. 707 (m); Radical and stroke 75.12; Concordance 5. 36395; YSD 3.41; PSH - ; LC 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "perversely" "wrongly" "Corvee labour was improperly raised" (Han Shu, 24a); "Often taxes and levies were wrongly imposed" (Han Shu, "Earlier, when I Yin was young, at first I had no success but improperly took over some picked troops" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu 54). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "laterallv" "crosswise" "[If] Ch'in is exhausted by the rest of the world then this will prevent [Ch'in] from moving laterally against Chou" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Hsi Chou); v$ y£ tfy 4^ " ... so that I shall be able to proceed across their territory" (Han Shu, 99b).

308

her

her

he —>her hee heh

HER

(ho2)

Archaic Chinese *g!a; Ancient Chinese *ya:; Gram. Ser. 1 (f); Radical and stroke 9. 5; Concordance 5. 90721; YSD 3. 32; PSH 261: 365; LC 77 sub, chyu, 6.3; sub, iong, 6.3; sub, jii, 6.3; sub, jiuh, 6. 3; > sub. jyh, 3.1.2; sub, nay, 6.3; sub, shyh, 4.1; sub, yuan, 3. 9. 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in syntagma, substituting interrogatively for the determined or the determinant word, "what ... ? M "what sort of ... ?" and also rhetorically, "how ... is ... I " "What crime [have I committed] against Heaven?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "O! what kind of men are they?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "What grass is not yellow?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "What a night is this tonight! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "How far-stretching are its joints1." (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "How many are the days1. " (Shih Ching, __rf> "when?" "precisely when?" etc. "When will this be stopped?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "When [ = could I ever ] forget him? " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "When precisely was the appointed time?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Was there ever a day or night that I T 1 forgot it? [i.e. did I ever forget? ]" (Ch T u Tz T u, Chiu Chang). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring in the place position, in such "from whence?" "where?" "to what?" collocations as "from what?" "from whence" [and by extension - "how does it come about that ... ?"]. "Wherein [lies the] evil?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "To what can they attain?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "From whence can [we] get good fortune?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Where can [I] seek after blessing?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao "From what do you deduce that I could [be a Ya); true king]?" (Mencius, la); "When we enquire from whence disorder arises [we find it] arises from a failure to practice reciprocal love" (Mo Tzu, 14); "The Prefect of P'ei is a good friend to you. [He] has asked for her [ = your daughter]. Yet you do not /

>4

^

offer her [to him]. How is that, recklessly, you promise to offer her to Liu Chi?" (Han Shu, la). becomes "of what use?" as for example in: Note. In Late Han

"fff one] instructed a man to govern the state contrary to the way he has been taught, then of what use is his ability to govern?" (Chao Ch f i, Meng-tzu .Chang-chtf); 310

her

her M

The evils of arrogance and acquisitiveness! of what use is it to confound the mind by being involved in such things?" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); "FTzu Ch'anl should have repaired the bridges at the appropriate time, then what use [ = need] would the people have for crossing rivers with such pain and suffering" (Chao ChU, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf). sub6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in collocation with chuh viz. stituting for "place" "where?" "Sir, in what respect would you yourself say that you compare to Yi Fu? He replied, f l do not compare with Yi Fu. T Wang and Liu looked at each other and laughed, saying Twhere lies the difference?1" (Shih Shuo Hsin YU*, 25); "And so [they] went hungry all day long, lost, not knowing where to go" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 30). 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring in the agential position, "who" "Who being summoned would fail to come?" (Han Shu, 24a). Note. Her may also substitute in proper names interrogatively asking for the missing element, as for example in: "Everyone says you, sir, are like Lo. Chou [Pojen] said, 'Which Lo? do you mean Lo Yi?! Yfl [Ytfan-kuei] said, 'Not exactlv! onlv like Lo Line1 " (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt. 26>. 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the instrumental position, either singly or in collocation with yii viz. yonq viz. "bv what means?" >"how?", "for what cause?" >"why?" "Why do I alone suffer harm?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Why does Heaven reprove [you]?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "With what was he engirdled?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "[If not] how could they have pierced my roof?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "How can [I] benefit my state?" (Mencius, "How shall I deal with them?" (Mencius, Ib); la); "How is it produced?" (Mo Tzu, 15).

311

her

her

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with wei viz. "with what?" "What did pie] give as a gift?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "What did he use for the meat? Roast turtle and fresh fish! " (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "With what will they fish?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substitutes for the determinations of the verb of manner, "in what manner?" "in what way?" etc., sometimes rhetorical "how ...?" "How can it be tolerated?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Now, O how grieved [I] am" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "In what way does this differ from killing a man by stabbing him?" (Mencius, la); "This [man] is in what way adequate to be spoken to about humanity and justice?" "You (Mencius, 2b); sir are a prince, I am a subject. How dare I presume to be on friendly [i. e. familiar] terms with you?" (Mencius, 5b). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with ru viz. "how ... I " [i. e. how very much so]. "Now, O how distressed [I] am! " (Shih Ching, Ta Ya). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the pre-verbal position, for elements which occur in non-interrogative mood in the post-verbal position "what?" "Further what will [we] give them?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "What do I seek for myself?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "What will [my] parents have to eat?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[They] ask me what I seek" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[If] death does not strike [him] [then] what is there for [him] to do? [i. e. it were better that death should strike him]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "What should I cultivate in order to make mv state-visits comparable with those of the for[lit. what/add/to him] "What admer kings?" (Mencius, Ib); vantage is it to him?" (Mencius, 6a).

312

her

her

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting for the determinant term of a may also occur "A is determinative sentence. The copulae wei what?" "What did he announce?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Dreams of good omen are what [sort of dreams]?" (Shih Ching, "What splendour is that?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Hsiao Ya); "What [i.e. whose] carriage is that?" (Shih Ching, Ya); "What is my offence?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); Hsiao Ya); "The reason for these [caps] is what? [i.e. what are these caps for?]" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "If [I] were to pervert my principles and conform with those people, what "What would be said of me?" (Mencius, 3b); can be said about the fact that a gentleman is exacting in the terms on which he will accept office?" (Mencius, 3b). into the first position. Note. An inversion of the two terms brings "What can be said of the sumptuous ness of the blossoms of the cherry?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "What can be said of Hstt Tzu's going to so much trouble?" "What is the name of this country?" (Han Shu, (Mencius, 3a); ^.o

Ib). 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in the determinative sentence, with the "what is it like?" copulae of common inclusion preceding her "of A what can be said?" etc. i) With the copula before the determined term "Now, of that, what can be said? [i. e. what now can be "To what said about that?]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); can you liken this fine person?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). ii) With the copula between the two terms "O what joy it is! " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "O how weary I am!" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[But] what of the old?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Of planting hemp, what can be said?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). iii) With copulae and interrogative substitute preceding determined term "The second and third year fields, how are they?" (Shih "How is it O Heaven Ching, Chou Sung);

313

her

her

that the rulerTs words are untrustworthy?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). Note. Late Han has for LAC and as for example in: "What can be said about this matter?" (Chao Ch f i, Mengtzu Chang-chfl); "What can be said about the evil T 1 f of the honest villagers ?" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "What does the word 'yin' mean?" (Han Shu, 65). 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in the determinative sentence, with the copula of inclusion following her viz. "to what would one liken ... ?" "of A what can be said?" "What can be said about fondness for music?" (Mencius, "If [I] do not annex [Yen] lb); there certainly will be Heaven's disapproval to face, [but] if [I] do, what "What would you say about that?" (Mencius, lb); would [you] say about [such people as] Po Yi and Yi Yin?" (Mencius, 2a); "If because [they] had fled only fifty paces [they] laughed at [those who had] fled a hundred paces, then what would you say to that?" (Mencius, la); "You should ask about the present long delay in the conduct of af"What, sir, would you fairs. Why is it?" (Kuan Tzu, 24); think of that?" (Kuan Tzu, 18). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with wei viz. "what is meant by ...?" "Might [I] ask what [you] mean by "What do [you] 'greater physical vigour'?" (Mencius, 2a); mean by '[I] understand [what] can be put into words'?" (Mencius, 2a); "What do [you] mean by 'good' and 'reliable'?" (Mencius, 7b), as for example in: Note. La Late Han occurs as "[Kung-sun] Ch'ou asked, 'What do [you] mean by "[I] understand what can be put into words"?' fr (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu ChangcM); "[Huo-sheng] Pu-hai asked, •»





^

'Conduct that is 'good' and 'reliable', what do [you] mean?' " (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl).

314

her

her

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in statements of occurrence and presence "what is there ?" "What is there at Chung-nan? There M "What are peach trees and plums! (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); is there to concern the king about in this?" (Mencius, Ib); "What [difficulty] is there in answering this?" (Mencius, 6b). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but with the determined term ? "what ... can there be ? " occurring between her and the copula, "If in feeling no shame one differs from others, what is there not to differ from others?" [i. e. "in what will "For an outone be like others?"] (Mencius, 7a); law, what mourning can there be?" (Mencius, 4b); "Would such things as lost states and ruined families be?" (Men"How can there be a question of my not cius, 4a); being excused?" (Kuan Tzu, 18). 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in causal sequences, occurs singly or in "why?"; either precedes or follows collocation the term of consequence. i) preceding "Why do the gods not grant [you] good fortune?" (Shih "Why do they tarry?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Ching, Ta Ya); "Why should [I] not be happy?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); Feng); "Why do you not look into this?" (Shih Ching, Kuo "Why do [you] not put it into practice?" (Mencius, Feng); "Why should I not accept?" (Mencius, 2b); Ib); "Why should [I] have urged this?" (Mencius, 2b). ii) following "Why did Shun marry without informing "Why does a his parents?" (Mencius, 5a); gentleman not tutor his son?" (Mencius, 4a); "Why do you say Tone should be firm of purpose and not allow the passions to offend1?71 (Mencius, 2a). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with guh viz. "for what cause or reason?" "why?" i) preceding "Why should [you] be set aside?" (Tso Chuan, Min 2); 315

her

her

"Why did [you] assassinate your prince?" (TsoChuan, "Why cannot you? " (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 21); M Why will you not come out [of retirement and take a proffered M M office]? (Kuan Tzu, 18); Why should T Ch'u have to ask permission of Ch i before enthroning its king?" (Han Shu, 31). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with wey viz. "why?" "Why could they not?" (Chan-kuo Ts f e, Ch f in, hsia); "The emperor asked, 'Why did you do it? T " (Han Shu, 65); "Why was your son murdered?" (Han Shu, la). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with ji viz. "why?" Wen 17);

"Why is it that the body in fact can be made [as rigid] as a dried-out tree and the mind [as inert] as dead ashes?" (Chuang Tzu, 2); "I concede to you a major point, yet you do not allow me a minor point. Why is this?" (Li Chi, 2); "Why is it? I have never heard of anything like this before! " (Li Chi, 2), 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but negated, "why not ..." "Why not someday strike up the lutes! " (Shin Ching Kuo Feng). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but where collocates with jee, "why is this?" or with tzer viz. "why?" "Is it not so that when Chung Tzu-ch'i died, Po Ya for the rest of his life never played the lute again? Why was this?" (Han Shu, 62); "Why was this?, [because] though their merit was great, Ch'in was unable to enfeoff them with land" (Han Shu, 31). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but where jee terminates the clause of consequence and her substitutes and asks for the cause, "why is this?" "The reason for which the empire was gained by me, what was it? [i. e. why did I gain the governance of the empire?]" (Han Shu, Ib). 316

her

her

fi ^

INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurs either singly or in collocation with substituting interrogatively for either the proor ruoh or ru tasis or apodosis of a conditioned statement. M When Fwel perform sacrifices what do [we] do?" "When cutting an ax-handle what does (ShihChing, Ta Ya); one do ?" [lit. cut/ax -handle /if /do what?] (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "When taking a wife what should one do?" (Shih Ching, Kuo "What should be done so that [this] is possible?" (MenFeng); "What should [I] do so that [my cms, Ib); ministers] would wear mourning clothes for me?" (Mencius, 4b); "What should [I] do so that [my care for my parents] would be called Hrue nurturing1 ? " (Mencius, 5b). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but with the terms reversed

viz. "I would like to proceed northwards and attack Yen, then turn eastwards and attack Ch!i. What should I do so as to succeed?" (Shih Chi, 92). 6.4. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, used indefinitely, [from what? >what, as in "I don't know what" and thus - ] "some ... or other" "Further, this month on the day kuei-chTou a man, whose identity I do not know, blocked the road before my carriage ..." (Han Shu, 99b).

he —>her hee heh

HER

(ho2)

Archaic Chinese *gfap; Ancient Chinese *yap; Gram. Ser. 675 (a-d); Radical and stroke 30. 3; Concordance 2. 90181; YSD 3. 37; PSH 300; LC 281 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, injunctive or hortatory, polar-positive, occurs before the verb, "ought" "should" "must" "The empress is not the legal wife 1 and should not be called impress " (Hou Han Shu, 9); "I myself think that we should follow the old regulations, we ought not to chop and change about" (Hou Han Shu, 57). 317

her

her

he —i>her hee heh

HER

(ho2)

Archaic Chinese *grat; Ancient Chinese *yat; Gram. Ser. 313 (d); Radical and stroke 73. 5; Concordance 3. 88222; YSD 3. 34; PSH 269; LC 256 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in syntagma, substituting interrogatively before nouns and asking "what kind of ... ? M or rhetorically "what.kind of ... I " "If this be not so then even with a T f ang or a Wu on the throne of what advantage would it be and even if a Chieh or a Chou were on the throne what "Our grain! what loss would ensue?" (Hsun Tzu, 4); stores [we possess]!" (Shih Chi, 117). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in the time or place position either singly asking such questions as "what time?" or in collocation with ytfeh viz. "when?" "to what place?" "where?" "O when will it be that I go home?" (Shih Ching, "What has become of him?" [lit. to what place/ Kuo Feng); "With what might he have go] (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); met?" [lit. to what place /he /have /come to] (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the pre-verbal position for elements which, in non-interrogative mood,oceur in the post-verbal position "what?" "The prince brings good order where good order is; he does not bring good order where chaos is. What is meant by this?" (Hsun Tzu, 3). 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in lihe instrumental position, or with wey viz. "by either singly or in collocation with wei viz. what means?" "how?" "for what reason?" "why?" "with what?" etc. "What shall [I] give him to eat and drink?" [lit. with "Why do what/drink/feedAi*n] (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "How can [you] still love her?" (Shin Ching, Kuo Feng); 11 "How they be brought to an end? (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); can they be brought to a close?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "How can you ever return to your [native state]?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 1);

318

her

her

"Why was it not yet known?" (Kung-yang Chuan, Ting "This year the harvest i); has been a rich one, but I have not returned thanks for it. Why then should "Why this cauldron appear?" (Shih Chi, 28); are [we] alone left aside?" (Shih Chi, 117). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in collocation with charng viz, "was it ever so?" "Did they ever not pattern themselves on the sages?" (Chuang Tzu, 10); "Among the emperors who from of old have received the mandate, has it not always been so that the feng and shan sacrifices have been performed?" (Shih Chi, 28). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring before the auxiliaries of agen"how adequate is ... ?" "how dare ...?" tial state, "How dare I not put into effect the grace and help received by me from the departed kings?" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "How dare I not within my own lifetime bring to realization the great charge of the blessed [i.e. deceased] royal kings?" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "Is that enough to make his seven feet of body beautiful?" (Hsttn Tzu, 1). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurring initially in a statement making it interrogative in a rhetorical sense, "is it not" > "surely it is" "Am I not the one to put into effect the plans which the departed kings brought to so successful a conclusion?" [In this example the agent is exposed and resumed by chyi] "Surely in kindness [Heaven] will (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "Should [I] acquiesce give us peace?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Is it not exhausting? > in this?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); how exhausting it is!" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Surely we should respectfully welcome the carriage of the Lady Chi?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

319

her

her

he —>her hee heh

HER

(ho2)

Archaic Chinese *gfap; Ancient Chinese *yap; Gram. Ser. 642 (n-o); Radical and stroke 108. 5; Concordance 3. 37673; YSD 3. 2; PSH 272, 341; LC 207 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, being an allegro form of occurs initially in the sentence in the sense of "why not ... ?" often in rhetorical senses for example, "why not ... M > "surely one should ...! " "was it not because ... ?" > "surely because ..." "should one not ... ?" "Why do you not each one describe his objectives?" "Surely we should go back to (Analects, 5); the root of the matter I " (Mencius, la); "Surely [you] ought to think about your conduct! " Flit, why do you not/not/think about/ conduct] (Chuang Tzu, 29); "Why, my lord, do you not plead old age and bestow upon him the government?" (Kuo Yti, Tsin Ytf); "Why not hand over the king?" (Kuo Ytf, Chou Ytf).

he —>her hee heh

HER

(ho2)

Archaic Chinese *gfap; Ancient Chinese *yap; Gram. Ser. 642 (s); Radical and stroke 169.10; Concordance 2. 82377; YSD 3. 36; PSH 272; LC 282 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, being an allegro form of .occurs initially in the sentence in the sense of "why not ... ?" often in rhetorical senses. "Sir! why do you not be gone and not interrupt my work! " (Chuang Tzu, 12); "And was he not always resigned to this! " (Chuang Tzu, 25); "Why should we not after all ask questions about it?" (Chuang Tzu, 24).

320

herng

herng

heng —>herng heeng henq

HERNG (heng2)

Archaic Chinese *gfang; Ancient Chinese *yang; Gram. Ser. 881 (d-e); Radical and stroke 61.6; Concordance 5.60772; YSD 3.41; PSH - ; LC 109 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, customary or experiential aspect, "habitually" > "invariably" "always" "constantly" "Succession in Ch T u has always been i ' [from] among the younger [sons]" (Tso Chuan, Wen 1); "The ruination of a state has always and of a surety come from this" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 13); "As a ruler he has been grossly immoral and unfatherly. I have heard that a person of this kind invariably meets with disaster at the hands of his son" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 28); "The birds and beasts of the great rivers always know to flee when disaster strikes the rivers" (Kuo Yd, LuYtl); "Matters concerning Heaven are always [indicated by] omens" (Kuo Ytf. Chou Yti); "In the production of wealth there is a major principle; where its producers are many and its consumers few, where those who make it are fast and those who use it slow, then wealth will always be in adequate supply" (Li Chi, 39).

321

herng

horng

heng —>herng heeng heng

HERNG (see also heng)

(hSng2)

Archaic Chinese *gfwang; Ancient Chinese *ywBng; Gram. Ser. 707 (m); Radical and stroke 75.12; Concordance 5. 36395; YSD 3.41; PSH - ; LC 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurring either pre- or post-verbally before the locative, "across" "Across the Yang-tse they set up a floating bridge with defence towers" (Hou Han Shu, 47).

hong —> horng hoong honq

HORNG (hung2)

Archaic Chinese *gfwang; Ancient Chinese *ywang; Gram. Ser. 887 (g); Radical and stroke 57. 2; Concordance 5.12600; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2.5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "very" "abundantly" "reallv" "trulv" "so" "Your duties are very great" (Shin Ching, Ta Ya); "Deaths and disorders are very frequent" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

322

hour

horng hong —> horng hoong honq

HORNG (hung2)

Archaic Chinese *g!ung; Ancient Chinese *yung; Gram. Ser. 1182 (o); Radical and stroke 85. 6: Concordance 5. 01391: YSD 3. 53: PSH 274: LC 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before verbs imposing a sense of gravity or portentousness (usually defined as "greatly" but otherwise meaningless except in the sense described here). "I consider that I, a weak and young person ..." (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "I consider that [you] de1 spise Heaven s commands" (Shu Ching, To Fang),

hou —>hour hoou how

HOUR (hou2)

Archaic Chinese *gfu; Ancient Chinese *yau; Gram. Ser. 113 (a-d); Radical and stroke 9. 7; Concordance 5.90190; YSD 3.38; PSH 271; LC 116 sub, jiun, 6.1. See also 2.1.1. REDUPLICATIVE MARKER, occurs post-posed to an attribute to indicate identical reduplication. "Responsive is his compliant virtue!" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya) [here, 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive, polar-positive, occurs before the verb, used for polite injunctive "ought" "should" etc. "It is we who should arise!" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya). 4. 2. 2. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of occurrence or presence, "there is ..." "There were King Wen!s sons and grandsons" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Beneath it there is [shade] evenly spread" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Who is there present?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Look there within the forest there is kindling and brushwood" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 323

how

how hou hour hoou —>how

HOW

(hou4)

Archaic Chinese *gfu; Ancient Chinese *ygu-; Gram. Ser. 113 (e); Radical and stroke 9. 8; Concordance 9. 90290; YSD 3. 39; PSH - ; LC 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase in the sense of "wait until ... then ... " "Intending when a favourable moment should come to mount a punitive attack on them" (Han Shu, 96); "... then when autumn harvest-time comes [we will] trample your crops with cavalry" (Han Shu, 94).

hou hour hoou —>how

HOW

(see sub, how

(hou4)

Archaic Chinese *gfu; Ancient Chinese *ygu; Gram. Ser. 112 (a-b); Radical and stroke 30.3; Concordance 4. 22181; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC -

hou hour hoou —>how

HOW

(also written

(hou4)

Archaic Chinese *gfu; Ancient Chinese *ygu:; Gram. Ser. 115 (a-c); Radical and stroke 60.6; Concordance 5. 29640; YSD 3.40; PSH - ; LC 176 See als(

sub, chyi, 3.11;

sub. Jong, 3.11.

2. 7. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, determining, used attributively, occurs before nouns, Matter" "later" "future" "rear" "hindmost" "So that [you] might enjoy the blessings to come" (Shin Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"Give orders to these rear-carriages

[i. e. to the baggage-train ... ]" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[Those later born =] the young should be held in respect" (Analects, 9);

324

how

how

"Yet Mencius' latter funeral [i.e. his mother s funeral] was more lavish than the former [i.e. his father!s] funeral" (Mencius, la); "[They had] sealed off the front [i. e. the entrance] of the Pass and cut into the trees to the rear of the Pass without actually felling them" (TsoChuan, "Sages of a later age Chao 23); changed it [i. e. the burial procedures] by [introducing the inner and outer coffins]" (Han Shu, 36). 2. 7. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, post-posed to a noun, occurs with or without the syntagmatic determinative conjunction iy "to the rear of" "behind" "Because I follow to the rear of the Great Officers [i. e. my rank is below that of the ... ]" (Analects, 11); "The Fan family supporters were behind the tower" (TsoChuan, Hsiang 23). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, relative sequence, "latterIv" "afterwards" "subsequently" "A good person is someone who having first faced the difficulties has obtained it [i. e. goodness] subsequently. [One such] could be called TgoodT " (Analects, 6); "First the task, later the attainment" (Analects, 12); "It is the common people who first must advance their knowledge of the rites and music before being given office, but for a gentleman he can do so subsequently" "Why sister were you (Analects, 11); previously so haughty and latterly so humble?" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch!in, "Chang Hui latterly attained the rani shang); of General of the Right" (Han Shu, 54), "then 3. 8. PARTICLE OF SUBORDINATION, in collocation with ran viz. only" "Only after ornament and substance are perfectly blended [do we have] a True Gentleman" (Analects, 6); "It is only when the year turns cold that we realize that the pine and cypress are the last to fade" (Analects, "The master awaited the appropriate moment 9); before speaking" (Analects, 14); !

325

how

how

"It is only when these [conditions having been fulfilled] that you could become the father and the mother of the people" (Mencius, Ib); "It is only when having seen something remiss in him that [you] should reject him" (Mencius, Ib). 3. 8. PARTICLE OF SUBORDINATION, as above, but in collocation with erl viz. "Chi Wen Tzu having thought three times then took action" (Analects, 5); "Why must it be that to be learned one has to read books?" (Analects, 11); "Some [of the soldiers] having [fled] a hundred paces stopped, while some having [fled] fifty paces stopped" (Mencius, la); "One who being a Worthy already enjoys these things" (Mencius, la). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, occurring singly or in collocation with chyi viz. "later" "afterwards", occurs with or without the marker of time phrases, yee "Afterwards [he] regretted it" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Later [he] promoted him, conferring on "If him the highest office" (Mencius, 5b); thereafter the Granary Keeper continues to issue grain to him ..." (Men"Later learning cius, 5b); f that [Ch en] Sheng had already been raised [to the throne] [he] murdered Hsiang Ch'iang and returned and reported [that he had done so]" (Han Shu, "Later [the family] was sent to Ling-chtf in 31); Chin-ch'eng" (Han Shu, 69). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, as above, but in such collocations as "henceforward" "henceforth" etc. "Henceforth, I shall know, shall I not, that I have got through safely!" (Analects, 8). 3.11. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, occurring as a PARTICLE IN TIME PHRASES, determining, occurs i) before measures of time "year, -day, -month, -later" ii) before demonstratives, "after this" "Two days later the husband arrived" (Chan~kuo Ts'e, Yen, shang); "Before this there had been an incident and after it there was another" (Kung-yang

326

how

how

"A little over a month Chuan, Chuang 4); later the shan-yfl went hunting" (Han Shu, 54); "Some three years or so later the gate of the shrine of Emperor Hsttan caught fire" (Han Shu, 36); "If in the next fifty years of the Han reign rebellion breaks out in the south-east no doubt it will be you[r doing]! " (Han Shu, 35). 3.11. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, occurring as a PARTICLE IN TIME PHRASES, postposed with the possibility of occurrence of the syntagmatic conjunction of determination jy ^ "after ..." "After [I] was born ..." (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); T [lit. a hundred years hence1] but used figuratively for "at the end of my life" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "PI before [a man] is mature [the Way] is transmitted to him, after [he is] mature he will weary of it" (Analects, 19): "A hundred generations hence, a hundred kings further on, no one will be able to gainsay it" (Mencius, 2a); "All we who thus covenant together, after having made this covenant,declare that we return to our own states in amity" (Mencius, 6b); "In five generations they will prosper and be on a par with the highest ministers. After eight generations none will compare with them for splendour" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 22); "From the time after she had borne a son she was rarely received in audience" (Han Shu, 97). 3.12. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, occurring as an AUXILIARY OF PLACE, occurs self-standing; also occurs in the second post-verbal (i.e. locative) position, "behind" "to the rear" "In the van were squadrons of twenty-five [chariots], in the rear sections of five [infantrymen]" (Tso Chuan, Huan 5); "Each man looks behind him, none has a heart to fight" (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 16); "[He] made [him] stand beT hind" (Tso Chuan, Ch eng 2); "[On the march] to the fore are the standard bearers keeping a look-out, in the centre are troops to support them [and] in the rear is the main force" (Tso Chuan, Hsttan 12); "At this [he, Chou

327

how

how

Choi unstringing his bow tied his hands behind [his back]" (Tso Chuan, M [Fei] P'ao attacked him from Hsiang 18); the rear and killed him" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 23); "The king deputed Chiao Cliff to be in attendance at the rear to correct any error [that might be made]" (Tso Chuan, Chao 4); "[Horses had] the irksomeness of bit and breast-band in front and the fear of crop and whip behind" (Chuang Tzu, 9). 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, in collocation with ran viz. incorporating the protasis, "when this is so, then only ..." "if this is so, then only ..." "it is only when ... that then ..." "It is only when [we] weigh [something] that [we] know [its] weight" (Mencius, la); "If [you] see ability in him, then only [should you] employ him" (Mencius, Ib); "If [you] do this, then [you] can become the 'father and mother of the people1 [i. e. become a true king]" (Mencius, Ib); "When I first arrived at the borders [of your state], I enquired about the prohibitions in force here, for then only would I have presumed to enter [the state]" (Mencius, Ib); "Mencius said, 'The functions of the body are the endowment of Heaven, but it is only after one has become a sage that they can be properly manipulated' " (Mencius, 7a).

328

hu

hu

—>hu hwu huu huh

HU

(hu )

Archaic Chinese *gTo; Ancient Chinese *yuo; Gram. Ser. 55 (a-d); Radical and stroke 4.4; Concordance 1. 20300; YSD 3.43; PSH 277; LC 52 See also

sub, jyh, 3.11; sub, fei, 3.14; sub, jie, 5. 2; sub. sub, u, 5. 2; sub, u, 5. 2; sub, u, 5. 2; yu, 3.6; sub, yun, 3.14. 3. 2. PARTICLE OF THE SECOND POST-VERBAL POSITION, occurs between elements in the first and second post-verbal positions; realizable in translation where the verb is active by "to" "at" "in" "from" etc., and where passive by "by" . "Escorted me to the banks of the ChH" (Shin Ching, Kuo Feng); "Arranged to meet me at Sangchung" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "What are [we] doing here in the mud?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Very different from the duke's coachman" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "By the time [they] have become involved in crime ..." (Mencius, 3a); "Emerged from the dark chasm" (Mencius, 3a); Rolling into the gutters" (Mencius, 3a); "For this reason I would like to be of service to your Majesty by [recommending to you] the Vertical Alliance" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Wei, hsia); "[His] brilliance resembled that of the sun and moon, yet the music in the Ancestral Shrines does not express it" (Han Shu, 5). 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurring before the locative "to" I "In Shan-pei, Ho-wai and Ho-nei, several hundred large counties and scores of well-known cities were lost to ChTin" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Wei, hsia). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs in collocation with jyh viz. "by ..." "coming now to ..." etc. "By the last years

329

hu

hu 1

of King P ing's reign, when Duke Yin of Lu had just ascended the throne ... " (Han Shu, 36). 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MODE, indicating doubt, tentativeness, incredibility, etc. (sometimes purely rhetorical, sometimes with an implied invitation to assent or dissent). M Is it not truly so?" (Shih Ching. Hsiao Ya); "Shall [we] go and look?" (Shih Ching. Kuo Feng); "[You] may have something by which to profit my state?" (Mencius, la); "Yet you, sirtwish that for me! " (Mencius, 2a). 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MODE, as above, but occurring after vocatives, imprecations, expletives, etc. "Alas! my child" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Alas!" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "How awe-inspiring it is that Shun and YU* possessed [i. e. ruled] the world yet remained aloof from it! " (Analects, 8). 3.15. METRICAL PARTICLE, in collocation with erl viz. seemingly q.v. interchangeable with shi "[He] awaited me twixt gate and screen O!" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

—>hu hwu huu huh

HU

(hu1)

Archaic Chinese *xo; Ancient Chinese *xuo-; Gram. Ser. 55 (h); Radical and stroke 30. 5; Concordance 5. 88231; YSD 3.46; PSH 301; LC 53 See also sub, u, 5. 2; sub, u, 5. 2. 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, expressing anger or fright, "Ugh! " "Oh! " "Lady Ch'ien of Chiang in anger cried out f Ugh! what a menial you are! How proper it is for our king to wish to kill you and enthrone Chih in your place!f " (TsoChuan, Wen 1); "Tseng Tzu on hearing this cried out in alarm T Oh! ! " (Li Chi, 2).

330

hu

hu

—>hu hwu huu huh

HU

(hu1)

Archaic Chinese *xmwat; Ancient Chinese *xuat; Gram. Ser. 503 (1); Radical and stroke 61.4; Concordance 3. 22010; YSD 3.48; PSH - ; LC 257 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, occurs either singly or in collocation with ran viz. or yan viz. "suddenly" "without warning" "unexpectedly" "Chieh and Chou blamed others. Their destruction [came] suddenly" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 11); "Majestic [the sight] as [Tao] suddenly issues forth!" (Chuang Tzu, 12); "Suddenly [it passes], no different from the time taken to see through a crack in the wall, the charger ChTi-chi gallop past" (Chuang Tzu, 29); "The envoy asked why this was so, whereupon, suddenly, [the man] disappeared" (Shih Chi, 6); "The man thinking that the old woman was being untruthful was about to deal harshly with her, whereupon the old woman suddenly disappeared" (Han Shu, la); "Suddenly, I set forth" (Ch'u Tz'u, Chiu Chang). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "carelessly" "indifferently" "The T Marquis of Wu-an, startled, apologized saving, I was drunk vesterdav and carelessly forgot that I had spoken with [Chung-ju =] Kuan FuT " (Shih Chi, 107); "Carelessly forgetting my own low rank and T T poverty" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang).

331

hu

huey —>hu hwu him huh

HU

(hu1)

Archaic Chinese *gfo; Ancient Chinese *yiio; Gram. Ser. 55 (e-g); Radical and stroke 141. 5; Concordance 3. 70830; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 52 See also sub, u, 5. 2. 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, indicating doubt, tentativeness etc. , sometimes purely rhetorical, sometimes with an implied invitation to assent or dissent. "Should officials hastily equalize [the coinage]? In that case the trouble caused would be great. If in fact they tried to do so their power would be unequal to the task. [Then] should they be lax and not offer reproof ? M (Han Shu, 24b); "You, sir, once were Premier of Wu. Do you know what sort of person a minister there named T'ien Lu-po is?" (Han Shu, 49); "Thus his plan is uncertain of success. He surely will not present it!" (Han Shu, 49); "When your highness is enthroned can you [under such circumstances] govern well?" (Han Shu, 48).

huei hwei hoei —>huey

HUEY (hui4)

Archaic Chinese *gfiwad; Ancient Chinese *yiwei-; Gram. Ser. 533 (a-d); Radical and stroke 61. 8; Concordance 3. 56014; YSD 3. 51; PSH - ; LC 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before the verb, either singly or in colloca, viz. tion with as a mark of deference to the status of the person addressed, "have the kindness or graciousness to" "bestow the favour of" "Graciously [you indicated that you] were willing to "Would that you had the come" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[If] you kindness to love me!" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); 332

huey

huey would graciously love me" (Shjh Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Your prince has had the kindness to take into consideration the friendship that existed between him and my late father and to show such consideration for me" (TsoChuan, Chao 31); "If your prince would graciously offer his protection to our city ..." (Tso Chuan, Chao 22); "If you pronounce him innocent and have the kindness to let him go ..." (Tso Chuan, Chao 13); "If in your kindness you insist on conferring on me [this city] my relationship to the [other] Feudal Lords would be that of one self-aDDointed to a fief and what crime could be greater than that?" "If only your Majesty

(Tso Chuan, Hsiang 10);

would graciously look with concern on the altars of the state" (Kuo Yti, Tsin Ytt).

huei hwei hoei —>huey

HUEY (hui4)

Archaic Chinese *g!wad; Ancient Chinese *ywai-; Gram. Ser. 321 (a-e); Radical and stroke 73. 9; Concordance 2. 90182; YSD 3. 50; PSH 301; LC 211 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, indicating the timing of an event in which chance plays a part, "at this/that time it so happened that" "by mishap" "bv a luckv chance" "I would like T

!

to go with you [T ien Fen] and visit the Lord of Wei-ch i, but it so happens that you are in mourning" (Shin Chi, 107); "The emperor at the time had great faith in him and i would have made him chancellor, but unfortunately [Hu] Sui died" (Shih Chi,

108);

"By this time it

so happened night had fallen and the Hsiung-nu thoroughly suspicious of what had happened did not venture to attack" (Shih Chi, 109); "But it so happened that night had fallen and !

every one of [Li Kuang s] officers and men had turned white with fear" (Shih

333

huey

huey

Chi, 109); M But it happened to be winter [and he encountered] such severe cold and heavy snow that two or three out of every ten of his men lost fingers by frostbite" (Shih Chi, 110); M By a lucky chance Chang ChTienTs forces came to his relief and General Li Kuang managed to escape" (Shih Chi, 110); "The Han at that time began again to gather men and horses, but unfortunately the General of Swift Cavalry [Ho] Ch'tt-ping died, at which the Han for some time to come did not go north to attack the Hsiung-nu" (Shih Chi, 110); "Unfortunately the sun was about to set and a great wind arose. The whirling dust beat against the men's faces so that neither army could see the other" (Shih Chi, 111); "He wished to return and report, but unfortunately Ch'in had attacked and taken the Pa and Ch'ien-chung provinces of Ch f u so that his way was blocked and he could not get through" (Shih Chi, 116); "Fortunately Yueh had already been subdued so that the eight Han commanders instead of proceeding down stream at once turned their troops about and returned" (Shih Chi, 116); "The Marauis of Yeh-laner. who at first had sided with Southern Yueh, when Southern Yueh was destroyed fortunately changed sides and punished those who had advocated rebellion" (Shih Chi, 116).

334

huoh

huh HUH

hu hwu him —>huh

(hu4)

Archaic Chinese *g!o; Ancient Chinese *yuo-; Gram. Ser. 54 (a); Radical and stroke 7. 2; Concordance 1. 70700; YSD 3.47; PSH - ; LC 3. 7. PARTICLE OF RECIPROCITY, used either singly or in collocation with shiang viz.

occurs before the verb indicating that the agents are recipro-

cally actor and affectee. "The generals of the van and rear Ho-wu and Kung-sun Lu recommended each other" (Han

Shu, 99);

"The people of the empire

have been destroying and killing each other" (SanKuoChih, Wei Shu, 1); "Vying with each other to propound false doctrine, the Hundred Schools rise against each other" (Hou Han Shu,

65): "His contemporaries adversely criticized [the poem] among themselves" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4).

huo hwo huoo —>huoh

HUOH (huo4)

Archaic Chinese ? *gfwak; Ancient Chinese ? *ywek; Gram. Ser. (cf. 784); Radical and stroke 30. 14; Concordance 5. 88344; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 269 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, indicative of disapproval or reproach. "Emperor i i ' Wu descending from his carriage said in tears, 'Tut! my sister! how deeply secluded you have been kept!! " (Shih Chi, 49) (Ch f u Shao-sun appendage).

335

huoh

huoh

huo hwo huoo —>huoh

HUOH (huo4)

Archaic Chinese *g!wak; Ancient Chinese *ywak; Gram. Ser. 929 (a-d); Radical and stroke 62.4; Concordance 2.50811; YSD 3.48; PSH 149, 165; LC. 279 2. 8. AUXILIARY OF COMPARISON, comparative degree, occurs before a verb, M more so" "Wu is no match for Kuo, while Yiieh is greater than Shaok'ang. If you are to enrich them further will it not cause difficulties?" (Tso Chuan, Ai 1). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive mood, "whether or not to ..." "Whether or not [we] are going to abolish them ..." (Tso "Whether in fact [we] know of it or Chuan, Hsiang 27); "Whether not ..." (Tso Chuan, Chao 1); Heaven opens a way for him or not he must become our prince" (Tso Chuan. Hsuan 3}. 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive, occurs before the verb, "may" "might" "would" and when negated "unlikely to" "Yin is unlikely to govern the four quarters well" (Shu Ching, Wei Tzu); "Now I have [I] hope in this way told you about the place you are to occupy" (Shu Ching, To Shih). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, selective, "of the agents, some" "there were those who" etc. "If any of them should report saying ..." (Shu Ching, "Some are drunk, some not" (Shih Ching, Chiu Kao); "Some in herds, some in couples" [said of Hsiao Ya); "Some are wise, some wild game] (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Someone reported to me not" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); saying ..." (Mencius, Ib); "Some use [their skills] to gain a fief, some merely to remain silk-floss bleachers" (Chuang Tzu, 1): "Among the younger members of

336

huoh

huoh

the old families and the rich there were some who engaged in cock-fighting, horse-racing, hunting and gambling;, setting a bad example for the people "Some [of the of Ch'i" (Shih Chi, 30); Jan and Mang peoples] are settled on the land, some are itinerant11 (Shih M Some advocated a policy Chi, 116); of friendly relations, others a policy of pursuit and subjection" (Shih Chi, "Some of the people of Pa and Shu 110); unofficially cross the frontier on trading ventures" (Shih Chi, 116). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, "sometimes" "at times" "Shu merchants engaged in the illicit export of goods sometimes went there [i. e. to Tien-ytteh]" (Shih Chi, 123); "Some thousand or so families of the poor people of Ho-nan had suffered badly from flood and drought. At times fathers and sons were reduced to cannibalism" (Shih Chi, 120); "The famous mountains and great rivers were sometimes in the hands of the Feudal Lords and at other times in the hands of the Son of Heaven" (Shih Chi, 28); "So that sometimes [one] sees gods appear and as a result [the state] prospers. At other times [the state] as a consequence perishes" (Kuo Yfl, Chou Ytt). "some3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, determining, occurs before shyr viz, times" suey viz "in some years" etc. "The spirits [of the stone-like objects] in some years did not appear at all, while in other years they would come several timestf (ShihChi, 28); "When Chancellor [Kung-sun] Hung had audience on a private affair, the emperor sometimes would appear without a hat" (Shih Chi, 120). 3.12. AUXILIARY OF PLACE, self-standing, "at some places" "In New Chin, in some places there are no posting stations or frontier posts for a thousand li" (Shih Chi, 30). 4. 2. 2. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of occurrence or presence, negated, "there is not" "never has been" etc. "When there is one of these present, it has always spelled ruin" [lit. not/have/not/ruin] (Shu Ching, Wu-tzu chih Ko); "From antiquity to the presen 337

huoh

huoh

there has never been a default" (TsoChuan, Chao 13). 5.1.1. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, simple connection, occurs between agent and verb of the second of two sentences "and tooM "also" "Having set aside one to watch and also one to assist as scribe ..." (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Ch'en She is [an example of this]. How much more then in the case of the lords of the three Tsin states should they too have preserved their states" (Shih Chi, 112). 5.1. 2. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, alternating connection, used either in a series, "either A or B or C" or in a contrasting pair, "whether to ... or to . . . T 1 "The currency in Emperor Shun's time and in the Hsia dynasty was of metal of three types either gold, or silver, or copper" (Shih Chi, 30); "Either to proceed through the Lin-tsin Pass, or to meet with me in Lo-yang" (Han Shu, 35); "Either in Yen or Tai or in Shang-chtih, "Whether they die Pei-tih, or Lung-hsi" (Han Shu, 49); f prematurely or live to a ripe old age" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "Whether by breaking off or leading forth" (Chao Ch'i, "Whether [he] saw them or not" Meng-tzu Chang-chfl) (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf); "Whether he be a princely man or a petty man" (Chao Ch f i, Meng-tzu Chanff-chfl). 5.1. 2. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, as above, but with one occurrence of huoh. "Further, [even] when the sound of thunder is most severe the sound comes either from the east or west, or from the north or south" (LunHeng, 23). 6.4. INDEFINITE SUBSTITUTE, being an allegro form of yeou-iou *giug-diog > *gfwok, substituting indefinitely for elements which in definite form would occur in the post-verbal positions, "anything" "something" "someone" "The lord gives credence to slander [accepting slander] as though it were something to which [he] responded in a toast [at a solemn rite]" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "O the sorrows of the heart! [They] are like something which

338

hwan

huoh ties the heart tight" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); extinguish it?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"Can anything "May there be

someone to bury it! " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "May there not be anything that is not made everlasting for you" (Shih Ching, "No one dares relax in anything" (Shin Ching,

Hsiao Ya); Kuo Feng).

6.4. INDEFINITE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but used interrogatively, "which person?" "You people down below! which of you dares insult me now?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

huan —>hwan hoan huann

HWAN (see also shyuan)

(huan2)

Archaic Chinese *gtwan5 Ancient Chinese *ywan; Gram. Ser. 256 (k-m); Radical and stroke 162.13; Concordance 2. 09844; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, in collocation with yji viz. occurs post-posed to a time phrase in the sense of " ... hence" "In reasoning and behaviour I am put tc f

shame by K ang Po. In strength of purpose and determination on rectitude I am put to shame by Wen Tu. Henceforth I [hope to] excel them both" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytl, 9); "Is Hsiao Tsu-chou really a fit person to be made a principle minister? [If so] from now on [almost] anyone might be thought fit!" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 8).

339

hwang

hwang huang —> hwang hoang huanq

HWANG (huang2)

Archaic Chinese *g!wang; Ancient Chinese *ywang; Gram. Ser. 708 (a-c); Radical and stroke 106. 4; Concordance 3. 28772; YSD 3. 53; PSH 292; LC 2. 8. CONJUNCTION OF COMPARISON, "still less" "even more" "how much more so?" "How much less would [I] want more of them [i. e. of sycophantic courtiers]?" (Shu Ching, Ch'in Shih); "[If it were] said [to them] petty people resent and revile you, then how much more did they carefully attend to their virtue?" (Shu Ching, Wu Yi). 3. 3. AUXILIARY OF AGENTIAL STATE, occurs before the verbal complex, "to have time for or to be" "[They] have no time to do anything else" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "So that never have I time for repose" (Han Shu, 56).

huang —> hwang hoang huanq

HWANG 2 (huang )

Archaic Chinese *g'wang; Ancient Chinese *ywang; Gram. Ser. 708 (i); Radical and stroke 162. 9; Concordance 2. 09272; YSD 3. 52; PSH 292; LC 3. 3. AUXILIARY OF AGENTIAL STATE, occurs before the verbal complex, "to have time for or to be" "[I] have no time to kneel or sit down" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[You] have no time to stay the nigjit" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Day and night proceeding fearfully, having no time for rest or sleep" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 47); "Even if I had provisions I should hunger, having no time to eat" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 19).

340

hwu

hwang

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurs as in 3. 3, but used interrogatively "what time is there for?" [What time have you = ] "You have not even time to grease [the wheels of] your carriage" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "What time have [I] to care for our future?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

hu —>hwu huu huh

HWU

(hu2)

Archaic Chinese *gfo; Ancient Chinese *yuo; Gram. Ser. 49 (a1); Radical and stroke 130. 5; Concordance 5. 38823; YSD 3.42; PSH 266; LC 53 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in syntagma, occurs before nouns, "what kind of ..." "Having thus got his way, then what prohibition [was enacted] but did not result in cessation! - what order [was given] but was not carried out! " (Han Shu, 99). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting before the verb for elements, which in the answer anticipated, come after the verb; occurs either singly or in collocation with y_u viz.

"do what?" "to what?" "These [plans] will lead to what?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "What are [we] doing here in the mud?" (Shih Ching,

Kuo Feng);

"What am [I] doing here in Chu-lin?"

(Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurs either singly or in collocation with yii viz. substituting in the instrumental position and asking trby what means ?""how?" "How [else] would we get three hundred yj of grain?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "How can there be a settlement?!T (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); them?" (Tso Chuan, Huan 15);

."How can [you] compare "How should I not know" >

"Of course I know!" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 26); "How am I to get this from Chih-po?" (Lfl Shih ChTun-chTiu, 15); "[If drought were widespread] how could the state offer relief?" (Han Shu, 24a). 341

hwu

hwu

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, occurs singly or in collocation with iviz. substituting in causal sequences "why?" "Why do [they] do these evil things?" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Why do [you] involve us in such misery?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Why did that cause me such suffering?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); , "Tzu-wei deceived Tsin so why should Tsin accept her?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 3); "Why did you arrest a man within the palace precincts?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 7); "Why did [you] twice act without consulting [me]?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 24). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with bu viz. "why not ... ?" "Why is [he] not struck dead instantly?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Why should [I] not join with them?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "If my lord is determined not to leave Lu, why does he not use his weapons?" (Kuan Tzu, 18); "If you are really to keep your word, why do you not engage the Ch'in army and die with us?" (Shih Chi, 89). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with wey viz, "why...?" "Why is it that so far [she] has not been summoned to court?" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch T i, hsia).

342

i

i I

—>i

yi

(i1)

yii yih

Archaic Chinese *.iet; Ancient Chinese *. iet; Gram. Ser. 394 (a-d); Radical 1; Concordance 1.10000; YSD 7.30; PSH 213; LC 245

sub.

sub, dann, 3.11. (note); sub, bey, 2. 3. 5; See also sub. tii, 3.4. ryh, 3.1.3. and 3.11;

2. 3.1. NUMERAL "one" used both as ordinal and cardinal, occurs both selfstanding and determining enumerable nouns and measure words and also in the formation of complex numbers. "How could I begrudge one sheep [for a sacrifice]" (Mencius, la); "My strength is sufficient to lift a hundred chun but not sufficient to "[Such teachings] lift one feather" (Mencius, la); adduce one [point] but neglect a hundred [others]" (Mencius, 7a); "Thus to take one in twenty [for taxation] "A dishful of soup" (Mencius, 6a); suffices" (Mencius, 6b); |

-

-w

I

"[Han] Hsin was fishing beyond the city wall where the old women washed silk-floss. One of the old women, seeing that he was hungry, fed him" (Shin Chi, 92); these [gifts], one object alone would be sufficient reason to pardon the Lord of the West. How much [more reason to do so when the gifts are] in such profusion! " (Shih Chi, 4); "That is the first of your crimes" (Han Shu, la); "You gentlemen know but one [side]. You do not know both [sides]" (Han Shu, Ib). 2. 3. 2. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, in collocation with ell viz. "several" "a few" "As to our [i.e. pre-dynastic Choufs] few states, [we] became orderly as a result [of King Wen's actions]" (Shu Ching, K!ang Kao). 2.3.6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, identifying, occurs before nouns, "all of the ..." "the entire" "The entire assemblage were astonished" (Shih Chi, 28);

343

i

i

"Everyone in the market-place laughed at [Han] Hsin, thinking him cowardly" (Shih Chi, 92); "[The Hsiung-nu] joined battle with the forces of the Han commander-in-chief throughout the day. It so happened that in the evening a wind storm got up. The Han forces in loose formation attacked on both flanks and surrounded the Shan-ytt" (Shih Chi, 110); "The duration of a stay in jail never exceeds ten days [and the number of] men imprisoned in the entire "The entire army state is a mere handful" (Shih Chi, 92); was astonished" (Han Shu, 34); "All the officials in the state came to offer their congratulations" (Hsin Hsu*, Shuo Fan, Ching-shen); "In my entire lifetime, I have never seen this man!" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, positive reflex form, "in fact" "in truth" "indeed" "Mv lord has indeed offended in much [already]; why [now offend further] by giving credence to slander?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 20); "At present the King of Chu's friendly feelings toward me are indeed very great" (Kuan Tzu, 22); "Alas! Has the deterioration of the law in fact come to this! " (Shih Chi, 68); "Have my faults in fact reached this point?" (Shih Chi, 126). momen3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, in collocation with chieh viz. tary aspect, "for the time being" "momentarily" "[I] request that [you] expel all 'guests' for the time being" (Shih Chi, 87); "Those who violate the laws against the private buying and selling of commoners should for the time being not be charged" (Han Shu, 99b); "Further, [he] imposed a levy temporarily upon the most senior ministers and below" (Han Shu, 99c). Note. also occurs in attributive usage, in the sense of "momentary" "interim." "An interim increase in taxes" (Han Shu, 54);

344

i

i

"They seek for possible momentary advantages over the "In enemy" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chti); order to seize a momentary advantage" (Hou Han Shu, 50). 3.1. 3. ITERATIVE ASPECT, "for one time" > "for once" "for one time" "once again" "at one time" "For several dynasties T T in succession they were entitled King.' Kou-ch ien [one of the kings] at one time held the title of Paramount Prince" (Shin Chi, 114); "Do you, Tzu-ch f ing, hear me but once more" (Han Shu, 54). 3.1. 3. ITERATIVE ASPECT, as above, but from "for one time" > "once" "no sooner than" "as soon as" "King Wen,once aroused to anger, brought peace to the people everywhere" (Mencius, Ib); f

"That being so, if your Majesty made [him] your minister, once he had ceased to be minister, would he who previously had been called a knight not in fact be a knight?" (Kung-sun Lung-Tzu, 1); "As soon as we have a bad harvest, the hunger appears on the people's faces" (Han Shu, 4); "Once the autumn winds come, the branches will be broken" (Yen-tzu Ch!un-chTiu, Tsa shang). "in one 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, in collocation with chieh viz. stroke" "[Yet I] have a proposal by which you could in one stroke be made rich and honoured for all time" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch'in, hsia). is also used attributively in the sense of "in one piece" "as a Note. whole" "part and parcel of the whole" etc "All [of the princes and nobles] are officers who, as part and parcel of Emperor KaoTs party, gained merit" (Han Shu, 35).

3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, in collocation with ell viz. "in detail" "This matter is difficult to record in detail" (Han Shu, 36).

345

i

i

3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, "of the agents, all equally" "as a whole" "in their entirety" "The affairs of state, all are increasingly laid on me" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "With these five [principles] all equally obtaining in the world, no one has an insufficiency, none but have their needs supplied" "His re(Li Chi, 14); tainers numbered several thousand men and regardless of whether they were nobly or meanly born all were treated as his [i. e. Wen, Lord of Meng-chTang!s] equals" (Shih Chi, 75). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, as above, but in collocation with chieh viz. "For several years [officials] have held other posts concurrently, [they] all daily become more corrupt" (Han Shu, 99b). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, selective, occurs in pairs, "one ... another ..." "some ... others ..." "[Of omens], some are favourable, others not. Who can set a norm in these matters?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 5); "If some [officers] are gratified while others are not, then the offence is even greater" (Tso Chuan, Chao "Yeou [in the text] means Tin some [places] 16); there were, and in other [places] there were notf " (Ku-liang Chuan, Chao 25); "[Of successors to the throne] some have been from father to son, others have been from older to younger brother. That has been the norm in Lu" (Shih Chi, 33). 6.1. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, used as an indefinite pronoun, "a certain" > "any one" "an" "At a certain place beside the Fen River" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "If this were not so, this [case is one] which any law officer could decide" (Shih Chi, 107); "There was an elderly gentleman passing by who asked for a drink" (Han Shu, la); * » * "... and one whom [your Majesty] reckons to be among all your subjects the best known [to be disliked by you] and enfeoff him first" (Han Shu, Ib). 346

i

i

Note. Before a proper name

occurs for "a person of the like of ..."

as in:

"What can one man of the like of Hsfleh Chtf-chou do for the King of Sung?" (Mencius, 3b); "Hsiang Yti had a Fan Tseng, but he could not use him" (Han Shu, Ib) occurring 6. 1. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, in collocation with ell viz. before a status pronoun, creates a collective form. "But I think only of this, that you my elders cannot set your minds at ease" (Tso Chuan, Yin "My prince wishes to meet ii); with you, his brother princes" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 3). "I" when used by 6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, in collocation with ren viz. kings as a humble form, "our" when speaking of kings to other kings as a humble form. "The charge of our sovereign" (KuoYfl, Ch!i Yti); "Government good or bad resides with me, my"If the people are at self" (Han Shu, 4); fault, [the onus] lies with me" (Han Shu, 9).

—>i

yi

yii yih

I

(i1)

Archaic Chinese *.jLer; Ancient Chinese *. i; Gram. Ser. 604 (a-c); Radical and stroke 9.4; Concordance 5. 90752; YSD 7.1; PSH 218; LC 27, 57 See also

sub, chii, 6.3; sub, feei, 4.1; sub, her, 6. 3; sub, hwu, 6.3. 2. 6. COUNTER-PRIVATIVE AUXILIARY, replaces the privative bu where contrast is involved. "[A place] not far off, [but] close by" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Not to be feared, [but] to be embraced" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

347

i

i

3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, used to replace bu where a contrast is emphasized between negation and non-negation. T! O great uncles! O uncles! you do have pity for my person" (Shu Ching, Wen Hou chih Ming). 3.12. DEMONSTRATIVE, used as an AUXILIARY OF PLACE, "this [place]" > "here"; "that [place]" > "there" "There [beyond the river] they play together" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 4.1. COPULA, polar-positive, "A is B" "The food they bring is millet" (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "Made of silk is the fish-line" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 4.1. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, in collocation with feei viz. "not because ..." "It is not because [they] trail them [i. e. their sashes]" "It is not because [they] curl it (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); [i.e. their hair]" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 4. 2.1. DETERMINED TERM, in truth and falsity statements, in polarity with feei viz. "it is ..." "it is so that ..." "It is not tarragon, it is wormwood" (Shih Ching, Hsiao "It is not that [he] is angry, [he] is disciplining [us]" Ya); (Shih Ching, Lu Sung); "[You] do not remember the old days, [when] it was to me that you came for solace" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 6.1. DEMONSTRATIVE, used as a personal or impersonal pronoun in the verbal sentence, "he, him" "they, them" They/to/what?/lead "What do they [the plans] lead to?" "With (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); the Chiang family we take care of them [our daughter-in-law is a Chiang], With the Sou family they take care of us [our daughter is their daughter-in"If we law]" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 5); f let him go, we are sure to be able to pacify western Ch u" (Shih Shuo Hsin "I fear he may not welYfl, 7);

come your visit. Your wishing to [visit] is not sufficient [reason] for doing so" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytf, 24).

348

i

i

6.2. DEMONSTRATIVE, determinative, used before nouns, "this, that" "I brought this impediment [between us] myself" (Shih "[He] whom [I] call 'that man! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "This year, at the Ching, Kuo Feng); T end of spring, we are going to sacrifice to Hou-t u" (Han Shu, 87). 7. 2. BLUNTED USAGE, ^occurs uniquely in EAC. In Han times, it reappears in certain usages in 'classical1 writing, occasionally in blunted usages. EAC in EAC introduces time phrases, described above is glossed as EAC f hence in Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju s prose poem the following occurs: "When remote antiquity first began, from the time when Bright Heaven gave birth to our people ... " (Shih Chi, 117). This usage for I^is not attested in EAC. I^also reappears in Six Dynasties writing as a third-per son pronoun (see 6.1 above).

—>i

yi

yii yih

I

(i1)

Archaic Chinese *.iar; Ancient Chinese *. jei; Gram. Ser. 550 (f); Radical and stroke 9. 6; Concordance 5. 90090; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, occurs introducing an instrumental phrase in the sense of "by relying on" "by trusting in" "by virtue of" etc. "[The Wang family] by virtue of the high dignity of the Eastern Palace and by exploiting their royal connections on their distaff side made themselves influential and powerful" (Han Shu, 36); "By the citing of classical precedents he lamented his lot and classed himself with them" (Han Shu, 36); , "Through their f [i.e. the nobles'] power and influence he [Lo P ou] sold on credit and lent money" (Han Shu, 91).

349

i

i

I

—>i

yi

1

(i )

yii yih

Archaic Chinese *.iag; Ancient Chinese *. i; Gram. Ser. 957 (b); Radical and stroke 30.13; Concordance 5. 88013; YSD 7. 3; PSH 206, 255; LC 21 5. 2. INTERJECTION, used either singly or in collocation with shi viz. indicative of such heightened emotions as pleasure, surprise, unease, etc. , "Ah! Oh!M "It is true, but alas! our prince has commanded us not to dare to mention it" (Shu Ching, Chin TTeng); "Ah! King Ch'eng! " (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "When Yen Yuan died the master said, ! Alas! Heaven is destroying us! Heaven is destroying us!f " (Analects,

ii);

i



"[Tzu-kung] asked, 'What sort of persons engage in governT ment today ? The master said, TAlas! they are mere men of weights and measures, hardly worthy of consideration!? " (Analects, 13); "Hsu" Yii said, 'Alas! that can never be known1" "Hsin (Chuang Tzu, 6); 1 T Yuan-yen, dispirited and displeased, said, Alas! " (Shih Chi, 83); "Alas! how can we hold back the waters [of the flood]?" (Shih Chi. 29).

—>i yi yii yih

I v



(see sub, i —- )

a1)

Archaic Chinese *. jet; Ancient Chinese *.iet; Gram. Ser. 395 (a); Radical and stroke 33. 9; Concordance 3. 37011; YSD 7.30; PSH 213; LC 2.3.1. NUMERAL, alternative form of — "one". Occurs particularly when "one" is used verbally "to unify" or attributively "unified" "Now the House of Han flourishes, China is unified ..." (Han Shu. 62); "[He

350

i

i

may ... ] unify his nature, nurture his T ch T i T and harmonize his virtuetf (Chuang Tzu, 19). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, positive-reflex form, "in fact" "in truth" "indeed" "Our defeat is indeed great" (Tso Chuan, Chfeng 16); "If now pie] does not get off with his life and as a result it means the neglect of our tutulary altars, would that not be a questionable [procedure]?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang "[I, Yen] Hui find this very peculiar indeed" (Chuang 21); "You are weeping maTzu, 6); dam, as one who is indeed very greatly troubled" (Li Chi, 2); "Yii Tzu said to Tzu Yti, f l did not in fact know that one could writhe about when in mourning. I have long wanted to see this practice "[You] drew suppressed1 " (Li Chi, 2); [your] sword and cut off [a piece of] meat. Indeed how courageous that

was! " (Han Shu, 65). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, iterative aspect, "for one time" > "for once" "once" "once more" "no sooner than" "as soon as" "A Feudal Lord marries once taking nine women [bride and attendants], A Feudal Lord does not marry a second time" (Kung-yang Chuan, Chuang 19); "The reason why his Majesty wishes to receive me is merely his wish to look for once upon my face, nothing more" (Han Shu, 33); "As soon as order is restored, then ..." (Han Shu, 49); "Each time, no sooner did they change cash, than the people as a result ruined their livelihood and became badly ensnared in penal punishments" (Han Shu, 24b); "I hope once more T T to return, but when?" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, in collocation with chieh viz. tary aspect, "for the time being"

momen-

"A tax was imposed temporarily on officials and M commoners" (Han Shu, 24b); Now once again I temporarily put these ordinances into effect" (Han Shu, 99c).

351

i

i

is also used attributively as for example in: "Ever since these interim laws were promulgated ... " (Han Shu, 99c). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, "of the agents, all collectively" "all equally" Note.

"Thus the Former Kings accordingly for it [i.e. for mourning] set up a rule for [a period of mourning of] medium duration, that all equally should serve sufficiently to fulfill the needs of decorum and reason and thereafter be released from it [from further mourning]" (Li Chi, 35); "When the rebellion first broke out, great warriors and brave heroes each in turn pronounced their titles and all cried aloud" (Shih Chi, 92); "The Legalists make no distinction between intimate and remote relationship and do not differentiate between the nobly and ignobly born. All equally are judged according to law" (Han Shu, 62); "To ensure that the people all agreed" (Han Shu, 24b); "All affairs of state were decided by the commander-in-chief, [Ho] Kuang" (Han Shu, 68).

—>i

yi

yii yih

I

(i1)

Archaic Chinese *. ia; Ancient Chinese *. ie; Gram. Ser. 1 (h1); Radical and stroke 94. 8; Concordance 5.42321; YSD 7. 2; PSH 250; LC 29 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MODE, expressing wonder, surprise and the like. "If I could have but one servant, but a resolute one! with no other skill but ..." (Shu Ching, Ch'in Shih); "The waters of the Ho flow clear and rippled! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "You have returned to the real, while we still remain as men! " (Chuang Tzu, 6).

352

i

i

or with 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, in collocation with lie viz. yeu viz. "Oh!" "Ah!" "Ah! the Ch f i and the Chfl" (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "Ah! how abundant!" (Shih Ching, Shang Sung); "Ah! [but he] is famous" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

—>i yi yii yih

I

a1)

Archaic Chinese *. ior; Ancient Chinese *. iei; Gram. Ser. 589 (e); Radical and stroke 120.11; Concordance 3. 84660; YSD 7. 2; PSH 218; LC 57 4.1. COPULA, polar-positive, "A is B" "The people do not think slightingly of offerings, but it is only virtue that is [an acceptable] offering" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 5). 4.1. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, "is because" "The fact that the Royal House was not overthrown was because it was upon our great kinsman that it relied" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 14); "This king and these four overlords, why is it that they were so favoured for each of them was descended from a banished king?" (Kuo Yfl, Chou Yfl); "The reason why the House of Chou was not destroyed was because of their reliance on these two states" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 1). 5. 2. INTERJECTION, self-standing, "Ah! " HAlas! " "You have a mother to give it to, alas! I myself have no mother" (Tso Chuan, Yin 1).

353

ian

ian IAN

—>ian yan yean yann

(yen1)

Archaic Chinese *. jam; Ancient Chinese *.:iam:; Gram. Ser. 614 (a); Radical and stroke 37. 5; Concordance 3. 39811; YSD 7. 66; PSH - ; LC 180 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this moment" "at once" "straight awavM Msoon" "just at this moment" > 'Must ..." M The marketplace at Shih-yang was crowded. [Chou] Chfln and his party had no sooner arrived than the people [there] abandoned their produce and entered the "I city" (San Kuo Chih, Shu Shu, 58); have just heard that an army has arrived at Po-tih" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 52).

—>ian yan yean yann

IAN

(see also yan)

(yen1)

Archaic Chinese *. ian/gian; Ancient Chinese *ian/jiah; Gram. Ser. 200 (a); Radical and stroke 86. 7; Concordance 3. 77720; YSD 7. 60; PSH 96; LC 72 See also

sub, shao, 3.11.

Note. is read ian *. ian when interrogative or initial in the clause and yan in all other forms of distribution. 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the apodosis of a conditioned statement; [Mwhen ... ] then only . . . T f "[if ... ] then ..." "Then only can he govern it" (MoTzu, 14); "[The physician] must know from whence the illness springs, for then only can he cure it" (Mo Tzu, 14); "If there is insufficient faith, then there is lack of good faith" (Tao Te Ching. 17). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the Time and Place position, and asking such questions as "at what time?" > "when?"; "at what place?" > "where?"; "to or from what place?" > "whence?"

354

ian

ian M

Where can [I] get the herb of forgetfulness?" (Shih "Where is the Ching, Kuo Feng); duke? Our duke is in the valley" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 30); "Further, to whom is it to be transferred?" (Tso Chuan, Ai 6); "When did [he] become wise?" (Mencius, 2a); "What time has he to ferry any and everyone across the river?" (MenYou/where?/can/defile/me "You could cius, 4b); "When never defile me" (Mencius, 5b); did such people become great men?" (Mencius, 3b); "When the fathers of the world return in allegiance to him, to where could their children go?" (Mencius, 4a); "When has there been a gentleman who could be procured with a bribe?" (Mencius, 2b). 6.3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in extended sense, "from whence?" > "for what purpose or reason?" "It is the storks who receive the emoluments and offices! How can we fight your battles?" (Tso Chuan, Min 2);

"Today it is the relatives of princes and great nobles who, without [any other] reason, are given riches and noble rank. But why should they, beautiful though they may be, of necessity be wise?" (Mo Tzu, 13); "Furthermore, are the affairs of the states of ChTi and ChTu worth talking about?" (Shih Chi, 117). 7. 2. BLUNTED USAGE, INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, in Han usage, occurring in the pre-verbal position and asking Tlwhat person?" "who?" "Who should I appoint in the state of Lu?" (Kungyang Chuan, Chuang 32).

355

in

in —>in

yn

yiin yinn

IN

(Yin1)

Archaic Chinese *.ien; Ancient Chinese *.u?n; Gram. Ser. 370 (a-c); Radical and stroke 31. 3; Concordance 2. 88390; YSD 7. 69; PSH 79; LC 59 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, occurs introducing an instrumental phrase, when the instrument occurs between the agent and the verb of a verbal sentence, M by means of tf "with" "taking advantage of" "availing oneself of" etc. "For the world is of one mind about its suffering under Chfin. [Do you].availing yourself of the world1 s strength, attack this unprincipled "FKuanl Fu was angrier prince" (Shih Chi, 89); still, [but] with a forced laugh, he said, ..." (Shih Chi, 107); "[They] make a living by hunting" (Shih Chi, 110); "With two hundred or so thousand men trained for service in the towered ships, pie] attacked Nan-yfleh" (Shih Chi, 30); "We should like the people to be encouraged to supply their own capital and with tools supplied from government sources to engage in salt manufacture. The officials to provide the pans on loan" "[We] could, by taking advantage (Shih Chi, 30); of the present situation, attack Wei" (Shih Chi, 68); "It were preferable to take advantage of their lack of enthusiasm and attack them" (Han Shu, la). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, substituting for an instrumental phrase "to take the occasion to" "to avail oneself of the opportunity ..." "When King Hsiao of Liang came to court [the emperor] would take the occasion to entertain him as though he were his own brother" (Shih Chi, 107); "[In addition to sending Kung-sun Hung a reply to his memorial, the emperor] took the occasion to grant to him a term of leave, a gift of meat, wine and some miscellaneous silk goods" (Shih Chi, 112); i "In the eleventh vear of Han [Kao-tzufs reign, the emperor] sent Lu Chia [as his envoy to Nan-ytleh]

356

in

in f

taking advantage of the occasion to appoint [Wei] T o, King of Nan-ytieh" "The (Shih Chi, 113); [Marquis of] Wei-ch'i, reckoning that nothing further could be done, took the occasion to mention the chancellor's shortcomings" (Shih Chi, 107); "Took the occasion to give [him] a stern warning, saying ..." (Shih Chi, 107). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, interposed between two proper names, or substitutes, in the sense of "through the good offices of" "by the intervention of" "through the medium of" "I would like, through your good offices master, to fulfill a wish of mine to get in touch with Ching K f o. Is that possible?" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Yen, hsia); "Fan Tzu came to Ch!in at the instigation of Wang Chi" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch T in, hsia); "Nieh Weng-yi, an influential man of Ma-yi in Yen-men province, through the good offices of the Imperial Messenger Wang Hui informed the emperor, saying ..." (Shih Chi, 108); "And so [Pu Shih],through the good offices of KTung Chin, made known [to the emperor his views on] the matter of the tax on ships" (Shih Chi, 30). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, occurs introducing an instrumental phrase, when instrumentation is given as cause, "because of" "Because of illness, [he] resigned" (Shih Chi, 107). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL CONJUNCTION, in collocation with y^i viz. >X occurs before two verbal clauses indicating that the content of the first clause comprises the instrumentation of the second, "thereby" "as a result" "Li Ssu as a result was able to ! explain himself. He said to the King of Ch in ..." (Shih Chi, 87); "The harvests as a result were frequentlv poor. In the areas of Liang and Chu, it being particularlv so" (Shih Chi, 29); "You could get several hundred men and as a result terrorize the population. The population would not dare then, not to obey you" (Han Shu, la); "The King of Han consequently sent [Liu] Chia to command the forces at Chiu-chiang" (Han Shu, 35).

357

in

in

3. 9. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, occurs with the demonstrative tsyy viz. used anaphorically, "because of this" "[Chao] T T o because of this began to threaten the frontier with his troops" (Shih Chi, 113). 3. 9. CAUSAL CONJUNCTION, occurs before the clause of consequence, "because of this ..." "therefore ..." "[They] have no constant livelihood and because of this lack a constant mind" (Mencius, la); "The King of Chao thought [this proposal] a proper one. Because of this [he] did not send troops to the west" (Shih Chi, 89); "The Lord of Wu-hsin followed his plan, and as a consequence he sent K'uai T T ung to present to the magistrate of Fan-yang the seals of a marquis" (Shih Chi, 89); "Sui Ho because of this [i. e. the delay] spoke to the chief steward, saying ..." (Shih Chi, 91); "It is as the envoy advises and consequently [we should] raise a force and attack them" (Shih Chi, 91); "[Han] Hsin, because of this, was able to attack Ch'i at Li-hsia, and eventually to reach Lin-tzu" (Shih Chi, 92); "Chia [= Tfien], as a consequence, with arms bared apologized" (Shih Chi, 108); "After battle those who had beheaded or taken an enemv prisoner were given a cup of wine and the booty they had obtained was accordingly given to them" (Shih Chi, 110); "The Han army accordingly sent a party i ~ iong yong yeong yonq

IONG

(yung1)

Archaic Chinese *dmng; Ancient Chinese "Iwong; Gram. Ser. 1185 (x); Radical and stroke 53. 8; Concordance 4. 02526; YSD 9. 33; PSH 84, 87, 90; LC 2 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, injunctive or hortatory, polar-positive, occurs before the verb, "ought" "should" "must". When negated with wuh or wu viz. "no need to" i) not negated "As to this journey, [Wu] should bear in mind that [you] are to be repaid for it" (Tso Chuan, Chao 5); "Can it be that by now you needs must forget?" (Ch'u Tz'u, Chiu Chang). ii) negated "There is no need to kill them, but for the time being you should instruct them" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); "The duke said, 'There is no need [to eliminate T'ai Shu, he] will come to that of his own volition' " (Tso Chuan, Yin 1); "Han Hsien-tzu said, 'There is no need [to repay Ch'u, if we] let [the king] exacerbate his offences, his own people will revolt against him' " (Tso Chuan, Ch'eng 15); "... but there is no need to announce it formally for the sake of the [rest of] the world" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'i, hsia);

360

long

long

"In my opinion the best policy for you to pursue,my lord, is to reassure the people and not involve them in this. Furthermore, there is no need to involve them ..." (Shih Chi, 69). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL CONJUNCTION, occurs between two verbal sentences, indicating that the content of the first sentence comprises the instrumentation of the second, "thereby" "as a result" "accordingly" "The emperor accordingly composed a song which said ..." (Shu Ching, Yi Chi); "The king accordingly prepared a document by way of announcing [this] which read ..." (Shu Ching, Shuo Ming); , "[The kings] divided the treasures and jades among the states belonging to their elders, thereby increasing the elders' sense of kinship" (Shu Ching, Ltf Ao); "And accordingly I enfeoff you with the rank of a duke of the highest class" (Shu Ching, Wei-tzu chih Ming). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the modal position before the verb and askine. "should?" "could?" "ought?" etc. "There were those who plotted to summon your lordship when Tzu-yi had already held office for fourteen years. Could [such men] fail to be of a double-mind?" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 14); "Could I possibly attain to [the state]?" (Tso Chuan, Hsflan 12); "Could [we] do better [than that]?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 10); "Though I may have sought the right direction could I possibly manage [to get there] and knowing that I cannot do so, should I force my way there?" (Chuang Tzu, "This is something established by 12); heaven, how could I possibly murder him?" (Shih Chi, 39); "My generals and ministers are my very legs and arms. If I pass on to them [the onus for] this calamity, should I not be ridding myself of my own person?" (Shih Chi, 40); "Could it be that even at present you could T T forget?" (Ch u Tz u, Chiu Chang).

361

long

long

6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, in collocation with kee viz. "could it be that?" "it is perhaps" "Tsin!s descendants are sure to become great, so perhaps we can hope [for better things in the future]?" "Your (Tso Chuan, Hsi 15); ! troubles with Nan K uai and Tzu Chung could perhaps be set aside?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 13). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with bih viz. "is it certain that ... ?" "does it necessarilv follow that ... ?" "Even though he obtains [such] worthy [men], is there any certainty that he can utilize them?" (Kuan Tzu, 18). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, as above, but in collocation with her viz. or with jiuh viz. or with an viz. "could?" "should?" \ "[Under such circumstances] could I return to my home?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 25); "Could [you] know that what I say I know is not in fact what I do not know?" (Chuang Tzu, 2); "Outwardly [he] may agree, but inwardly not consider it. Could he meet with your approval?" (Chuang Tzu, 4); "Could we know that what I call TheavenlyT is not in fact human? " "How (Chuang Tzu, 6); could you know that I did not obtain it when the mulberry sheds its leaves? [i.e. in the autumn of life]" (Hsun Tzu, 28).

362

iou

iou

—>iou you yeou yow

IOU

(yu1)

Archaic Chinese *diog; Ancient Chinese *iau; Gram. Ser. 1077 (a-b); Radical and stroke 66. 3; Concordance 5.90240; YSD 7.47; PSH 64, 67, 72; LC 115 6.4. INDEFINITE SUBSTITUTE, occurs when a verbal clause is downgraded to a relative phrase and substitutes in the pre-verbal position for elements which in the verbal clause would occur in the post-verbal positions "which" "place to which, upon which, from which, at which" "on whom" etc. Horse/four/instances of/that by which/harnessed "Harness for a team of four horses" (EAC, Inscription 12); "I would go and seek [a place] whereat I might cross" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "And too, to whatever offices your knights are appointed, serve me therein as loyal subjects" (Shu Ching, To Shih); "The place in which you are to dwell" (Shu Ching, To Shih); "[The sacrifices] in which his friends assisted" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "[Insignia] which fine officers find proper" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "[The place] to which the prince ascends" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); Jj "[The one] on whom ten thousand blessings gather" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); ••• Examine/their [ = Chou!s]/that which/began/thoroughly survey/all/that which/finished "If we examine all that which, from beginning to end, Chou accomplished ..." (Shih Chi, 117).

363

iue

iue

—:>iue yue yeue yueh

IUE

(ytfeh1)

Archaic Chinese *giwat; Ancient Chinese *jiwBt; Gram. Ser. 304 (a-d); Radical 73; Concordance 1. 88882; YSD 9. 24; PSH 133, 138, 141; LC 255 See also

sub. chii, 6.3.

2. 2.1. SYNTAGMATIC CONJUNCTION, simple connection, occurs between two nouns, "and" "together with" " . . . great joy and happiness" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 3.10. PARTICLE OF EXPOSURE, occurs before elements, "exposed" in the verbal sentence, "as to ..." "as for ..." "As to Shang, [they] will have them [the Ti and the ChHang] for ever" (Shih Ching, Shang Sung). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase in the sense of "by the time that" "[But] by the time [they] are drunken" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "By the time the year changes [i. e. at yearTs end]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "When we were in the East, when the time came to return home ..." (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 4.1. COPULA, "A becomes, consists of, constitutes, B" "The opening [section] is the Five Elements, next, the second [section] is bringing into play the five [rules of] service, next, the third [section] is the energetic use of the eight [rules of] government, next, the fourth [section] is the harmonious use of the five regulators etc. ..." (Shu Ching, Hung Fan); "Of the five regulators of the fourth section the first is the year, the second the month, the third the day, the fourth the stars and constellations and the fifth the calculations for the calendar" (Shu Ching. Hung Fan); "The first is the objectives to be sought, the second is the things to be prohibited, and the third is the things to be enacted in orders" (KuanTzu, 16).

364

iue

iue

5. 1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the apodosis, ["When ... ] then . . . T t "When exposed to the sun!s heat [the snow] melts" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 5. 5. PARTICLE MARKING REPORTED SPEECH, or the citation form of a word or title, etc. "The king issued a decree f to Jung and to the nui-shih [which said] Grant to the Lord of Ching a charge "FHisl mother was of office' " (EAC, Inscription 6); "He called the Empress L(f" (Han Shu, 2); honoured Empress Lti, [giving her the title of] August Empress" (Han Shu, 2).

365

iah

jaan jan jarn —•>jaan jann

JAAN (chan3)

Archaic Chinese *tian; Ancient Chinese *tian:; Gram. Ser. 201 (a); Radical and stroke 44. 7; Concordance 4. 82392; YSD - ; PSH 511; LC 156 4. 2.1. DETERMINED TERM, in statements of truth and falsity, "true it is that ... " "Truly - a great achievement" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Truly - he is a prince" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Truly - a worthy kinsman of ours" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

ja jar jaa —>jah

JAM

(cha4)

Archaic Chinese *dzfag; Ancient Chinese *dz!a-; Gram. Ser. 806 (a-e); Radical and stroke 4.4; Concordance 4. 90700; YSD 5.16; PSH - ; LC 224 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this or that moment" "at such moment as" "Now the moment a man sees / a small child about to fall into a well ..." (Mencius, 2a). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, with the auxiliary occurring in pairs, "one moment ... the next . c . " "now ... now ..." "Its flight is now high, now low" (Ta Tai Li Chi, "[The boat was] one moment visible, the Hsia Hsia Cheng); next inundated" (Han Shu, 53).

366

jann

jan

—•>jan jarn jaan jann

JAN

(chan1)

Archaic Chinese *tian; Ancient Chinese *tsian; Gram. Ser. 150 (c); Radical and stroke 70. 6; Concordance 5. 02930; YSD 5. 23; PSH 783; LC 74 3. 2. PARTICLE OF THE POST-VERBAL POSITION, being an allegro form of i. e. the anaphoric pronoun/the directive par tide/and an il, 3Qi, JZ, anaphoric pronoun, occurring as a contracted form of the two post-verbal elements. "May [he] take care of himself there" (Shih Ching, M Cast it from you! cast it from youn (Shih Kuo Feng); "Previous Ching, Kuo Feng); to this, the third brother of the Duke of Yu had possessed a jade. The Duke of Yu had asked it from him, but he did not give [it to him]M (Tso Chuan, M Huan 10); [They] built a wall around the city of Mien, and placed him in it" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 29).

jan jarn jaan —>jann

JANN (chan )

Archaic Chinese *dzfam; Ancient Chinese *dz!am-; Gram. Ser. 611 (d); Radical and stroke 72.11; Concordance 3. 52886; YSD 6. 28; PSH - ; LC 235 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this or that moment" > "at such moment as" "at that moment, then" "For all men, the moment they see a tiny child about to fall into a well ..." (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf); "This means that pie] did not resign the moment he encountered the three deficiencies [that prevent a gentleman from remaining in office! so that Liu-hsia Hui did not think that defilement was avoided by merely resigning" (Chao Ch f i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt); "I must get the prescription from my house and will then return" 367

jann

jau

(San Kuo Chi. Wei Shu, 29); "[Wang] Kung, at that moment, had gone to the grave to take care of it" (Shin Shuo Hsin Yfl, 8). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, as above, but in the sense of "for the moment" "for the time beiner" "Ts!ai got up for a moment, upon which Hsieh moved into his place" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytl, 13); "Wang Tzu-yu once stayed temporarily at a v — ^ house that another had vacated" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytl, 23).

—>jau jaur jao jaw

JAU

(chao1)

Archaic Chinese *tiog; Ancient Chinese *tia*u; Gram. Ser. 1143 (a-c); Radical and stroke 74. 8; Concordance 5. 33824; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC See also sub, jin, 3.11; sub. Jong, 3.11. 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, durative aspect, in collocation with shih viz. lit. Mday and night" > "always" "constantly" "Be ever sending in [to me your] admonitions" (EAC, "Constantly concerned with [their] affairs" Inscription 13); "Not resting ever" (Shih Ching, (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); Hsiao Ya); "The King of Chao for the entire stay [of the emperor] bared his arms, wore cuffs and apron and personally served [the emperor] his meals, paying deference with extreme humility, offering the courtesies proper to a son-in-law" (Shih Chi, 89).

368

jea

jaw

jau jaur jao —>jaw

JAW

(chao4)

Archaic Chinese *d!ipg; Ancient Chinese *dTia*u; Gram. Ser. 1146 (a-c); Radical and stroke 129. 8; Concordance 2. 04503; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, inchoative aspect, Mbegin ton M Now I should begin to put into effect the commands of my royal ancestors" (EAC, Inscription 12); " ... and begin to lead forth [their] carts and oxen [so that] from far places [they] might secure the commodities of trade" "Your Maj(Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); esty should begin now to sacrifice in the new city, following the rites of i "With [them he] returned home Yin" (Shu Ching. Lo Kao); [and] began to perform the sacrifices" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); ... "I with my lack of virtue have just begun to receive the great mandate ..." (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 47).

jia

jya

—>jea jiah

JEA

(chia3)

Archaic Chinese *ka; Ancient Chinese *ka:; Gram, Ser. 33 (c); Radical and stroke 9. 9; Concordance 5. 90841; YSD 4. 13; PSH 332; LC 166 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, restrictive, occurs before nouns in an excluding sense "only a" "nothing but" "And surely it will not merely be [the people] of the state of Lu, for I [Confucius] will lead [men] everywhere to join with me in following him" (Chuang Tzu, 4). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "temporarily" "When trouble first overtook the empire, I temporarily enthroned the heirs of the [former] feudal lords so that they would attack ChTin" (Han Shu, 31).

369

jea

jea

Note. Jea is also used attributively before nouns (ranks, titles, etc.) in the sense of "Acting ... M "Acting Supreme Commander" (Han Shu, 31); "In Emperor Wu f s time, as an acting ssu-ma, he served under the Erh-shih General, in an attack on the Hsiung-nu" (Han Shu, la). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, occurs introducing an instrumental phrase in the sense of "by taking advantage of" "by availing oneself of" "by using" "[Sun] Hao was very angry. Taking advantage of a quite different matter, he had [Ch'en] Sheng's head severed with a heated saw and his body cast away at the foot of [Mt. 1 Szu-wang" (San Kuo Chin, Wu Shu, "[Even though] 48); I availed myself of mere flatterers and favour seekers, though dull-witted I should still have to discern clearly between them" (San Kuo Chin, Wu Shu, 47). 5. 1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, occurring either singly or in collocation with jy viz. "let us suppose ..." "Let us suppose that there was a man who wanted to go south despite the many [difficulties such a course presents] hating to go north despite the few [difficulties such a course presents] ..." (Hsun Tzu, 22); ... "Let us suppose that there was a man who z*thad property to be divided with his brothers ..." (Hsun Tzu, 23); "[But] supposing it did help, would [you] do it?" (Lieh Tzu, 7). 5. 1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, in collocation with ling viz. or shyy viz. or sheh viz. "suppose" "if" "If only Han Hsin had studied the way and been more deferential and not boasted of his own achievements and prided himself on his ability, what might he have been?" (ShihChi, 92); "Even if the coup succeeds, if division and strife came between [you] two rulers your worries will be all the greater" (Han Shu, 35); "Suppose that the empress lived in those times, she would not have acted so" (Han Shu, 97b);

370

jea

jean "Even if King Tao-hui were made King of Ch f i ..." (Han Shu, 48); "Even supposing that your Majesty was in the position of a Huan of Ch i, would you be able to unite the feudatories and restore the empire to order?" (Han Shu, 48); "Suppose the empire to be as formerly it was ..." (Han Shu, 48); T

"Suppose now that [P'eng Meng had been taught by Yi Yin] just as Tzu-cho Ju-tzu had been taught by Yin-Kung Chih-t f a, how could the calamity of a P'eng Meng have happened?" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chti).

JEA

jia

jya

—->jea jiah

(chia3)

Archaic Chinese *kap; Ancient Chinese *kap; Gram. Ser. 629 (a-d); Radical and stroke 102.1; Concordance 1. 88584; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6. 1. INDEFINITE PRONOUN, indicating without naming, occurs both selfstanding and determinatively, "so-and-so" "a certain ..." etc. "The prison officer of Meng, a T f ien something or other, humiliated [Han] An-kuo" (Shih Chi, 108); "If you so-and-so do not return to your post, I shall [order the] execution of your entire family" (Shih Chi, 108).

jian jyan —>jean jiann

JEAN o

(chien )

Archaic Chinese *kian; Ancient Chinese *ki£n; Gram. Ser. 143 (e); Radical and stroke 149.10; Concordance 3. 02583; YSD 4.17; PSH 364; LC 156 5.1. 5. CONJUNCTION OF RESUMPTIVE SEQUENCE, "and then ..." "and so ... " "... and so I modelled it upon an earlier T

T

exemplar" (Ch u Tz u, Li Sao). 371

jean

jee

jian jyan —>jean jiann

JEAN (chien3)

Archaic Chinese *kian; Ancient Chinese *kian; Gram. Ser. 143 (f); Radical and stroke 157.10; Concordance 3. 02593; YSD 4.17; PSH 364; LC 5.1. 5. CONJUNCTION OF RESUMPTIVE SEQUENCE, "and so" "and thus" etc. ... and so in the morning I T

T

plaited, in the evening I wove" (Ch u Tz u, Li Sao); "Time flies, more than half is gone, and thus I tarry, nothing accomplished!" (Ch'u Tz y u, Chiu Pien); "My carriage has overturned, mv horses have fallen, and so all alone. I cleave to this mv path. so different from the rest" (Ch!u Tz T u, Chiu Chang); "So sad and forlorn, I cannot express it and so in despair I contain my grief" (Ch y u Tz T u, Chiu Chang).

JEE

je jer —>jee jeh

(che3)

Archaic Chinese *tjLa; Ancient Chinese *tsia:; Gram. Ser. 45 (a-c); Radical and stroke 125.3; Concordance 4.33882; YSD 5.17; PSH 754, 764; LC 164 See also

... sub. dah, 5. 1. 2;

sub, her, 6. 3;

sub, yih, 5. 1.2. 2.2.2. SYNTAGMATIC CONJUNCTION, determinative, occurs between attribute and noun. "Such brilliant flowers! " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "The very deep abyss" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "O that blue Heaven! " (an imprecation) (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "That handsome gentleman!" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "These full-grown reeds! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

372

jee

jee

2. 9. MARKER OF SYNTAGMA, occurs marking a verbal clause downgraded to the level of a single substantival element in the sentence. i) Verbal clause downgraded and occurring as the agent "Those who slander others" (Shin Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Those who do not know me" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Those in the world who wish to criticize their "He who in a rulers ..." (Mencius, la); "The setting large state kills his prince ..." (Mencius, la); in order of disorder" (Mo Tzu, 14). ii) Verbal clause downgraded and occurring as the first post-verbal element "Yang Hu pretended not to see Jan Meng" (Tso Chuan, Ting 8). iii) Verbal clause downgraded and occurring as time "By the time that [I] die" (Mencius, la). iv) Verbal clause downgraded as an agential distributive "Of the able-bodied among the convicts who wished to follow him [ = Kao Tsu] there were ten or so men" (Han Shu, la). 2. 9. MARKER OF SYNTAGMA, as above, but nominalising nouns and attributes in the sense of "those who are ..." "The ones who are sturdy" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung); "Those who [gather] mulberries, [i.e. mulberry pickers]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The bright ones" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Those who are fifty [years of age]" (Mencius, la); "Those who are grey [headed], [i.e. elderly people]" (Mencius, la); "Those who are [gatherers] of straw-kindling" (Mencius, Ib); "Those who [hunt for] small game" (Mencius, Ib); "The able-bodied" (Mencius. "Carpenters" (Chuang Tzu, 1); "The dead and la); wounded were many" (Han Shu, 69); "Wang [MangTs] daughters predominated among those who were chosen" (Han Shu, 99a). 2. 9. MARKER OF SYNTAGMA, as above, but marking and setting off a quoted remark or cited passage. "It is indeed true [as you said] !the common people . . . T " (Here referring back to the statement 'the common people thought 373

jee

jee

your Majesty was mean1) (Mencius, la); "Therefore it was this that our master Mo Tzu was speaking about when he said, 'One cannot but preach love for others' " (Mo Tzu, 14); "Therefore [the saying of f T Mo Tzu, Jen etc. commends it [i.e. my argument]" (Mo Tzu, 15). 2. 9. MARKER OF SYNTAGMA, as above, but marking and setting off, the citation form of a word or a proper name, occurs singly, or in collocation with yee viz. "The words Tming tTang? just referred to are by definition T a hall of those who rule as kings1" (Mencius, "The word jen (humaneness! is jen [man]" (Menlb); cius, 7b); "The word jen [humaneness] is jen [man], the word yi [justice] is yj. [right, proper]" (Li Chi, 28); "Among the men of Lu there was a certain Chou Feng" (Li Chi, 2); "Cheng [government] is cheng [rectification]. It is by such rectification that the names of all things are properly [i.e. with rectitude] attributed" (Kuan Tzu, 16); "Among the men of T Ch i, there was a certain Feng Hstlan" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch f i, hsia); "This Ch'en Ying was formerly secretary to the magistrate of Tung-yang" (Shin Chi, 7). 2. 9. MARKER OF SYNTAGMA, as above, but marking a CAUSAL CLAUSE, following a clause of cause used singly or used with or "the reason whv ... " "The reason why [I] have come is to punish the king" (Shin Chi, 114); "The reason why I did not support you is because that was the way to save your "The life" (Kung-yang Chuan, Ai 6); reason pie addressed] him in this elegant formal fashion [was because] he intended thereby to rebuke him" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chit); "The reason why Confucius ran into difficulties in Ch!en and TsTai was because the princes and ministers of those states were evil" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu "The reason why Chang-chtt); you madam will become the most noble lady [in the empire] is on account of

374

Jen

jee

"The this boy" (Han Shu, la); reason why [I] placed guards at the Pass was to guard against other robbers" (Han Shu, la). 2. 9. MARKING CONDITIONAL CLAUSES, following the protasis, "if ... [then] ..." "If Lu had no True Gentlemen, then from whence did this man acquire it? [i. e. gentlemanliness]" (Analects, 5); "Ask to perform the sword dance and avail yourself of the occasion to attack the Governor of PTei and kill him as he sits there, for if you do not, you and all of us will be made prisoners" (Shih Chi, 7). 3.11. MARKER OF TIME PHRASES, occurs at the end of the phrase, in such collocations as jin jee "at the present time" shyy-jee "in early times" shyi-jee "in former times" euu iee "in ancient times" etc. "In early times it was not like [it is] today" (Shih "Flfl today [we] do not Ching, Hsiao Ya); take our pleasure, eventually we shall die [and lose the opportunity to do S M °] (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Formerly Duke Ching of Ch f i asked Yen Tzu, saying ..." (Mencius, Ib); "In ancient times the [thickness] of the inner and outer coffin was not prescribed" (Mencius, 2b).

—;>jen jern jeen jenn

JEN

(chen1)

Archaic Chinese *tien; Ancient Chinese *tsjien; Gram. Ser. 375 (a); Radical and stroke 109. 5; Concordance 3. 71294; YSD 5. 23; PSH - ; LC 59 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, reflex-positive, occurs before the verb. Used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particularly where this might be thought to be refuted or contrary to expectation, "did in fact" etc. "Yet others in fact thought that he had walked there by strenuous effort" (Chuang Tzu, 6);

375

jeng

Jen

"Therefore he frequently sounded the alarm drum, and, as frequently, the troops of the Feudal Lords responded to the call only to find that there were no bandits. Eventually the Jung bandits in fact arrived. King Yu sounded the alarm drum but the troops of the Feudal Lords did not come" (L(i Shih Ch'un-ch'iu, 22). 4.1. COPULA, "A is in fact, in truth, BM "The state of Wei is in fact merely an encumbrance for me" (Chuang Tzu, 21); "Mo Tzu really was one who loved the world" (Chuang Tzu, 33); "This is in fact what I should call a gentleman" (Kung-sun Lung Tzu, 1): "These indeed [are arguments which will] persuade the princes of the age" (Chan-kuo Ts f e, ChTin, shang); "This is really a matter for your lordship" (Shih Chi, 87).

—>jeng jerng jeeng jenq

JENG (cheng1)

Archaic Chinese *tiang; Ancient Chinese *tsiang; Gram. Ser. 896 (h); Radical and stroke 86. 6; Concordance 3. 11600; YSD 5. 25; PSH - ; LC 105 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "in ereat numbers" "Arriving in great numbers" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[They are] in the mulberry fields in great numbers" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

376

jeng

jenn

—>jeng jerng jeeng jenq

JENG (cheng )

Archaic Chinese *tseng; Ancient Chinese *ts€ng; Gram. Ser. 811 (a-b); Radical and stroke 87. 4; Concordance 3. 22752; YSD 5. 24; PSH - ; LC 3. 1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "by striving to" "vying with each other to" "Chao Wu and his faction, some ten or more men, vied with each other to be first to commit suicide" (Han Shu. 32) i i w ni •* i "The people of Ch'in rejoiced greatly and vied with each other in bringing cattle, sheep, wine and food to offer hospitality to the army" (Han Shu, la); "The courtiers vied with each other in their desire to attack him" (Han Shu, Ib); "The cities which have not yet fallen to you, on hearing [of your victories],will vie with each other to open their gates and wait upon you" (Han Shu, la).

Jen jern jeen —>jenn

JENN

(chen4)

Archaic Chinese *dTtem; Ancient Chinese *dfiam:; Gram. Ser. 893 (f-i); Radical and stroke 74. 6; Concordance 5. 82992; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6.1. PERSONAL PRONOUN, first person, status form used in self-deprecation, occurs in both agentive and determinative usage. "My first school" (EAC, Inscription 13); "Mv court officers" (EAC, Inscription 12); "I, being the servant of Heaven, have been remiss and have brought this great trouble upon myself" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "Earlier, when I came from Yen ..." (Shu Ching, To Shih); "I dare not lag behind" (Shu Ching, To Shih); "I have not brought good order to the realm" (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "No one shall restrain my tongue" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya).

377

jenn

jenn

6.1. STATUS PRONOUN, reserved for the exclusive use of emperors after the imperial edict of 221 B. C. Unlike the EAC form, the imperial "we" occurs in both agentive and post-verbal usages, and in determinative usage occasionally takes the determinative particle "Peace has not yet been restored to the northern frontier. I grieve deeply over this" (Shih Chi, 30); "And yet Emperor ! Kao-tsu boasted It was I myself who with my three-foot sword won the empire' " (Shih Chi, 108); "... and the palace attendant Han Liao has sent me two horses which have arrived, receipt of which I respectfully acknowledge" (Shih Chi, 110); "This is merely to make plain to all my lack of virtue!" (Shih Chi, 112); "When pravers for blessing are made, [they are made] to bring [blessing] upon me [the emperorLmy people are not included in them" (Shih Chi, 28):



i

"I

[the emperor] wish to make the sacrifice and prayers in the suburb to God on High and to all the deities. Let the officials of the office of rites give me their advice on this. Let them not be hesitant for fear of troubling me [the emperor]" (Shih Chi, 28); "As far as God on High is concerned, I, [the emperor] in person [have worshipped him] in the rites in the suburb" (Shih Chi, 28); "I [the emperor] have watched over the empire for twenty-eight years" "[You] have (Shih Chi, 28); T sent the palace attendant Hsi-hu-ch ien to bring to me a letter which reads ..." (Shih Chi, 110).

378

jenq

jenq jeng jerng jeeng —>jenq

JENQ (cheng4)

Archaic Chinese *tieng; Ancient Chinese *tsj&ng-; Gram. Ser. 833 (r-s); Radical and stroke 66. 5; Concordance 5. 77940; YSD - ; PSH 770; LC 229 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to" "merely to" etc. "When he looked at others he could only partly see their faces" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 10); "I did not get to call on him, I can merely describe him as one of the same school as myself" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 9). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "straightly" "openly" "bluntly" "If on the one hand we examine the ways of Yao, Shun, Yd, TTang, Wen and Wu, then we find that they directly oppose [them =] such practices" (Mo Tzu, "Yen Sui bluntly criticized [Han K T uei] and 25); forthrightly pointed the finger [of blame at him]" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Han).

jeng jerng jeeng —>jenq

JENQ

* 4 (cheng )

Archaic Chinese *tieng; Ancient Chinese *tsi£ng-; Gram. Ser. 833 (j-n); Radical and stroke 77. 1; Concordance 1. 70700; YSD 5. 25; PSH 770; LC 229 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this or that moment" "Hsiang, startled and dis! pleased , said, I was thinking of [youl Shun. At the moment I am full of concern [for youl' " (Shih Chi, 1); "The people of ChTang-an rushed to his side; at that moment their cries of joy could not be stopped" (Han Shu, 63); "In the third year at the end of winter, at that moment the Po-hsiao Bridge was destroyed" (Han Shu, 99c); "You sir are leaving? I was just about to take you with me to visit Fu Chfln" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4); 379

jenq

jenq M

At that moment he was eating a meal with [Yu] Chien" (Shih Shuo M Hsin Yfl, 3); His pupils hurriedly entered the house to inform his wife. His wife at that moment was at her loomM (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 19); i "FSunl Hao at the time was drinking wine, accordingly he raised his goblet in pledge to the emperor and said . . . f f (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 25); "Lord Sou at that moment was engaged in state business" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 3). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, restrictive aspect, "only to" "merely to" etc. "In the chancellor^ latter years, he no longer examined matters with care. He merely affixed his seal and gave his assent" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 3); "The Grand Tutor questioned the young princes closely. [He said] !You, my charges, how are you to prepare for the conduct of human affairs, when you merely seek to make yourselves agreeable!! " (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 2); "Wine merely estranges one man from an"[Lu] other" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 23); f f P ing-yflan was not there. [He] only saw [Lu] Ch ing-ho" (Shih Shuo Hsin "My illness will get Yfl, 15); better of itself. I am only worried at the trouble it has occasioned you" "You merely (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 10); are hoping to get my money" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 29); "His family was extremely poor. When winter came he had only a short jacket to wear" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 12). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "correctly" "formally" "in a correct posture" "bolt upright" "When mounting a carriage [a gentleman] should stand up straight holding the mounting cord" (Analects, 10). 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "straightly" "justly" "openly" "bluntly" "Ch'in bluntly announced to Han ..." (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Yen, shang); ... "Say to him quite bluntly ..." (Chan-kuo Ts y e, Hsi Chou). Note. Jenq occurs before the cardinal points of the compass in the sense of "due" as for example in: "[He] merely reverently placed himself 380

jenq

ienq

facing due south" (Analects, 15); "Ta-ytian lies to the south-west of the Hsiung-nu, due west of China. It is approximately ten thousand li from China" (ShihChi, 123). 4.1. COPULA, MA is in fact, is precisely, BM etc. n [The trouble] is precisely that we disciples cannot learn! " (Analects, 7); "Yfl has Kuo as a carriage has wheels - the wheels support the carriage but the carriage too supports the wheels. The circumstances in which Ytt and Kuo find themselves is precisely thisn (Han Fei Tzu, 10); "This [your proposal] is precisely [the same as] Wu putting her trust [unwisely] in Ytfeh" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch T in, shang); "What ailed them both was precisely similar" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 29); "This is indeed a time when the bandits are decreasing in numbers and declining in success" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 64); "It is in fact merely a difference of nomenclature" (Shih Shuo Hsin YU*, 4). "even 5.1.4. CONCESSIVE CONJUNCTION, in collocation with tzyh viz S

'

•jeou jiow

JEOU (chiu3)

Archaic Chinese *kiug; Ancient Chinese *kiau:; Gram. Ser. 993 (a); Radical and stroke 4. 2; Concordance 1. 28900; YSD 4.14; PSH - ; LC See also 3c ^ sub. lai, 3.1. 3. 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, durative aspect, Mfor a long time" "for ever" "Thfi

reason that the state of Yen has survived for so long is because the nobles so frequently are in rebellion so that warfare is continuous and the outcome is not yet settled" (Han Shu, 34); "To stav here for ever" (Han Shu, 34); "Hoping to bring about a situation where fighting is long drawn out and continuous and incapable of settlement" "For human na(Han Shu, 34); ture is such that unless [men and women] have a mate, [they] cannot long be at peace" (Han Shu, 49); "... so as not to allow incorrupt officials for long to be kept out of office while covetous ones perpetually profit [from it]" (Han Shu, 5). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, in collocation with jy viz. "after a time" "later" "After some time the canals and [irrigated] fields of Ho-tung were abandoned and [the area] handed over to settlers from Yfleh" (Shih Chi, 29); 'Whereupon the emperor, for some time after this, made no effort to re"Later pair the dikes" (Shih Chi, 29); on the Shan-yu" sent [Li] Ling to the shores of Lake Baikal" (Han Shu, 54); "A little later [Tung-fang] Shuo said to the dwarf postillions ... " (Han Shu, 65); "Later his uncle the Marquis of

382

ieou

jer f

Ch eng-tu, [Wang] Shang, intimated in a memorial to the throne that he wished to divide his estates in order to enfeoff [Wang] Mang" (Han Shu, 99). "in the end" 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, as above, but geminated viz. "eventually" etc. "Thus it is that [even] honest officials eventually become rich" (Shih Chi, 129). 4. 3. DETERMINANT TERM, "is a matter of long standing" "has been in existence for a loner time" "ChTinTs intention to attack us is a matter of i long standing" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Han); "That I should receive instruction from you in person is [a wish I have entertained] for a long time" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch!in, hsia); "For long everyone in the empire has complained bitterly "The elders about Ch'in" (Han Shu, la); f of Ch in have bitterly complained about their rulers for a long time" (Han Shu, la). Note. In LAC jeou only occurs in this form. The aspectual use (see 3.11) is a Han innovation.

je —>jer jee jeh

JER

(che2)

Archaic Chinese *tiap; Ancient Chinese *tia'p; Gram. Ser. 632 (b); Radical and stroke 159. 7; Concordance 5. 50717; YSD 5. 39; PSH - ; LC 282 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this very moment" > "at once" "immediately" "straight away" "When the king dies [the Parthians] immediately change the coinage, [the new coins] bearing a likeness of the face of the king's successor" (Shih Chi, 123); "Should anyone from [General Li's] army dare to enter the country he should be immediately beheaded" (Shih Chi, 123); "Each time a Han envoy arrives among the Hsiung-nu, the Hsiung-nu immediately send an envoy in exchange" (Shih Chi, 110); "Yet now when the Liang en383

jer

jer

voys come [to court], they are immediately confronted with a list of the king's misdemeanors" (Shih Chi, 108); "The money granted to him fbv the emperor] he placed along the corridors and in the gatehouse [of his residence]. When his officers visited him, he gave orders immediately thatthey were to take what they needed" (Shih Chi, 107). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, iterative aspect, occurs singly or in collocation with meei viz. "each time" "every time" I

V

"

t

»

-

!

'

»

-

"[Kung-sun] ChTou was perplexed at Mencius1 unwillingness to reply each time to the invitations of the Feudal Lords [and asked] what principle of justice was involved in his not seeing them" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "[I] do not know if [he] can, time after • ' time, be continually coming and presenting gifts, or if he should bring them having obtained the prince's order afresh each time! " (Chao Ch!i, Meng-tzu Chang-chti); "If each time he wishes to be kind to each and every man that comes in order to please the dictates of his own desires then his daily strength will be insufficient to satisfy their needs" (ChaoCh'i, Meng-tzu Chang-ditt); "When the faults [of parents] are minor ones, but the filial son is moved to anger by them, so that each time [they occur] he feels resentment against his parents, then this, too, is to be unfilial" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf).

384

jeu

jeu JEU

jiu

jyu

—;>jeu jiuh

(ch«3)

Archaic Chinese *kio; Ancient Chinese *kiwo:; Gram. Ser. 75 (a); Radical and stroke 134. 9; Concordance 3. 87950; YSD 4. 32; PSH 1, 307; LC 145 2.3.6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, identifying, occurs before nouns, "all of the ... " "the entire" "It is surely not only our prince but all of his subjects who will in fact reap the benefit [of your gift]" (Tso Chuan, Chao 3);

"If the whole

world should blame him [he] would be no more discouraged" (Chuang Tzu, ii»n — i. ,.

i);

"Of all the commander -in -chief!s old friends and followers many left and went to serve Ho Ch'u-ping, who immediately obtained for them offices "[Finally] all the

and titles" (Shih Chi, 111);

members of the family, including the oldest brother [Shih] Chien, bared their arms in apology" (Shih Chi, 103);

• i i i ' "This month Chang Han and his entire army surrendered to Hsiang Yii"

(Han Shu, la). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all" "Do all rulers distrust their subjects?" (Tso Chuan, Ai 6);

"Every-

one, feeling happy, with pleased expressions will say to each other ..." (Mencius, Ib); "If only the king had availed himself of my services, then not only surely would the people of Ch f i be at peace, but all the people of the world would be at peace" (Mencius, 2b).

385

ji

ji JI

->ji

jyi

jii jih

(see also chyi)

(chi1)

Archaic Chinese *kiag; Ancient Chinese *kji; Gram. Ser. 952 (a-e); Radical and stroke 12.6: Concordance 3. 37903: YSD 4.38: PSH 354, 373, 426; LC 7 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, indicating doubt, surprise, indignatirm" At P. "What's to be done! " (Shu Ching, Wei Tzu); "What of the night! " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

"What.

sir do you say!" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng)

JI

->ji jyi jii jih

(see also jiu)

(chi1)

Archaic Chinese * ? Ancient Chinese *kji; Gram. Ser. 49 (c!-dl); Radical and stroke 44. 5; Concordance 4. 82382; YSD 4. 31; PSH 352, 354; LC 34, 41 See alsc

sub. her. fi. 3.

3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, indicating surprise, wonder, indignation, etc. "O sun! O moon! M (an imprecation) (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Who will it be? Must our successors suffer such a man!" (TspChuan, Ch'eng 2); "We have a man in this state - and who is it? - why, Meng Chiao! " (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 23). 6.1. ANAPHORIC PRONOUN, substituting in the agential and pre-verbal position. "God on High is well pleased with him" (Shih Ching, Ta "Why should I acquiesce in this? I_

Ya); should as a result be brought low with misfortune! " (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "None is willing to step down or stand aside because they are troublesome and arrogant" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya);

386

Ji

ji "[He] selected those with chariots and I horses and with them he went to Shang" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

JI

->ji jyi jii jih

(chi1)

(see also jii)

Archaic Chinese *kiar; Ancient Chinese *kjei; Gram. Ser. 547 (a-b); Radical and s\ ^ stroke 52. 9; Concordance 2. 65900; YSD 4.1; PSH 361, 417; LC 32, 135 See also

sub. shuh, 3.1.2, 4.2.1, 6.3.

2. 3.4. AUXILIARY OF APPROXIMATE NUMBER, occurs before numerals in the sense of "almost" "not quite" etc. "The Han have carried on their dynasty for nearly forty years" (Han Shu, 24a). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, aspect of potentiality unrealized, "nearly" "almost" "might" "I very nearly brought disaster upon you" (Tso Chuan, Chao 27); "He should not have neglected the instructions of our Former Kings in this way, so that his throne came near to being overthrown" (Kuo Yfl, Chou Yti); "Stupid Confucian! [You have] nearly ruined T

T T

your father s affairs!" (Shih Chi, 55); "The Hsiung-nu surrounded the Sutrishna General in great force and he almost did not get away" (Shih Chi, 110); "My horse shied, at which [I, Chang] i Hsin was thrown into the water and almost lost my life" (Shih Chi, 105); "The Shan-ytt turning f

to his attendants said, We very nearly were [sold = ] deceived by the [ruse of the] Han! " (Shih Chi, 108); "But for the Lord of Chao [I] might have been deceived by the chancellor" (Shih Chi, 87); "[Liu Ju-i] came close to replacing the heir apparent on several occasions" (Han Shu, 97a): "He almost succeeded in dispensing with punishment" (Han Shu, 4).

387

ji

ji

3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, in collocation with bu viz. introduces the time phrase in the sense of "before" "Before ten years have passed, Ch'u will be in no position to care about the feudatories" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 28). 4. 2.1. DETERMINED TERM, "perhaps it is ..." "It is not because I or my son have committed an offence. Perhaps it is Heaven that has brought "Even it about! " (Chuang Tzu, 24); though you my lord were to practice Humanity and Justice, it might well be that it would be an artifice! " (Chuang Tzu, 24); "[Ch'ing] Puf delighted, laughed and T said, Someone read my lortune in my lace [saying] that I was to surfer punishment and become a king. Perhaps [that prediction] is a [reference to] this!T " (Shih Chi, 91).

•—>ji jyi jii jih

JI

(see also chyi)

(chi1)

Archaic Chinese *kiag; Ancient Chinese *kji; Gram. Ser. 952 (k); Radical and stroke 74. 8; Concordance 5. 39825; YSD 4.45; PSH 354, 373, 426; LC 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "very" "really" "so" "When taking [his] meals [the king] eats much sacrificial meat and rare delicacies of "Most flavour so pungent" (Hsun Tzu, 18); loyal and very proper" (Hsflh Tzu, 10). 2.3.6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, identifying, collective, occurs before measures of time, "the entire ... [ -day, -month, -year]" "a whole ..." "[Should power] repose with the ministers for a whole year, even though they prove to be disloyal the ruler will not be able to take it from them" (Kuan Tzu, 16); "You are going in the melon season. When the melon season comes [round again, you] may return.

388

ji

ji

[He] remained for a whole year on garrison duty" (Kuan Tzu, 18); "A year having passed his study was complete. [He] said ... n (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch'in, shang); "Alter a year had passed Duke Mu became aware of him" (Shih Chi, 68): "In one day it was destroyed" (Han Shu, 36). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, in collocation with bih viz. occurs introducing a time phrase in the sense of "by the time that" or with wey viz. in the sense of "before ... had been reached" ... "Within three years it in fact transpired that the Ytteh-shang ..." (Han Shih Wai Chuan, 12); "Before [the year was out] thrice [he] set forth, uselessly wasting officers and men and for no purpose exhausting the treasury" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 64).

->ji

jyi

jii jih

JI

(chi1)

Archaic Chinese *kiag; Ancient Chinese *kji; Gram. Ser. 952 (j); Radical and stroke 74. 8; Concordance 3. 37925; YSD - ; PSH 426; LC 2.3.6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, identifying, collective, "the entire", occurs before measures of time, for example - ryh "the entire day" - yueh "the entire month" - nian "the entire vear" "A year later, the troubles [occasioned by] Chia Chi occurred" (Kuo Yd, Tsin Y«); i "... and only after three whole years have passed can you put faith in the people's loyalty" (Hsfln Tzu, 15); "[You] have resisted the entire f army of Ch i for a whole year without relief. This is a defence worthy of "When the Mo Tzun (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch f i, hsia); edicts had been in effect among the people for a year ..." (Shih Chi, 68).

389

ji

ji

3.1. 1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of Min an intense degree" "utterly" "totally" "completely" "profoundly" "thoroughly" etc. "When the penal code is thoroughly understood respect [for the lawgiver] runs its proper course. When the edicts of government are made utterly plain change comes about as though by supernatural intervention" (Hsun Tzu, 24).

->ji jyi jii jih

JI

(chi1)

Archaic Chinese *tsiek; Ancient Chinese *ts;L£k; Gram. Ser. 868 (t); Radical and stroke 115.11; Concordance 5. 26593; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 2. 3. 6. ITERATIVE COLLECTIVE, occurs before measure words of time, as for example, ryh viz. "year "day after day", nian viz. after year" "Now the heads of [Chu-kol... T K o and his two sons, three heads in all, have been hanging in the marketplace for several days on end" (SanKuoChih, Wu Shu, 64); "He resided in Yang-chfi for several years on end" (Shih Shuo "At the time, there had been ice Hsin Yfl, 18); and snow for many days" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 19). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase in the sense of "by the time that" "By the time that five or six years had passed, when the Shan-ytfs younger brother Ytf Chien Wang was harpooning at sea ..." (Han Shu, 54); T By the time he was five years old, he was forgiven" (Han Shu,

97).

390

jia

ji

~>ji jyi jii jih

JI

(see also chyi)

(chi1)

Archaic Chinese *gTiQg; Ancient Chinese *gTji-; Gram. Ser. 952 (z); Radical and stroke 120. 8; Concordance 3. 37963; YSD - ; PSH 373, 426; LC 28 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs introducing a time phrase in the sense of "bv the time that" "before" "Within three years the people will have left" (Hsun Tzu, 28).

—>jia

jya

jea jiah

JIA

(chia1)

Archaic Chinese *ka; Ancient Chinese *ka; Gram. Ser. 15 (a-b); Radical and stroke 19. 3; Concordance 5. 32881; YSD 4.12; PSH - ; LC 88 2. 8. AUXILIARY OF COMPARISON, comparative degree, precedes attributes and verbs, "more so" "[His] population gets no smaller" (Mencius, la); ... "... [He] was no more encouraged [than he was before] ... [He] was no more discouraged [than he was before]" (Chuang Tzu, 1); "[Your T f Majesty] has sought to show good faith to Ch i, but Ch i has not shown any greater good faith to you" (Chan-kuo Ts*e, Yen, shang); "Because the ministers and nobles praised him so highly, the emperor treated him with even greater grace and favour" (Han Shu, 99a); "... and symT pathize the more with him" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl). sim5.1.1. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, in collocation with yii viz, ple connection, "in addition to which" "too" "also" "In addition to which the border areas are not at peace" (Han Shu, 9); "The people in addition have been molested and put to trouble by exacting [rapacious] officials"

391

jian

jia

(Han Shu, 9); "[Today] the population are not inferior to that of TTang and Ytf, and too, there have been no natural disasters ... M (Han Shu, 24a); M

Tung Hsien occupied the most impor-

tant position, in addition to which the Fu clan had the help of their daughter [the empress]" (Han Shu, 99a).

jia

JIAH

jya

jea —•>jiah

(chia4)

(see sub, jea)

Archaic Chinese *ka; Ancient Chinese *ka:; Gram. Ser. 33 (c); Radical and stroke 9. 9; Concordance 5. 90841; YSD 4.13; PSH 332; LC 166

—>jian jyan jean jiann

JIAN (chien )

Archaic Chinese *kliam; Ancient Chinese *kiem; Gram. Ser. 627 (a); Radical and stroke 12. 8; Concordance 2. 90755; YSD 4.17; PSH - ; LC 118 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, aspect of simultaneity, "at one and the same time" and from "all at oncen > "together", and in extended sense "indiscriminately" "equally" "It is only by showing no partiality to relatives that one can truly spread protective wings over all indiscriminateIVM (Kuo Ytf, Tsin Ytt);

"When [the ruler of

ChTin] was winning, he would even cheat his own uncle and his mother at one and the same time" (Chan-kuo Ts T e. Yen, shang); "Nieh Cheng speared him [Han Kuei] and simultaneously found his mark on the Marquis Ai [i. e. his spear thrust pierced the man who was protecting his opponent and his opponent at the same time]" (Chankuo Ts'e, Han).

392

jian

jian

—>jian jyan jean jiann

JIAN (chien1)

Archaic Chinese *kan; Ancient Chinese *kan; Gram. Ser. 191 (a-c); Radical and stroke 169.4; Concordance 2. 82886; YSD 4. 21; PSH - ; LC 2. 7. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, determining, used attributively, occurs before nouns, Mthe intervenine:1T and thus (in the case of roads) > Munfreauentedn "By unfrequented roads he fled [back] to camp" (Han M Shu, la); [He] has fled for his life and by unfrequented [roads] made [his] way back to camp" (Han Shu, la). 2. 7. SPATIAL AUXILIARY, post-posed to a noun, occurs with or without the syntagmatic determinative conjunction -i v be respected and admired" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao); "[We have] reached the point where [we] are going to leave you" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Who is going to return home to the west?" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "The Feudal Lords are going to discuss the rescue of Yen" (Mencius, Ib); "Ch'i 395

jiann

Jiang

11 are going to fortify Hsueh" (Mencius, Ib); [I] am going to n see Mencius (Mencius, Ib); ... "It you would put into practice humane governmental practices, then ..." (Mencius, 3b); "As night was about to fall, he returned" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4). 4.1. COPULA, modal, "A would be B" "... then [your] virtue would be that of sobriety" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao) "The ! state of T eng, if square, would be fifty miles square" (Mencius, 3a);

"If, possessing that which makes one, they became one with it, then the bodyTs four limbs and its hundred members would be but dust and dross and [such things as] life and death, beginnings and endings, would be but days and nightsM (Chuang Tzu, 21); "If it is not you,sir, who makes the local altars secure, then who would it be?" (Kuan Tzu, 18). "in the future" 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, in collocation with lai viz. "If we make marriage alliances with noble families, in the future it may be a great advantage for us" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yu\ 19).

jian jyan jean —> jiann

JIANN (chien4)

Archaic Chinese *dz!mm; Ancient Chinese *dzfia'm:; Gram. Ser. 611 (f); Radical and stroke 85.11; Concordance 5. 01524; YSD 6. 38; PSH - ; LC 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "in slow sequence" > "graduallyn "little by little" "Even so, they always managed to maintain their enterprises and through amassing excessive profits gradually thereby arose [to positions of power]" (Han Shu, "The barbarians 91); who differ in custom from us have come to court without being summoned

396

jiann

jiann and are gradually changing [their customs] and correcting their ritual headgear" (Han Shu, 99a).

jian jyan jean —> jiann

JIANN 4 (chien )

(also read chiann)

Archaic Chinese *dzrian; Ancient Chinese *dzfien-; Gram. Ser. 432 (b); Radical and stroke 140. 6; Concordance 3. 33330; YSD 6. 39; PSH - ; LC 218 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, again" etc.

M

for a second time" "once

"And too, [we] fear that amid slander and calumny, plots will be made to arouse the covetousness in others and once again to be to the disadvantage of our state" (Tso Chuan, Chao 18); "Because your state's instructions have been unpredictable our state has been impoverished. [Because] the unlocked for thing might come again no day passes in which we are not afraid of giving offence" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 22); "My prince has learnf ed that Ch u has behaved in an unprincipled manner and has again attacked the state of Wu" (Tso Chuan, Ai 15); "Last year [Tsin] had troubles. This year too, it has had famine again" (Kuo Yfl, Tsin Y«).

397

jiann

jiann

jian jyan jean —>jiann

JIANN

4 (chien )

Archaic Chinese *dzTian; Ancient Chinese *dzfien; Gram. Ser. 477 (a-c); Radical and stroke 140.13; Concordance 3. 33022; YSD 6. 39; PSH - ; LC 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "for a second time" "once again" "again and again" "repeatedly" "Heaven sends down death and destruction. Famine has once again been visited upon us" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Would I dare otherwise than not to remind you of this "Would I dare otherwise again?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 4); 1 than not again to observe [these rituals] ." (Tso Chuan, Chao 4); "The reason for hurricanes and rainstorms coming again and again ..." (Mo Tzu, 12); "Withering droughts, locusts and frosts, dearths of foodstuffs cam again and again" (Han Shu, 24a).

jian jyan jean —> jiann

JIANN (chien4)

(see also shiann)

Archaic Chinese *kian; Ancient Chinese *kien-; Gram. Ser. 241 (a-d); Radical 147; Concordance 3. 88213; YSD 4. 18; PSH 351; LC 217 3.1. 5. AUXILIARY OF VOICE, passive voice, occurs before the verb. "P'en-ch'eng Kuo was murdered" (Mencius, 7b); ... "The reason why the people are not protected "He who loves

is because ..." (Mencius, la); others will be loved by others" (Mo Tzu, 16); V

|



|

\f

-1

^

-

T ^/

-

V

"Suppose a man here, in full view in the courtyard, in a large crowd, is attacked and insulted yet refuses under any condition to fight [for his honour]; would your Majesty make such a man your minister?" (Kung-sun Lung Tzu,

398

iiann

jiann

"Moreover making subiects of others or being made a subject by others, ruling others or being ruled by others, are hardly matters to be discussed in the same breath! M (Shih Chi, 87); "Believing himself innocent he wished to visit the emperor, but feared that he would be arrested" (Shih "Just because you Chi, 92); have been insulted sliffhtlv do vou wish to die for the sake of one petty official?" (ShihChi, 89); "You did not go at first, but now that you have been reprimanded you [want to] go. If you go, you will be arrested! " (Shih Chi, 90); "You sir furthermore, are i treated as our guest [lit. "guested"] and for this reason the king declined and could not reply" (Shih Chi, 117).

jian jyan jean —> jiann

JIANN (chien )

Archaic Chinese *dz!mn; Ancient Chinese *dzTian-; Gram. Ser. 155 (u); Radical and stroke 154. 8; Concordance 5. 89553; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 6. 1. STATUS PRONOUN, in collocation with chern viz. deprecation.

"I" used in self-

"For this reason [the prince] has appointed me to be tutor to Hsiao-po, so I have been rejected" (Kuan Tzu, 18).

399

jianq

jiau

jiang jyang jeang —> jianq

JIANQ 4 (chiang )

Archaic Chinese *kong; Ancient Chinese *kang-; Gram. Ser. 1015 (a-c); Radical and stroke 170. 6; Concordance 5. 82251; YSD - ; PSH 350; LC 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, Mof the agents, all ... " "They swore a bloodoath [which read] We, the senior ministers and the three clans, all of us, will obey the government and will not harm each other1" (Tso Chuan, Ai "All served 26); Emperor Ta-wu and the Son of Heaven of the Chou. All had bright virtue" !

(Hsin Hsu*, Shuo Fan, Chieh-shih).

—>jiau jyau jeau jiaw

JIAU (chiao )

Archaic Chinese *kog; Ancient Chinese *kau; Gram. Ser. 1166 (a-b); Radical and stroke 8. 4; Concordance 3. 01940; YSD 4.14; PSH - ; LC 77 See also sub, biann, 3. 1.3. 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, spatial aspect, occurs both singly and in collocation with biann viz. "occurring everywhere" > "on all sides" "in all directions" etc. "Everywhere [they] bring disorder to the states" (Shih "The people of the house on all Ching, Hsiao Ya); sides reprove me" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, both, both parties" "The two barbarian peoples [the Hsiung-nu and the Minytfeh] both attacked us" (Shih Chi, 20); "If indeed both [prince and people] benefit and obtain favours, your wishes will be realized and the masses will take pleasure in it" (Kuo Y«, Tsin Yd)

400

jiau

jiau

3. 7. PARTICLE OF RECIPROCITY, used either sinelv or in collocation with occurs before the verb and indicates that the agents are reshiang viz. ciprocallv actors and affectees. "Cause harm to each other" (ShihChing, Hsiao Ya); "The states that adhere to Tsin and those that f adhere to Ch u should visit each other" (Tso Chuan, Chao 4); "Chou and Cheng hated each other" (TspChuan, Yin 3); "Chou and Cheng sent hostages to each other" (TspChuan, Yin 3); "Superiors and inferiors contending among themselves over profits ..." (Mencius. lak "Therefore men approved of their own • notions of justice, but disapproved of those of others and thus disapproved of each other" (Mo Tzu, 12). Note. In the last example (rather than ) occurs, but it is a hapax legomenon.

—>jiau jyau jeau jiaw

JIAU (chiao )

Archaic Chinese *kog; Ancient Chinese *kau-; Gram. Ser. 1167 (h-1); Radical and stroke 66. 7; Concordance 5. 33940; YSD - ; PSH 341; LC 3. 1. 5. AUXILIARY OF VOICE, causative, occurs between causal and acting agent, ergative in the sense of "cause" "make" and permissive in the sense of "let" "allow" "At the moment fish are spawning. If we do not allow the fish to STOW, but set nets to catch them, that would be greed unrestrained" (KuoYfl, Lu Yfl); "I will make this idler serve his prince cheerfully" (KuoYtt, Tsin Yfl); "Yu Shih had Li Hsi cry during the night and say to the duke ..." (Kuo Yfl, Tsin Yfl); "And gaining in self-confidence and wanting to hasten the fulfillment [of the omen that he would become] Para-

401

jiau

jie

mount Prince, he had Heaven shot at and Earth beaten, his altars chopped down and set fire to, saying . . . f f (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Sung).

—>jie jye jiee jieh

JIE

(chieh )

Archaic Chinese *ker; Ancient Chinese *kai; Gram. Ser. 599 (b); Radical and stroke 9. 9; Concordance 5. 90782; YSD 4.16; PSH - ; LC 57 See also sub, yeu, 3.4. 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, two, or groups of two" "both" "both together" etc. "With you together to grow old" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "With you together [we] shall march" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Their mothers both went out" (Tso Chuan, Chao 29); "[I] and you, both of us, will retire from the world" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 24).

—>jie

JIE

jye

jiee jieh

(chieh1)

Archaic Chinese *tsia; Ancient Chinese *ts^a; Gram. Ser. 5 (n); Radical and stroke 30.10; Concordance 5. 88971; YSD 6. 36; PSH 652; LC 88 See also

sub, i, 5.2;

sub, yu, 5. 2.

3.15. METRICAL PARTICLE, occurs only in poetry. "Even so, no one takes warning" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 5. 2. INTERJECTION, used either singly, reduplicated, or in collocation with indicative of a sigh or groan. or with lai viz. hu viz "Ah! ministers and officers! " (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "Ah! the illustrious ancestors" (Shih Ching, Shang Sung); "[My] father [will be] saying, TAlas! my son

402

jie

jie went off to the war si T M (Shih Chtng, Kuo Feng); i loved one!

Tt

M

Ah! my

(Shih Ching, Kuo Feng);

"Alas! [poor] Sang Hu! Alas! [poor] Sang Hu! M (Chuang_Tzu, 6); "O! how can a princely man ever be treated with contempt!" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch T i, shang); "Ah! when I was poor my parents did not acknowledge me as a son, [but now that I am] rich and honoured, my kin holds me in fear and awe! " (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch f in, shang); "Ugh! you people who live in mud huts should certainly not talk so much! Such chitter-chatter! Because you wear those hats, what does that make you?"(Shih Chi, 110); T Ah! it was no accident!T " (Han Shu, 32);

"Emperor Kao said,

T

Ah! how can tiny birds know the thoughts that motivate a

swan?"(Han Shu, 31). 5. 2. INTERJECTION, as above, but in collocation with tzy viz. with tzy viz.

and

"The duke said, TAh! how far-reaching were those words of the sageT " (Kuan Tzu, 32); "Whenever the guard of the [ford at] P'ing-ytian met a noble, he invariably told him the story, saying [i.e. adding] TAlas! [for] Ssu-kfung Ma!T " (Chan-kuo Ts T e. Chao. hsia). 6.2. DEMONSTRATIVE, self-standing, "this" "these" "What did this lead to? [i. e. what did it avail her?]" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "As to the love of TTien Tan for others, this is [nothing more than] grace conferred at the king's behest" (Chan-kuo Ts!e, Ch f i, hsia).

403

jie

jie

—>jie jye jiee jieh

JIE

(chieh1)

Archaic Chinese *ker; Ancient Chinese *kai; Gram. Ser. 599 (a); Radical and stroke 106.4; Concordance 3. 71282; YSD 4.15; PSH 363; LC 57 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, spatial aspect, "occurring everywhere" > "on all sides" "in all directions" etc. "[Walls] by the hundred tu length arose everywhere" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "[Walls] by the hundred tu length rose T Ih everywhere" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); the fortifications, [finding] everywhere the red flags of Han, [they] were filled with alarm" (Shih Chi, 92); "The Son of Heaven [everywhere =] at all the sacrifices made obeisance and presented himself in person, wearing robes honouring vellow and using; music throughout" (Shih Chi, 28). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in collocation with the agential "everywhere, everyone" "everywhere, at each and distributive geh viz. every ..." "Everywhere at each sacrifice one set of sacrificial animals was offered" (Shih Chi, 28); "When [I] approached the local elders, each and all, everywhere, spoke of the places where the Yellow Emperor, Yao and Shun [are venerated], but what is said and taught about them in fact differs greatly" (Shih Chi, 12); "From the Son of Heaven down he enfeoffed nobles, all revenues from feudal holdings were regarded as for personal maintenance and were not reckoned as national income" (Han Shu, 24a). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all" "All the people in the world will look to him craning their necks" (Mencius, la); "Everyone tells me to destroy the Hall of Immanences" (Men"When the nobles of all cius, Ib) T 1 ranks all say he is worthy he would never do" (Mencius, Ib);

404

jie

jie

"For this reason all [the men of Eastern Ou] were able to return to their states without being punished" (Shih Chi, 114). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, as above, but occurring after the determined term of a determinative sentence, Mof A, all are B" "The Lord of Wei, his second son the Prince Pi-kan, the Lord of Chi and "All Chiao-ke were all worthy men" (Mencius, 2a): [those mentioned in the previous context] were sages of antiquity" (Mencius, 2a). collective, 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, in collocation with inoh viz. negative form, "of the agents, not any" "none" "no one" "For the rest, not one of them dare offer an opinion" (Shih Chi, 107); "Though there were marquises numbered in the hundreds, not one volunteered to join the armies in attacking the Ch!iang and Ytteh" (Shih Chi, 30); "None of his generals had confidence [in the plan], but they feigned agreement and said !Yes!T " (Shih Chi, 92). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but determines elements following the verb; for more than one entity = "all of the ... "; for a divisible entity = "the entire ..." "[Ch'ingl Pu was on good terms with all of the leaders and powerful men in his group" (Shih Chi, 91); "P!eng Yfleh had lost all the cities he had conquered" (Shih Chi, 90); "Whereupon the emperor had the King of Chao, Kuan Kao and others, all pursued and arrested simultaneously" (Shih Chi, 89); "In the fourth year of Han, accordingly, pie] subdued and pacified all of Ch T i" (Shih Chi, 92); "The territory of Ch T i and Ch T u expropriated by the Lu clan was returned to Ch r i and Ch!u in full" (Han Shu, 4); "Man cannot do all that he wishes to do" (Chao Ch T i, Mengtzu Chang-chfl); "... and believe all of it" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); "... recorded them all in f f the Ch'un Ch iu" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chti).

405

jieh

jie

—>jie

jye

jiee iieh

JIE

(chieh1)

Archaic Chinese *ker; Ancient Chinese *kai; Gram. Ser. 599 (d); Radical and stroke 170. 9; Concordance 5. 82782; YSD - ; PSH 363; LC 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurs before the locative, "from" "Looked at from this point of view" (ChTun Ch'iu Fan Lu).

jie

jye

jiee —>jieh

JIEH (chieh4)

Archaic Chinese *kad; Ancient Chinese *kai-; Gram. Ser. 327 (a-c); Radical and stroke 9. 2; Concordance 2. 90220; YSD 4.17; PSH - ; LC 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, occurs in the distribution numeral/auxiliarv/enumerated noun, "an enumerable instance of" "If there were but one servant" (Shu Ching, Ch f in "... but did not send Shih); a single messenger to inform our prince" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 8); "One of the daughters ... one of the sons" (Kuo Yfl, Wu Ytf). 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, as above, but in the collocation before an enumerable noun with concessive nuance "not even a single "not even the slightest instance of. " Also in the collocation amount of" "That Lord Meng-chTang could serve a premier for twenty years or so without the least misfortune was [the result of] a proposal of Feng Hstfan" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch T i, hsia); "Your Majesty has not sent a single envoy to maintain it [i. e. their goodwill]" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch'in, hsia); 406

jieh

jieh !

T

"Through (the ambassador), [Ch ao] T o was reprimanded for setting himself up as an emperor and for never having sent a single envoy [to the capital] to report the fact" (Shih Chi, 113). 3. 9. INSTRUMENTAL PARTICLE, occurs introducing an instrumental phrase, in the sense of "by taking advantage of" "And so a banquet was given [at which, ] by taking advantage of the authority of the Han envoys present, plans were made to destroy [Lti] Chia and his party" (Shih Chi, "[Ltf] Chia finally left, and by 113) availing himself of his younger brother's troops [to protect him] made his way to his lodging" (Shih Chi, 113).

jie jye jiee —>iieh

JIEH (chieh4)

Archaic Chinese *tsiak; Ancient Chinese *tsjLak; Gram. Ser. 798 (u); Radical and stroke 9. 8; Concordance 5. 90383; YSD 6. 37; PSH - ; LC 224 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, in collocation with shyy viz. "if only ... "

'If only the King of Ch T in had taken into account the experiences of former generations and had incorporated the [warning] traces left by Yin and Chou and thereby conducted his governance, then later, even suppose that a proud or dissolute ruler arose, this would not have been the sort of calamity that would have toppled the dynasty" (Shih Chi, 6).

407

jieh

jih

jie jye jiee —>jieh

JIEH (chieh )

Archaic Chinese *dzfjak; Ancient Chinese *dzTj.£k; Gram. Ser. 798 (a1); Radical and stroke 140.14; Concordance 3. 33583; YSD 6. 37; PSH - ; LC 224 5. 1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, in collocation with shyy viz. or dih viz. "if onlv ... " » " •» i ^ i • •» "If only Tzu-ying had had the talents of an everyday prince and enjoyed merely an average level of assistance, even though the lands east of the mountains are troubled, the territory of Ch f in itself might have been kept intact" (Shih Chi, 6); "If we merely contrived to escape decapitation, six or seven out of every ten of us would die on garrison duty [in any case]" (Han Shu, 31).

ji jyi jii ->jih

JIH

(chi4)

Archaic Chinese *kiag; Ancient Chinese *kji-; Gram. Ser. 953 (s-t); Radical and stroke 61. 3; Concordance 3. 11010; YSD 4. 7; PSH 355; LC 7 3. 14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD (also written "Do you go! O uncle of the king! " (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Shu [now] shoots infrequently!" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Shu is a good archer! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

408

jih

Jfc

ji jyi jii —>jih

JIH

(chi4)

Archaic Chinese *kiad; Ancient Chinese *kjei-; Gram. Ser. 515 (c-f); Radical and stroke 71. 7; Concordance 5. 21713; YSD 4. 3; PSH 335, 425; LC 193 2.5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "very, abundantly; reallv. trulv: so ff "Very calm and peaceful" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Very straight and large" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Very fine" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "But of the most happy matches, there will be those which do not result in offspring" (Han Shu, 97a). 3.1.3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, perfective aspect, "already" "Having made both sacrifices at i Wang, the Duke of Ming returned home" (EAC, Inscription 7); "Heaven has already brought to an end the man"My date of the great state of Yin" (Shu Ching, Shao Kao); "The tears have been shed for it" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[You] cock has already crowed" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); have taken my young ones already" (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Sword blades had already clashed" (Mencius, la); "Yao and Shun are dead already" (Mencius, 3b); "All of us who thus covenant declare that after we have covenanted, we return to our homes in amity" (Mencius, 6b). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above, but in collocation with yu viz. "I already know that" (Mencius, 6b); "The world is already well-governed" (Chuang Tzu, 1); "The Confucian scholars f - j >i >• i -^ had been unable to produce any clear exposition of the Feng and Shan sacrifice" (Shih Chi, 28); "The f emperor had performed the feng sacrifices to T ai-shan and there had been no trouble from wind and rain" (Shih Chi, 28);

409

jih

jih M

But when [military commands] having been made clear are not carried out in accordance with military law, it is a crime on the officers' part" (Shih Chi, 65). 3. 8. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, as above (3.1. 3) but occurring before and marking the verb of a subordinate clause. "Your Grace, having fixed upon the site, sent a messenger" (Shu Ching, Lo Kao); "He [the duke] having given instructions to the Yin people, the Yin people began work with a will" (Shu Ching, Shao Kao); "[The father] having laid the plans, the son then is unwilling to lay the foundations" (Shu Ching, Ta Kao); "All being prepared [the musicians] play" (Shih Ching, Chou Sung); "Your cart being loaded, [you] throw away the sideboards" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Mencius, having explained the matter for King Hsuan of Ch'i, was asked by Duke Wen of TTeng ..." (Chao Ch!i, Meng-tzfi Changchtt); "Men who, having estates of their own, increase them with the hundred chariot estates of Han and Wei ..." (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chit); "Being unable to get headstrong men, he wanted to get men of integrity" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtf). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, "by the time that ... " "By autumn, in the eighth month, on the day mou-yin, the emperor died" (Han Shu, 2). 5.1.1. DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTION, simple connection, occurs introducing the first sentence, the second sentence being introduced by yow X^ , "not only ... but too ..." "Not only to be unable to give orders, i but also to be unable to take orders" (Mencius, 4a); "Not only did [you] say ... but too [you] said ..." (Mencius, 2a); "Not only had he no good ministers, but too he had made no preparations for defence" (Chan-kuo Ts y e, Ch f in, hsia); "I am not only lacking in virtue but too am lacking in cleverness" (Han Shu, 49).

410

jih

jih

5. 1. 5. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, narrative sequence, used either singly or "having done so then . . . T ! in collocation with erl viz. "[He] found [the land] pleasant [and] having done so made [it her] dwelling" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "It is certainly not that [we] do not accept you, [but that] having [accepted you] they will remove you" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[The duke] swore an oath saying ! we shall not look upon each other again until we are in Hades1 but having done so he repented of it" (Tso Chuan, Yin 1); "The troops of Ts T ai and Wei will not support [the king's troops] and so will be the first to flee. That having happened we can fall upon the king's troops" (Tso Chuan, Huan 5); "The Lord of Tsin promised bribes to great officers in the state and having done so, in each case he went back on his word" (Tso Chuan, Hsi 15); 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, occurs before the verb of a fulfilled conditional clause, "since ... [then] ..." "having already ... then . 0 . " "Since you have thereby rejected it, with what are you to replace it?" (Mo Tzu, 15); "The advisers of the Feudal Lords beyond our state, since they do not number the two of us among them, would never dare to invade us" (Kuan Tzu, 18); "Since I am unable to project my virtue to distant parts, anxiously I think ceaselessly about the rights and wrongs of those beyond China proper, so as to prepare [against all contingencies]" (Han Shu, 4); "Since I am lacking in virtue, God on High and the Spirits have not enjoyed my offerings" (Han Shu, 4). 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, as above, but in collocation with shyy viz. occurs before the protasis, "if ..." "suppose that" "Suppose you and I engage in debate ..." (Chuang Tzu, 2); f? If King Wen had remained aloof from Lfl Wang and had not spoken so seriously with him, then the House of Chou would have lacked the virtue to be Sons of

411

jih

jih

Heaven and Wen and Wu would have had no one with whom to make a success of their reignsn (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch!in, hsia).

ji

jyi

j" —>jih

JIH

(chi4)

Archaic Chinese *gfi€d; Ancient Chinese *gfji-; Gram. Ser. 515 (o); Radical and stroke 72.12; Concordance 3. 21814; YSD 4. 5; PSH 425; LC 185 2. 2.1. SYNTAGMATIC CONJUNCTION, simple connection, occurs between two nouns, MandM "together with" "The emperor said, !Ah! you Hsi and Ho! The year has three hundred and sixty-six days. Do you stabilize the four seasons by means of an intercalary month so that the harvests may be regularized1" (Shu Ching, Yao Tien); • "I shall go and together with you Shih we shall cross the river" (Shu Ching, "Later on Chun Shih); ; [these four men] and King Wu^wielding Heaven's majesty, killed all their enemies" (Shu Ching, Chita Shih).

412

jih

jih

ji jyi jii —>jih

JIH

(chi4)

Archaic Chinese * ? ; Ancient Chinese *kiei-; Gram. Ser. 1241 (b-c); Radical and stroke 120.14; Concordance 5. 66710; YSD 4. 6; PSH - ; LC 204 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "continuously" "uninterruptedly" "Our forests had been ravaged and our deer killed off, [but still] the capital was continually besieged" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Wei, hsia); "Whereupon sweet fruit was continuously served and excellent wine gracefully circulated" (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 52). 3. 11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs either singly or in collocation with tzyh viz. introduces a time phrase in the sense of "after [this]" "The Duke of Chou said, TAh! henceforth the successor to the throne should not be excessive in the use of wine, or profligate in travelling and hunting1 " (Shu Ching, Wu Yi); "[I] do not know if, after this, I might be able to see you" (Mencius, 2b); "Mencius meant that he wanted to make the king realize that [from the present = ] henceforward he should himself come for consultation" (Chao Ch f i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); 5.1. 5. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, in collocation with erl viz. narrative sequence, "that having happened, then ..." "that being so, then" "That being so, there was a proclamation for mobilization" (Mencius, 2b).

413

jih

jii JIH

ji

jyi

jii —>jih

(see jih

(chi4)

Archaic Chinese *kiQg; Ancient Chinese *kji-; Gram. Ser. 953 (s-t); Radical and stroke 162. 3; Concordance 2. 09720; YSD 4. 7; PSH 355; LC 7

ji

jyi

—>jii jih

JII

(chi3)

Archaic Chinese *kteg; Ancient Chinese *kji:; Gram. Ser. 953 (a-e); Radical 49; Concordance 1.18810; YSD - ; PSH 373; LC 7 sub, shen, 6.1. See also 6. 1. EMPHATIC OR REFLEXIVE PRONOUN, used irrespective of person in both pre- and post-verbal distribution; "self" as in M[I] myself" "[he] himself" "[they] themselves" "[The good man] is not concerned that others do not recognize his own [merits], [but he is] concerned that he fail to recognize theirs" (Analects, 1); "As though he himself had pushed them into the ditch" "He himself with a frown said ..." (Men(Mencius, 5a); "The people cius, 3b); thought [you] were going to rescue them themselves from a dire calamity" "The archer shoots only after (Mencius, Ib); adjusting himself" (Mencius, 2a); "My fear is that Western ChouTs giving of their treasure to Ch'u and Han is in order to get Ch f u and Han to seek territory from Eastern Chou on her own behalf" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Tung "Meanwhile the emperor Chou); himself performed the sacrifices at Ten Thousand Li Sands?T (Shih Chi, 29); "[Han Hsin] sent for the young man who had insulted him by ordering Han Hsin to crawl between his legs and made him a military commander in 414

jii

Jii

Ch T u ?T (Shih Chi, 92); "Those agreeable to himself he treated well, but those not agreeable he could not bear even to seen (Shih Chi, 120); "When speaking of someone he always spoke of him as being abler than himself" (Shih Chi, 120); "Do not do to others those things you do not wish [done] to yourself" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "Realizing that Humanity and Justice are born within ourselves" (Chao ff lf summoned ChU, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); T by an improper rite he would not go" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang -chit); "Fearing that he would defile him" (Chao Ch f i, Mengtzu Chang -chfl). 6.1. EMPHATIC OR REFLEXIVE PRONOUN, as above, but in collocation with with tzyh viz. and with shen viz. chin viz.

» • i »• "At present it is the farming season when \ the people are very busy. If I myself visit those close by, I fear that those in remote parts may not be informed ..." (Shih Chi, 117); "When a man himself is crooked how can he straighten "This others?" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); T is not something which one oneself can contrive" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang -chfl). 6.1. EMPHATIC OR REFLEXIVE PRONOUN, as above, but determinative, used either singly or in collocawith or without the determinative conjunction jy tion with tzyh viz "His own shame" (Chao Ch!i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt); "His own worth and capabilities" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang"His own kith and kin" (Chao Ch f i, Meng-tzu Chang -chfl); chtt); "His own inate nature" (Chao Ch!i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "Onefs own strength" (Chao Ch f i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "Their own people" (Chao Ch'i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "Those who bring retribution on themselves" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl).

415

jii

jii

ji jyi —>jii jih

JII

(see also ji)

(chi3)

Archaic Chinese *kiar; Ancient Chinese *kjei:; Gram. Ser. 547 (a-b); Radical and stroke 52. 9; Concordance 2. 65900; YSD 4. 1; PSH 361, 417, 425; LC 32, 135 See also sub. shinq, 2. 3.4. 2. 3. 2. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, occurs before numerals and measure words, "a few" "several" "The able-bodied are scattered wandering to the four quarters to the number of several thousand men" (Mencius, Ib); "[Will you] not be following me in a few days time?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 6). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, in collocation with wey or wu viz. self-standing; "in a short time" > "ere long"; "for a short time" > "briefly" "For a brief moment we see each other" (Shih Ching, "Ere long [you] will see [him]" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[Ytian] she took up his Kuo Feng); T office. Soon after, Ch ang-an fell" (Han Shu, 92). Note. Wu-ji occurs before the verb, also in the sense of "not much" "Han-tzu after all is not asking for very much" (Tso Chuan, Chao 16). 6. 3. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, occurring as an INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE before numerals, fractions and measure words, "a few, several what?" "How many days have you been here?" (Mencius, 4a); "Enquire about how many years food supplies there are for the whole population" (Kuan Tzu, 24). 6. 3. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, as above, but in collocation with her viz. "a few what?, - days?, - weeks?" etc. , and thus rhetorically "how brief is ...": also "a few what? - clients?" etc. "How many clients have you?" (Shih Ching, Hsiao "This blood-oath! Ah! how long will it Ya); last?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 29);

"How brief is man's life! " "What have Fvoul gained?" Flit. (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 31); that which/gain/few/what?] (Tso Chuan, Hsi 27);

416

jii

jii M

The maximum height that a man can reach - is a few what? [i. e. liow tall M How many [ - huncan a man grow?]" (Kuo Yfl, Lu Ytl); dreds?, - thousands?] of such people are there?" (Kuan Tzu, 24); "Ask about the poor people in the [feudal] cities who go into debt in order to eat. How many of such fam"For how long ilies are there?" (Kuan Tzu, 24); has the state of affairs been like this?" (Shih Chi, 119): "How old are you? He replied, T Eighty-three!! " (Hsin Hstt, Shuo Fan, Tsa-shih). 6. 3. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, as above, but occurring in the aspectual position and askinsr ff how manv times?" "how often?" "How many times can [you] behave like this before [calamity] falls on the city of Ying?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 24); "How often can [you use] a thousand men [for these purposes] before the state is ruined?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 10);^ "How often can we give them such occasions to laugh at us before they despise us?" (Tso Chuan, Chao 16). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in statements of truth and falsity, in the determined term, "surelv it is not true that ..." "To be placed in an immoral position, slandered by all and taken in by the sayings of the times, yet to hope to stand face to face with the austere Son of Heaven and seek for safety - surely this would be difficult to do?" (Han Fei Tzu, 14): "If this was not so, should we not surely have been laughed at by evilly disposed ministers?" (Han Shu, 60).

417

jiin

jiin Jin

jyn

—>jiin jinn

JEN

(chin3)

Archaic Chinese *g4en; Ancient Chinese *gUen-; Gram. Ser. (see 480 m); Radical and stroke 27.11; Concordance 4.12373; YSD 4. 25; PSH 428; LC 214 3.1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "to a lesser degree" > "somewhat" "slightly" "hardly" "barely" "After that, one barely gets Stewards!T " (Han Shu, 48); .. while [the Lord of] Huai-yang compared with a major feudal prince is somewhat like a mole embellishing a face" (Han Shu, 48); "The words of a teacher are barely able to prevent us from failing" (Han Shu, 56).

Jin jyn —;>jiin jinn

JEN

(chin )

Archaic Chinese *kten; Ancient Chinese *ki8n:; Gram. Ser. 480 (u); Radical and stroke 149.11; Concordance 5. 08374; YSD 4. 24; PSH 428; LC 2. 4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before the verb, as a mark of deference to the status of the person addressed "with all deference ..." "with due respect ..." "though I say so myself" "with all humility" "With respect, I would follow your instructions" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'u); "Now that we have heard that [Ch'ao] Ts'o has been punished, I [the King of Chiao-hsi] and my party^ with all respect, have disbanded [our] forces and withdrawn to our own territories" (Han Shu, 35); "[I] would like to raise a force and punish them. With deference, [I] ask your guidance" (Han Shu, 35); "With all deference, I shall receive your instructions" (Han Shu, 34); "That is why I took the liberty of [allowing him] to come with me" (Han Shu,

418

iiin

Jin 34);

"With respect, [we] have chosen the auspicious day"

(Han Shu, Ib). 3. 1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "diligently" "carefully" "He ordered his official to guard it most carefully" T T (Yen-tzu Ch un-ch iu, Chien shang); "Do you diligently defend Ch!eng-ao and if the King of Han wishes to challenge you to battle, on no account do so" (Han Shu, la); "Let the seven senior ministers give strict instructions to the ministers, nobles, directors, leaders and heads of office diligently to shepherd the good people" (Han Shu, 99c).

—>jin

jyn

jiin jinn

JIN

(chin1)

Archaic Chinese *kjam; Ancient Chinese *kiam; Gram. Ser. 651 (a-e); Radical and stroke 9. 2; Concordance 2. 90020; YSD 4. 21; PSH 344; LC 117 See also sub. fang, 3.11; , sub, shiann, 3.11. 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, potential aspect, "about to" "going to" "will" "would" "should" occurs either sinedv or in collocation with vuh viz. "Our side then will be taken prisoner by "If you do not him" (ShihChi, 7); surrender to Han forthwith, Han will take you prisoner" (Shih Chi, 7); "Though Sung's position is critical, we will never surrender to Ch T u, [besides] the Tsin forces are going to come" (Shih Chi, 42); "[If you] come I will preserve the life of your father, [but if you] do not come [I] shall have him [ = Wu She] put to death" (Shih Chi, 66); "I have several times remonstrated with the king [about! this but to no avail. We shall [see =1 become the victims of the downfall of Wu" (Shih Chi, 66); "The emperor is going to put all of you and your kind to death" (Han Shu, 65); "Even so what crime is this that would justify punishment? What should I do?" (Han Shu, 419

Jin

Jin

"The nobles have arisen and will put the people of P'ei to the sword" (Han Shu, la). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, "today" "at present" "now" etc. , occurs with or without the markers of time iee or yee "[If] today we do not take our pleasure ..." (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "[If] today [we] do not take our pleasure ..." (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "At first I respected you sir, ... but now I do not" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 11); "If today [we] could have had the Luan child here, what would you have done?" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 23); "Today the whole world is drowning.yet.sir, you do not offer a hand! Why is this?" (Mencius, 4a); "Earlier I thought that governing a state was easy, but now [I know] it is difficult" (Kuo Yfl, Tsin "[Chfen She] down to the present day [has enjoyed] Yd); the blood and flesh of sacrifice [made at his grave]" (Han Shu, 31). 36);

3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, in such collocations as "up to the present" "hitherto" and

etc. 11

Vi £>n r»/af rvrfl-i

"Henceforth" (EAC, Inscription 12); "From now until the days to come" >"henceforth" (Shu Ching, P'an Keng); "Up to the present" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); "... [and] up to the present has been an impediment" (Shih Ching, Ta Ya); "Beginning from today" (Shih Ching, Lu Sung); ••• "Henceforth having sworn this blood-oath..." (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 9); "Henceforward if for a period of two years the heir apparent is not known to be filial, not known to love his younger brothers, then ..." (Kuan Tzu, 18); "Henceforth let the practice of giving posthumous names be abolished. I am to be [known as] the First Emperor" (Shih Chi, 6); "Henceforward if there should be any who offend in this way, they must not be brought to trial" (Han Shu, 4).

420

Jin

Jin

3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, determinative, occurs in such collocations as jin"at the "this morning"; jin-shyr "tonight"; jin-jau shih present time"; jin-ryh "today" etc. "So as to prolong this morning" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "Tonight! what a night this is! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "If today you my lord were to become Paramount Prince, I should be avid to receive your commands" (Kuan Tzu, "If today [Tsin] destroys 18); Kuo, tomorrow [they] will destroy Ytl" (Ku-Liang Chuan, Hsi 5). Note. Also, by extension, used attributively, "the present ..." in such forms as: "When the present emperor came to the throne ... " (Shih Chi, 28). 5. 1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditioned sequence, occurs before the protasis of a conditional statement, "If ... [then] ..." "If your Majesty shared his pleasures with the populace, then [he would be behaving as a] true king" (Mencius, Ib); "If your kindness is sufficient to reach to your animals, but its efficacy does not get as far as your people, how can you allow that?" (Mencius, la); "Even if perchance we defeated them, later, more would come, till in the end they destroyed our state and brought us to nought" (Shih Chi, "If the Shan-ytl can do so, then 114); let him advance and engage the Han forces in battle" (Shih Chi, 110); "Even if you gained possession of Han territory, [you] the Shan-yd could never occupy it" (Shih Chi, 110); "If you [Yung ! Ch ih] surrender to Wei, we [ = Wei] will make you a marquis" (Han Shu, la). 6.2. DEMONSTRATIVE, self-standing, "this" "This is the way to [ensure] prolonged disorder" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 29); "The king T T said, What God is this? " (Kuo Yd, Chou Ytf

421

Jin

Jin M

6. 2. DEMONSTRATIVE, in determinative usage, this ... these ... " "This wench, even so, did not even step down from her carriage for you, general! " (Han Shu, 32).

—>jin

jyn

jiin jinn

JIN

(chin1)

Archaic Chinese *tsiam; Ancient Chinese *tsipm; Gram. Ser. 661 (o); Radical and stroke 40.10; Concordance 3. 08609; YSD 6.41; PSH 648; LC 178 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, Min slow sequence" > "gradually" "little by little" "soon" "Some years after this, rhel P~raHiiflllv became involved with the nalace ladies in love affairs, be-

having with great arrogance and carelessness" (Shih Chi, 125); "The emperor pri! vately held [Chou] K an in high esteem, but too what he feared was the gradual growth of [unfavourable] popular opinion, so that [Chou KTan] would not enjoy [popular! trust" (Han Shu, 36); "In winter, in Kuang-han, Cheng Kung and others formed a [seditious] faction which gradually spread" (Han Shu, 10); "Troubles from which we cannot escape, dav bv dav, gradually are becoming more frequent and more grave" (Han Shu, 97b).

422

jing

jing

—>jing

jyng

jiing jinq

JING (ching1)

Archaic Chinese *kieng; Ancient Chinese *kieng; Gram. Ser. 831 (c-d); Radical and stroke 120. 7; Concordance 5. 66170; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, experiential aspect, "to have once ..." "to have once been ..." "General Hsieh once went on a journey by boat" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4); "If clothing were not new once, from whence would old clothes come?" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 4).

3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces a time phrase in the sense of "throughout the ..." "a whole ..." "Lord P!ei!s conversation continues all day long without his tiring" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 8); "When Chien Wen was made chanf cellor his duties kept him busy for a whole year, only thereafter was he able to cope" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 3): "[He] once for three whole days did not sober up" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yd, 23k "For a whole year [the matter! was left undecided" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 19); "A whole night passed before [he] arrived" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 23).

423

jinn

jinn Jin jyn jiin

—i>iinn

JINN (chin4)

Archaic Chinese *g!ioi; Ancient Chinese *gfien-; Gram. Ser. 480 (m); Radical and stroke 9.11; Concordance 5. 90373; YSD 4. 25; PSH 428; LC 214 3. 1.1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "to a lesser degree" "somewhat" "to a certain extent" "slightly" "barely" "When we come to the reigns of T f Kings Wen, Wu, Ch eng and K ang, these kings were [still] barely able to pacify the people" (Kuo Ytl, Chou Y«); "The King of Chf i escaped, fleeing to Chu" and barely escaping with his life" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Yen, hsia); "For this reason, though ChTu!s lands suffered damage, her people were neither cut off nor weakened, but ChTu was barely saved from disaster" (Chan-kuo Ts'e, Ch'in, shang); "The city of Han-tan barely survived" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Ch f i, shang); "Even a cunning hare with three burrows barely manages to avoid being killed" (Chan-kuo Ts*e, Ch T i, "His shoes were so heavy that he could hsia); T barely lift his foot" (Yen-tzu Ch un-ch T iu, Chien hsia).

Jin jyn jiin —>jinn

JINN (chin4)

Archaic Chinese *tstem; Ancient Chinese *tsiam; Gram. Ser. 661 (m); Radical and stroke 85. 7; Concordance 5. 01140; YSD 6.41; PSH 648; LC 178 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, sequential aspect, "in slow sequence" > "graduallv" "little bv little" "Disasters and extraordinary happenings gradually grew more serious" (Han Shu, 36).

424

jinn

jinn Jin

jyn

Jim —>iinn

JINN (chin4)

Archaic Chinese *dzfien/tsien; Ancient Chinese *dz!ien/tsien:; Gram. Ser. 381 (a-b); Radical and stroke 108. 9; Concordance 3.'57675; YSD 6. 39; PSH - ; LC 152 3.1. 1. AUXILIARY OF VERBAL DEGREE, occurs before the verb in the sense of "in an intense degree" "utterly" "totally" "completely" "profoundly" "thoroughly" etc. "Burned it out completely" (Tso Chuan, ChTeng 13) "Hsuan-tzu remonstrated with great thoroughness with Hsiang and Ling" (Kuo-yti, Tsin Ytl); "When the superior's orders are carried out fully and the things he prohibits brought to a complete stop, [he] may bring forth and employ them [i. e. the people]" (Kuan Tzu, 16). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all" "The rites of Chou, all are [observed] in Lu" (Tso Chuan, Chao 1); "There, all the plants, birds and beasts are white" (Shih Chi. 28): "Before all the infantry had arrived" (Shih Chi, 110); 'The emperor at all these rites attended in person and did obeisance, wearing garments in which yellow predominated and in all the rites music was used" (Shih Chi, 28); "The house and lands and faniilv wealth, all this fhel eave to his younger brother" (Shih Chi, 30); "[The Lord of] Chiang, Kuan [Ying], the Lord of Tung-yang and Feng Ching and such like, all resented him" (Han Shu, 48): "Everyone came to offer congratulations, only you,sir, came late and then you offered condolences! " (Hsin Hstt, Shuo Fan, Ching-shen). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but determines elements following the verb. For more than one entity = "all of the ... "• for a divisible entity = "the entire ..." "You must not disregard it, but arrest them all and send them back to Chou" (Shu Ching, Chiu Kao); 425

jinn

jinn

"Then you will have complied with all [my wishes]" (Shu Ching, "[I] have ventured to reveal all [of my K ang Kao); thoughts] to your servant" (Tso Chuan, Ch f eng 13); "[He] sent forth all of them" (Tso Chuan, Hsiang 9); "[He] killed all the princes" (Tso Chuan, Chuang 25); "Having abandoned all he had hitherto learned, he went and studied with him" (Mencius, 3a); "[Emperor Wen] ordered the Master of Invocations to see to it that all the rituals were carried out in due time and season as they had been in the past" (Shih Chi, 28); "The next year there was much moving of the poor to other districts, all of them looking to the district officials for support, but there was not enough to feed them all" (Shih Chi, 30); "[Pu] Shih once more returned all [he had been given] to the district officials" (Shih Chi, 30); "Hsiang Yti has treated the empire unjustly. He has made kings of all his own generals giving them the best lands" (Shih Chi, 89): "[Hsiang Po] had already lead away the troops of the Chiu-chiang region and killed [Ch'ing] Pu!s entire family" "And too, could you boil all of (Shih Chi, 91); "The Shan-ytt them alive?" (Shih Chi, 92); was furious and detained both envoys" (Shih Chi, 110). 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurring before the locative, "throughout the ... " "the entire" "East of the Yen-men, the entire Liao-yang area became Yen and Tai" (Han Shu, 14); "Your Maiestv's entire territory is not sufficiently large to provide a foundation for [so high a] tower" (Hsin Hstt, Shuo Fan, Tsa-shih). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs introducing a time phrase in the sense of "throughout the ..." "[Both kinds of coins being] circulated simultaneously for a period of six years [after which] it would not be allowed to hoard the big cash" (Han Shu, 24b); "Now, once again, temporarily T

426

jinn

jinn

I am putting this ordinance into effect for two whole years, after which it will cease" (Han Shu, 99c); "Fought vigorously throughout the day" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 1).

Jin jyn jiin —>jinn

JINN (chin4)

Archaic Chinese *g4an; Ancient Chinese *gTj.8n:/gTian-; Gram. Ser. 443 (g); Radical and stroke 162.4; Concordance 2. 09820; YSD 4. 25; PSH - ; LC 153 2. 3.4. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, indicating approximate number, occurs before the numerals, fractions and measure words, "not auite" "almost" "What we have just seen was cast nearly five hundred years ago" (Hou Han Shu, 112b); "[Wang] Seng-mi managed to substitute his own preferences for those already made in nearly half [of all the selections made]" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytf, 3); "In T [Wang] Kung s secretariat there were almost a thousand men" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 31). 3.1.2. MODAL AUXILIARY, subjunctive, polar-positive, occurs before the verb, "might" "mavft "would" etc. "Humiliate him and he might go away" (KuoYti, Tsin Ytl); "If with your talents you served Viscount Hsiang well, the viscount of a certainty would bestow favours on you" (Chan-kuo Ts T e, Chao, shang); "Would this not be correct?" (Han Shu, 36). 3.1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, potential aspect, "about to, but unrealized" "almost" "nearly" etc. "This gentlemen is virtually one who is unalarmed by favour or disgrace" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yd, 18); "A-ching very nearly snatched from Wang and Liu their top-standing [in argument]" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 9). 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurs before the locative, "near" "close to" "[As her] home was in ChUng-ho,

427

jinn

jinq

she wished to go to Chao, close to her home" (Han Shu, 97); "For this reason a separate grave-mound was erected close to that of Emperor Wen" (Han Shu. 97). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, "recently", occurs either with or without the marker of time phrases jee "[Liu] Hsiang thought that the instruction of the king originating in the palace had only recently begun [i. e. was of recent origin]" (Han Shu, 36); "As has recently been witnessed, when Li Tui came to power in Chao ..." ( "More recently, Emperor Kao-tsu of Han, when first he received the Mandate [of Heaven] ..." (San Kuo Chih, Wu Shu, 47). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, determinative, occurs in collocation with shyr viz. : "recently" "of late" j- "In more recent times, such men as Yen Ling [and the princes of] Meng-ch!ang, Ch'un-shen, PTing-ytIan and Hsin-ling ..." (Shih Chi, 124).

jing jyng jiing —>jinq

JINQ 4 (ching )

Archaic Chinese *kieng; Ancient Chinese *kieng-; Gram. Ser. 831 (f); Radical and stroke 60. 7; Concordance 5. 29170; YSD 4. 27; PSH - ; LC 232 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "directly" "by the shortest route" and by extension "straight awav" "immediately" "If a [new] king were called in directly from outside of the state, then the people would all be disturbed in mind" (Kuo Yd, Tsin Ytf); wanted to reach it directlv. but never succeeded" (ChTu Tz!u. Chiu Chans:): "I at once deputed the szu-ma Hsien, Lord of Hsia, to take a force with Hu-lieh and others and proceed directly from Chien-ko to Ta-tu in Hsin-tu" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 28).

428

jinq

jinq jing jyng jiing —>jinq

JINQ (ching4)

Archaic Chinese *kieng; Ancient Chinese *kiBng-; Gram. Ser. 813 (a-f); Radical and stroke 66. 9; Concordance 5. 32941; YSD 4. 26; PSH - ; LC 2.4. STATUS AUXILIARY, occurs before the verb as a mark of deference to the status of the person addressed, "with all deference . . . T T Mwith due respect ... " "though I say so myself" "with all humility" etc. "With all respect, I shall attend to your commands" T "With (Chan-kuo Ts e, Ch f i, hsia); all respect, I have sent my envoy ahead to inform your courtiers" (Chan"FHisl followers kuo Ts T e, Chao, shang); said as one, 'With all deference, [we] shall attend to your commands' " "With all respect [I send the above] to inform (Han Shu, 34); [you]" (Han Shu, 35); "Excellent [advice]! [I] have, with all respect, learned from you" (Han Shu, 34).

Jing jyng jiing —>jinq

JINQ (ching4)

Archaic Chinese *kiang; Ancient Chinese *kreng:; Gram. Ser. 752 (a); Radical and stroke 117. 6; Concordance 3. 01912; YSD 4. 28; PSH 333; LC 228 2.5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before attributes, "verv" "reallv" "so" "To say that this is the anger of Heaven is very idle talk" (LunHeng, 23). 2. 5. INTENSIVE AUXILIARY, occurs before the modal negatives, "certainly did not" "certainlv should not" "never did" "under no circumstances" "on no account" fltr*

... "The reason whv The] never did make further attacks on the Hsiung-nu was because Han [at the time] were short of horses ..." (Shih Chi, 111); "[Chang] Ch'ien went to Ta-hsia from

429

jinq

jinq

the court of the Ytteh-chih. He never did manage to interest the Ytfeh-chih "Now, [he] in his proposals" (Shih Chi, 123); tf never could possess Yen (Chao ChU, Meng-tzu Chang-chtl); "He wanted to discuss [his writings] with Chih Tao-lin, but never did manage to do so" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 4); "He is not in any regard different from others" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yfl, 24). 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY, indicative, polar-positive, occurs before the verb; used when insistence upon the actuality of the modality is emphasized, particularly when this might be thought to be refuted or contrary to expectation "did in fact" "did in reality" "actually did" etc. "[Li Liang took] Han-tan T unawares and actually killed Wu Ch en and Shao Sao" (Shih Chi, 89); -^"Some twenty or so years later, the empire was in fact united" (Shih Chi, 87); "In the second year of ytian-shou [112 B. C. 1 [Kung-sun] Hung fell ill and actually died while acting as chancellor" (Shih Chi, 112); "Those whom the commonalty do not uphold will in the end suffer from calumny" (Shih Chi, 107); "Han Hsin [in 1 arranging for his mother s burial] ordered that around the grave should be land enough to put a thousand families. In later years there actually were a thousand families living in the vicinity of the tomb" (Lun Heng, 78); "He [Ko Lu of Chiehl heard a cow lowing and said, 'That cow has had three calves, all of whom have alreadv been sacrificed.T When asked how he knew, he said. T Her lowing says so. T Someone asked the cattle-master and it proved to be lust as Ko Lu had said" fLun Hener. 78): ~*0 2&a J& Jr vk ^ "It transpired just as Ju Tzu had said it would" (Chao ChU, Meng-tzu Chang -chtl). 3.11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, "in the end" "to the end" "at the close" "Misfortune arising from love for a concubine, the trouble begotten by jealousy; in the end, it was these things that destroyed his kingdom" (Shih Chi, 91);

430

jinq

jinq

"They marched straight out from the encirclement. Finallv. thev and the rest of the army were reunited" (ShihChi, 110): "From the time that the emperor first rose at Pei, FHsia-houl Ying was always a t f ai-p ! u, but in the end Emperor Kao-tsu died. rYinel then served Emperor Hsiao-hui in the same capacity" (Shih Chi, 95); "Once the Wu-ChTu revolt had been put down, to the end of his life Emperor Ching never again mentioned warfare" (Shih Chi, 122); "The tiger sprang at FLil Kuang wounding him but he finally managed to shoot and kill it" (Shih Chi, 109) 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces a time phrase in the sense of "throughout the ..." "all ..." etc. "All dav lone the tears streamed incessantly down his face. Onlookers thought him a truly "Whenfilial son" (Shih Shuo Hsin YtL 1); ever he was received by the emperor, the discussion always lasted through"Thev conversed and out the day" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 2); feasted throughout the day" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 14); "When presented to him, Wen-tu, thouerh awe-insDiriner on first encounter, was even so erenial throughout the evening" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 8).

jing jyng jiing —>jinq

JINQ (ching4)

Archaic Chinese *gfiang; Ancient Chinese *gfreng; Gram. Ser. 754 (a-d); Radical and stroke 117.15; Concordance 5. 01012; YSD 4. 27; PSH 428; LC 3.1.4. AUXILIARY OF MANNER, "competing to" "to vie with each other to" "His officials vie with each other to flatter him, seeking for favours" (Kuo Yfl, Tsin Yd); "Whereupon everyone vied with each other to emulate [him]" (Shih Shuo Hsin Y(f, 4); "Everyone vied with each other to praise him" (Shih Shuo Hsin Yti, 8). 431

jiou

jiow

—>jiou jyou jeou jiow

JIOU (chiu1)

Archaic Chinese *kipg; Ancient Chinese *kiau; Gram. Ser. 992 (o); Radical and stroke 116. 2; Concordance 3. 02910; YSD - ; PSH - ; LC 3. 11. AUXILIARY OF TIME, self-standing, in collocation with chyi viz. "in the endn "finally" "[But] in the end [they will] dwell in safety" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya).

jiou jyou jeou —>iiow

JTOW

(chiu )

Archaic Chinese *dzfiog; Ancient Chinese *dzTiau; Gram. Ser. 1093 (a); Radical and stroke 43. 9; Concordance 5. 06311; YSD 6. 38; PSH 688; LC 234 5. 1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, occurs either singly or in collocation with shvv viz. "If ..."

"In their day Yao and Shun practiced Humanity and Justice and so [such things as] love of warfare and oppression of the people they could not tolerate. Even if Shen Tzu can ensure that Lu can retake Nanyang in a single battle from Ch T i, then that would still be improper" (Chao Ch'i" Meng-tzu Chang-chti); "If they attack [Shen-yti] and his party, I shall attack and uproot his camp, thev then will have nothing to come back to" (San KuoChih, Wu Shu, 1). 5.1. 6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional ["If ... ], then ..." i "The so-called princes of today are not true princes. If they follow an erroneous course or [exhibit an] impropriety, then they make excuses for it" (Chao Ch T i, Meng-tzu Chang-chli);

432

jiow

jiu

"If each man had to defend [the city] in his own interests, entertaining no thought of surrender, then the enemy could be defeated" (San Kuo Chih, Wei Shu, 10).

jiou jyou jeou —>jiow

JIOW (chiu4)

Archaic Chinese *gTiug; Ancient Chinese *g?igu-; Gram. Ser. 1067 (c-e); Radical and stroke 134.12; Concordance 5. 06311: YSD - : PSH - : LC 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, durative aspect, Mfor a long time" "[Liu Fu] had long been in military service, but without distinction. But because he was a member of the royal family he had been made a marquis" (Shih Chi, 114); "[ChTing] Pu had for long been married [to a daughter of] the vy '*• w ! Lord of P o" (Han Shu, 34).

—:>jiu

JIU

jyu

jeu iiuh

(see also chiee)

(chtf1)

Archaic Chinese *tsio; Ancient Chinese *tsiwo; Gram. Ser. 46 (a-g); Radical and stroke 1.4; Concordance 2. 87113; YSD 6. 55, 6. 60; PSH 651, 655; LC 44, 167 3.14. PARTICLE OF SENTENTIAL MOOD, indicating wonder, surprise, etc. "O [you whom we] call father and mother! " (ShihChing, Hsiao Ya); "O the pepper plant! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng); "Ohow far-spreading [its] branches! " (Shih Ching, Kuo Feng).

433

jiu

jiu

—>jiu

JIU

jyu

jeu jiuh

(chfl1)

Archaic Chinese *kiu; Ancient Chinese *kiu; Gram. Ser. 121 (d); Radical and stroke 9. 8; Concordance 5. 90894; YSD 4. 30; PSH - ; LC 52

sub, yeu, 3.4. See also % 4 ArTRNTTAT, DISTRIBUTIVE. collective, two or 9Touns of two. " of the agents, both" "When both mother and father are alive ... M (Mencius, "[She] made them both say ..." (Tso Chuan, Chuang 27); "[He] and another man both died a violent death" (Tso Chuan, Ting 8); "Further to display my lord's might will make both sides say, Tthe desert of the Ti tribes has its capital within the State of TsinT " (Kuo Ytt, Tsin Yti); "If [you] are really ! to keep vour word, whv do vou not close with the Ch in armv and let us both die together" (Shih Chi. 89): "Charter Erh and Ch T en Ytf accordinerlv assumed false names and together they journeyed to the region of Ch!en" (Shih Chi, 89); "[The King of] Han reinforced f T [Ch ing] Pu s troops and with him together set out north. Gathering forces [as they went they] reached Ch!eng-kao" (Shih Chi, 91); "And so [Sui Ho] with twenty men set out on his mis"Theresion to Huai-nan" (Shih Chi. 91): fore, by a secret route, accompaned by [Sui] Ho, [Chfing Pu] and he both returned to the King of Han" (Shih Chi, 91); "The Marquises of Wei-chTi and Wu-an were both fond of Confucian "Let us both forget the affairs teachings" (Shih Chi, 107); "[If] we and of the past" (Shih Chi, 110); "And the Shan-yti both pursue this course ..." (Shih Chi, 110); so [the two armies] both advanced" (Shih Chi, 113). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but de termines elements following the verb "both". (This is a Han usage, see Prolegomenon 7.4)

434

iiu

jiu

"[Hel replied to both of the two, but saw "Was only Chi Tzu (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-cht[); ! both likes and dislikes" (Chao Ch i, Meng-tzu Chang-chfl); "Thought both worthy" (Chao Ch f i, Meng-tzu Chang-chtt). n

f

—•>jiu

JIU

jyu

jeu jiuh

(see also ji)

(chtf1)

Archaic Chinese *kio; Ancient Chinese *kiwo; Gram. Ser. 49 (c^d1); Radical and stroke 44. 5; Concordance 4. 82382; YSD 4. 31; PSH 352, 354; LC 34 3. 6. DIRECTIVE PARTICLE, occurring either pre- or post-verbally before the Innntive "in" "at" "on" "But when we arrived, the three fairy mountains by contrast were under the water" (Shih Chi, 28); "Fearing only to be in the rear" (Shih Chi, 117); "However, because he so frequently offered frank criticism, he never managed to stay long in any one position" (Shih Chi, 120); "Mount Ch'eng juts out into the sea like the handle of a ladle, being in the most northeasterly corner of ChTi" (Shih Chi, 28). 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, occurs introducing a tin: Dhrase in the sense of "after ... had elansed" " . . . later" "After a short while, the sun in fact returned to the meridian" (Shih Chi, 28); "After a short while, Shih Chien died" (Shih Chi, 109); "After some time, Li Shao-chun fell ill and died" (Shih Chi, 28); "After some time, Emperor Ching passed away" (Shih Chi, 109); "Not so long after this, the Hsiung-nu invaded Liao-hsi and murdered the governor" (Shih Chi, 109); "Not too long after this, the office of secretary of Liang fell vacant" (Shih Chi, 108); "Not too long after this, Ch'en Hsi rebelled" (Shih Chi, 110); "After a year or so, his magical art grew less effective" (Shih Chi, 28); 435

jiuh

jiu

"After a year or more, the youths from the region of the swamp had gathered into a band of some hundred or so men" (Shih Chi, 90); "After a month or so, FLuan Tal managed to get four "After a seals of office" (Shih Chi, 28); day or two, [Hsiao] HO came back and appeared before the emperor" (Shih "Six years later, in the Chi, 92); first year of yflan-feng [110 B. C. ], [Ho] Shan died" (Shih Chi, 111); "After some years, the new five shu currency was put in circulation" (Shih Chi, 120).

Jiu

jyu

jeu —>jiuh

JIUH (chtt4)

Archaic Chinese *gTiu; Ancient Chinese *gTi.u-; Gram. Ser. 121 (a-c); Radical and stroke 12. 6; Concordance 3. 87904; YSD 4. 36; PSH - ; LC 196 2. 3. 3. ENUMERATING AUXILIARY, occurs in the distribution "enumerated noun/numeral/auxiliary. " Used for mats. "One thousand mats of felt" (Han Shu, 91). 2. 3. 6. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, collective, identifying, occurs before nouns, "all of the ... " "the entire" "In the case of Jan Niu, Min Tzu and Yen Yuan, they possessed all of the characteristics [of Confucius] though in a lesser degree" (Mencius, 2a). 3.4. AGENTIAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, "of the agents, all" "The people all look up to you" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya); "[Your] brothers have all come" (Shih Ching, Hsiao Ya). 3. 5. POST-VERBAL DISTRIBUTIVE, collective, occurs before the verb but determines elements following the verb; for more than one entity = "all of the ... "; for a divisible entity = "the entire ..." "The reason why the King of Han knew all the strategic passes, the population*figures, the strongly and weakly held points and the grievances of the populace, was

436

jiuh

jiuh

because [Hsiao] Ho had got hold of all Ch'in's maps and records" (Shih Chi, 53);

M

|The emperor! sent Lord Yi to inform him

of all this" (Shih Chi, 89); "At this point Lord Yi returned to the palace and reported all [he had heard]. The emperor whereupon pardoned the King of Chao" (Shih Chi, "[She] explained all the circumstances" (Shih Chi, 91);

89);

"[He] was immei ^ diately summoned to an audience [at which he] told the whole story of Kuan Fu!s drunken affair and [added that, it] did not constitute grounds for the "Prin-

death penalty" (Shih Chi, 107); f

cess Ch ang reported to the Empress Dowager all that [had been said]" (Shih Chi, 108); JL >X 7^ ;/A

* % ^

"All that the Lord of P!ei

had said, [Hsiang Po] reported to [Hsiang] Yfl" (Han Shu, la).

jiu

JIUH

jyu

jeu —>iiuh

(chfl4)

Archaic Chinese *gfip; Ancient Chinese *g!iwo:; Gram. Ser. 95 (a-b); Radical and stroke 48. 2; Concordance 2. 81881; YSD 4. 33; PSH 421; LC 195 2. 3.1. AUXILIARY OF NUMBER, occurs before the numerals wann in the sense of

and

"millions" "myriads" etc. "Bearing gifts of gold and silk-

goods to the value of several thousands of millions of cash" (Shih Chi, 123); "Some several tens of millions of cash were conferred as gifts and rewards by the emperor" (Shih Chi, 111). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in the instrumental position and asking "bv what means?" "how?" "If the Lord of P T ei i had not first broken the resistance in Kuan-chung, how^ sir, could you have entered it?" (Han Shu, la).

437

jiuh

jiuh jiu

JIUH

jyu

jeu ->jiuh

(chtt4)

Archaic Chinese *g!ip; Ancient Chinese *gTiwo:; Gram. Ser. 95 (p); Radical and stroke 149. 5; Concordance 5. 08812; YSD 4. 33; PSH 421, 424; LC 195 3.1. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY,

subjunctive, positive reflex,

M

wouldM MshouldM

etc.

"Surely you should take advantage [of the beam] to make a ridge-pole for your own pleasure?" (Shih Shuo Hsin "Should vou tease a father on account of Yd. 5): "Going against his son?" (Shih Shuo Hsin Ytt, 25); T T oneself would surely be delusion?" (T ao Ch ien, Yin chiu, ix). 5.1.6. RESUMPTIVE CONJUNCTION, conditional, occurs before the protasis, "if in fact" "Further only a sage can have both no occasion for concern abroad or for worrv at home.

Rut if in fact one is not a saere. one

must opt for one side only [i. e. either peace at home or abroad but not both]" (KuoYtt, Tsin Ytt); "Further only a sage can have both no occasion for concern abroad or for worry at home. But if in fact one is not a sage, if one has no occasion for concern abroad, inevitably one has cause for worry at home" (Kuo Ytt, Tsin Ytt). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, substituting in syntagma before a noun and asking "what kind of? "The king said, !What sort of knight is that? [He was] insulted and failed to avenge his honour: (Kung-sun Lung Tzu, 1). 6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE. in collocation with ions: viz. substituting in the instrumental position and asking "how?" "How do Fvou] know that what I say I know is not something I do not know?" (Chuang Tzu, 2); "How could he meet with your approval?" (Chuang

438

jiuh

jiuh

"How can I know if good or ill-luck will Tzu, 4); T befall me?" (Ch'u Tz u, Ai Shin Ming).

jiu

JIUH

jyu

jeu —>jiuh

fchtl4)

Archaic Chinese *gfio; Ancient Chinese *g4wo:; Gram. Ser. 95 (q); Radical and stroke 157. 5; Concordance 5. 87812; YSD 4. 33; PSH 421; LC 195 3.11. PARTICLE OCCURRING IN TIME PHRASES, introduces the time phrase in the sense of "later bv ..." "Nine days from now there will be an earthquake" (Kuo Yfl. Chou Ytt). sub6. 3. INTERROGATIVE SUBSTITUTE, in collocation with shi viz. stituting in the instrumental position and asking "bv what means?" "how?" "why?" "Why did the [Prince of] Wei behave in this way?" (Han Fei Tzu, 37).

jiu

JIUH

jyu

jeu —>jiuh

(chti )

Archaic Chinese *g4wag; Ancient Chinese *g!rwo; Gram. Ser. 803 (c-d); Radical and stroke 162. 13; Concordance 2. 09760; YSD 4. 34; PSH 421 : 424; LC 194 3. 1. 3. ASPECTUAL AUXILIARY, momentary aspect, "at this very moment" > "at once" "immediatelv" "straight awav" !T

Thp Hiikp saw him at nn