A dictionary of Dehong, Southwest China (Pacific linguistics) [1 ed.] 0858834960, 9780858834965

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A dictionary of Dehong, Southwest China (Pacific linguistics) [1 ed.]
 0858834960, 9780858834965

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A dictionary of Dehong, Southwest China

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PACIFIC LINGUISTICS FOUNDING EDITOR: Stephen A. W\11111 EDITORIAL BOARD: Malcolm D. Ross and Darrell T. Tryon (Managing Editors), John Bowden, Thomas E. Dutton, Andrew K. Pawley Pacific Linguistics is a publisher specialising in linguistic descriptions, dictionaries, atlases and other material on languages of the Pacific, the Philippines, Indonesia and Southeast Asia. The authors and editors of Pacific Linguistics publications are drawn from a wide range of institutions around the world. Pacific Linguistics is associated with the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies at The Australian National Unive1sity. Pacific Linguistics was established in 1963 through an initial grant from the Hunter Douglas Fund. It is a non-profit-making body financed largely from the sales of its books to libraries and individuals throughout the world, with some assistance from the School. The Editorial Board of Pacific Linguistics is made up of the academic staff of the School's Department of Linguistics. The Board also appoints a body of editorial advisors drawn from the international community of linguists. Publications in Series A, B and C and textbooks in Series Dare refereed by scholars with relevant expc1tise who are no1111ally not members of the editorial board. To date Pacific Linguistics has published over 400 volumes in four series:

• Series A:

Occas•onal Papen; collections of shorter papers, usually on a single topic or area.

• Series B:

Monographs of intermediate length.

• Series C:

Books; publications of greater length, especially reference books such as

dictionaries and grammars, and conference proceedings.

• Series D:

Special Publications; including archival materials, pedagogical works, maps, audiovisual productions, and materials that do not fit into the other • senes.

Pacific Linguistics would like to assure prospective Australian authors and readers that it qualifies as a commercial publisher for The Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DETYA) purposes in measuring research output.

Series C, Volume 145

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A dictionary of Dehong, Southwest China

Compiled by

Luo Yongxian

Pacific Linguistics fl •

4 •

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Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies The Australian National University Canberra

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Published by Pacific Linguistics Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies The Australian National University PO Box 1428 Canberra ACT 2601 Australia

-AL]) PL

'1 I I 6

Copyright © The author First published 1999

· L 86 /C,9?

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Luo, Yongxian A dictionary of Dehong, Southwest China.

Bibliography. ISSN 0078-7558 ISBN O 85883 496 0

I .Te-hung Tai language - Dictionaries - English. I. Australian National University. Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Pacific Linguistics. II. Title. (Series: Pacific Linguistics. Series C-145).


Copyedited by Joan Birnie Typeset by Jeanette Coombes Map work by The Cartography Unit, RSPAS, ANU Printed by ANU Printing Service, Canberra Bound by F & M Perfect Bookbinding, Canberra Digitized by


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The Padfic linguistics logo was

designed by Ian Scales after one srnall panel of a poro batuna from Vella Lavella, held in the Australian Museum (A8517). This is an artefact made from a plaque of fossilised giant clam shell (Tridacna sp.), carved into an elaborate fretwork design. 1bese particular artefacts were made in the weste111 Solomon Islands, probably between 100 and 200 years ago. The basic cover design is also by Ian Scales. The motif was drawn by Malcolm R~ after the stylised representation of a design on Lapita pottery found by Roger Green in the Reefs-Santa Cruz Islands (source: Matthew Spriggs (ed.), l.Apita design, form and composition. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University.)

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X •


XI •

l. BACKGROUND 2. A BktEF ACCOUNT OF DEHONG TAl 2.1 Dehong Tai phonemic inventory 2.1. l Consonants 2.1.2 Vowels 2.1.3 Phonemic tones 2.2 Some phonetic features of Dehong 2.2.1 Consonant alternations 2.2.2 Vowel altet11ations 2.2.3 Tone alternations 2.2.4 Contracted fonns . 2.3 Lexicon 2.3.1 Word fo1111ation 2.3.2 Mi11or expressions 2.3.3 Four-syllable expressions 2.4 Grammatical notes 2.4.1 Nominals and noun phrase components 2.4.2 Verbs and verb phrase components

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3. DEHONGORTIIOGRAPHY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The New Script 3.3 The New and Old Scripts compared



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4.1 Initial consonants 4.1.1 Patterns of regular sound change 4.2.2 Merger 4.2.3 Split





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4.2 Tones 4.2.1 Tone merger 4.2.2 Tone split 4.3 Loanwords 4.4 What position does Dehong hold in Tai? 4.4.1 Problems for Li's classification: some examples 4.4.2 The link between Dehong and Tai Phake: some implications


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This book has been published with the support of grants from the National Thai Studies Centre at The Australian National University, and from the Chiang Chingkuo Foundation for Intet1,ational Scholarly Exchange. Work on the dictionary began in 1993 as part of the author's PhD project on comparative Tai. Final editing was carried out in 1997 when the author was undertaking postdoctoral research at the Southeast Asia Centre, The Australian National University, funded by the Chiang Chingkuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange for three years (1995-1998). Dr Anthony V.N. Diller of the Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, has provided valuable help and guidance throughout the project Joan Birnie, the copyeditor, has helped clarify a number of points. To all the individuals and institutions the author wishes to express his sincerest thanks .


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,, Yinspmge

e Dehong Dal - Jlngpo A. P. Longlin



Luxi (Mangshi)




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Yunnan Province


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e Wanding .-··-··- ·,.

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Dehong Tai, also referred to as Chinese Shan, is the language of a minority group in the western part of Yunnan Province in the Sino-Burmese border area of Southwestern China. The name Dehong is a transliteration of the te1111 tai4 x.orfl, (tau' 'bottom; under; the lower part [of]' + x.orj 'the Hong River [Nujiang in Chinese], i.e. the Salween River') meaning 'the lower reaches of the Lu River' and referring to the Counties of Luxi, Yingjiang, Longchuan, Ruili and Lianghe and the town of Wanding IT) administered by the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. 1 Speakers of Dehong Tai call themselves tai2Ja6, literally 'upper or northern Tai',2 a small number referring to themselves as tafltai4 'lower Tai'. Surrounded by the Jingpo, Achang, Lisu, Benglong, Bai and Yi, all of Tibeto-Burman stock, Dehong is reported to have over a quarter of a million speakers according to the 1982 Chinese census. 3 The area is also inhabited by a number of other Tai dialect speakers such as White Tai, Shan, Po-ai and Zhuang, some of which have distinct written scripts. About a dozen dialects with the indigenous self-reference te1111 'Tai' still remain to be investigated (Wu pers. comm.; Wang 1984).

-tur/' phorf - phutf morf mot5-mutf mut5 J:,t5 - Jut5 t:,rrP - tunP h:,t5 - hut5 x:,t5 - xutl

exactly, whole; entirely jump over (something); make a dive for dust to slip off to gather to stroke (beard); to smooth out with fingers to scrape off

(14) Half close and half open This type is also found with back vowels only, a process reminiscent of the situation in some Northern Tai dialects such as Wurning and Yay, where only the half close /o/ remains. This type of alternation shows that Dehong is following Wuming and Yay in simplifying its vowel system.

xop5- x:,p5 tot3 - t:,t3

pcil,-~2 yorf-y:,rf t5-oop5 taagl -tigl

wir'- wot4 pitl - ~tl

to pass over to subtract; minus to extend; loosen to aim at to shut net to combine; merge to solidify; coagulate to roll up (leaves) short

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(16) Rounded and unrounded

This type is found to occur between the high back rounded vowel /u/ and the high back unrounded vowel /ii.


classifier for humans to throw claMifier for sheets bruised

wuP-wiP phun1 - phinl Junl -Jinl ( 17) Back and centtal


(of weather) to be fine, sunny to give classifier for animals, written characters and suchlike to spill; to overflow


tpoliteness; waail expressing surprise; ?a5, hau5, hogl, ~2-assertive; ?a{l, ?~1expressing admiration; ?a/2 expressing disagieen1ent or disrespect; haul-question; /~ 1exclamation; }~-seeking agreement; /~-imperative. 3. DEHONG ORTHOGRAPHY



As mentioned in §1, Dehong has an Indic-based written script, which is distinct from that of Tai Lue, although some similarities can be detected. The existence of this script is thought to date back to at least some time before the Ming Dynasty (14th century AD), according to Chinese sources (Jiang 1984:398, quoted by Yang 1987:4). At the moment two forms of Dehong orthography are used among the community, the Old Script and the New Script. The former was used to record local history, folk tales, family bees, Buddhist doctrines, medicine, and other fo1111s of traditional learning, while the latter was the result of language refo11n by Chinese authorities after the early 1950s, and it is the new fo11n which is now taught in schools. In addition to a brief description by Yu and Luo ( 1980: 106-109) of both scripts, Zhou et al. ( 1981) also provide a succinct account. A detailed description is presented in Yang (1987). Still a more recent version of the script which differs from both the Old and the New Scripts in that it uses symbols at the end of a word to mark tones, is reported by Sawangpanyangkun and Charoenphom (1994). There are several differences between the Old Script and the New Script. According to Yang, the Old Dehong Script did not have tone marks to distinguish phonemic tones (except for Tone 5 [C2] in open syllables with final /aa/, for which the mark[:] is used, with the final deleted (p.12), unlike Standard Thai. Thus there is no distinction between fo11ns like fagl 'to bury', fag2 'listen', fag3 'bank, shore' and faq4 'body, group' (p.23). Tone marks wexe added to the current script by the Chinese authorities in the mid- l 950s for ease of popularising the language. Also, the Old Script does not distinguish between /a/ and /aa/ (except in syllables with these as single finals without any endings), that is, /ail versus /aai/, /au/ versus /aau/, /ak/ versus /aak/, /ap/ versus /aap and /at/ versus /aat/ were represented as /ail, /au/, /ak/, lap/ and /at/ respectively in the Old Script. Nor does the Old Script distinguish between /u/ and lo/, Iii and /a/, or between /ii, /e/ and /£1 when these vowels appear as the main vowel in compound finals, that is, /ui/ and /oil, /um/ and /om/, /ury and /orj, /uk/ and /ok/, /up/ and /op/, /ut/ and /ot/ were written as /oil, /om/, /ory, /ok/, /op/ and lot/ respectively. Similarly, /iu/, /cu/ and /eu/, etc. were represented as /eu/, /em/, /er; etc., except in syllables with these vowels as single finals, where the distinction was made (Yang 1987:8-9; Wang 1984:315-316). Certain phonemes did not appear in the Old Script, for example, lQ /f/ only occurs in the New Script,

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and was represented by a /w/ and \D /phi in the Old Script (Yang 1987:23ff.). A number of single phonemes had more than one written fo11n in the Old Script, displaying more intricate 11sagc. A comparison between the two scripts is given in Tables 7 and 8 in the next subsection. 3.2 THE NEW SCRIPT The present Dehong Script exhibits a virtual one-to-one mapping with the actual sound system. No complication exists in the present Dehong Script of the sort of Standard Thai where there is a division for high, mid and low consonants or of Tm I ne where there is a two-way distinction between high and low consonants. Tables 5 and 6 present the current

fo11n of the Dehong Script, with the phonetic value specified for each item. TABLE 5: DEHONG ORTHOGRAPHY: CONSONANTS

phonetic value p t k

Dehong Script

phonetic value

Dehong Script




ph th




























phonetic value

Dehong Script







phonetic value

Dehong Script

eu EU





'}J •















'l'}J L-


a •


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Dehong Script




phonetic value


au aau

tla a -~ a a .a




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The following tone marks are used in New Dehong Script: Tone 1:

' ••

Tone 2: Tone 3: Tone4: Tone 5: Tone 6:

' •


Some remarks on New Dehong Script: ( 1)

The symbol a in Dehong has three phonetic values: (a) [w] as an initial consonant, (b) [au] as a vowel, and (c) [-u] as final vowel in diphthongs. The symbol 'JJ is an allograph of IJ (i.e. both represent the [y] sound, with IJ occuning as initial and 'JJ as final).


The back mid vowel /o/ is written as LD when occuning as final, Lwhen followed by a final consonant (e.g. l::JLd mol 'doctor', l::JLM mon3 'grey'). For checked syllables, the unmarked tone is Tone 5 (fone C2 in Dehong), as against Tone 6 for open syllables (e.g. 1/u kaap5 'to bite' and '1 kaa6 'crow', 01[µ top5 'to fold' and 01LD t

/f/: faal 'partition wall', faa3 'palm of the hand, sole of the foot', fan5 'to knead', fat1 'to sieve', fan 1 'to dream' (from Proto Tai *f-); faa5 'sky', fan2 'to chop', f~rjl 'straw', fat5 'to whip', fai2 'fire', fuk5 'mat' (from Proto Tai •v-). Proto Tai •w-, *hw-, •gw- => /w/: waafl 'finish', wfl 'to fan', waa2 'measure of length of an armspread', wa;/J 'to say' (from Proto Tai •w-); waa.il 'rattan', waanl 'sweat', wil 'comb', waan3 'to sow, to scatter' (from Proto Tai *hw-); wari2 'day, sun', waa2 'yesterday', wci2 'ox' (from Proto Tai *IJW-). Proto Tai *t-, *d-, *th-, *ti-, *tr-, *pr=> /ti: ta,y 'stool', taF 'to creep or move like a WO[l11', tapl 'liver', t:Jk3 'to hammer in, pound', tom' 'to boil, to cook in water' (from Proto Tai •t-);

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taa2 'to smear, to paint', tP 'place, location', taif, 'wharf, landing', taak5 'land leech', t:,P 'to cast (net)' (from Proto Tai *d-);

ti2 'to hold, to take along' (from Proto Tai *th-); ted 'to be full, filled', tau4 'gourd, bottle', tau3 'turtle', tot3 'to fart' (from Proto Tai •tt-);

taaP ' 'to die', taJP 'eye' (from Proto Tai •tr-); tau3 'shuttle of a loom', taak3 'to dry in the sun', tEk3 'to break, to burst out', tErP 'wasp', t£tf 'cucumber' (from Proto Tai •pr-). Proto Tai *th-, *thl-, *hi-, *pr-=> /th/: tham4 'cave', thau4 'old, elders, seniors', th:,n1 'to pull out, to extract', th:,,/ 'to arrive', thoP 'to take off, to pull out', thu3 'chopsticks', th:,k3 'male (animal)', thuk1 'to be cheap; to hit (the mark)' (from Proto Tai *th-);

thol)l 'bag, pocket', thail 'to plough, a plough', thaa' 'to wait', thaaml 'to ask' (from Proto Tai *thl-);

thap5 'to block, to close', th~ 'to be alike, to resemble' (from Proto Tai *hi-); thau5 'to hunt for' (from Proto Tai •pr-). Proto Tai •?d-, •n-, *hn-, *1-, *hi-, *d-, *di-, *?dl/r-, *nVr-, *?bVr- , *mVr- => IV:

Jar' 'to obtain, to get, to be able to', Jaa3 'to scold, to revile', Jaai4 'thread, silk', /e,P 'one, single, only', Jaif' 'nose', Jutl 'to drink, to suck', likl 'late at night' (from Proto Tai *?d-);

Jaa2 'rice field', /w 'mother's younger sibling', Jai5 'this', Jar/' 'to sit', J:,q5 'younger sibling', Jot5 'to massage', lutf 'to wear, to put on', J:,r,2 'to lie down, to sleep' (from Proto Tai •n-);

Jaal 'thick', Jaaml 'thorn', Jaaul 'to have chills and fever, to be cold', la,/ 'skin, leather', Jak1 'heavy', Jr' 'debt', lok3 'deaf, lot3 'beard, moustache' (from Proto Tai *hn-);

Jirj 'monkey', Joi2 'to chase'~ Jin5 'tongue', /:,tf 'to follow (a stream)', lur;r 'uncle (father or mother's elder brothers)', J:,,S 'blood', luk5 'child, offspring', J:,k5 'deep' (from Proto Tai •I-);

laai1 'many, much', laanl 'grandchild', Jakl 'post, stalk', Jail 'to flow', Jek3 'iron', lom1 'loose, too big to fit', J:,l 'left over, remainder', J:,n,4 'smooth', J:,k3 'gadfly' (from Proto Tai *hi-);

Jop5 'to fold, to bend', ltul 'to roam, to wander' (from Proto Tai *d-); Jak5 'to steal', Je2 'to lick', /ik5 'young, small', Jom2 'wind', Jon5 'to overflow', lukl 'bedroom', J~5 'to escape, to be free from' (from Proto Tai *di-); lip/ 'raw, unripe', Juk1 'bone', lEtf 'red', J:,P 'hill, mountain', Jai2 'inside', JaP 'which', lad 'dark, black', lEP 'sunshine, sunlight' (from Proto Tai •?dl/r-); Jan2 'noisy', Jaafl 'dew', J:,k5 'outside' (from Proto Tai •nVr-); J:,r,6 'month, moon', JP 'gallbladder', Isa,/ 'white-spotted' (from Proto Tai •?bVr-); Jaafl 'saliva' (from Proto Tai •mVr-).

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Proto Tai •s-, •z-, •c-, *ch-, •x- => /s/: saal 'a kind of tree whose bark can be used for making paper', .~aail 'string, line, cord', saak3 'pestle', saam1 'three', saat3 'mat', saaul 'girl, young lady', sa/1 'intestine', sau1 'pillar', sipl 'ten', sur/ 'tall, high', s:J# 'shirt, garment', sutl 'mosquito net', sukl 'ripe, cooked' (from Proto Tai •s-); saai5 'left (side), safl. 'fish-trap', saJc5 'to wash (clothes)', sP 'to buy', sP 'straight' (from Proto Tai •z-); s:x3 'to set fire to, to kindle' (from Proto Tai •c-); siJc3 'to tear' (from Proto Tai *ch-); si3 'to ride' (from Proto Tai *kh-); s£r/ 'hard (not soft), stiff' (from Proto Tai *khl-) ; s/1 'excrement', s£m1 'scorched, burnt', s£u2 'fishy smell', sir/ 'ginger' (from Proto Tai •x-; see §2.2.1 (4) for more examples of alternations between Isl and /xi). Proto Tai *J-, •c-, *k-, *g-, *kl-=> /ts/: tsaan2 'verandah, porch', tsaaIJ5 'elephant', tsar;,2 'to hate', tsaP 'to be so, to be correct, yes', tseP 'to wipe', tsim2 'to taste', ts~k5 'rope, string' (from Proto Tai

•J-); ts.>m5 'to sink', tsupl 'to suck, to kiss', tsaP 'heart, breath, mind', tsacr' 'master, owner, lord', tsaak5 'to root out, to uproot, to eradicate' (from Proto Tai •c-); tsapl 'to join', tsi3 'several, how many' (altet11ating with kF), tsm-14 (altet1aating with k£m4) (from Proto Tai *k-); tse,r 'tripod, city', tsim2 'tong' (from Proto Tai •g-); tsam5 'purple', tsipl 'petal of flowers, section of orange' (from Proto Tai *kl-); ~ 'to wake up, to be awake' (from Proto Tai *ti-). Proto Tai *k-, •g-, *kh-, •y-, •x-, *h-, •?-, *kl-, *kr-, *gl-, •gr-, *kw-, *khw-, •yw- => /kl: ~ 'crow (the bird)',

kaar/ 'fishbone', kaat3 'mustard', kaml ' to hold in closed hand', ke3 'old (of age)', kF 'how many, several', kop3 'frog', kut1 'fem, fem tree',

k~ 'to hinder' (from Proto Tai *k-); kaa5 'to trade', kaP 'swollen', ke,r 'tripod', k:Jn2 'to carry something on one end of a stick or shoulder-piece on the shoulder', kip5 'to take hold of with tongs or claws' (from Proto Tai *g-); koP 'crooked, bent, to coil', k:Jkl 'to hit', kin2 'tight', kAAttt' 'overcast, cloudy' (from Proto Tai *kh-); ~ 'sw~ perspiration', kaan2 'shoulder pole', karjl 'chin', kau5 'owl', kon2 'people, person, human being' (from Proto Tai •y-); kaacr' 'shin', keu3 'hook, to hook', kaap5 'to bite, to hold in the jaw', kit5 'to rub', kaar/ 'steel' (from Proto Tai •x-); kotTP 'to cover up', k:Jn3 'wild goose' (from Proto Tai *h-); k:d 'thorn', k~ 'to plug up', kecr' 'to twist around' (from Proto Tai •?-);

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kaa4 'rice seedling', kaP 'far, distant', karr4 'to endure', Jcaarl 'middle', koi4 'banana',


'conical wicker hat, hat made of bamboo or wicker', k£p1 'rice husk, chaff' (from Proto Tai *kl-);

kail 'near, close by', kaapJ 'petal of flowers, husk' (from Proto Tai *kr-);

kaan2 'to crawl' (from Proto Tai •gl-); k ~ 'work, affair' (from Proto Tai •gr-);

kaar/ 'a kind of barking deer' (from Proto Tai *kw-); kaatf' 'spacious, roomy, wide' (from Proto Tai *khw-); kam2 'sentence, word', lrBBi2 'water buffalo', k:,n2 'smoke' (from Proto Tai •yw-). Proto Tai *kh-, •x-, •y-, *khl-, *khr-, •xr-, •gr-, •khw-, •xw-, •yw- => /x/:

xBBl 'thigh, leg', xaail 'to sell', xaul 'horn', xem1 'needle', xoi1 'son-in-law', xon1 'body hair', xun3 'turbid, muddy', xEnl 'arm', JCBBt3 'broken, tom', xet3 'small frog' (from Proto Tai *kh-);

xBBm' 'to cross (a river)', xaanl 'to answer, to reply', xau3 'knee', xau' 'rice, food', xaiJ 'to dry up, to get dried', xeul 'green', xe,/ 'chopping board', x:,P 'to scrape off, xopJ 'to bite', xoP 'to dig, to hoe', xin4 'to ascend' (from Proto Tai •x-); xaafl. 'to spit out of the mouth', xam2 'gold', xarrf, 'night', xBBt5 'to gird, to tie around', xaf2 'dried sweat and dirt on skin', x:,k5 'enclosure for animals', xciJ. 'neck', xom2 'to itch', xip5 'a length span from thump to middle finger' (from Proto Tai •y-);

xai4 'to be ill', xak1 'diligent', xaul 'they', x:,rf 'a kind of basket', xaarf 'rib, side',

xBI/ 'to shut up' (from Proto Tai *khl-); xaai.f 'top (toy)', xaF 'egg' (from Proto Tai *khr-); JCBB1 'to look for', xBBm2 'indigo', xonl 'way, road', xel 'fish net', xol 'to laugh' (from Proto Tai •xr-);

xaan5 'lazy', xok5 'mortar, mill', x;,rf' 'thing, object' (from Proto Tai •gr-); xaa1 'righthand side', x:,;3 'to cross (one's leg)' (from Proto Tai *khw-); xaam2 'word, language', xaanl 'axe', x:,nl 'spirit, soul', xEnl 'to hang up' (from Proto Tai •xw-);

xaaf2 'water buffalo', x:,n2 'smoke' (from Proto Tai •yw-). Proto Tai *I]-, *JJW- •p- => /1)/:

l)aa2 'ivory, tusk', l)aaP 'easy', IJBu2 'shadow', IJ;,n2 'silver, money', 1J:>k5 'mythical water creature, dragon' (from Proto Tai *I]-);

l)ciJ. 'ox' (from Proto Tai *l]w-); l)in2 'to hear', 1)£11' 'shrimp' (from Proto Tai •p-). Proto Tai *h-, *k-, *kh- •y- •s-, •r-, •v-, *hr-, *dr-, •xr-, *thr-, *ml/r-, *dl-, *hg- => /h/:

haan3 'goose', haa4 'five', hap/ 'to shut', hai4 'to give', het3 'to do, to work' (from Proto Tai *h-);

hip/ 'to pick, to pluck', h:,,/ 'to echo' (from Proto Tai •k-); h:,n2 'muddy, turbid' (from Proto Tai *kh-);

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haP 'to tie around, to gird, hip5 'to chase, to follow closely' (alternates with Jip5) (from Pioto Tai •y-); haau2 'pole for hanging washing, etc.' (from Proto Tai •s-); haak5 'to vomit', hail 'chicken louse', harn2 'bran', hau2 'we', ha,j2 'nest', h,f2 'footprint, trace', h

m6, tet3. 2. To have a nightmare.

h:>n 1 J;,rf. One of his eyes is blind. See m:>t3.

aDHULHl:JI- '1Dl:JD ·· - xin2 pon5 maa2 laP kau6 mi2 ?am6. Last night I had a nightmare. 3. To be stuffy. .,/(mil "l10rl"l1DrlrnLn Jai6 thai4 ?am6 tsi1J1


/?aau6/, Father's younger brother, uncle.

71,J nai2/, Hey! (sentence particle expressing disagreement or disrespect).

71'1 /?ai3/, Name for the fourth daughter. 'J'l)I

nai 6!, To cough. Digitized by

Go ~ gle

tsil)l hot/. It's so stuffy in here. Also ?:,m6. 4. (Of weather) to be overcast. See kaan14. JIM /?an6/, 1. Nominal marker (used with demonstratives, verbs or adjccti ves to Original from



fonn nouns). - 1811 ?an6 Jcin6. Food, things to eat. - u,p · ?an6 ti2. Tool,

or object-raising marker. - .,,/ · 1/11rnflrit1:JOurnfl · 71t,1/· ?au6

things to use. - -"/,{I ?an6 lur:f. Things

Ju' kaan6 het3 men5 hel tsarjJ kaa3.

to wear, clothing. - -"Lrl ?an6 lolJl. The big one, big thing. 2. A general classifier. 71H.-t'J) /?an6 Iai5/, 1. This one. 2. These kinds (of things). 71H.AH /?an6 lan5/, 1. That one. 2. Those kinds (of things). 71H.-tr'I /?an6 JaJ]3/, As for, regarding, concerning. - -"Un 1:Jflti.,,-JJ, 'VL. 1/"

al · fflLdUIIH ?an6 JarjJ l:Jr/' meu2 JaP, su4 kaa3 xaal hol taan4. As for this matter, we/you should talk to/check with the head. 71H.Af nan6 Jai6/, Which one/sort? ~ UflHayrll:Jr ?an6 Jaj6 pen6 X:Jl)l mai2? Which one is yours? 71H.-tB /?an6 li6/, 1. Beautiful. 2. Good items. 71HCI nan6 waa6/, Topic marker translatable as 'si6/, Mountainous

area. 71ff ri 018 ni1]3 ti6/, Area, district. ,iff ri nifj4/, (Big) cave. ,iffn nifJ6/, Not. -11( ?irf tsai6. Not to be. -uL· ?irf yu3. To be not in, not to stay in. See ?im1. ,iffLi nipl/, To suffer from hunger, to be without f ~ to be short of (food/ supplies). - 1811 - .AIJ1 ?ipl Jcin6 ?;pl Jwf. To lack food and clothing.

- ad'1.l!ldaH

?ipl xau4 saaml wan2. To be without food/go hungry for three

days. 710.. /?~/, To hiccup. 110· n~t, 1. To agree, to approve, to allow. 1::/HtJn - man2 yarf ?:>5. He doesn'tagree/approve/givepe111tission.

Original from



2. Sentence particle expressing agreement. 11u· aln /?;,5 X8.8fj2/, To agree, to allow, to approve. l::JHULD - LJD man2 po2 ?~ xaarf yau5. He has given pct 111ission/approved.


/?;,u3/, To be sulky, to sulk, to annoy. aB ·- JCil ?:,u3. To be sad and sulky.

UJ r


/?;,i2/, 1. Friend, companion. See tai2. 2. Sentence particle to call attention: 'Hey!'. 11U,:;1~ /?;,i2 koSI, Friend. Also tai2



to6/, Bodyguard.

LQI. 1iju71iju~~ /faal kEp3 ?Ep3


/?;,k3/, To stain, to be stained (with). u,81110 - 71/,{191-JJ tin6 kau6 ?-,k3 ?urf' haP. My feet were stained with mud. t:1Q- l::Jr - l::JHf/1'}1 mi2 mai2 ?-,k3 man2 hai5. Your hands were stained with grease.


/faal/, To attach to, to keep close to. LQI. 1iju11ijumLD /faa1 kEp3 ?Ep3


/?;,m4/, 1. (Of mist or fog) to cover.

tsam6/, Bodyguard. /faal/, 1. Wall, partition. 2. Cover. LQI. ~un /faal mol)3/, Window. LQI · uijH /faa 1 pEn6/, (Bamboo) cover for urns or other similar utensils.



UJI. 3

/faal/, Twins (esp.in the phrase

.,,n ·

- ?e1 faa 1).

t:ILJ1 - Ull[1nld"CJI" ""/] •t:1/]ri m:,k3 ?-,m4 tor/' 1Jam2 tsaa3 J:,1 mc1,f. The fog covered the plain. 2. (Of smoke) to fill



the air, to make invisible, (of tears) to fill the eyes. ay11UJ'jJ - u,/u,ll· x:,n2 fai2 ?:,m4 taJP te5. The smoke made things invisible. 41:!Ju,/ - LJLnLJLn Jam5 taJi6 ?-,m4 yorf' yorf'. Tears filled the eyes.


2 /faa3/, To experience, to encounter.

7lUH /?;,n4/, To block (a hole). - 97/... ""'-, ?-,n4 hu2 Jul. To stop/block a rat-hole.

11UL1 11Ulfl

/?;,p3/, Box, wooden chest.

/?;,t3/, To plug/block (a hole), to cork. 71Df:lu- ~ 91/., ?au6 mj2 ?-,t3 hul. To block one's ears with the hands.

11Ua· /?;,u2/, To call (a dog). 1/" - t:1/, 1::JJ·· .,/IJ-kaa3 ?:,u2 maa1 maa21£2. Go and call the dog to come here.

Digitized by


/faa3/, Palm (of hand), sole (of foot). - 1::1g- faa3 mi2. Palm. - u,811 faa3 tin6. Sole. - 11Juu,811 faa3 k£p3 tin6. Sole of a shoe.

- "CJLcinlt:11.·· t:1lld""il faa3 tsa4 ?aa6 mu2 meu2 Jai5. To (have) encounter(edY experience(d) such things. 'J'ILUUJl·u1- 'J'IM /hop5 faa3 yaa2 han 1/, Encounters, personal experience.



/faa4/, 1. Instance of an act, time.

.,,/ ··ULt11::J/'}J11/td - LJD Jaa2 po2 maai6 saaml faa4 yau5. The field has been weeded three times. 2. Lot, batch, group. 1-jj - ""iJn,;i71y1ull .. 11J11/J ?el kai3 faa4 JaP 1Jam2 ?:,k3 ye2 Jru6 t:P. This batch of chickens have all hatched safe and well. 3. Session

nn ·

Original from



(of meeting), te1111 (of a course). 4. (Sexual) impulse.

I.QI .. 2 /faa4/, 1. To distribute. 2. (Of a disease) to have a relapse, to recur. 3. To mix (powder) with water. 4. (Of objects) to get damp (because of humidity). 5. To be prosperous, to be wealthy. 1::JIH.;1111Li1 - mfl• maan4 Ian5 kon2 faa4 te5. That village is prosperous.

UJI· 1 /faa5/, Aunt. UJI· 'flLd /faa5 hol/, 1. Senior lady of the headman's family. 2. A pious Buddhist nun.


/faaS/, Sky, heaven. - ULd.;1l}riua faa5 po2 IE,j yau5. Dawn is breaking now. LQI • 1l1;j /faa5 kaam4/, To be overcast, cloudy. LQI. 1ln01ln-,tijri /faa5 kWJ4 tWJ2 2

IEIJ2/, Lovely autumn weather, clear and sunny (sky). LQI· ald-,tla-uun /faa5 xaaul laai6 SOIJ3/, Moonlit sky. LQI • "'" /faa5 l81J6/, Thunder. LQI • -,tijr1 /faa5 IEIJS/, Drought.


/faa5 lonS/, (Of weather) to be sunny, to be fine. UJI· "'Lr1 /faa5 lolJl/, 1. Lord. 2. Headman of a tribe. 3. Senior of the family of the headman. UJI· "'Lril::l~ri /faa5 JoJ)5 m~rJS/, Name of a Chinese solar te1111, 'the Awakening of Insects', when all the insects are believed to awaken from their winter hibernation. UJI· 1::1iju /faa5 mEp5/,Lightning. LQI • tal· /faa5 phaa3/, (Of thunder) to strike. LQI· lDIH /faa5 phaan3/, To be inborn (with), to be innate. Digitized by

Go ~ gle

UJI· lDIH01B' "'U~ /faa5 phaan3 ti I ~6/, To be created by nature.


/faai 1/, Dam.


/faai2/, 1. To paddle, to row (a boat). faai2 hil. To row a boat. 2. To wave (hands). - l::JD . faai2 rni2. To wave hands. 3. To shake, to wag. - rnlrl faai2 haar:,1. To wag the tail.

- rr,p-


/faai3/, 1. Side. 2. Area (of residence). 3. Department, section. UJl')l1IH /faai3 Jcaan6/, Department, section, division (of an organisation). UJl')l1LH /faai3 kon4/, Hips. UJl')l-,tl.. /faai3 laa4/, Cheek.


Jfaai3 paa4/, Side, aspect, respect, field. UJl')l1J8 • 1::1iju /faai3 si I mEp5/, Temples (body part). LQl')lal •/faai3 xaa 1/, Thighs. /faai5/, To be slanting. -vln ~ LJD saaif faai5 yau5. The wall is slanting. See tsaaP.



/faak.3/, 1. Present, gift, souvenir.

UIULJ - t:>p3 faak3. To present a gift in return. 2. To offer as a present for love. 3. To send, to mail. - 'V8M faak3 sin3. To send a letter.


/faak.5/, 1. Bamboo strips used for flooring. 2. Side (of a road, river, dike or suchlike). aduLda/1:irnum - .;1l!/u/·

.;1l!/1/· LJD xaul po2 xaam4 h:>t5 faak5 Jam5 paa4 Jan5 kaa3 yau5. They have crossed over to the other side of the • nver.


/faanl/, 1. To cut off, to pare down.

- 1::J!11Ld"18H1J81.;1pn faanl maak3

Original from



ko4 ldn6 sik5 J:nf. To pare down a piece

of pear to eat. UJIH 1 /faan2/, A kind of barking deer, a type of hornless dear. UJIH·2 /faan2/, 1. To rebel, to be against, to be opposed to. 2. (Of old diseases) to recur. See faa4. UJIH /faan3/, To commit an offence, to offend. Also phitl. UJIH /faan6/, To tum over, to rummage. - aBri faan6 xirfl. To tum over (as in sleep). u8un8u - 1l}J pin4 ?:,p3 faan6 kui 1. To ransack boxes and chests. UJlr1 /f8&]1/, 1. Dark red (esp. in the

~an -

phrase lt,I faat)l). 2. The Qing Dynasty. 3. The Manchu nationality. UJlri /f8&]2/, 1. Having poor eyesight, short-sighted. u,/ - taa6 faarj. To be short-sighted. 2. (Of light) to reflect, to be dazzling. - u,/w0dLJn'91H111 faarj taa6 phtul ya,I hanl saJcl. (Of sunlight or lamplight) to be dazzling, to be reflecting. UJlri 1 /f8.afJ4/, A lump (of earth as being dug up or ploughed up). '

UJln 2 /f8&]4/, To bump into, to come across. See p:;rf. UJlri lf8.a.IJSf, 1. To protect, to defend, to guard against, to take precautions (against). DiJ"O{'910M - 11J.1lid wai5 tsai6 htn2 fBJUJ5 ku6 yaam2. (We) should take precautions at any time. 2. To prevent. - LfJ'jj fBJUJ5 fai2. To prevent fire. - 97/ fBJUJ5 haa6. To prevent a plague. UJ Ir1 aI /f8&]5 waa6/, To assume, to

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

think, to consider, to believe (that) (often followed by a clause asserting a contrary fact to what was thought to be the case).

1::JMULti1/· 97011/ kau6 faa,r waa6 man2 po2 kaa3 hau5 saa6. I thought

10 -

he had gone already (but in fact he hadn't). l::JM - '1DLJn'91L. man2 fBJUJ5 waa5 kau6 ya,I hu5. He thought I didn't know it (but in fact I did). UJln /f8&]6/, 1. Crossbeam. 2. A piece (of meat, cloth or suchlike). UJIU /faar,5/, To be flat. ']'1H1JLLI -


pet3 haan3 pen6 ?an6 sop3

faap5. Ducks and geese are creatures

with flat mouths. UJIDi /faat3/, (Of taste) to be astringent.

1::Jf1 - '91Lri

maaJc3 faat3 hol)l.

Astringent fruits.

UJld /faau3/, Air leak, not airtight (as when one speaks with missing front teeth). UJ)J /fai2/, Fire, flame, light, conflagration. UJ)JUJI· /fai2 faaS/, Lightning, flash. UJ)J lDB • /fai2 phi 1/, 'Ghost light' (i.e. phosphorescent light, will-o' -the-wisp). UJ'1 /fai3/, A kind of herb. UJ11 /fakl/, 1. To be pregnant (esp. in the phrase- 11Hmfl• fakl san3 the3). 2. To carry (a small bamboo basket) by tying (it) around the waist. UJ12 /fakl/, 1. Sheath, bean pod, pea pod and suchlike. - w/· fakl phaa3. Sheath of a knife. - WLD fakl tho3. Bean ~ pea pod, snake bean. 2. Classifier for these. WLD - ~iJl::JB- 91/· 1::JOO'I tho3 fakl Jai5 mi2 haa4 mtt5. There are five grains inside this bean pod. Original from



UJ1 /fakS/, To chop, to mince. - ,11J· fak5 1~. To chop meat. ,1/J •- 1~ fak5.


UJH /fan 1/, 1. To dream. "Ll1 - Jon2 fanl. To sleep and dream. 2. A dream.

UJHI /fan2/, Seeds. - w1 fan2 phakl. Vegetable seeds.

to fight. - 11/J1 far,2 s:,k3. To battle, to go to war.

UJH /fan4/, To make cord by twisting fibres between the hands. - 'TJ/J1 fan4 ts:,k5. To make cord.

UJH /fan5/, 1. To scrub, to knead. - adl:J/J fan5 xau4 m:P. To knead flour (as in

making dumplings). 2. To repeat. u,::, - alldwl}d pai3 fan5 xaam2 phEul.

Don't be too wordy/longwinded, don't make too much repetition, make it brief.

UJri /fat] 1/, To bury (sth. ). - l:JL'1 faJJlmok3. To bury.

UJri !fatJ2/, To listen. 01/,1Lff1L' - taa6 Ju6 hu 1 farj. What one sees and hears. n811,1/}{JJri01J· - tJin2 JE2 far/ taaS. Attention, please. See t:Jm3.

UJr'I /fat]3/, Shore, coast, bank. - rnD1

fai:,3 hikl. River bank. /fat]4/, 1. Flock, group. ull11 -

ull111qJ[1 pen6 farJ' pen6 futJl. (To be)

in groups, in large numbers, in crowds, in throngs. 2. A lump, block (of earth). ~ ,1811 farJ' Jin6. (A) lump of earth.


/fat]6/, 1. To supply, to provide (with). 2. To keep on working (despite some disturbing factors).

Digitized by


/fat5/, 1. To whip, to lash.

71D'T1Un ffllrl - ?au6 ts:Jr.,6 hBaJJl fat5.

To whip with a whip. 2. To spurt (as in passing urine or faeces).

UJr /fai2/, To be quick. a11 ~ xanl fai2.

UJH2 /fan2/, 1. To cut, to slash. - tqlfi fan2 fun2. To cut ftrewood. 2. To kill,


UJl11 /fatl/, To winnow, to sieve, to sift. - aci fatl xau4. To winnow rice.

Go gle

Quick, quickly.

UJF /fai3/, To expect, to look forward to, to wish to (esp. in the phrase - 71/r'I fai3 ?aar/).


/ftfjl/, 1. To carry or bring (along). - ul-fEIJl paa2. To carry or bring along. 2. To hold. fE1) 1 ti2. To hold, to have in hand. 3. To stay, to live in (a place) (esp. in the phrase 1JO sau2 fEIJl). a/ri - xaar:,2 fEIJl. To exist side by side.

01D ·

UJB •/fi 1/, A boil, ulcer.


/fil)l/, To warm oneself by the fire or in the sun. 71U11:Jf·· ~ ,1/}01,1/}- ?:ik3 maa2 fil)l 1Et3 Jt2! Come on! Come out and warm yourselves in the sun!

/fifJ4/, 1. Law, custom. 2. Good manners. 3. Reason, logic. UJBnUJI • ~Uri1LH lfiIJ4 faas m~1J2 kon2/, Truth, commonsense. UJBn1c'1Jijri1JJBn ttiIJ4 kau3 thu1J2 hiIJ 1/, Old customs, traditional laws. UJBn1cml[i1JJBr1 /fi1]4 kau3 thu1J2 hilJ 1/, Old customs, traditional laws. UJBn.Aun /fi1]4 l~J]3/, Reason, cause. UJBn~IHuijn~un lfi1J4 maan4 pE1]6 m~IJ2/, Local custom, social system, law and order. UJBnuijn /fUJ4 pt.1)6/, 1. System. 2. The way of the world, courtesy,


Original from



protocol, social etiquette. UJBnu~n /fig4 ~g6/, 1. System. 2. Courtesy, social etiquette. UJBnmu=; /fig4 thug2/, Social system, law and order. UJBn-oun /fig4 tsog6/, Truth. LQ8n-oun-,4un01ln /fig4 tsol)6 lol)6 ta8.JJ2/, Truth.

UJBD1UJBD1' /fitl fitl/, Whistle. UJBD1 /fit5/, To escape, to flee. See paai6, l:Jm 1,

Jan 1.

llJL:}J /foi2/, 1. Eaves (of house). - rn0i1 foi2 h:,n2. Eaves of a house. 2. Edge, frontier. 3. Remote. 1::Jl11u811::Jli1 maan4 pikl maan4 foi2. Remote village.

UJ[fl /foi3/, To spend, to consume, to cost. - '1JLdW0a foj3 sol ph£ul. To be too costly, to cost too much. UJ[!-11 /fonl/, Rain. - 01L1 fonl tok3. To rain. aBn - xi,f1 fon 1. Rainy season. llJLM-ALil.AL.;jmun /fon 1 10310m2 thol)2/, Wind and rain. llJLM~t· "4ijH /fonl maaS 1£n6/, Shower. llJLMIDUr1 /fon 1 phol)l/, Drizzle. llJLMUr -AL~-ALfi /fonl yai31om2 loIJ2/, Violent stor1n, hurricane, rainstotui. llJLH2 /fon 1/, To rub, to brush, to scrub, to wipe (clean). - afld fonl xeu4. To brush one's teeth. llJLl1 /fol)2/, 1. Wave, billows. - ,tfi fo,f2 Jam5. Waves, billows. Also f:Jrj2. 2. Flame (esp. in the phrase - t.qjJ fo,f2 fail). 3. Tassels.

llJ~ /foIJ5/, (Of water) to splash, (of dust)

splash, (of dust) to fly up, (of people or other Ii ving cteatures) to rush out in large numbers. 1Jfi71U'1t:JI .. - DiJ kon2 ?:Jk3 maa2 fo,;r faarj1 wai5. People rushed out in large numbers. llJLlrl /fot3/, 1. A bundle, bunch or sheaf (of coiled strings, cords, grass and suchlike). fot3 y:11. A bundle of grass. 2. To wind, to coil.


UJU')l /foi 1/, A piece of (meat), an amount of food picked up with a pair of chopsticks. UJU1 /fok5/, 1. To whiten newly-woven cloth by certain means. 2. To whittle (a piece of wood) into a rough shape. - '1Jd f:Jk5 saul. To whittle a pillar. UJUH /fon6/, Bundle.

nam~· 1::1/~ -



?au6 thu3 maa2 f:>n6 J:,rf. Go get a

bundle of chopsticks. UJUri. /fol)2/, Wave, billows. Also fo,f2. UJUl1.A~ /fol)2 lam5/, Wave, billows. UJUfiDH /fol)2 wan2/, High noon. UJL' /fu 1/, Classifier for (a serve of) medication, horse reins, halter, coffins and suchlike.

llJL. /fu2/, To float up, to float. -

,10 ·

,ifiD')J fu2 J:,l Jam5 wai5. To float on



/fu4/, To support, to help, to hold by

the arm. Also fu5.

llJL /fuS/, To hold by the arm, to support, to help. - mat.QD" 71UM fu5 thau4 f:il ?:Jn3. To bring along the old and the

young. llJL1 /fukS/, Mat.

to fly up.

Digitized by

UJ({IUJlfi /fogs f8Mj2/, (Of water) to

Original from



UJLt1 /funl/, To trample, to step on, to tread. uiJ1/· L!Jl}171L{1 - 71/t, pai3 kaa3 funl ?u.rf funl ?aai:,3. Don't trample in the muddy water or in the mud.


/fun2/, 1. Firewood. 2. Rouge and powder, cosmetics.

UJLtt /fun 3/, 1. Fertiliser. 2. Rubbish. UJLttUJU')l /fun 3 foi 1/, Muck, manure, dung. UJLtttGD' /fun3 f:1 1/, Green manure. lGLtt'J'IDH /fun3 h:1n2/, Rubbish (from cleaning the house).

UJfl1 t /f:1k3/, 1. Bamboo curtain. 2. A kind of bamboo fish net. tGfl12 /f:1k3/, To study, to learn. - uf}nu/· f:,k3 JJEtJ3 yaa3. To learn skills. 8Lr'I ~ xor:r f:,k3. School. 1/ - kaa6 f:,k3. Tuition fees. tGfl1.,fB'JlnHnl~ /f:1k3 }i6 hen2 1Jaain2/, To learn sth. well, to study sth. in order to fully understand it. tGfl1.-1811J1nH.-1l)i /fak3 }j6 hen2 laai2/, To learn to read and write. UJflri. /f:)1)2/, Straw, rice straw.

UJLtt /fun4/, A measure of weight. LQ1£11 /furJl/, 1. A group, a gang (of

people), a flock (of cattle). 1:1/· a/jjuflM - 91il maa5 xaai2 pen6 fulJl hai5. Flocks of cattle, cattle in flocks. 2. Classifier for these. 1Ll1 ~ kon2 fu1J 1 J:,rf. A group of people.



UJU12 /ful)l/, To mend, to stitch. - l:JLCJ ful)l mo4. To mend a pot.

LQLS" /fut 1/, 1. Astringent. Also faat3. 2. To be stiff (as of a lock or window hinge as a result of not having been in use or lacking lubrication).

'Tl h 'J'll' /haa 1/, Snow. 'Jll .. fhaa2/, 1. We two. Also S:>1) 1 haa2. 2. A kind of weapon. 'J'lf· fhaa3/, Classifier for rain, wind, snow, hail and suchlike, translatable as 'a shower (of rain)', 'a gust (of wind)'. - UJLM haa3 fonl. A shower of rain. 'J'll"

UJD' 1 /f:11/, 1. Tea-leaf, leaf (in general). See mai6. 2. Plants used as fertilisers. UJD, 2 /fa1/, To braid, to plait. ~ 010uul}d f;,1 t:,p-3 }'Eu 1• To plait one's hair. UJD- If~/, To support with the hand, to support sb. (such as an invalid person) by holding his hand, to put or place one's hand(s) on another person for support. 1u011:1/· ~ aLii kot3 maa3 fil xo2. To hug, to embrace, to be shoulder to shoulder.

Digitized by

Go gle


/haa4/, Five.

'Jll" 2 Jhaa4/, To endure, to put up with, can afford (to do). un - .,/'}JlJD YIJIJ6 haa4 Jai4 yau5. Cannot put up with (it) any more, cannot stand (it) any more.

aLM01lfi1JJau. 1/· 1/· 1:11-1:11-un .,/'}JLJ'}J xonl

ta81J2 kai6 xan5, kaa3 kaa3

maa2 maa2 yarf haa4 Jai4 pai6. It's such a long way that we cannot afford to shuttle back and forth. 'J'll· JhaaS/, 1. To block or hinder part of a current so as to make it flow more

Original from



slowly or to redirect it. 2. Discourse particle.

'f'll l fhaa6/, Chole~ plague. 'Ill-AL fhaa6 lu 1/, The plague. '111'1.lna fhaa6 seu6/, To die of plague, to be sbUck by plague (a common curse).

'f'll 2 fhaa6/, To breathe out. 'f'll')I /haail/, 1. To disappear without a trace.

1:Ji11/· rnf] ·- a8o1a8o1rnLrl

man2 kaa3 hel haail witl witl ho1Jl. He went away without a trace. 2. To recover (from an illness). u,/nullH

'1111:1 /haaml/, To carry (by two or more people). stones.


has.ml hinl. To carry


fhaam2/, 1. (Of land) to be deserted, to lie waste, to go out of cultivation, to be unoccupied, to leave or to be left uncared for. 4/- - Jaa2 haaro2.

Deserted land.

rnOu -

h:,n2 haam2.

Unoccupied house, deserted house, shabby house. 2. To be lacking; not to be. (Often following a condition, translatable as 'if X, then there will be no Y'). wt· rnl"JJrnfl • - u,p·· ud phaaS haail hel haara2 ti2 yau5. If the knife

ULD - LID taMf2 pen6 po2 haail yau5.

gets lost, there will be no tools to use.

To have fully recovered from an illness. 3. To be lost. '1Jrl'1Jrl - rnd sBIJl S81JI haail hau5. Things were lost.

nllti11Jll014f!J - 181,1 ?et3 set3 Jam5

'f'll)i /t,aai2/, 1. The third of the Ten Heavenly Stems. 2. Territory, possession. •

'f'll'Jl /haaiS/, 1. To be fierce, to be ferocious, to be fiendish. - 1/11/1 haai5 kaaJc5 kaaJc5. Very fierce, very ferocious. 2. (Used after a verb) to be good at, to be capable of. 'f'll'JJ /haai 6/, To offer sacrifice to heaven by pouring wine on the earth. - ~d haai6 Jau4. To pour wine (as in offering sacrifice). - wB ·haaP phil. To offer sacrifice to a god.

'11111 fhaaJcS/, Root. -1:JLD haak5 mo6. Lotus root.

'11112 fhaakS/, 1. To vomit. - 48UT haak5 J:,t5. To vomit blood, to spit blood.

2. Things vomited.

Digitized by

Go gle

haam2 Jdn6. If you thought the water was not clean (and therefore unsuitable for drinking) there would be nothing to drink.

'J'IIH• /haanl/, Paint. "CJ/nrn1"CJ/n -

tsaau' hak5 tsaB!f haanl. Painter. See hak5.

'J'IIH2 /haanl/, To be heroic, to be brave, to be courageous. u,8u,81u,8 - ti6 t:,k3 fi6 haanl. The more (they) fought, the braver (they) became.

'J'IIH /haan3/, Goose. 'J'IIH /haan4/, To be lame. u,81,1 - tin6 haan4. Lame foot. - 1l.11l.1 '17Lrl haan4 kuk5 kuk5 ho1JI. (To walk) with a lame foot.

'J'IIH /haanS/, Step, stage (of stairs). '11111 fhaaI]l/, 1. Tail. - a/'jj

haBI)l xaai2.

Ox's tail. 2. Tip or top of a plant. 3. Classifier for bamboo shoots, firewood and suchlike. 4LD'11[jrl - Jo-1 s:,1)1 haBIJl. Two bamboo shoots. Original from



'fllri 'flnd lhUJJl heul/, Coward. 'fllr1'f'ILD !hUJJl hol/, Garlic. 'fllrinDH !hUJJl IJ~2,, Interest (finance). 'fllri lhUJJ2/, 1. Groove, trough. - l:JL' haaIJ2 mu1. Trough. 2. Prefix denoting '-selr. 'fllri'J11- lhaag2 haa2/, We two (excl.). the two of us (excl.). 'fllri'J1L lhaag2 hu5/, To be conscious

burden for riding or canying things.

1:111 - 1:JI • rnll 'u,8 , 11· u,/nLQlfi man2 haa,f maa5 tel til kaa3 UUUJ3 fun2. He prepared a horse to go and cany some firewood. 3. To dress up (for), to make up, to dress in a certain style. 1J1ln1J1ij1-1• /haag4 h£n2/, To prepare (for), to make preparations (for). ~ aciW1'1Ll1'1.Jlld1Ld haa,f hEn2 xau4 phak1 kon2 saaml ko5. To prepare food for three people. 1J1ln1J1lna~n lh8aJJ4 h8aJJ4 x~6/, To dress in a certain style. l:J/1 - 1:J8U

(of), to be aware (of), self-knowledge. 1J1lri1c /haag2 kau6/, By myself, only me, me alone. 'J1ln1u;; lhUJJ2 koi 2/, On one's own, by oneself, alone. 'fllnaD. lhaag2 x:, 1/, We two (excl.). 'flln.,anc /haag2 leu6/, Alone, by oneself.

style of a fanner/He is dressed up like a farmer. 1J1lna~n lhaag4 X:11]6/, To dress up.


1:J/10'181 - mil man2 t:,k5 haa,f x:>IJ6

lhUJJ2 lil)l/, Automatic. 'fllri~H /haag2 man2/, 1. By himself, by herself, by itself, he himself, she herself. 2. (fo put) separately. 'J11rimlH· /haag2 phaan3/, Nature, natural. 'Jllnar lhaag 2 xai4/, Of one's volition, (to do sth.) willingly. 'llln lhaaJ] 3/, Few and scattered, thin, sparse. LQ/ ,ULn.,/')1'1.J/U.;/')J - wl}a

faa 1 porf Jai5 $aanl Jai5 haaIJ3 phEul. This bamboo fence is a bit weak (i.e. a bit too thin). 'llln l /haag4/, Multi-storeyed (building), high building, tower. rn811 - h:,n2 haa,f. Multi-storeyed building. m811 ~ thin3 haa,f. Stairway. 'llln2 /haag4/, 1. To lay a trap for catching game. - u/ haa,f paa6. To lay a fishtrap; to fish with a fishtrap. 2. To prepare a horse or similar beast of

Digitized by


'1Ll1.,/I ·· u,ll • man2 haa,f haa,f x:,rf m:,nl kon2 Jaa2 te5. He dresses in the

hai5. She is dressing/making up.

'Jllr'I lh8aJJ5I, 1. (Of a man or woman) to be divorced, separated without getting remarried. ULa ~ po6 haary. A divorced man. 1:Jll - me6 haat.J5. A divorced woman. 2. To fasten (belts), to gird.~ '1.J/,J haary saail. To fasten a belt. Also hary. 3. To hold up, to (be) interfere(d) with, to delay, to be left uncared for or unattended. Also haam2. 4. To omit or leave undone unintentionally, as in ploughing or weeding, to miss out. rJJ'JJ ~ thail

haat.J5. To leave parts unploughed unintentionally, to miss some parts in ploughing. 'Jlln lh381] 6/, 1. Style, fashion, manner, shape. 2. Classifier for clothing. 3. Classifier for upland fields. f/1JJaci LQ/. '1.lLJrl ~ hai6 xau4 faaS S:Jl)l hBa1)6. Two upland cornfields. Original from



1J1ln11· u1· lhaag6 kaa3 y~/, Corpse, body. 1J1ln.-tB Jhaag6 li6/, Beautiful, pretty, good-looking. 1J1ln-01· Jhaag6 tsaaS/, Ugly. 1J1ln-ouu fhaag6 tsop3/, (Finger) ring. Also Jiuu:f ts:Jp'J. 'fllLJl /haapl/, 1. A canying pole and the loads on it, a load. 2. To carry on a shoulder pole. f:Jf - mfl:JI- mai2 haap3 thail maiZ? Where did you carry it from? 1J1ILJ2 /haapl/, 1. (Of grains) not plump. ab - JCau4 haap3. Blighted grain. 2. (Of voice or sound) to be coarse, to be harsh. 1Jflrl -sel)l haap3. Coarse voice, harsh sound. 'fllU /haapS/, 1. To slap. - LQ/iJ.,,J· haap5 faai3 Jaa4. To slap on the face. 2. To hit (with a stick). naay,:, - ?au6 JC:Jn5 haap5. To hit with a stick. 1J1ID1 /haat3/, 1. Shoal, sea beach, sand beach. 2. The flower, particularly the stamen of com.

"1101 /haatS/, 1. (Of animals) not thoroughlycastrated. 1il01UH - kai3 t:,n6 haat5. A cock which was not thoroughly castrated. 2. (Of a girl) to flee from being 'snatched' (as in Tai ethnic practice of arranging a marriage in which the would-be bridegroom and his family and relatives wait for the girl on her way and take her away as if by force, which in reality does not involve any violence). 1J/d.,,/1 - saaul Jaak5 haat5. A girl who escaped from being snatched.

Digitized by


'flldl /haau2/, Pole for hanging wuhing, vegetables, meat and suchlike to dry; a load of things, such as smoked meat. dried vegetables, washings, on a pole. 1J1IC1D1 /haau2 phalcl/, A pole for drying vegetables; a load of vegetables on a pole. 1J1lc-un· /haau2 di, A pole for drying clothes; a load of washing on a pole. 'flld2 /haau2/, To dredge for, to scoop up from the water. 1/· - Wtil:JJ- 7'1Uilf:lJ.~ kaa3 haau2 pham1 maiZ ?:,j3 mul. To go and get some duckweed to feed pigs. 1J1IC /haau3/, Discourse particle used for softening the tone. 'fllC /haau4/, (Of manners, temperament and suchlike) to be rude, rough, irritable, irascible. D1LH'11( - ton4 tsai6 haau4. To be short-tempered, to have an irascible temperament. 1J1IC /haau5/, 1. To whip. See hiu2, haap5. 2. To draw (water) with a pipe or similar tool; to absorb. a/jjl:J/]H -

ntpt.,,,:,.,,f!J JCaai2 mtn5 haau5 ?utl Jai4 Jam5. Sponges can absorb water. 3. To tie up, to gird. See hat5. 4. Discourse particle(assertive). 'fl')J /hail/, 1. Jar, (rice) steamer. 2. Discourse particle. - l:Jral1Jrl hail, mai2 waa6 satJl? Yes, what did you say?


'fl'JJ 1 /hai2/, 1. Chicken louse. 2. Banyan. 1f1)i2 fhai2/, 1. To ttim. 2. (Of moths and similar insects) to eat, to bore through. 1Jl')I /hail/, 1. To beat (gongs). - 1yn l:JUri hai3 k:J,f hai3 m:,rj. To beat drums and gongs. 2. To knock at (a

Original from




door). - ~/· O'IL hai3 Jaa4 tu6. To knock at the door. 3. To fluff (cotton). - 1/,}J hai3 kui6. To fluff cotton. 'fl')J /hai4/, To weep, to cry.

ULJiJ'Vlln ~


p:,i3 setJl hai4 ?iul. To burst into tears, to cry loudly and bitterly. 1J1'))1J1))1J1Ur1'J1Ur1 /hai4 hai4 hoIJ5 ho1J5/, To keep weeping and wailing. 1J1'J)--ul')l1:1n /hai4 saail me6/, (Of a girl on her wedding day upon leaving her home for the bridegroom's) to cry (as an ethnic practice); (of a mourning family's female relatives) to weep for the dead.

1J1)1 /hai5/, 1. This. Also Jai5. '11LJrl ?:,rf' haP. This place, here. '1LD- ko5 haP. This person. 2. Post-verbal auxiliary denoting a progressive action or ongoing situation. 1::11101/}EJ~/'jj ~ man2 t£rn4 laai2 hai5. He was/is writing. l::JH91llti11/1,1 - man2 het3 kaan6 hai5. He was/is working. 1::/H~n ~ man2 IJUJ6 haP. He remained seated. 3. Discourse particle. 'f"l)I /hai6/, Dry field, upland field, as

opposed to Jaa2 'wet rice field'. 1Jl)I.AL1.AI. 1Jll~ /hai6 Jok5 laa2 haam2/, Deserted land; an uncultivated field.

'111 /hakl/, (Of a stick, a branch of a tree or suchlike) to break off. BLJH~LH~il ~ ullH1Jlld01LJH x:,n5 Jon4 Jai5 hakl pen6 saam 1 bn6. The stick broke/was broken into three pieces. 1J111 /hakS/, To love, to be fond of, to

like.~ 018ri hak5 t:,tJ2. To love (one's own) country. See kek5. '111'J1Li:3 /haJcS homl/, To love dearly,

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

to be very fond of.

'J11'J1Ui:3 /hakS homl/, To love dearly, to be very fond of. 1J111H /hakS Ican6/, To love each other, to be in love with each other. 'J11'1lf fhakS tsai6/, To be fond of, to like, to enjoy. 1J112 /hak5/, Lacquer. O'ILH - ton4 hak5. Lacquer tree. See haanl • 1J1~ /haml/, Testicles. 'J1.;; I fham2/, 1. Bran. 2. A unit of measure of length for cloth (about 8 metres).

1J1~2 /ham2/, l. To roll. - u/181,1~/}ham2 yaa6 kin6 /£2! Come and have a smoke! 2. To mould, to knead (into a ball). ~ 1::1/1~81,1 ham2 maak3 lin6. To knead earth balls. 'J1i:l /haml/, 1. (Of crops or fruit) to be half-ripe, to start to get ripe. ad.,,/(~,~ xau4 Jaj2 Jaa2 /:,1) 1 ham3. The crops in the field are beginning to ripen. 2. (Of people) to be young. ULD ~ po6 ham3. Young married man.


1Jl~ /ham4/, 1. To persuade or advise (sb. to do sth. ). - 1::111~8 · '71{ harn4 man2

/:ti tsai6. Persuade/ advise him to have a rest. 2. To keep inviting sb. (to stay for a meal or for the night). .,,,Ju harn4 pi6 J:,tJ5 /:ti Jaap5. To keep inviting (the) guests to stay for the night. 'Jl~an. /ham4 xel/, To advise, to mediate, to make peace between. - up1,1w8o111,1 harn4 xel p:,n6 phitl kan6. To make peace between quarrelling parties, to patch things up between quarrelling parties.


Original from


22 1Jl~ JhamS/, Rather, somewhat, quite. LJn

- .,,,9 yar:,6 ham5 J;6. Not very good. .,,,,,1.,,,-jJ - .,,,eaun.,,,Bn JBal)l Jai5 ham5 Ji6 xor:,6 J;,r:,6. This one is a bit better. Also h£,:r, h£m5. 1Jl~ar JhamS xai4/, Nearly, almost.

- 1:J0f171yrit1/" 1J.1LdLJd ham5 xai4 m£,jl tsot3 kaa3 Jru6 ko5 yau5. Nearly everyone has got a share.

1J1H Jhanl/, 1. To see. 1DLJn - l:JH kau6 yai:,6 hanl man2. I didn't see him/her. 2. (Of things) to last (long), to be durable. l:Jl11:Jllt1.,,/iJ - .,,/Lf101ll· man4 meu2 Jai5 hanl Jur:,6 t&. This kind of cloth is quite durable (i.e. it stands wear and tear). 1J1H.-tl" Jhanl laa4/, 1. To bring forth, to bring to light. 2. To be born, to see the world, to come into being. 3. To meet. 1J1HCI /han 1 waa6/, 1. Although. 2. Even if, even though. 'JIHalH /hanl xaan2/, Magnificent, colourful. 1Jl~ /han5/, That. 71llf1 - ?:ir/ han5. There, that place over there, yonder. 1Lci

- ko5 han5. That person. Also Jan5. 1Jlr1 •....../h81j2/, 1. Nest. 2. A noun stem to fo1111 compounds meaning 'parent'. 1J1ria~· lh81J2 xam2/, Mother.

1J1riul· lh81J2 paa2/, Parents. 1J11'11.lijr1 /h8!]2 SEl)l/, Father. 1J1f12 /hal)2/, To hold, to contain. _,,,rmlfi - _,,,,;irniJ Jai2 thuij haij Jam5 hai5. The bucket has water in it. l:JLflBUM.,,/11 - aci'VIMaiJ mu1J6 xonl Jan5 haij xau4 saanl wai5. That basket contains some milled rice.

Digitized by


1flr1 lh81J4/, 1. Dirty, unclean. BLii1J(J1.JL:' - 01fl• xo2 sau3 sul ha,/ te5. Your kitchen is too dirty. u'jJ18H71H 71Hrn[fl pai3 kin6 ?an6 hai:,4 ?an6 hoi3. Don't eat dirty/unclean things. 2. (Of rain) to be excessive. LJ8.,,/iJtQJj1 - 01fl• pi6 Jai5 funl barf' te5. There has been too much rain this year.

'Jlr1 lh81JS/, To tie up. Also haari5.

'JIU /hapl/, To close, to shut. - .,,,/· 011. hapl Jaa4 tu6. Shut the door. Also hupl.

'JIU /hapS/, 1. To invite. -1:JJii1/inllrit l:JLd.,,,/jj hap5 man2 kaa3 het3 mol Jaai2. To invite him to be a teacher. 2. To meet. 101/· - 1:JH01UH01lrirniJ kau6 kaa3 hap5 man2 t:,n6 taarj hai5. I went to meet him on his way. 3. To receive, to catch (sth.). 1am81i1/· rnr1:J(, eJ(

- 71Lci""'}J kau6 thim4 kaa3 hai4 mai2, mai2 hap5 tso4 Jai 1 ? (If) I throw (it) over to you, can you catch it? 'JlUD'IL[l /hapS tul)2/, To undertake (a task), to take on (a task). - 1/Hmlri hap5 tuif kaan6 thaarf. To take on a task. 'Jlo1 /hatl/, 1. Dare. l:JHLJn - 1/· man2

yar:,6 hatl kaa3. He dare not go. 2. (Of rice) crudely ground or sieved, unrefined. ad - wOd18H711° 01n· xau4 hatl phEul kin6 tsaa5 t&. The rice was too coarse to eat. 'JlD'I /hatS/, To put on (a belt), to tighten (with a rope or belt), to gird, to be tight. - 'V/'}J hat5 saai1. To put on a belt or a sash. - 718Hn8ut.,,,Bn hat5 tsin2 ?itl l:J,I. Tighten (it) up a little bit. uiJ -

rnOnwOd1LD'Vl'JJalrn1/· pai3 hats h£ij phEul ko6 saail xaat3 kaa3. Don't Original from



tie (it) too hard Jest the rope breaks.

110 ·

rn/n.,,,Jj - wl}d, ""IJ1uluU1ll· s:tl haaq6 laP hat5 phEul, Ju,! yaap3 te-5. This shirt is too tight to fit. 'Jld 1 /haul/, Head louse. 'Jld2 /haul/, To yawn, to feel sleepy. 1J1d1ln /haul kaag2/, To yawn. 1J1D.-fUM /haul l~n2/, To be sleepy, to feel sleepy.

'f'lll /hau2/, 1. First person plural (including the addressee), we, us. - 0'1ri.,,,/'}J hau2 tat:,2 laail. All of us, we all. See tu6, ~IJI haa2. 2. Honorific ter 111 of address.

'f'ld /hau3/, I. To bark. 1:JJ· ~ nL1nL1 maal hau31Jokl IJokI. The dog kept/

was barking. 2. General question particle. l::JHULdl:J/-- man2 po2 maa2 hau3? Has he/she come yet? ULdrnllrfl

1:JljH - po2 het3 mtn5 hau3? Has it been done? 3. Sentence final particle indicating confi1111ation or agreement. 71( ~ tsai6 hau3. Yes, that's right. ~8 - Jj6 hau3. That's fine, that's good. ~ii - Jai4 hau3. That's OK.

'fld /hau4/, 1. Ringwo1111. 2. To be crude, to be coarse. 'f'18111'J1d Jhitl hau4/, To be crude, to be coarse. .,,,/;il:Jp-- 0'1ll· Jaai2 mil hitl hau4 te-5. To be crudely made.

'Jld /hauS/, I. To be burning hot. - a!U1a!U1rnLrl hau5 waat5 waat5 hoIJl.

3. Sentence particle (assertive). l:J/1 ULdl:JI -- man2 po2 maa2 hau5. He has come already. 4. The tenth of the twelve Earthly Branches.


Jhai4/, 1. To give, to offer. 7101/· ~l:J/1 ?au6 kaa3 hai4 man2. Take this and give (it) to him/her. 2. To allow, to pe111tit, to let. ~ 1:J(1:Jl-phail hai4 mai2 maa2? Who let you come? 3. Discourse particle expressing sympathy for the person or thing being talked about. 11ll ·71y1,1rnLrl, uiJ~/· ?el ?,n3 hoIJl, pai3 Jul hai4. He/She is just a child. Don't blame/scold him/her.


l:JHUllHrnJj, .,,,,.. 0'1/ji ~ 11Bu1~on~l]man2 pen6 hai5, kaa3 toi2 hai4 ?itl J:,IJ6 Jt2. He is ill. Let's go and see him.

4. For, for the benefit of. rnfl• u/· up· - l:J/1 he" yaa4 yP hai4 man2. Make him some tea. 111f Jhai6/, A piece or plot of land (within a larger piece). ~,-· 71/. ~Jjl::Je --vBu ~ Jaa2 tsaa5 Iai5 mi2 sipl hai6. There are ten plots in this (big) rice field.

'Jln. 1 Jhel/, I. (Of animals) to be untamed. 1:J!" 0'1o~Jj - 0'1n·'

71IJ1LJ/urny maaS t:P Jai5 hel te-5, tsur/ yaap3 h~. This horse is untamed and is hard to control. 2. To be shrewd 3. To fear, to be afraid, to be alanned, to be in a state of anxiety (esp. in the phrase ~8"1LD~8


Jj6 ko6 Jj6 hel).

'Jln. 2 /hel/, Clause conjunction denoting

~1}011::JJjLQ;i - ltt3 marl fail hau5. The

a sequence of actions, translatable as 'and then', or '(do sth.) before (another thing)'. rnllrfl1IH1:JljH - 71naD111/·

sun was scorching hot. 2. To flare up.

het3 kaan6 mm5 hel tsBJj3

To be burning hot (intensifier).

uiJ71( - wl}d pai3 tsai6 hau5 phtul. Don't be cross, don't be angry.

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

xin2 kaa3.

Finish the work before (we/you) go back. Also htl.

Original from



1Jln· fhe3/, Placen~ (human) afterbirth. 1Jln. fhe4/, 1. To pour. -.Ali'Tlfl:JH alH-A8n he4 Jam5 hai4 man2 waan3 l:1,:f. Pour him a bowl of water. 2. To be slanting, to slant, to lean on one side.

-Arl.A8HLJnullH, w811 - LJd JSl)l Jin6 ya,:f pen2, ph:1n1 he4 yau5. The ground is uneven and so the table is slanting.

'fln· /he5/, To hinder, to obstruct, to stop, to block, to resist, to guard against. 'fln· '111 /hc5 haa6/, To take precautions against plague, to prevent plague. 'fln· -uOr1 /hcS sig 1/, To block, to hinder. D'IU /he5 tapS/, To stop (sth. from happening or sb. from doing sth.), to prevent, to hold back, to obstruct. 'fln· mt1 /he5 tarJ5/, To block, to resist. /heS tsaa3/, To block, to resist. 'fln• ar,1 /he5 xatl/, To guard against, to resist.


1Jln. ~,·


fhe6/, 1. To come loose, to fall apart, not hold together. nBHu1,; - 1/" rnd ?in3 pu5 he6 kaa3 hau5. The luggage has come loose. 2. Incontinence of wind, f aeccs or urine.

'fln1 'flnH 'flnH

/hek3/, Tin. /hen 1/, Civet cat, weasel.

/hen2/, To learn, to study (esp. in the phrase UJ8i - f:1k3 hen2).


/heg 1/, 1. A thousand. 2. Head of a village (in feudal society). 'flnnuB..-181~ /hegl pi6 Ji6 kaJn2/, (Of an opportunity) only once in a thousand years. 'flnr1uB..-1Bul~ /hel)l pi6 li6 yaam2/,

Digitized by


(Of an opportunity) only once in a

thousand years.

1Jlnu 1 /hepl/, 1. Mushroom. 2. Fungus. 'f1nu2 /hep3/, Hailstone. See maak3 hep3. 'flnoi

/het3/, 1. To do, to make. - .A/· 1/H het3 Jaa4 kaan6. To do a job. 2. To work (as), to work (on), to be. l:JH - 'TILd man2 het3 hol. He works as the hea~ he takes the lead. LJ8H-OLH - 'JIL; yinl tson6 het3 ?it'. To regard the enemy as kith and kin, to take the foe for one's father. - 'Tl'JJ - .Al- het3 hai6 het3 Jaa2. To work in the fiel~ to be a farmer. 3. To cook (food). - w1 het3 phaJcl. To cook some vegetables/ dishes. 'flntn'flr /het3 ha.4/, To cause (sth. to happen or sb. to do sth.), to make (sb. do sth. or sth. happen), so as to, so that. altil:JH - '1DULtia!HLJlu xaam2 man2 het3 hai4 kau6 po2, xaanl yaap3. His/Her words made me unable to answer.

l:Jral1:Ji11Jri, - l:JHmDrl-ri( mail waa6 man2 sBIJl, het3 hai4 man2 thil)l tw6? What did you say to him that made him so sad? 'flnrfl'flln /het3 haag6/, 1. To pretend (to do/be). - 'Jl,;i.A,:,n8i1 het3 haa,/ ?am3 Jai4 l)in2. To pretend not to hear. 2. To disguise as. - ullH'1LH'11" het3 haa,/ pen6 kon2 Jcaa3. To disguise as a businessman. /het3 ml/, 1. How? - rnlltfl het3 ml het3? How do (you) do (it)? 2. Why, how come? l:JH - 'Jl,;il:JJman2 het3 ml ?am3 maa2? Why didn't become? 'flnrfl'f10. 11} /het3 hil k:>4/, In any case, whatever happens, rain or shine, definitely. '10 - u,8' 1:JJ- ka~ het3 ml


Original from



k~ til maa2. In any case I'll definitely becoming. "1no'i11:1 /het3 Icam6/, To give alms (to monks). "1no'i.,f'J) Jhet3 lai4/, To be unsympathetic, to be ruthless. lDiJ wf}d pai3 bef3 Jai4 phEul. Don't be so unsympathetic,don't be so ruthless. "1no'i.,fd /het3 lau4/, To hold a marriage ceremony, to have a wedding. 'f1nln.,fB /het3 li6/, 1. To be careful, (to do) carefully. 2. To be ready, to be finished. 3. To be easy (to do). 111no'i.,.Ln' /het3 lOIJ 1/, Energetically, vigorously, fully. - "lld71U'JJ het3 lol)l kam5 ~i6. To fully support. /het3 m~k5/, To do sth. bad to, to plot to frame (sb.). /het3 pofJ6/, 1. To make. 2. To perfo1111. 111no'i-ur1 /het3 S8J]l/, Why, how come? /het3 thaap3 1~1J6/, Suddenly, all of a sudden. 'f1no'imffr1 /het3 thil)l/, To achieve, to reach. 'flno'i-o~ /het3 tsan5/, That way, in that manner. - rnllrn het3 tsan5 het3. Do (it) this way. "1no'i-ouo'i111u01ul,-, /het3 tsot3 hot5 paai6/, To carry (a cause) through to the end. /het3 tsot3 xot3 SiJJ4/, To finish, to bring to an end.





'llno'i-o~')l /het3 ts~i5/, So, this way. - rnllrn het3 ts:JP het3. Do so, do (it) this way.

'f1no'iaij1 /het3 xtk3/, 1. To perfonn a marriage ceremony. 2. To get married.

Digitized by


111no'iulu /het3 yaap3/, To be difficult, to find sth. difficult (to do).

'f1na 111na

/heu2/, A flower name.

/heu3/, To wither, to be withered, (of skin, leaves and suchlike) to wrinkle. lD1718- _,,,:, - 1/· tJd phakl ts:>2 IBP heu3 kaa3 yau5. These vegetables are all withered. .,/,1 - 181)1 heu3. Wrinkled skin.


/heu4/, To carry by hand as one carries a suitcase. - .,/l/1:J/- lDJ/i.,,8n heu4 Jam5 maa2 thur.,2 l:1r/. To carry back a bucket of water (by hand).

111n~ /heu5/, A snare (for catching game). 111na /heu6/, Grave. See paa3 heu6. 1110 ·lht 1/, 1. Clause conjunction meaning 'and then'. 1/· - '1Jldl:Jl-'1Jf]- kaa3 hEl sam5 maa2 sE2f Come back again next time, see you next time! 2. Discourse particle indicatingacommitati veaction or situation. 1:1i-irnyna/,;i - aa1:1/111:1/man2 hJ,r xaaG12 hEl xau4 maan4 maa2. He came into the village singing (a song).


/htm 1/, 1. To kill. 2. To remove (feathers) by pulling out after scalding, to pull out (hair, beard, weed).


/htm2/, To prepare for, to be ready (for). - aLd hEm2 xo2. To pack (things) up. ULD - .,/BtJd po2 hEm2 Ji6 yau5. Things are ready now. Also hEn2.


lhtmS/, A bit too (much), quite,

somewhat. - tJ/ti718t11.,,8n hEm5 yaau2 ?it1 l:1r/. A little bit too long. Also hE,r, ham5.

Original from


26 1110H lhEnl/, To tilt the head back, to look up (with one's head raised). - 1/n henl kaa,f. To raise one's chin (i.e. to look up). 1110M lhEn2/, To prepare, to pack up, to get ready. Also hem2. 11101-1 /hEn4/, 1. To bite (bones). 1::1/, .,,,_1 maal hen4 Jukl. The dog bit the bones. 2. To hit, to strike (with a hammer). 3. To be lame. 1110n lhEfJ2/, 1. Strength, force, power. 71U'1 - ?:Jk3 hei:,2. To exert one's strength. 2. To be strong, to have strength. 1::111 - 118, 1::1r man2 hei:,2 sil mai2. He is stronger than you. 1110ri1LM lhEfJ2 kon2/, Manpower. 1110ri-,1I· /hEfj2 laa2/, Busy season, period for rice-planting. 1110ri-A~ /htfJ2 lamS/, Hydropower. 1110n /htfJ4/, To be dried up, to dry up, dried. UJJii - fun2 her/. Dry firewood. .,,/ .. - Jaa2 her/ . Dry field. See le,r. 1110nar /htfJ4 xai3/, To be dry (as opposed to sau5 'to be wet, to be damp'). 111.· 01,;i018r,un - su4 tam2 tj6 ?:Jr/ her/ xai3. (It) should be put/stored in a dry place. 11101"1 /htfJS/, Somewhat, quite, too (much). - .,ff1W0d he,r Jaml pheul. Too much/many. un - .,,9 yar/ he,r Ji6. Not too good. Also hem5. 111001 /httS/, 1. To refine (oil). - l::JH het5 man2. To refine oil. 2. To temper (metal) with fire, to smelt (metal), to make (steel). - _,,fl, het5 Jek3. To smelt iron. 3. To forbid (sth.), to keep...from ... , to keep off. - ad het5

Digitized by


xau4. To keep away from food, to refrain from food (as during one's illness). - ul het5 yaa6. To prohibit smoking; to keep cattle from being fed. 4. To cut off, to block. - .,,,;i.,,/- het5 Jam5 Jaa2. To block the flow of water into the field, to drain (water) from a field (as when the rice is getting ripe). - .,,,;i71aul het5 Jam5 ?au6 paa6. To drain water (from a pond or field) in order to catch fish. 1110~1 /hr.u5/, (Of fire) to burn, (of sth.) to singe. fo,r fai2 heu5 tso4 s:tl. The shirt got singed by the flame. 1110~2 /hr.uS/, A bunch, bundle, string or cluster of (things linked together by a string). u/11LJr'1 - paa6 S:Jl)l heu5. Two strings of fish.

111B · 111B· 111B·

/hi 1/, Female private parts. Also yi 1. Jhi2/, Long and slim.

Jhi3/, (Of fence, bamboo baskets or suchlike) to be fine and closely woven, (of a utensil) to be tightly closed or sealed, to be airtight. 11/1,1.,,iJ - 01n • saanl Jar' hi3 te5. To be fine and closely woven. 'TIU - hapl hi3. To be tightly closed. 111B· -,10u Jhi3 ltp5/, To be close (in relationship). 11LJriu/· - 1M01fl" S:Jl)l paa4 hi3 Jep5 kan6 te5. Both sides are in close/good relationship.

111B· JhiS/, A kind of tree whose buds are edible. 11181:1 Jhiml/, 1. To rob, to loot, to invade, to take (away) by force (esp. in the phrase - 'TILL/ mml hop-1). 2. To snatch, to rush on (to do sth.).

Original from



1J1BY fhim2/, Nearby, by the side, close

1J1BD1 Jhitl/, Scabies, impetigo, pimples.


by, neighbouring, to adjoin. 1[!1Wl[1 .,/flLJ - U'JJ kon2 th~rf Jep5 him2 pai6. Pedestrians kee to the sides of the road. - '11lJti018, 97 H71LJtll01LH1:Jl'i 1LD'l1"iJ.,/t:J.,//'}J him2 h~m2 til h:>n2 wm4 ton4 maak3 ko4 hai5 Jaml laai1. A lot of pear trees grow/were planted beside the house. See kai4. 1J1B~01B fhim2 ti6/, Environment, surroundings.

1J1BH fhinl/, Stone. 'JIBri lhirj2/, Place, site, location. See ?i,r, ?~rf', ti6. 'JIBri~,S JhiJJ2 laiS/, Here. 1J1Bri~~ fhiJJ2 lan5/, There. 1J1Bn~r JhiJ]2 lai6/, Where.

'JIBr'I lhiJ]3/, Bell.

1J1Bll Jhipl/, 1. To grab and hold, to grip. - "'L07 hipl Jot3. To grip one's beard (with tweezers). Also hipS. 2. To squeeze, to place in between, to press from both sides. .,,/ · UIJ. - 71LDl:JD ·· 1aa4 tu6 hipl tso4 mi2. (Someone's) hand got squee7.Cd in the door. 3. To be narrow, to be small (in space). rn811 '11l}f1.,/"iJ 01fl• h:>n2 h~rf' Jai5 hip1 t&. This room is very small. 1J1Bll1J1Ul::i Jhipl hom4/, To be worried. 'J18U /hipS/, 1. To press (for), to extort, to

force (to do). - a/Id hipS xaam2. To extort a confession. - .,/8.hipS Ji4. To press for payment of debt. 2. To pick (up) (with a tool), to grab. - w11811 hipS phakl Jdn6 Jt2. Please grab some dishes to eat. Also hip1.


Digitized by


1J1BD1 /hit5/, (Of woman) to be sexually active, to have a strong desire for sex.

1J1Ba fhiu2/, To whip (esp. in the phrase UJ01 - fat5 hiu2). See haapS, haau5.

1Jl(_D fhol/, 1. Head (body part). 2. Leader, head. 3. The stem tuber of a plant such as potato or taro. 4. Classifier for these. S. Government office, (official)palace. 1J1Ld7lL1 fhol ?okl/, The chest. 1J1Ld7lL fhol ?u 1/, Nipple. 1Jll_d UJI. ~, . fhol faaS laa4


m~fJ2/, North, south, east and west everywhere. 'f1Ld1J'IIH fhol haanl/, To be courageous, brave. 1J1Ld1J1U,J fhol hup5/, Total amount. 1J1Ld1LH. fhol kon2/, Population. 1Jll_dal~ fhol xaam2/, As the saying goes, it is said that... - u811al ho1 xaam2 p:,n6 waa6. As the saying goes, legend has it that ..., it is said that ... 1J11_dal1-1 fhol xaanl/, Axe. 1Jll_da')l fhol xai4/, (fo have a) headache. 1J1Ldal:f fhol xam2/, 1. Kingdom. 2. Golden palace. 3. King. 1Jll_d~IH fhol laan4/, To be bald. 1J1Ld~t:/ fhol Iam5/, Source of water. 1J1Ld~r '1Jr1J1Uri fhol lai1sai1 h~fJ2/, Dawn, early morning, the beginning of the day. 1J1Ld~r· fhol Jail/, Morning. 1J1Ld~U)I fhol loi6/, Top of a mountain, peak. 'flLd~I· fhol maa3/, Shoulder. 'fll_d~IH fhol maan4/, 1. The top end of a village. 2. The temple of a village. Original from



1J1(_dl:tM Jhol mara2/, Potato. 1J1Ld1:tci /ho1 mau2/, To have a headache.

11'1Ll11:tLC. lho1 mo4/, Chef, cook. 1J1Ld1:tLdUI.. Jhol mo4 yaa4/, Tobacco • ptpe.

sen4 hEl. To shred turnips. 2. Plane. 3. To read or recite (poems, Buddhist scripture and suchlike). - "VBH - mil ho2 sinl ho2 tham2. To recite (religious) scriptures. See phatl, ?aan3.

11'119 /ho3/, 1. Pack, packet, parcel. - ad

11'1Ll11:tUn /ho1 m-:,rfll, The east. 1Jll9UH Jhol pan3/, To have a headache. 1J1(_duB Jhol pi6/, The beginning of the year, early in the year. 11'1Ll1U0n /ho1 pil)2/, First, at the beginning, at first. 11'1Ll1U11 Jhol phakl/, Radish, turnip. 1JIL9U1U-1 Jhol ph~k3/, 1. Taro. 2. Kasaya worn by Buddhist monks. 1Jll9U1UM' /ho 1 ph~n 1/, Seat of honour. 11'1Ll1-UI- Jhol saa2/, White-haired, greyhaired. 11'1Ll1"1Jn- Jhol sel/, Kunming (capital of Yunnan Province). 11'1Ll101lri Jhol laaJJ2/, At the beginning, at first, first. 1JIL901n- /ho 1 te2/, At the beginning, at first. 11'1Ll11lf Jhol tsai6/, Heart. 1JIL91l l}l Jhol tsui 1/, Headman (derogatory). 11'1Ll181:t Jhol xam6/, Evening (one or two hours after getting dark). 11'1Ll1ad' Jhol xau3/, Knee. 11'1Ll1a0H Jhol xtnl/, Ann. 1J1Ld8LH01ln Jhol xonl ta81J2/, Crossroad, T-juncture. 1JIL98Ul1 Jhol xotj2/, Foreman.

11'1LC /ho2/, 1. To plane sth. down, (of sth.) to brush (past), to shave, to scrape (into shreds), to shred. 71D'11LdlD1 -

ho3 xau4. Food in packets (such as one wrapped with banana leaves). 2. To wrap, to pack. - 18 ho3 k:P. To pack salt. 3. Classifier for wrapped or packed objects. 18"VLJrl - k:P s:ilJl ho3. Two packets of salt.

11'1Ld /ho4/, 1. To chase. to drive (cattle and suchlike), to expel. - f:JI ·- a/ji ho4 maa5 ho' xaai2. To drive cattle. - f:JOrif:JJji ho' mE,j mun2. To throw out flies. 2. To drive (a car). - ,l-ho3 kaa2. To drive a car. 11'1Ld1JII Jho4 haa6/, The PlagueExpelling Festival, the Torch Festival, falling on the night of the 25th of the sixth month of the lunar calendar, in which torches arc lit and gongs and drums beaten to defend against plagues and diseases.


Jho6/, To leak. ~l!/ -

f:JOHl,JD Jam5

ho6 mtn-5 yau5. Water all leaked out.

11'11}1 /hoi3/, 1. Core, pit, stone, seed, any hard core inside fruits, things shaped like this or conceptually seen as these. - f:J/1 hoi3 maaJc3. Fruit pits. - ml hoi3 taa6. Eyeball. 2. Classifier for round, ball-shaped objects (e.g. dishes, tables and chairs, bottles, fruits, hats, pots, eyes, oysters, towns, sun, moon, stars).

1JIL:}J /hoi4/, 1. Mountain stream. 2. Mountain valley.

ull11"Vll11rnO · ?au6 hol phakl ho2 pen6 Digitized by


Original from



1J'IL1 /hokl/, Six. 'fll1-U8Ll /hok3 sipl/, Sixty. -uHLl'flL1 /sipl hok3/, Sixteen. 1Jll11 /hok5/, 1. To be dirty, to be messy,

to be untidy.

mp,;,; - u,ll· uo1

rnll11ii"'Pn h:1n2 hok5 te5, patl hel Jcam2 l:1,I. The room is in a mess. Let's tidy it up. 2. To be weedy."''.._ Jaa2 hok5. Weedy fields, fields overgrown with weeds.

1J'IL12 /hok5/, Placenta, (animal) afterbirth. 1J'IL~ /homl/, A verb or adjectival stem indicating 'pleased, happy'. 'fll~-Uijri /homl SEfJ2/, (Good) feeling. 'f'll~-or /homl tsai6/, To be warmhearted. See tsom2 tsai6. 'f'll~-OL.;j /homl tsom2/, To celebrate.

1J'IL~ /hom3/, 1. To cover, to cover up (with). U1LD11J171:JI.._ 1:Jll· w1 to2 kutl maa2 hom3 me4 phakl. To get some fe111 leaves to cover young vegetable seedlings (so as to protect them from the strong sunlight). - w/· hom3 phaa4. To cover with a quilt. 2. To sway, to swing, to wag. UJJU1lri - LJLLIIJLllfflLri pai6 buuJ2 hom3 yop3 yop3 hol)l. To wag one's head while walking.

'Ill~ /hom4/, 1. To cover, to put a cover on, to seal. ml "'Lrl - .,/[}I haal lol) 1 I

hom4 Joi6. Heavy snow covered the mountains/The mountains were covered with heavy snow. 2. (Of trees) to be thick and shady. 1:Jf1:JiJ - U1lfJ1JfirnLri maj6 mai5 hom4 tum3 kum3 hol)1. The leaves are thick and shady. 3. (Of wounds) to heal.

Digitized by


'f'lll:I /hom6/, 1. To shade, to be shady.

miJ"'0011:JiJU1fl•, rnti1/· "'nnLJn rn;, thai4 1Et3 mai4 te-5, hau2 kaa3 Jarf ?:irf' hom6 haP. The sun is scorching hot in here. Let's go and sit in a shady place. 2. To join (in doing), with, together with. ad1/· "mai2 hom6 xaul kaa3 JE2. You go with them. - 181,1 - UL" hom6 kin6 hom6 yu3. To eat and live together. 3. To be of the same. - uB - .,/PH hom6 pi6 hom6 J:,n6. To be of the same year and same month, as of people of the same age. 4. Prefix denoting 'mutual', 'of the same' or 'sharing a common view or goal'. 'Jlll:111H /hom6 kaan6/, 1. To work together. 2. Colleague. 'Jlll:11H /hom6 Jcan6/, Together, together with, (to do) at the same time. '1.ILJrlaP: 1/· - 1:Jl"s:i1Jl x:,l· hom6 kan6 kaa3 hom6 kan6 maa2. You two go together and come back together. 'Jlll:1-,tna /hom6 leu6/, In confo11nity (with), to confo1111 to. 'Jlll:ll:lna /hom6 meu2/, Of the same kind, of the same class. 'Jlll:ll:lijrn /hom6 mEtS/, Mutual benefit. 'Jlll:IUUn /hom6 p,:,fJ6/, To cooperate. 'Jll_l:IUJU~ /hom6 ph,:,fJ5/, To approve, to agree. 'Jlll:1-Ul')l'Jln· /hom6 saai I he3/, Fellow countryman, compatriot. 'flLl:lmln /hom6 th881)3/, Of equal status or the same rank, of the same class. 'Jlll:1-0~· /hom6 ts~/, Of the same

l:Jr -



Original from



'flLH /honl/, To re~t, to step back, to regress (esp. in the phrase - ~rl hon1 JBl)l). - '11JJl1 honl hut3. To shrink back.

'fl~ /honS/, Placenta. 'l'ILH /hon6/, Noisy. See ?on 1. 'llLH.,fH /hon6 lan2/, Noisy. 'f1Ll1 /hoJ]l/, 1. (Of words or rumours) to spread. a/aal~ - 1/· 1IJ1Uf111J118 xaau3 xaam 2 hol) 1 kaa3 ku6 ?:Jif ku6 fi6. The words have spread everywhere. 2. Sentence particle to enhance descriptive effect. 1:JiJa/010/01 - mar' waat5 waat5 hol)l. (It's) burning hot.

1:Jliiayrl"Dyiayi -

man2 X:Jl) 1 ts:Jk3

wheat and other similar crops. 2. Honeycomb. 3. Cage for keeping animals. 4. To swell, to feel tight (as of a wound). 'lllfl"tlOn· lhoJJ2 SEIJl/, Crown. 'flLrim~ /hol)2 tham2/, Shrine for idols or ancestral tablets. 1Ll1

ho,f1 kon6. Crotch of trousers.

'flLr'I /hol)S/, 1. Eagle. 2. Earthen bowl or jar. 3. The eighth of the ten Heavenly Stems. '11Lr'l1U~ /hol)S koml/, Earthen bowl, earthen jar. 'llLr'IULt:1' /hol)S poml/, Eagle. '11Lr'l1JUt:1' lhoIJS tsoml/, Earthen bowl, earthen jar.

IJJ8,l:JiJ -

1:J/}HLJd f:,1 mai5 ho,;f m£n5 yau5. The leaves of the tree(s) have all fallen off.

Digitized by


'l'ILU /hopS/, To come across, to meet, to encounter. l:Jr - 1:Jlii01Bmr mai2 hop5 man2 ti6 thai6? Where did you meet him? '11LUD'IL0 /hopS to3/, To contact, to be in contact.

'lllln /hot3/, 1. To shrink, to hold back. 101'11U - 01811- l:JD ··kat1 h:P hot3 tin6 hot3 mi2. To shiver with cold. 2. To

water (plants), to pour (water) over, to splash. - 'VLH hot3 sonl. To water the vegetable garden.

'flLD'I /hotS/, To wet, to soak. LJfla -



'fllrl /hoJ]2/, 1. Ear of rice, com,

'flln /hoJ]6/, (Of leaves) to fall.


yeu6 hot5 kon6. The urine wets the

x:Jk3 holJI. He is really funny.

'11[1 /hol)3/, Crotch (of trousers). -

'l'ILU /hop3/, To fall forward, to fall

'l'IU /ho6/, 1. Clause conjunction indicating 'and then' or 'having finished'. 1:Jfl-- 'Vldl:Jfl -me2 h:P sam-5

me2. To mend again, to mend a second time. 2. Complement marker. f:J'}J -

ULD01IHUJJJWD mai4 h:P po2 taan3 fai2 phaul. It's so hot as if it were burning.

3. Discourse particle expressing confi1111ation. "Of - tsai6 h:P. Yes, it is/That's it.

'flU')i /boil/, Shellfish; generic te1111 for living creatures with hard shells such as snails, clams, oysters or other similar molluscs. 'flU')lUJI • /hoi I faaS/, Snail. '11LJ')l1lu /hoi I kaap3/, Clam. 'l'IU')i-,1B· /hoi I li3/, Oyster. 'flU')lnn" /hoi I IJe2/, Freshwater mussel.

'flU'JJ /hoi2/, Imprint, trace, footprint, mark, vestige. -

018H h:Ji2 tin6.

Original from



Footprint. - w/· h:Ji2 phaa5. A mark or scar left by a knife-cut. 1f'1U>l /hoi4/, 1. To hang (over), to hang down (on), to carry sth. by hanging it down on (one's shoulder, neck or suchlike). 1Df/1Ml::IHUJJJfu/·- 1::1/=ull·

71LJ'11/· IJd kau6 hanl man2 thulJl paa2 h:Ji4 maa3 se4 ?:Jk3 kaa3 yau5. I saw him go out with a bag on his shoulder. 2. To have (a badge, earrings and other ornaments) on. - nLrif/1L' h:Ji4 IJOIJ2 hul. To have earrings on. 3. (Of woman) to be pregnant. l::JH - 71ll 'IJd man2 h:Ji4 ?el yau5. She is pregnant. 1f'1U>l1UH /hoi4 kon6/, A form of Tai verse.


/hoi4 tsai6/, To worry about, to care about, to show concern (over).


/hoi5/, String, bunch, cluster.

1::1l1n8o1ull11 - maak3 ?itl pen6 h:;i5. Grapes are in clusters. "1U11 /hok3/, (Of hair) to be grey.

BLHf/1LdLJLD - IJd xonl hol po2 h:;k3 yau5. (His) hair has turned grey. 1f'IU12 /hok3/, Spear, lance. 1f'IU~ /hom 1/, 1. To be fragrant, to smell good, to give off a good smell. - nDn nDn h:Jm1 ?i,fJ ?i,fJ. To be very fragrant, to smell very good. 2. To collect, to gather. - LU/ft h:;ml fun3. To collect/gather manure. 3. To save up (money), to keep (for future use). - 11Ld h:im1 so1. To save up money. 4. To put in order (such as things of the same sort). 1f'IUl::I-Ull::lula;i /horn I saam I yaam2/, 1. A kind of flower. 2. A Tai classic.

Digitized by


1f'1U~ /hom2/, 1. To press one's palms together to make a bow. - 1:10 "h:im2 mi2. To gieet with one's palm pressed together. 2. To join (strands of thread). 3. (Of animals) to be with young. 1f'1U~ /hom3/, (Of a patient) to get better, to feel better, to gradually recover (from an illness). 1f'1U~ 1 /hom4/, Indigo, dye, a plant from which indigo can be extracted. "1U~2 /hom4/, To smoke, to fumigate, (of smoke) to fill the air. BLJHUJi,i - u,ll· x:;n2 fai2 h:Jm4 te5. The smoke was really awful/There was a great deal of smoke. 'J'IUH /hon 1/, (Cock's) comb. - 1-jj h:;nl kai3. Cock's comb. 1J1UH1 /hon2/, 1. Dregs. ,1,J,1(11/n - 1::10 ·· f/1l}H Jarn5 Jai6 saaif mi2 h:Jn2. There are some dregs in the water jar. 2. (Of water) to be turbid, to be muddy. ,ifi Jam5 h:Jn2. Muddy water. 'f'lUH'J'IUl:i /hon2 hom4/, Indigo, dye. "1UH2 /hon2/, To cut or chop wood (into smaller pieces). 71Dl::JiJ,tLH,tiJ ull1111ll:1U1LJl1 ?au6 mai5 Jon4 Jai5 h:;n2 pen6 saaml t:;n6. Cut this chunk of wood into three smaller pieces. 'f'lUH /hon 3/,Sentence-initialparticle denoting the speaker's disbelief in what is being talked about. - 1:18"1::18,1( h:Jn3 nu2 m:P Jaj6? There cannot be such a thing !/That cannot be true! 1f'1U~ /honS/, 1. To be burning hot.

,1/}tt,1::1,:,,1/}rt, - 1£t3 mar' 1£t3 h:Jn5. The sun is scorching hot. 2. To be sad, to be distressed, distressful. ,tl}n - u,/ri1::1il Original from


32 J:,,! h:,n5 taarf mai4. Sad things,

1J1Unt /hofJ6/, Ditch, canal.

distressful things. 1J1UH /hon6/, To wander around, to loiter, to roam around. - 1/ti'I h:,n6 kaat3. To wander in the sbcet, to roam around in thestreet. 1J1Ur1 /hol)l/, To echo, to resound, (of , sound) to be loud and far-reaching. "Vfln _ seql h:,ql. Loud voice/noise. l:JLDaurlan mo2 h:,ql x:,ql x,uf1. (Of voice) to echo, to resound.

1J1Un2 /hol)6/, A weight unit (equal to 0.1 jin or SO grams). 1JIUU /hop3/, 1. To carry sth. by holding it in the arms. 2. An amount of things as carried in the arms. 1/·- ll}Jjil:JI-,18n,1/}- kaa3 h:,p3 tun2 maa2 h:,p3 J:n;,6 /£2. Go and get some firewood .


1J1Uri /ho1]2/, 1. Cushion or similar things for horse's saddle. 2. To line (in sewing). 3. To carry or hold sth. wrapped with or supported by cloth, leaves or similar things, or in a container. 7101:JH - mil ?au6 ma.n4 h:,q2 haP. To hold sth. wrapped with cloth. See turf. 1J1Ur'l fhol)3/, Bedroom. 1J1Un lho1J4/, 1. Room (in a house). rn8i1,1n,1iJ1:J8-- 71flrfl h~ 11UJ3 Iai5 ,nj2 tset3 h:,rf'. This house has seven roomsfThis is a seven-room house. 2. Classifier for rooms. 1J1Un1J1nH lho1J4 h=>n2/, Family circumstances, family financial situations. 1J1Un /hol)S/, 1. (Of people) to cry out, to call (out), to sing. - l:JHl:JIh:,,r man2 maa2 thai4. To call him to come here. wf ~ "10 phail h:,,r kau6? Who called me? - ,1iJ1Jflrla/11u,fl• h:,,r Jar' seql waanl te5. To sing very well, to sing beautifully, to have a nice voice. 2. (Of birds or other animals) to sing, to cry. ""L"1 - Jok5 h:>,r. Birds sing. 1J8.:.. s:,l h:,,f. Tigers roar.


Digitized by


1JIUU /hopS/, 1. A layer of rice (with stalks) in a stack. 2. To sunound, to put • • one's hands around sth. l:J'JJO'ILH ,1'JJ1Li11Jll:i1Ld"1lJti'ILJn - mai5 ton4 lai5 kon2 saaml ko.5 k:,t3 ya,! h:,p5. This bee (is so big that) even three people cannot sunound it with their hands joined. 'f'IUrri fhotl/, Have not achieved (sth.), cannot achieve (sth.), (sth.) cannot be done (because of certain factors). 1811 LJQ kin6 h:,tl yau5. Can't eat now (e.g. because the food is not cooked or is off, or the time is too late). 'f'IUD'l fhotS/, 1. To stroke (beard or fur), to detach (leaves from a twig or branch, grain from its stalk) by stroking, to make cord by twisting the threads. - ad h:,t5 xau4. To detach grain from its stalk _ 7181ULD h:,t5 ts:Jk5 po6. To make cord. Also hut5. See hup5. 2. To reach, to arrive, to achieve (one's goal), to be through (with). 1:Jr1:J8,1f - 1:JI- mai2 m:>6 Jai6 h:,t5 maa2? When did you arrive?

1:J8,1iJ,1/· 1/M,1t:Jwl}d. unuJJ,1iJ - m:>6 JaP Jaa4 kaan6 Jam 1 pheu1, ya,! pai6 IBP h:,t5. There is too much work to do and so we won't be able to leave today.

8LHO'lln1Jll11,1')Ju/au,fl • 1u'f.iai1,18nunuJJ,1iJ - 1/· xon1 taarf

Original from



sen4 JaP yaau2 te5, k:Ji2 wan2 J:,,f ya,f paj6 Jar' h:Jt5 Jaut3. It's a long way off and one won't be able to reach the destination in one day. 3. To pierce through. ,1/jj,1/' w{jdun,1,Ju,f]ri laai2 Jaal ph£ul yar:f Jar' t£rj2 h:Jt5. The book is too thick to make a hole through with an awl.


/hu 1/, 1. Ear. 2. Classifier for mushrooms and fungus. lf'IL .-tL1 /hu 1 lok3/, To be deaf. See Jok3• .. 1



/hu /, 1. Hole. 2. Mortar. 3. The amount of (husked) rice in a mortar, a mortarful of (rice or pounded rice cakes). 'JlL 1LH /hu2 kon4/, Anus. 'JlL ··.-en /hu2 lag6/, Nostril, nose. 'JlL.U'IC /hu2 tau6/, The hole in a cooking stove to let smoke out. 'JlL 8L'1 /hu2 xok5/, Mortar.

'J1L··2 fhu2/, 1. To smooth a newly-made cord by rubbing it with wax or cloth. 2. To cover up, to muffle, to keep (beans or suchlike) in an airtight container (so as to make it ge111tinate or fc1111ent as in making beansprouts or bean sauce). - aJLdnLJ1 hu2 tho3 1):Jks. To cover beans (i.e. to make beansprouts).


/hu3/, To be wrinkled. 1[fimd1/"

wll~p;,,1 - 1/i:J{jHLJD kon2 thau4 kaa3 hel, J~ JIJl}I hu3 kaa3 m£n5 yau5. When getting old, one has wrinkles on the face/When one gets old, one's skin wrinkles. See hunl.


/hu5/, 1. To know, to understand. LJn - ullH yatf' hu5 pen6 phail. Don't know who it is. - ,ilJn hu5 l:Jq6. To


Digitized by


understand things, to be sensible. 2. No sooner...(than)...(often used in pairs as 'hu5...hu5...' ). - u,/,:, - wlltfl hu5 taan4 hu5 het3. No sooner said than done, to act upon words. - 'TTLJr, - E:JI- hu5 h:Jt;r hu5 maa2. To come as soon as one is called. 'JlL 'JlH fhu5 hanl/, Experience, knowledge, sensibility. 'JlL .-tOri fhu5 leJJ2/, To understand, to be clear (about), to know. 'JlL u01 fhu5 p£k3/, To identify. 1f1L uufi /hu5 P~JJ3/, To understand, to know, to learn. 'JlL 1l1 /hu5 tsakl/, To know, to be acquainted with, to be familiar with. 1DLJn - E:JH kau6 yarf hu5 twcl man2. I don't know him/her. 'JlL 1l11::f1-00 /hu5 tsakl mak 1 tsl6/, To know by oame. fhu5 tsai6/, To be intimate with, to have a good understanding of. 'JJL urlf'IH.-1~ fhu5 yai3 hanl Iaml/, I .earned, erudite. cl fhu5 waa6/, 1. To know (that), to understand (that). E:JH - ,1ynE:Jlld,1Jj un,1891ll,:t, man2 hu5 waa6 l:J,f meu2 IBP yarf Ji6 het6. He understands that this is sth. that shouldn't be done. 2. Once (sth. happens, a consequence will follow). - 1/" 'TT{], 'TJDUU1E:JICJ/u LJO hu5 waa6 kaa3 h£1 tsau6 p:Jk5 maa2 yaap3 yau5. Once you have gone, you'll find it hard to come back. 'JlL 8Ld /hu5 xo4/, Reasonable, sensible, intelligent, refined and courteous.

'"L -or



/hui 1/, To open. - ,1/· UIL huil Jaa4 tu6. To open the door. 'JJL,J.,fn. /hui l lel/, To make known. Original from



'Jll}J.,f~rf /huil lil]l/, To start (a machine).

'J'IL1 /huk 1/, Loom. UILD - to2 huk1. To weave cloth. ad1/· V1llti1 - xaul kaa3 het3 bu.kl. They are going to weave cloth. 'fl~ /hum2/, 1. To smoke (sth.), to

fumigate. "J1D1LJH~n - ulfi ?au6 x~n2 JarjJ bum2 yu,r. To smoke out mosquitoes with herb smoke. See h~m4. 2. To keep a fue for later use by muffling the hot charcoal with ash, rice husk or suchlike. - UJ'ji bum2 fai2. To keep a fire going by covering the hot charcoal with ash.

'Jl~ /hunl/, 1. To wrinkle. '17LJ'j.i - h~i2 hunl. Wrinkles. See bu3. 2. To shrink. 1LD ~ ko6 hun 1. To shrink with fear.

'Jllkt /hun2/, 1. To tie up (into a bundle). - UJJji hun2 fun2. To tie up firewood. See xun2. 2. To fight, to wrestle.


/hun2 kan6/, To wrestle.

'Jllft /hun3/, Model, image. 'JllftlQI· /hun3 faa5/, Weather, climate. 'Jllft'Jlln /hun3 haag6/, 1. Image, portrait. 2. Situation.

'Jllt' /hun4/, To tighten up. See hat5.


lhuJJ3 h88JJ3/, 1. (Of a state, situation or condition) to be chaotic, to be unstable. 1:1/1it1:18ri - 01fl •maan4 m:,rj

bulJ3 bBBJJ3 te-5. The country is in a state of chaos. 2. (Of a person) to be careless in doing things.

'J'IU, /hu1]6/, To be bright (not dark), (of the day) to dawn. UJI •- faa5 hur:,6. Day is breaking. See IErj. 'J'IU) /hupl/, 1. To shut. - '1JLU hup1 sop3. To shut the mouth. See hapl. 2. To sew, to stitch. 1J8' u{ja/11/· LJD, naafll:1 - rnll ,11d--18n s:tl pil xaak5 kaa3 yau5, ?au6 xeml hupl bel kam2 J:,r:,6. This shirt's seam is coming apart. Get a needle to stitch it up. 'J'IU,J /hupS/, 1. To gather. - 1:1/ .. 01l]l:J1M hup5 maa2 t~m6 kan6. To gather (scattered) things together (with hands or tools). 2. To rob, to loot. Sec hip1, hop3. 3. To burst into flames.

'J1UJ1 1 /hut 1/, Wart.

'fill" 2

/hutl/, 1. To shrink, to hold back (one's hand and suchlike). - 1:1g··hutl mi2. To hold back one's hands. - aU111/· hut1 xin2 kaa3. To shrink back. 2. To breathe in, to suck (in).

1J1L(il /huI]l/, Disaster, calamity.

wll01wOa, 18urnll:. 1J!011J/01rnLri phet3 phEu6, kin6 hel hutl saat5 saat5

1J1L(12 /hul)l/, 1. To cook or boil for a

holJl. (The food) was so (spicy) hot that

long time. ad - xau4 bUIJl. Ponidge. - ad bUIJl xau4. To cook porridge. See tom". 2. To brew (wine). - --Id bUIJl Jau4. To brew wine. 3. To melt, to forge (metal). - --1fl1 hu1J1 lek3. To melt iron. ..


'J'IL[l lhulJ /, 1. Rainbow. 2. Banyan tree.

Digitized by


(he/I/we) kept breathing in (to cool down the burning tongue).

'Jll.VI /hut5/, To strip (leaves from the twigs or branches), to detach grain from stalks, to stroke (the beard), to move sth. with one's palms or hands. - ad hut5 xau4. To detach grain from the stalks.

Original from




/hi 1/, 1. How? l:Jr - rnllu, mai2 hil het3?How did/would you do it? 2. What? l:JH - al man2 J,il waa6? What did he/she say? '110" 1f• Jhil kaa3/, A pragmaticoriented adverb with a strong negative fon:e, expressing the spealccr' s disbelief in what is being talked about. - 11[..,// J,il kaa3 tsai6 Jaa6! How could it be! Ot would not be true!) l:JH ..,/I man2 IJil kaa3 ?:>5 Jaa6! He/She will never EVER agree! 11_1] fhil ko2/, In any case, under any circumstances. l:JH - u,8 · 1/·man2 IJil ko2 al kaa3. In any case he should go. Also J,il kct'. 1L~ /hi 1 ko4/, In any case. l:Jr ~ 'VJ.. ml}l::i1arnf11di..,/{!n mai2 ml kct'


su4 th£ml kau6 tmtl hai4 kam2 J:1,I. In

'J10o1 /hit1/ , To scold by shouting at. ujj -, 0'1/H..,/8..,/8 pai3 hitl, taan4 Jj6 Jj6,


'f10ri lhi1]2/, 1. (Of fire) (to start) to bum, to be burning. tq'jj - 1:JI- ud fai2 hii:,2

maa2 yau5. The fire started to bum. tq'jj

- u,ll ·fai2 hii:,2 te5. The fue was burning cheerfully. u'jJ'Vf - w/]a pai3 sai3 hii:,2 ph£ul. Don't make the fue too strong. 2. (Of a person) to flare up, to be angry. /hipS/, 1. To chase. to follow closely, to catch up with. un - ..,/'1

a#u1ad yarf hip5 Jai4 xit1 xaul. Cannot

"10 "

catch up with them. Also Jip5. 2. To drive out, to expel. 1:JJ.' ad'VLH11" ud - , '11lj'11/" rnfl •..,//]-mul xau4 sonl kaa3 yau5, hip5 ?:Jk3 kaa3 hel Jr:2! The pig(s)

got into the vegetable garden. Drive it (them)out!


any case you should help me write it for a while. See hil ko2, hil k~. 1J10 "11} Jhil k~4/, In any case,. under any circumstances. 10 - u,8 •rnllu,..,//· 1IH1:J/]11rnll' 11nuu11/" kau6 J,il k~ tjl het3 Jaa4 kaan6 mtn5 hel tsarf1 p:Jk5 kaa3. In any case I'll finish the work before I leave.


fhi21, Day after tomorrow. Also m:>6


'1101 /hik1/, River bank, ridge, side. - ..,/Iii hikl Jam5. River bank. '110H /hin2/, (Of smell, such as that of hot pepper) to be pungent, to sting the nose. !hiIJ 1/, A long time, long (of time). u'jJ1/"- wl}d pai3 kaa3 hi1J1 phEul.


Don't be away for too long (i.e. for several days). unULD - a[ yarf po2 hi1Jl xai6. Not too long.

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

Don't yell. Speak softly.

'110 .. /h~/, 1. Boat. 2. Classifier for nets and similar objects. 3. A bunch of naturally-grown bananas.

'110. '110' 'Jlo·

/hi3/, Sweat, perspiration. /h;,4/, To give. Also hai4.

/h~/, 1. To be tired. U'JJO'lria/ii U'JJULD - pai6 ta,f wan2 pai6 po2 h:>5. Walking all day made (us/me) tired. 2. To be wild, to be deserted, to be uncultivated. 'VLH - '1.ILH'l1IB sonl h:>5 sonl haam2. Deserted garden. '11H'11H'l1lldi ?an6 h:>5 ?an6 haanil. Wild plants.


lh':161, To be bright, to be shining, to

glitter. '1.lljrl - s:JIJ3 h:P. To be bright, to shine.

Original from



'f10jl /h;n2/, An interjection (as a calling or answering signal).

'f'IU1 /h~k3/, Gum, gills. See k£m4. n ·· /h~n2/, 1. Home. 2. House. 'fll!H 3. Family. 4. Clan. 5. Surname. 'JlnH"DIH. /h~n2 tsaan2/, Typical Tai style (two-storeyed) bamboo house (with verandah). tJ1UHun /h~n2 ye6/, House.

'"u~ /h~n5/, Leprosy. 'flUri /h~fJ2/, To be bright, to be brilliant.


fh~6 h~1J2 ~rJ2 S~IJ3/, To be shining bright, to be glittering.

'f10D'1 /h~t5/,Bedbug.

of local dance (to the accompaniment of drums).

11· 2 fkaa3/, The tenth of the ten Heavenly Stems.

11· .,.1- fkaa3 laa2/, A record for date of birth.

11· .,.1·

fkaa3 laa5/, 1. Natural disaster. 2. Illness.


/kaa4/, 1. Rice seedlings. 2. To grow (seedlings), to sow (rice seeds). - IJJH

kaa4 fan2. To grow seedlings. 3. To jump, to dance (folk dance). 4. To play or practice (swords, boxing and suchlike). - a011 kaa4 x£n5. To practise boxing.

11· fkaa5/, 1. To do business, to trade. 2. Business, trade, buying and selling. 11· al)l fkaa5 xaai 1/, To do business, to be engaged in trade. 11· "'llijD'l"DI· fkaa5 ti5 SEtS tsaa3/, Treaty, pact.


1 k 11 ~e- fkaal li6/, Curry. 1 I- I /kaa2/, 1. Car, truck. 2. Shackles, 1

yoke. 3. Idiot. 11· ~1- /kaa2 laa2/,Foreigner, Caucasian, Westemer.

11 · 2 fkaa2/, Crow (bird) (tone variation with kaa6). 11· ~li /kaa2 Iam6/, Crow (bird). See

kaa6 ke2, kaa6 Jam6, kaa6 xo3.

11· 3

fkaa2/, To part, to separate. 11 • liLri /kaa2 morJ2/, Up in the air, up in the sky.

11· 1 fkaa3/, To go. f:JHLJn - LJD man2 yar/ kaa3 yau5. He is not going.

11· 1un

fkaa3 kofJ6/, To dance a kind

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

111 fkaa6/, Crow (bird).

1l1n· fkaa6 ke2/, Crow (bird). 11,Ali fkaa6 lam6/, Crow (bird). 11,ALH fkaa6 lon3/, Roe (an eno1111ous legendary bird believed to have been transfo1111ed from a gigantic fish). 11"011 fkaa6 tsaak3/, Magpie. 1laLC fkaa6 xo3/, Crow (bird). 1luln fkaa6 Y88.fJ2/, Egret.

112 fkaa6/, 1. Price, value. 2. To engage in trade. See kaa5.


fkaa6 htfJ2/, Wage, salary. 1lal· fkaa6 xaa2/, 1. Writings. 2. Letter. 1lun1-1 fkaa6 pen6/, All. See kaa6 x~. 1lue· fkaa6 pi3/, Young Buddhist monk, layman.

Original from



11011 Jkaa6 ta1cl/, To be about to, to be going to, future marker. See ti·J. ilml" /kaa6 thaag3/, Wish, desire, hope. 11~11'\ /kaa6 tsaag4/, Wages. ilaH Jkaa6 xan 1/, Price, value. - a(,1/}n kaa6 xanl xai6 /~?What is the price (for it)?/How much is it? 1laBfi Jkaa6 xirj2/, Price for a bride (a traditional practice in manging a marriage).

1lafl /kaa6 x~6/, All. See kaa6 pen6. 1lafl1 Jkaa6 x~kS/, Valuable, precious. il')l /kaail/, 1. A cover. - 070 kaai 1 tau4. A cover of a bottle. 2. Piece, lump (of sugar or suchlike). - ,1~71y,J kaai 1 Jam-5 ?:,/4. A lump of sugar. See k:,n4, hoi3, Juk5.

ii;; 1 Jkaai2/, 1. To refo11n, to change. - ,1yn01/171/,;; kaai2 J:i,I taak5 ?aan2. To change the plan. See Jaai6. 2. To co1icct(amistake). - ,1ynwBu1 kaai2 J:,q6 phitl. To co11oct a mistake, to make a correction. 3. To saw (a big piece of timber into thin boards or planks). See /~. 4. To be crude, coarse. 5. To feel extremely itchy (as when one's skin is in contact with the poisonous leaves of some plants or the hairy parts of a caterpillar).

ii;; 2

Jkaai2/, Water buffalo. Also xaai2.

,I,:; 3

/kaai2/, 1. A meas~ of length, equal to two and a half Chinese feet, about 80 cm. 2. The hairy parts of

certain plants or living crea~s such as bamboos orcatetpillars.

11)1 /kaai3/, 1. To buil~ to construct (bridges/houses). - aLd kaai3 xo1. To

Digitized by


build a bridge. 2. To add, to put, to stack. 3. To save (life), to rescue. - -v/11LiulH kaai3 saak5 kapl paan6. To save lives. 4. To mention (sb. or sth. ), to talk about. 01/H- taan4 kaai3. To r;e.-tion/talk about (sth. or sb.). 5. To move sth. with a stick, hands or suchlike. 1l')la(_d1::1n· u,lfi /kaai 3 xo 1 me2 ta8IJ2/, To build bridges and make paths, to perfo1m good deeds.

11,> Jkaai4/, To dust off, to brush off (gently as with a duster), to comb or divide one's hair (with a bamboo strip or needle).


JkaaiS/, To glance. -

1:JH01/,1/}n kaai5

man2 taa6 J:,,I. To take a glance at him/her.


Jkaai6/, 1. To pass, via. - m'jj1/·

kaai6 thai4 kaa3. To pass through here. "t.1u1]· "DBH - at.- a/11mDrl1yri"D/]a Juk5 pg4 tsin6 Jcaai6 wu2 xaan3 thiJJ1 k:,rfl ts:IIP. To go to Guangzhou from Peking via Wuhan. 2. To owe. See y:,m2.


/kaai6 saag4/, Light blue.

iii lkaak3/, I .arge spoon, ladle.


lkaam3/, Fortune, luck. -

,18 kaam3

Ji6. Good fortune, good luck, to be


11~ lkaam4/, Overcast, cloudy. UJ/· - faa5 kaan14. To be cloudy.


1l~t 1

/kaan 1/, The sound made by a goose. Jkaan2/, 1. Shoulder pole. -


kaan2 y:,i2. A kind of shoulder pole, with both ends tilted up. 2. A load. See

haap'J. Original from



1IH2 fkaan2/, Dare. - cnlH - 'tf1fl01 kaan2 taan4 kaan2 het3. Dare to speak out and dare to act.


1IH 3 fkaan2/, To crawl. nflnus:t ~BHrniJ ?el ?:in3 kaan2 J:,l Jin6 hai5. The baby was crawling on the floor.

1IH fkaan3/, 1. Family hall for worshipping Buddha. 2. Pond, pool (esp. in the phrase - ---1f!/ kaan3 Jam5). See l:ilJl. 1IH /kaan4/, 1. Stem, stalk. - w1 kaan4 phakl. Vegetable stalk. 2. Bunch. - LfJ"jj kaan4 fai2. A torch. 3. Classifier for plants such as vegetables or other things with a stem such as torches. 11~ fkaanS/, 1. To collapse, to fall like a landslide. UJIJJ"DLd~f!JmBu faai 1 tso4 Jam5 thipl kaan5 hau5. The dam was washed away by the flood. See Jan3. 2. To scratch or be scratched. 3. To remove (com ears and suchlike from their stalks). - adl.(J/· kaan5 xau4 f-5. To remove com ears from their stalk, to harvest sweet com.


1IM /kaan6/, Work, business, affair, matter. 1IM1I· Jkaan6 kaaS/,Commerce, business. 1IH.AI- /kaan6 Jaa2/, Farm work, agriculture. 1IHmla;i fkaan6 thaam2/, Position, task. 1IH-nl1 /kaan6 tsaaJcS/, Industry. 1IHaur1 fkaan6 X~l)l/, Work, business, affair. 1lr11er1 JkaaJJl kil)l/, The sound of metals or china crushing. 1lri 1 JkaaJJ2/, Chin,jaw. - ULJri kaarj p:irf. A broad chin.

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

,In 2 JkaaJJ2/, To depart, to leave. ,,., kai6 kaarj. To go for a long trip. 1lr\ 1 JkaaJJ3/, Crossbow. 1lr\al" -uijn Jkaag3 xaal Stl)l/, The magic crossbow (in folktales). 1lr\ 2 JkaaJJ3/, To latch, to put a bolt (on the door). 1/·- ~,· t11J.91fl •kaa3 kaat.13 Ja4 tu6 hel. Go and put the latch on the door.

1lr\ 3 Jkaag3/, 1. To wield, to recast a much-worn knife or hoe by adding iron to the cutting edge. 2. (Of one's eyes) to feel very uncomfortable as when sth. gets into them or when one is feeling sleepy, (of one's ears) to feel uncomfortable at some noise or course language. 1lfl'f'IL Jkaag3 hul/, To be jarring, to be unpleasant to the ear. 1lr\01I /kaa1]3 taa6/, To be dazzling, to be offending to the eye. ,In 1 Jkaag4/, Fishbone (esp. in the phrase

- ul kaaJJ" paa6). 1ln 2 Jkaag4/, To be spacious, roomy, broad, vast, wide. 'ff18H'tf1LJn~iJ - cnfl• h:,n2 h:iIJ" Jai5 kaaJJ" te5. This house is very spacious. 11111 JkaagS/, (Of fishbone and suchlike) to get stuck in the throat. 11112 /kaal)S/, 1. Kang, a low level administration unit (above a village) in the feudal society in the olden times. 2. Head of such an administration. 3. A heap or pile (of). 4. A division, section (horizontal or otherwise). 1ll11n· l:Jnl:Jnn JkaagS ke3 me6 m~J]2/, Local shamen, local headmen, sorcerers and sorceresses, local VIPs.

Original from



,In 1 fkaa1J6/, Middle, centre. 1ln71L fkaa1J6 ?u3/, Children, offspring.

1ln1J1ld 1ln1J1fi

fkaa1J6 haaul/, Heaven, sky. fkaaJJ6 h8JJ2/, Children,

offspring. 1ln.-1I · fkaa1J6 laal/, Children, offspring. 1ln.-1I • .-1lri-ol)i lka8JJ6 laal laa1J2 tsaai2/, Children, offspring. 1ln.-1l" D1L fkaaJJ6 Iaa4 tu6/, Threshold. 1ln.-1l)I fkaa1J6 laai6/, Often, usual, usually. 1ln.-1r fkaa1J6 lail/, In the morning. 1ln.-1r-ur1J1nn fkaa1J6 tail sail hel)2/, Early morning, morning, dawn. -,1lnl::IIM fkaa1J6 maa"4/, Courtyard. ,lnuln fkaa1J6 paaJ]l/, In the wilderness. 1ln01lri fk88JJ6 ta8JJ2/, Midway. ,In-or fkaa1J6 tsai6/, 1. Wish, desire. 2. Opinion. 1lnal· fkaa1J6 waa3/, During the Wa or Door-Closing Festival, the Mid- Wa Festival (the 15th of August of the lunar caJendar in which offerings are made to Buddha). 1lna1· -at· .-1n- fkaaJJ6 waa3 tsaa3 Ie2/, The Mid- Wa Festival, the MidAutumn Festival. 1lnaH fkaaJJ6 wan2/, During the day, daytime. 1lnal::I fkaa1J6 xam6/, In the evening, at night, night-time. 1lna6H fkaa1J6 xin2/, During the night, at night.

iln 2

fkaa1J6/, Deer (animal).

,In 3

fkaa1J6/, 1. Threshold, wood railings. 2. Checkpoint.

Digitized by


,In 4

fkaa1J6/, Steel.


fkaap3/, 1. Petal (of flowers). - f:lLJ'1UI ·kaap3 m~k3 yaa4. Petal of flowers. 2. A pair (of oxen, horses, for ploughing or hauling things). 3. The outer layer of plants, hard outer skin or shell of sth. such as fingernails, shell of snails. - ~,, kaap3 Jaal. The outer skin of bamboo shoots. - ~Baf:JD kaap3 liu5 mi2. Fingernail. - '11U"JJ kaap3 h~i1• Oyster shell. 4. Classifier for these. S. The fust of the ten Heavenly Stems. ,lul::ID. fkaap3 ma4/, Butterfly, moss. Also maak3 m a4, maai:,3 ma4. M

1lu 1

/kaap5/, 1. To bite, to hold in the jaw. - alld kaap5 xeu4. To clench one's teeth. 2. (Of shoes) to wear or rub the feet because of being too tight. 3. (Of a B11ddhist monk) to receive (an offering).

1lu 2 /kaap5/, 1. Epoch. 2. Generation. 1lu1uH /kaap5 kon3/, History. 1lul::IIM1nnl::1Dn /kaap5 man4 ke1J2 m~fJ2/, History, situation, circumstances. 1lul::1Dri /kaap5 m~fJ2/, 1. Dynasty, reign. 2. Time. Also kaap5 yaam2. ,lu-or /kaap5 tsai6/, To be angry, to be furious. 1lu-od /kaap5 tsau5/, Olden times, old generations. 1luul~ /kaap5 yaam2/, 1. Dynasty, reign. 2. Time. See kaap5 m;,rf.

,Im 1

/kaat3/, Market, market day, a cycle of market days (five days). ,lm"'l.11- /kaat3 saa2/, Market, market day.

,10,2 fkaat3/, Mustard. w1 - phakl kaat3. Mustard plant, green vegetables. Original from



drink of water, a mouthful of food to go with a drink of water. 2. Time (used in compounds). 1~1~ /karn2 karn2/,Repeatedly, frequently. 1~.A')J /kam2 lail/, Now, at the moment. 1~.A')) /kam2 tai5/, 1. Now, at present, this time. 2. Then. 1~.-tf /kam2 lai6/, Whenever. 1~.-tna /kam2 leu6/,lmrnediately,at once. 1~.-tOn /kam2 I~l)6/, Shortly, in a minute.

1lc /kaau3/, 1. To agitate, to accuse, to sue.

1/;,TlJJ/. u011

~ ~,;; kaa3 Ja/Z faa4

y£n3 kaau3 man2. To go to sue him in the court. 2. To expect, to wish, to long for. ~ ayu ~ ay'JJ kaau3 x.::,p5 kaa3 x.::,i6- To long for, to have great expectations (for). 1lc /kaau4/, Shin, knee. 1lcaijn /kaau4 XE'tj6/, Shinbone. 1la /kaau6/, Spider. See morf' kaau6. 1la.-tB' /kaau61i4/, Korea, Korean. 1)1 fkai3/, A generic tenn for chicken. 1)JlDL fkai3 phu4/, Cock, rooster. 1)JlDL O'IUH fkai3 phu4 ton6/, Castrated cock. 1)Jm0r'I fkai3 th~fJ3/,(Ring-necked) pheasant. 1,;,1lna~ /kai3 ka81]2 xarn2/, Phoenix. 1,;,aon /kai3 X;Jfj3/, Young female chicken that has not yet laid eggs.

,~ 2 /kam2/, Sentence, word. See x.aam2. 1~ /kam3/, Dark red, purple. 1~l:II· mlH /kam3 maa5 thaan2/, A kind of Buddhist religious ceremony. 1~ml· fkam3 phaa3/, 1. Often, usually, frequently. 2. History. 1~-of /karn4 tsai6/, 1. (fo do) as one likes, to feel free to, (to do sth.) at will. ~ kam6 tsai6 mai2. Do as you like. 2. To mind. LJnO'IU - yarf' tap5 kam6 tsai6. Never mind, don't take it to heart. Also kam6 tsai6.


1~ • fkai4/, (Long-tailed) pheasant. 1~2 fkai4/, To light (a fire, a torch). 1')) fkai5/, 1. Often. 2. To be diligent. 3. To be clever. 1'))1')) /kai5 kaiS/, Often, usually. 1'))ai /kai5 xakl/, To be diligent.


kam6 x::,,I.

1')J fkai6/, Far, distant. 8Ll1 ~ x.on1 kai6. A longjoumey/trip. 1')J11ri /kai6 ka81]2/, To be far away, to be a long way off, to be distant. 1')JUlcalaulH /kai6 yaau2 xaau2 yaanl/, To be far, far away, to be distant. 1~ l lkam2/, 1. Mouthful. acJ.,,8-

_,,f!J.,,871p1 x.au4 Ji6 kam2, Jam5 Ji6 ?ik5. To have a mouthful of food and a Digitized by


/karn4 xorj6/, Some, partly. Also

11::l /kamS/, 1. To support, to prop up. 71a~iJ - mil ?au6 mai5 kam5 hais. To support with timber. 2. (Of strong smells) to sting, to irritate. 1l:I /karn6/, 1. A bunch (of flowers, vegetables or suchlike), a handful (of). w1 phakl kam6 Jar/. A bunch of vegetables. acJ1Jl11'1Jl1:J - x.au4 saan 1 saaml ka.m6. Three handfuls of milled rice. 2. To hold, to hold in a closed


Original from




han-1. 181 fkjk5/, To grind, to crush (sth.) into powder. - u/· ul Jcik5 yaa4 yaa6. To grind herbs. 181-ol· /kiks tsaaS/, 1. Hardships, calamity. 2. To be sad. 3. To be worried. 18a;i fkjm2/, 1. Pliers, tongs, scissors or the like. - UJ'jj kim2 fai2. Fire tongs. 2. Small bottle, canteen. - .,/0 kim2 Jau4. (Small) wine pot. 1BH fkjn2/, 1. To be tight, tightly. n/~ 718ut.,/8n l)aaml kin2 ?itl J:1q6. To hold a bit more tightly. 2. To be urgent. .,//· 1/1,1- 910 Jaa4 kaan6 kin2 hau5. The work is urgent. 3. Very. l:JiJ - u,ll· mar' kin2 te5. Very hot. 18H /kin6/, To eat, to drink, to smoke (cigarettes), to take (medicine). - aci

Digitized by


kin6 ~au4. To eat rice, to have a meal 18H.-t~ /kin6 lau4/, 1. To drink wine, to drink alcohol. 2. To have a wedding, to attend a wedding. 3. To get married. 18H-nln /kin6 ts881J4/, To be employed. - u8H Jcin6 tsaarf' p:,n6. To be employed by someone. 18Haiji /kin6 xtk3/, 1. To go to a wedding, to attend a wedding, to have a wedding. 2. To get married.

18r'1I fkjlJ3/, (Small) branch, stalk. See IJIUP. 18r'12 /ki1j3/, To respect, to show respect to. - LJUri kir:f yorf'. To have great respect for. 1LH"'W - uyn1:Ji1U1ll •kon2 Jum3 ki{f yo{f man2 te5. Young people show great respect for him. 1Br'l~HO'II · lki1J3 man3 taa5/, Hot season (from the 16th of the first month to the 15th of the fifth month of the Tai calendar). 18r'lul fkjlJ3 yaa6/, Girl, lady. 18r'lu(_l] fkjlJ3 yo2/, To respect, to show respect (to). 1Bll 1 /kipl/, Hoof. - 1:JJ· kip 1 maa5. Horse hoof. 18Ll2 /kipl/, Section (of an orange, garlic or suchlike). - 1:J/'1'71U1 Jcipl maak3 ts~kl. Section of an orange. 18LJ3 /kipl/, To cut, to sever. - u/tfl kip 1 paat3. To tailor, to cut. 1Bu /kip5/, To take hold of or to grab with tongs or claws. 711.WJ." - w1 ?au6 thu3 kip5 phakl. To pick up food with chopsticks, to use chopsticks to pick up food. Also hip5.

Original from




1LD.-tl· al· /ko3 Ja5 xaaS/, Nepalese. 1LDl:IU' /kol mugS/, The fmtborn



180'1 /kit1/, To have a slight friction or Jkitl xog4/, To encounter (a bad situation), to meet with. 1BD'lnl- Jkitl gaa2/,Contradiction.

180 /kiu2/, 1. Moxibustion. 2. The colour of overripe fruits, black.

180 Jkiu3/, 1. 1.ane, small lane. 2. A narrow path or pass in between two big objects. 3. (Mountain) pass.

1Ba fkiu6/, Strand, ply. l:J'}J -



kiu6 J:,q6. A ply of threads. Also ?iu6.


Jkiu61amS/, Midstream, main



Jkiu6 lom2/, A place where there is a draught.

1Ld /ko 1/, To call a chicken (to eat). 1Lll /ko2/, To wrap, to wrap up. See ho3. 1LC11)1 /ko2 kaai3/, To offer a sacrifice to.

1LC.-tl· 1U' /ko21aas kug3/, ox. 1LD.-tB" .-ll_D /ko2 li4 lo6/, An old te11n for Mangshi.

1LC'1l~uB· /ko2 tsam3 pi3/, An old te1m for Meng Mao.

Sakyamuni. 11_C011_C Jko3 toll, Buddhist idol. 1LDD1Ur'l Jko3 tog3/, 1. Storehouse, barn, storeyed-building. 2. Shop. 11_CDI01 Jko3 waatS/, Kasaya and the like. 1LDDH Jko3 wan3/, To be pregnant.

119 I

Jko4/, Also, too, as well. 10 - u,8 · 1/" kau6 ko' til kaa3. 1 want to go too. Also k3'.

1L~ 2 Jko4/, 1. To join threads. 2. To mix ingredients. 3. To make (coffins).

1Ld /koS/, 1. Classifier for human beings. 1LH'Vlfd- kon2 saaml ko5. Three people. 2. Friend (esp. in the phrase 118-,J - I u,ji - ?:,i2 ko5 I tai2 ko5). 1Ld'11L /koS hu5/, Az.alea.

1Ld.-tll /koS laiS/, This person. See k:,i5. 1l_[] I Jko6/, A clump of plants. - l:JiJ ko6

maP. A clump of bamboo.

1L0 1 /kol/, 1. To build (a dam, stairway or suchlike) by stacking stones or piling up lumps of earth. - mll~/ ko3 te2 Jaa2. To build a dike. 2. (Of a woman) to tie up the hair after marriage. 3. To live, lead (a life). - 1:J8DH ko3 m:P wan2. To lead a life (of), to spend one's life (doing sth.). 4. Auxiliary verb with perfect(ive) aspectual meaning. 1:JHtJnu/1/· M

u8tJBH man2 ya,/ paa6 kaa3 ko3 p:,4 tsin6. He/She has never been to Beijing.

1(_0 2 /ko3/, Noun stein indicating 'person, people'. See ko5. Digitized by

11_C01~l:tl- /kol tam2 maa2/,


1LD 2 Jko6/, To fear, to be afraid. ~ wB · ko6 phil. To fear ghosts. 1LDUUr'l-UUr'ltDIM Jko6 yog3 s01]3 phaan6/, To fear, to be scared, to be frightened.

1l]l /koi4/, Banana. 11}' /koi6/, A type of large basket. - ad

koi6 xau4. Grain basket.

1L~ /kom 1/, (Of one's complexion) to be plump and smooth-skinned, full and round. ~/ · - Jaa4 kom 1• A chubby face. Original from



1Lf:i /kom2/, An old weight unit (equal to 80 Jiang). 1~ /kom4/, To bend, to lower (one's

head). - .,,/· kom4 Jaa4. To lower one's head. 1L~..tl· 01~011 /kom4 laa4 tam3 w.6/, To lower one's head, to obey, to be obedient.

1L~ /kom6/, To cover, to cover up. - .,/8H7JH.,/Dn kom6 Jin6 tsan5 J:,,I. To cover up with a layer of soil.

1LH /kon2/, 1. Human beings, people, person, person skilled in certain profession. 2. Classifier for human beings. See ko5. 1l_H'f'lnH /kon2 hen2/, The common people. 1LH'f'lijri /kon2 hEJJ2/, 1. A man of unusual strength. 2. Labourer working on a public project. 1LH11• /kon2 kaa5/, Businessman. 1LH11H /kon2 kaan6/,Labourer, worker. 1LH1D'l /kon2 katS/, A capable person. 1l_H101..t81 /kon2 katS lik5/, A learned person. 1l_H..tLr1 /kon2 loJJI/, Headman. 1LH..t~ /kon2 lum3/, Young people, youngsters. 1LH..tUD1 /kon2 l~tS/, A person with a mental disorder. 1LH~B ·· /kon2 mi2/, The wealthy, rich person. 1LH~UJ1 /kon2 mut5/, 1. Acquaintance. 2. Friend. 1LH~~ - ula /kon2 mi2 yaau21, Pickpocket, thief. 1LHUIH1ln /kon2 paan6 kaa1]6/, Middle-aged person.

Digitized by


1LMUJIH /kon2 phaanl/, The poor. 1LM01n· mur'I lkon2 te3 th:>IJ3/, Aboriginal person, local people. 1ltf-Ur /kon2 tsaP/, Servant. 1LHUUr'I /kon2 y:>IJ3/, Mad person, lunatic.

1LH /kon3/, To dig, to dig up. - '11LH kon3 sonl. To dig (up) a vegetable garden.

1LH /kon4/, 1. Buttocks, bottom, anus. m1.-- hu2 kon4. Anus. 2. End. - LJ! · kon4 yaa4. Cigarette ends. 3. Basis,


bottom. - E::JLDU1/}1 kon4 met' tck3 hau5. The bottom of the pot broke. 1~1f1)) /kon4 hai4/, The bottom of a valley. 1LHmlr11f'llr1~0n /kon4 thW]l haaJJl m~IJ2/, The end of a flat plain. 1LHa~ /kon4 xum4/, Bald-tailed. 1,:, - aJJJ kai3 kon4 xum4. A bald-tailed chicken.

1LH /kon5/, Pain, ache. -

ag,:, - f::J'JJ

kon5 xin4 kon5 mai6. To feel pain all over the body.

1LH I /kon6/, To fall down, to collapse, (of trees) to be uprooted (by a strong wind). 71/E::JM tsaal man2 kon6 hau5. The frame collapsed. See Jan3.


1LH 2 /kon6/, Pants, trousers. 1LHUla· /kon6 yaau2/, Long pants. 1Lr1 /koJJI/, 1. To scold by shouting at, to yell. 2. (Often used after a verb) the sound of yelling or shouting. 118d - ?iul kol)l kol)l. To shout, to yell. mDut - - hitl kol)l kol)l. To scold by shouting (at). See h~,:r.

1Lri lk.oJJ2/, Wheel (of a millstone, a spin or suchlike). Original from



1LriUD'I.A~ lko1J2 pat5 Jam5/, Wate111till. 1LfiULC11]J /kol)2 po2 koi6/, A hand

u,/,:, _ ~[JnU1/ti~lrl~11 taan4 kop-1 l:>IJ6 taarj /Bal)l Jan5. To talk about that

tool for fluffing up cotton. 1Lfi"'UUfi lko1J2 s'Jg2/, A cart for bathing the Buddha in the WaterSplashing Festival. 1Lriun01 /kolj2 yetS/ ,Spinning wheel.

matter, to concern that matter. 91[Jna/,;j - f:JIHiDf:JOn~rl h:>,/ xaam2 kop-1 maan4 kau3 m:,rj JBl)l. To sing the praises of one's homeland. 1L971nD1 /kop3 ?etl/, And, with, in addition.

1L"' /ko1]4/, Prawn. See 1)£u2. 1Ll1 /kol)S/, 1. To turn, to make a tum. - u,/fiu'JJ;/· ko,/ taarj pai6 kaa3. To make a turn and walk over. 2. Coil. - 'V/,J~ll1 ko,/ saail Jek3. A coil of wires. Also k::>,/. See torf3.

1Ln lk.01]6/, 1. Hole, opening. - m/a ko,f tham4. Cave. See hu2. 2. Bow. DLUI- wot5 ko,f. To draw a bow. See kaarjJ. 3. To be hollow (not solid). 'TJ[JHil}H - ts::>n6 k£n3 ko,f. A hollow brick. 1(!1aLd. lkoJJ6 xo2/, Throat. 1LnaLci1Jll]l !koJJ6 xo2 hoi 1/, Adam's apple. 1LnaLci.Afl1 lkoJJ6 xo2 l~k5/, To be greedy.

1LU 1 /kop3/, (Big) frog. See xet3. 1LLI1J'IBD1 /kop3 hit 1/, Toad. 1LU18H.AflH /kop3 kin6 l~n6/, Lunar eclipse (lit. 'the frog eats the moon'). 1LLI1BHCM /kop3 kin6 wan2/, Solar eclipse (lit. 'the frog eats the sun'). 1Lllanm /kop3 xet3/, Frog.

1LU 2 /kop3/, 1. To pair up with, in addition (to), to be attached to. ~8; ~/jj Jik5 kop-1 Jaai2. Appendix. aOn i[JU x:n/ kop-1 k::>p5. Attachment, accessories. 2. (Of remarks, talks or arguments) to concern, to involve, to relate or be related to, to touch upon. Digitized by


1LU /kopS/, 1. A pair, a couple.


?el kop5. Twins. 2. Even (number). 711,,1 - ?an6 kop5. Even number. 3. To sew (quilts, cotton padded jackets and suchlike). - w/· 91Ll!i kop5 phaa4 hom3. To sew quilts.

1LD'I /kotS/, Crooked, winding,



meandering, zigzagging. - - nLDnLD kot5 kot5 1Jo2 l)o2. To be meandering, to zigzag. 01/ti - taarj kot5. A winding path/road.

1(j /k~/, 1. Also, too. ad - al~n~iJ xaul kil waa6 JarjJ Jai5. They also said this. 2. In case of, if... f:JM018 • na f:JM71a;/:.,I} - man2 ti1 ?au6 k:il hai4 man2 ?au6 kaa3 /£2. If he/she wants


to take (it) just let him/her take it. 1(ja')l /k~ xai5/, So (used as an intensifierafteradjectives). ~8- Jj6 kil xai5. So good, so nice. ~Id - Jam 1 k:il xai5. So many, so much. f:JLH- mon6 kil xai5. So lively, so exciting.

1l) /k'J4/, 1. Emphatic particle often used with a negative, usually not translated. wf - unuL· phail k:>" ya,/ yu3. No one is in. 2. Also, too. f:JM - 018' ;/· man2 k:>" fil kaa3. He/She also wants to go. Also k:il.

1u,:; 1

/k'Ji2/, 1. Only, just. - ;/· DH~On k:,i2 kaa3 wan6 J:,,f. Only go for one Original from


50 day. 2. To wish. - afuflH"CJf k:,i2

xai4 pen6 ts~i5. I wish it were true!/Let's hope so.

1u'JJ1I .. /koi2 kaa2/, Only, but, except

sister who is the youngest of all siblings. 1U'JJUI. /koi6 yu.3/, To end, to finish.

1U11 /kokl/, 1. Box, box-like utensil

1U'JJ1U'JJ /koi2 koi2/, All, entirely.

(with or without a cover) for specific use. - u/ · md k:Jkl yaa4 thau 1. Incense burner. 2. Ladle, ladle-like utensil.


- 1:Jl1wllcfl k:Jkl maak3 phet3. Chilli


.,,n ,71[JH - pen6 ?el ?:Jn3 k:Ji2

k:Ji2. (fhose/fhey) are all children. 1u,-;·'\IL /koi2 su4/, So long as, as long as. - "CJ(l:JD"CJD'TllnaDM1I k:Ji2 su4 tsai6 mau6 tsau3 tsaarf' xin4 kaa6. So

long as you are willing to learn, you will make progress. 1u'JJal /koi2 waa6/, But, only, except that. 1:Ji101aaf1/" - un1:Jlr'l..,/iJ man2 tau3 xai4 kaa3, k:Ji2 waa6 ya,/' ma81J5 Jai4. He/She would like to go, only

he/she hasn't got the time.

1U'JJ 2 /koi2/, To kidnap, to abduct. l:JM"CJLDU8H - 1/" ud man2 tsa4 p;,n6 k:Ji2 kaa3 yau5. She was abducted by


1U)i /koi3/, 1. To be weird, to be odd. 71/"CJOii - ?aa6 ts£rj k:Ji3. Weird character/temper.2. To blame. ..,/[Jn

01/n..,//"}J..,/JjLJn - ..,/iJl:JM l:J,/ taarj Jaail Jai5 ya,/ k:Ji3 Jai4 man2. He is not to be blamed for this matter. ujj - 10 pai3 k:Ji3 kau6. Don't blame me.

1U')) /koi4/, Tiny, thin and small. 1U'Jl /koi5/, Contracted fo11n of ko-5 Jai5. 1U'JJ /koi6/, 1. To mix, to stir. - aLMUJMad k:Ji6 xon2 fan2 xau4. To mix rice seeds. 2. To end. 3. (Of offspring or siblings) the youngest. ..,/[jr'l'1Jld- l:J,r saaul k:Ji6. The youngest of younger sisters, younger

Digitized by


pepper plate. 3. The outer layer or cover of sth., shell. - 1J811 k:Jk1 sin3. Envelope.

1U12 /kokl/, To hit, to strike, to knock. - '11Ld k:Jkl hol. To hit on the head.

1U1 /kok3/, 1. Cupping glass or jar (in traditional Chinese medicine). 2. To treat (sb.) by means of a cupping glass or jar. 3. To dig (a draining ditch). '11[Jna/n..,/ld k:Jk3 h:Jr:f xaa,:i3 Jam5. To dig a draining ditch.

1u11 /kok5/, 1. To question, to inte11ogate. 2. To call sb. to account. 1u11l'1JIH /kok5 kaa6 saan3/, Chicken (used by Buddhist monks). 1u1ml~ /kok5 thaaml/, To question, to call sb. to account. 1U11lijU /kok5 tstpS/, To question, to call sb. to account.

1U12 /kok5/, Tax. 1U~ /kom2/, 1. To su11ender, to give in. 1Lld- kom4 k:,m2. To surrender. 2. To bend, to bow (in respect). - a8n01Bn rn0ii1[JU1LMl:J8n k:Jm2 xirj tirj h£,r k:>p5 kon2 m;,,j. To render one's

service for the people, to give one's all to the people. 1U~D1~ /kom2 tam3/, To surrender, to acknowledge defeat, to give in . 1u~al" /kom2 W8a1)3/, To call on, to call to pay one's respect.

Original from



1Ul:I·1 /k:>m3/, 1. Cup. 2. Coffin. 1U~2 /kom3/, To hug (a child to sleep). - nll~UH k:Jm3 ?el l:Jn2. To hug a child to sleep. 1U~ /k:>m5/, To hang down, to droop.

'17/LJ.,,1'1/H - haap3 Jakl kaan2 k:Jm5. The shoulder pole bent under the heavy load. 1UHI /kon2/, 1. Smoke. 2. A branch in a tree where birds come to perch. 1LJH2 /kon2/, 1. To carry sth. on the shoulder by hanging it on one end of a stick or shoulder pole. 2. To be in charge, to manage. - '1JljH k:Jn2 s:Jnl. To subject (a child) to discipline. a/· xaa4 k:Jn2 h:>n2. Steward, manager, housekeeper. 1UHa~ /kon2 xam2/,Battle-steed, warhorse. 1UHaB /kon2 xi 1/, To be heavyhearted, to be dejected, to be melancholy. 1LJHaLd /kon2 xol/, To be independent. 1UHaL~ /kon2 xoml/, To be heavyhearted, to worry, to be worried. 1UH"1Jijr1 /kon2 SEIJI/, Battle-steed, warhorse.



1UH I /k:>n3/, To climb up (a tree, a pole, a rope or suchlike). - 1Jd k:Jn3 saul. To climb up a pole. 1UH2 /kon3/, Wild goose. 1UH3 /k:>n3/, Before, beforehand (esp. in the phrase - 'JIUH k:Jn3 ?:Jn6). 1UH /kon4/, 1. Pile, lump. - .,,9,,,, k:in4 Jin6. A lump of mud. - '11811 k:Jn4 hinl. Rock, pebble. 2. (Of plants) to be heavy

Digitized by


with fruits. 3. (Of a woman) bearing many children. 1UH /kon5/, 1. To ladle out, to scoop up. - .,/1:!J k:;n5 Jam5. To ladle out water, to scoop up water. 2. Contracted fo1111 of

ko5 Jan5. 1UH /kon6/, Rafter, latch. - '118H k:in6 han2. Rafternatch of the house. 1Ur1 /kol)l/, To bend over, bent. - .,/(1 k:;IJ1 JBl)l. To bend one's back. .,/,f JBl)l k:;IJ1. Hunchback, humpback. 1ur11no lkolJl keu3/, Hook. 1Uri lk.01J 2I, 1. Hillside, ridge. 2. Commission fee. 1un1I" /kol)2 kaarj3/, Universe. 1un1ijri lko1J2 kt:1)2/, Hill, hillock. 1Uril:IL /kol)2 mu2/, Pagoda. 1Uri-UUr1 /k:>1)2 S:>1) 1/, A placename in Ruili, well known for being inhabited by Dehong Tai speakers. 1un-0B • lkoiJ2 tsi2/, Tamarind. 1U" /k:>1)3/, 1. To bend, to be crooked. - ayu.,,fl1 k:;,jJ x:;n5 lek3. To bend an iron bar. 2. To coil up, to twine. - lDLfJ k:J,jJ phoml. To coil up hair. 3. Arch . .,,/ • 01l. - Jaa4 tu6 k:;,jJ. An arch gate. 4. A count (of yam). 5. Sheath. 1Ur1 1 /kol)4/, Below, under, underneath. - wP11 k:irf' phan1. Under the table. - 01LHf:J')I k:;rf' ton4 mai5. Under the tree.

1un1IH /kol)4 kaan2/, Rolling pin (made of bamboo tubes). 1un1ln /kog4 kaag21, Jaw. 1un1lu lkoiJ4 kaap3t, Armpit. 1Ur1-AU1 /kog4 lok3/, The back of the head. Original from



1Ul1 2 /kog4/, 1. Gun.

up- - y{1 k:,rf. To

fire a shot, to shoot. 2. Noun stem indicating gun or similar objects. /kol)4 hu2 tse3/, A kind of drum used in dancing. 1U'1l:fl_D /kol)4 mo6/, Bamboo pipe for fanning a fire, bellows. Also k:,rf pau6. ,unl:fLCUI" /kol)4 mo6 yaa.4/, Tobacco • ptpe. 1unua /kol)4 pau6/, Bamboo pipe for fanning a fire, bellows.

1un1J1L 11n·

1Ul13 /kol)4/, To echo. -vf}rla/,;iuf." ,1jj91J_il,1y'JJE:JLD - SEIJl xaa,n2 yu3 Jai2 hoi4 J:,i6 mo2 k:,rf. The sound of the songs echoed in the valley.

1Ui1 /kol)5/, 1. Poisonous. uJ· - yaa4 k:>,r. Poison. n1.- - l)u2 k:>,r. Poisonous snake. 2. To snare (game mammals). 3. To drape over, to put on or wear (a scarf).

1Un /kofJ6/, 1. Drum. 2. Heap, pile. l/JJJ1 - ,111unu/91f}ri fun2 k:,IJ6 Jan5 Y81J6 paa6 hE,f. That pile of firewood is not dried yet. uflH - uflHutji pen6 k:,IJ6 pen6 pum2. To be in piles/heaps. 3. To heap up, to pile up. 'TIDE:JI -- mil ?au6 maa2 k:,IJ6 thai4. To bring and pile them up here. ,unl:flM /kol)6 maan4/, Courtyard. 1unnL /kofJ61Ju2 tse3/, A kind of Tai drum. 1un01IH /kofj6 taan2/, Big drum in a Buddhist temple for telling the time and for use in religious service. 1UnD1U~ /kofJ6 tom5/, Waist drum. 1un01un /ko(J6 to(J2/, Bronze drum.


1UU /kop 1/, 1. (Often used in compounds) a hard frame for specific purposes (such as horse saddles), or a Digitized by


hard enclosure of sth. (such as skulls). 2. A bunch of fruit (such as bananas or grapes). 1,_,:, - ., ,JJE:JB ·· -vBu 91/inlfl koi4 k:,pl Jai5 mi2 sipl haa4 hoi3. This bunch has 15 bananas. 1UU'J1Ld /kopl hol/, Skull. Also kupl


1Ulll:fl • /kopl maaS/, Horse saddle. 1UU /kop3/, 1. A (cupped) handful. rn,;i-vyrl - ham2 S:>IJ1 k:,p3. Two handfuls of bran. 2. To take up in two cupped hands. - aanyiJ1iJ- ,18n k:,p3 xau4 ?:,j3 kai3 k:,p3 J;,IJ6. To take up a handful of grain to feed the chicken.

1UU /k.opS/, 1. For, for the benefit of, for the purpose of, in order that. m/ri 1/1,1 1Ll1E:J8ri thaari kaan6 k:,p5 kon2 m~r:f. To work for the people, to serve the people. - u8,1Lf'l,1iJ1Lt'JE:J8a11,18 k:,p5 pi6 lo,r Jai4 ko3 m:P wan2 Ji6. In order that friends and relatives can lead a better life. 2. Because (oO. - ,1yn1:Jlf1nu1,I" k:,p3 J:,IJ6 mun2 ?:,k3 kaa3. To go out because of sth. 3. To apply (medicine) to, to paste (sth.) on, to stick to. - u/· IJI k:,p5 yaa4 yaa6. To apply medicine (to). 4. (Of wasps, ants and other insects) to nest on sth. by adhering to it. 1uuuU /kop5 tr.>6/, Because. 1UU--Uri /kop5 saJJ 1I, Why, for what reason?

1Uo1 /kot 1/, To run out of (money), to be finished. 1JLd01n··- LJD sol ti2 kotl yau5. Money is used up. See mot3.

1um /kot3/, 1. To hug, to embrace. 1:Jfladnanfl, l:Jl1 - ,1T011 me6 xaul ?au6 ?e1 man2 k:,t3 Jai2 taJcl. The mother is holding the child in her anns. - E:JJ" llJ8 · 8LD k:,t3 maa3 fil xo2. (To walk or Original from


53 sit) with one's hand on the other' s neck or shoulder, to be hand in hand and shoulder to shoulder. 2. The length or size of two ann spans around.


l:J'JJ.,/Lrll:J8 .. -vurl -


mai5 lol)l mj2 S:Jl)J

kot3. A tree bUnlc four ann spans


1L /ku 1/, 1. To look after, to mind, to take care of, to attend. - -,i/ · 01/ Jcul Jaa4 taa6. To save face, face-saving. - .,/,:,U/}01.,/11 Jcul lai5 J)Et5 Jan5. To attend to one thing and lose sight of another, to have too many things to take care of at the same time. 2. To call a chicken (to eat). 1L -,18" /ku 1 li 1/,Labourer,coolie.


/ku2/, 1. A kind of paediatric disease. 2. Noun prefix denoting or relating to 'religion'. 3. Verb stem associated with 'blessing'. 1L 1l;il:IIH Jku2 kaai3 maan4/, A pavilion in a village where sacrificial activities are to be held. 1L l:11- /ku2 maa2/, To bless.

1L "'ULO

/ku2 so3/,

Merits and virtues, charitable and pious deeds, beneficence. 1L 111· /ku2 tsaa2/, 1. To bless. 2. To take care of. 1L 1lLn /ku2 tsorJ6I, Tibetan.


/ku3/, Bed.

1L aijH

/ku3 xEn 1/, Hammock.


/ku4/, 1. To raise, lift, to straighten. - 8Ltil:J/- Jcu4 xo2 maa2. To raise one's head (lit. to straighten one's neck). 2. (Of hair) to stand (on end). 8Ll1'11Ld - 1:JI - xon 1 ho1 Jcu4 maa2. One's hair stands on end. 3. To bo11ow, to loan. u81:J - -VLd yim6 ku4 so1. To borrow money.

Digitized by


1 /ku6/, Pair, classifier for things in

pairs. m1." - "'On thu3 Jcu6 J:,q6. A pair of chopsticks. 2 /ku6/, 1. Each. -

"'lri - "'8 Jcu6

IBJUJ1 Jru6 Ii6. Each one has its own merits. See Ji6. 2. (Often used in pairs as Jcu6...Jcu6... ) every. l:JH - DH - l:Jl man2 Jcu6 wan2 Jcu6 maa2. He/She comes every day. 1L l:10aHul.;. Jku6 m~6 wan2 yaam2/, Everyday. 1L uu1 /ku6 pok5/, All the time, always, every time. 1L 018 /ku6 ti6/, Everywhere.

1l]J /kui 1/, Chest of drawers, cupboard. 1l}l /kui 5/, 1. To pry, to prize. - 1:J/1 '11811 kui5 maak3 hinl. To pry up a rock. 2. To drive or control cattle as in

ploughing. 11}' /kui6/, Cotton.

11JJUJLfi /kui 6 forJ 2I, Ginned cotton, lint (cotton). 11}J'f'll}i /kui6 hoi3/, Unginned cotton.


/kum2/, 1. To build (a Buddhist temple, grave or suchlike). - Dlf1 Jcum2 wun3. To build a temple. 2. (Of people) to gathertogether(to dine). - ad'?H kum2 xau4 kan6. To dine together, to have a party (where food is provided). - .,/l1 Jcum2 Jau4. To gather together to drink.


/kum3/, 1. To be sufficient, enough. - 1811 kum3 Jcin6. To have enough to eat. 2. To be full, to be complete, all present. '1LHULDl:JI -- '11D kon2 po2 maa2 Jrum3 hau3 ? Is everybody here?/ Has everyone arrived? Original from



1u;i 1LH

/kum3 kon4/, Buttocks,


1li1mLH fkum3 thon4/, 1. To be complete, all in readiness. 2. To have the whole range of (supplies/goods).

1~ /kumS/, To bless. 1~aijH1::1l-ol- fkum5 xEnl maa2 tsaa2/, To bless.

11.1:J /kum6/, To chat, to talk (to each other), to discuss. - '111 Jrum6 kan6. To have a chat, to discuss. "'lLl:J"'lUn /kum6 koJJ6/, To discuss. "'lll:f .-tlo, /kum6 laat5/, To talk about. "'lU:Jala;j /kum6 xaam2/, To discuss, to chat.

"'lltf /kun2/, 1. To roll. l::Jl"1~L,;j - 1/· ~ f:Jf ·· maak3 Jom2 Jcun2 kaa3 kun2 maa2. To roll back and forth. See ?iif. 2. To mill by rolling.


/kun3/, Goods, commodities. 1lft1l~t_Cal')l /kun3 kaa5 xo2 xaai 1/, Goods, commodities,commercial products.

"'llt' fkun6/, 1. Island. 2. Continent. "'llt'"'lLH fkun6 kon2/, Reason, logic, commonsense. unuun ~ rarl p:Jl.13 kun6 kon2. 1. To be unreasonable, not sensible. 2. To lose consciousness. "'llt'.-t~ /kun6 Iam5/, Island. "'llt',ALri fkun6 lol)l/, Mainland, continent. "'lltl-OffnUJI· fkun6 tsil)6 faaS/, Universe, the world. "'llt'and fkun6 xeul/, The south.

"'lUi fkul)l/, 1. To bend. ~rl -

/Bl]l kul)l.

Bent back, hunchback. - ~rl

kul)l /Bl]l.

Digitized by


To bend one's back. Also k:i1J 1. 2. To protrude. See mrn2.

1l[l fku1]2/, 1. Back(bone). 2. Arch. See k:Jl.13. 3. Ore deposit, mine. "'ll[l.-tr1 1kw]2 l8JJ 1/, Backbone. 1u,a~ fkul)2 xaml/, Gold mine.

1l(I /kul)3/, 1. To pay tribute to. 2. Tribute. 1l(l71I" fkul)3 ?8afJ3/, Loving kindness. "'ll.P.,fl· /kuJJ3 laa5/, Loving kindness. "'ll.Pl::il~I· lku1J3 maa3 laaS/, Young man.lad. "'ll.Pl::il~B /ku1]3 maa3 li6/, Young lady. girl. "'ll.P'1Jn· /ku1J3 se3/, 1. Migrant. 2. To engage in business. 1U, lkul)6/, Paternal grandfather.

1uJ /kupl/, General te1111 for a conical wicker/bamboo hat. 1uJ111Ld /kup 1 hol/, Skull. Also k:ipl



fkupl kaap3/, A kind of hat made of bamboo shoot shells. 1uJ01un fkupl tol)6/, A kind of hat made of big leaves from certain plants.

"'lu,1 /kutl/, Fem, fem tree.

1LV1 fkut5/, 1. To slip (out of the hand or suchlike), to lose one's footing, to come off. ~ '111 kut5 kan6. To be disconnected, to be separate. - 11Uri kut5 ?:i,f'. To be dislocated. See Jut5, J:it5. 2. To be delayed, to miss (the time). - ~un 01/ri kut5 l:ilJ6 kut5 caa.r.,2. To hold things up, to cause delay in work or business. See Jut5. 1U,,71Ur-t /kut5 ?ol)4/, 1. To be dismissed, to be removed from a post. Original from


55 2. To be demoted. 1lP11L~ fkutS koS/, To lag behind 1LP1Ul.;j Jkut5 yaar. 2/, To miss the timc(for).

10- cl

lki2 waa6/, To think (contrary to facts). 10 - alull111:111'1JI kau6 ki2 waa6 pen6 man2 saa6. I thought it was him (but it wasn't).


fkj6/, 1. Reins, halter. - 1:1/· Jci6 maa5. Horse reins. 2. To stare (esp. in the phrase - 01/ Jcj6 taa6). See kat3. 1001lnlfkj6 taa6 l)aa2 xeu4/, To stare angrily, to look daggers at.



/kim2/, To be solid, to be fi1111, to be durable. 1f]u01BH1L~il- 01n· k£p3 tin6 ku6 JaP hm2 te5. This pair of shoes is very solid. See man4.

1ffH /kin2/, 1. To abound, to be abundant. - ml- kin2 thaa2. To multiply, to increase in number or quantity. 2. Stubborn. 3. (Of fruit) not fully ripe, unripe, not easily cooked.


/kig2/, To arrive. See ph£ul.

10n1IH /kil)2 Icaan2/, Suddenly' all of a sudden.

1Unmur1 /kil)2 thol)l/, To anive. 1ftnmftri lki1J2 thil)l/, To arrive. 1ffn 1kiJJ3/, 1. Ought to, should. - 71U'JJml}l:i111 hq3 ts~i6 th£ml kan6. (We) should help each other. 2. To be suitable. - "Df kiq3 tsai6. To be satisfied. See thukl. 3. To stick out. 10r'l71H fkig3 ?an6/, Should, ought to. fkil)3 li6/, 1. Should. 2. To be suitable. /kil)3 thukl/, 1. Should. 2. To be harmonious.



Digitized by



/kil)3 th~kl/, 1. To fit, to be in harmony. 2. To be qualified (for a job).

10L11:tU- /kip 1 mi2/,Fingemail. 1ftll01LC fkipl to3/, Beehive. ,1- ~lei /kitl Jcaa2 laau2/, 1. Half-

,oo1 understood. 2. Half~ooked. ,oo1 '\IC Jkitl sau2/, To stop (moving forward), to halt.


fkit5/, To rub, to clash, to create friction.


/k;,6/,Salt. 1UclH Jk~6 waanl/, Sugar.


/k~k3/, 1. To match. - 1H k~k3 kan6. To match each other. 2. To serve as a contrast, to set off.


/k;,nl/, 1. Bush,jungle. 2. Railings. 1

1UH 2 /k~n3/, To scratch (an itch). - a/jd k;1n3 xum2. To scratch an itch. 1UH /k~n6/, 1. Thoms, brambles, thistles and thorns. 2. Chaste tree. 3. Tax. - uJti k;1n6 ywj. I .and tax. - 1:1/Jri k:1n6 m:1,fl. Government tax. 1UH1J1lji /k~n6 haai2/, Territory.


/k~l)2/, Group, branch or division (of religion), school (of thought), faction or sector (of an organisation). - 71/jd k;1,f2 tsum2. Faction, sector. ,un~ln /k~l)2 tsaar.12/, Name of a branch of Buddhist religion. ,unULH /k~l)2 yon2/, Name of a branch of Buddhist religion.

1Uo1 /k~t3/, 1. To hinder, to be hindered, to block. - ~/· 01L k;1t3 Jaa4 tu6. To be Original from



kept outside the door. - .;1,J.;1yn k:,t3 Jam5 l:J,f. To be blocked by flood. 2. To be half gone, partly empty, remaining, leftovers - rnfl• kat3 he5. Leftovers, remnants. - .;1/J , kat3 Jal. Leftovers, remaining. 3. (Of colour) to fade off. 4. To bear, to give birth to. .;1lln - .;IL1.;1/ri Jei:,5 kat3 Juk5 Jaa,f. To bear children. S. To stare (esp. in the phrase - 01/ kat3 taa6). See kP.

1CT01 /k:~t5/, To cut, to fell (trees). - UJlfi kat5 fun2. To cut firewood. t.Jn 11lJ1 UJM.;1Ln1:JiJ yar:f tsun2 kat5 fan2 Jou6 mai5. No felling.


/k~u6/, To hook.

I "41' flaal/, Thick. uli11J81.;1iJ 1:Jln1:JM rDL101n •paan2 sik5 Jaj5 Jaal maar/ man2 thuk1 te5. The thickness of this piece of plank is just right. .;1/ ·Jaa4 Jaal. Thick-skinned, shameless.

-Al ·· 1 flaa2/, Paddy field, wet rice field. -Al- TIU, /laa2 ?ufJ6/, Rice fields that are wet all year round . .Al- 01[1 flaa2 tofJ6/, Field (in flat plains). -Al/laa2 tse3 ti3/, Terraced field.

-an· 01e·

-Al ··2 flaa2/, Discourse particle, used in leave-taking. aLrt01ltif:JIJ1, U'JJ.;18.;18 xonl taa,f mun6, pai6 Jj6 Ji6 Jaa2! The road is slippery. Please take care! 1/· .;i[J'JJ.;i[J'JJ - kaa3 l:Ji2 l:Ji2 Jaa2. Please walk slowly (a fo1111ulaic expression in

Digitized by


leave-taking). 101/• LJd - kau6 kaa3 yau5 Jaa2. I must be going now.



/Jaa3/, To scold, to revile. -

11D Jaa3

ts1'. - 111 Jaa3 kan6. To quarrel with each other, to scold by name.


/Jaa3/, Noun stem indicating 'time, season'. -,11· -AB· /Jaa3 Ji3/, Clock, time, hour. -,11· /laa3 lu5/,Climate. -,11· /laa3 me3/, Reputation, fame. 2



- 11D1Jllrl Jaa3 me3 tsi6 seul. Reputation, fame. .,.1· "'Un· /laa3 se3/, Parents. - 1ll" md Jaa3 se3 ke3 thau4. Parents, old folks. -,11· "'UB· flaa3 si3/, 1. Month. 2. Season. .Al· "'UB· "'U8Ll"'UUr1 /laa3 si3 sipl S::>fJl/, 1. The twelve months. 2. The four seasons. 3. Name of a book telling the customs of the Tai people.

-Al· 3 flaa3/, Very,extremely, exceptionally. 10101fl• 101- kat5 te5 kat5 Jaa3. Very capable, exceptionally capable.


/Jaa4/, 1. Face. - .;1/jj Jaa4 Jaai2. A pockmarked face. 2. Direction, side. 1L u/ · 1L- ku6 paa4 ku6 Jaa4. All sides, all directions. 'Vljriu/ · 'Vlf:l - S:Jl)l paa4 saaml Jaa4. All sides. 3. Page. -Al" '11CTH flaa4 h~n2/, 1. Housework. 2. Family circumstances, family financial situation. -Al" 1J1Un /laa4 h::>fJ3/, The north, northside. -Al" 1IH /Jaa4 kaan6/, 1. Work. 2. Thing. -,11" aun /laa4 X::>fjl/, Work . -Al" -,11 •/Jaa4 Jaal/,Thick-skinned, 1

Original from



shameless. .,fl' 1:11 •/laa4 maaS/, Long face, longfaced.

.Al' 1:1ln

/laa4 rrt88fJ6/, Thin-skinned,

.Al· al]J

/laa5 xoi 1/, Mother's younger sister's husband, uncle. /laa6/, 1. Cloth used to hold a child on the back. w/·- phaa4 Jaa6. Such cloth. 2. Noun stem indicating 'parent', 'vehicle' or suchlike. .,fl'J'lL /laa6 ?u3/, Parents. Sec po6.

.Al 1


.Al' 1:1r

/Jaa4 mai3/,Lookunfamiliar, look strange, new-faced. .Al' ml1 /laa4 phaak3/, Forehead. .Al . -ur-or /laa4 sajl tsai6 kj6/, One's face glowing with health . .,,, . -uijn /laa4 sr.rJ6/, Rib.


.,,, . 1J~1 /Jaa4 s~k3/, 1. War. 2. Front line.

/laa4 taa6/, Looks, face. '1100'1 S£t5 Jaa4 taa6. To lose face . .,,, . 01lri /laa4 faafj2/, Direction. .,fl' 0119 /laa4 to3/, Direction. .Al' D'IL /laa4 tu6/, Door. .,,, . aijn /laa4 X£fJ6/, Rib. Also Jaa4

.Al" 011


.,., . ula

llaa4 yaau21,Length.

.,,, .. 2 /laa4/, To be late (esp. in the morning). "''-1 - Juk5 Jaa4. To get up late. .,,, . CH /laa4 wan2/, Afternoon. .,,,. /laa5/, Mother's younger sibling, aunt. .Al· LQI· /JaaS faaS/, Mother's younger brother's wife. .,,, • ..tlri /laa5 1881]2/, Mother's younger sister, aunt. .,,,. 1:1lti /laa5 maau3/, Wife's younger brother. .,ff• ur /laaS paP/, Wife's younger brother's wife. .,,,. -uld /JaaS saaul/, Mother's younger sister, aunt. .,,,. al· /JaaS xaaS/, Earnings, salary.

.Al· a.;j

/laaS xam2/, Mother's younger sister, aunt Digitized by

Go ~ gle

.A11Jlri .Al1:1H1

/laa6 h8JJ2/, Parents. /laa6 mikS/, 1. Sign, omen, portent. 2. Circumstance. ..tlul· /Jaa6 paa2/, Parents. .Almn· /Jaa6 phe2/, Parents. .Al-un· /Jaa6 se3/, Parents. .Al1Jijr1 /Jaa6 SEJJI/, Father. .Al01I· /laa6 w3/, Wage, salary. .,ffmt· /Jaa6 thaa2/, Vehicle. .Alml- LQ>i /Jaa6 thaa2 fai2/, Train. .Alml -1:1nH /Jaa6 thaa2 men6/, Aeroplane. .,ff-cl· /laa6 tsaa3/, 1. Officials. 2. King, ruler. .Ala.;. /Jaa6 xam2/, Mother. See me6.

.Al 2

/laa6/, To prepare, to get ready for.

t:JHLJLti- rnlua'JJudmBiJurlad1/· .,,,rnan2 po2 Jaa6 haap3 wai5 yauS til soq3 xau4 kaa3 Jaa2. He/She has already prepared a load of food to take to the field . .Al1JlijH /Jaa6 h£n2/, To prepare, to get ready for.

.,fl 3

/laa6/, Not serious, careless. - u1.· 181,1 Jaa6 yu3 Jaa6 kin6. To lead a simple life. .,f f.A8 /laa6 Ji6/, Not serious, careless. - rnllrfl Jaa5 Ji6 het3. To do something carelessly.

.Al')J 1

/laai 1/, 1. Many, much, plenty of, a lot of, a large quantity (oO. - 1Ld- 1LH Original from


58 Jaail ko5 Jaail kon2. Many people. '1Jri1Jrl,11:J ~ SBIJJ sar.,l Jaml l88il.

A lot of things. 2. How many, how much? 1:JtiU18, 1/·- DH mai2 til kaa3 Jaail wan2? How long will you be (going) away for? 1:J8-1Lf1 ~ 1LD mi2 kon2 Jaail ko5? How many people arc there?

.Al')J 2 /laai 1/, 1. To read (aloud). 1Jti U[J1,18n sam5 lBBil p:ik5 J:,r/. Read (it) again. 2. To greet. ~ u8,1[Jn,1n laail pi6 l:i,r lat/. To greet relatives by asking

them to take a seat. 3. To do religious service, to offer sacrifices (to).~ wB , laail phil. To offer sacrifices to ancestors.

,11,:; 1 /laai2/, 1. Spotty, colourful, multicoloured, striped, marked.~ l:J[j'1 ~ 1:J( laai2 m:,k3 Jaai2 mai6. Pattern, variety. ~ ,1lli1 Jaai2 Jen2. Mottled, motley. 2. To feel dizzy (esp. in the phrase u,/ ~

taa6 Jaai2).

.Al')i 2 /laai2/, Saliva. muJ,1ti ~ thum3 Jam5 Jaai2. To spit.

.Al,:i 3 /laai2/, Dew. ,1frr,Jj1:J8-~ Jail hai5 mi2 Jaai2. There was dew this morning.

,11,:; 4 /laai2/, Maternal grandmother. IJ! ~ yaa6 Jaai2. Maternal grandmother. ~ ,11[1 laai2 lolJl. Maternal grand-

mother. See ?ul.

.Al')i S /laai2/, 1. Writings, letter, document. 2. Art, (special) skill. .Al,:i-,1iji:i /laai2 leu2/, The art of fighting (in olden times). .Al,:i1:10 .. /laai2 rm2/, 1. Crafts, handicrafts. 2. Fingerprint. ,1l,:i"'U8101I· /laai2 sikS taa3/, Eight

Digitized by


Characters indicating one's birthday. .Al')im~ /laai2 tham2/, Buddhist scripture, Buddhist doctrine. .Al,:imlu1:1u1 /laai2 thaapS mok3/, Official notice, bulletin, placard.

.Al>i /laai3/, The mouth of a dam, the part in a river where water flows swiftly because the bed is getting narrow. - ,1t} laai3 Jam5. The part of a river or stream where water flows swiftly because the river bed is getting narrow or where there is an abrupt decline.

.Al')) /laai4/, Silk, natural silk.~ ,1/n Jaai4 Jaaif. Natural silk. ~ WLl:J Jaai4 phoml.

A black strip (as ornament) for binding the plait or bun of a married woman.

,11-,3 1 /laaiS/, 1. To smear. See taa2. 2. To pollute, to be polluted. -Al')) 2 /laaiS/, Discourse particle for

drawing attention.~ a[Jril:JrIJL" lD'}J Jaai5,x:,IJ1 mai2 yu3 thai4. Here you are.

.Al)l 1 /laai 6/, To change.~ aD11 ~ "'Lti Jaai6 xin4 Jaai6 JolJ2. To keep changing. rr,/u,11w0d. 1Jj1Jj - 1:JI" haap3 Jakl phEul, kai5 kai5 Jaai6 maa3. The load

was so heavy that (he/I) had to change shoulders frequently. .Al)l1H /laai6 kan6/, 1. To exchange.

uB · '1J[Jrial:.. pi4 s:,IJ1 xaal Jaai6 kan6 (or: S:>IJ1 xaal Jaai6 pi4 kan6). The two of them exchanged pens. 2. To take turns, in turns. 1J[Jrial, ~ 1/· ufu,/1/ · S:>IJ1 xaal Jaai6 kan6 kaa3 paP taa6 kaa4. The two of them took turns to look after the rice seedling bed.

.Al)l 2 /laai6/, 1. To be idle, doing nothing. IJL" ~ yu3 laai6. To lead a life without working. 181,,1 ~ Jcin6 IBBi6. To eat

Original from



without worlcing. 2. Free of charge, (to take) for nothing. uiJna -, -VL. rnfullH-VLd pai3 ?au6 Jaai6, su4 hai4 p:>n6 sol. Don't take others' things for free, you should pay for them. .-fl'JJ.-fl'JJ /laai6 Iaai6/, 1. Alone, only.

1a1ujj18Haci- un18Hw1 kau6 k~i2 kin6 xau4 Jaai6 Jaai6, yatJ6 kin6 phaJcl. I

ate plain rice with nothing to go with it. 2. Free of charge. rnf - '1{JLJn 'TIO hai4 Jaai6 Jaai6 k3' yatJ6 ?au6. (Won't) take/accept it even for free. 3. All. ullHTJll"jj- pen6 ts:,i5 Jaaj6 Jaai6. (They) are all like this. adullH1LH1IH - xau 1 pen6 kon2 kaan6 Jaai6 Jaai6. They are all workers. .-tl1 /laak3/, To change, to vary, to alter. - TJ( Jaak3 tsai6. To change one's mind, to cease to be faithful. .-tl11J11r1 /laak3 haagl/, 1. To change shape, to differ. 2. To disguise, to dress as, to be in diguise, disguised fo1111. ~11.-fl'JJ /laaJc3 laai6/, To change, to vary. ~11,11,:; /laak3 Jaai2/, Variation, difference. .-tl1uOn /laaJc3 p;,fJ6/, To be unique, to bepeculiar. .-tli I /laak5/, To pull, to drag, to (be) trail(ed)along. 1:/(u,:,- 1a mai2 pai3 JaaJc5 kau6. Don't you pull me. 1:/11

'11Lci1/- 1/· - 1LHaLd man2 ha4 kaa2

kaa3 JaaJc5 kon3 xo2. He/She drove a car to bring the goods back. ~111J1Uri /laaJcS hoIJS/, Brand-name products. ~l1,1l1 11aa1cs 1aa1cs1, Arms, ammunition . .-tl1.-tld /laaJc5 laau5/, Trawling net, a

Digitized by


kind of fishing net. .-tl1.-tUD1 /laak5 lot5/, To be naked. ,1111::1101 /laak5 maat5/, 1. Docket, ticket, voucher, note. 2. Document, papers,credentials. ,1l1uu,:; /laaJc5 poi2/, The magic ring, a dark-red ring made of strings, worn on the arm or the neck for keeping evil spirits away. ,1l1al01 /laak5 xaat5/, 1. Constellation. 2. Eight Characters (indicating the hour, day, month and year of one's birth). See Jaai2 sik5 taa3. ~112 /laak5/, Ten million.

-ti~ I

/laaml/, Thorn, thorny plants. ULJri y~,j Jaaml. Thistles and thorns, brambles, thorny undergrowth . .-tl~10H1lu /laaml k~n6 kaap3/, Sisal hemp. ,1l~1flH1J1L -0111 /laaml k~6 hul ts&al)5/, Cactus.

,11~ 2 /laaml/, To burn off sth. such as the soft down of a duck/chicken or the hair on a piece of meat by putting it quickly over the flame before cooking. - IIJ'jj Jaaml fai2. To burn off (the soft hair) over the flame. t1! -ml}l:11a -

1i118.,,8n maa2 theml kau6 Jaaml kai3 kam2 J:,,f. Come and help me to burn

off the soft feathers of the chicken. ,11~ 1 /laam2/, (Of fire) to spread. IIJ'jj - '1/· TJLD1LJn11Jllri fai2 Jaam2 Jcaa3 tso4 k~,;f f:,,j. The frre spread to the pile of straws. ,11~ 2 /laam2/, To miss the point (as in cutting or shooting). u,/}01 - 1/· t£t3 Jaam2 kaa3. To miss in cutting.

Original from



.Alt;;j 3

/laam2/, Moment, hour, often used with names of animals to indicate a particular period of time during the day.

l::JHf/1H.,,,/I· "OLD - -vrl rnan2 hanl Jaa4

tso4 Jaam2 SIUJJ? At what hour was he born?

-Al~ /laam3/, Prefix for ordinal numbers. - 97/· Jaam3 haa4. The fifth. .Alld /laam4/, 1. Toothpick. 2. A stick used as a mixer. 3. A waxed stick used for smoothing out newly-woven cloth. -Alld"tl~n /laam4 tsil)4/, A long (about 70 cm or 4 thumb-forefinger spreads), round wax-coated stick for polishing threads in weaving.

-Al~ l

/laam6/, Earth, soil.


- ?:,k3 Jin6 ?:,k3 Jaam6. To be stained

with earth and mud.

-Al~ 2

/laam6/, To tether. l::JH11" - 1::JJ· man2 kaa3 Jaam6 maa5. He went to tether the horse(s).


/laan 1/, 1. Grandchild. 2. Nephew, • niece. -Ala-lal]l naafll xoi 1/, 1. Granddaughter's husband, grandson-in-law. 2. Niece's husband, nephew-in-law. .AIHur /laanl pai5/, 1. Grandson's wife, granddaughter-in-law. 2. Nephew's wife, niece-in-law. .Ala-1-uld /laanl saaul/, 1. Granddaughter. 2. Niece. .Ala-1-nl>i /laafll tsaai2/, 1. Grandson. 2. Nephew.


/laan2/, 1. Slow. - 1fja'fi Jaan2 kil xaP. So slow. 2. (Of time span) long. 91Drl - hi1) 1 Jaan2. A long ti111e. , ___ ? ·2 3. Less, few, rare. - l::J8 laiur- m1 . Of

Digitized by


rare OCCullCl'lCe. -

u1 -1aan2 yaa2. Hard

to find, rare.

.AIH l

/laan3/, Disaster. See phe2.

-AIH 2

/laan3/, To waste time, to idle away (the time), to delay or be delayed. - u/i:i Jaan3 ya,m2. To waste time. ~ .,,,//. 8LJrl Jaan3 Jaa4 X:Jl)l. To delay work.


/laan4/, 1. To be bald (esp. in the phrase 91Ld - hol Jaan4). 2. To be sunken. See xum3, J:,kl.

-AIH l

/laan5/, To be difficult.

.AIH 2 -Alri l

/laan5/, Million.

/laaJ]l/, A general classifier for objects, substitutable for haar:,6, yaarfl, ?an6. 01LJf191L:. .,,,,/Jn t:,,fl hul J8al)l J:,rf. Earring. 118M-VLJrl - sin4 s:iIJl laaIJl. Two skirts.

-Alri 2

llaaJJl/, To winnow. - ad JaaIJl xau4. To winnow grain.


/laal)2/, 1. Princess, Miss, aunt (father or mother's younger sister), lady, woman. 2. Classifier for girls or women (honorific) . .Alri'JIUl1 llaaJJ2 h:>1)5/, The ruler's wife, the Lady of the Seal. .Aln~r llaaJ]2 mai3/, Bride. -Aln~n- llaaJ]2 me2/, Wife. -Aln~nn /laal)2 m;,1)2/, The ruler's wife, the Lady of the Seal. .Alri-uld /la81)2 saaul/, Girl, young lady . .Alri-uijn llaaJJ2 SEl)l/, Princess, Miss, a polite ter 1n for addressing the ruler's or landlord's daughters. .Alri-nl')i /1881)2 tsaai2/, Children, offspring. Original from





...flriald ll88JJ2 xaaul/, Nun. ...flriuBn ll88JJ2 yifj2/, Woman. ...fI" I ll&a.JJ3/, Spotty, white-spotted, piebal~ skewbald. l::JI., - mul Iaa,J. A piebald pig. 1::J/· ~ maa5 Iaa,J. A piebald or skewbald horse. See laai2. ...fin 2 !l&a.JJ3/, 1. To air, to hang out (washing).~ 118· Iaarf1 s:t'. To hang out washing. 2. To wander about. 1/" ~ 1/" 011 -kaa3 Jaa,J kaa3 taa2. To wander about, to idle about doing nothing. .Aln ll&a.JJ4/, Cold. ~ .,,,d JIUJIJ4 laaul. To have a fever, to have malaria. See katl. .Alrl /JaMjS/, To wash (dishes). - m1." ~ a/11 1aary thu3 JBaIJ5 waan3. To wash dishes. See sak5, suk5, tuJcl. .Aln ll88fJ6/, To tie a rope to two points, as in fixing a clothesline, to tether. - -vlJJrnll' 01/1118· Iaa,f saail hel taak3 s:t'. To tie up a clothesline. ...fln-ouu ll88rJ6 ts~pJ,, (Finger)ring. Also haa,/ ts:Jp3. .Alu 1 /laap3/, Dare not do sth. again as a result of some unpleasant experience, as a child having been scolded for doing something wrong. ""J.1.,/Jj1/· - tJD Juk5 JaP kaa3 Jaap3 yau5. The child would not dare to do it again. .Alu 2 /laapl/, 1. Sword, (big) knife (esp. in the phrase - "0/1 Jaap3 tsaak5). 2. A .. cut , an instance of a cutting action. l/JH ~ _,,8n fan2 Jaap3 J:1,f. To give sth. a cut. .-tlu I /laapS/, Range, domain, scope, limits, te11itory. nl ~ .,,,. 1/11 ?aa6 Jaap5 Iaa4 kaan6. The scope of work.

Digitized by


...flU...f~ /laapS lamS/, Tenitorial waters . -,tlu-,tBH /laapS lin6/, Territory . -,tlu 2 /laapS/, To have a rest, to retire, to finish (work). -,tlu1IH /laapS kaan6/, To take a rest, to take leave, to stop work. -,ti unB~ /laapS JJim2/, To retire (from a post). -,tlumd /laapS thau4/, To retire (from a post). .Af011 /laat5/, To speak, to narrate. 01/11taan4 Jaat5. To give a speech. a'JJ.,/ljn01/rinl1::J1.·· xai6 Iaat5 l:J,f taarj ?aa6

mu2. To give an account of what was happening . -,tf 01-,t)) /laat5 lai4/, To talk about, to be concerned about, regarding, with regard to, with respect to. /laat5 le 1/, To instruct. -,tl01mn. /laat5 phel/, To propagate, to announce, to make known. -,tl0101L0 /laat5 to3/, To comment, to talkabout.


.Af012 /laat5/, 1. (Of water) to overflow, to flood . .,/Id - adrn8M1::JI-Jam5 laat5 xau4 h:1n2 maa2. Water flooded into the house. 2. To let (water) in. 1::JM1/" ~ _,,a_,,/-

man2 kaa3 Iaat5 Jam5 Iaa2. He went to let some water (i.e. direct it) into the field. -,tf01...fl01 /laat5 Jaat5/, Plenty, in large numbers. -,tf01-,tl01-,t801-,tB01 ./laat5 laat5 lit5 litS/, 1. Plenty, in large quantity or numbers, countless. 2. (Of water, dust and suchlike) to be everywhere. .Aid /laaul/, 1. To have a chill and a fever, • • to have a col~ to have malana. a'JJ ~ xai4 Jaaul. To have a chill and a fever, to have malaria. 2. To be cold. 1o1Original from



1/}111:J! ··Aln katl laaul ktn3 maa2 Jaarf'. To be piercing cold, to be exceptionally cold.


/laau2 pt:u2/, Cousin(s).

-Aid /laau5/, To pull (down). ~ u811 Jaau5 pin4. To pull down. Also 1Jaau5.


/laau6/, Stars, planets. ~ICTILCUn~ /laau6 ?o4 pem3/, Vega. ~la'Jllrf /laau6 haarJl/, Comet, tail of the comet. ~la'JllrtmUH /laau6 haarJl than3/, Name of a constellation, the Plough Frame constellation. ~la.Aijri /laau6 IEJJ2/, Venus. ~la1.1l~~LC /laau6 saaml Io2/, Altair. ~la01Lna1:1 /laau6 toJJ6 xam6/, Vega. ~la~l"'~Lrf /laau6 tsaarJS lol)l/, The Big Dipper, the Plough (literally the Big Elephant Star). -AlaaB - /laau6 wi2/, Name of a constellation, the Fan Star.

.-4')ll /lai 1/, (Of water or other similar • liquid) to flow, to run. Al:J - un

"DlnAD Jam5 Jai1 rail tsaai! Jau6. Running water never gets stale. ~')l2 /lai 1/, Discourse particle (seeking a yes/no answer). "O{ - tsai6 Jai1 ? Is this/that so? rnlltfl"DlliJ- het3 ts~i5 Jail ? Shall I/we do (it) this way?

~;J /lai2/, (Not used alone but only in certain compounds or combinations) water. 01ll1Af!J01ll1- tekl Jam5 tekl Jai2. To fetch water. Aid- 91"JJAI-Jam5 Jai2 hai6 Jaa2. Irrigation and water conservation. ~'))1 /lai4/, 1. To get, to obtain. l:Jr1/" -

mf1:JI- mai2 kaa3 Jai4 thail maa2?

Digitized by


Where did you get it? 2. To finish (doing). 1DULD01/]fll- IJD kau6 po2 ttm4 Jai4 rau5. I have already finished writing. rnlltflun - het3 rail Jai4. Have not finished doing (the work) yet. 3. Used with nouns of time, indicating the time from the past up to the speech moment. l:JHLJLD 1/" - A8HA8nud man2 po2 kaa3 Jai4 J~n6 J~rl rau5. He has been away for a month/He left a month ago. 4. To be able to, to be pe111titted to do. l:Jr1,.1n01[ji - mai2 rail toi2 Jai4. You cannot (i.e. are not allowed to) see it. UJ8'1 - "Olnrnu f~k3 Jai4 tsaail h:P. It can be learnt. 5. To be all right.

WL1"Df1'1.lliJrnf1:Jri018' - A'N - - '11LJ phuk5 tsaIJ3 saai4 hai4 mai2 til Jai4 Jail? - Jai4 h:P. Is it OK for me to return it to you tomo11ow?-Sure. 6. In a short time, once, no sooner...than ... - a/u,8 , 1/" "DLD1I" a11a11 Jai4 waa6 ti1 kaa3 tso3 kaa3 xanl xanl. No sooner did you say to leave than you actually went to do so (as a polite expression used by a host who requests a leaving guest to stay longer). ~'))-Aln~r 71ln llai4 laarJ3 tsai6 ?aarJ4/, To have one's goal fulfilled, to achieve what one wishes. ~'))nBM /lai4 1Jin2/, To hear. .A'))aLC /lai4 xo4/, (Often in negative) to be good for, to be fit for. 1LH1LD

AH91lltfl'1Jrl1{J1,.1n - kon2 ko5 Jan5 het3 SIUJl k~ rat/ Jai4 xo4. That guy is good for nothing. Also Jai4 J:;rf, Jai4 1)o4. .-4')l2 /lai4/, To resemble, to look alike.

Al· 01/1:Ju - 1:Jllad Jaa4 taa6 man2 Jai4

me6 xaul. He/She resembles his/her mother. Al· 01/aduBAun - 1Hl:J/}H

1:J/}H Jaa4 taa6 xaul pi6 J:;,:r Jai4 kan6

Original from



m£n5 mm5. The brothets look very much alike.

.-tll /laiS/, This. 1Ld - ko5 JaP. This person. tsil Jai5. These. l::lllti meu2 Jai5. This kind, this sort. 71ijr,.-t,J nofJ4 Jai5/, Here, this place. uB.-tll /pi6 Iai5/, This year.


CH.All /wan2 Jai5/, Today. ulfi.-tll /yaam2 Iai5/, Now, at the moment, at present. .,f)ll /Jai6/, To smile (esp. in the phrase .,,,, •- Jaa4 Jai6).

.,f)l2 /lai6/, To moisten (the throat by drinking some water). .A'JJ3 /lai6/, To be dirty.

f::1'1LJ'1'91Lrl him2 sop3 Jai6 mak5 yak5

hol)l. The comer of (your) mouth got

very dirty. .,f)l4 /lai6/, Sentence final particle indicating agieement. "CJ[ - tsai6 Jai6. Yes, it is. 91flti1"0Dil01LD.,,/B- het3 ts:1i5 t6 Ji6 Jai6. It's good to do it this way.


.A12 /lak 1/, Another, different. f::Jllti.,,,,:, -

rnlrif::lHf::lllti.,,,Dn rneu2 Jai5 Jakl haarj man2 meu2 J:1q6. This is of a different type. .A13 /lak 1/, Post, stake. - 01f]t, Jakl t£rj3. Milestone. - 07LJ1 Jakl t~k3. A (big) stake for building dams. .A14 /lakl/,Kilomctre,mile. .-t1UU>i /Jakl poi2/, To be going to, to

Digitized by

.-t1 /JakS/, 1. To steal (esp. in the phrase

- .,,,gu,

Jak5 J:1t5). 2. (Used with other

verbs) to do something stealthily, secretly or quietly . .,f1.,f~ /lak5 lam5/, To fetch the first two buckets of water for the New Year (a common traditional practice). -,t1.-tUl:I /lak5 Ioml/,Secretly, stealthily, quietly. .-t"l"U~ /lak5 soi4/, To be jealous, to envy. uiJ - uD11 pai3 Jak5 soi4 P:Jn6. Don't be jealous of others.

.,f~ /laml/, Many, much, plenty, numerous. '1LH - 91fltf1.,,,LJnU1/rinl'JJ

918ldi'1.ILLl -

.A1 l /lakl/, (Of things) to be heavy. - haap3 Jakl. A heavy load. .-t1-,tl" /Jakl laal/,Paramount, important, serious, critical. .-t1ur /Jakl yai3/, Important.

be about to. -,t1-,t8' /Jakl li4/, Calendar.


kon2 laml het3 J~q6 taarj l)aai6. Many

hands make light work. .,f~.-tl" /laml laal/, Plenty (oO, a large number of, very many. .,f~.-tl,J /laml laai 1/, Plentiful, in large numbers, populous . .,f~.,fo" /lam 1 1~1/, 1. (Something) to spare. 2. Unwanted, unnecessary, cumbersome. .Afi /lam2/, 1. Classifier for vehicles such

as cars, motorbikes, bicycles, planes or boats. 2. The trunk of a plant. - f::liJ Jam2 mai5. The trunk of a tree•

.Ali /lam3/, 1. To dive, to plunge into water. 2. (Of the root of a plant) to go deep into the earth, (of a cut) deep. Jam3 l:1k5. To go deep into. .-tli1f'lntn /lam3 het3/, To venture. .,fli~l"l /lam3 maak5/, To be greedy.


.A~ /lam5/, 1. Water, liquid. 2. Abstract

noun prefix meaning 'sense', 'substance' or 'ability' . .,f~UJLH /lam5 fonl/, Rainwater. Original from


64 .,f l:}1J1ijri /lams ht:1]2/, Strength, force.

,11:}aH /lams wan2/, The Wan River

,11:}1J1U~ /lams hom 1/, Perfume.

(across the County ofLongchuan, called the Longchuan River by the Chinese). -,11:}alt:j· /lams xaam2/, Mood, modality (of speech). ,11:}aur1 /lams XOl)I/, The I ,ancang River, the upper reaches of the Mekong River. -,11:}aun· /)amS X01]2/, The Xong or the Lu River (across the area where Dehong is spoken and from which Dehong got its name), the Salween River (so called on the Bw1,1CSC side). ,11:}ulri /lams yaag2/, The Yang River (across Meng Yang of Lianghe County), the upper reaches of the Ruili River. ,11:}uldi /lams yaat3/, Water for offerings.

.,fl:}1f1L /lams huS/, Knowledge,

learning. ,11:}101 /Jam5 Jcat5/, 1. Ability, skill. 2. Standard. .-tl:1181-1 /Jam5 kin6/, Drinking water. ,11:},1l')i /lams 1aai2/, 1. Saliva. 2. Dew,

mist. ,11:},11 /lam5 Jak3/, Weight. ,11:},1nn /lams le1]6/, Tea (liquid). ,11:},18 /lams Ii6/, 1. Clean water.

2. Quality. ,11:}.-181-1 /Jam5 lin6/, Soil, condition of soil. ,11:}-,tl~ /Jam5 lom2/, Milk. ,11:},1Uri /lams lo1J2/, To flOOi..tl'JJ..tna-1...tna-1 /laai2 laai21en2 len2/, Multicoloured.

,tnH ,tnM

/len3/, To press (down), to squeeze.

/len4/, To go sightseeing, stroll about. .All· - Je3 Jen4. To amuse oneself, to go sightseeing.


/len5/, 1. To tread on, to step on, to pedal. - -A/]rf01811 Jen5 IEIJJ tin6. To

Digitized by



/lep3/, To tuck (in), to insert (a small object) in or into. 71001811"1.18 · -

admLd'1LH11" ?au6 tin6 s:fl Jep3 xau4 ho1 kon6 kaa3. To tuck the bottom of the

shirt in.

,1nu 1

/lep5/, Claw, paw, talon. kai3. Chicken's claw.


1'JJ Jep5

/lep5/, (To go or walk) along.

- m8ld.Ald,I" Jep5 him2 Jam5 kaa3. To walk along the river.

..tnm 1

/let3/, To be numb. a/,_

ma xaal

Jet3 hau5. My feet are getting numb.

..tnm 2

/let3/, 1. To play (stringed musical instrument). - 018n let3 tir;f. To play (or pluck) a musical instrument. 2. To squeeze a small object with fingernails, as in killing a louse, to nip off. - 1::J8H

Original from




- .--- - --~



69 let3 rnin2. To kill a body louse by squeezing it between two finget11ails.

.-1noi 3 /let3/, To pass (liquid through a strainer), to strain. .-1nd1 /leul/, To be sticky. .-1nd2 /leul/, To tum (one's head/face) back. - ,1/· f:JI- ull#J Jeul Jaa4 maa2 yem4. To turn one's face back to look. .-1n~ /leuS/, 1. Finger, toe. 2. Classifier for finger rings and similar small objects. .-1n~1ln /leuS kaag6/, Middle finger. .-tn~l:jff .. /leu5 mi2/, Finger.

.-1n~01I~ /leuS taam6/, Ring finger. .-1n~01BH /leuS tin6/, Toe. .-1n~~e• /leuS tsiS/, Forefinger, index finger. .-1na /leu6/, 1. One, single, alone, only. rnlri1:J111@ - haarjl man2 ko5 Jeu6. He/She alone, only him/her. 2. The same. -vurlal, ,,. ulld - s:,1)1 xaal kaa3 yaam2 Jeu6. The two of them went at the sametime.

.-1ij• /lr.2/, Sentence particle (imperative). f:J!- m,:, - ma2 thai4 Jt2! Come here! .-tij /Jr.6/, Sentence particle (expressing agreen1ent). f;JrO'IIHf:JI-O'ILD"Dr - mai2 taan4 maa2 to6 tsai6 JE6. What you said is right. .-tij1 11£k1/, To be lame. A lame foot.

a/ · - xaal lEkl.

.-1ij1 /ltk3/, 1. To pound into powder or small particles, to crush into powder (esp. in the phrase O'lf:J- - tam61£k3 1£k3). 2. (Of an animal being killed) to suuggle while breathing its last. unul

Digitized by


0'1/')J - aH ya.q6 paa6 taai6 1£k3 xanl. Has not breathed its last.

.-1ij1 /ltkS/, To exchange. - 'VLd 1£k5 sol. To exchange money/currency . .-1ij1.-tl'JJ /IEkS kaai6/, 1. To change (for). 2. To exchange. .-1ij11H 11£k5 kan6/, Toexchange. .-tij18UH /Ir.ks xon3/, To exchange. .-tijl:1 /1£ml/, 1. Sharp-pointed, sharp. f:J80'1 - rnit5 1£ml. A sharp-pointed knife. a8n,1/1w/'}J- x:1,I JaaJc5 phaail 1£ml. Sharp weapon, good tool . 2. Smart, clever, crafty, foxy. 1Ll1 1Ld,1iJ- w8, O'lfl• kon2 ko5 IBP 1£1111

phil te5. This fellow is rather foxy. See JC£t3.

.-tijfi 11£m2/, To look for, to search (for). - "D/]1WUUl'Vll1 1£m2 ts:,k3 ph:,t3 s:,k5. To search everywhere. .-tij~ /ltm3/, To tether, to tie (an object) on one end of a rope in a fixed position. Also Jaam6. .-tij~ /1£m4/, 1. Classifier for bamboos, arrows and similar long, thin objects. 2. Noun stem for these. .-tij~l:jffH /lr.m4 min6/, Arrow . .-tij~ULtt /lr.m4 pun6/, Arrow. .AijH /1£nl/, 1. Breast. See Jom2. 2. (Breast) milk. -vul:J - rnr 11ll ' 71UH s:,ml lEnl hai4 ?el ?:,n3. To breastfeed a baby. See Jom2, Jam5 ?ul. .AijH 11£n2/, Crocodile. .-tijHl 11£n3/, 1. Soldier. 2. To practise. - ,1/jja/]111£n3 laai2 x£n5. To practise boxing.

Original from



.AijH2 /ltn3/, 1. To extract oil by heat, to refine (oil). - l:JH 1En3 man2. To refine oil, to extract oil. 2. To forge (iron). - -Afl'i ltn3 lek2. To forge/strike iron. -AijH /ltn4/, Fi11n, secure. u;l~-ALrl1D,;j faail loIJI kim2 1En4. The (foundation of the) darn is very fit 1n. See mart'. -AijH1H /ltn4 kan6/, To be in very good relationship, (of relations) to be fi11n. .,fijH.,fl • /ltn4 laal/, Fi1111, secure. -AijH /ltn5/, Spleen, pancreas.

.,fijl1'1lf /1£1)1 tsai6/, To worry, to be worried. -,1ijr, /ltfJ2/, 1. To be bright (not dark).


- 910 faa5 IE,f hau5. Day is breaking. 2. To fully understand, to be crystal clear (about sth.). UJIM.A"JJ1.11 - taan4 Jar' sakl IE,f. To be very clear in • expression . .,fijrl'JlM llEIJ2 hanl/, To discern, to see clearly, to have insight into. -Aijnuun /ltfJ2 poJJ3/, To understand clearly, to be well aware of. .,fan llETj3/, To tie sth. to a long rope with

.,fijH 1 /ltn6/, Area, site, location, place.

.,fijH.,fBH .-tijH010n .,fijHaULJ

/ltn6 lin6/, Territory.

.,fijH2 /ltn6/, 1. To run. 2. (Of animals) to beon heat.

-Aijn 11£1)4/, 1. To lie face up (esp. in the phrase - u,/197/~ IEif taak3 haail) . 2. To stick out, to straighten up (physically). - 71L'1 ltr/ ?ok3. To stick out one's chest.

-Aijl11 /IEfJl/, 1. Vehicle, cart. 2. A load carried in a vehicle. 71a - 1/" u,/nl:Jl-

.,fij,1 /ltfJS/, (Of weather or season) dry, no rain (during rainy season). u;/· -

/ltn6 t;,fJ2/, Territory, land. /ltn6 xop3/, Frontier.

1.1un ~ ?alP lEIJI kaa3 tBaIJ3 maa2 S:Jl)l

.A0U1 faa5 lE,! 1£t3. The weather is very

1£1)1. To use a cart to bring back two loads. .,fijnal)i /ltl)l xaai2/, Cart drawn by a buffalo. .,fijn.,fBH /ltfjl lin6/, The earth (as opposed to the sun). .,fijnl:fl· 11£1)1 rnaa5/, Cart drawn by a horse. .,fijnl:fnH IIEJJ 1 men6/, Plane.

dry. See hEif.

,Aijl1nLii 11£1)1 fJo2/, Cart drawn by an ox. -,1ijn01BH 11Efj1 tin6/, Bicycle. -Aijl12 11£1)1/, To worry, to be worried. .,f ijnl:f~ri llEfJ 1 m;,fJ2/, Plague, pestilence, disaster.


one end fixed in a position. Also 1Em3.

.,fan llEfJ6/, Red. l:lLJ'1tJI. ~ m:ik3 yaa4 1£,1. Red flowers. .,.ijnt.Qln· IIEJJ6 faar.JI/, Dark red.

.,fijn'Jlun· /1£1)6 hofJl/, Blood red. .,fijnalci 11£1]6 waau2/, Bright red, scarlet. .,fijnaun 11£1)6 XOJ]3/, Pink. .,fijLJ /ltp3/, 1. Pincers. 2. Small bag for specific purposes (such as a tea bag or one for holding salt, chilli or pickled vegetables). .,fijU 11Ep5/, 1. To fill (gap/crack). See

2. To tuck in (mosquito nets/quilts). - 1.llJrl IE,,S sutl. To tuck in ?Qt3, ?:1n4.

Original from



mosquito nets (so as to keep mosquitoes away). -Aiju.Aiju 11Ep5 1Ep5/, To be lustful, to lust, (of woman) to be coquettish. -Aijuaijll 11Ep5 xEpl/, To be on guard against, to be vigilant, to watch out for. .Aijo'i /1Et3/, 1. Sunlight, sunshine, the sun. - 71l]11Jlld11/dLJD 1£t3 ?:Jk3 saam1 saau4 yau5. The sun has risen quite high (lit. the sun has risen to three poles' height). 2. To be sunny. 1::1/JiJu;/· - m~i5 faa5 1£t3. It's a sunny day today. -,1ijo'i71u11::1uimlm 11Ep5 ?ok3 mok3 thaat3/, The clouds melt and the mists disperse, (of the sky) to clear up. -,1ij01 11Et5/, To hurry, to urge, to push or press (sb. to do sth.). 1::1111::1/-- 01/1 01/1 ff1Lri man2 maa2 lct5 taak5 taak5 hoJJl. He/She kept pushing (us/me). .Aij01-ULC 11Et5 so3/, To urge, to press, to push, to advance. -,tijdl llEul/, To wander, to roam, to travel. 1::1111/· - 1::1/JtiLJD man2 kaa3 Jcu 1 m:,,fl hau5. He/She went travelling. -,1ijd2 llEu 1/, To ruin, to break, to be broken, to damage. af!nnllM- ma x:,,! ?en4 1£ul hau5. The toy was broken. -,1ijd3 IIEuI/, (Of fluid) thin. adrniJi LJ/1::110l}drna xau4 hul)l /cul yaam6 phcul hau5. The porridge was too thin/watery.


/1Eu3/, Grain (for animals), animal


-,10a2 11Eu3/, To discard, to throw away. See wut5.

Digitized by


-,18" l /Iii/, (Land) rent, (land) tax. - ,4/ .. Jil Jaa2. I .and rent.

-,18 · 2 /Ii 1/, To move, to migrate. - rn/!11 Jil h:,n2. To move (house).

-,1B· ulH /Iii paan3/, Paradise (according to cultural beliefs). -,1B· l /li3/, 1. Bud, tip of young shoots. 2. Funnel. 3. (Wooden) plug. -,18· 2 /li3/, To filter, to strain. -,18" /li4/, 1. Debt. LJl],;i - y:Jm2 Ji4. To be in debt. 2. Enmity. 8LJ01- X:Jt3 Ji4. To start a feud, to become enemies. -,18" -A001 /li 4 l~t5/, Debt of blood, intense and deep-seated hatred. -,181 /li6/, 1. Good. 2. Should. -4ljn 1::1fld,4iJLJn - rnll01 J:J,! meu2 laP y81J6 Ji6 het3. This sort of thing shouldn't be done. 3. Verb prefix meaning 'having or causing a certain feeling', translatable as '-ful' or '-able'. .A871l)I /li6 ?aai6/,Hateful, disrespectful. -AB'J11 /li6 hak5/,Lovable, lovely. -,1B1LC /Ji6 ko6/, To fear, to be afraid, to be fearful. -,18.AB /li6 li6/, 1. (Often used in imperative)carefully, take care. UJJ pai6 Ji6 Ji6. Take care, walk slowly. 2. Exactly. 1::1/-,4'Ji1J8LJ,4/JJ1 - maa2 Jai4 sipl J:,n6 Ji6 Ji6. To have been (here) for exactly ten months. -AB-ot· /li6 tsaa5/, What's good and what's bad. - 11ri1{J1::1rLJnrn1.· Ji6 tsaa5 satJl k:t# mai2 y81J6 hu5. You don't really know what's good and what's bad -AB-or /lj6 tsai6/, To be comfortable. -AB-on Jlj6 ts81)2/, To be hateful. Original from



.,.92 flj6/, 1. Gallbladder. - liB, Bear's bladder. 2. A fish net.

Jj6 mjl.

-,t83 fli6/, (Often used in pairs) each, every. - 0111/· - uy1 Jj6 wan2 kaa3 Ji6 ~k5. To go once each/every day.

- 1LD-AiJ - rn[jJ Jj6 ko5 Iai4 Ii6 hoi3. Each got one. -,t84 fli6/, (Often used as connective) the more ...the more ... - 01/,:, ~ "DLEd Ji6 taan4 Ji6 tsom2. The more he/I talked, the happier he/I became. .-4811 /lik5/, 1. Book, writings, volume. 2. Classifier for cigarettes. .,.e.,.,.l')J' /lik5 laai2/, Books, newspapers, writings, culture. -,t81'1Jl01ln /lik5 saa6 taal)2/, Newspapers. -,t81and /lik5 xeul/, Lyrics, love poems, poetry in general. .-tB12 /lik5/, Young, small. 1J!~1Jld011d -


saaml sam3 tam3 Jik5 /:)i5

-,t8l:J01n· /liml te3/, 1. To be stable, to be peaceful. 2. Stability, peace.

-,t8l:J-of /liml tsu6/, Peace of mind. -,t8~ /lim2/, 1. Wheel. - -A{jri Jim2 lclJl. Wheels of a vehicle. 2. Classifier for wheels. .-tB~.,f~ /lim2 lam5/, Watcrtrough across a mountain valley. .A8~.-tL1 /lim2 lokl/, A kind of toy played with by young people during the Spring Festival. -AB~ /lim4/, 1. Wooden wedge, peck, plug. 2. Classifier for these. Also Icm4. 3. A pile of crops or thatch grass after being cut in harvest. -,t8H /lin5/, Tongue. .-tBH1')1 /lin5 kai3/, Uvula. -ABH.-tUr1 /lin5 1~1]1/, Awkward in speech. -,t8H~L01J1Ld /lin5 mo3 hol/, The brim of a hat.

fJBn lin6

Ium3 thau4. The young, the middle-aged and the old, three generations. iilM - -Al··

.-tBH 1 /lin6/, Earth, land, soil. m:,,f. (The) land. See Jaam6.

-AUil maan4 lik5 Jaa2 /:)i5. Small villages.

.A8H2 /lin6/, Pangolin (esp. in the phrase

See ?cn3, ?,n3, I,i5. -ABl:J /liml/, (Of society or country) to be stable, to be peaceful, (of cattle) to stay in the grazing land, not running about, (of a spinning top) to spin well, to spin for a long time. alnrn[jJ-AiJ ~ 01n· xaai;f hoi3 Jai5 Jiml te5. This top spins well. -ABl:Jun· 01n· '1.11. /liml pe3 te3 saa3/, 1. Peace, stability. 2. Peaceful, stable. -,t8l:J'1JC /lim 1 sau2/, To be stable, to be peaceful. .A8l:J'1Jn· /lim 1 se3/, To be stable, to be peaceful.

Digitized by



~ ket3 Iin6).

-ABri /li1]2/, Monkey.


/li1]3/, 1. To be steep, precipitous. ~U'JJ ~ l:Ji6 lir:f. The hill is steep. 2. To drain off (water), to pour. -,t8n~I· /li1]3 maa3/, To be cunning, to be foxy.

-,t8" /li1]4/, To shirk. uiJ ~ 1HlD{jd pai3 lit/ kan6 phEul. Don't shirk your responsibilities. .-tBLl /lip 1/, 1. Unripe, not yet ripe. 1:1/i ~ maak3 Iipl. Unripe fruits. 2. Raw, not

Original from



cooked (as opposed to sukl). .-11]· - J;t# Jipl. Raw meat. 3. (Of fll'Cwood or sttaws) not dried, freshly cut. UJJfi fun2 Iipl. Freshly cut firewood, firewood that is not dried. -,1BLJ.,fBuanciand /lipl lipl xeul xeu 1/, 1. (Of fruits) far from being ripe. 2. (Of people) to be foxy, to be cunning, to be full of tricks. .,feu.,feu...011...011 nip• 1ip1 IErJs 1£1)5/, To lack commonsense.


/litl/, 1. To tap off, to snap (the fingers). - 1::1D ~ litl mi2. To snap the fingers. 2. To bounce back, to lapse back. - J1U11/· litl ?:Jk3 kaa3. To bounce off. 3. To jerk, to jump. ul.-1rmlfi.-111- m/u,m/01rnLrl paa6 Jai2 thurf Jan5 litl thaat5 thaat5 hol)l. The fish in the bucket kept jumping.

-,1801 /lit5/, 1. To dismantle, to undo (weaving or knitting). - rn/]11 Jit5 h:1n2. To dismantle a house. 2. To cut off, trim off (the small twisty branches of a bamboo tree). -,1801uij01 /lit5 ptt5/, To get rid of, to abolish. -,1801-ol01.-1l'JJUIH /lit5 tsaat5 laai6 paan6/, Change of dynasty or of regime, dynastic changes.


/liul/, To twist, to wind, to screw, to pinch, to be slanting, to be crooked. - 1::1Blitrn1.· liul min3 hul. To give sb. a pinch on the ear.

.-tBi:i /liu2/, 1. To be twisted, crooked, curly. 8LH'17Ld - xonl hol Jiu2. Curly hair. 2. A ply (of threads).

xau4 ?UIJl Joi. Thick porridge. 2. (Of food) rich, sumptuous. 3. (Of voice or sound) unclear, low. "'Ld"'IH /lol Jaan2/, To be slow. - 1/11m1.· Jol Jaan2 kaan2 thul. To crawl slowly. "'Ld.-lLd.-1nd.-1nd /lol lol leul leul/, (Of smoke or fog) to be thick, to fill the

"'LC 1

/lo2/, Father's younger brother's wife, aunt. -,t(_llUB.-ll_ll.-1Ul1 /lo2 pi6 lo2 lorJ5/, Wives of brothers, sisters-in-law.

.-ILD 2 /lo2/, To mix, to be mixed up, to blend, to tangle, to mingle, to confuse. u,ll· wlriaLH- te5 phaJUJ2 xon2 Jo2. To confuse right and wrong. un.-187101::11.··

mB .. 1111r,81::1/J11111 '1.IUri.-1/ri.-1ii 8LH'1111::JI ·· ya,! Ji6 ?au6 mu2 thi2 ?an6 ?a,n3 m:,nl kan6 S:Jl)l laaIJI laP Jo2 x.on2 kan6 maa2. Don't confuse two separate • issues.

.-ILD 3 /lo2/, To rob, to loot. -

na Jo2 ?au6.

To rob, to take by force. .-IL[}1I· /Jo3 kaa3/, Illness, sickness.

"'L[j I

/103/, Bamboo shoots, a sprout,

young shoots. - rnl]ti Jo3 h£,f. Dried bamboo shoots. "'L[}and /lo3 xeul/, Dish cooked with salted bamboo shoots.

"'L[j 2

/lo3/, Classifier for human beings.

See ko5.


"'LO 3

/103 tsoi 5/, Woman, lady.

/103/, To pour, to tip or dump (large

amount of things) into, to cast or mould (metal). UJ[!1.-1Lrl - 8LJld fonl lolJl Jo3

.-tBd /liu5/, Kapok tree.

Digitized by

.-11_d /lol/, 1. Thick (of fluid). ati71L{1 -


Original from



...tL'11 /lok3/, 1. To be deaf.

x:Jm4. A downpour of rain, torrential •


rn1.· -

(97J., .;1/' ) hul lok3 (hul laal). To

-ALO 3 flo3/, Should, to need (sth.), need to, must, to be necessary. -


.;18n Jo3 h:1n2 h,,f l:1,f. Need a house. 1lJ.. - DLJ'19'1ljri su4 Jo3 ?:Jk3 h£rj. Need to work hard.


rnlltit011 - het3 ts:,P het3 taJcl Jo3. It's necessary to do it this way . .AI_C1Jn· /Jo3 se3/, To respect. .,fl_C1Jn· .,,n· 1::1101 /Jo3 se3 Ie3 maat5/, To respect, to show respect to. .ALcl /Jo4/, Spade, shovel. .Ai_d /loS/, 1. Cart. - nLd Jo5 1Jo2. Ox cart. 2. Pulley. - 1::/JJ Jo5 mail. Bamboo tube for spinning threads.

.AL?J /loi2/, To chase, to drive (cattle). - 1llM Ioi2 kenl. To chase, to run after. - 7JU,;j loi2 ts,m2. To follow closely. See Jip5, kenl, ha4.

-ALt:i /loml/, 1. Loose, too big to fit.

l::JLD9'1Ld- wl}d mo3 hol loml phEul. The hat is too big. 2. To be well-to-do,

.Al}' /loi3/, To be tired, exhausted. l::Jl}J moi3 loi3. To be exhausted, to be tired out.

to be better off, to be in easy circumstances. - 181,,1 - 01D-lom 1 kin6 lom 1 ti2. To be better off. .Ai_t:i1lf /loml tsai6/, To be carefree, to be free from worries.

.Al]J /loi6/, 1. To hang down, to droop. l::JI. • rn1.·- mul hul l:Ji6. A pig with drooping ears. 2. To loosen, to strip or remove (grains) from their stalk. - adll}/· loi6 xau4 faa5. To remove grains of corn from the cob. 3. (Of appearance) to be wan and sallow, to be downcast. .;1/· - Jaa4 l:Ji6. To have a sallow face, to be downcast.

. . - . ..

.AL11 /lok5/, 1. Generic te11n for birds. 2. Name for the sixth son. -AL1TIUHTlijH /lok5 ?:>n3 ?En3/, Swallow (bird). -AL1rJ'IL /lok5 tu4/, Turtledove . .AL11lna /lok5 tseu3/, Myna. .AL11lU1 /lok5 tsok3/, (House) sparrow . ...tL1and /lok5 xeul/, Parrot. .AL18~ /lok5 xum4/, Quail. -AL1UU, /lok5 yufJ2/, Peacock. -AL12 /lok5/, 1. To put (a chicken or a duck) in boiling water so as to remove its feathers, to scald. 2. To tender boil (vegetables) before putting (them) out to • • • dry, to boil rice before steanung. 01n.;11::J - ad tag4 Jam5 lok5 xau4. To tender boil rice.

.AL_CJ flo6/, (Of snakes) to crawl, to move along, (of a troop or parade) to move forward. - ad1::J/11 Jo6 xau4 maan4. To march into a village.

Digitized by

have a deaf ear, to be deaf. 2. To be stubborn. uiJ - wl}d pai3 lok3 ph£ul. Don't be so stubborn .

.AL.;j 1 /lom2/, Milk. See ?ul. -AL.;j 2 /lom2/, Wind, air. -AL.;j"'ij"' /lom2 IEfJ5/, Strong wind. .AL.;j.ABd /lom2 liul/, Whirlwind. .AL.;j1Jlri1f"lijri /lom2 saatJ2 h£fJ2/, Hurricane, violent wind.


Original from - --



.AL~ /lom3/, To fall (into). - '11L.- mlrl Jom3 hu2 thaaJJl. To fall into a pit. - '11JI1 Jom3 hwf. To fall/sink into a mire. - 7181::J Jom3 ts:,m6. To sink.



1. To sink, to collapse, to fall over. 2. (To attend) to great detail. 71fl71/- 71ljld - tse2 tsaa2 ts:,m3 Jom4. To look after (sb. or sth.) very well.

.AL~ /lom5/, (Of things) to fall down, to fall over, to collapse, (of people or animals) to topple, to fall.

.ALl:I /lom6/, To smell. l::Jr - ~L, ~/,Jull11


mai2 Jom6 Ju6, laail pen6 ?aai6

S8.IJ1? Come and smell it, what smell is

hoi3 lotJl JC:JP, kau6 J:,rf yaq6 kin6 Jar' men5. This is such a big pineapple that

I cannot eat it all myself. 1~rr,ll-

~11rnt_il- rnt_il~/t, koi4 he2 Jan5 hoi3 lotJl hoi3 JBaJ)l. Those bananas are

really huge. 3. Intensifier, often comes after an adjective phrase or a foursyllable expression. 1::JiJD/010/01 - mai4 waat5 waat5 Jol)l. To be burning hot, to be furious. ~171/'1'1/1 - Jakl ?aak5 kaak5 lotJl. Very heavy. ~011~1::Jal::Jap,;; - J:,n6 Jam6 JCam6 xin2 lotJ1. In the middle of the night, on a very dark night. .-flDJ1L /101] 1 ?u 1/, Grandmother. .-fLr11lO /101] 1 tsau4/, Grandfather.

"'L" 2 /lol)l/, To forget. - .,,., ~n,;i1/" lol)l


.A(_H /lon2/, (Of books) dog-eared, (of clothing) to wear out.

.ALM /lon3/, (Of stains or colour) to fade away, to come off, to disappear.

un11'1~'JI - yar:,6 sak5 Jar' Jon3. Cannot be washed clean, cannot be removed by washing.

.ALH /lon4/, Classifier for logs and trees. See ton4.

-ALH /lon5/, To overflow. ~li~Uri 11lj'11::JI- LJD Jam5 l:>1)1 Jon5 ?:,k3 maa2 yau5. The pool overflowed.

.ALH--4101 /Ions laat5/, To flood. .-fl~.-fn, /lon5 Ia1/, To be excessive, excessively, to have more than is needed.

-ALri 1 /lol)I/, 1. Grandfather, noun stem indicating grandparent. See Jenl. 2. (Cannot be used alone as a predicate but as a modifier for noun + classifier phrase) great, big. 1::J/1~/rirnt_il- a8iJ,

'1D~8nun'1811~iJ1::J/]11 maak3 Jaarj

Digitized by


kaa3 Jim2 kaa3. To have forgotten, forgot. un - un~D,;i yar:,6 lotJI yar:,6 Jim2. Have not forgotten, will never forget. See Jim2.

.ALn 3 /lol)l/, To make a mistake, to go astray. 01/M- 1/" ua taan4 lotJl kaa3 yau5. (I/You) have made a mistake in speech. - 01/ri lotJl taarj. To lose one's way, to go astray . .-flna1~· /lol)l xaam2/, To eat one's words. .-fLr101L_C.-fO~aBn /IOI) 1 to6 lim2 xi1]2/, To forget .

.-fLfi l /lofJ2/, To descend. ~ 1/" Jorj kaa3. Togo down. .-fLl11flflH /lofJ2 h~n2/, To break up the family and live apart, to divide the family properties and live apart. .-fLri.An- /lofj2 le2/, To criticise, to blame. .ALl1.AUH llofJ2 lon2/, To stay out for the night in someone else's place before migrating (as an old custom). Original from



-ALri-Unn /lol)2 sefj3/, Fortune-telling. .-tLrimr llo1J2 w41, Less than, no more

-AL01 /lotS/, To massage, to knead, to rub, to run over (by the wheel of the mill). ~ W1'1.1Lt:i Jot5 phakl som4. To rub pickled vegetables.

than, below. '1.Jlfd'1.J8Ll - saaml sipl

Jorj tai4. Less than thirty, below thirty.

-Alfi 2 /101)2/, A patch of land made of several smaller plots.

-ALrl /101)4/, Winnowing basket, big flat basket (for holding provisions or for sleep).

-ALr, /101)5/, To be fluent (in a language), to be expert (in). LJnWo1-AiJ ~ ya,/ phatl

Jai4 Ior:,5. Not quite fluent in reading aloud. rnL.· ~ ,A/jj71lln1n· -AllUl hu5 Ior:,5 laai2 ?erj ke5 Jet5. To be fluent in

English, to be expert in English.

-ALn 1 /lofJ6/, Forest, jungle (esp. in the phrase ~ UlLD Jo,! to2}. ~ m811 Io,! th~. Jungle; grave.

-ALn 2 /101)6/, To suffer from diarrhoea, to have diarrhoea.

-ALLI /lop3/, To roof a house by removing part or all of the used thatch grass or rice straw and putting on new thatch. - rn811 Jop3 h:>n2. To roof a house (by replacing the old thatch grass with new). .ALLI-AUn /lop3 loJJ6I, (Of friends or relatives) to visit a newly-wed or a young mother who has just given birth to a baby.

-ALU /lopS/, To fold by rolling, to gather (grains) in a sunning mat by lifting up the edges of the mat, to fold up the edge of a quilt cover as in stitching. See top-5.

-ALD'I /lot3/, Beard, moustache. -ALD'l1JIU1 /lot3 hok3/, Grey beard. -ALD'lnij1:1 /lot3 JJEm6/, Moustache.

Digitized by


.Al} /l~l/, Sentence particle (exc1arnmion). rnln.A8U1ll haai:,6 Ji6 te5 J:,l ! What a O -

beautiful thing!


/loll, Sentence particle (seeking

agreement). f/1D-A8' lDiJLJD - hau2 J:,4 thai4 yau5 Iil? Shall we have a rest now?

-AU /l~/, Sentence particle (imperative). rnll01"D8iJrnllril ~ het3 ts:,i5 het3 J:,5f Just do it this way!

-AU'JJ 1 /loi2/, To swim (in the river). - -At!i l:Ji2 Jam5. To swim in the river. un - -A">'f/1UU11J· YBJJ6 J:Ji2 Jar' h:Jts kaa3. Cannot swim across.

-AU'JJ 2 /loi2/, Slow, slowly, gently. ~ ~ l:Ji2 l:Ji2. Very slowly, very gently. u,/,:, - taan4 l:Ji2 l:Ji2. To speak slowly. 1/·- kaa3 l:Ji2. To go/walk slowly. .-.ILJ)I /loi3/, To take off or pull down (skirts, pants), (of skirts, pants) to slip off. -ALl10'18 ,_ 1/ ·LJD kon6 til l:Ji3 kaa3

yau5. The pants almost slipped off.

-AU'Jl /l-:,i 5/, Small. .AU'JJ 1 /loi 6/, 1. (Of fire) to weaken, to abate. IJJjjULD ~ 1/· LJD fai2 po2 l:Ji6 kaa3 yau5. The fire died down. 2. To stop. 711d-A8711d ~ ?am3 J:,4 ?am3 l:Ji6. Not stopped. 3. To bury. UTIJJ

rnllunu/U111.A8]11d - taai6 hel ya,! paa6 tan2 J:f# ?am3 l:Ji6. (He/It) is dead but has not yet been buried.

Original from


77 perfor rnances in honour of the sponsoring family during a religious • service.

-"U>'2 /loi6/, Mountain, hill. -AU>I-AI • lDI · "DH /loi6 laal phaal tsan2/, High mountains. -AU>'"D~-A~and /loi6 tsams 1ams xeu 1/, Green hills and clear waters, picturesque scenery.

-AU.;i /lom2/, 1. Basket for holding dye. 2. To su11e1•der (sth.), to give up (sth.). · - -VL- J:,m2 su2. To surrender.

-AU1 /lok 1/, 1. A patch or a plot (of land). J/J - - J/8n Jaa2 J:,k1 J;1,I. A patch of land. 2. Concave, hollow, sunken.

-AU~ /lom4/, To surround, to enclose. - 0181 J:,m4 t;1k3. To attack by surrounding. Also J:,m5.

-"U1 /lok3/, 1. Hump of an ox or camel.

-AU~ /lom5/, To surround, to enclose, to besiege, to fence (ofO. -v81allH1::JI ·· -

2. Concave, hollow. sunken. -"U1 1 /lok5/, 1. Outside, out, external. 111/LJ/ - kan4/paa6 J:,k5. Outside. - - J/fJ/f J:,k5 J:,k5 Jai2 Jai2. Inside and outside. 2. To tear off, to skin, (of snakes or other similar animals) to cast off skin. - u811::JiJ J:,k5 p;1k3 mai5. To remove the bark of a tree. nL·· - alu 1Ju2 J:,k5 xaap5. Snakes cast off their skins. -AU1.A')l /lok5 lai5/, Besides this, apart from this. -"U1-AH /lok6 Ian 5/, Besides that, apart from that. -AU1"'Ulln /lok6 saat3/, Layman. -"U101~1'1 /lok6 t~fj2/, Abroad, outside the country. -"U1 2 /lok5/, 1. To kneel down (esp. in the phrase - ad J:,k5 xau3). 2. To nod (one's head). - f/1Ld J:,k5 hol. To nod one's head. -"U~ /lom 1/, To do sth. secretly, (to take over) by surprise. u,:,,J· - 01Jji pai3 kaa3 J:,m 1 toi2. Don't go and peep. - 0181 J:,ml t;1k3. To take over by • surpnse. -AU~-Aij~ /lom 1 1£m 1/, Stealthily, secretly, quietly. -"U~uu,:; /lom 1 poi 2/, To make Digitized by


1::Jl11rn,:, s;1k3 xenl maa2 J:im5 maan4 hai5. The enemy has surrounded the

village. - -VLH J:,m5 son 1. To fence off a garden. -"UH /Ion 1/, Maggot. -"UH /lon2/, To lie down, to sleep. -AUH-ALl /lon2 lap 1/, To be fast asleep. .,fUHlDn- /lon2 phe2/, (Of the king, headman or other noble person) to die, to pass away. -AUHlDn· /lon2 phe3/, To spread-eagle. -AUHD1~ /lon2 tum2/, To stay out. -"UHCH /lon2 wan2/, To take a siesta, to take a nap (in the daytime). -AUHal,:i /lon2 xaai2/, 1. To sleep and eat outside with the cattle (as when there is a plague in the village, during which period the cattle are kept outside and the herdsman stays out with them). 2. To sleep like a log. -AUH I /lon3/, 1. Noisy. - - J/MJ/11 J:,n3 J:,n3 Jan2 Jan2. To be noisy. See Jan2. 2. Disorderly, chaotic. LJl(I - yu,t J:in3. To be in disorder, to be chaotic. 3. Careless(ly). - 01/11 J:,n3 taan4. To speak carelessly.

.,fUH2 /lon3/, (Of a master Buddha) to die. Original from



"'UH /lon4/, To take off (clothes), to unload. - -v/]1J!1 J:in4 s:,4 kon6. To take off one's clothes. - a/]n J:in4 x.:,,1. To unload. "'UH /lon5/, 1. (Of colour) to be pure, to be unmixed. w/]1- ph:,kl J:in5. Pure white. 2. (Of weather) to be fine, to be sunny. IJJ/· - faa5 J:in5. Fine weather, a sunny day. .-tUH /lon6/, Highland, tableland. .-tUri /101) 1/, 1. Pus. 2. I ,alee, pond. - nJI1 l:i1) 1 ?urf. Mire, bog, morass. .-tUri I /101)2/, To flood (esp. in the phrase .-If!/ - Jam5 l:irr). .-1un2 /101)2/, 1. To gamble, to bet. E:JrmB, - 'Vri mai2 til J:irf Sal)I? What are you going to bet on? 2. (Of devils, ghosts or spirits) to do harm to. "'Uri3 /101)2/, To rake (wet rice fields). "'Uri-UU.;j /101)2 som2/, To offer food to Buddhist monks. .-tUri4 /101)2/, Cage, big basket. - UILD J:irf ta4. Big bamboo cage/basket. .,funs /101)2/, Young sow or bitch not yet begun to breed. .-tUr'I /lofJ 3/, To pull down, to weigh down, (of human beings) to be heavy. .-tUr'l1J1UJl llofJ 3 hoi4/, To concern, to feel nostalgic about, to think fondly of, to be sentimentally attached to (a place or person). "'Ur'l01J· /lofJ3 taa5/, To worry, to be worried. .-tUr'I /lofJ5/, Younger sibling, younger • cousin. "'Ur'IUJI • /lofJ5 faa5/, 1. Younger

Digitized by

Go gle

brother's wife. 2. Younger sister's husband. .-tUr'l'1U')I /lofJ5 koi 6/, The youngest of the younger siblings. .-tUr'lur /101)5 paP/, Younger brother's wife, sister-in-law. .-1ur1-uld /lofJS saaul/, Younger sister. .-1ur'l-ol,:; /lol)S tsaai2/, Younger brother. .-tUr'la.;j /101)5 xam2/, Younger brother's wife, younger cousin's wife . "'Ur'lal}J' /lofJ5 xoi 1/, Younger sister's husband, brother-in-law. .,f ur\uBn /101]5 yifj2/, Younger sister. "'Un I /101)6/, 1. Skilled, fluent (in speech, reading) . .,//jiwo1.-1JJ- Jaai2 phatl Jar' l:i1J6. To be fluent in reading. See mut5, m:in6. 2. To follow (a stream). 3. To slide. .-1un2 /lofJ6/, 1. Thing. 2. Reason. 3. Path. 4. Nominal marker. "'Un11ln01ln11n • llorJ6 ?aar.J4 taau2 ?el/, Wish, desire, intention. .-1un,u,BM /101]6 kap5 kin2/, Crisis. "'Un'1ril llo1J6 kat3/, Skill, talent. .-1un1BH /101)6 kin6/, Food, things to eat. .,fun1Bo1n1 • /101)6 kit I l)aa3/' Contradiction . .-1un,LM /101)6 kon2/, Reason, the way of the world, what is natural and not 1r1al. "'U""'B /101)6 li6/, Benefit, merit. "'Un.,fBH /101]61in6/, Geography. "'Unl:fH /101)6 man2/, 1. Thing. 2. Reason, commonsense, the way of the world. .-1una-,l01ln.,,Jd !101J6 xai4 taar.J2 laaul/, Illness, sickness. .-1unl:fL 1J1L 01ln /101)6 mu2 hu2

Original from



laaJJ2/, Thing, affair. -AUnUlJD'llriuln l1:>1J6 pai6 taJJ2 y3MJ6/, Behaviour. .Aun-uo· 01lrial"JJ ll:>1J6 si5 taal]2 xaai 1/, Business, buying and selling. .Aun01lri /1:>1]6 taclJ)2/, Cause, the hows and whys. .Aun01n. l:flH /1:>1]6 te5 maan3/, Fact. .Aun01B· /1:>1]6 til/, Use, utility,



lloJJ6 yaap3 yaaks1,



lloJJ6 yem4 taclJ)2 toi2/, View, viewpoint.


/1:>1)6/, Relations by the marriage of one's children.


/JopS/, To present (to royalty), to offer as gift. -AUUUH /lopS pan6/, To offer as a gift, to present (a gift) to.


/Jot 1/, To be short (in length/time span). aD11 - xin2 J:;tl. The nights are

short, a short night. - u/01:1811111 J:;t1 yaau2 m:1nl kan6. To be of the same length. See l~t3, m:;tl.


/Jot3/, Tube, bobbin, reel in weaving, classifier for bobbins and reels. - 1:1,J J:;t3 mail. Bobbin, reel in • weaving.

.,fUD'f 2 /1013/, 1. (Of animals) to have a miscarriage. 2. To be short (in length). See l:Jt1.


/Jot5/, 1. To escape, to be free from, to flee. 2. To tear or detach (meat from the bone, pulp of fruit from the hard core} 3. To be distinct (in pronunciation).

"'L /lu 1/, Rat, mouse. Digitized by



/Ju2/, 1. Careless, crude and rash. 2. (Of woman) to be loose in morals, to be coquettish. -AL .Ad /Ju2 lau4/, Alcoholic.


/Ju3/, To give alms, to donate, to offer, • to contribute (in religious service).


/Ju5/, To be out of order, to be ruined, to be damaged, to bebroken. u,t,wp11 ~

1:10111.Jd tarf3 ph:1nl Ju5 mEn5 yau5. The chairs and tables are all broken .

- - ;1/11;1/11 Ju5 Ju5 Jaan6 Jaan6. To be broken, to be shabby.


/Ju6/, To look. u,/ - rn1.· u;ri taa6 Ju6 hul farj2. To look and listen, to observe.

1:1i11:1J··ulll!J ~ mai2 maa2 yem4 Ju6. Come and have a look. -AL11:.tt · /Ju6 kaa3 laa2/, To tell fortunes, fortune-telling. .AL11 /lu6 kaa6/, To respect, to show respectto. .AL-Al)I /lu6 laai6/, To insult, to bully. .A~IH /lu6 maan6/, To inspect one's clothes (as in religious service), to practise divination. See Ju6 s:tf. .AL-Un" /Ju6 s~/, To inspect one's dress. Also Ju6 maan6. .All-JU~ /lu6 yom2/, To look down upon, to belittle, to play down.

-AL1 I /lukl/, Bone. -AL1'JILdaa· /Jukl hol xau3/,Shinbone. -AL1.Ar1 /luk I lclJJ 1/, Backbone.


/lukl X8clJ)4/, Ribs.

-AL12 /lukl/, Bedroom (of a Buddhist monk).

-AL1 I /luk5/, 1. Children, offspring. 2. Classifier for children and small objects.

Original from



"'L1TIU1 /lukS ?ok3/, One's own child. .AL1TIU1.AIHa)l /lukS ?ok3 Jaanl xai3/, One's own children and grandchildren. .AL1TIUH /lukS ?on3/, Little child, baby . .AL1TIL 1un /luk5 ?u5 kJ1]4/, Orphan. .AL1UJI- /luk5 faal/, Twins. .AL1'f1U /luk5 hapS/, Stepchild. "'L11LDTIU~ /luks ko3 ?-:,m4/, Firstborn child. .AL11U')I /luk5 k-:,i6/, Youngest child. .AL1.,flr, /luk5 laag2/, Children, offspring. .AL1Ur /luks paP/,Daughter-in-law. .AL1"1Jld /luk5 saaul/, Daughter. .AL1"1J~U /luk5 sipS/, Stepchild. "'L101~ /luk5 ton3/, Eldest child. "'L1-0l,:i /luk5 tsaai2/, Son. "'L1al]l /luk5 xoi 1/, Son-in-law. "'L1UBri /luk5 yifJ2/, Daughter.


/luk5/, To get up, to rise. "Ll1 Jon2 Juk5. To get up (from sleep).

"'L13 /luk5/, From, since. 1::1r - mr1::11·· mai2 Juk5 thail maa2? Where are you from?/Where did you come from?

- "Ofl1::1w/1LJ!Yirn011uLd1::18rnl· uBLJa Juk5 tsem6 phaak5 yaar,1 h:m2 po2 mi2 haa4 pi6 hau5. It has been five years

since (I/he/she) left home. "'L1.A'31I· /luk5 lai5 kaa3/, From now on. .,f~ /lum2/, 1. Meeting, organisation. 2. To get together, to meet, to join. .A~1H /lum2 kan6/, To meet, to join together, to sum up.

Digitized by


.,.~.,.1- /lum2 laa2/, 1. To serve, to look after, to take care of. - LJLDl::Jfl Jum2 Jaa2 po6 me6. To look after one's own parents. 2. To foster, to train, to cultivate, to develop, to grow. - '1J/1

'1.ILJH1Ll1101 Jum2 Jaa2 sBIJ3 s:,nl kon2 kat5. To train professionals. LJL.1'1.ILJl:d - l::ILJ'1LJI · pukl s:>m4 Jum2 Jaa2 m:,k3 yaa4. To grow flowers .


/lum3/, Young (of age). n/1J/1 ?aa6 saak5 Jum3. To be young. 1Ll1 kon2 Jum3. Young people.

.,f~UJI· /lum4 faa5/, The worl~ all around the world. .,f~ /lunl/, (Of the surface) to be scratched, to be bruised. "'U1 /lun2/, 1. To be tired. l::JU'JJ - m:,i6 Jun2. To be tired, to be exhausted. 2. Final, last (in order). 1::1/j',LJMW/]a maa2 ?:,n6 phEul Jun2. In the order of arrival, first come, first served. 3. Noun stem indicating siblings. "'U1TIL /lun2 ?u3/, Younger siblings. .AU11U')I /lun2 k-:,i6/, The youngest of siblings. .ALtt.,fl • /lun2 laal/, Younger siblings. "'U1"'1 .. /lun2 laa4/, To be slow, to be delayed. .ALtt.,fri /lun2 laJ]l/, Later on, later. .ALtt.,fLC /lun2 lo3/, Woman. .ALttl::IUH /lun2 m-:,n2/, Younger siblings. .,f~ /lun5/, 1. To be in tum. See pan3. 2. A (twelve-year) cycle.


/lun6/, Cotton fibre, kapok. - w/· lun6 phaa4. Cotton wadding (for a quilt).

Original from



.-tL(i /JUfJ2/, Uncle, father's or mother's older brother, father's or mother's older sister's husband .AU,UJI· /JUfJ2 faa5/, Uncle, father's or mother's older brother, father's or mother's older sister's husband. .AU,aU)l /lug2 xoil/, Uncle, father's older sister's husband, mother's older sister's husband. .,fU' /JUfJS/, To make string by knitting. - f:1'1 lu,r mail. To knit string. .,fL[l /lug6/, To wear, to put on. - 111]· Jut/ s~. To put on clothes, to wear clothes. AU,l /lupl/, To flood over, to submerge, to inundate . .A/1{/m!Jl- '170 Jaa2 k:t' thunt' Jupl hau5. The fields were/are all inundated. .,fll,J /lupS/, To caress, to stroke (beard/ fur), to apply (ailments) to. - nJjd Jup5 l)um2. To caress. - f:1Jj101/iayri Jup5 mun6 taa2 ph:,1)1. To apply powder, to whitewash, to beautify. .,fLV1 /lutl/, 1. To drink, to suck. - ,,,/0 lutl Jau4. To drink wine. 2. To come off, to slip off. .,fu,1tal1 /lutl phaak5/, To detach from, to depart. ALP1UIH /lutl yaanl/, To free from, to detach from. .,fl.P'I /lut5/, 1. To be delayed, to be late (for), to pass the time (for) (esp. in the phrase - uli:i Jut5 yaam2). - u/1-1 Jut5 paan6. To pass the time for marriage. 2. (Of the water level) to be low, to drop. .Aid - 01/uyi:iall - Jam5 lut5 taa6 y:,rn2 JCe2. Water level drops (in dry seasons). 3. To slip down, to come

Digitized by


down. 1IMU18' - f:Jli.Ja kaan2 til Jut5 maa3 yau5. The shoulder pole is on the verge of slipping off the shoulder.


/Jik:1/, (fo be) late at night. ujj.ALJH - wl}d pai3 J:,n2 Jikl ph£ul. Don't go to bed too late . .-tff 1AnnrnnnaffH /likl lel)l tel)6 xin2/, To be late at night, in the middle of the night. .,fff1.-t~1.-tUn.-tun /likl likl log3 lotJ3/, To be late at night, at midnight.

Aff 1::11 /Jim 1/, Python. A01::12 /liml/, First element in a compound meaning 'the whole (of), all over'. .,fo1::11:10nrnOn11· /liml m~2 t~J)2 kaa2/, Country, nation. .,fOl::l"'ll~nUJI· /liml sig3 faa5/, The world over, all over the world. .-tffl::lrnUn /liml t~J)2/, Country, land, tenitory. .-1ffl::lrnOn1:1UnuOH /lim 1 t~J)2 m~l)2 JX)n6/, Foreign land, foreign country. .-tffl::laln /liml xaaJ]3/, Everywhere, all over the world. .,f0.;i /lim2/, To forget.~ 1ll- "CJ( lim2 ke2 tsu2. To forget the kindness (of sb.). See loIJ 1.

.,f0.;ia8ri /lim2 xifJ2/, To forget. un .Ail ya,I um2 JCi,j Jai4. Cannot forget. AOH /lin2/, 1. Last (in order), lastly, final, finally, later, future, afterwards. LJ/_D

01/Jnuu, 11u1101/J.ADM po5 t:P ?:,n6, s:,nl t:P lin2. To punish the one (who erred) in order to teach others to learn from past mistakes to avoid future ones. See lun2. 2. The youngest child.

Original from



.A0r1 /lil) 1/, To move, to make a move. "DL,1aiJuiJ - tsukl wai5 pai3 liIJI ! Stand still and don't move! LJ'JJ alJriU/JH pai3 lil)l x:,IJl p:m6. Don't move/touch other peoples things . ..tOn~o - /Iii) l mi2/, To act, to pop into action. ..tOnauH /lil) 1 xon2/, To move, to shake, to be unsteady.


/lil)3/, Culvert.

.A0n /lil)4/ , 1. To steam. - ad lir/ xau4. To steam rice. 2. To throw . ..tOu /lipS/, To chase. to drive (out), to catch up with, to expel. - u001 Jip5 pEt5. To drive out, to chase out. - 'TllJ'101/]ri1/· Jip5 ?:,k3 t:,,f kaa3. To expel from the territory. - aD01ad1/· Jip5 xitl xaul kaa3. To catch up with them. Also hip5. ..tO' I /1-:>l/, Leftover, remainder. ad xau4 J:,l. Leftover rice/food. ..tO' 2 /1:Jl/, Above, on, on top of, preceding. 1HIU - kan6/paa6 J:,l. Top, top part. 1/u - kaa,,S J:,l. Previous/ preceding generation. "DH - tsan5 /:,1 . Top level. .AO' 8Ll1 /1:Jl XOl)2/, The upper reaches of the Xong (i.e. the Salween River) (as opposed to tar' xoi:r), the Tai-speaking areas on the east bank of the river.

.,.n' 3 /1;,l/, To disobey. ul"I-VLLJ - ali:i paak3 sop3 J:,l xaa,n2. To disobey verbal instructions. ..tfl· /li3/, A kind of wild fruit. ..tO.. /l:J4/, To have a rest, to stay or put up for the night. - mi11i:i.,,/Jn J:tl thai4

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

kam2 J:,q6. To take a rest here for a little while. af:J_,,,:, - f:J/11.,,,:,ua xam6 Jai5 J;t# maan4 IBP yau5. We are going to stay for the night in this village. ..tO . ~1· al· -nr /1~ maa3 xaa3 tsai6/, To have a rest. .AO" ~U'JJ /l:J4 moi6/, To take a rest. .AO" -nr /1;,4 tsa.6/, To have a rest. -"O • /1~/, Meat, flesh . .Ao·~)} /1~ mai4/, To have a fever . ..tO· t:tH /1~ man2/, Fat (pork) . .,.0. ~UH II~ mon2/, Lean meat. -"O /1;,6/, 1. To saw. - f:JiJ J:,6 mai5. To saw timber. 2. Saw (tool). Also Jek3 1:1'. -,101 t /l:Jk3/, Gadfly. .A012 /l;,k3/, To stare (esp. in the phrase - 01/ J:,k3 taa6). Also kP, kat3. -,1011 /l;,k5/, Deep. uilaJ,Jl1- wBd paiJ xut5 J:,k5 phEul. Don't dig too deep. -,1012 /lgk5/, To choose, to select. mOt::1

f:JM - rnr rnJjJ.,,/Jn thEml man2 J:,k5 hai4 hoi3 J:,rf'. To help him/her choose one (thing). .A0l:I 11:Jml/, Python. Also Jiml. -"O~ /l:Jm4/, Smooth, shiny . .A0Hl /l;,n6/, 1. Month. 2. The moon. .A0H-nnn /l;,n6 tsel)6/, The first month of the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar. .A0H1~ /l;,n6 kam6/, The second month of the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar, winter or cold month. .AOH--ult:1 /lgn6 saaml/, The third month of the traditional Tai Ounar) calendar. .AOH--uB· /lgn6 si3/, The fourth month of the traditional Tai (lunar)calendar. .A0H'l11" /lgn6 haa4/, The fifth month of Original from


83 the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar. -AUH'l'1L1 /l~n6 hok3/, The sixth month of the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar. -AUH"Dntn /l~n6 tset3/, The seventh month of the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar. -AUHuijm /1~6 pEt3/, The eighth month of the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar. .AUH1c· /l~n6 kau4/, The ninth month of the traditional Tai (lunar)calendar. .AUH1.1BLl /l~n6 sip 1/, The tenth month of the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar. .AUH1.1Bu11nm /l~n6 sipl ?et3/, The eleventh month of the traditional Tai (lunar) calendar. .AUH1.1Bu1.1ur1 /l~n6 sipl SOl)l/, The twelfth month of the traditional Tai (lunar)calendar. .AUH-ALl /l~n6 lapl/, The last day of the tenth month. .AUH.-tUH /l~n6 l:>n2/, The last day of themonth . .AUHl:jlD'f /l~n6 maat3/, Lunar eclipse. .AUHl:jr /l~n6 mai3/, 1. The first month of the year. 2. Next month . .-tUH1.JU~ /l~n6 son5/, Leap month .

.AUriI ll~IJ2/, To compare. tJn'VrlU71}'1U7IH yar/ SIUJJ J:1,r t£k5 taan3. Incomparable, unparalleled. .-tUri2 /1~1]2/, To bet, to gamble. Also l:ir:r. -AUri3 /1~1]2/, To be wild, to be untamed.

a/,:.i - xaai2 J:1,r. Wild ox, untamed ox. .-tOn /1~1)3/, 1. To disobey. - altd J:1rf1 xaam2. To disobey orders, to be disobedient. 2. Various, plentiful, dense. .,,/~ - Jaml Jar/. Various, numerous. .,.Un I /l~fJ6/, One. 1Lf11Ld - kon2 ko-5 Jar/. One person. .AUn2 /1~1]6/, Two days after tomorrow . See m;P l:1r/. .AUtn /l~t3/, Ill-tempered, quick-tempered (esp. in the phrase 'TJf - tsai6 J:1t3}. .-tU01 /l~t5/, 1. Blood. 2. Neurotic. '1Lf1 - kon2 J:,t5. A neurotic person, an oversensitive person . .A001.Al_a;j /l~t5 lom2/, Nerve. - ,1L· J:,t5 Jom2 Ju5. Mental disorder.

.AUH2 /l~n6/, Earthwo1111 (esp. in the phrase U78 ' - til J:,n6). .AUH3 /l~n6/, (Of water) to overflow . .AUr1 ll~1J 1I, Yellow. .-tUr1'1'1Ur1 /1~ 1 ho1J 1I, Dark yellow. -AUr1-Aijn ll~IJI IE1j6/, Yellow mixed with red. .AUr1a~ /1~1) 1 xai3/, The colour of a yolk. .AUriaa;j /1~1) 1 xarn2/, Golden yellow.

Digitized by


l:I m l::11. /maa1/, Dog. l:jl • .-f'JJ /maal Jai2/, Jackal, wolf. l:jl • .ABH /maal lin6/, Fox. 1:jf. 1.1n' /maal se4/, Male dog .

1:jf • aLd /maal xol/,Jackal. l:jl ·· 1 /maa2/, To come. Come and go.

1/"- kaa3 maa2.

Original from



~I .. 2

/maa2/, Meal. "'Ba111Jll:J- Jj6 wan2

saaml maa2. Three meals a day. 1::11· 111· /maa2 tsaa2/, To bless. 11fJaOM - kum5 JCEnl maa2 tsaa2. God bless you. 1::11· ad /maa2 xau4/, Fo1111al meal, dinner.

~I .. 3

/maa2/, 1. Unexpectedly, to one's

surprise. 1::1r - a1a:,j mai2 maa2 xakl xai5. (I didn't realise) you were so intelligent. 2. Sentence particle (expressing surprise). -, "DL .. ull11 "08:,j maa2, tsu2 pen6 ts:,i5. Good heavens, this is not the way it should be.


I /maa3/, Shoulder. -

'118 ·maa3 s:tl.

Padded cloth on the shoulder for carrying things on. 1::11· 1Jll· /maa3 haa3/, King,emperor, ruler. 1::11· 1Jll· -Al· 111· /maa3 haa 3 laa3 tsaa3/, King, emperor, ruler. 1::11· 1Jll· 01n· ae· /maa3 haa3 te3 wi3/, Queen, emperor's wife. ~1· 1J1ijri /maa3 hE1]2/, Strength. 1::11· 011· /maa3 taa3/, Parents.


2 /maa3/, 1. To cross over (a

mountain). See xaam4 . 2. To put, to add (lye into a dye jar) (esp. in the phrase - .,/fd01D maa3 Jam5 tau6).


3 /maa3/, To damage (esp. in the

phrase "'L. - Ju5 maa3).

1:11' I /maa4/, Hemp. 1:11' 2 /maa4/, Epilepsy. ull11 ~ pen6 maa4. To have epilepsy. 1:11' 1)1 /maa4 kai3/,Epilepsy. 1:11' -AL~ /maa4 lom5/, Epilepsy. 1:11' l::IL /maa4 mu 1/,Epilepsy.

Digitized by



3 /maa4/, To be angry, to flare up. See


~1 · 4

/maa4/, To struggle (for or to do sth.).

1::11· /maa5/, Horse. 1::11· 1L1111 /maa5 Icuk5 kaak5/, Stilts. 1::11· -AB' /maa5 li4/, Donkey, ass. 1:11 • -ALd /maa5 lo4/, Mule. 1::11· nlH /maa5 JJaanl/, Stallion. 1::11· nl_CO'll_C]al)i /maa5 JJo2 to6 xaai2/, Cattle, beasts of burden. 1::11· 1.1BrimLC /maa5 si1J2 tho2/, Camel. 1::11· 1.1Bu1.1ur1 /maa5 sipl S:)1)1/, A kind of Tai dance. 1::11· 1.1~· /maa5 si4/, Filly. 1::11· aB /maa5 xi6/, Horse for riding.


/maai 1/, 1. To mark. - 018.,,ruu 91">1 maail ti6 Jai2 pap5 hai5. To mark on a notebook, to take down in a notebook. - 01Ufi maail t:i,f2. To record, to keep as a record. 2. To be engaged (to be married). 1::1l')lala;t /maai 1 xaam2/, To take notes, to keep minutes, to record. 1::1l')l11f /maai 1 tsai6/, To intend to do. 1::1l')l-OLtt /maai 1 tsun2/, To allow, to pe11nit. 1::1l')lal1n /maai l xaat5/, To decide, to make a decision.


/maai2/, To add (firewood as in building a fire), to add (string or thread as in making a long cord).


/maai3/, To be eaten with (rice), to go with (rice). - ad maai3 xau4. To be eaten with rice, to go with rice.

Original from





t:fl)) /rrw,j4/, Widowed. ULD - p

k5/, Orange. 1:tl1alH /maaJc3 waan 1/, Orange. 1:tl1al~ /maak3 xaaml/, 1. Olive. 2. Chinese hawthorn. 1:tl1aln /maaJc3 Xa81]3/, A top for sp1nn1ng. 1:tl1aun /maak3 X:>fj3/, Peach. 1:tl1aO • /maak3 x;,1/, Eggplant. Also •

xa 1. 1:tl1aO • "'UL~ /maaJc3 x~l som4/, Tomato. 1:tl1uBH /maak3 yin4/, Lemon. 1:tl12 /maaJc3/, To sing (a song). - a/Id maak3 xaarn2. To sing a song. 1:tl13 /maak3/, (Of grease) to stain. ,ildl::JM

- "DLD'1l0 · Jam5 man2 maak3 tso4 s:,4. Grease stained the clothes. 1:tl11 /maaJc5/, 1. (Of ears of com) to be plump, (of one's complexion) to be chubby, to be plump, to be full-grown.

1:J{jritad- u,ll· m£t3 xau4 maak5 te5. The rice/wheat is plump-eared. ,1/ ·u,/1::1,;; Jaa4 maak5 taa6 man2. (To have) a chubby face and bright eyes. 2. To be rich (esp. in the phrase 1:J8 .. - mi2 maak3).

1:tl12 /maaJc5/, Classifier for knives, hoes, axes and other tools with handles. a/1,,1 ,10n xaanl maak5 J:1,f. An axe. See faak5.

1:tl1.-tOn /maak5 l~IJ3/, To be rich, to be plentiful. 1:tl11:tl· /maak5 maa3/, To grow. 1:tl11:tB ·· /maak5 mi2/, Rich, wealthy. 1:tl101n1:t /maaJc5 tem6/, To be full, to be plump, to be wealthy. Original from



l:flH /maanl/, 1. To have good fortune, to be fortunate (esp. in the phrase 1/IJkaam3 maanl). 2. (In shooting) to hit the mark, to be accurate, (in hunting or

fishing) to catch (game).

l:flH I /maan2/, (Of crops) to fo11n ears. l:flH 2 /maan2/,Incantation, to practise incantation. - 1.q/· maan2 faa4. Magic art, trickery. See maan6. l:flH 1 /maan.3/, To be slow. - nJjJnJjJ f/1Lri maan3 ?or' ?or' ho1J1. To be very slow, slowly.

l:flH 2 /maan3/, 1. Real, true, authentic (esp. in the phrase 71(u,ll· 71( - tsai6 te5 tsai6 maan3). 2. First element in compounds associated with 'real, true'. l:flMl:flH /maan3 maan3/, Really, truly, absolutely. l:fl1-101I /maan3 taa6/, Glasses, spectacles. l:flH-01:f /maan3 tsam6/, Glass.

l:flH 3 /maan3/, Incantation. Tone variation with maan2. l:fl1-101IH /maan3 taan3/, Incantation. f/1Ll1 - ho2 maan3 taa113. To chant incantation.

1:::tlH /maan4/, 1. Village (esp. in the phrase - "1Ll1 maan4 kon2). 2. Classifier for villages. 1:;18-l:JIM"1Ll1'1Jlfd - mi2 maan4 kon2 saaml maan4. There are four villages. 1:::tlH1Dl:fUn11Br1 /maan4 kau3 m~l)2 ?ii]l/, Hometown, homeland. ~IH1Dl:f0ri..fr1 /maan4 kau3 m~IJ2 laJJl/, Hometown, homeland. ~IH..fBl:fUn"'Unn /maan4 Ji6 m~l)2 sefJ2/, (Of society or country) to be

Digitized by


peaceful, to be prosperous, to be free from chaos. 1:flH..fBl:fUn01nl:j /maan4 li6 m~l)2 tem6/, To be prosperous. l:flH..fU1 /maan4 Jok5/, Countryside. l:flH..fL l:f Uri..f H /maan4 lu5 m~IJ2 Jan2/, (Of a country) to be in turmoil and chaos of war. l:flHl:fUri /maan4 m~fJ2/, Area, place, district. l:flt-1uB1:::tUri..fU" /maan4 pi6 m~fJ2 l::>1]5/, Towns in close association. l:f lHULD~Uril:f LH /maan4 po3 m~IJ2 mon6/, Peaceful country.

l:fl~ /maanS/, To work too hard, to exert all one's efforts. uiJ - wl}d pai3 maan-5 pheul. Don't overwork yourself.

~IH I /maan6/, Bu1111ese, Bu1111ese people. l:flH 2 /maan6/, Divinatory tools, divinatory symbols. .-II. - Ju6 maan6. To practise divination, to divine, to divine by means of the Eight Diagrams. See maan2, maan3.

1:::tlri /ma31J2/, First element in compounds. l:flri..fUri /maaJJ2 l::>1]2/, Legendary child prodigy. ~lri~L /maarJ2 mu2/, Politics. l:flri\Dd /maarJ2 phaul/, A kind of animal. 1:::tlri"'UI- /m881)2 saa2/, Prince.

l:f In 1 /maarJ3/, Flying squi11el. 1:::tln1:::tU· /maalJ3 m~4,, Butterfly. Also kaap3 m:t', maak3 m:t'.

'=fin 2

/m881]3/, To think (that) (contrary to fact), to suspect (that). '10 - a/1:;111

ULd"1/· 1Ja1JI kau6 saat;t3 waa6 man2 po2 kaa3 yau5 saa6. I thought he had Original from



gone already (but in fact he hasn't). Ylr'l1I· .-11· lmaaJJ3 kaa3 Iaa3/, To bless. Yin /rDaa1j4/, 1. Half. - uB maaJJ" pi6. Half a year. - .,,,p1,1~Dn maaJJ" /;Jn6 J:,,I. Half a month. J:,n6 maaJJ". Crescent, half-moon. 2. Half dollar (a silver coin used in Yunnan area before 1950). 3. To be chipped, to have a gap. w/· - phaaS maaJJ". A chipped knife. alld - JCeu4 maaJJ". Missing tooth.

~oJ,1 -

1::1111 /maaJJS/, To be busy. - - u,p1u,81 maari5 maarf t;Jk5 t:,k5. To be very busy, to be busy as a bee. 1:tln I /maaij6/, 1. Thin (not thick), as opposed to laa 1. - 117/r, maarf haarJ. To be thin. 2. Classifier for thin, flat objects such as paper and leather. "Dll · 111/· - tse4 haa4 maarf. Five sheets of paper. ijln 2 /maarJ6/, Some. - f:JD ~ u/ld maa1J6 m:P maarf yaam2. Sometimes, occasionally. - 1LD111L., - 1LdunrnL·

maarf ko5 hu5, maarf ko5 ya,! hu5. Some know/have known (it) and some don't/haven't.


/maaJ]6 X~fj6/, Some(one),

some(thing), an indefinite pronoun indicating people or things. - af1/· ~ unar11· maatJ6 JC:>,! JCai4 kaa3, mBalJ6 JC:>,! ya,! hai4 kaa3. Some (people) want to go, some don't. ijlLJ 1 /rnaap3/, To be flat. 1/11 - kaan2 maap3. Flat shoulder pole. Also mEp3. ijlLJ 2 /rnaapl/, To blackmail (esp. in the phrase ~ f:Jr maap3 mail). ~lu /maapS/, To flash, to twinkle, to shine, to glitter. Also mEp3.

Digitized by


1:1lu1:1Bu /maapS mipS/, To twinkle, to glitter. yfr,'\1 /maat3/, A wound, to wound.

- 1lJf1 maat3 k:>if. Gun wound. 111l}il - h:,i2 maat3. Scar. - u,/'}J maat3 taai6. Casualties, the wounded and the dead. 111Ld1LM- u,/'}J hol kon2 maat3 taai6. Number of casualties. Ylrn-or /maat3 tsai6/, To feel pained (at heart), to feel distressed, to very much regret (what has occurred or what has been done). 1:1trn2 /maat3/, A round of (boxing), a fight with sticks, an act of nipping with the fingers. 1:1lrn3 /maat3/, Bamboo nail, nail. 1:1lrn4 /maat3/, To fasten (with clips or pins). 1::1101 /maat5/, To take ... for ..., to regard as ..., to think (that). 71Df:JM - ull1,11[fi 111811ullflu,La ?au6 man2 maat5 pen6 kon2 Jaj2 h:m2 yem4 to3. To regard him as a member of the family. 1:tl011J1lri1:tl~ /maat5 haaJJ2 maam5/, To be self-abased, to feel oneself inferior. 1::110111 /maat5 kaa6/, To emphasise, to value. 1::1101.-11 /maat5 lakl/, To emphasise. YID1YH /maat5 man4/, To keep in mind. 1::11011:ta /maat5 mau6/, To look down upon, to belittle. 1:tl01i.,I- /maat5 saa2/,Memory. 1:1l0101un /maat5 tofj2/, To keep in mind, to memorise, to cherish the memory of. 1:tl01010H /maat5 t~n4/, To look down upon, to belittle.


Original from




1 .

88 1:110101 /maat5 waa6/, To think (that), to consider (that). 10 - ,pn,18

l:iLJ'1'11fl:JH'11d,i0n kau6 maat5 waa6 kir,f Ji6 m~k3 hai4 man2 kam2 J:,,I. I think (we) should tell him/her (sth. about it). 1:1l01uBH /maat5 yinl/, To admit, to acknowledge, toconfi11n. •

l:IID 1 /maau3/, No, not, not yet. - 1/· maau3 kaa3. To not go, didn't go. - 1:J8 ·· maau3 mi2. Not have. - w/ · - LJJ· maau3 phaa4 maau3 yaa3. Have not finished, did not finish. 1:110.AH /maau3 Jani/, Or, otherwise. 1:1lcul /maau3 paa6/, Not yet. - 1:JI" maau3 paa6 maa2. Have not come, didn't come. 1:1lcal /maau3 waa6/, No matter what, 1n any case. •

i:tlC 2 /maau3/, 1. Unmarried young man. 2. Mother's younger brother. 1:1lcLQI· /maau3 faa5/, Young man. 1:1lca~ /maau3 xunl/, Mother's younger brother. Also xunl. 1:110.AI~ /maau3 laau5/, Widower. l:l)l Imai 1/, Thread.

i:t;l /mai3/, (Of appearance) to be goodlooking, to be attractive. 1:JB·· - mi2 mai3. Good-looking, attractive. l:llJ-ULLI /mai3 sop3/, To pay lipservice, to say good things (without putting them into practice). l:t')) /mai4/, 1. To burn, to be hot. llJ,:i "DLD'110 · l:Jl1 fai2 mar' tso4 s:t' man2.

Fire burnt his clothes. llJi,i - ,1LJ'1 fai2 mar' l~i6. To have a bushfire. 2. Hot. ,1l}01 - a/010/01 ltt3 mar' waat5 waat5. The sun is scorching hot. 3. To be

Digitized by


angry, to flare up. 1:J(u'iJ- wl}d mai2 pai3 mar' phtul. Don't you get cross. l:l'))aB · /mai4 xii/, To be sad, to be sorrowful. l:1'))'1lf /mai4 tsai6/, To be sad, to feel SOIIOW.

l:l'Jll /mai5/, 1. Generic te11n for trees. 2. Timber, wood, bamboo. l:l'Jl1J1L'i /mai5 hok3/, A kind of bamboo. l:l')lUijH /mai5 ptn4/, Coffin. l:l'JlUL1 /mai5 pok3/, A kind of bamboo, the shoot of which is edible. l:l')l-ulri /mai5 SaMj2/, A kind of bamboo. l:l')l-ul~ /mai5 saau4/, Bamboo pole used as a clothesline. l:l')l-Ulj:lald /mai5 suml xaaul/, 'White firewood', a kind of firewood, mainly from date trees, cut and then stripped of bark, used by Buddhist monks specifically for worshipping the Buddha in winter or spring. l:l'JlaUH.AD /mai5 x~nl lau6/, Coffin. l:1))2 /mai5/, 1. Ruler (tool). 2. A measure

of length, about 33 cm. na - 1:Jl-

01l}-i,11. , l:Jl101LJllf,iiJl:J8-,1/-:,j - ?au6 mai5 maa2 tui2 Ju6, man4 t~n6 JaP mi2 Jaail mai5. Get a ruler to measure this

piece of cloth to see how many mai (i.e. how long) it is. l:1))3 /mai5/, Today (contracted for111 of

m:P Jai5). l:t'JJ /mai6/, To put on (a shawl, cape, cloak

or suchlike).

110 ·- s:,4 mai6. Cloak.

l:11 /makl/, 1. To mark on timber or

bamboo, to make a concave surface on (a piece of wood or a bee), to notch. 2. (Of a stick or suchlike) to be thick on Original from



both ends but thin in the middle. 1:1171IH /makl ?aan2/, To plan, to make a plan for. 1:111:11-,J /makl maail/, To make a decision, to make a rule. 1:111:1IH /makl rµaan3/, To make a decision, to decide on. 1:1101BH /makl tin3/, To decide, to make a decision. 1:11lQHl:IHal· /makl fan2 man3 xaa4/, To slaughter, to massacre.. 1:11 /mak5/, To like (certain foods), to relish. 1::/11 - 1::1/"1 man2 mak5 maak3. He/She likes fruits. 1:1~ /mam3/, To put a lot of food into another person's bowl with the help of chopsticks or dippers, as when offering a guest or friend more food. /mam6/, A bunch of (threads, hair, silk or suchlike).


1:11:12 /mam6/, To feed a baby by chewing food before putting it into its mouth. - aarnr 71UM mam6 JCau4 hai4 ?el


?:in3. To feed a baby by chewing food for him/her before putting the food into his/her mouth.

l::IH 1 /man 1/, Sterile (either of people or animals).

l::IH 2 /manl/, (Of firewood) not completely dried, half-dried.

l:IH 3 /man2/, Potato. See ho1 man2. l:IH /man3/, To cut, to slash, to chop. See fan2. •

l:IH 1 /man4/, Cloth. l:IH11- ~1- /man4 kaa2 laa2/,Machinemade cloth, foreign cloth. l:IH11J1 /man4 kaai3/, A kind of Tai cloth. l:IH1JBH /man4 sin4/, Cloth for making skirts. l:IH 2 /man4/, Fi11n, unshakeable, steadfast, steady, pet 111anent. l:IH1ijH /man4 ktn3/, To be fu1r1, solid, unshakeable. 1:1H1:1H01nn01nn /man4 man4 te1J6 te1]6/, To be very fi11n, to be very solid and steady. l:IHaUn /man4 X~1]3/, To be firm, steadfast. l:IH /man5/, Plum. See maak3 man5. l:IH /man6/, To sprain, to wrench. 0181,1 ~ tin6 man6. To sprain one's foot. aLd ~ xo2 man6. To sprain one's neck. ~n /m31J6/, To beat, to hit, to fight. - 111 mar/ kan6. To fight each other. 1::1

l:IH.. 1 /man2/, He, she, it. l:IH2 /man2/, 1. Oil, grease.~ n/- man2

1Jaa2. Sesame oil. 2. Oily, greasy. - -v001-v001 man2 s~t5 s~t5. Very greasy. a,Ja,J - - JCai 1 xail man2 man2. To be full of grease.

Digitized by

l:IHl:IL /man2 mul/, Lard. 1:1HlD1 /man2 phakl/, Vegetable oil.


o1 /mat 1/, Flea.


~o,l /mat5/, Bundle, bunch (oO. -rl"JJW11/1.1uri- siS Jai4 phakl kaa3 s:itJl mat5. (11We) bought two bunches of vegetables. 1:1012 /mat5/, To tie up, to bind, to gird.

71aw11un-rlJj- ullH.rl81::101-rl8 1::101rnl] •alnrnJj ?au6 phakl k:it:f Jai5

Original from




90 mat5 pen6 Jj6 mat5 Jj6 mat5 helwaar.,6

haP. Tie these vegetables up into bundles and pile them up.

l::IC /mau2/, 1. To get drunk, to be drunk (esp. in the phrase - AD mau2 Jau4). 2. To feel sick, such as seasick and carsick. '11Ld - ho1 mau2. To feel dizzy. mau2 h~. Boatsick. 3. To indulge in, to wallow. - 1.J/d mau2 saaul. (Of a young man) to be infatuated (with a woman). 4. Murky, unclear (of vision).


1:10 1 /maul/, To tender boil, to put easily cooked food or vegetables (such as rice noodles or pea tips) into boiling water to tender boil them. - w1 mau3 phakl. To tender boil vegetables. 1:10 2 /maul/, (Of vehicles) to go very fast, to dash. 1:10 1 /mau4/, 'Flat rice'. See xau4 mau4. 1::102 /mau4/, The fourth of the twelve Earthly Branches. 1:10 /mau6/, Light (in weight), as opposed to Jakl 'heavy'. 1/11 - kaan6 mau6. Light work. 1::1r /mail/, To fine, to issue a penalty to. 1::1r-nf /mail tsi6/, To regret, to repent. 1::1r 1 /uw2/, You (singular). See su1. 1::1r2 /uw2/, First element in compounds. 1::1r01u /mail to6/, Even if, even though. - l:J8AiJLJn1/i10wL1018

'11Lri1t mai2 t~ m:P Jai5 yaJJ6 kaa3 m:P phuk5 fi6 tso4 kaa3. Even though you/we are not going today, you/we've got to go tomorrow.

Digitized by


l:lr /mail/, New, as opposed to kau3. - pi6 maiJ. New year.


1::1r /mai4/, 1. Mute, dumb. 1/fi- 1LHAL'1 kon2 mai4 kon2 luk3. The mute and the deaf. 2. Silly, stupid. - ALJ1A/]ldAr mai4 l:ik5 ltml Jai2. To look silly but to be clever at heart. 1::1r /mai6/, 1. Leaf. - l:JiJ mai6 mai5. Leaves of a tree. 2. Classifier for leaves, knives, hoes, hats and suchlike. 1uJ1.JUri - kupl s:i1Jl mai6. Two bamboo hats. 1::1n "l /me2/, Wife. WLD - phol me2. Husband and wife. 1::1n· 71UH /me2 ?onl/, Concubine. 1::1n· -,tLr1 /me2 )oJ]l/, (Lawful) wife (of a man who has concubines). 1::1n • -,tU')l /me2 loi5/, Concubine. 1::1n • l:ll')l /me2 maai 1/,Fiancee. l:ln "2 /me2/, To fix, to repair, to put in order. - rn8M me2 h;,n2. To keep up maintenance (of a house). - w/· me2 phaa4. To make a bed. - AB me2 Ji6. Toco11e~t. 1::1n · -,1l')i /me2 laai2/, To redo (sth.), to repeat (doing), to do (sth.) again. - 01/,::, me2 Jaai2 taan3. Say (it) again. 1::1n· Imel/, To grow, to enlarge, to increase, to expand, to develop. a/1 ALJnWIM1.Jlli xaak5 me3 l:ir.f phaan3 saar:,4. To promote production. 1::1n· 1ln Imel kaaJ]4/, To expand, to develop. 1::1n· 1::1ijH /mel mEn4/, Bat. 1::1n· /me3 till, To increase, to develop. 1::1n· -ol· /mel tsaal/, Table, column. - LJ/,;j me3 tsaa3 yaaro2. Timetable.

01u ·

Original from



1::1n· alo, /me3 waat5/, To develop, to expand.

1::1n· al1 /me3 xaaJc5/, To develop, to expand, to promote. 1::1n· ad /me3 xau4/, To develop, development.

1::1n" l

/me4/, Goat, sheep. - "DllH me4 tsen6. Sheep.

1:1n" 2 /me4/, Shell. - 'TIL.' me4 hul. Ear. 1:1n" 3 /me4/, 1. Young seedling of a plant (other than rice seedlings). - u/· me4 yaa4. Tobacco seedling. - 01/}n me4 t£,I. Cucumber seedling. 2. Classifier for such young seedlings.

1::1n" 4

/me4/, Porcelain, china (esp. in the phrase a!Jn - x:11J6 me4).

1:1n· /me5/, To be rotten (from the inside). - "DB·· me5 tsi2. To erode.


/me6/, 1. Mother. 2. Married woman. 3. Female. 4. Big, primary, major. - u/ me6 paa6. Big fish. 1::1n71I /me6 ?aa6/, Father's younger sister. l:jnl1U1 /me6 ?ok3/, Biological mother. l:jn71L /me6 ?ul/, Biological mother. 1:1n,1I· /me6 laa5/, 1. Mother's younger brother's wife. 2. Mother's younger sister, aunt. 1::1n,1I· ur /me61aas pai-5/, Mother's younger brother's wife. 1:1n,11· 1Jld /me6 laa5 saaul/, Mother's younger sister (not yet married). l:jn,tLr1 /me6 lol)l/, Biological mother. l:jn.ALC /me6 lo2/, Father's younger brother's wife, aunt. 1::1n,1u'Jl /me6 Ioi5/, Concubine of

Digitized by


one's father. 1:1n,1un /me6 101)6/, Mother-in-law, address te1111 for female relations by the marriage of their children. 1::1n1::1I,:, /me6 maai 4/, Widow. 1::1nl:jl1,11::1 /me6 maak3 Iam6/, Prostitute. l::fnl:jl_[]' /me6 mol/, Witch, sorceress, female medium. l:jnl::fl;N /me6 mui4/, Go-between, matchmaker. 1::1n1::10 .. /me6 mi'll, Thumb.


/me6 paa4/, Aunt (older than parents). 1::1n1.0IH /me6 phaan3/, Legendary goddess who has control over one's ups and downs. 1::1n1Jffu /me6 sipS/, Stepmother. 1::1n'1la /me6 tsau4/, Husband's mother.


/men 1/, To smell bad, to be odorous, to stink. 1::1n.-t71ff1::1 /men 1?im6/, (Of food) to be spoiled. 1::1nMD1L /menl tu3/, The smell of rotten meat. 1::1n.-taijci /men l xtu2/, The smell of fish, seafood and suchlike.


/men4/, Porcupine.


/men6/, To fly. ~Li - 'TID lok5 men6 hau5. The bird flew away.


/men6/, (Of flowers) to fade off.


/met3/, 1. A fishing rod, to fish with a fishing rod. 2. To fetch water by casting a bucket into the river or well with a hook.


/met5/, Eleventh of the twelve Earthly Branches.

1:1n0101n· ul· /met5 te3 yaa5/, Maitreya. Original from



l::fna /meu2/, Kind, sort, class, variety. - ,1{ meu2 Jai6? What/Which kind? l::fna1~· /meu2 kon2/, Mankind, man. 1:1naaur1 /meu2 XOIJ 1/, Object, thing. 1:1na /meu4/, 1. To distort, to be distorted. 2. To be tricky, to be cunning. rnllcfl het3 meu4. To play tricks, to do mischief. '71{1L0171{ - tsai6 kot5 tsai6 meu4. To be evil-hearted. l:fij- /mE2/, Jewellery, valuables (esp. in the phrase - 'CDLJl1 mE2 th:,n2). l::fij1 /mEk3/, 1. To carry on the shoulder. - f::J'JJ mEk3 mai5. To carry timber. 2. A carrying load. f::IIiif::11}'171UiJ f::I, .._ ,18n man2 mEk3 ?:,j4 maa2 mEk3 J:,,I. He carried a load of sugarcane. 1:1ij1 /mEk5/, To be of the same type, variety or colour, pure and unmixed. See tSEt5.

1:1ij1~n. /mtks le5/, Juggling, magic art.

l::fijHl /mEnl/, To boast. f::JruiJ - mail pai3 mEnl! Don't you talk big! l:fijHmlri /mEn 1 phWJ2/, To be boasting, to be false, to sham, to be hypocritical. l:fijH2 /mEnl/, 1. To be accurate (in shooting). 2. (In hunting or fishing) to have a tendency to be successful in catching (game). l::f ijH /mEn2/, To stick out, to be outstanding. - 7ILJ'1f::I! .. mEn2 ?:,k3 maa2. To stick out. l:fijH /mEn3/, 1. (Wheat) flour. 2. Noodle. l:fijH /mEn5/, To be finished, to finish, to complete, to be completed. 1J/,;j,1{018 •~

Digitized by


1/111 yaain2 Jai6 ti 1mEn5 kaan6? When

shall (we) finish work? ,1/i/111rnll01 IJD Jaa4 Jcaan6 het3 mEn5 yau5. The work has been done. l:fijH1H /mEn5 kan6/, To offset, to cancel out, to counteract. '1Jijrlu/ - s:,ql paa6 mEn5 kan6. Each side counteracts with/offsets the other. l:fijHl:fLr1' /mEn5 mot3/, To be finished, to be completed. 1J8au/rit - s:,u6 paat3 mEn5 mot3. The harvest was finished. l:fijHl:fijHl:f l_rnl:flrn /mEn5 mEn5 mot3 mot3/, Entirely, completely.




l:fijH /mEn6/, 1. Classifier for objects with handles such as knives, axes, hoes and sickles. 2. Classifier for thin flat objects such as bamboo hats and paper. 1lj.irn/· - kupl haa4 mEn6. Five bamboo hats. Secmaaif'. l:fijri /mEJJ2/, 1. Generic te1111 for insects. f::JL/'1- morf' mErj. Insects. See moq4. 2. Head element in compounds associated with insects. l:fijl'l'JlUji /mEIJ2 hoi2/, Wriggler, mosquito larva. l:f ijl'l 1ijri /mEIJ2 kEl)2/, Firefly. l:fijril:fD /mEIJ2 mau6/, A kind of flying ant. 1:1ijri1:1B .. /mEIJ2 mi4/, Dragonfly. l:fijril:flt' /mEIJ2 mun2/, Housefly. l:fijrinLD /mEIJ21Jo2I, Scorpion. l:fijri-ulu /mEIJ2 saap3/, Cockroach. l:fijri01B-Alri /mEIJ2 ti 1 lWJ2/, Centipede. l:fijri-ol:tlri /mE1J2 tsaa2 la81]2/, Centipede. l:fijri-nB-Alri /mE1J2 tsi 1 la81]2/, Centipede.

Original from




~ijn /mtg3/, To divide into shares, to separate. - 1H m£i:,3 kan6. To divide, to share. - 1/11 m£i:,3 kaan6. To divide work, to share work. ~ijlinl1 /mtg3 1Jaak5/, To split. ~ijli1.0I• /mt1J 3 phaa3/, To divide equally into two. ~on1.0l1 /mtg3 phaalc3/, To divide equally into two, to have an equal share. /m£g 3 phaak5/, To separate. /mtg3 phaat3/, 1. To separate. 2. To distinguish. /mEIJ3 tsEm3/, To distinguish. /mEl) 3 ~/, To classify.

~on1.0l1 ~on1.0lm

~on-oijli ~on-ao·

~on /mtl)4/, Chipped, nicked, notched, missing. alld - xeu4 m£rf. Missing tooth. a/11 - waan3 m£rf. A chipped bowl. ~ijLl /mEp 1/, 1. To peep, to spy on. 2. To lay in ambush. ~ijllml' /mEpl thaa4/, To lay an ambush (for). l:iijuuo- /mtp 1 yi2/, To ambush.

~au /mEp


1. To be flat. 1/M- kaan2 m£p3. Flat shoulder pole. 2. (Of eggs) to be cracked, to be broken, (of tyres, balloons or suchlike) to go flat, to be broken. cnlln - 1/· ua te,f m£p3 kaa3 yau5. (It) was crushed/cracked. 3. To swindle, to extort, to blackmail. - 4fl14 m£p3 len 1. To cheat, to swindle.

- l:Jr1JLdn0M m£p3 mail sol tJ;,n2. To extort money. ~iju lm£p5I, 1. To flash, (of light) to shine or reflect. ll}/ •- u/11u/11 f ait5 m£p5 yaanl yaan 1. Lightning kept striking. wr - 'TJl:J phail m£p5 tsam6? Who

made the mirror reflect? 2. To appear, to come into view . ..,/l}u, - '11lJ'14lJ')Jl:J/ IJD ltt3 m£p5 ?:,k3 J:,i6 maa2 yau5. The sun rose from above the hill. 1:Jfl•u1 '11lJ'148111:JI -IJD me4 pakl m£p5 ?:,k3 lin6 maa2 yau5. The pumpkin seeds began to bud and emerge from the soil. 3. To protrude, to stick out. - 4811 mep5 Jin5. To stick out one's tongue (as in malcing a face). l:iijlfl /mtt3/, Silk with scale-like pattern for decorating skirts, pillows or leggings. lm£t5I, 1. Seed, grain. llJJit - fun3 m£t5. Granulated fertiliser. 2. Classifier for grains, peas, beans, seeds, coins, drops of (water) and suchlike. WLD1llJri - tho3 S:>tJ1 met5. Two soya beans. ~ij01UJH /m£t5 fan2/, Seeds. l:iij011J1B · /m£t5 hi 1/, Clitoris. See t£t3. l:iij01l:iL /m£t5 mu2/, A Burmese

~ij01 1

monetary unit, one tenth of a kyat. ~ij01un- /m£t5 pe2/, A Burmese monetary unit, one twentieth of a kyat. l:iij01mn' /m£t5 the4/, A Burmese monetary unit, one fifth of a kyat. l:iij012 lm£t5!, To make (money), to make (a profit). - 11Ld met5 sol. To make money. ~ij01 3 /mtt5/, To be virtuous, to be holy and pure. '1111'1Jljcn '1111 - ?an6 tset5 ?an6 met5. Things holy and pure. l:iijd /mEul/, Cat. ~ija /m£u2/ , To look at, to watch. 01/ji toi2 meu2. To watch. ~ijc /m£u3/, Temple. See v:,t5.

Original from



~o~ /mEuS/, To be dirty, to be covered or stained with dirt.~/· - Jaa4 mtu5. Dirty face. ~o~aij~ /mEu5 XEu5/, 1. To be naughty. 2. To be arrogant, to be conceited. 3. To be cunning, to be foxy.

~B. 1

/mi 1/, Bear (animal).

1:18 • 1:11 • /mi 1 maal/, Black bear. 1:1B • 1:11· /mi 1 maa5/, Brown bear. l:lijr1 /mi 1 mEI]S/, Bat.


~e ·2 /mil/, 1. The sound made by a cat. 2. The sound made by humans when calling cats.

1:1B" 1 /mi4/, 1. Dark. ~u'1JDn - Jap1 sirfJ mi4. It is getting dark/Night falls. 2. Soot. See mo" mi4. 1:1B" 2 /mi4/, Sweet-sounding, pleasant to the ear. '1Jllri - seq1 mi4. Pleasant sound.

1:1B" 3

/mi4/, Dragonfly. See mE,r mi4.

1:181 /mik5/, Brand, brand name, trademark. ~B1mB · ~,· /miks thi2 laa3/, China, the Han (as it is refe11ed to in old written works).

1:1BH1 /mini/, Trigger (of a trap or gun).

1:1B ·· /mi2/, 1. To have, to exist. - ail mi2 wai5. To exist. - 1lfi'1J8LJ1L(J mi2 kon2 sipl ko5. There are ten people. 2. To be rich, to be wealthy (esp. in the phrase - 1:J/1 mj2 maaJc5). 1:1B ··~1· 1:1IH01I /mi2 laa4 maanl taa6/, Honourable, graceful, respectable. 1:18- ~un /mi2 l:>1)6/, To be related, to be involved. 1:1B · a01 /mi2 x~k5/, Riches and honour. 1:1B· Ul:I /mi2 yam6/, To be effective, to have effect, to work. UL /mi2 yu3/, To exist, there exists.

1:1BH2 /min2/, To smear, to paste.

1:1B· 1 /mi3/, To (tear) open with the

1:1BH3 /min3/, Classifier for mushrooms or objects of similar shape.

~e .

fingers. 'CJ/Id - U1Lfa~L. adUJlilLti

'1JL.1f/1(J tsaam2 mi3 toi2 Ju6 xau4 fu5 po2 sukl hau5. Tear open the skin of the com ear to see if it is ripe.

1:1B· 2

/mi3/, Course (of dishes).

1811w1'1Jlt:J - kin6 phakl saaml mi3. To have three courses of dishes.

Digitized by


1:1BH2 /mini/, To complain, to blame. See

Je2. 1:181-13 /minl/, To cheat. 1:1BH 1 /min2/, Louse. ~BHal,:i /min2 xaai2/, Ox louse.

1:1BH1 /min3/, Fate. Also mirf. ~BH2 /min3/, Lip, lip-like paired objects. - '1JLLI min3 sop3. Lips. See pin3, pi,fJ. 1:1BH1J1B • /min3 hi 1/, Vagina lips. 1:1BH1J1L /min3 hul/, Ear.

1::1B~ /min5/, A kind of plant. ~Bri lmiIJ2/, Order. ULn- porf mi,r. To issue an order, to order. LJLn - f/1f1:J/ii1/·

pot/ mi,r hai4 man2 kaa3. To order him to go. 1:1Br'I /mi(J3/, To try to increase the pressure inside the abdominal cavity, as

Original from



when one is trying to empty the bowels. ~Br\1:1ijl1 /miJ]3 mEJ]5/, Bat. ~en /miJ]6/, Destiny, fate (esp. in the phrase 1/f!J - kaam3 mi,/). Also min3. 1:1Bnml~ lmiJJ6 thaam2/, Responsibility, duty. 1:181.l /mipl/, To squeeze or nip (with the fingers), to knead, to suffocate, to strangle, to clutch at (one's throat). - adLJL1 mipl xau4 pukl. To knead glutinous rice cakes. See yipl. 1:1Bm /mitl/, 1. To twist, to wring, to break. - ulll11llJrl01lJl1 mitl pen6 s:JIJ1 t:Jn6. To break into two pieces/trunks. 2. To be tilted, to be crooked, to be askew, to be aslant. 1JLLJ - sop3 mitl. Distorted/tilted mouth. 1:18oi~~H /mitl m~n6/, To be tilted, to be crooked, to be askew, to be aslant. 1:1Bm /mitS/, Knife (in general), sharppointed knife, small knife. ul'JJ ~ paai6 mit5. The point of a (sharp-pointed) knife. aLd - xom2 mit5. The cuttingedge of a knife. See phaa5. l:ILC 1 /mol/, 1. Teacher, artisan, expert. 2. Doctor. l:ILd1I· -Al- /mol kaa3 laa2/, Fortuneteller. l:ILdal~· /mol xaam2/, 1. To congratulate (with songs and dances), as when someone has just built a new house, or just got married. 2. Singer. l:ILC-Al)i /mol laaj2/, Teacher, educator. 1:tl_d1:1Uri /mol m~fJ2/, A well-respected person in the country or region who is versed in polite letters. l:ILdun· mlr\ /mol pe3 taar.)3/, Fortune-teller.

Digitized by


l:ILC\DB ·

/mol phi 1/, Beggar, shaman.

1:119ul" /mo 1 yaa4/, Medical doctor. l:ILC 2 /mo 1/, Can, to know how to do, to have the ability (to do). 1:1llwDn ~ rnll01.,/ldWDn me6 phirf' mol het3 Jam5 phirf'. Bees can make honey.

'1L111:J8ri1/n71/n- rnll01nu1a8n01gkon2 m:1,r kaai/ tsaai/ mol het3 ?:)k3 x:1,:,6 ti2. Mankind can malce tools. See hu5, tsaai/. l:ILC /mo2/, To be noisy, to sound. 11llri'1lJn - 1:1/ · LJd seIJl k:Jr/ mo2 maa2 yau5. The (sound oO drums began to roar. l:ILC'Jll- /mo2 haa2/, To use coarse language as when one is angry, to be furious. l:ILC.-fH /mo2 lan2/, To be noisy, to be • uproanous. l:II_C l /mo3/, 1. Mine. ~ aid mo.3 xam2. Gold mine. 2. Spring, well. -,11l - Jam5 mo.3. Spring water. 3. Onion. w1 ~ phakl mo.3. Spring onion, shallot. l:tLC2 /mo3/, Tube, hose.~ t.1ln01n mo.3 yaai/ tai:f. Rubber/plastic hose. l:ILC 3 /mo3/, 1. To grind, to mill. 2. Mill. na ~ 1/· ~ ad1:18 ?au6 mo.3 kaa3 mo.3 xau4 m:P. To use a mill to milVgrind rice flour. l:IL0 4 /mo3/, Hat (esp. in the phrase - '11Ld mo.3 ho1). l:ILC 1 /mo4/, 1. Cooking pot. ~ 01lJi!J ma4 t:Jm3. Earthenware pot. 2. The amount of food cooked in a pot, classifier for such amounts. D1LliW1 ~ tom4 phakl ma4 J:1,:,6. To cook a saucepanful of food.


Original from



l::ILd'flLd /mo4 hol/, Hat. Also mo3. 1::tLd1::tB · /mo4 mi4/, Soot. l:::ILdto1· /mo4 phakl/, (Buddhist euphemism) cooked dish, meat. l:::ILdlD17lUH /mo4 phakl ?on3/, (Buddhist euphemism) pork. l::ILdlD1.ALr1 /mo4 phakl lol)l/, (Buddhist euphemism) beef. l:::ILdul" /mo4 yaa4/, Smoking pipe.

1:::119 2 /mo4/, To rub, to wear (out). l:::ll_C I /mo6/, 1. To feel about, to grope for. See l)Om2. 2. To stroke, to caress. l:::ILC 2 /mo6/, Waterlily. l:::ll]l /moil/, Frost. aBn- xiIJ3 moil. Frost season. l:::ll]Jl:::ILH /moi2 mon2/, (Of a woman's face) to be plump, chubby, full-grown.

1:::1l]l /moi5/, To be extinct, to become extinct, to perish. rnlriLJLD91lri - haarf po3 haarr moi5. (Of a thing) to emerge by itself and perish by itself. l:::ll]l'fll'JJ /moi5 haai2/, To perish, to disappear. l:::llJll:::IUD1 /moi5 mot5/, To be extinct, to become extinct. l:::ll]Jl /moi6/, A ladle (esp. in the phrase

- ../Id moi6 Jam5). 1::fl]J2 /moi6/, To ache, to feel sore. 71/}ti al"rlllu ?er/ moi6 xaal tsep3. To have a pain in the back and the legs. l::IL1 /mok3/, To bury, to cover (with).

~11tJri--lLJl1 - wlaiJaJ;i man2 rarr l:Jn2 mok3 phaa4 wa.P xanl. He is still fast asleep, covered with the quilt. t:tL1lQr\ /mok3 f81]1/, To bury.

Digitized by


l:IL1'fll')l /mok3 haai 1/, To cover up, to stifle. l:IL1 1 /mok5/, A lump (of anything that is shaped like a lump or a ball). - UJ'jj mok5 fai2. A fireball . l::IL12 /mok5/, Spittle. mlfo- ../ld.-1/jj.-18n thum3 mok5 Jam5 Jaai2 /:,1)6. To spit saliva. l:IL13 /mok5/, Swill, slops, hogwash. l:IL.;. /mom3/, To cover, to put away (unripe bananas) for ripening, to nurse (a grievance), to brood over (sth.), to fester. - 1IJI mom3 koi4. To cover bananas. - "Ori mom3 tsarf. To nurse a grievance. - --ILJri mom2 l:Jl)l. To fester. l::ILl:::I /mom6/, To be soft, to be spongy. .-1ri.-1811 - /81)1 Jin6 mom6. Spongy topsoil. l::ILH /mon2/, Round (shape). .-1/· - Jaa4 mon2. A round face. 'Tl~ - tsam6 mon2. A round mirror.

'118. -

l::ILH /mon3/, Grey, dusty. s:14 mon3. Grey shirt/jacket. See m:Jl)l. l::ILH /mon4/, Otter. l:ILH /mon5/, 1. To go through, to get into, to make one's way (into). - Wld.-lLJ'JJ mon5 tham4 l:Ji6. To get through a mountain cave. See wan3, m:Jn3. 2. (Of pigs) to dig up earth with the snout. l::ILHl::ln- /mon5 me2/, 1. To repair, to fix. 2. To settle (a dispute), to mediate. l:::ILH 1 /mon6/, 1. Good fortune, good luck.

~11~8 ·· - u,ll · man2 mi2 mon6 te5. He/She has good luck. 2. Buddha. l:ILH 2 /mon6/, To be lively, to be bustling with noise and excitement. - --ILri - .-1/ri Original from



mon6 lol)l mon6 Jaat) 1. To be very lively. ~~ 3 /mon6/, To accompany, to keep

company. - 1:1,;,;1/· mon6 man2 kaa3. To accompany him/her to go, to go with him/her. l::ILri /morJl/, A kind of fish basket, with a • narrow operung. l::ILr'I /mofJ3/, Pipe, tube, anything shaped like a pipe or tube. - .,/Id mo,f1 Jam5. Water pipe. - '1LH mo,f1 kon6. Trouser legs. l::l[P /mofJ4/, Insect, caterpillar. See mtrj. l::lln1la /mofj4 kaau6/, Spider. l::ILn.-tlri /moJJ4 1881]2/, Silkworm. l::l[Pa0~ /moJJ4 xeml/, Ant. l::ILftaLH /morJ4 xon 1/, Caterpillar. l::llfl /moJJ6/, 1. Loose, soft, spongy, light and flaky' to puff up. BLMl:Jll' nlf, Ulfl• xonl me4 ?on4 mot/ te-5. The sheep wool is really soft. 2. (Of clothes) too big, fat. l::ILnl::ILD1 /morJ6 mot5/, Dust. Also

mu.r/ mut5. l::ILU 1 /mop5/, 1. The soft pulp of fruits, such as that of pineapples. 2. Classifier for objects shaped like a ball, a ball (of), a lump (of). - tJJjj mop-5 f ai2. Fireball. l::ILU 2 /mop5/, To fold. See top5, Jop5. l::ILD1 /motl/, To finish, to be finished, to end (esp. in the phrase - a/jj mot1

waai2). See pot3. Also mot3. 1::1(!1'1 /mot3/, To be finished, to be all gone, to be exhausted, to be used up, to run out (of). 1:J/}H - mtn5 mot3. To finish, to

Digitized by


be finished. 7101:1/}/ltr,a - ?au6 mtn5

?au6 mot3. To take away everything. "Dfl• Ulg··- LJci tse4 ti2 mot3 yau5. The paper has been used up. See pot3. Also mot1. l:f (_0'11 /mot5/, Ant. l:fLD12 /mot5/, 1. Witch. 2. Sacrificial activities (presided over by a witch). rnllo1 - het3 mot5. To perfo1111 sacrificial activities, to offer sacrifice. 3. The eighth of the twelve Earthly Branches. l:fUll /moi 1/, Pubic hair. l:fU)J /moi6/, To be tired, exhausted. l:J,;,;un - 1J8718o1 man2 yarf m:,i6 sil ?itl. He/She is not tired at all. l:fU)J.Al}' /moi6 loi3/, Tired, exhausted. l:tU)J.ALH /moi6 lon2/, Tired, exhausted. l:fU1 /mokl/, Bamboo tube. Also m:,k3. l:tU'i 1 /mok3/, To tell. - rnf1:J,;,;uiJ1/· m:;k3 hai4 man2 pai3 kaa3. Tell him/her not to go. l:fU11J1L /mok3 hu2/, To make known. l:fU11H /mok3 kan6/, To tell each other. l:tU1.-tUn /mok3 loJJ6/, To report. l:fU1Uij • /mok3 pt5/, To announce. l:f U'i2 /mok3/, Cloud. - .,,/l:Jni:i'71/· m:,k3

Jam6 l)am2 tsaa3. To be enveloped/ hidden in black clouds . l:fU'iJ /mok3/, (Bamboo) tube. l:fU11::1'Jl /mok3 mai5/, Bamboo tube. l:tU'i4 /mok3/, 1. Generic te1111 for flowers. 2. Classifier for flowers. 1:JU'itJ/· - .,,,pn m:,k3 yaa4 m:,k3 J:1r/. A flower. 3. (Of flowers) to bloom. Original from



01LH1::Jl"l1Ld - 1:1/- ua ton4 mak3 ko4 m~k3 maa2 hau5. The pear bees are in bloom. ~u1~')l /mok3 mai5/, Any flower of Xylophyta. ~u11.0nn /mok3 pheIJ 2I, Chrysanthemum. ~u1ul' /mok3 yaa4/ , 1. Flower. 2. Smallpox.

~UH.-tln /mon2 l88J]2/, Girl, young lady. ~UH'1.lijr1 /mon2 SEIJI/, Younger siblings. ~ui-1-nlji /mon2 tsaai2/, Man. ~u1-1uBn /mon2 yifj2/, Woman, lady, girl. ~u1-1a.;i /mon2 xarn2/, Younger siblings, younger brothers and sisters.

~u11 /mok5/, Cannon.

~UM3 /mon2/, Soft, fine. See ?on4, ?~n3.

~u12 /mok5/, To stir, to agitate, to instigate, to arouse. - 71llt,LJf1rnlltfl 1:181 mok5 ?el ?on3 het3 m~k5. To instigate young children to do bad things. See s~k5.

~UM4 /mon2/, Lean (meat). ,18._ J:>5 m~n2. Lean meat.

~U13 /mok5/, To flatter, to praise (esp. in the phrase - UlJf7 mok5 yorf>. /mom6/, Swollen. 01LDLJf17JLD ,1/i.JLd - aiJud to-1 yaIJ3 tso4 Jaa4 po2 mom6 waP yau5. (My/His) face was swollen from being stung by wasps. See


kai6. ~u~.-tl' /mom6 laa4/, To lose face, to be shameful, to be ashamed. ~u~uB' /mom6 pi 1/, Parotitis. ~UH /mon 1/, 1. Pillow (esp. in the phrase - rnLd monl hol). 2. To rest sth. on (sth. else), to put sth. under sth. else to raise it or make it level. 71aw811 11JP 718ut,18n ?au6 ph:ml m~nl SUl)l ?itl J~r:,6.To put sth. under the table to raise it up a bit. ~UH 1 /mon2/, Mulberry tree. ~UH.-tln /mon2 laag2/, Mulberry. ~UH2 /mon2/, 1. Classifier for people. See ko5. 2. Noun stem indicating human beings.

Digitized by


~UHi /mon3/, To pierce, to go through, to pass through. - 'UJfi,lfJ'JJ m~n3 tham4 J~i6. To pass through a cave. See wan3,

mon-5. ~UH-"nH /mon3 lenl/, Ancestors. ~UH2 /mon3/, 1. To dye. See yom5. 2. Light blue. - ff1lJfi mon3 h~m4. Light blue, esp. after being dyed in indigo. - 1/'}J11/n mon3 kaai6 saa,f. Sky blue. ~UH /mon4/, 1. To keep begging or asking for (sth.), as of a child or beggar. See y~n2. 2. To be in large numbers, to be close and numerous. ~UH /mon5/, Snout moth, snout moth's larva. ~UH /mon6/, 1. A kind of plant with reddish leaves, whose stems and tips are edible. 2. (Of things, such as machines) smooth. 3. (Of people) to be skillful in doing sth. uf]nuliitp1- ptr.f yaa3 mut5 mon6. To be skillful, to be highlyskilled. ~UH.Al- /mon6 laa2/, A kind of wild taro growing in wet rice fields or by a stream. Original from



l::IUMnB-1 /mon61]ik1/, To be nimble, to be quick in action. 1::1un1 /mol)l/, 1. Grey (esp. in the phrase l::llJ}7 - mutl m:Jl)l). 2. Used, secondhand. 1J8. - s:t' m:Jl)l. Second-hand clothes. 3. To feel worried, to look blue. ;#/ ·- Jaa4 m:Jl)I. To look blue. aB •- xil m:Jl)I. To look worried, to feel worried.

l::IUU /mop3/, (Of eggs, balloons and suchlike) to break, to be broken. 1 iJ kai3 m:Jp3. Broken eggs. l::IUUl::lijU /mopS mtpS/, The temples. Also m:J,f m£p5.

1::1ur12 /mOIJ 1/, Asthma.

l::IUUI /mot3/, 1. To extinguish, (of a fire) to be out. llJi,i- LJD fai2 m:,t3 yau5. The fire is out. 2. To be blind (esp. in the phrase 01/ - taa6 m:Jt3}.

l::IUfi 1 /moJJ2/, A kind of fishing net.

l::IUD'l /mot5/, 1. Te11nite, weevil. 2. (Of

1::1un2 /morJ2/, A kind of gong. l::ILJl13 /morJ2/, A long piece of bamboo strip or the like for putting on top of straw or leaves to hold them together, such as in building a dam. 1::1Uri4 /morJ2/, To long for, to look for something far away, to expect. - m/ · aBnLJ/i:i m:Jrj thaa4 xi,jl yaam2. To wait for a chance, to expect a chance. l::IUl'lD'lr /morJ2 tail/, To expect, to look forward to. Also tai2 m:Jr;r. 1::1uncln /mofj2 Waafj3/, To hope, to wish. 1::1uncln71ln71n /moIJ2Waal)3 ?aal)4 ?el/, To expect. #

l::IUr'I /morJ3/, To pierce, to punch (a hole), to drill, to make a hole. See wan3, m:Jn3. 1:1un /morJ4I, Cross-section, ring. - .,/ll1 m:J,f lek3. An iron ring. 1::1un1::1iju /morJ4 mtpS/, The temples. Also m:Jp5 m£p5. 1::1un /morJ6/, To pickle. - lD"1'1JLld m:J1)6 phakl som4. To pickle vegetables, to make sour vegetables by pickling them. - ul'VLld m:Jr/' paa6 som4. To pickle fish.

Digitized by

Go gle

wood or grain) to go wo1111y, to become rotten. '1JO.,/Lf1.,/'}J - l::l0HLJD sau1 Jo,f Jai5 m:Jt5 m£n5 yau5. This pillar has gone wot 111y. l::IL /mu 1/, Pig. l:IL nlH /mul rJaan 1/, Boar kept for • covenng. l:jL \Dd /mul phaul/, Roast pork. l::IL mUH /mul th~n3/, Wild boar. l:jL 1 /mu2/, Work.job, thing, affair. ~ LJ!i:i mu2 yaam2. Cu11ent affairs. l::IL .-.ti· /mu2 laa3/, Thing, course. l:jL .,fl1 /mu2 laak3/, Incident. l:IL .-.tlH /mu2 laan2/, Ancient times, olden times. l::IL 1::tlH /mu2 maan3/, Fact, truth. l::IL '1Ju- /mu2 s;,2/, Hunter. l::IL '1JU1 /mu2 s~k3/, Military affairs. l::IL 01111 /mu2 taat)2/, Affair. l:IL /mu2 thi2/, Issue, problem, thing.


l::IL 2 /mu2/, 1. A Bu1111ese monetary unit. 2. A Chinese unit of measure for area (= 1/15 hectare). 1::1~ /mu3/, Group, cluster. - lQII1 mu3 ful)I. League, collective. See ful)l.

Original from



l::IL /mu4/, 1. (Of children or the young of animals) to be fat, to be plump, to be chubby, to be pudgy. 2. (Of arms or plants) to be sturdy, to be thick and strong, to be well grown. 01LD'Tlln to6 haa,:f mu4 x:,,fJ. Strongly built



l:::IU,-01. /mu1J2 tsaa3/, To cover up, to hide, to keep from view.

1::111' 1 /mufJ3/, Cabbage, broccoli. - Al" ufHmu,fJ Jaa3 paan2. Broccoli. 1::111' 2 /murJ3/, To faint, to lose consciousness (esp. in the phrase

l::IL /mu5/, Tamarind. l=IL1 /mukl/, A kind of plant.

l::IL1 /muk5/, Mucus of the nose. l::IL1"\JI· /muk5 saa3/, To slander, to make a false accusation.

1::1~ /munl/, Part of a loom. 1::11!1 /mun2/, 1. To open (the eye). - 01/ mun2 taa6. To open one's eyes. 2. (Of a skin disease) to have a recurrence. l::IU11::1n . /mun2 rne3/, To sprout. 1::1ltimn· 1::1n· ml· 1mun2 tc3 me3 thaa2/, To develop. l::lltiml· /mun2 thaa2/, To develop, to multiply, (of a skin disease) to have a recu11 ence.

l::lltt 1 /mun6/, 1. Powder, flour, small broken bits. - u/· mun6 yaa4. Herb powder. 2. Fine (grain), small (particles). See ?:Jn3.

l::lltt 2 /mun6/, Slippery, smooth. 8LH01lti - 01fl• xon 1 taaIJ2 mun6 te5. The road is very slippery. wBdw/· wll~IJ.11/" A8fli01fl• phiul phaa4 phel Jup5 kaa3 mun6 J:,m4 te5. This silk quilt cover feels very smooth.

l::ll[l /murJ2/, 1. To roof, to build a roof. 2. Roof.

l::ll(, /mufJ5/, Nest or burrow for animals. - l::lJ.' muiy mul. Pig's burrow. l::IL[l l /mUfJ6/, A kind of basket. - 01U'1

mwl t:ik3. Bamboo basket. - o/-,J mu,! waail. Vine basket.

l::IL[l 2 /mu1]6/, To observe, to look, to watch.

l::IL[ll::lna /murJ6 meu3/, To watch, to look at.

l::IL[lD'll]J /mufJ6 toi2/, To watch, to observe.

l::IL[lUn~ /murJ6 yem4/, To watch. l::IL[ll::lfJ'1 /murJ6 mut5/, Dust. Also mo,! mot5.

l::IU,l /mupl/, To hit, to strike (with sticks). See marl.

l::luJ.-tL~ /mupl lom5/, To defeat, to beat.

l::IU,ll::ln /mup 1 maJJ6/, To beat, to hit. l::IU,l"\J~ /mupl sum2/, To defeat.


/mutl/, Verb stem associated with 'to feel lonely'. l::lllJ1l::IUr1 /mutl mol)l/, To feel lonely. l::IUJ1l:::IUr1lDUr1"\JI- /mutl molJI phorJl saa2/, To feel lonely, to feel melancholy.

l::lfJ'1 /mutS/, 1. To be familiar (with), to

1:::1l[ina;j /murJ2 rJarn2/, To cover. l:::ll[l"\Ju,1 /murJ2 sutl/, Top of a mosquito net.

Digitized by

- - 1n1n mu,fJ mu.r:,3 karl katJ6).


know well, to be well acquainted with.

1aun - l::JH kau6 yatJ6 mut5 man2. I don't know him. LJn1::J8iLH- 1181Ld Original from



yar/ mi2 kon2 mut5 sil ko5. There is not a single acquaintance. 2. To get used to. unuL.;,iJ - yaq6 yu3 Jar' mut5. Not get used to living (at a place). liUJ'l1M /mut5 kan6/, To know each other.

t:tff •

/mil/, Not (cannot be used alone, often used with verbs and adjectives). See ?am4, ya,/', maau4.

~ff ..

/mi2/, Hand. LJL1 - yok5 mi2. To

raise hands. tJJI" ~ faa3 mi2. Palm. 1:tff- .Al]l /1Jli2 luil/, Wooden handle for turning a mill. 1:tff- ulc /1Jli2 yaau2/, To have a long hand, a thief.


/mik5/, Ink. ~E!J - Jam5 mik5. Ink. ~Ed - ~LD Jam5 mik5 Jol. Chinese ink.

t:tU •t:tl1

/m~l maak3/, (Of rubbish) to be scattered about, to lie everywhere; (of clothes) to be stained. Also maak3 m.11.


!mil-I, To return, to come back. - f/111 mil h.1n2. To come home. 1:tU- .AU· /mil- 1;)1/, Over, more than. 97/· '1.1811 - haa4 sipl mi2 J.11. Over fifty .


lmi31, To be bored, to feel disgusted,

to be tired of. 18MULti - 1/[Ja kin6 po2 mil kaa3 yau5. To have felt tired of eating (certain food). ull,;i - f/10 yem4 mil hau5. To be tired of watching (sth.). t:tO· -olM /mi3 tsaan6/, To be bored, to be disgusted, to be tired of. t:tU· -on /mi3 tsaa1]2/, To hate, to be disgusted with, to detest.

1:tU" 1

,~4/, Gunpowder. k:,rf. Gunpowder.

1:tU" 2

1un m~

/m~/, Ink.

Digitized by


t:tU" 3

/m;,4/, Butterfly. Also kaap3 m~,


t:tU" 4 /m:,4/, To think, to ponder (over). t:tU 1 /m;)6/, Time, when, season. aBn ~ xi!f ma6. Period, time. - DMULHnl"JJ ma6 wan2 pon5 oaai6. Time flies.


/m;f' ?on3/, When (one was) young, childhood. ~U'J'IUM /m;,6 ?on6/, Before, in the past. t:tUIJ'lff ·· /m;)6 h•2/, The day after tomorrow. t:tU1~ /m;)6 kai4/, Just now.

t:tU1D1 /m;,6 katl/, Winter,coldseason. t:tU1UH /m;,6 kon3/, Once before, once upon a time, before, previously. t:tU_.tl" /m;,6 laa4/,Future. t:tU.A'Jl /m~6 Iai5/, Today. See mai5, m.1i5.

t:tU.A~ t:tU.Af

/m-:,6 lan5/, That day, at that time. /m;,6 lai6/, 1. When, whenever, which/what day, what time. l:Jr - t:J/mai2 m~ Jai6 maa2?When did you come? 2. Discourse particle expressing a strong negative feeling on the part of the speaker. l:Jra/ullMl:JMf/1ll01, "CJ{l:JM mai2 waa6 pen6 man2 het3, mil Jai6 tsai6 man2! You said he/she did it,

but he/she definitely did not! t:tU-"BCH"'UUr'I /m~6 li6 wan2 S~IJ 3/, Lucky days, happy days. t:tU-"Un /m~6 l~IJ6/, 1. Two days ago. 2. Two days after tomorrow. ~ut:t')l /m~6 mai 1/, Summer, hot season. t:tU1DL1 /m-$' phuk5/, Tomo11ow. t:tU"'UffH /m;f' s.n2/, The day before yesterday. t:tUal ·· /m;)6 waa2/, Yesterday. Original from




/m~6 wan2/, 1. Life. 2. Day(time).

l:fU 2

/m~6/, To poison (fish).

l:10')3 /m~i5/, Today (contracted fo1111 of

l:fU1 /m~k5/, Cruel, ruthless, sinister. l:IU1.ALH /m~k5 lon5/, Relentless, relentlessly. l:fU1.AUn /m~k5 1~1]2/, Sinister. l:IU1i.Ju,1 /m~k5 sut 1/, To be cruel. /m;,n 1/, To fill and level up.

/m;,nl/, To be alike, to look alike, to resemble, to be similar. 1:/11 - "Dl'f.iad man2 m~n1 tsaai2 xaul. He looks like/resembles his elder brother. l:fUH1J1ln /m~ 1 hWJ6/, To seem to be (the case), to look like. - ullMU1LD

4/')Jui,iu,l}f} m~nl haat:f pen6 to6 Jaai2 man2 t£m4. It looks like his handwriting.


/m~ 1 kan6/, To be alike, to be the same, to be similar, to resemble.

n/')J4/1Jyrlal · - tJBai2 Jaa4 s:J1J1 xaal m~n1 Jcan6. The two of them are alike in countenance. 4/;,81.1yrla/ ·- Jaa3 Jj3 S:JtJ1 xaal m~n1 kan6. Both the watches

are the same brand. l:IUH.A" /m~ 1 l81] 3/, Seem, it seems that. - 1DLJLD4iJff1"11LDUl}148nua m~nl lar;f kau6 po2 Jai4 hanl ko3 p:Jk5 l~IJ6 yau5. I seem to have seen it once before.


/m~5/, That day, at that time (contracted fu1111of m:P Jan5).


/m~6/, 1. Inclined, tilted. 1:J80'1 1:J80'1 - ~ mit1 mitl man6 m~n6. To be tilted, to be slanting. 2. To pout (one's lips).~ -VLLJ man6 sop3. To pout one's

Digitized by


/m~fJ 1/, (Of weather) to be fine, to

clear up. See J:Jn5, 1£tJ5·.

t:1Un 1

m:P Jai5).

l:f0M 1 l:fUH2

mouth. -VLLJl:JljLJ-VLLJ - sop3 m£p3 sop3 m~n6. With a pouted mouth.


/m~1]2/, 1. Country, (flat)~ open plain. 2. Noun head indicating 'country' or various placenames. l:fUn1ln /m~fj2 ka81]6/, The world. t:1Un1~ /m;,tJ 2 kon2/, The world, the human world. t:1Un1~ /m~fj2 kot5/, A placename in Burma (Myanmar), well known for its rubies and diamonds. l:fUn1u1 /m;,tJ2 kok3/, Bangkok. t:1Un.AI' /m;,tJ2 laa4/, Mengla, a placename in Sipsongpanna. t:1Un-Aln /m;,IJ 2 laafj6/, This world, the world. t:1Un-Ala /m;,IJ2 laau2/, Laos. t:1Un.Ae- ulH /m~l]2 Ii2 paan3/, Heaven. t:1Unt:1IH /m;,fj2 maan6/, Burma (Myanmar). Also m~r:,2 tai4. t:1Unt:1la /m~fj2 maau2/, Muang Mau, alsocalledRuili. t:1Unnl.Al')i /m~IJ2 l)aa6 laai2/, (Legendary) hell.


/m;,IJ2I, The fourth of the ten Heavenly Stems.

t:1Un 3

/m~IJ2I, An honourable title given to dignitaries in a feudal society.

t:1Un-ul. /m;,IJ2 saal/, Muang Sa, a Taispeaking area in Gengrna County, Yunnan. t:1Uni.Jlnmu')i /m~fj2 Sa81J2 thoi2/, China. t:1Uni.Jn. /m~l)2 se 1/, 1. Kunming. 2. Yunnan.

Original from




/m;)g2 tai4/, Myanrna (Burma). Also m:1,j maan6. 1:1Unmji /m;,rJ2 thai2/, Thailand.



IIJaai 3 h~/, To avoid, to evade, to dodge. rn111au'}J1/·, 1:Ji11yiJ -

nu101/n rn1.1li/1ll, hanl kau6 pai6 kaa3, man2 k:Ji2 IJaai3 h;t# ?:Jk3

/m;>t3/, Seasonings.

he 1• Seeing me passing by, he/she


/m;,t3 hom 1/, Seasonings such as ginger and garlic. l:fUo"Jl:jB· /m~t3 mi3/,Seasonings.



nl • lrJaa1/, To take (without pe1111ission). nl. 1J1ijn IIJaa1 h€IJ2/, To be

dodged me (i.e. pretended not to see me).


/rJaai6/, To be easy. rnlltfl- het3 1Jaai6. To be easy to do. nl,,nl" lrJaai6fJaai6/, 1. To be easy, easily. 1LH'1/_Cl-""N'J1ii- kon2 ko-5 Jai5 ?am3 1Jaai6 IJaai6. This person is no simpleton/fhis fellow is marvellous. 2. To be far from, to fall short of. .,// ·

aurl-"lrl-"H1Jnul1:J/J11-"il - au Jaa4

employed, to work (for someone).

nl ·· 1

/rJaa2/, Sesame (esp. in the phrase

- -"LD IJaa2 Jo-1).

nl -- 2

lrJaa2/, 1. Long, sharp, protruding teeth such as those of animals, ivory. l)aa2 s:11. The sharp, protruding teeth of a tiger or lion. 2. A horn-like part at the top or edge of a roof for decoration. 3. Branch or contingent (of troops). nl- ,1l)i /fJaa2 laai2/, Hell. nl- ul)i l1Jaa2 paai2/, Ivory, tusk. nl --~111 lrJaa2 tsaafj5/, Ivory, tusk.

- 'VD,

nl· /fJu.3/, To be stupid, to be dumb, to be silly. '1LH - kon2 IJaa3. Idiot, silly person. /rJaa5/, To be stupid, to be dumb, to be silly. nlil - ?aai4 1)8a5. Idiot.


nl)i 1 lrJaai 2/, Breakfast. See xau4 Jail. nl)i 2 /gaai2/, Appearance, image, manner. nl')i1J1ln lrJaai2 haarJ6/, Appearance, image, phenomenon. nl)i ,ti· lrJaai2 laa4/, Appearance.

Digitized by


taaIJ3 hu5 kaa3

JC:Jl)l laaIJl Jan5 yaIJ6 paa6 m£n5 Jai4 1Jaai6 1Jaai6 xanl. The job is far from

being completed. nl,,~f lrJaai6tsai6/, To be easy, to be simple, easily. - rnlltfluun l)aai6 tsai6 het3 p:JIJ6. Easily done/carried out. /fJaak5/, 1. To crack, to split (from a joint). 01/}1 ~ t£k3 1Jaak5. To crack, to have cracks (on sth.). 2. To open (the mouth). ~ u/1 1Jaak5 paak3. To open the mouth. - wfl• IJaak5 phe3. To spread.


lrJaam 1/, To take hold of, to hold. l:Jg·· ~ 8LJH01D mi2 IJaaml X:Jn-5 tau5. To hold a stick in the hand. mBri - nlrnlr'I thirj IJaaml ?aa6 haary. To hold power. nll:i1J1nD"I /rjaaml het3/. To carry out, to undenake.



lrJaam2/, Beautiful, perfect, magnificent . .,//ri ~ l8BJJ2 IJaam2. Beautiful girl/lady. - u,llfnll 01Jaa1n2 t& te5. Very beautiful, pretty. u,/rinlti-"8taa,f ?8/JIJ4 Ji61Jaam2. Lofty goal, magnificent prospects. Original from



nl.;;-uBn /1]aatn2 Si1]4/, Perfect. nlt:t /fJaam6/, The fork of a tree, things in the shape of, or conceptualised as, a fork. ~ 1:1D ··1Jaam2 mi2. The fork of the fingers. nlt:t-ul l1Jaam6 saa6/, 1. The joint of a branch. 2. Fork (tool). nlt:t-of l1Jaam6 tsai6/, The pit of the stomach.


IJJaanl/, 1. Uncastrated male mammals. a/jj - xaai2 IJaanl. Bull. 2. Semen.


/JJaan2/, 1. Work, job (esp. in the phrase 1/H ~ kaan6 IJaan2>. See kaan6. 2. Infantile convulsions.


/gaap3/, (Large) crack in a rock or on the ground. ~ mV:,- .,/fJ'JJ IJaap3 hoi4 IJaap3 J:ii6. Caves in a mountain, hollows in a mountain. nlllal · /gaap3 xaal/, Groin.


/gaatS/, To lack, to be short of, to run out of (food/money/supplies).

nld /gaaul/, The sound made by a cat. nldnld /gaaul JJaaul/, 1. Intensifying suffix for verbs indicating crying or shouting. nBd ~ ~ ?iul IJBaul tJaaul. To shout, to yell. 2. Suffix for verbs denoting light, flash and similar phenomena. 'V[Jfl - - s:ii:,3 tJBaul IJaaul. Shining, glittering.


/fJaauS/, To pull (down). - uBM IJaau5 pin4. To pull down. Also Jaau5. nl~nl~ /gaauS JJaauS/, Onomatopoeic suffix for verbs denoting crying and so on. mil- har' 1Jaau51Jaau5. To cry loudly. 1:1/ •- maa4 l)aau5 1Jaau5. To flare up.

Digitized by


/gam2/, 1. To incubate. 1,:, - a,:, kai3 1Jam2 xai3. The hen is incubating its eggs. 2. To cover, to envelope. l:lLJ"1 nd m:ik3 1Jam2 IJau2. To be covered in mist.


n~ /gamS/, To catch, to hold fi11nly, to arrest. - 1:1g·· 1Jam5 mi2. To shake hands. See kam6, IJaan>2. n~uun l1Jam5 p~l)3/, To take hold of, to control. n~mBn /l)amS thil)2/, To take charge, to be in charge. - .,//j:i71l{1U/" 1Jam5 thi,l Jum2 tsui:,3 yaa3. To chair a meeting.


lrJam6/, 1. To request. ~ UlJH 1Jam6 y:in2. To present a petition. 2. To move forward. nt:tal~ l1Jam6 xaam3/, To request.

nu /gapS/, 1. To put into stacks (such as utenti ls of the same size), to stack. See s:in5. 2. To slow down the combustion of a stove by shutting off the fire to ambient air.


/gau 1/, To be depressed, to feel dejected, to feel gloomy. nd1L /l)aul kul/, To feel gloomy, to have a wonied look. nd-ULri IJJaul sog2/, To be in low spirits, to feel dejected.


IJJau2/, Shadow, reflection (in water or a mirror). - min IJBu2 haar;f. Shadow. - 1Ll1 IJau2 kon2. Shadow or reflection of a person.

nd /fJau4/, Basis, central root. ~ _,,e,:, IJau4 Jin5. The root of the tongue, velar.

nd1J1l1 IJJau4 haalc5/, Source, root, origin. - l:JiJ.,/Lri IJBu4 haaJc5 maP Joql.

Original from


105 The roots of a large tree. -

nll:JI.- l)Bu5

haak5 ?aa6 mu2. The origin/ source of

something. - ""lln91J.fnM 1Jau4 haak5 JJ,/ hu5 hanl. Basic knowledge. na1J1ijri l1Jau4 hE1]2/, Main force. na18n l1Jau4 ki1]3/, Principal and subordinate. l:Jlji'l'V1 - mE,:f sakl l)Bu4 ki,:f. To distinguish between principal and subordinate. nD1LD IJJau4 ko3/, Basis. na.-.1,J /JJau4 lai 1/, Main current. na.-.11 IJJau4 lak 1/, Main, principal. na.-.1n" l1Jau4 lel/, Instigator. na.-.18' /l)aU4 li4/, Instigator, person or party concerned. na.-.1un l1Jau4 lo1J6/, Principle. na~BH /l)au4 min 1/, Key (to a question), crux (of a matter). - l:JI. .. mB .


1Jau4 minl mu2 thi2 pen6

ti6 SBIJl ? What is the key to the question? nan1· /l)aU4 JJaa3/, Basis, source. naul· 018. l1Jau4 paa3 ti5/, Birthplace.


l1Jai6/, 1. Silt, sludge, ooze. See ?u,/. 2. To silt, to be silted (up). - m81:1 1Jai6 th~ml. To silt up, to be retarded by silt.


l1Je6/, 1. (Of a person) to be gentle, docile, (of animals) to be tame, to be docile, to be meek. "Of'JILH'TJ( - fsai6 ?on4 tsai6 1J&. To be gentle in character. 1:Jf •cnLa~iJ - cnfl• maa5 to61ais 1J& te5. This horse is very docile/meek.


lrJel)6/, Comer, (sharp) angle. - 'Vlr'I IJCJf saarf. The·comer of a wall.

l1JEk5/, To lie down on one's back or side.


Digitized by



l1JEn 1/, Forced smile, wry smile. - l:Jr'l£Jri 1JEn1 mar/ yarf. To laugh foolishly, to giggle, to smirk. nijl--lnijHnnnn ll]Enl IJEnl IJ81)3 1)81)3/, To want to cry but fail to do so (such as in a desperate or helpless situation). nijHananijH1lri l!]Enl xeu4 J]Enl kaaJJ2/, 1. To show one's teeth. 2. To contort one's face in agony, to grimace • tn pain. •

nijH l1JEn2/, Mill. Also y£n2. nijH--un· l1JEn2 se2/, To frame, to make a false charge against.

'11Lci1Jfa1:J81""Ul:1""11 - tso4 kon2 m~ks JJml Jan3 1)En2 se2. To be framed by

evil people. l1JEn4/, The stem of a melon, fruit or suchlike, which links the fruit with the branch or stem of the plant. - cnl]n l)En4 tE,f. The stem of a cucumber. nijH--unn· IJ]En4 SC1]4/, Cause, reason.


l1JEl)4/, (A) bundle (of). IJJIJ1'VUri ~ fun2 S~1) 1 tJEIJ". Two bundles of firewood. See xun2.


nijd l1JEu 1/, The sound made by a cat. nijd-nf lrJEul tsai6/, To worry, to be worried.

nijc nija

l1JEU2/, Shrimp.


lrJEU4/, 1. Handful. aci xau4 l)Eu4 J~,f. A handful of rice. 2. To hold between the fingers, to pinch. See mipl,


nijdnijd IIJEUs IJEuS/, Onomatopoeic words suffixed to verbs denoting a baby's crying. 97">' - hai4 l)Eu5 l)Eu5. (Of a baby) to cry. Original from



nB •nB · /l)il I]il/, Onomatopoeic word suffixed to verbs denoting moaning or groaning. ari - JCarj2 1Jil 1Jil. To moan, to groan. l1Ji2/, 1. The third of the twelve Earthly Branches. 2. Antelope.

nB· l1Ji3/, 1. To be ready. 2. Of one mind. nB1 /I]ikl/, To dodge (an upcoming object), to evade, to avoid. tJnUlH yai:,6tan21Jikl. To be unable to dodge, to fail to dodge. - 1/· 1Jikl kaa3. To pass by with a sidestep. /l)in 2/, 1. To hear (esp. in the phrase

.,,ii - Jar' 1Jin2}. .,/i} - al Jai4 Qin2 waa6. It was said (that... ), they say ... 2. To feel, to have the feeling or sense (of). - f:Jo· - '1.JIH 1)in2 m:,4 1)in2 tsaan4. To feel bored, to be fed up with, to be tired of. 3. Verb stem indicating 'to feel sth.'. nBH711'JJ /l)in2 ?aai6/, To feel ashamed, to be ashamed of. nBH1LC /l)in2 ko6/, To fear, to be afraid. nBH.-tl]l /l)in2 loil/, To feel tired. nBH"Dn /l)in2 ts8J]2/, To hate, to dislike, to feel disgusted. nBH"DL~ IIJin2 tsom2/, To feel happy. nBHaB · IIJin2 xii/, To worry.

nLti 1 /l)o2/, To be bent, to be crooked. 1LU71f_t17 ~ - kot5 kot5 1Jo2 1Jo2. To be crooked, to be winding.

nlii 2

Don't touch! It's greasy. '1.Jlf:J - 1/· .,,/ · sorn61)om2 kaa3 Jaa4. To feel one's way

along. "'IP - Jup5 1)0m2. To caress.



"L~ /l)om2/, To feel, to smear, to caress. u,:, -, f:J8 -f:JH pai3 Qom2, mi2 man2.

/fJo2/, Ox. Also wo2.

nLtiulri /fJo2 paaJJ2/, Yak. nLti--u~· /l)o2 si3/, Heifer.

"LCD11n /l)o2 taaJJ3/, Pack ox. nl~ /l)oS/, Name for the fifth son of a Tai

nLH nLri

/l)on5/, Poison (fluid).

lfJOl)2/, 1. Back (of a chair). - u,t, IJO,j tar.13. The back of a chair. 2. The handle of a utensil. ~ Ulci IJO,j tau4. The handle of a teapot. nLri1J1L ll)OIJ2 hul/, Earring. nlfinLrint· nt· /1Jo1J2 1J01J2 1Jaa2 l)aa2/, (Of things such as branches of a tree) to be uneven, to be crooked, to be disorderly. nLri"Dl11 /1)01)2 tsaat)5/, The tusk of an elephant.

nu,:; /l)oi2/, Small jar, pot. ~ .,/D 1J:>i2 Jau4. Small wine jar.

nu1 /l)ok 1/, 1. To tum, to tum around. "'f}ri1/ .. tJ!ld ~ '1.11,,,. LJ'}Jf:J/f1 lc1Jl kaa2 yaa11i2 IJ:>kl su4 pai6 maan3. A turning

vehicle should go slow. 2. Turn, bend, curve.~ u,/ri 1J:>k1 taarJ2. The curve/ turn of a road. nu1nij1 /I]okl l)Ekl/, To be winding, to be tortuous. nu1nu1nij1nij1 /l)okl l):>kl l)Ekl l)Ek 1/, To be winding, to be tortuous. /l)ok5/, 1. Bud, sprout, young shoot of a plant. ~ ad 1J:>k5 JCau4. Rice sprout. 2. To bud. aduLii- rnd JCau4 po2 1J:>k5 hau5. The rice/grain seeds have already sprouted. 3. To stretch (the neck). - aLii 1J:>k5 JCo2. To stretch one's neck.



Digitized by

- --


Google .


Original from



nu1nu1nff HnffH /l)okS l]OkS l)in2 l)in2/, To expect, to look forward to. nu~ /l)oml/, To squat. - '1/J:1'111 IJ:iml kum6 kan6. To squat chatting. Also IJuml.

- aLt11/" LJflf(J l)in2 xo2 kaa3 yem4. To stick out one's neck to watch. nff Ll /1]ip 1/, A concave-faced cliff. See



nu~nl_[I /l)oml go3/, To squat.

l!]itl/, To be stupid, to be silly. See

I)g4, I)aa3,


nUH l1]on6/, Island. nUH.A~ /1]::>n6 lamS/, Island. nuH--ul')l l1]0n6 saai 1/, Sand beach.

nn' /fJ':l4/, To be stupid, to be dull, to be foolish, to be dumb. 1LH - kon2 IJ:,4. A stupid person, an idiot. See IJBa3, IJBa5.

nuf1 /1]:>fJS/, To be winding, to be tortuous, to be twisting. 1J!l1'1L01 - kot5 kot5 IJ:>r:f IJ:>r:f. To be winding, to be meandering.

nn1 /ggkS/, Mythical water creature, dragon.

null /1]::>pl/, To nod (one's head). - 'l/1Ld IJ:ip1 hol. To nod one's head. nuu /fJopS/, To put into stacks (such as utensils of the same size), to stack. Also IJBp5.

nt.'· /fJu2/, Generic te1111 for snakes. nL .. 'Jld l1Ju2 hau4/, Cobra. nL1nl1 /fJuks 1Jaalc5/, 1. To be shaken, to wobble, to become loose. 01h- tar.,3 IJuk5 1Jak5. A wobbly chair. 2. To be useless, good for nothing. '1LH'1Ld,1iJ -


kon2 ko5 JaP IJuk5 IJak5 phEul.

This fellow is useless/good for nothing.


IJJuml/, To squat. Also IJ:>ml.

nuJ l!]upl/, 1. To bend over. See xom3. 2. To lie on one's stomach, to lie prone. See pop5,


nff .-1

/l)in 1/, (Of a tooth) to stick out. - xeu4 l)inl. Bucktooth.


nffH /l]in2/, To stick out (one's neck), to stretch (one's neck in order to see).

Digitized by


nn~ /1]':lm5/, To protrude, (of a cliff) to overhang. ,1/ · - Jaa4 IJ:>m5. Protruding forehead. w/, - phaal IJ:>m5. An overhanging cliff. nnHl /g':ln2/, Money, silver. nnHa~'Jl~tnn- l1J~n2 xam2 ham2 phe2/, Valuables. nnH.AnH /1]':)n2 l~n6/, Salary, wage. nnMaa· l1J:1n2 xau4/, Income. nUH2 /1]':)n2/, To stick one's neck forward, to crane one's neck. Also l)in2. nnH l1]:1n6/, 1. Starting point, end point. - nd IJ:>n6 IJBu4. Cause, source. - -v/'}J IJ:m6 saail. The end of a string or thread. 2. Clan, family (tree). nUHur aU;.Lr1 /1]~n6 yai3 x~ lol]l/, Famous family, big family, big clan. nU01 /1]':)t5/, To scare, to frighten, to bully. /1]':lt5 x~/, To scare, to frighten, to bully. l:JHLJri - u811 man2 ya,j l):Jt5 x:,4 p:,n6. He is still scaring/ bullying others.


Original from



bushes, jungle, wilderness, meadow. ul· 'Jina /paa3 heu6/, Cemetery, graveyard. ul· -,11· /paa3 Iaa3 Jni3/,(Religious) morals, ethics. ul· .-tlr, /paa3 lWJ3/, Hall for worshipping Buddha, niche for a statue of Buddha. ul· .-tB1-ulm /paa3 lik5 saatS/, Buddhist worshippers, all living creatures. ul· ~')l /paa3 mai5/, Forest, jungle. u1· -uL[i /paa3 SUJJl/, Plateau. ul· al· .-ti- .-tijrl /paa3 xaa2 1aa2 1£1)5/, Wilderness of desolation, a desolate place outside a town. ul· ul' /paa3 yaa4/, Grassland, meadow, pasture, grazing land.

Up ul · /paal/, To trample, to step on, to tread


on. - n( paa1 IJai6. To step on silt/mud. ul · cl· /paal waal/, To be careless, to be forgetful.

ul " I

/paa2/, 1. To carry on the back, to carry along, (of an untamed ox) to drag along. l:J'11/"- UJ8ii man2 kaa3 paa2 f;,,f1. He/She went to carry some rice straw back. - 4/jj;/fnfl:Jl1l/JIJ148n paa2 Jaai2 kaa3 hai4 man2 fur/' l:n.f. To take a letter for/to him. 2. To be pregnant (esp. in the phrase - 71fl 'paa2 ?el). ul- -,11· /paa2 laaS/, A kind of basket for carrying things on the back, back basket. ul- unM /paa2 pen6/, To cause (sth. to happen), to result in, to end up. - 71Ufl 1:J/}fl paa2 pen6 ?:,,fl m£,fl. To crown a victory.

ul ·· 2

/paa2/, Honorific classifier for

Buddhist monks. -vln-v/1:i saaml paa2. Three monks.

ul .. 3


/paa2/, (Often compounding with

hu5 as in the following entry).

ul· 'JIL

/paa2 huS/, A marker for inttoducing a complement clause translatable as '(you) know perfectly well (that), (you are) fully aware of (the fact that)'. - rniJ1:J8iJ01Bul1Juf ·.


l:Jf-Vi!J4/}H;I" paa2 hu5 hai5 m;,j5 ul paai6 yaa4, mai2 sam5 1£n6 kaa3 thai 1 ? You know perfectly well that we

were going to weed the fields today, where on earth did you go?


/paa3/, 1. Place, arena - ill1 paa3 kon2. A place where people live, a densely populated area. 2. Shrubs and 1

Digitized by



2 /paa3/, 1. To remember with concern, to be concerned about, to think fondly of, to be nostalgic about. 71( aiJ '11LD48n tsai6 paa3 wai5 hol J.>rf>. To be concerned about one side. 2. To involve, to be involved, to be related to.

- "DLdalid1:JIHaiJ paa3 tsa4 .xaam2 maan6 wai5. To be related to Burmese. 3. To occupy by force, to seize. See





/paa4/, Aunt, mother's elder sister, mother's elder brother's wife, father's elder sister, father's elder brother's wife. /paa4/, Half. - u848n paa4 pi6 J;,rf'. Half a year. w/" ull1,1-vyri - phaa3 pen6 S:Jl)l paa4. To split into two (parts).


3 /paa4/, Side, direction. ul' .-ti' /paa4 laa4/, (In) front (oO, ahead, face to face. ul' .-t'Jl /paa4 laiS/, This side, over here. Original from



ul · .-till

/paa4 Jan5/, That side, over

there. ul · .-tr1 /paa4 181] 1/, Back, behind, hind side, in the back. ul" -,t~ • /paa4 1~1,, (On) top (of), above. ul" ulJ1-nlH /paa4 paai6 tsaan2/, South side, the south. ul" iJI')) /paa4 saai5/,Left-handside. ul" 01r /paa4 w4/, Bottom, underneath, below. ul" CH71U1 /paa4 wan2 ?~k3/, The east. ul" CHD1L1 /paa4 wan2 tok3/, The west. ul • al· /paa4 xaal/, Right-hand side.

ul· /paa5/, To have sexual intercourse, to copulate. See tsaap5 kan6.


/paa6/, Generic te1111 for fish. u11J1L1 /paa6 hok5/, Tadpole. ul.-1ur1 /paa6 loi]l/, Crucian carp. uli:tlii /paa6 muIJ2/, Carp. ul-nn~ /paa6 tsem2/, Salted fish. ul-nB" /paa6tsi4/,Loach. ulunH /paa6 yen3/, Eel. ulae· /paa6 xi2/, Loach, a kind of freshwater fish with slimy skin (also found in wet ricefields). Also paa6 tsi6.

ul,:; /paai2/, 1. To set, to arrange. - wf!11 paai2 ph:>n1. To set a table. 2. Male (elephant). "Dlr'I - tsaar/ paai2 . Male elephant


/paai3/, 1. To strike (a match), to ignite. - UJi.i paai3 fai2. To strike a match. 2. To play (a wind instrument). - ull-paai3 pe2. To play a flute. 3. To beat about the bush, to make oblique references, to allude to, to make insinuations (esp. in the phrase- u,/,;,

Digitized by


taan4 paai3). 4. (Of an animal) to attack with the horns.


/paai4/, 1. To show obeisance, to kneel down in respect. - wB · rnf!i1 paar' phil h:>n2. To prostrate oneself before the image of one's family ancestors, as newly-weds do during a wedding ceremony. 2. To make a courtesy call. - .,;1p11'1J8· paai4 J:,n6 si3. To pay a New Year call. ulll1Jll_C /paai4 hol/, To kneel down in respect, to kowtow.


/paai5/, 1. Slanting. See tsaai5. 2. To be lame. See x~kl, hen4, haan4.

ul)I I

/paai6/, 1. End, tip, top of a plant or suchlike. - nuilun1BH.,,f8 paai6 ?~j4 yatJ6 kin6 Ji6. The top part of the sugarcane is not tasty (i.e. not sweet). 2. Over, more than, exceeding. '1J8LJ 011 sipl paai6 wan2. More than ten days. 3. A particle used between numerals to link a higher number with a lower one. '1.llldu/i - rnl118L1 saam 1 paa1c3 paai6 haa4 sipl. Three hundred and fifty. '1J8rnll11 - u/]rfl si3 hen 1 paai6 pet3. Four thousand and eight. ulJ1-,1BH /paai6 lin5/, Tip of the tongue, tongue tip. UIJl.-tUJI /paai6 loi6/, Top of the hill, peak, summit. ul)li:t')l /paai6 mai5/, Top of a tree. ul)li:t~- /paai6 rm2/,Fingertip. ul,-,01BH /paai6 tin6/, Tiptoe. ulJ1-nlri /paai6 tsa81)2/, The south.

ul)I 2

/paai6/, 1. To get out of the way, to give way. - 10.,;1/}; uil mrlu,/ri mil paai6 kau6 /£2, pai3 thBIJl taBIJ2 hai5. Get out of my way! Don't stand in my way. 2. To flee, to escape. - u,/'}Ja/~BLJ Original from



paai6 taai6 }Caal Jipl. To escape danger to seek safety. - 1::1lln,11.· paai6 m~ Ju5. To flee from a disaster (such as war). ul'JJ~B • 1J'IUU"ll0 • /paai6 mi 1 hop5

s~ 1/, To escape from

the jaws of death and to fall into another great danger.

ul1 1 /paak3/, 1. Mouth. - ,11 paak3 Jakl. To be clumsy of speech. - a/1,1 paak3 waan1. A clever tongue, sweet talk. See sop3. 2. To say, to speak, to utter. See

taan4, waa6. ul1~I,:; /paak3 laai2/, Sea. ul1~l01 /paak3 laat5/, To speak, to utter, to narrate. ul-'\UJI· /paak3 faa5/, That's impossible. - 97d, 1::1H0181l118-1::18,1f paak3 taa5 hau5, man2 ti1 kaa3 ?:,2 m:;6 Jai6f That's absolutely impossible! He wouldn't agree/allow! ulJ\"llLLI /paak3 sop3/ , To be stubborn, to be disobedient. ul1"U~"DUl"t /paak3 tsau4 tso1J4/, Countries run by dukes or princes under an emperor in history. ul1al /paak3 waa6/, To speak, to utter, tonarrate. ul1ala;j /paak3 xaam2/, 1. To speak, to utter. 2. To be disobedient. ulJ\2 /paak3/, A hundred. ul1 /paakS/, 1 To uncover, to remove. - l::ILJ191HDH paak5 m~k3 hanl wan2. To dispel the clouds and see the sun. 2. To move with hand, foot, stick or suchlike. - allf:1,1/;,B· paak5 }(eml Jaa3 Ji3. To set a clock. - LJJ(ll:Jll~B paak5 yulf' me2 Ji6. To restore things, to set things right, to bring order out of chaos.

Digitized by


ulH 1 /paan2/, Flower. - 718n paan2 tsi,fl. A kind of flower. ulM 2 /paan2/, To fry, to bake. See xo4. ulM 3 /paara2/, To seduce, to lure, to tempt, to attract the attention of (a person of the other sex). - up1,191llrt,,1un71J· paan2 p:,n6 het3 l~rl tsaa5. To tempt someone to do bad/evil things. ulHUJl')i /paan2 faai3/, Slope. ulH1e- /paan2 ki2/, To think of sh. with respect. ulM /paan 3/, 1. To take care of (things), to handle. - nl1:J1.·· paan3 ?aa6 mu2. To do things, to handle things. 2. To mix. - u/CJ/ paan3 yaa4 yaa6. To mix herbs. See .xon2. ula:t~IH /paan3 maan4/, A kind of plant. ulM"UI· ue· /paan3 tsaa3 pi3/, A minority group in India, Pakistan and Bu1111a. UIH 1 /paan4/, Over there (contracted fo11r1 of paa4 Jan5). ulH 2 /paan4/, 1. To build (a dam in order to direct water). ad1/" - IJJ/'}i xaul kaa3 paan4 faai 1. They went to build a dam. 2. To (re)direct water into. - ,11Jad,1Jpaan4 Jam5 .xau4 Jaa2. To redirect water into the fields. 3. To put (leaves or suchlike) at the bottom or inside of a basket to keep things from dropping out. ulH~lrfl /paan4 laat3/, (Of things) to abound in the market. lD11:Jll,:, - a,:, phak1 m;,i5 paan4 laat3 wai5. Vegetables abound in the market/There are plenty of vegetables in the market.

Original from



UIH 1 /pun.Sf, Dish, plate, bamboo plate for holding or drying tobacco. - u/· paan5 yaa4. Bamboo tray for tobacco.

ulH 2

/paanS/, To block, to be blocked, to hinder, to get stuck. 018'1.Jri - aLDDiJ til SB1) 1 paan5 JCo2 wai5? What stuck in the

throat? -

0181,1 - l::JD · paan5 tin6 paan5

mi2. To be in the way, to be a hindrance.


/paan5 tsat6/, 1. Nuisance, trouble. 2. To trouble, to be mindbothering. - ullilaLd paan5 tsai6 paan5 x.o2. To be a nuisance, to be a bother.

ulH 1

/paan6/, Generation, class, life (span), period, age. 01J.91Ll::J - 1H tu6 hom6 paan6 kan6. We are of the same generation/class. 1Ll1- UJQ41,107/11 11ll11ll" kon2 paan6 thau4 Jan5 taan4 se3 se3... Old people often say that... ulH71UH /paan6 ?on3/, Youth, young generations. ulH1J'tnn /paan6 hel)2/, Young generations,juvenile, early youth. ulH1ln /paan6 kaaJ]6/, Middle-aged, in . one ' spnme. ulH1tft /paan6 kon2/, Life, lifetime. ulH~~ /paan6 lum3/, Young generations. ulH~On /paan6 m~IJ2/, Society, epoch, times. ulH"1Jffn /paan6 Sil)2/, Old generations, ancient times, in the old days, back in history. ulH01l'JJ /paan6 taai6/, To spare no effort, to do all one can. '11::JaLJn1::J!t1 - ,

11::JaLJn4iJLJJ.;,f"JJ kam6 JC:Jr;f maatf paan6 t.aai6, kam6 x.:ir;,6 Jai4 yu3 Jaai6. Some are so busy that they don't know what to do with themselves, others have nothing to do.

Digitized by



/paan6 thaau3/, Young generations. ulHmd /paari6 thau4/, Old generations.

ulH 2

/paan6/, To move, to remove, to carry, to transport. See x.aai5, to5, Ji 1.


/paaJ) 1/, The smaller side of a big drum in a Buddhist temple.

ulr1 2

/paaJ] 1/, To be bloated, to swell. 01LJt1- t:iry p881Jl. To feel bloated (after overeating). See sin6.

/paaJ]2/, An honorific discourse particle used by Buddhist worshippers when speaking to monks, translatable as 'please',



/paaJ] 3/, 1. (Of weather) to be fine, to be sunny, to be clear. tJJ/· - 11frnllri faa5 paaq3 sail he,r. A clear and boundless sky. 2. (Of the mind) to be open, free from worries. - "Df paaq3 tsai6. To be happy. 3. Open space, open plain, open field. - 1/ri paaq3 kaarf'. Big square, open space. uln~l;i /pa81]3 laai3/, Ocean. ulnunn /paaJ)3 pel)2/, Tableland. ulnul" /paaJ]3 yaa4/, Grassland.


/paaJ]6/, 1. Place, site (for gathering or other purposes). - 11/]1 paar;f s~k3. Battlefield. 2. Group, gang. See fuIJl. uln1l1nuln1JI- /paaJJ6 kaat3 paaIJ6 saa.2/, Marketplace. uln-,11" /p881J6 Iaa4/, Front, ahead. ulnuu;; /paaJ)6 poi2/, Assembly, gathering place. uln01l;J lpaaJJ6 taai2/, Rabbit. ulntn01 /paag6 t~k3/, Battlefield ulnaln /paaJ)6 X881]4/, Side, aspect, flank. Original from



ulll /paap3/, To throw (mud or suchlike) at another object, to paste on, to smear (on). nlli.of71071/,/11:JI -- '1Jda'jj ?el

phail ?au6 ?WJ6 maa2 paap3 sau 1 waP? Whose child threw mud at the pillar? ulm /paat3/, To cut, to slash, to tailor. - ad maat3 xau4. To harvest rice. - u/ · maat3 yaa4. To cut grass. 1LU maat3 s:>4 kon6. To tailor clothes. ullfliJ~C /paatS s~6/, To harvest.

'118 ·

ul01 I /paatS/, Item, session, te1111, tum. - 91Ld paat5 hol. The first session. - ,1'jj paat5 Jai5. This session, this te1111, this item. ul01--ul01 /paatS saat5/, Palace. ul01ml· ~,· /paatS thaas maaS/, Champion, number one. ul01anH /paat5 xen2/,Deadline. ulo,2 /paatS/, (Of a shot) to miss the target, to fall, to slip. up . - 1/· LJD y;2 paat5 kaa3 yau5. To have missed the target.

ul01.-4l01 /paat5 laat5/, To slip but not fall down. ulD1.-tL~ /paatS lomS/, To fall over. ulo,3 /paat5/, To put (sth. such as washing or clothes) on a rope or shoulder. ulo /paau3/, To announce, to report. - "CJD paau3 tsi6. To enter one's name. 718d - ?iul paau3. To announce, to yell, to shout. - 1:1/11 paau3 maan4. To announce to the whole village. ulCULr1 /paau3 yofJl/, To boast, to advocate. ula /paau4/, Scar, wound. Also pcu4. See maat3.

u,:i /pail/, Don't. go. -

1/· pai3 Jcaa3. Don't

rnllrn pai3 het3. Don't do (that).

u,:i.-tri /pail lagl/, To cross one's hands at the back. u')lul /pai3 paa6/, Don't (do) ... yet (do it later), don't do... now, wait until ... - a11, m/1aap,:i1/rnlltinuun1u pai3 paa6 xanl, thaa4 kau6 Jcin2 kaa3 hel tsai:,3 p:Jr/ kan6. Don't do (it now), wait till I come back to discuss it with you first. - 1/a11, un1:1B~ynu,/na11 pai3 paa6 kaa3 xanl, yar:,2 mi2 l:Jr/ taa.rj xanl. Don't go yet, there's still something to do. u')lulaH /pai3 paa6 xan 1/, Don't (do) ... yet, don't do...now, wait before doing .. . u')l /pai5/, This person (contracted form of pul IBP). U')J /pai6/, To walk. - 1/·- 1:Jl-pai6 kaa3

pai6 maa2. To walk back and forth. U)l1Jl)I /pai6 saai6/, To be sent on an errand, to be sent to a corvee without pay. U)ID1BM /pai6 tin6/, To go on foot, to walk. u11 /paJcl/, Width (of cloth). -

phe2. Width of cloth. l:JM - 1/ti man4 pakl kaa,f. Double-width cloth. u12 /pakl/, 1. To erect, to put in, to insert, to plant (a stake), to stab. - ad ,181-11/· pakl xau4 Jin6 kaa3. To stab into the earth, to plant in the soil. 2. To decorate, to embroider, to put on earrings, to wear (ornaments). - l:JfJ'1LJI' paJcl m:Jk3 yaa4. To decorate with flowers, to arrange flowers, flower• arranging. u1u~n /paJcl rmJ6/, System, fo11n .


Digitized by


wll . pak1

Original from




/pak.5/, Pumpkin, gourd. U1.A~r1 /pak5 Jal)l/, Pumpkin. U11::1LH /pak5 mon3/, Wax gourd, white gourd.

u.;i /pam2/, To provide, to support

(financially). - ,1/in/]11 pam2 Jaa4 h:1n2. To support the family. U.;i'Jlr /pam2 hai4/, To supply. u.;iuH /pam2 pan6/, To supply. ufial')l /pam2 xaai 1/, Supply and marketing.

u~ /pam4/, To dig deep.


/pam4 tsai6/, To dete11nine, to be

dete11nined (to do). -


""L1LD,1/]n pant' tsai6 het3 phu3 Jeri Ju6 ko5 J:1,t. To be dete1111ined to become an animal keeper. Ul:::I /pam6/, To stamp on, to tread on. UiJ

- 11un,1n pai3 pam6 ?:i,t la,/. Don' t step on the chair.

UH /pan2/, 1. To be smooth, to be shiny. -vllHaLM - sen4 xonl pan2. Smooth, shiny feather. "DntnlJ}rnLdrnllaLMfflLd - tsar.,3 tuml hol hel xonl hol pan2. To have soft, smooth hair after it has just been washed. 2. To shine, to emit light.

1.1/,J - Ul1ULri saai1 wan2 pan2 porf. The sun is shining/Sunbeams are coming through. 3. To love dearly. nll'71{ - ?el tsai6 pan2. To love from deep within the heart. UHl::IBn /pan2 mi1]6/, To do auspicious script-reading for the newly-wed daughter-in-law or son-in-law.

,1priLJCJ Jim2 1£1)1 ya,/ pan3 Jai4 liJJl yau5. The wheels of the car won't move. 2. An act of this. UH'JIUU /pan 3 h:>p5/, To surround, to go around. all;.,f] - f:JIHrnJJ xe2 Jan,5 pan3 h:ip5 maan4 hai5. The village is surrounded by streams/rivers. UH11- /pan3 kaa2/, To take turns, to be in tum. UH1I· 1H /pan3 kaa2 kan6/, To take turns, to be in turn. - uo1 rn/]11 pan3 kaa2 kan6 pat1 h:1n2. To take turns to clean the house. UH /pan4/, 1. To roll sth. into a ball, to

knead sth. into a ball. - 1LJHad pan4 k:in4 xau4. To knead rice balls. See ?am2. 2. Classifier for such ball-shaped objects. 3. To squeeze (liquids) out of (washing, vegetables or suchlike). rnfl•

LJl1ffll}'V/]' ULD - ,1,:,71u1,1f1f:JJ·· he3 yam2 h:P s:t' po2 pan4 Jai4 ?:ik3 Jan,5 maa2. The shirt was so soaked with sweat that one could squeeze water out of it. 4. To keep/invite (a guest or friend) for a meal. - u8,1un

18Macirnll'71n1/·pan2 pi6 J:i,r kin6 xau4 tsa,/ kaa3. To invite a friend to stay for dinner before he leaves. S. To survive. nll ' f:Jl1LJn - ,1,:,1J8'1LD ?el man2 yar.,6 pan2 Jai4 sil ko5. None of his/her children survived (i.e. they all died).

UH /pan5/, That person (contracted form of pu1 Jan5). UH /pan6/, To give, to offer. See hai4.

UH /pan2/, Thousand. UH /pan3/, 1. To revolve, to spin, to turn around. - 1/i.J11f:Jl-pan3 kaa3 pan3 maa2.

Digitized by

To keep spinning. ,18B,1/}riun - ,1-;1


UH'Jlr /pan6 hai4/, To give. UHO'll~ /pan6 taam3/, To issue a

penalty to, to be given a penalty. Original from



Uri /p8.fJ2/, To collapse, to be broken, to shatter. 1£u1 paq2. To be

~od -

broken, to break. ulJ11- put1 parj. (Of walls or fences) to be broken. /pap5/, 1. Book, writings in book fo1m. 2. Classifier for books or volumes. 1::J8~/'f.i'VLJT1 - mi2 Jaaj2 S:Jl)l pap5. There arc two books. uu.-tl')i /pap5 laai2/, Book, notebook. uu.-181 /pap5 likS/, Writing, book.

ud /pau4/, The second of the twelve Earthly Branches. ud /pauS/, To tremble, to shake, to shiver. Sec san3.



um /patl/, To clean (up), to sweep. - '11811 patl h:1n2. To sweep the floor/house. 1811ad'11fl · 111.· - w8M Jcin6 xau4 hel su4 patl ph:m 1• One should clean up the table after eating.

ur /pafl./, To wear (fo1111al dress), to have (earrings or suchlike) on. - aBii pa;2 xirj. To wear (dress, ornaments). u1 pakl pai2. To wear ornaments such as flowers.


ur 1 /paP/, To guard (against), to defend, to watch, to attend. - ul -auu~011m8n 71!.'l::lfl paP paa2 x:ip3 1£n6 t:,,j ?u4 me6. To defend the frontiers of one's motherland. - 1J.1LHUflH pa;,5 Jcul kon2 pen6. To look after a patient. - aD11 pa;2 xin2. To keep watch at night.

UD'l /patS/, 1. To dust off, to fan. -

pat5 Jom2. To fan. - a8 -pat5 wi2. To fan with a fan. See top3. 2. (Of an animal) to attack with the horns. 3. To close a door without locking or latching it, to leave a door ajar.

UC /pau2/, 1. To bail, to guarantee. 2. Brim, ledge. - 'Vu,1 pau2 sutl. The brim of a mosquito net. ua-oun /pau2 ts:>1)4/, The hanging ornaments on the ledge of a large umbrella in a Buddhist temple.

UC 1 /pau3/, To be empty, to be vacant, to be spare. 1DLJnl::J8ull::i - kau6 yarf' ,nj2 yaanil pau3. I don't have any spare time. '1181111un~il- '11il h:,n2 ?:i,t IBP pau3 bai5. This room is vacant. uc2 /pau3/, To blow. - UJ'f.i pau3 fai2. To blow a fire. Also pEu3.

UC 3 /pau3/, Plane (tool) (esp. in the phrase ml}J- thuil pau3). Also phau3.

Digitized by I

Google I




/pau6/, To take on everything, to take full responsibility, to undertake the whole thing, to be fully responsible for, to be one's responsibility. 1::JB~unmlii 'Vri1D - aiJ mi2 l:i,I taarj SIUJJ kau6 pau6 waP. I'll take full responsibility.

ur2 /paP/,Daughter-in-law. See luk5

pai5. un .. /pe2/, 1. Raft, bamboo raft. 2. A Burmese monetary unit. 3. Reed (musical instrument). - U1Ufi pe2 t:i,r. Brass mouth organ. un .. nB· /pe21Ji3/, Complete, full (range). un .. -olfl /pe2 tsum3/, Complete, full (range). un .. -OLP /pe2 tSUl)3/, Complete, full (range). un· 1 /pe3/, 1. A kind of large bottomless bamboo basket. - '118H pe3 binl. A basket for holding pebbles. Original from



2. The qua11tity of goods held in such a basket. rn8H'1Jf1rl - mnl S:JIJ1 pe3. Two baskets of pebbles.

un· 2

/pe3/, To dispel (anger, depression or suchlike). - '71[ pe3 tsai6. To calm down.

un . I

/pe4/, A unit of dry measure for

grain(= two litres). adu81'1l1Jrl - xau4 p;,k3 S:Jl)l pe4. Two pe of grain.

un' 2 un' 2

/pe4/, To be lame. See hEn4.

/pe4/, (fo lie down) face up. - 01/191/,J pe4 taak3 haail. To lie face up.

un• I

/peS/, 1. To defeat, to beat, to win (over). wf - phail p&? Who won?

0181 - 1LHallH t;)k3 pe5 kon2 xenl. To defeat the enemy. 2. To succeed.

1:1uunna,;/,:,- man2 ya,/ ?au6 Jai4 pe5. He didn't succeed in getting (it).

un· l::11- /pe5 maa2/, Discourse particle expressing surprise, translatable as 'so, so much' . 1:1r - a1ad mai2 pe5 maa2 xakl xa.i5!- You work so hard/You are so hardworking! Wf ff11Jr'la/,;i -

CDfJl!/.;/BaiJ phail h:Jr:,5 xaam2 pe5 maa2 th:Jm3 Ji6 xai5? Who is singing so


un· 2 /peS/, To be costly, to cost (money or effort). - '1JLd - n8u pe5 so1 pe5 l);)n2. To cost money, to be costly.

un I

/pe6/, 1. Rafter,joist, purlin, roof

beam. - rn8u pe6 h;)n2. Crossbeam of a house. 2. Ridge. - ,;/fJ"JJ pe6 J:Ji6. Mountain ridge.

un 2 /pe6/, To create difficulties, to make things difficult (for). 1:1r'71L- - 1Lfiail

Digitized by


mai2 tsu2 pe6 kon2 xai5. You are making

things difficult for people.

unl::1 /peml/, To stay, to lean or come close to (as of a child snuggling up in his or her mother's arms). nll 'nlJH -

01LDl:lllaiJ ?el ?:Jn3 ?ilJl peml to6 mefi xai5. The baby snuggled up to her mother. See Jem3, pem3.

un~ /pem3/, To come close to or to be in physical contact with, to keep close to, to nestle closely (to). DHLJLD - ,;/fJ"JJIJD wan2 po2 pem3 l:Ji6 yau5. The sun is coming close to the top of the hill (i.e. it has nearly set). 91Ld - l:lfJH,;/fJH hol pem3 m:Jnl J:Jn2. To sleep with one's head lying against the pillow. un~7lU} /pem3 ?um4/, To embrace.


/pen2/, Lunch for Buddha.

unH /pen6/, 1. To be, to become, to get (sick). 1:1r - wf mai2 pen6 phail ?Who are you? l:IH - 1LH1IH man2 pen6 kon2 kaan6. He is a worker. l:IH - mil man2 pen6 hai5. He is sick. 2. To bear (fruit).

1:1/101LH,;/iJ'71n - '1llJrlU8 maak3 ton4 JaP tsBIJ3 pen6 S:Jl)l pi6. This tree has been bearing fruit for just two years. unH7llH /pen6 ?aan6/, To catch a cold. unHUJBr, /pen6 fi1]4/, Achievement. unH1JlnnunHl::lltt /pen6 hel]l pen6 mun3/, Tens of thousands of. unH'JlB "/pen6 hi 1/, How.

unH'JlflH /pen6 h~n2/, To get married, (of a woman) to marry off. unH1J1fl~ /pen6 h~S/, To have leprosy. unH..f)J /pen6 lai4/, Quite possible. unHD1Ul1 /pen6 t:>1]5/, To have loose bowels, to suffer from diarrhoea. Original from



unn /peg2/, To be equal, to be level, to be even, to be of the same height or length.

-,1ri-,1811miJun - JIJl)l Jin6 thai4 ya,/ pe,j. The land here is not even. unri1H /peg2 kan6/, To be equal, to be parallel. unnunn /peg2 peg2/, 1. To be level. mi;J - tam2 perj perj. To lay flat. 2. (To divide) equally. 1:il}f1111- mEr:f kan6 perj perj. To equally divide, to be equally divided. unn-or /peg2 tsaJ6/, 1. To be satisfied. 2. To be of the same mind or op1n1on. unnaff ~ lpe1J2 xim6/, Flat, even. •

unm /pet3/, Duck. 8Lf1"1Ll1 ~ xonl Jon2 pet3. Duck's feather. unm.-tl:l /pet3 Jam5/, A kind of wild duck. unm.-tB. /pet3 1i4/, A kind of wild duck. unm.-tUn /pet3 l~l) 1/ , A kind of wild duck. una /peu3/, To be happy, to be comfortable. una1B /peu3 ki6/, To be happy, to be merry, to be joyful. una1B.-tB-or /peu3 ki6 lj6 tsaJ6/, To be merry and happy, to be delighted, to be hilarious. una1.1I· /peu3 saa3/, To be happy and glad. una1.1fl· /peu3 sill, To be optimistic. una-or /peu3 tui6/, To be comfortable, to be satisfied. una /peu6/, 1. The cord to tie on an ox's nose to control the ox's movement. 11Ll1 - a/'jj sonl peu6 xaai2. To put a string through an ox's nose. 2. The other

Digitized by


opening of an animal's bU1TOw, an opening (such as that of a chimney). unaUJji /peu6 fai2/, Chimney. una~I· /peu6 maa3/, 1. Golden palace. 2. To be shining, to be glittering. uij• /pr.2/, To show, to put on a perfc,11nance, to demonstrate. uij• \DL[l /pt2 phuJJ2/, To have a demonstration, to protest. ua • 011· /pt2 taa3/, Military police, riot police. uij• /pt5/, To put on (a show, a perfol'1nance), to show (a film), to perfc,11n (a play).~ "D8ri pE5 ts;1rj. To perfot 111 a play. ua· 'Jllnufln /pES ha8JJ61Y.)1)6/, To show, to demonstrate. uij• .-ti· .,fn" 011 /pt5 laa4 Jel taa6/, To show off, (to do sth.) openly. uij• ,1101 /pES laatS/, To express. uij• .-tn" /pES Jel/, To show, to indicate, to reflect. uij• ~U1 /pt5 m:>k3/, To put on a notice, to make known. uij1 I /ptk3/, Pine. uij12 /ptk3/, To change mistakenly. 1/·ayriwff::II . kaa3 pEk2 x:J1J1 phail maa2? Whose (things) did (you) change

bymistake? uiji3 /ptk3/, New, unfamiliar. - -,1/· - 01/ pEk3 Jaa4 pEk3 taa6. New faces. See rni3. uijiuUH /pr.k31Y.)n6/, To be peculiar, to be extraordinary. uij11 /pr.kS/, Edge (of a table, windowsill or suchlike). - 1L. p£k5 Jru3. The edge of a bed.

Original from



uij12 /pr.k5/, 1. A Bunnese monetary unit. 2. Classifier for coins. u/]11Jllit ~ ~/Jn p£k5 saan3 p£k5 l:>r.f. A bronze • coin. uij11l01BH /ptk5 kaa6 tin3/, Calendar. uij'1D1LC /pEk5 to6/, Even if, even though. uij1al /pEk5 waa6/, Even if, even though. - l:JHLJJ.1{JLJn1n· ULUl.;iiJ pek5 waa6 man2 yu3 k~ yarf ke4 pot3 Jai4. Even if he was in, the problem wouldn't be solved. uijli /pEm2/, A kind of small basket tied to the waist. ~ wJ· pEm2 phaa5. A basket for knives (also for clothing or suchlike). uijHl /pEn2/, 1. An inscribed board. 2. A kind of small bamboo basket. uijH2 /pEn2/, To touch. l:Jn·· l:Jr ~ .;1/10 mi2 mai2 p£n2 Jaa4 kau6. Your hand touched my face. uij1-1l /pEn3/, To change (esp. in the phrase - .;1/1 pEn3 Jaak3). See Jaak3. uij1-12 /pr.n3/, Time, act (of doing sth.). 91flcn - .;1/Jn het3 ptn3 J:,r.f. Do (it) once. uija-11 /ptn4/, 1. Board, plank. - .;11:J p£n4 Ja.m6. Blackboard. 2. Classifier for boards . .;1ll1 - .;1/Jn Jek3 ptn4 J:,1)6. An iron sheet. uijH1llti /pEn4 tsul)2/, Coffin. uija-12 /pEn4/, Skin rash (as being stung by insects). uijHI /pr,n6/, Bamboo cover, lid.

Digitized by


uijH2 /ptn6/, 1. To reach out, to hold out, to stretch out. - 1:J071U'11:JI-p£n6 mi2 ?~k3 maa2. To stretch out one's hands. 2. To stick out (as of long things among short ones). l:JiJ - l:J/}1 maP p£n6 m£k3. Bamboo lengths that stick out in a pile or bundle. UijHun - /ptn6 p;,2/, To be outstanding, to be distinguished. uijHuflH /ptn6 JY.>n6/, To be outstanding, to be distinguished, to be extraordinary. uijri /pEI) 1/, (To seem) like, as. - 1:Ji101/11.;111 pEIJI man2 taan4 Jan5. As he said. - l:JH.;iiJf/111.;111 pEIJI man2 Jai4 hanl Jan5. As if he had seen it before. uijri1J1ln /pr.lJI hWJ6/, As if, it seems (that). 10 - 91111LC11:Ji1018, mrfflil

kau6 pEIJI haai/ hanl ko3 man2 til thai2 hai5. I seem to have seen him/her

somewhere before. uijri-,1ri /pEl)l l8J]l/, As, like. uijnar lpEIJ 1 xai4/, As, like. uijri /ptl)2/, To fall in love, to be in love, to love dearly.~ aljd'I JJErfl x:>t3. To cherish, to love dearly. 971- haJc5 pE,j. To be in love. uijn 1 /pEfJ3/, To compare, to contrast. - 111 pErjl kan6. To compare with each other, to contrast. uijf12 /ptl)3/, Way, method, art, skill. uijr'l1J1L~ /pEfJ3 hon5/, To multiply, multiplication (mathematics). uijfl~ijn /pEl)3 mEl)3/, To divide, division (mathematics). uijn01l1 /pEl)3taak5/, Calculation, the art of calculation. uijnmijH /pEl)3 thtn4/, To add, addition (mathematics). Original from



uOflul· /peg3 yu3/, Idea, method, way, skill, technique, tactics. uOflul· --ue· /peg3 yaa3 si5/, Expert.

uijci /peu3/, Spare (time), unoccupied, vacant tJlt:i - yaam2 peu3. Spare time.

'11Uli - ?:Jrf' peu3. Vacancy. Also pau3.

uOl1 /pEg4/, Distiller's yeast.

uijd /pEu4/, Scar. Also paau4.

uOn /pEg6/, System, principle. uOnUJI· lp£:q6 faa5/, Weather forecast.

uijc /pEu6/, To fly up in the sky, to float

uijnYIH /pr.fJ6 maan3/, Rule, principle, truth. uOnuUn /pEIJ6 p:,g6/, 1. System, rule. 2. Principle, basic theory, philosophy. uOn--uOu /pEIJ6 sip5/, Tradition. uijnml[i /pEg6 thul)2/, System, rule.

uB. 1 /pi 1/, To kiss. 1::/11 - ~,.,,nnus:t man2 pil Jail" ?el ?:Jn3. She kissed the baby on the cheeks.

uijll /ptpl/, A kind of basket to be carried on the back. uiju /ptp5/, To conceal, to take cover. 1::111

- nlln1Jlr'laiJ man2 pEp5 IJCr! saar.,5 wai5. He took cover at the comer of the

in the air. Also piu6.

uB • 2 /pi 1/, Banana flower. ~ 1/jl pi1 koi4. Banana blossom. Also pi3 koi4.

u0. 3

/pi 1/, Noun stem indicating certain body parts. uB. uu~ /pil poml/, Calf (of leg). See

pi3 kaau4.

uO · UUrl

/pi l pofJ2/, Bladder. Also

p:Jrfl pil. uB ·· 1 /pi2/, To be fat. 1/_11- kon2 pi2.

wall. uijo11Jlijo1 /pEtl hEtl/, To be coquettish. uijtfl /pEt3/, Eight. - '1J8LJ pEt3 sipl. Eighty. '1J8LJ ~ sipl pEt3. Eighteen. uij01 /pet5/, To discard, to abandon, to give up.~ a/ii pet5 xaam2. To neglect (land, work or suchlike). See wut5. uij011H /ptt5 kan6/, (Of both sides of a married couple) to get a divorce, to abandon each other. uij01-01· al . .,.e /ptt5 tsaa5 xaal li6/, To abandon evil and do good. uija 1 /pEu2/, Wristwatch, watch. uija2 /pEu2/, To paste. uijaJ /pEu2/, Cousins.

Digitized by


A fat person. 1::11,; - mul pi2. A fat pig. uB "2 /pi2/, Comparative marker, intermediate degree of comparison (like English -er, e.g. 'betterthan'). f:J8~ilf:J81JD11f:Jil m:,6 Jai5 pi2 m:,6 sin2 mai4. It is hotter today than the day before yesterday. 1::/11 - 1::1r'111,,li man2 pi2 mai2 SUIJJ. He is taller than you. ue • --uB . /pi2 si 1/,Comparative marker, intermediate degree of comparison Oike •• English -er, e.g. 'better than'). f:JM 1auf man2 pi2 sil kau6 yai3. He/She is older than me. uB· 1 /pi3/, Bamboo flute, a reed pipe wind instrument. uB· 1J1ijn /pi3 hE1]6/, Suona horn, horn.

Original from



uB· 2 /pi3/, To be swollen, to swell, to be bloated. UIJJ - pum6 pi3. To have a big/ bloated belly. uB· uB· /pi3 pi3/, To be exactly the same (esp. in the phrase l:J8H'111 - m:,n1

kan6 pi3 pi3). uB· 3 /pi3/, Tone variation with pil (3). ue· ,la /pi3 kaau4/, Calf (of leg). uB· 1l}l /pi3 koi 4/, Banana blossom. Also pi1 k~i6. ue· D'IL /pj3 tu5/, Father.

uB· I

/pi4/, Pen. - Blf1 pi4 xonl. Pen brush.

uB • 2 /pi4/, To press, to force (sb. to do sth.).

91LJ11:J!11rnln1:J8rirnll1 - '1Ll1


maan4 haa,/ m:,rj tek2 pi4 kon2. The situation is pressing. See yaap5. uB· 3 /pi4/, To drain (a teapot or suchlike). 71DJ/IJ- ml]· ?au6 Jam5 pi4 hEl. Drain the water off.

uB 1

/pi6/, Year. uB11ijH /pi6 ?tn6/, Three years ago. uB11u1-1 /pi6 ?on6/, Two years ago. uB1l)J /pi6 kaai6/, Last year. u81')l /pi6 kai3/, Year of the rooster. u8-,tl' /pi6 Jaa4/, Next year, the coming year. u8-,t')) /pi6 JaiS/, This year. uB-,tB-,101-1muH /pi6 Ji6 l~n6 thon2/, Lucky days, auspicious time. uB-,1Bn· /pi6 lil)2/, Year of the monkey. uB-,1L /pi6 Jul/, Year of the rat. uB-Al!-1. /pi6 lun2/, Two years from now (the year after next). uBt;jl • /pi6 maal/, Year of the dog. U8t;jl. /pi6 maaS/, Year of the horse. uByn" /pi6me4/, Yearofthegoat. Digitized by


uBt;jL /pi6mul/, Yearofthepig. uBnL /pi6 IJu2/, Year of the snake. uBnOi /pi61J~k3/, Year of the dragon. uBuln01l>i /pi6 paaIJ6 taai2/, Year of the rabbit. uB-uo· /pi6s~l/, Yearofthetiger. uBal,:; /pi6 xaai2/, Year of the ox. uB2 /pi6/, Older sibling. uB11u1-,1ul1a')l /pi6 ?ok3 lol)5 xai3/, Blood relations. uB11L: /pi6 ?u4/, Elder brother. uBLQI· /pi6 faa5/, 1. Elder brother's wife, sister-in-law. 2. Elder sister's husband, brother-in-law. uB~ln /pi6 la81]2/, Elder brother's wife, sister-in-law. u8-,11_ci· /pi6 lo2/, Elder brother's wife, sister-in-law. uB-,1uri /pi6 JoJ]5/, Brothers and sisters, relations, relatives. uBt;jlC /pi6 maau3/,Brother-in-law, elder sister's husband. uB-uld /pi6 saaul/, Elder sister, elder (female)cousin. uB"lll)J /pi6 tsaai6/, Elder brother, elder (male) cousin. uB"lla /pi6 tsau6/, Husband's elder brother, wife's elder brother. uB"lln- /pi6 tse2/, Elder sister, elder (female) cousin. uBaa;j /pi6 xam2/, Elder brother's wife, sister-in-law. uBal]l /pi6 xoil/, Elder sister's husband, brother-in-law. uBuBn· -uld /pi6 yiJJ2 saaul/, Elder sister. uB-i /pikl/, Wing. - J/L'1 pikl Jok5. Bird's wing.

Original from



uBr, /pig4/, To roast. To roast meat.

u81 /pikS/, To block. - Bf!101/ri pik5 xonl uuuj. To block the way, to close a road.

uBn /piIJ6/, , «£h. See taak5.

uB1u,u /pikS tapS/, To block, to blockade, to stop, to prohibit. u81-,t81 /pikS likS/, Police, policeman.

uBo1 t /pit I/, To pick, to pluck. - w1 pitl phakl. To pick vegetables. uBo12 /pit I/, To be short. l:JL' rnlri - mul hBal]l pitl. Short-tailed pig. See p:Jtl,

uBH /pin2/, Cake, cookies.

/:Jtl .

uBH /pin3/, 1. Lips (esp. in the phrase - 'VLLI pin3 sopJ). See min3. Also pirf. 2. Tassie.

uBu, /pitS/, To take off (the lid), to uncover, to unpack (clothes and similar personal belongings). - w/· pit5 phaa4. To remove/take off the quilt. - lJL11/-µ 01LJfd pit5 yok5 kaail t:Jm4. To take the lid off.

uBH /pin4/, To turn upside down or inside out, to put on (clothes) inside out, to reverse. l:JH.AJI11LH - mil man2 Jui/ kon6 pin" hai5. He wore his pants inside out. uBHUJU1. /pin4 fun5/, To rebel (against). uBHUJUH /pin4 f~nl/, To put inside out, to put or place (sth.) upside down, to reverse (the order). uBH~Ll:l /pin4 lom5/, To fall over, to fall down. uBHuijH /pin4 ptn3/, To translate, to put into another language. uBHUU1 /pin4 p:>kS/, To repeat, (to do sth.) repeatedly. uBH\DUH /pin4 ph~ 1/, Upside down. uBHuilo'i /pin4 taat3/, To lie face up. uBHU'ILO /pin4 to3/, To oppose, to be against. uBHU'IULI /pin4 t:>p3/, To refute. uBHarrl /pin4 xatl/, To oppose.

uBa1 /piu6/, To blow away, to drift, to float in the air, to flutter. - -AL#d piu6 Jom2. To flutter in the wind. - a8un.A8L1 piu6 wi2 yarf' Jipl. To drift from place to place. Also JJELI'. uBa2 /piu6/, To be in flame, (of fire) to bum. UJJtiUJ'j.j- aD111:JI .. fwJ2 fai2 piu6 xin4 maa2. The flame singed up.


ULC 1 /po2/, Enough. unul yarf' paa6 po2 xanl. Not sufficient, not enough. - 181,1 - .Al[1 po2 kin6 po2 lw:f. To have enough to eat and enough to wearUl.!] 2 /po2/, Cheap. '71LD-AiJlD1 - 01fi• tso6 Jai5 phakl po2 te-5. Vegetables have been very cheap these days. ULCULiiUn- un- /po2 po2 pe2 pe2/, Exceptionally cheap, very cheap.

uBn lpiIJ3/, Lips (esp. in the phrase - 'VLLI pirf sopJ). See min3. Also pin3. uBnu1· /piIJ3 yaa3/, Idea, method, way (of doing things). Also ptq3 yaa3.

Digitized by

-All· pi,f 1~.

ULci 3 /po2/, Already. l:JH - uu11/.. ud man2 po2 p:Jk5 kaa3 yau5. He/She has gone back already. Also piZ. ULC71H /po2 ?an6/, Already. ULci~')l /po2 JaiS/, Since, as, now that.


Original from




- alrialldirnfup1,1a,:,ud. unul]J!1 ~/-;~iJLJd po2 JaF xaag2 xaam2 hai4 p:Jn6 waP yau5, yar/ pen3 Jaak3 Jai4 yau5. Since (we/you) have promised others, we/you cannot change (the plan). U(_l],Ar1 /po'l laJ)l/, As if, as, like. Also

po2 Jai:,3. U(_l],A" /po2 laJJ3/, As if, as, like. f:ILH - aduy'ii mon6 po2 JarjJ xau4 p:;i2. As noisy/hectic as a fair. ULcirnl" /pol taaJJ3/, As, like. f:l'Jl91U

- UJ'iiWd mai4 h:P po2 taaq3 fai2 phaul. As hot as a fire burning. ULC1ll • /po2 tsaa5/, Once, so long as.

- f:l11aD11rnP11f:II -unrnu11~,:, uL· ~,,.,"Ue, uli:i po2 tsaa5 man2 x.in2 h:Jn2 maa2, yar:,6 h:;n3 Jai4 yu3 Jaai6 sil yaam2. Once he/she is back at home, he/she never has a single minute to spare. ULciCI /po2 waa6/, If, when. - f:lrurB, 11u11/: "llL. rnumlurrnll 'po2 waa6 mai2 ti1 ?:Jk3 kaa3, su4 hapl thaat5 hel. If you want to go out, you should tum off the light. ULcia~ /po2 x~6/, So long as.

- 71pn71Bal'ii, f:IHUT8 ,uy11/· f:lp~r po2 x.:P ts:J,r ?am3 waai2, man2 til p:;k5 kaa3 m:P Jai6. So long as the show is not yet finished, he won't come back.

ul_O 1 /po3/, To appear, to come into being, (of gods or immortals) to descend to the world - 11u1urBuln~liJ/nu,/ po3 ?:;k3 ti1 paar;f Jaa4 paar;f taa6. To appear before one's eyes. ULDUnH /pol pen6/, To realise, to happen, to appear, to occur. - f:ILpo3 pen6 mu2 tm2. Problems crop up. ul_Ornn. /po3 te5!, To realise, to achieve.


Digitized by


ULC 2 /po3/, To be happy. ULD1B /po3 ki6/, To be happy. U(_c,AL "'Lr1 /po3 Ju2 lo1]1/, Warlord.


/po3 mon6/, To be happy, to be lively, to be bustling with noise and excitement. ULD1lf /po3 tsai6/, To be happy.


/po4/, 1. To move, to set (a clock). - afll:1~/;,,B· po4 xeml Jaa3 Ji3. To set a clock. 2. To allocate (fundings).

- "ULdf:I!- "llUrirnllu po4 so1 maa2 S:J1)1 hen 1. To allocate two thousand dollars

worth of funding.

ULd /po5/, 1. To strike, to hit, to attack. - 1yn po5 k:;,f. To beat a drum. - UTLL11LHallH po5 top3 kon2 x.enl. To attack the enemy. 2. To kill (animals). - f:IL' po5 mu1. To kill pigs. See hcml, fan2. 3. (Of moths or suchlike) to eat or bore through. See m:,t5, katl. 4. (Of shoes or suchlike) to wear, to rub. See mo4. S. To fluff (cotton). - 1/,}I po5 kui6. To fluff cotton. See potl. UL~11rn /po5 kaat3/, (In the old days) to collect market tax. ULd-,tL~ /po5 lom5/, To strike down, to knock down.

ULC 1 /po6/, 1. Father, as opposed to me6 'mother'. 2. Personal noun prefix indicating 'man', 'father' or 'male relation of father's generation'. ULC'J'IIC /po6 ?aau6/, Father's younger brother, uncle. Ul9J1Ui /po6 ?ok3/, Biological father. ULC'J'IL /po6 ?u4/, Father. ULC'JII" /po6 h8aJJ5/, Divorced man. ULC'Jl')J~n.,,,- /po6 hai6 me6 Jaa2/, Farmers. Ul9tJI~ /po6 ham3/, Married man, a Original from



man who is married. ULC'J10H /po6 h~2/, Husband ULC.-tf· /po6 laa5/, Mother's younger brother. ULC.-tlti /po6 lUJJ2I, Older brother of either parent. ULC~I~ /po6 maai4/, Widower. UL_C~n /po6 me6/, Parents. UL_C~C /po6 tsau4/, Husband's father, father-in-law. ULC2 /po6/, Castrated (animals).1:J/· maa5 p1]3 len 1/, Ancestors. UL md /pu3 thau4/, Elderly person, senior person, honorific address ter 111 for use with senior people. Also pul thau4. UL ul /pu3 yaa6/, Couple, husband and wife. UL /pu4/, (Of the cutting edge of a knife) to be blunt, (of a sharp-pointed tool) to go blunt. w/. phaa5 pu4 hau5. The knife went blunt.





l /pu5/, Betel, a kind of herb to go with tamarind.

UL 2

/pu5/, 1. To be hairy, downy, (of hair) to be thick. 2. (Of one's hair) to be entangled, to be messy, not tidy.




/pu6/, Crab.

UL 1'.Jl;i /pul tsaai2/, Man, gentleman. UL 1'.Jd /pul tsau4/, Self, oneself.



/pu6/, (Red) tassel, ribbon.

Digitized by


Original from



u~ /puil/, To roast, to bake sth. in a hot pan over a slow fire.

UfJ' /pui6/, To bear, to shoulder (the responsibility).

UL1 /pukl/, 1. To set up, to erect (stakes, posts or suchlike). See pakl. 2. To plant (seedlings, trees or suchlike). 1/Ufi U1LH~l1 s:Jm4 pukl tort' maak3. To plant/grow fruit trees. See phukl. UL10'1ft /pukl ta1]4/, To erect. UL1'1JU~ /pukl som4/, To plant, to grow. - ~y'iu/· pukl S:Jm4 m:Jk3 yaa4. To grow flowers, to plant flowers.

UL1 /puk5/, Classifier for Buddhist scriptures.

UL1011· 1J'IL /puJc5 taa5 hu2/, Wednesday. UL1ml· /puk5 thaa3/, Buddha. UL1ml· 1111· '1.11. /puk5 thaa5 phaa3 3/, Religion.

u~ /pum2/, 1. To heap up, to pile up. ad1/._ ad xaul kaa3 pum2 xau4. They went to pile up the rice. 2. A heap, a pile. ad1Jyrl - xau4 S:JTJI pum2. Two heaps of rice.

Ult' 1 /pun2/, (Of water) to gush out, (of • liquid) to come out, to ooze out. "'~ 71U'i~J- Jam5 pun2 ?:Jk3 maa2. Water gushes out. Ult' 2 /pun2/, Capital, principal (finance).


/pun3/, To be stupid, to be clumsy, not intelligent.

U~ /pun5/, The base of ajar or bucket,



/pun5 gau4/, Base, basis. u~018ul· /puns ti6 paa3/, The world. U~O'IUft /pun5 tog5/, Talent, ability, skill, knowledge. /pun6/, 1. Fold, times. rn/· - haa4 pun6. Fivefold, five times. 2. Per cent. u/1- "'JJ1Jlf11J8Li 1ai2 paaJc3 pun6 JaP saaml sipl. Thirty per cent.



uL[i /pug2/, 1. Metal jar as oil container. 2. Water bucket made from such ajar. UL[iUJ')i. /pu1J2 fai2/, Hearth, fireside, fireplace. uL[i1B - lpU1J2 ki2/, Buddha. See phu.rf Jci2.

LIU' 1 /pug3/, Hot spring.


LIU' 2 /pu1]3/, Photo. UU'.AI- /pu1]3 Jaa2/,Fortune...teller.

U~l::IIHa~ · l::l~l'i /pum3 maan4 x~


u~ /pum3/, 1. Story, tale. 2. Meaning,

m~2/, Local history. u~0101 /pum3 ttk5/,Example, instance, case. u~-nl~ /pum3 tsaam3/, Content, • meaning. u~aB" /pum3 xil/, Tragedy.

u~ /pum6/, Belly, stomach, tripe. - '11Lri pum6 ho,r. Gastritis. - ~L, pum6 mul. (Pork) tripe.

Digitized by


/put 1/, 1. (Of the joints, connections or suchlike) to break off, to fall or be tom apart, to be detached (from the base). See hor/, lutl. 2. To collapse. I.I}/~ - 1/i.Jd faail putl kaa3 yau5. The dam collapsed.


/put5/, 1. To take turns, to rotate. See pan3. 2. To substitute, to replace. 3. Tum, te1m, session, game, set (in a


all1~/'i.,,L,;;j111t1Lti~/}11 Original from



-ABnrna xek5 maak3 Jom2 kan6 po2 mtn5 put5 J:,r/ hau5. The first set of the ball game was over. UUJ1.Al')I /put5 laai6/ To replace, to substitute, on one's behalf. uun01ln /put5 taafj6/ To replace, to substitute, on one's behalf.

uO • /pil/, (Personal) noun or pronoun prefix. Also pul. uO • lJlLd /pil hol/, Leader. uO • -,t)l /pil lai 1/, Therefore, so.

1uuu81:J8 ·· -ALJnU1/nu,/n1:Jlld , 1aun1/;,,:,rnuu, k:Jp5 p:f, mi2 J:Jr:f taai:,2 taar;,3 meu2, pil Jail kau6 ya,/' kaa3 Jai4 h:Jt5. I had something else to do, so I wasn't able to go. Also p:f, Jai 1. uO • -,t')l /pil lai5/, This person (over here). uO • .AH /pil Ian5/, That person (over there). uO • .Af /pil Ia.6/, Who, which person? uO. ~le /pil maau3/, (Unmarried) young man, boy. uO. /pil me6/, Manied woman. uO • ULC /pil po6/, Married man. uO • --uld /pil saau 1/, Unmarried young lady, girl. uO • md /pil thau4/, Elderly person, senior person, honorific address term for use with senior people. uO • -ol,:i /pi 1 tsaai2/, Man. uO • -od /pil tsau4/, Self, oneself. uO. uBn /pil yifj2/, Woman, lady.


uOn /pifj2/, First element in compounds. uOn-AI. /piJJ2 }aal/, Elder sibling. uOn-01- /pifj2 tsaa2/, At the beginning, at first, before, long (time) ago.


/piJJ6/, 1. To throw (a spear).

- '11lJ'1

pit/ h:Jk3. To throw a spear.

2. (Of water) to jet, to splash, (of people or vehicles) to go straight forward. uO • IFI, To be outstanding, to be distinguished, to transcend, to surpass (esp. in the phrases u/}11 - p£n6 pil, ~ 1.1J8ri pil fi1) 1).

uo· lin5I, To be sweet - -A81::J-A81:J'11l[1 F>5 J:,m6 J:1m6 ho1Jl. To be pleasantly sweet. See waanl. u0"J'IH /~6 ?an6/, Because, because of. See k:Jp5 Jai4. uOi• /~k3/, Bark (of a tree or other plant), shell (of nuts), skin or husk (of rice or suchlike). - l::J"}J p:,k3 mai5. Bark. - rDLD.A811 p:,k3 tho3 lin6. Peanut shells. - u,/ p:,k3 taa6. Eyelid. uOi2 /p~k3/, To be soaking wet.

wrrnr.AldrDfl, ,_,,rrnBM - 1:J/}M phai 1 hai4 Jam5 thaJJ3, Jai2 h:,n2 p:,k3 m£n5? Who spilled the water and made the room so wet? uOi3 /~k3/, The fifth of the ten Heavenly Stems. uOH /~n2/, (Of a stick) to become coarse or rough as a result of being scratched or worn. uOH /~6/, Others, other people. 71D .ALJnnlJJ'11(ailrnf - ?au6 J:Jr/ 1Jaai6 tsai6 wai5 hai4 p:m6. To offer convenience to others. uOn /~2/, To shine, to dazzle. 1./JJJ- u,/ fai2 p:,rf taa6. The light is dazzling. -A/]r'I

- 1£,r JY.>rf. To shine.

uOn /pifj4/, Cellar.

Digitized by


Original from



uO" /pgg3/, To possess, to monopolise, to rule over, to take over, to capture (a sttonghold). a1a/117IJJJ - xaJc5 xaan2 ?u,,S Jr.Nil. The ruling class. UL17Jlf:i '11JJJ - pok5 tsum2 hup5 J»{f. A monopoly. uOnn~ /ir.>g3 gam2/, To rule over (a country). uOn1 /pgrj6/, Classifier for things and matters. nl1::1L-- ..-18n ?aa6 mu2 p;,rf' l:,rf'. A matter, one thing. uOn2 /ir.>g6/, To differ, to be peculiar. uf]i - pEk3 p:,rf'. To differ, to be peculiar. uOn1H /pgrJ6 Ican6/, To differ, to be different from one another. u~n1LH /pgrj6 kon2/, (Human) character, personality. u~n.-tLl1 /ir.>JJ6 logl/, Major. U~nnB· /p;,g6 gil/, Appearance. uOnal /{r.)fJ6 xaa6/, Perhaps, maybe. - fJn'TJr1::/H p:,rf' xaal yarf tsai6 man2. Maybe it is not him.

ml- .-.1- /phaa2 Jaa2/, Buddha, Buddhist • image.


.-.1- 01111·

/phaa21aa2 taa6 ka3/,

Buddh~st. See phaa2 Jcaa3. ml· I /phaa3/, 1. To divide, to split, to sever, to cut (into pieces). - UJJiil::lf}H rnlltJi'11/71ll1,1 phaa3 fun2 men5 hel tsa,;,3 kaa3 ?en4! Finish chopping the firewood before you go out to play! - 1::1/1 phaa3 maaJc3. To cut open the fruit. 2. To divide equally into two, to divide into halves (esp. in the phrase 1::1fji'I - 111 me,;,3 phaa3 kan6). ml· al1 /phaa3 waak5/, To divide equally into two, to divide into halves. ml· 2 /phaa3/, To carry with a strap hanging from the shoulder. WLriu/ ·· ul ·· - '1Jfjurnll' thol)l paa2 paa2 phaa3 sep3 hel. To carry a bag with a strap hanging from the shoulder. ml· 3 /phaa3/, To mix together (liquids of different colours, or of different temperatures, or of various degrees of thickness) . ..-1f!J1::1iJ wfjdrJn '11L1..-1iJ,

na..-1f!J1o11::1/-- rnll"r1i'l '11L1 Jam5 mar' pheul yarf suk5 Jar', ?au6 Jam5 katl

\D ph lDI ~ /phaal/, Rock, cliff, rocky mountain. - ..-18ri phaal Jirj. Overhanging cliff, steep cliff.

lDI- /phaa2/, A kind of plant, (poetic) plants and flowers in general. ml- 11· /phaa2 kaal/, 1. Buddhist (shortened fo1111 of phaa2 Jaa2 taa6 kaa3). 2. The title used for a junior Buddhist monk.

Digitized by


maa2 phail he6 tsa,;,3 suk5. The water is too hot. Get some cold water to mix with it before you wash in it. ml· 4 /phaa3/, To tie or gird with a rope. See hat5. mt· 5 /phaal/, To cross over, to pass through. See th:J,;f. ml=ut· /phaa3 saa3/, Religion, nationality. mt· 1 /phaa4/, 1. Cloth, sheet. - alln phaa4 xerf'. Curtain. - 1yr'laLti phaa4 k:Jq5 xo2. Scarf. 2. Blanket, quilt. Original from



- "DULJ phaa3 ts:,p3. Blanket.

Jap5 hai4 DJJJn2phaail phaail. To

tnl' 'Jll~ /phaa4 hom3/, Quilt. tnl' .Al /phaa4 laa6/, Cloth used to carry a child on the back. tnl' l:f')J /phaa4 mai6/, Shawl. tnl' 0111-i /phaa4 taa112/, Bed sheet. 1.01' -on01 /phaa4 tset5/, Serviette, handkerchief,napkin.

sharpen it up. tnl')lmijrfl /phaai 1 phEt3/, To be quick in action or movement, to be nimble.

\DI' 2

/phaa4/, To finish, to end (esp. in the phrase - LJ/" phaa4 yaa3). See thaat3.

tnl· /phaa5/, 1. Large knife, machete. 2. An act of cutting with such a knife. now/·~, -11Jl11J!l:11JB·- ?au6 phuS maa2 fan2 saaml si3 phaa5. To cut with a large knife three or four times. tat· lQM01n· /phaas fan2 te2/, Knife for cutting weeds in dikes of rice fields. \DI· 1l]l /phaaS koi5/, A kind of hooked knife with the hook bent towards the cutting edge. tat· nij1 /phaaS 1JEk5/, A kind of hooked knife with the hook bent towards the non-cutting edge. tat· -uur1aL~ /phaa5 SOl)l xom2/, A kind of knife with double cutting edges. tnl· 01~ /phaaS tum3/, Knife for chopping firewood. tat· ulu /phaas yaapS/,Ligament. tnl1.0B /phaa6 phi6/, To hurry up, to be quick, quickly.~ w81/~0 -·phaa6 phi6 kaa3 Jt2f Hurry up!/Go quickly! Also phi6 phaa6. tnl')l /phaai 1/, 1. To be quick. 2. (Of knife) to be sharp. tnl')l1.0l')l /phaai 1 phaai 1/, 1. Fast, quickly. 1/· - kaa3 phaail phaailf Go quickly! 2. Very sharp. .,,/Uf/1f~11-

Digitized by


tnl,:i 1 /phaai2/, (Legendary) devil. 1.0l,:i2 /phaai2/, 1. To weave, to knit. - all' phaai2 xel. To make a fishing net. 2. To overlock, to weave the edges of a bamboo basket. tnl>i 1 /phaai3/, Generation. See paar,6. tnl)i2 /phaai3/, To send, to dispatch, to assign, to appoint. - ~,;,;1/· paai3 man2

kaa3. Assign him to go. 1.01')) /phaai4/, 1. To walk. - 01/ri phaai4 taa,f. To walk (on the road) (as opposed to taking a bus or other means of transportation). See pai6. 2. To act. 3. To empty the bowel, to relieve oneself, to go to the toilet. 1.01')31 /phaai5/, 1. To line up. See xapS. 2. To rehearse, to put on a rehearsal. 1.01')32 /phaai5/, 1. To shoot. See yi2. 2. To slap. 1.01')33 /phaai5/, 1. Card. 2. Row. 1lf1.,,/8n kon2 phaai5 J:,rf. A row of people. tnf11 /phaak3/, Forehead (esp. in the phrase .,,,/. - Jaa4 phaak3). 1.0112 /phaak3/, Side, part, aspect. '1.JUri ~ 01/ri s:,1)1 phaak3 taaif. Two sides of the road. 1J. - 1UJ/. ku6 phaak3 ku6 paa4. All sides, every aspect. 01/"}J taai6 phaak3. To be paralysed. 1.011 /phaakS/, To separate, to part, to depart. - 1H phaak5 kan6. To separate, to be separate from each other. Original from



- 1::1/11LJIH1::1Pn phaaJc5 maan4 yaanl m:nf. To leave one's native place. 1.al1ul.-i /phaaJc5 yaanl/, To separate, to part, to depart, to leave. 1::1111::181.DL'1LJLiiU18 ,- a11u,llnLJD man2 m:P phuJc5 po2 til phaak5 yaanl wan2 tei:,6 yau5. He/She is going to leave Wanding tomo1row. 1.UIH /phaan 1/, To be poor, to lack, to lose, to be without. '1LH - kon2 phaanl. Poor people. - n8H phaanl IJ~n6. To lack money, to have no money. -AL'1 - LJLD 1::1ll JuJc5 phaanl p

. An orphan, a child who has lost his/her parents. talH /phaanl/, To make a living, to earn a living. - 97'JJ - -Al-phaan3 hai6 phaan3 Jaa2. To do farm work, to earn a living as a farmer. 1.UIH..tl" D'IL /phaan3 laa4 tu6/, Door latch. 1.alH-uln /phaan3 saar.i4/, To produce. 1.0IH1Jlu /phaan3 tsaap3/, To make, to produce. talHl /phaan5/, Dish, plate. tnfH2 /phaan5/, 1. To rummage, to ransack, to search. -AL1u,fm81 'TIU11::1/- Juk5 tai4 t~k5 phaan5 ?:Jk3 maa2. To find from the bottom of the chest, to ransack a chest. See pin4. 2. To dig up (potatoes or suchlike). See xot5, kon3. talH 1 /phaan6/, 1. (Of the hand or leg) to be numb. See Jet3. 2. (Of chilli) to be hot, to be pungent. 1::1/11/u, - u,fl• maak3 kaat5 phaan6 te5. The chilli is very pungent. - LJ!LJLJ!u phaan6 yaap5 yaap5. (To feel) very pungent. Digitized by


1.UIM2 /pbaan6/, To fear, to be afraid, to feel scared (esp. in the phrase 1LDLJyn 11un - ko6 Y:Ji:f S:Ji:f phaan6). See ko6. 1.aln /phaar.il/, Head element in compounds denoting a flat object or tool. 1.aln'f1n1 /phaar.Jl hekl/, Thin flat iron sheet. 1.alri1:1M /phaarJl man2/, Lamp holder. 1.01r11ln /phaaJJl tsarJ6/, The pan of a steelyard. 1.alri1JL~ /ph88JJ 1 tso4/, Shovel. 1.alnuu>i /ph88J]l yoi2/, Scale, balance. 1.aln /ph8a.JJ2/, To cheat, to deceive, to dupe, to swindle, to lie. a/Id - xaam2 phaa,:,2. (To tell) a lie. -AllH- Jenl phaarf. To cheat. See ph£t5. 1.0ijm1.0ij011.aln1.aln Jphtts phEts ph88JJ2 ph88JJ2/, To cheat, to swindle. 1.aln1.alu /ph881)4 phaap3/, Sinew (in

beef). 1.aln /ph8a.JJ6/, (Of preserved vegetables) to be off as a result of being kept for too long. 1.alu /phaapl/, 1. (Of birds) to flap the wings. -AL'1- u81 Jok5 phaap3 pikl. The bird is flapping its wings. Also phaap5. 2. To climb up (to). 1.alu /phaapS/, 1. (Of birds) to flap their wings. Also phaap3. ·2. (Of plants) to wither. See heu3, hEIJ". 1.alo'I 1 /phaat3/, A slap (on the face). u,/{J 1JUrl 11/1::} - taap3 S:Jl)l saaml phaat3. To give (sb.) two or three slaps (on the cheek).

Original from



lDID'I 2 /phaat3/, To separate, to part, to be parted (from). - 111 phaat3 kan6. To separate from each other, to be separated. See phaaJc5. mllilUJl(ilDID111n /phaat3 fu!Jl phaat3 ke6/, To be isolated. lDllillDl1 /phaatl phaalcS/, To separate, to part. lDI01 /phaat5/, 1. To decide (a case). - alrfl phaat5 xaat3. To decide a case 2. To offer (a price), to evaluate (sth.) - a11 phaat5 xanl. To offer a price. 3. To take a share in, to apportion. See

m£,:f. \Dl01-nij01 /phaat5 ts£t5/, To bring to trial, to try.

\DIC /phaau3/, To throw (sands or grains) about, to spread, to scatter. naaau{J1

- rnf1 iJ1811 ?au6 xau4 ,»k3 phaau3 hai4 kai3 kin6. To throw/cast some rice for the chickens to eat. '11D1Jf'j.i- 1:Jlphail ?au6 saai2 phaau3 maa2? Who threw the sand around? \Dla\Dn" /phaau3 phel/, To spread (news, etc.).


\D'JJ /phai2/, To plait (hair or the edges of a basket or other articles made of bamboo), to weave (a net or suchlike). - 8LJU,;/l[l pai2 x:,p3 Jotf'. To plait the edges of a winnowing basket. - all ' phai2 xel. To weave a fish net. lD1 /phakl/, Generic term for vegetables, any edible green plant, any dish eaten with rice. \D111dl /phakl kaat3/, Green vegetables, greens. \D11UJ1 /phakl kutl/, An edible fem. 1D1~Bo1 /phakl litl/,Bittervegetable.

lD1.-tLd /phak 1 Joi/, Garlic. \D11:fLd /phaJcl mo3/, Spring onion. lD1U~1 /phakl ~k5/, Turnip. lD1'1JLl:l /phakl som4/, Pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables. \D101~ /phakl tuml/, Cabbage. lD1-nn· /phakl ~2/, Coriander. \D1and /phakl xeul/, Green vegetables, greens. \D18U">' /phakl xoi6/, Cordate houttuynia (Houttuynia cordata). \Do1 l /phatl/, To slash, to chop off, to cut (things that can be chopped off in one act of chopping). - rnlrlnu'jj phat1 haatJl ?:,i4. To cut off the tip of sugarcane. \Dl112 /phatl/, To read. - ,;/81 - .;f/ji phat1 Jik5 phatl Jaai2. To go to school, to have schooling, to be at school. \Dd /phaul/, To bum. '11D"'Olli.Ju1 "'O{J:;,.,:,1/· - llJ'}iUf}UI ?au6 tse4 y:,k3 ts:il Jai5 kaa3 phaul fai2 p£t5. Take these waste papers to burn. - .,.,;, phaul Ja,jJ. (To bum wor,nwood) to make lye. \DOI /phau3/, An act of doing sth., time. .;f/'}J - Jaail phau3. Many times. - .,.,.,:, phau3 laP. This time, at the moment, at present. \DC2 /phau3/, Plane (tool) (esp. in the phrase mlfl - thui3 phau3>. Also pau3. \D~ /phau5/, To deep-fry (in oil), to bake (in a fire or hot ash). - u/ phau5 paa6. To deep-fry fish. - '11JSl1- al-phau5 ?ut5 phau5 waa2. To bake/fire bricks and roofing tiles. \DC /phau6/, To be crisp, to be crunchy. See ph:,;6, x:,p5.

Digitized by


Original from





tnr /phail/, Who. tnri:fl-'f /phail man2/, Each (on his or her own).

al, nun;/n - xaa1 ?:;q4

/a1]6 phail man2. Each to look for his/h~~ own seat. 1Jnf/1L1:JU1/ri111, U'JJWfU'JJl:JH ya,/ hom6 taai:,2 kan6, pai6 phail pai6 man2. Each takes his/ her own path, not being on the game route. tnrtnri:fHi:fH /phail phail man2 man2/, Each on his/her/its own.


/phai2/, To be quick (esp. in the phrase a11 - xanl phaP). Also phaai 1.


mn· /phe3/, 1. To spread out, to flatten out. 71D'fDLD - 91/}, cn/1;/l}tn ?au6 tho3 ph& h£1 taaJc3 1£t3. To air out the beans in the sun. See phel. 2. To spill over, to overflow. ;/Ed;//U7 - 11,P18 Jam5 Jaat5 phe2 ku6 ti6. Water flooded/overflowed everywhere.

mn· /phe4/, To look down upon, to belittle. t.an· 1 /phe5/, 1. A kind of insect. 2. The thick fluid in the small intestines of an animal.

tan" 1 /phel/, Dish, plate. tnn" 2 /phel/, To spread out.~ 1/i[J1lJf1 phel kaa3 ku6 ?:;q4. To spread out everywhere. See ph&.

tnn" 3 /phel/, To narrow one's eyes, to squint (at) (esp. in the phrase cn/

mn · 3 /phe2-/ To allocate, to distribute. See

~ taa6

phe 1).

mn· 1 /phe2/, 1. Silks and satins. 2. Poker, playing cards.

mn· 2 /phe2/, Calamity, natural disaster. tnn- UJI· tnn- UJLH /phe2 faa5 phe2 fonl/, Natural disaster. UJ}i /phe2 fai2/, Fire damage. 1ln /phe2 k8alj2/, Disaster. -,t~ /phe2 lam5/, Flood. _,,ijr,-,tijo'i /phe2 1£1]5 1£t3/, Drought. -,tl.;j /phe2 lom2/, Tornado, hurricane, a violent wind that damages crops and buildings. /phc2 mog4/, Plague of insects. -OUM /phe2 ts:>n2/, To give alms, to offer a donation. ul1 !phe2 yu1cs1, Disaster.




mn· i:fL"


t.an· 2 /phe5/, To be sexually aroused. tnn /phe6/, (Of animals) to breed (their young). See Jer:,5, xorf.


/phen3/, 1. Winch, windlass. 2. A press for extracting oil, sugar, juice or suchlike. - ;/Edl:/11 phen3 Jam5 man2. Oil press. 3. Even, to be of the same size or the same length. ~ "Of phen3 tsai6. To be of the same mind


/pheg2/, Chrysanthemum (esp. in the phrase l:/lJ1 - m:;k3 phe,f}.


/phet3/, To be spicy hot, to sting. - w/}d1Jn 1811;/,:, phet3 ph£u1 yarf kin6 Jaf4. Too spicy to eat. cn/10 ~ cnfl • taa6 kau6 phet3 te5. My eyes are stinging.


/pheu4/, To clean up. - w811 pheu4 ph:ml. To clean up the table. LJ) /pheu4 moi5/, To wipe out, to make extinct. mnci:fLE11 /pheu4 motl/, To eliminate, to mop up.



Digitized by


Original from




/pheu4 pt:t5/, To eliminate, to get rid of.


/phek3/, Direction, side. Also



/ph£k5/, To harm, to be harmful to. ,ILJ- Jap3 ph£lc5. To endanger, to

jeopardise. See Jan3, xenl.



/phEn2/, 1. To slice. phEn2 J:t#. To slice meat. 2. (Of frying pan, plates or suchlike) to be shallow.

lDijH I /phEn3/, 1. Strips or small pieces of cloth (esp. in the phrase- ULJ1 phtn3 y~k3). 2. Classifier for cakes.

lDijH 2 /phEn3/, To slander, to make a false charge against sb. - '1Jlfl phtn3 sop3. To spread/start rumours, to tell tales, to make mischief, to sow discord.

lDijr1 /phEIJI/, As, like. - l:IH"Or'J01/11 ulf,1/·,111 ph£1Jl man2 tsat.13 taan4 pon5 kaa3 Jan5. As he said just now.

unrn/n,18- ,1/ri,111 ya,! haatf Ii6 pht1Jl Jaaql Jan5. Not as good-looking as that one.


/phelJ• haaJJ6/, As if, it

seems (that). Also p£1J1 haatf. lDijr1af /phEl)l xai4/, As, like. Also

ptl)l xai4.

lDijr1a')) /phEIJI xai4/, As, like. Also

mijm /phEt3/, 1. To jump. ul - 11u1,1D. ,1,!J1::1J · paa6 phtt3 ?~k3 J:,l Jam5 maa2. The fish jumped out of the water. 2. To cut, to whittle. See sem4. 3. To spray/ sprinkle water over half-cooked rice before it cools down for resteaming, to flip, to flick (water drops or suchlike).


/phttS/, 1. To cheat, to deceive. 1::1(

- l::IH91llrfl'1Jrl mai2 phet5 man2 het3 SBIJI ? Why did you cheat him/her? 2. To coax. - 11llnu11 ph£t5 ?el ?~n3. To coax a child. 3. To be false. 1::1H01l1101ll· 01/11- man2 taan4 u,5 taan4 phet5? Did he tell the truth or lie? mijm1M /phttS kan6/, To cheat each other. un01u - ud yar:,6 tap5 phet5 kan6 yau5. Stop cheating each other now, there is no point cheating each other now. lDijU1lDijm,1nH.AnH /phetS phEtS lenl len 1/, To cheat, to deceive. lDOm01ln /phEtS laaIJ6/, To pretend to be, to pose as.

mijd I

p£1Jl xai4. /pht:1)2/, Cowardly, coward. 1/fi kon2 phe,r. A cowardly person.

mijri mijr\

/pht:1)3/, Big, broad. 'VLLI - sopl pheql. Big mouth. 1:1p- - mi2 pheql. Big hand.


/phq,5/, 1. To blink, to wink. - 01/ phep5 taa6. To blink the eyes. 2. To Digitized by

twinkle, (of light) to reflect. - uluulu phq,5 yaapl yaapl. To twinkle. - "DI:/ phq,5 tsa"16. (Of a mirror) to reflect. 3. To bake sth. such as popped com in hot ash. - adUJ/· phep5 xau4 faa5. To bake popped com in hot ash. 4. (Of one's muscle) to twitch.


/phtul/, To arrive.

1::18,1( - 1::1/- m:P

Jai6 phtul maa2? When did (you) arrive?

lDijd 2 /phtu 1/, To be naughty, to be unable to keep quiet. 'VLLI - sop3 pheul. To be unable to keep quiet.

lDijd 3

/phtul/, Too (much), more than is

needed, excessive(ly). u/d - yaau2 Original from



phtul. Too long. '1"JJ - kai6 phtu1. Too far away . .,,.,l:l - Jaml phtu1. Too much/ many.


/phEu3/, Ticket, coupon. - ad phtu3 xau4. Rice coupon, ration voucher.

mij~ mija

/phEuS/, Dipper.

/phEu6/, To drift, to flutter. Also piu6.

mB · /phi 1/, 1. Spirit, ghost, god, deity. BIJH - x:,nl pml. Ghost spirit. 2. Foxy, cunning. '1Lfi'1LD.,,.,il.,,.,Ol:l u,fl• kon2 ko5 Jai5 J£ml philte5. This fellow is really foxy. mB • UJ'JJ /phi 1 fai2/, The god of fire. mB · 1Jll,P /phi 1 hol)l/, The spirit of someone who died an unnatural death, such as being killed in a fight. IDB· 1J1flH /phi 1 h~n2/, The ancestor of a family, family deity. IDB· -ABM /phi 1 lin6/, The god of earth. me· -uuri-,11" 101· -uuriaLa;j /phi 1 sorJl laa4 phaaS SOl) 1 xom2/, Double dealer.

.,.,n ·


/phi4/, To be naughty . ~ ?el phi4. Naughty child. Also phi5.

mB· /phiS/, 1. To be slow, inefficient.


2. To be naughty. nllwOd ?el pm5 ?el pheul. Naughty children.


/phi6 phaa6/, To hurry up, to be quick, quickly. Also phaa6 pm6.

mB1ai: /phiks xu3/, Buddhist monks and nuns.



/phil)S/, Jar. phiq5 k:P. Salt jar. - l:IH phiq5 man2. Oil jar.

Digitized by



/phitl/, 1. To make mistakes, to err, to do wrong, to commit an offence, to offend. rnlloi - 1/i.Ja het3 phit1 kaa3 yau5. (I/You) have made a mistake/have done it wrong. 1:111 - .,,.,l}n'Vrl man2 phitl J:J,;f SIUJJ? What offences has he/she committed? u,/11 alldi'110n"Dr 1:1iJwOd71/n1/" - upu taan4 xaarn2 h£tr fSai6 mai4 phE:ul tsaa,;f kaa3 phit1 ~n6. Speaking angrily tends to offend others. 2. To qua, tel, to be at odds with. mBD1UJBS, /phitl fil)4/, To be against the rules, to make a mistake, to commit a • cnme. mBD11H /phitl kan6/, To qua,1el (with each other). 'Vl}ria/ ·~ S:J1) 1 xaa1 phit1 kan6. The two of them quarrelled with each other. mBD1-AB /phitl li6/, To commit a crime. mBD1mij1 tphit1 phEk3t, 1. Mistake, error. 2. Quarrel. mBD101la;. /phitl taam3/, To offend, to commit a crime. 10Bo1-nr /phitl tsm6/, To repent, to regret. 10Bo1-nr ~raLC /phit 1 tsai6 mai 1 xo2/, To repent, to regret.


/phitS/, To invite warrn1y, to invite cordially. See hap5.

mBd 1

/phiu 1/, Surface, outer layer or cover of sth. ~ wl · phiu1 phaa4. Quilt cover, especially the top cover shee~ often made of silk or patterned cloth. - 1:111 phiul man4. The front or outside of a piece of cloth (as opposed to the inside of it).

mBd 2 /phiul/, To whistle (esp. in the phrase - .,,,Lid phiu1 Jom2). Original from




/phiu3/, (Of air or a secret) to leak. .,,eld.,,/Jrl - "'Lld'tf1d 1im2 lE1)1 phiu3 lom2 hau5. The tyre leaked/There was an air leak in the tyre. - '111::J phiul ?am6. To reveal a secret.

lDLC /phol/, Husband. Also pu3.

\DLC~la~n .. -uld

/phol maau3 me2

saaul/, Husband and wife, married couple, first marriage for both. \Dl_d~n .. /phol me2/, Husband and wife, married couple.

\Dl_C /pho2/, Dropsy, edema (esp. in the phrase 1{ - kai6 phol).

nn ·

\DI_C /pho3/, 1. To name. - "DD'tf1f '11UH pho3 tsi6 hai4 ?el ?:,r,3. To name a baby, to give a name to a child. 2. To explain, to answer (a question). - l::JL m8- pho3 mu2 thi2. To answer a question, to offer an explanation to a problem.

lDL1 /phokl/, To chant incantations (esp. in the phrase - 1::J/1101/11 phok1 maan3 taan3).

\DL~ /phoml/, Hair (esp. a woman's long hair).

\DLH /phon3/, To cross, to make way through (ajungle). - IJJi:j phon3 yum2. To cross a patch of grass. See mon3.

lDLH /phon3/, An act of doing sth., time. Wo1'1.ILJrl - phatl s::,1)1 phon3. To read twice.

lDl!l /phorj6/, To make a dive forward (for), to throw oneself on, to dash for, to rush at. 1::JI •- 1/1/LJl::JL. maa1 phorf kaa 3 kaap5 mul. The dog sprang at the pig and bit it. Also phur:f.

Digitized by


lDU">' /ph:>i6/, 1. To be fragile, to be brittle, to be frail, to be weak, to be easily broken. '1.Jl'JJ'VllH.,/iJ - 01n· saail sen4 Jai5 ph:,i6 te-5. This string is too weak/fragile (i.e. it is easily broken). 2. To be crisp, to be crunchy. 1::J/11::Jllti.,,iJ- 01n· maak3 meu2 Iai5 ph:,i6 te5. This kind of fruit is really • cnsp.

lDU-11 /ph:>k3/, To spill, to sprinkle (water), to scatter (giains, seeds or suchlike). - .,/ldLJo1'tf18H ph:,k3 Jam5 patl h~n2. To sprinkle water and sweep the floor. See hot3.

lDU1 /ph:>kS/, 1. (Of a road) to lead to. BLH01lri1L'VflH- uBtiBH xon1 taa,f ku6 sen4 ph:,k5 p:,4 tsin6. All roads lead to Beijing. 2. (To pierce) through. 01/]ri - tEIJ2 ph:,k5. To pierce through.

\DU~ /ph:>ml/, To decline, to deteriorate. DLJ01 - w::,t5 ph::,ml. To decline.

\DU~ /ph:>mS/, 1. To agree (with), to share the same view. l::Jr - "CJ{_,,,; mai2 ph:,m5 tsai6 Jail? Do you agree? 2. To be complete, all in readiness. 1lfiaLti - w81 kun2 xo2 ph::,m5 phik5. To have a complete stock of commodities, to have a full range of goods. lDU~-Or /ph:>mS tsai6/, To agree. \DU~-on· /ph:>mS tse2/, To be complete, to have a whole range of. \DU~-OL /ph:>ms tsu2/, To agree. \DU~-0~ /ph:>mS tsum3/, To be complete, to have a full range of.

\DUH /ph:>nS/, To review (one's lesson), to have a revision. - .,//ji ph::,n5 laai2. To review one's lesson. Original from




/ph~ 1/, 1. Dust, powder (esp. in the phrase- lDlJTI ph:>IJI ph:Jtl). 2. To drizzle. LQIJ1Llf1 - a~aH funI ya,/ ph:>IJI wai5 :xanl. It is still drizzling. LQIJ1- LJ[flLJ[flfflLrl funl ph:>IJI yoP yoP hol}I. It was/is drizzling.


/phorJ2I, Announcer (in the old days). munl:fon· /pho1J2 m.,IJ2/, Administrator, minister. mun-no~ /phoIJ2 ts.,n5/, It being the case,. as a consequence, as a result. - LJnU1u1/l.Jd ph:>rf ts:,n5 yarf taP5 kaa3 yau5. That being the case, there is no need to go. muncl /phoJJ2 waa6/, If, in case.

- 1:1ru,81/", -VL.. 1:1/-1:1y11a1/J.,,/8n ph:>rj waa6 mai2 til kaa3, su4 maa2 m:>k3 kau6 kam2 J:,r/. If you want to go,

be sure to come over here and let me know.


/phoIJ 3I, Bamboo raft. a/u, ""LJnufl - :xaat5 ph:>rfJ l:>r/ pe2. To make a bamboo raft.


/phop3/, 1. (Of grains, beans or suchlike) not plump, blighted. See haap3. 2. Blighted grain. 3. Blisters. Ul/f:I - tum3 ph:>p3. Bleb, herpes.


/phot3/, Verb stem in compounds associated with the notion of 'to search, to wander'. murn~nu /phot3 lep5/, To patrol. mummn~ /phot3 pheu4/, To scurry, to run about, to be everywhere. LQl[fnLD LQl[fa/jj - 1/iJ.fnL.- fwJI 1]o2 fwJI :xaai2 ph:>t3 pheu4 kaa3 ku5 hu2. The cattle ran about (looking for food).

Digitized by



/phot3 sokS/, To search for, to look for, to inspect.


/phot5/, To tie sth. up with a rope. See phukl, hat5. mUU'l'JID'll:fD'lmL1 /phot5 hatS mat5 phuk1/, To bind, to tie, to fetter. mUD'l'J'ID'll:fD'I-Of /phot5 hat5 mat5 tsai6/, To bind, to fetter.


/phu2/, Sense, significance, content, cause. ~ l:IHUllM'718~ phu2 man2 pen6 ts:,i5. The cause (of the current situation) is this. LJn1:18-~ -vrl yar:f mi2 phu2 SJUJ 1. There is no real significance/sense (in it). un fflJ.• - 1Lf1-vrl yar:f hu5 phu2 kon2 SSTJ1• Not sensible, thoughtless. mL" ml- YI- 1J1Bl1 /phu2 phaa2 maa2

hi1Jl/, Since ancient times. mL" D'lijH /phu2 ttn2/, Theory. /phu2 ts.,IJ2/, 1. Theme, content. 2. Skill, ability.

mL" 110n

mL: 1 /phu3/, 1. Noun prefix indicating people of a certain profession. - .,,/81 .,,/81 phu3 lik5 /:,k5. Scholar, a learned person. 2. Classifier for people. 1Lf1 .,/On kon2 phu3 J:,r/. One person. See


mt.: UJ0i

/phu3 f.lk 3/, Leamer,


mt.: 'Jlnrn1IHaun

/phu3 het3 kaan6 xolJl/, Worker, labourer. mL: 'J'ILd'J'IIH /phu3 hol haan6/, Hero. 11H /phu3 Jcaan6/, Worker. mL: 1IH~B1 /phu3 kaan6 Iik5/, Intellectuals. mL: ul11LH\DIH /phu3 yaak5 kon2 phaan l /, Poor people.


Original from



\DL 2 /phu3/, To spray, to sprinkle, to puff. - .../Id phu3 Jam5. To sprinkle water. - ayuLJ/· phu3 x::,n2 yaa4. To puff smoke.

xam2/, Classics, classical works. lDu-1"1JB· /phunl siS/, Flag.

lDlti"'lB- /phui]2 ki2/, Buddha. Also purf2 Jd2.

\DL 3 /phu3/, Shop (esp. in the phrase - 71p- phu3 tsi2).

ml(l 1 /phui]3/, Photograph, picture. Also

\DL /phu4/, Male (chickens, ducks, birds). 1il - kai3 phu4. Cock, rooster.

\Dl.(12 /phui]3/, To collide with. Also


/phui3/, 1. To fit, to accommodate, toconfc,1111 to. LJn - .../ii ya,/ phui3 Jai4. Not to fit, not suitable (for). 2. Ought to, should. See kiq3.

\Dl]l /phuiS/, To accompany, to keep company. - uB.../un phui5 pi6 J::,r;f. To keep company with guests/relatives. \Dl}J /phui6/, To lose flavour. 71/"}J.../D ULd ~ 1/· 1:J/]HLJd ?aai6 Jau4 po2 phui6 kaa3 mtn5 yau5. The wine has lost its flavour.

lDL1 /phukl/, 1. To plant. - W11:JLCI phuk1 phakl mo3. To plant spring onions. Also pukl. 2. To tie (sb.) up (esp. in the phrase l:JO'I - mat5 phukl). 71LDLJ/]M.../l1 - tso4 JY.Jn6 Jaak5 phukl. To be kidnapped by sb. lDL1"'llU~ /phukl s:>m4/, To plant (young plants), to sow (seeds). - 1:J/1 01ljiJ phukl s::,m4 maak3 t::,i3. To plant walnut trees. Also pukl s::>m4. \DL.1 /phukS/, Tomorrow (short form of m;P phuk5). \D~ /phun 1/, Classifier for flat, thin objects such as sheets, mats, dresses and books . .../riUJIH1.Jljri - Jaql faan2 S:Jl)l phunl. Two deer hides. Also phinl. \D~"'llijr1-nltiali /phunl SEiJl tsaam2 Digitized by



p::,lf'. \Dl[I /phUfJ6/, To make a dive forward (for), to jump forward for. Also phoq6.

lDUJ /phupS/, 1. (Of timber) to rot, to decay. See Jau6. 2. (Of gunpowder) to explode.

lDu,1 /phutl/, To appear suddenly, to show up, to crop up. 1:J8- 1Lfi1.1yri1Ld - 71lj'?LJJj:il:JI ··mi2 kon2 s::,tJl ko5 phutl ?::,k3 yum2 maa2. Two people dashed out of the bush. lDLlJ'1ULC /phutl po3/, To appear, to emerge.


/phutS/, To make one's way through (a crowd), to squeeze one's way out. uil - adl:JI ·· pai3 phut5 xau4 maa2. Don't squeeze in. - aa.../rl/Jtp1LH1f· phut5 xau4 Jai2 fUtJl kon2 kaa3. To make one's way into the crowd.

\DH"'l /phikS/, (Of gunpowder or suchlike) tocxplode. \DOH /phin 1/, Classifier for flat, thin objects such as sheets, mats and books. Sec phun 1.


/phii]2/, 1. To flock (into or out of), to rush (in or out) in large numbers. 1Lfi - ad1/118L11.1/d1Ld kon2 phirf xau4 kaa3 sipl saau2 ko5. Ten or twenty people rushed in. 2. (Of smell, esp. bad Original from



smell) to spread around. 71/'}Jl:JH -


?aaj6 man2 phirf maa2

Ji6 kam2 Jj6 kam2. Strong (bad) smell came in gusts.


/phiJ]4/, 1. Bee. 2. Beeswax, wax.

\Dfl" /ph~1/, I. To rake. - ,1/-ph:,1 Jaa2. To rake the field. 2. Rake. - l:JD · ph:,1 mi2. Hand rake. 3. To spread over, to crowd over. l:ILU1afll:171y1rn1.-1:1/-- uluLJ/u

mot5 .xeml ?ok3 hu2 maa2 ph:,1 yaapS

yaap5. Ants came out of the hole in thousands.


/ph;,4/, (Of colour) to come off, to fade.


/ph~/, (Legendary) ghost.

tDQ1 I tDQ'l 2

/ph~k3/, Taro. /ph~k3/, White. - 1J/ji1J/ji ph:,k3

sun2 sun2. Snow white.


/ph~nl/, Table. - ad ph:,nl .xau4. Dining table. tDQHaij1 /ph~n I xEk3/, Feast, banquet.

tDQo'I 1


/ph~t3/, Measles.

tnQo'12 /ph~t3/, To change, to vary, to alter.

1JI" I

/saal/, A kind of tree, the bark of which can be used for making paper.

1JI · 2 /saal/, Flecks, speckle. 1JI · .-11 • 1JI · 011 /saa I laa4 saa I taa6/, To lose face, to make a fool of oneself, to shame, to humiliate. 1JI" .-ti~ /saal laaml/, To salute, to greet with one's hands clasped.

1JI- 1

/saa2/, Market. ,,r,/m,1r - Ja.i2

kaat3 Jai2 saa2. In the market. See kaat3.


/saa2/, Step. U'}J -

min - rnBn pai6

saa2 haai;i3 saa2 hirjJ. To walk in big steps.

1JI- 3

/saa2/, To embroider. -

l:IU'?LJ/· saa2

m~k3 yaa4. To embroider flowers (on sth.).

1JI- 4

/saa2/, 1. To end, to stop, to finish.

See sau2. 2. (Of food) to go off. 3. (Of the surface of skin) to be dirty. 1JI- ul· /saa2 paa2/, To be poor. a/1-1"0{

- .xaanl tsai6 saa2 paa2. Hardships, difficulties.

1JI· I

/saa3/, Dregs, residue.

'1LMl:ILDl:l8 -

tDQo'l.-tl" /ph~t3 laa4/, To make a fool of

- l:IM kon4 mo4 mi2 saa3 man2. There

oneself, to lose face, to be shameful. tDQo'l.-tl" 71l,J01l /ph~t3 laa4 ?aai6

are some dregs at the bottom of the pot. - rDLD saa3 tho3. Residue from beans

taa6/, To make a fool of oneself, to be shameful, to lose face. tDQo'l.-111 /ph~t3 laak3/, To change, to alter, to vary.

after making soya bean milk, bean dregs.

1JI· 2 1JI· 3

/saa3/, Quality. -

,n· saa3 k&.

/saa3/, (Of timber, fruit, meat or suchlike) to be fibrous, to be tough.

1J1· 4

/saa3/, First element in loan compounds. 1Jt· .-11· /saa3 Jaa3/, Master, expert.

Original from




.-1J· D1Ld /saa3 laa3 to3/, Buddhist

master. Also si3 Jaa3 to3. -ul· .-11· -n~ /saa3 laa3 tsau4/, Buddha. Also si3 Jaa3 tsau4. -ul· -UM -,1J· /saa3 san3 laa3/, Buddhist calendar, Buddhist era. -ul· mL" /saa3 thu2/, To greet or make a bow with one's hands clasped. -ul' /saa4/, (Of food or vegetables) cold and tossed in sauce. 11a010n rnllcn 1811 ?au6 ttr/ het3 saa4 kin6. To make tossed cucumbers.


-ul· 1 /saa5/, Basket. saa5 s:t'. Sewing basket. - w1 saa5 phakl. Vegetable basket. -ut· 2 /saa5/, To inspect, to check (esp. in the phrase - "0001 saa5 tsf:t5). -uJ· 018 • /saa5 tiS/, To alert, to be alert. -ul 1 /saa6/, 1. Good, fortunate, lucky. a11rnda11- wan2 hau5 wan2 sa.a.6. Lucky days, auspicious days. 2. Sentence final particle expressing politeness or softening the tone. 1::111unLJLfD iJ - man2 ya,! yu3 thai4 saa6. He is not here. -ult.Qin /saa6 f8a1]3/, A fair, a gettogether. -ul01lri /saa6 t8al)2/, News, message. 1.JlmJ· /saa6 taa3/, To be of one's own volition, willingly. "Ofun ~ tsai6 ya,! saa6 thaa3. Not willing (to). i.Jl2 /saa6/, A kind of acute disease, sunstroke. ull11 - pen6 saa6. To have sunstroke. i.Jl3 /saa6/, 1. To look down upon, to belittle, to humiliate. 01/11a/,;iuiJ ~ u011 taan4 xaam2 pai3 saa6 p:,n6. Don't talk at

Digitized by


the expense of humiliating others. 2. To collapse, to have a landslide . .,/l}1J 01L11::1/- J~i6 saa6 tok3 maa2. There was a landslide.

-ul')l /saai 1/, 1. Suing, line, cord, belt, any suing-like objects or objects conceptualised as such. 2. Continuous, running. IJJ/j1"0D11JJ/j1 - funl tsik5 funl saail. Continuous drizzle. .,,/l;d;l/,:.i -

11Dnn· '11Lri Jam5 Jaai2 saai 1 ?P ?;5 ho1J1. (Of a baby or invalid person) to be dribbling.

1.Jl')lt.QLH /saajl fon 1/,Rainwater,rain. -ul')llf101 /saai 1 hat5/, Water weeds, water plants. -ul')llJ1Lr1 /saai 1 hol) 1/, Queen, first lady. -ul')l-,1ijn /saai 1 le:1)2/, Ray of light, lustre. 1Jl')l-,1ijm /saai 1 ltt3/, Sunlight. 1.Jl')l-,18 /saai 1 li6/, Navel. -ul')l.AU01 /saai 1 l~t5/, Blood vein. -ul')lmd /saai 1 thaul/, Vine. -ul,>-nf /saai 1 tsai6/, Soul, lifeline. 1.Jl>l-nU1 /saai 1 ts~k5/, Rope, cord. -ul')lae-1 /saai 1 wan2/, Sunlight, daylight. -ul')laLC /saai 1 xo2/, Darling, the loved one, relation, lover. -ul;J 1 /saai2/, 1. Sand. - l::ILJM saai2 m~n5. Fine sand. 2. Ribbon. -ul;J 2 /saai2/, To drag, to haul, to take hold of. See Jaak5. -ul')l l /saai3/, To wash. - 1::111 saai3 man4. To wash cloth. saai3 s:tl. To wash clothes. See ssk5, suk5.

118 ·

Original from



--ul)i2 /saail/, To shake, to swagger. - 91Ld saai3 hol. To shake one's head.

cooked. ad - xau4 saan 1. Half-cooked rice. See km6.

--ul')l /saai4/, To pay for, to pay back, to compensate. '71Jjld'11- 91f ts:Jm2 kaa6 slUJi4 hai4. To compensate according to cost. - aQ11,18 · aJJ01 saaJ4 JCinl Jj4 JC:Jt3. To pay debts.

-ulM2 /saanl/, To weave (wicker baskets, fish nets or suchlike). - t,q/ 'saanl faal. To make bamboo fences.

--ul')l 1 /saaiS/, Left (hand). l:Jg··- mi2 saaP. Left hand. --ul')l 2 /saai5/, To guess. - alldi saai5 JCaam2. To guess a riddle. --uli /saakl/, 1. Pestle. See JCok5. 2. To pound (rice) with a pestle. - ad saak3 JCau4. To pound rice with a pestle. See

tam6. --uf11 /saakS/, Leftovers, leftover food, remnants. --uf12 /saakS/, To make contributions (esp. in the phrase - nlu saak5 ?aap5). Also ?aap5 saak5.

-ul1--ul· /saak5 saa3/, To be comfortable, to be safe and sound. -ul1-un· /saaJcS se3/, Evidence, proof. -U 11:1 /saam I/, Three.

-ull:l.-f01:1 /saaml ltml/, Triangle. -ull:l.-f U>l.-fUlm~ /saam I loiS lum3 thau4/, Three generations, young, middle-aged and old.


/saam4/, (Iron) bar, fork, spear. - -All"I saam4 Jek3. Iron bar. - '1JLJUI saam4 sapl paa6. Fish spear.

"'IJIMl /saanl/, 1. Husked (rice), shelled (peanuts). - ad01{)1 saanl JCau4 t£.lc3. Husked sorghum. 2. (Of rice) half-

Digitized by


-ulH 1 /saan2/, 1. To come loose, to fall apart, not to hold together. nBHuL· '7/f/7d ?in3 pu5 saan2 kaa3 hau5. The luggage came loose. 2. To uproot, to eradicate (esp. in the phrase - uf]01

saan2 pEt5). -ulH2 /saan2/, To compose. - a/ldi1:1/1 saan2 raam2 maak3. To write poems. -ull-11 /saanl/, 1. To disperse, to scatter about. "D/]nuti - uln ts:,,! po2 saan3 paarf. The theatre was empty after the show. 2. (Of chickens or birds) to scratch the ground or a surface for food. -ula-12 /saanl/, Classifier for doors, windows and suchlike. -AlinL, - ,1/]n Jaa4 tu6 saan3 J:,,!. A door. -ull-l /saanS/, 1. (Of animals) to look for food, to be greedy or hungry for (food), (of pigs or suchlike) to eat food by licking or biting. 1:1/jJ/-- 91/ti mul maa2 saan5 hBJUJ2. The pig was eating the leftovers by the trough. 2. (Of people) to be greedy for food, to be gluttonous. uiJ - wf}d pai3 saan5 phEul! Don't be so greedy! -ul1i1I /saan6/, 1. Three. Also saaml. 2. Name for the third son. -uf1i12 /saan6/, To mix together (esp. in the phrase- '1H saan6 kan6). -ulr11 lsaagl/, God, deity.

Original from



"'l.Jlr12 /saatjl/, The Ah Chang nationality.

'Vlrl - SBJUJI loIJI. A group of the Ah Chang nationality. "'l.Jlr1 3 /saaJJ 1/, To put things in order, to tidy up. "'l.Jlr14 /saaJJl/, To loosen (rice) by stining. "'l.Jlri 1 /s3.afJ2/, Ground for specific purposes, such as threshing ground. - ad saarfl JCau4. Threshing ground. "'l.Jln.-1n· /s3.afj2 Je2/, Poverty, hardships, difficulties. aH'O( - JCanl tsai6 saarfl Je2. To undergo hardships. "'l.Jlri"'l.Jijri /S8a1j2 SEfJ2/, Graveyard, wilderness. Also saarj JCE,r. "'l.Jlnmu,:; /S8a1j2 thoi2/, China, Chinese, the Han Chinese. "'l.Jlriaijn /saag2 XEg2/, Graveyard, wilderness. Also saarj S£,r. "'l.Jlri2 lsaaJJ2/, 1. To think, to consider. See JCai4, taari3. 2. To award, to reward. 'VLd - U/lt so1 saarf pan6. Money reward. "'l.Jlri"'l.Jijn /s3.afj2 SEl.)3/, 1. To remind. 2. To consider. "'l.Jlrimlo, /saag2 thaatS/, Religious ceremony in which valuables are put inside a newly-moulded Buddhist idol. "'l.JlrimL /saag 2 thu2/, Buddhist image. "'l.Jlri1lijH /s3.afJ2 tsEn3/, WaterSplashing Festival. "'l.Jlr1 1 /s3.afJ3/, 1. Monk. 2. Noun stem indicating or associated with 'monk'. "'l.Jlr1UJL /s3.afJ3 fu3/, 1. To apologise. 2. To thank sb. with a gift. "'l.Jlr11IH /saag3 kaan2/, Kasaya. "'l.Jlr1-Ann /s3.afj3 leg3/, Young Buddhist monk (from Sanskrit samgha). "'l.Jlr1.-tUri /saag3 loJJ2/, Monk.

Digitized by



/s8B.1J3 thaak5/, A monk who resumes secular life. -ulr1al· /saag3 xaa3/, Monks, monks and priests. "'l.Jlr12 ls8BIJ3/, 1. To light a lamp.

u/~ ~

01Dn1.JJi.i yaa11i2 saaIJ3 tit/' fai2. Time for lighting lamps (i.e. nightfall). 2. To put on a sole (in shoemaking). "'l.JI" 1 /sa8Ij4/, To buy, to purchase (furniture or suchlike).~ a@rn811 salUJ" JCo2 h:,n2. To buy some furniture. See si5. -ul"2 /saaJJ4/, To live in, to stay in. 018LJ1J178 - u6 yu3 ti6 SIUUJ4. Residence. "'l.Jlr\'J'lnm /sa8Ij4 het3/, 1. To construct. 2. Construction. "'l.Jl"01n· /saaJJ4 tel/, To construct, to build. "'l.Jl"3 /s3.afJ4/, (Of a man) to marry his sister-in-law after his elder brother's death . .,,/Jjr'l'O/'}J - U8.,,/Lfi J:,r:,5 tsaai6 saa,f pi6 Jo2. The younger brother marries his elder brother's wife after the elder brother's death. "'l.Jl"4 /sa8Ij4/, Water vat,jar, dye vat, dyestuff. ~ .,,,,:1 saarf' Jam5. Water vat. "'l.JI" ls3MJS/, Wall. City wall.


saar:,5 we,r.

"\Jin 1 /s3.afJ6/, To wound, to injure. - 'DLD""l.1 nllu saarf' tso4 Jukl ?en6. To be injured in the sinews or bones, to have a fracture. "'l.Jln2 /saafJ6/, 1. To lay (a foundation). 2. To inlay (a tooth with gold or silver), to put in a false tooth. "'l.Jlut /saap3/, Cockroach. Also m£IJ6

saap3. Original from



"lllu2 /saapl/, Riverside, river bank, watcrftoat (esp. in the phrases - ;/Id

saap3 Jarn5, - 01/ saap3 taa6). "lllu3 /saar,3/, 1. To nail on horseshoes. - 'TJ/r'11::1/· saap3 tsaarj maa5. To nail on horseshoes. 2. Inlay with gold or silver, (of teeth or other things) to be gold- or silver-inlaid. - allti saap3 xeu4. To put in a false tooth; to insert an artificial gold-inlaid tooth. Sec ~m4. "lllo1 /saatl/, Onomatopoeic word for describing the sound of wind. ;1L,;jLJCJ ~ - lom2 pau3 saatl saatl. The wind rustled, the rustic of the wind. "UIO'l 1 /saat3/, Bamboo mat, either for sleeping or for drying things on. Sec

phuJc5. "Ulrfl 2 /saat3/, To toss out (water). - ;/Id 'Tlli saat3 Jam5 hatf'. To toss out dirty water. "UID"I 1 /saat5/, To end, to finish, to wind up. - UJ~IJD saat5 thai4 yau5. Let's wind up here. '11Ld01llrnlrl - hol te2 haaJJl saat5. From beginning to end, cause. "UID"l'Jllr1 /saat5 hUJJl/, 1. To end, to bring to an end. 2. The end. "UID"I 2 /saat5/, To brush off in passing, to come close to or in touch with. l::IHU"JJ -

u/n;1/101/· man2 pai6 saat4 Paarl Jaa4 kau6 kaa3. He brushed by in front of me. unug- 'T1Ld1fJ'JJ - '118,;i1::1111/· ya,/ y{1 tso4 k::,i2 saat5 him2 man2 kaa3. (fhe shot) missed the target and brushed by. "Uld /saaul/, 1. Girl, young lady, unmarried woman. - 1LD'1.JfJH saaul ko3 s~. Teenage girl. - ;IIJ17LJl11 saaul

Digitized by


Jut5 paan6. A girl who has passed the no11nal age for marriage. 2. Classifier for girls. '1.JfJrl - ;1iJ;1L.1mf1::1J- s::,1)1 saaul Jai5 JuJc5 thail maa2? Where do these two girls come from? "llld.-tl1'J1101 /saaul laak5 haat5/, A girl who once escaped from being seized for marriage. 1JIC /saau2/, Twenty. 1JIO /saau3/, (Of rain) to swirl, to drift (in the wind). IIJIJ1- ad'118111::1J- fun 1 saau3 xau4 h:,n2 maa2. The rain drops drifted into the house_ 1JI~ /saau4/, 1. (Bamboo) pole, especially one for hanging washing on to dry, clothesline.1::/il - mai5 saau4. Bamboo clothesline. Also haau2. 2. A classifier for poles, often used for measuring height or depth. Dl171LJ'1l::II-- ;10nua wan2 ?::,k3 maa2 saau4 J:,tJ6 yau5. The sun has risen to the height of a pole. 1Jldl /saau5/, Damp. "llld2 /saau5/, 1. Trough for a roller (such as one in a mill). 2. The contents of a trough. n/]11ati1::1l1.1LJrl - 1)£n2 xau4 maa2 s::,1)1 saau5. To have milled two troughs of rice. 1J'JJ /sai2/, A kind of fish trap. "U°)l /sai3/, General te11n for the fourth child. 1J)l /sai4/, 1. Intestine. 2. Sausage. 1J)l.-t~D'1 /sai4 l~t5/, Thick sausage stuffed with animal blood and other ingaedients. 1J)l~Un-A~· /sai4 m:>JJ6 I~/, Smoked sausage stuffed with meat.

Original from



1J'Jl'1JD1 /sai4 satS/, Smoked sausage. 1J'Jl'1JU'JJ /sai4 soi6/, Smoked sausage. '1.J"Jl /saiS/, (Of domestic animals) to look for food, (of te11nites) to eat.


1J'JJ /sai6/, To guess, to make a guess. Also saai5. 1J11 /sakl/, 1. (Of chickens or birds) to peck. 1'}J - aa,BH kai3 sakl xau4 kin6. The chicken was pecking the com. 2. To punch (with a fist), to hit, to strike. alt, - 1H xlUUJ3 sakl kan6. The spinning tops struck/hit/each other. alt, - 'TJ@UIBH xlUUJ3 saJcl tso4 tin6. The top hit (his) foot. 3. To lean on (a stick or suchlike) for support. - a[JHUID saJcl x:in5 tau5. (To walk) with a stick. 1J12 /sakl/, (Often combined with ?j4 and with negative words) (not) at all, (not) any. LJnf:18 .. - nB' yar/ ,nj2 sakl ?i4. To have nothing at all. LJn.,,/8 - ajj yar/ Jj6 saJcl xai2. No good at all. See sil. 1J13 /sakl/, Clear (of vision, hearing or speech), clearly. unrn11- yar/ hanl sak1. Cannot see clearly. .,,/'}Inn,:,; - UTll

Jar' tJen2 sak1 te5. To be able to hear clearly. 1J1.-tijri /sakl lt1]2/, Clearly. 011,:, .,,/l}ri taan4 sak1 Jcrf. To speak clearly. 1J11J1 /sakl sakl/, Clearly, obviously. 1J1"'Ur /sakl sail/, Clear, transparent. 1J11lr /sakl tsai6/, Comfortable, ease of mind. 1J11 /sakS/, To wash (clothes).~ 'Vo · saJc5 s:t'. To wash clothes.

'1J12 /sakS/, First element in compounds. "'U111.An01 /sakS Jcaa6 Iet5/, Tai calendar. '1J1D11H /sakS taan3/, Elephant. See


"'UY /saml/, To copulate, to have sexual intercourse (esp. in the phrase- 1H saml kan6). See tsaap5. "'U~ /sarn2/, 1. To plant. -V[Jfl - s:,m4 sam2. To plant (trees, vegetables or suchlike). Also s:,m4. 2. To cultivate (land). '1.ll}fl rrl'JJ - .,,/I- s:,m4 hai6

sam2 Jaa2. To cultivate lands. 3. (Of a thorn or needle) to prick, to puncture. allld - f:JD · xeml sam2 mi2. His hand was pricked by a needle. See tcrf. "'U~Tllri /sam2 ?8MJ2/, Tattoo. "UY /sarn3/, Type, kind, variety. 1L 11JJ8n ku6 sam3 ku6 p:,,i6. Various kinds, all sorts. '1.1811 - 'V/]11u8n sip1 sam3 scnl JXJr:I. A full range of varieties. "'UY.Al· /sam3 laa4/, Future, future prospects. 1JY1D1 /sam3 katS/, To boast that one is capable. "'U~1:1B • /sam3 mi2/, Candle. "'UYl:tl1 /sarn3 mokS/, To slander, to make a false charge against. 1J~'1Ju- 1::1u· .-11" /sam3 s~m~ laa4/, In the future, from now on, later on. '1.J~ 1 /sam4/, (Of one's body, utensils or

clothes) to be dirty. See hBJ/. 1J~2 /sarn4/, 1. To finish, to end, to complete, to be used up. See yauS, mcn5, mot3. 2. Entirely. See ta,f lotJ 1,

tarf mm-5.

Digitized by


Original from



'1J~ /samS/, 1. To repeat. - ap,;, - "Lri sam5 xin4 sam5 lo,f. To be repetitive.

"1.JM /san3/, To shake, to shiver, to tremble (with cold, fear or suchlike).

saaml. To say over and over again. - - LJU'JiLJU'Ji sam5 sam5 y:;i2 y:;i2.

- LJ!nLJ!n '11Lrl san3 yaar.,3 yaar.,3 hol)l. To be trembling, to be shivering. 1o1mpu,mpu,rnLrl katl san3 thit5 thit5

To be talkative, tochatterinter1ninably. 2. Then, and then, again. 1/· rnll:..

hotJl. To be trembling with cold. "1.JHmn· /san3 the3/, To be pregnant.

- 'VLJrl - 'Vlfd sam5 s:;1Jl sam5

1:J!~/}- kaa3 hel sam5 maa2 JE2. To have gone away and then come back. - rr,llrnuy1,18n sam5 het3 p:;k5 J:,1)6. To do it again. "1.J~O'lri /samS tag2/, Meanwhile, in addition, furthe11nore. "1.J~al /sarnS waa6/, Even if.

-1:JHn~LJt,OmJI11B~llrn~O~rnll01 sam5 waa6 man2 ?am3 yu3 kd' tu6 til het3 ts:,i5 het3. Even if he is not present we should do it this way. '1J~ /sarn6/, To grope (for), to try to find

out, to take soundings. ~/,;i - ,1L,181aT tsaam2 sam6 Ju6 J:,k5 xai6. To take soundings. "1.J~O'll}J /sam6 toi2/, To pay a visit to, to visit. "1.J~mu~ /sam6 thom3/, To enquire about. "1.J~1lr /sam6 tsai6/, To waver, to hesitate, to shilly-shally. '1JH 1 /san 1/, The non-cutting edge of a knife, the back of a knife blade. - w/· sanl phaa5. The non-cutting edge of a

knife. '1JH2 /sanl/, The ninth of the twelve Earthly Branches. '1JH /san2/, (Of two feet) to move up and down quickly, to walk quickly and effortlessly. U'JJO'llri - u,/1u,l1Lrl pai6 taa,f san2 taak5 taak5 hotJl. To walk quickly and effortlessly.

Digitized by

Go -gle

"1.Jri /s8rjl/, What. l:Jral- mai2 waa6 saIJl? What did you say? 1:J{ mai2 tsi6 saIJl? What's your name? ,1/,Jull11 - Jaail pen6 sal)l? What's this? 1:J8-u,/,;, - mi2 SIUJJ taan4 satJl. Say what

~n -

you want to, speak out. "1.Jri"1.Jri /s81]1 S81]1/, Thing, object. "1.Jrial /S8rj 1 waa6/, If. - l:Jr1:J8 -

,ILJnLJ/1, 1D~LJ'JJm/)fdl:Jr saIJl


mai2 mj2 l:J1)6 yaak5, kau6 ts:;j6 thEml mai2. If you come across any difficulties,1'11 come and help. Also thil) 1 waa6.

"1.Jn 1 /s8fj3/, To blow the nose. - aB· l:JL1 sarf3 xi4 muk5. To blow one's nose to get rid of the mucus.

1.Jr'l2 /s8fJ3/, To ask, to entrust, to request (sb. to do sth.). - 1:J11m/}fd1JD:.tl'Ji1:JJsarf3 man2 thEml si5 Jaai2 maa2. To ask him to buy a book for (me/you/us). "1.Jr'l"\JUH /s8fJ3 son 1/, To lecture, to instruct.

"1.J~ ls81JSf, Frame, rack, trellis. - ml]n sai:f tEr/. Cucumber trellis.

"1.JLl /sap 1/, To pierce, to puncture, to stab, to jab with a sharp-pointed tool or object. See tal1P, tE,f.

"1.Jo1 /satl/, Animal, beast of burden. - ,10ri sat1 J:1,f. Wild animals.

Original from



1.1011 /sat5/, 1. To fill. 71Dl:JHLJLJ'JJ ~ -"OH ?au6 man4 y:Ji6 sat5 J£n4. To fill (a hole) with rags. See ?:,n6, ?:JtJ. 2. (Of plants) to be thick, to be dense, to be too close together, (of people) to be overcrowded, to be densely populated. .,,rirn8H ~ U1D1U1D1rnLri JBl)l h:1n2 sat5 tik5 tik5 hoql. The houses were built too close together. - "DB·· sat5 tsi2. To be crowded, to be packed (with people). 1.1012 /sat5/, To urge, to warn. '1J/11Jfl.,,J ·· sariJ sat5 sa,:,3 Jaa2. To urge again and again.

1.ld /saul/, Pillar, pole.~ rn8H saul h:m2. The pillar of a house. - 1fl~/,;,; saul ke2 Jaan2. Pole for electric power or telephone lines. 1.10 /sau2/, 1. To stay at, to live in. '11lJn - '11lJnLJL.. ?:Jr:f sau2 ?:Jr:f yu3. Residence, residential place. See yu3. 2. To stop (working). ~ '1JLrl sau2 so,r. To stop. - rnOn sau2 h£q2. To take a rest. - rn8 ·sau2 h~. To hesitate to move forward. 1.IDUL /sau2 yu3/, To stay at, to live at.

1.IC 1 /sau3/, To make. See het3. 1.IC 2 /sau3/, To abuse, to curse. See tsaa5. 1.ld /sau4/, (Of clothes, utensils or suchlike) to be dirty. 1J8. 1L"1- w/u, w/u,rnLri s~ kon6 sau4 phaat5 phaat5 hoql. The clothes are really very dirty. "'U~ /sau5/, Damp, wet. .,,rrnLJn - wOd Jai2 h:J,fJ sau5 phEul. The room is quite damp.

1.101 /sau6/, (Of cocks' crowing at night) time (as a measurement of time).

Digitized by


1iJaLJH1Jlf:i -, tq/fnB~Onud kaj3 JC:Jn1 saaml sau6, faa5 tjl 1£,j yau5. The cock has crowed three times; day is breaking. 1.1a2 /sau6/, 1. To plough (esp. a dried field) a second time. 2. To feel the weight of an object by lifting it up with the hand. 1JC01L /sau6 tu3/, To release $Ouls from purgatory, to expiate the sins of the dead.


/sail/, 1. (Of water) clear, clean, transparent, free of dregs. .,/Id - Jam5 sajl. Clean water. 2. (Of soups or suchlike) to be thin.~ wOdud, m0H-"Ldn8o1.,,8n sai1 ph£u1 yau5, th£n4 Jol ?itl J:,r:f. (The soup/porridge) is getting too thin, add (sth.) to make it a bit thicker.


/sai3/, 1. To put (sth. into a container). 71aw/· - l.1}1 ?au6 phaa5 sai3 faJcl. Put the knife into the sheath. w,.,,rl:JLD../iJLJnul- phakl Jai2 mo4 Jai5 yar/ paa6 sai3 k~. No salt has been put into the dish in the frying pan. 2. To hold, to contain . 1l}J- '1Jri91iJ Jai2 kuil sai3 SBIJ1 hai5? What is contained in the wardrobe?/What is inside the wardrobe? 3. To ladle. - aarnf 71fltJ/11.,,8n sai-3 xau4 hai4 ?el waan3



l:1,/. To ladle a bowl of rice for the child. 4. To make or start a fire. l:Jr ~ U}')J, 1DBLDW1 mai2 sai3 fai2, kau6 xo4 phakl. You make the fire and I'll cook the dish. "'Ur 1LJ1 /sai3 kokS/, To pay tax. 1.1r -Aij • lsai3 1£2/, (Often used as imperative) come on! Let's work! 1.1r /w3 tsai6/, 1. To pull one's socks up (to do sth.), to concentrate on.


Original from



- "1flri11/11 sai3 tsai6 het3 k88n6. To

work hard. 2. Intentionally, on purpose. f:JH1011- "1llrl1 man2 km3 sai3 tsa;6 het3. He did it on purpose. al_l] /sai3 tsai6 sai3 xo2/, To concentrate on, to focus on, to be of

-ur -or-ur

one heart and one mind.


/si4/, The sixth of the twelve Earthly Branches.

-un- /sel/, A kind of fish net. Also xel. -un- 2 /sel/, To fight a fire, to stop a fire. 1

- UJ"jj sel fai2. To fight a fire, fire-


'1Jn- 3 /sel/, 1 To lose (in a fight or game), to be defeated. uBH - yin2 sel. To acknowledge defeat. 2 To pay, to compensate. - 1/Ld sel sol. To pay an indemnity, to pay reparations.

-un -4 /sel/, Clause connector expressing time sequence, translatable as ~and then'. rnllrl1.Al1/111:J011 ~ "08"0LDf:Jl ..het2 Jaa:4 kaan6 mtn5 sel tsi6 tso6 m~. Come after you finish your work. (lit. Finish your work and then come.) Also ?el, ?el.

-un" 'J"l8o1

/sel ?itl/, (Often used with negatives) at all. 1Jnf:J8 ··- yarf' mi2 sel ?it1. To have nothing at all.

'1Jn .. I '1Jn ··2

/se2/, Elder sister. Also tse2.

/se2/, Classifier for rivers. .A~11LJrl - Jam5 s:i1Jl se2. Two rivers. Also xe2.

'1Jn ..3

/se2/, (Of a woman) slender, slim. 01LD - to6 se2. To be slim of figure.

-un ..4 /se2/, Panning, goldmining. ~ aid se2 xam2. To pan out gold.

Digitized by


1J n. 5 /se2/, First element in compounds.

,.,n- alQ /se2 xaam3/, Virtuous deeds

(of Buddhism). /se2 rJe2/, Contradiction. /se2 se2/, Often, oftentimes.

'1Jn- nn,.,n- '1Jn-

f:JM ~ 1/tou

man2 se2 se2 k~ than4.

He often goes there . .ALJn01/rif:Jllti.AiJ ~ f:J8-J::>,! taaJf meu2 JaP se2 se2 mi2.

Such things happen quite frequently. 01IM /se2 taan2/, Market. LJLn /se2 YOfJ3/, Hospital.



'1Jn· 1 /se3/, Chinese, Han. Also xe3.

,.,n· 2 /se3/, 1. To pick the teeth, to poke, to pierce. - allci se3 xeu4. To pick the teeth. - .All:1 se3 Jaaml. To pick out a splinter. 2. To play (string instruments). 3. To live up to (one's expectation). 01LJLI -

"On-"OJ.-f:JrWJ.' md t::>p4 se3

tse2 tsu2 mai2 phul thau4. To live up to

the expectations of your Highness. /se31e3/,Reputation. .AB' /se3 li4/, The Lisu nationality. /se3 se3/, Usually, often. Also se2 se2.

,.,n· ..tn·

,.,n· ,.,n· '1Jn·

'1Jn' t

/se4/, Friend(s). 01-jj'1L001-jj - tai2

ka5 tai2 se4. Friends.

-un' '1JU1

/se4 sok5/, Friend, allies.

,.,n, 2 /se4/, Male (animals). 1Jn' 3 /se4/, Tilted, slanted. 01/- t886 se4. To look sideways, cross1)2/, Plentiful, numerous, countless. '1.18"' /sil)l/, Period, time, season. Also

xhJ3. "'\JB"'UJI· /si1J3 faa5/, Weather, climate. "'\JB"'UJLH' /si1J3 fon 1/, Rainy season. '1J8"'"1Lt1 /si1J3 hun6/, Wann season. '1J8"'1D1' /sirJ3 kat3/, Cold season, winter. '1.18"'.A')i /si1J3 Jai5/, At present, at the present time. '1J8"'y')I /si1J3 mai5/, Hot season, summer. Original from




/sil)3 mi4/, Dark.

,1L) - Jap1

si,fl mi4. A dark night.

-uBr,al· /sil)3 xaa3/, Season, period. -uBr,a')i /siIJ3 xaiS/, At present,

-uBdl /siul/, Acne. -u8d2 /siul/, To whistle (esp. in the phrase -

nowadays. -uBn /sil)4/, 1. To finish, to complete.

rnllul~/]11rnllrfl - het3 mtn5 het3 sitf'. To finish (doing) work, to complete work. 711l11J,p1711l - ?am3 sut1 ?am3 sitf'. Endless. 2. To spend, to cost, to

,1/1/M,1ri,1iJ- 1/118LJrn/]fi Jaa4 kaan6 /atjl Jai5 sitf' kaa3 sipl ht,r. The


project took ten working days/a day's work by five people. - 1/· 1/Lda( sitf' kaa3 sol x.ai6? How much money did it cost? -uBn1I~ /siI)4 kaarn3/, To pass away, to die. -uBn-ul1 /si1]4 saaJcS/, To sacrifice, to lay down one's life for (the country, a lofty cause). -uBn-uen· /sit]4 Si1]4/, All, entirely. -uBn01B /si1]4 ti6/, Extremely, to the extreme. 107 - tJd kat5 sitf' ti6 yau5. He/She is extremely capable. -uBn1llD1 /si1]4 tsaatS/, To die. -uBn11r /sil)4 tsai6/, To pass away, to die. -uBn1lLC /si1]4 tso6/, To pass away, to die. '1J8n /siIJ6/, Only in the phrase 118n~Bn sir! mir/, Pure Brightness (a solar te1111). Also x.i,i6. '1J8Ll /sipl/, Ten. -uBLl'1Jl:1'1JijHu0n /sip 1 sam3 SEn 1 p-;,1)6/, All kinds (oO, different varieties, all sorts. -uBu-uunuH.AI- /sip 1 S'JI) l pan2 laa2/, Sipsongpanna. Digitized by

-uBD1 /sitl/, Also x.it1.

Google -


,1Lii siu1 Jorn2).

'1J8C /siu2/, (Of a woman) to be slim, to be slender. -uBcl /siu3/, 1. Chisel. 2. To chisel, to make holes or drill with a chisel. na -

~,-_ '11J.-11d ?au6 siu3 maa2 siu3 hu2 saul. To get a chisel to drill the pillar. Also x.eu3. '1J8a 1 /siu6/, A piece of wood that functions as part of a saddle. '1J8a2 /siu6/, (In a funeral) to leave the dead in the open. '1Jl9 /sol/, Money. See 1):Jn2. '1JLd1:tln /sol maaJ]4/, A kind of cu11ency used in Yunnan before 1950. '1Jt_dn0H /sol IJ~n2/, Money, silver • coin. '1JLdD1Uri /sol tol)2/, Bronze coin used in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. '1JLC /so2-/, 1. Lock. 2. To lock. 71a -


- ,1/011.rn/J · ?au6 sol kaa3 sol Jaa4 tu6 htl. Take a lock to lock the door.

'1JLCUI_I] /so2- po2/, To be beautiful, to be good-looking. '1JLC'1JIH /so2- saan 1/, To be involved • 1n. '1JLCD11· /so2- taa3/, Ear. '1JLcll /so3/, To mobilise, to encourage, to tell (sb. to do sth.). - ,1pn71/~f]-- so3 /ir:f ?aa6 me2. To mobilise the masses. '1JLD7lUH /so3 ?on6/, To advocate. '1JLCUL~ /so3 yo5/, To mobilise, to encourage, to guide. Original from



-UL0ULr1 /so3 YOIJ 1/, To stir up, to incite, to instigate. --UL0 2 /so3/, 1. To make (sth.) smooth with a file, to file (sth.) smooth. 111.· 71a,1ll1- 1::J!-- su4 ?au6 lek3 so3 maa2 so3. (We/You) should get a file to smooth (it). 2. File (tool). 1JLd /soS/, To stir up, to incite, to instigate. Also so3. See sok5. 1JLC /so6/, 1. To slip from a higher place to a lower one. 2. To take a short cut. 1Jl_ll /soi 1/, Slanting, askew, crooked, inclined. 1::J8ut1::18o1- - mitl mitl soil soi 1. Askew, inclined, twisted and out of shape. --Ul}J /soi2/, To grind (Chinese ink, herbs and suchlike). --Ul}J~na /soi3 meu2/, Clan, family (esp. in the phrase U1JJ1 - ts:,S tun2 soi3 meu2).


-Ul]l /soi4/, To envy, to be jealous (of). uiJ- up1-1 pai3 soi4 p:,n6. Don't be jealous of others. -UL1 /sok3/, To scoop up, to put sth. into a container. 71aa!H1/·- acJvlYi1::JlalH,1pn ?au6 waan3 kaa3 sok3 xau4 saan 1 maa2 waan3 J~rf. Go and scoop a bowl of rice back. 71amJti1/· - ,11J,1r vlri1::1/ · mJti,1pn ?au6 thw:,2 kaa3 sok3

Jam5 Jai2 slUUJ" maa2 thw:,2 /~. Go and get a bucket of water from the vessel. See tak1, tekl. 1JL1 /sokS/, To stir up, to incite, to instigate, to arouse. uiJ - 11yYi71fl, 71UH pai3 sok5 s:,n 1 ?el ?:Jn3. Don't

Digitized by

Go gle

instigate children (to do bad things). See

so5. -UL~ /som4/, Sour. - u,/L}u,/L} som4 taapl taapl. Very sour. -ULMl /son 1/, Garden, fann. - w1 sonl phakl. Vegetable garden. - 1::J/1 sonl maak3. Orchard. -ULM~u1ul' /sonl m~k3 yaa4/, Flower garden. -ULMUI' /son I yaa4/, Tobacco garden. -ULM2 /son 1/, 1. To thread (a needle). - alll:J sonl xeml. To thread a needle. 2. To knit. -ULM /son2/, 1. To push firewood into the fire, to build a fire, to poke. - UJ'f.i son2 fai2. To poke a fire. 2. To stagger, to lean forward as in tumbling. U1!JJf/1Ld,1LIJa/},:, taai6 hol son2 Jom5 x:Ji4. To stagger, to tumble. -ULH /son4/, Heel (esp. in the phrase

- U18"1

son4 tin6). -



k£p3 tin6. The heel of a shoe.

-ULr1 lsoJJ 1I, To incite, to instigate, to egg on, to abet. See sok5. -ULr1UL0 /soJJI po3/, To spread a rumour. -ULr1-Ufl- /so1] 1 sill, To be happy, to be excited. -ULl'l /soJJ2/, 1. To be stupefied, to be blank, to be distracted. "OJ.1 - tsukl sorf. To stand stupefied. - aB, S01J1 JCil. 2. To pause. See sau2. -ULr't /s01]3/, 1. To send, to see someone off or out, to escort. - 1181-1 sorjJ sin6. To escort the bride. - l::JH71U111" sorjJ man2 ?:Jk3 kaa3. To see him/her off. Original from



2. To offer (a present). - LJl,,1 sorfJ pan6. To present (a gift to sb.). - BLJrlUJ/i sorfJ X~IJJ faak3. To offer a present. '1JLLI /sop3/, Mouth. See paak3. '1Jl9101 /sop3 Jcat5/, To have a glib tongue, to be sharp-tongued. '1JLU.A1 /sop3 laJcl/, To be clumsy of speech. '1JLLI.An1 /sop3 lek3/, To be a good talker, to be a good conversationalist. '1Jl!l.AB'1JnnalH /sop3 li6 sel)l waan 1/, Sweet talk. '1JLUi::IC /sop3 mau6/, Sweet talk. '1JLLl'1JUHD1LCTIUH /sop3 son 1 to6 ?on6/, To teach by personal example as well as verbal instruction. '1JLLlD1u;I /sop3 tum3/, To be clumsy of speech. '1JLLlCijr1 /sop3 WEIJ3/, Harelip, to have a harelip. '1J[!Jl /sopS/, To bend over (one's head, the table). - ,1/](a/]1,191iJ sop5 J:,l ph:,nl hai5. To bend over the table.

'1JLU2 /sopS/, Nap, the time span for a nap. "1LJl1 - ,1/}n 1~n2 sop5 J:,r:,6. To take a nap. '1JLUi::IU'JJ /sor,5 moi6/, To take a nap.

'1.llln /sot3/, To brim over, to overfill. aduiJ-vf - wl}d xau4 pai3 sai3 sot3 phtul. Don't overfill the rice bowl.

'1JLD1 /sot5/, To drink, to eat (soup). - "1E:iW1 sot5 Jam5 phakl. To eat vegetable soup.~ .,/Ed'VLJri'Vll:dnD1 sot5 Jam5 S~IJJ saaml ?;k5. To have two or three drinks of water. See tsotl. '1JU'JJ /soi 1/, Overlock (in sewing).

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

'1.IU)il /soi2/, To cut, to chop.~ w1 s~i2 phakl. To chop vegetables. '1JU)i2 /soi2/, To swing, to sway, to throw. - a/]11 s~i2 xtnl. To swing one's arms. '1JU')i1lLD /soi2 tso2/, Necklace, ornament. '1.IU)ll /soi3/, (Of woman) to be beautiful, to be graceful. '1JU)12 /soi3/, Noun prefix indicating an object with specific functions. '1.IU~.AC /soi3 lau4/, Wine jar, wine bottle. '1.IU~i::IC /soi3 mau3/, A soldier's hat orhelmet. '1JU')l /soi4/, Top of a tree, branch of bamboo. '1.IU-111 /sok3/, Elbow, a measurement of length from elbow joint to fingertip. '1.IU-112 /sok3/, 1. To hoe, to hoe up. t/111/· ~ 'VLl1 man2 kaa3 s~k3 sonl. He/She went to hoe the garden. 2. To soak (cooked rice in soup). ad~ "11:i xau4 s~k3 Jam5. To soak cooked rice in soup. '1JU1 /sok5/, To look for, to search. - Ullli s~k5 tek3. To track down and arrest. '1Ju1al. /sok5 xaa 1/, To look for, to search. '1JU11ll· /sok5 tsaa3/, Friday. -UU11lij /sok5 tsE6/, Friday. "\JU~ 1 Isom 1/, To feed (a baby or a patient). ~ ad91fnfl •s~m2 xau4 hai4 ?el. To feed a baby. '1JU~2 /soml/, Two or three, a couple of (contracted fo11n of S~IJJ saaml). f::J8 -

Original from

.. -



'1LH - '1Ld mi2 kon2 s:Jm2 ko5. There are two or three people.

"'UUa;; /som2/, 1. Breakfast (for a Buddhist master). ad - xau4 s:;rn2. Breakfast for a Buddhist master. 2. Family sacrificial activities. rnll01 - het3 s:;rn2. To perf01111 sacrificial activities. /som3/, Blue. alld - xeul s:>m3. Sky blue.


1.ILJ~ /som4/, To plant. - f:JU1LJ/' s:>m4 m:;k3 yaa4. To plant flowers.

""ULJl:l /som5/, To pound, to punch, to husk (rice). 01/f:Jg··- rnf] · f:J/01.,,Dn taa6 mi2 s:>m5 h£1 maat3 /;,1)6. To give a punch.

1.ILJH /sonl/, To teach. - .,,/ji

s:;nl Jaai2.

To teach in school, to be engaged in teaching. - t.Qlli s:;nl f:,k3. To teach and learn.

"'ULJH /son2/, 1. To splash, to sprinkle (water during the Water-Splashing Festival). - -"l:i s:>n2 Jam5. To sprinkle water(as in the Water-Splashing Festival). 2. To join (things of the same kind). 3. To be overcrowded, to be close, to be dense. U1Ln"'IIJJf:JIHul1 ulJJ'1LHlDB" rnlllii - tor/ kaai6 maan4 paak3 paai6 kon2 thi3 h:,n2 s:>n2. East Street is a large street, with houses built too close together and consequently a dense population. 4. To mould a plaster figure.

clean or smooth its feathers with its beak. ull01 - a[l1 pet3 s:in4 xonl. The duck was smoothing its feathers with its beak.

"'UUH2 /son4/, A kind of fish basket (esp. in the phrase - UlLD s:>n4 to6).

"'ULJH /son5/, 1. To put one thing on top of another (such as utensils of the same size), to pile up, to stack. naa/11 "Dll;,,;, - 11,1rnll · ?au6 waan3 ts;fl 1an5 s:>n5 kan6 hel. Stack up those bowls.

f:JHaDJii1/· - 'V01LHLJd man2 xin2 kaa3 s:;n5 s:fl kon6 yau5. He/She went back

to put on more clothes. 2. To pass on to, to spread (news), to info1111. - u/·

rnff:JH.../ll1.../Dn s:>n5 yaa4 hai4 man2 lek5 J:,r/. Pass him a cigarette. f:JHLJri1/¥ - 1LH9111 man2 yaJJ2 kaa3 s:>n5 kon2 han 1. He went back to info11n people.

"'llUHl::JUi /son5 mok3/, To inform, to spread the news, to propagate. "'ULJH"'Ul:l /son5 sam5/, To repeat, to pile up, to stack. 1.ILJH-ULJH1.ID1"'UD1 /son5 son5 sat5 sat5/, To fill, to be filled, to be packed, to be crowded. '1LH.../(1/01 - ail kon2 Jai2 kaat3 s:>n5 s:Jn5 sat5 sat5 wai5. The market/street was crowded/packed with people. -ULJH"'U~U /son5 gp5/, Tradition.

1.ILJr1 /sofJ 1/, Two. f:J/iayn - rn[Ji

1.ILJH 1 /son3/, To calculate. See taak5.

maak3 JC:>IJ3 S:>1)1 hoi3. Two peaches. '1LH - '1Ld kon2 S:>1)1 ko5. Two people.

1.ILJH2 /son3/, 1. To wash away, to erode.

- DH S:J1) 1 wan2. Two days.

See t:>rf'. 2. To come off. See hor/, /~5.

-UUHI /s~4/, (Of a duck or goose) to peck, as when trying to find food, or to

Digitized by


"'llLJr11f11" /sofJl haa2/, We two, the two of us.

-ulc:i"'l1Ur1 /saau2 SOIJl/, Twenty-two. "'U8U"'ULJr1 /sipl sofJI/, Twelve.

Original from






o 1


"tlUrial - /soIJI xaa 1/, Those two, the two of them. "tlUriaO -/soIJl xal/, You two, the two of you.


"tlUril /soIJ2/, Basket. s:J,r k:P. Salt basket. - w1 s:J,r phak1. Vegetable basket. "t1Uri018M /soIJ2 tin6/, Straw sandals. "t1Uri2 /sofJ2/, Hundreds and thousands (oO, millions. "t1Ufi3 /soIJ2/, To plough a second time. - ,1/ · s:J,r Jaa2. To plough the field a second time.

"tlUn /so1j3/, Shiny, bright. ~ ,1!J.;i S:Jq3 J:,m4. To be shiny, to be smooth. See 1£,r, p:Jrf.

"t1Ur1 /sofJ5/, To flee, to escape, to sneak away (esp. in the phrase - u/"}J s:Jr/ paai6).

"tlUn /sofJ6/, To be of the same length, to be even, (of a long, thin object) to be of or about the same size at both ends. 71/nnl-- tsaar.,5 I)Ba2 S:J1)6, An elephant with tusks of the same length. w1,; 'VllM - thu3 sen4 s:Jrf. Chopsticks of the same size and length. "1.IUU /sop3/, (Of a hunting dog) to scent, to sniff, to track down with the sense of smell. 1:JI •- rnyi,im811ll}/i1 maal s:Jp3 h:Ji2 tin6 faan2. The dog was following the scent of the deer. "tlUU..tOfi /sop3 Iam2/, To investigate, to scout. "tlLJUijU'JJ /sop3 moi6/, To have a rest. "1.ILJU"tlijll /sop3 s£p3/, To seek, to hunt for, to search for.

"1.IUU /sopS/, To have a mental disorder.

1/fiLJUii1[fi ~ kon2 y:J,r kon2 s:Jp5. Lunatic people, people with a mental disorder. "1.IUD'l /sot3/, 1. To set fire to, to bum, to light, to kindle. wf ~ ,iLJ"}J phail ~3 J:Ji6? Who set fire to the bush? ad -

rr,"}Jaci xaul s~3 hai6 xau4. They burnt the field (for cultivation). 2. To put sth. into or through another thing (as of hands into shirt leaves). 0'1811 - a/1[!1 tin6 s:Jt3 xaal kon6. To put one's legs through the trouser legs. "1.IUD'l"tlnd /sot3 seu4/, To shuttle back and forth, to interlock, to crisscross. "1.ILJO'l"tlijlfl /sot3 s£t3/, To shuttle, to • cnsscross.

"1.ILJO'l l /sot5/, To teach sh. a lesson, to punish. - 7JJ_D1D9'1l}rimfl • s:Jt5 tso4

kau6 ht,r te5. To teach me a good lesson.

"1.IUD171UM"t1U~..t~M /sot5 ?on6 sonl Iin2/, To punish one as a warning for the others. "1.ILJO'l 2 /sot5/, Stibium, tin (metal).

"\IL /su 1/, You (plural). See S:JIJJ x:,1. "\IL 1 /su2/, Granary, barn (esp. in the phrase - ad su2 xau4).

"\IL 2

/su2/, 1. To award, to reward.


ayri'Vlri - x:,,t X:JIJ1 saar;,2 su2. Material reward. See saar;,2. 2. First element in compounds. "\IL 01un /su2 tofJ2/, To pray, to say one's prayers. "\IL 010n /su2 t,fJ3/, To express good wishes, to pray. "\IL CH..tl· /su2 wan3 laa5/, Gold.

Original from



"'UL -,11· al· /su2 laa3 xaa5/, Dog. "'UL .,.e· ut· /su2 li3 ya5/, The sun.

--UL 1

/su3/, Honorific classifier for Buddhist idols and Buddhist temples.

--UL 2

/su3/, 1. To reach, to arrive (esp. in the phrase (l1d- tau4 su3). 2. To mould (a plaster figure). "'UL -,11· /su3 laa3/, Wine, liquor, alcohol.


/su4/, 1. Must, should. 1::1r - l::JU"1 '11fl::JH mail su4 m~k3 hai4 man2. You must tell him/her. - mlfd1::JHJ1UH01lri su4 thaaml man2 ?~n6 taar:f. You should ask him/her first. 2. To be familiar with. 3. To like, to be fond of (esp. in the phrase 1ll1 - kek5 su4). 4. To tan hides. 5. To be familiar with. 6. Emphatic particle used before verbs to stress what is being described or talked about. l::JH - 711!/af1/· man2 su4 ?am3 JCai4 kaa1! He/She is unwilling to go, in any case! "'UL "'U~ /su4 sarn5/, Still need to, still want to, should still ... (l1l}fl~8'11ll' 7701/· '11f1::JH1Jllfl1~~/Jn ttrn4 Ji6 hel su4 sam5 ?au6 kaa3 hai4 man2 yern4 bzn2 1~. (We) still need to let him have a look at the draft when we finish it.

/su6/, 1. To be crisp. 2. To deep-fry in oil. 3. To put (sth. into another thing).


--ui,J /sui 1/, To push, to shove. (l1Q(l1D - tau5 tau5 suil suil. To push and shove.


/sukl/, To be ripe or cooked, as opposed to Jipl. adw1- '170 JCau4 phakl sukl hau5. The rice and dishes are cooked. (l1l]nUJlrl - '11D ttr:,6 faaIJl sukl

Digitized by


hau5. The watennelon is ripe. "'UL1"'Ur /sukl sail/, To be ripe.

"'UL1 /suk5/, To wash (things other than clothes, i.e. body parts, vegetables, meat, fish). - w1 suk5 phakl. To wash vegetables. See saJc5. "'lJ~l /suml/, To start a fire (for cooking), to make a fire. - IJJ'JJ'l1llrflad suml fai2 het3 JCau4. To start a fire with which to cook. "'UU:J.,tLd /suml fol/, To burn white firewood during winter times as a religious practice. 1.JU:)2 /suml/, To lay one thing against (another) vertically, to pile on. "'UU:)'IILd /suml hol/, To talk to sb. in a low voice, as when whispering sth. in one's ear. "'UU:)"'UBH /suml sinl/, Clock for telling the time for sleep in a Buddhist temple.

"'U~ /sum2/, To lose, to be defeated (esp. in the phrase - wl}ri sum2 phtr.r). - aBri sum2 JCirfl. To lose one's life.


/sum3/, 1. A kind of fish trap. 2. To trap fish with a fish trap. 3. Bamboo cover to protect young chickens while they are eating. 4. To place a cover over (young chickens so as to protect them).

"'U~ /sum5/, Room, awning, shed. '1J~ /sum6/, 1. To feel (in the dark), to

grope. See l)Om2, sam6. 2. (Of one's vision) to be blurred. 01/ - taa6 sum6. To be blurred of vision.

"'ULt1 /sun3/, 1. To be in the same direction as, with, along. IJri - (11/ri ya,f sun3 taar:f. Not in the same direction, not in a Original from



direct route. 2. To obey, to yield to, to follow, to be suitable, to be agreeable. LJii - l:Jp -ya,;! sun3 mi2. Not handy, not convenient, awkward. 1JU1mln /sun3 th8a1]3/, Smoothly. ~ al'J.i'VI- sun3 thaarjJ waai2 saa2. To finish smoothly. 1Jlt11JU~ /sun3 ts:>m2/, To obey, to act in submission to.


/SUfJ 1/, High, tall.


~ haar.!4

sutJl. A tall building. 1JU1 /surJ2I, To like, to have a liking for, to be fond of. 1DLJn - kau6 yBIJ6 surr. I don't like (it). See kek5. 1JU1~1 • /sufJ2 maaS/, 1. To educate, to teach. 2. To bless. 1JL111JI- /sufJ2 tsaa2/, To eat. 1Jlti1JU'JJ /surJ2 ts:>i 2/, To eat, to consume (food), to feast.


/supl/, 1. To put on socks, gloves, shoes, hats, bracelets and the like. ~ 1/]u0181,1 supl kep'J tin6. To put on shoes. 2. To put (a cover) on sth. 3. To stride (over). m/a/·- 'VB~n haa4 xaal supl si3 Jar:,6. To ride on sth. with both of one's legs spread apart. ml· al '~ '1..18" mun haa4 xaal supl si3 hoTJ6. To be caught in a dilemma.

--uu,1 1 /sutl/, Mosquito net. 1Ju,12 /sutl/, 1. To end, to finish . 01ll11018 - LJD ten2 ti6 sutl yau-5. The candle went out/finished burning. 01/ii'VllM.,/'}J - mil sen4 Jai5 sutl thai4. The road ends here. 2. Extremely, exceptionally, most, superlative marker. .,/8- LJD Ji6 sut1yau-5. (This is) the best. See si2 p;,n6. 1Ju,111~ /sutl kaam3/, To pass away.


Digitized by

Go ~ gle


/sutl tsoml/, (To the)

extreme. --uu,13 /sutl/, To pound rice. ad'TJ8-

.,/'}JLJii018'11Ld ~ a11 xau4 tsil JaP y81J2 til tso4 sutl xanl. The rice still needs pounding.


/sut5/, To move, to shift (position), to make a move. - adul · 1/· n8ut ,18n sut5 xau4 paa4 Jai2 kaa3 ?itl };JTJ6. To move inside a little bit.


--uo· /si3/, Female animals not yet having produced young. nLD - 1)o2 si3. Cow. 1:JI._ maa5 si3. Mare. --uo· /siS/, To buy. "00 ~ tsau4 sP. Buyer. --uO • al')l /sP xaai 1/, To do business, buying and selling.


/si6/, To be straight, to be frank, to be honest. al}101/ii ~ xonl taatJ2 si6. Straight road. 01/,:,,u,;; ~ taan4 ta,r si6. To be frank in speech, to be straightforward. 1.1~.-fl_l] /sj6 Jo2/, To be frank, to be straightforward. 1J~~IH /si6 maan3/, To be co1,ect. --uO--u~ /si6 s.6/, To be straight, to be frank. 01/,:,, ~ taan4 si6 si6. To be frank in speech, to be straightforward. LJ'}J1/· ~ pai6 kaa3 si6 si6. Go straight. 1J~D'IL0 /si6 to3/, To be frank, to be straightforward.

1.101 /sikS/, 1. (Of vehicles) to stop, (of ships) to anchor. 2. Berth. Also s:,k5. 1J~Hl /sin2/, 1. The day before yesterday (esp. in the phrase 1:J8- m:,l, sin2). 2. Before, in the old days (esp. in the phrase a/··- up11978ri waa2 sin2 yin2 hi1J 1) . Original from



--uOH2 /sin2/, Province. Also s:m2. --uOH3 /sin2/, To save (money), to live frugally. 'VDH - sin2 sol. To save money.

'1Ju- 1H /sil- kan6/, Average. '1JU - .-t-,l /sil- lai4/, To be willing to part with, not to grudge (doing). ULO /sil- po3/, To be happy, to be excited.


"1J0r1• /sifJl/, 1. A kind of thorny plant. 2. Bundle. UJ0ri1J8"- f:,,f si3 sil)l. Four bundles of ricestraw.

-uu· 1 /s:13/, Classifier for sheets, quilts or similar things.

"1J0r12 /sil)l/, To block, to hinder. uiJ 01/rirniJ pai3 silJl taa,f1 haP. Don't block the way, get out of the way.

-uu· 2 /si3/, To lay (a mattress or sheet), to make a bed. 'TIDI.QL1f:Jf .._ mJj ?au6 fuk5 maa2 s:,3 thai4. Bring the mat over here.

"'U0nt /sil)3/, To hide, to keep secret (esp. in the phrase - 'Tlf:J sir,f ?am6). "1J6n2 /sil)3/, 1. Kitchen, wing room. - UJi-i sil.13 fai2. Kitchen. 2. District, a unit used in fo1111er times. "'ll0n /sil)4/, A unit of dry measure for grain(= I litre). --uOu /sipS/, 1. To inherit, to follow, to continue (a tradition). 1LM - UJil1 kon2 sipS put5. Heir. - nuu01n- .,/OH sip5 ?:in6 te2 J:,n2. To carry forward a cause and forge ahead into the future. 2. Step(father, mother, son, daughter). f:Jll - me6 si,,S. Stepmother. '1JOu01I.;; /sip5 taam2/,Gradually. '1J0uuln /sip5 YaaJJ6/, Gradually, step by step. "1.IU • /s:11/, Tiger, lion. '1Ju. ~Lr1 /s:11 lol)l/, Tiger. -uu • md /s:Jl thaul/, Lion. "1.IU .. lsil-1, 1. To be entertaining, to be enjoyable, to be happy. - 'V/11 s~ SIUUJ3. To be excited, to be wild with joy, to be happy. 2. To be willing to part with, not to grudge. LJn - 01/,:, ya,/ s~ taan4. Not grudge saying taboo.

Digitized by


-uU • I /sa4/, Shirt, clothes, garment, dress. aLD /s:14 xo2/, Clothing, clothes, garment.


-uu· 2 /s~/, 1. To shrink, (of crops) to decrease in output. 2. To dismantle. See Jit5, yaa5. 3. To lose (in business). - uJji s:t' pun2. To lose money in business. -uU /s:16/, To loan, to buy or sell on credit. -uU1 /s;,k3/, Anny. - allu s:,k3 xenl. Enemy, invader. - -,1,:j s:,k3 Jam5. Navy. -uU., /S:Jk5/, 1. (Of vehicles) to stop, (of ships) to anchor. 2. Berth. Also sik5. -uU1'1lijH /s;,k5 tstn3/, History, historical account. -uUH /san2/, Province. Also sin2. -uUri /s;,1)2/, 1. A set of (gongs). 2. Classifier for boats. -uUa ts;w.21, An onomatopoeic word for the sound in driving or dispersing chickens. -uUc /sau6/, 1. To collect, to gather, to harvest. 'Vo· 01/1rniJLJnul - s:t' taak3 hai5 ya,/ paa6 s:1u6. The clothes hanging outside have not been got in yet. -

aa -

Original from



.,,/Id s:nP JCau4 s~u6 Jam5. To harvest. 2. (Of a woman) to be remanied to her deceased husband's younger or elder brother. -ufla1::1l1 /s~u6 maaJc3/, To have a bumper harvest.

011' -0(_1] /taa4 tso6/, In addition, furthe1111ore, meanwhile, at the same time. 91fl01"D8iJ91ll01LJn.,,/B, 1{JullCJ/1:i het3 ts~P het3 yarf Ji6, taa4

tso6 k~ pe5 yaa1n2. Doing it this way is no good; in addition it is time• conswrung. 011· 1 /w5/, To bet, to gamble. 1:J(018:..

"'Uri mai2 til taa5 SlUJ1 ? Do you dare to

01 t

make abet? 011· 2 /taaS/, 1. To go against the wind

011 .. /taa2/, To smear, to apply (medicine) to, to paint. - LJJ· LJI taa2 yaa4 yaa6. To apply medicine to. ]70mlJ1 - -vlr'I ?au6 thunl taa2 saa,y. To paint the wall with lime. 011 .. .,.1 ·· /taa2 laa2/, The law of Buddh~ Buddhist scripture, policy. 011 ·· .-ti ··u101 /w21aa2 paat5/, A big fan used by a Buddhist master when reading Buddhist scripts to the monks. 011 .. .-ti ""alH /taa2 laa2 waanl/, Auspicious scripture read by a master Buddha for the monks or other Buddhist worshippers. 011· /taa3/, 1. Meal . .,,/Bauaa-v/1:d - Ji6

wan2 JCau4 saaml taa3. Three meals a day. 2. Fence, dam. - "VLH taa3 sonl. Garden fence. 3. Classifier for walls, fences and suchlike. -vlr'lalln - .,,/8n saa,/ we,r taa3 J~rf. A city wall. 011' /taa4/, 1. To set up, to build (a framework or suchlike), to put or lay against. 71D"DI01 - aDHUJ°)J918i11J· ?au6 tsaat5 taa4 JCin4 foi2 h~n2 kaa3. To put a ladder against the eaves of the house. 2. To step on, to tread. 0181,,1uiJ - u,r, tin6 pai3 taa4 tai:,3. Don't step on the chair.

Digitized by


- ""Ll:i taa5 Iom2. To go against the wind. 2. To sustain, to bear, to defend or guard oneself from an attack. 011· 3 /taa5/, (Of birds) to crow, to cry.

""L'1 - -v8. Iok5 taa5 s~l. The birds cried at the sight of tigers. 011· 4 /taaS/, To perfo1111 fortune-telling, to tell fortunes. - 1:JIH taa5 maan6. To tell fortunes, to have one's fortune told by a monk or a master Buddha. 0111 /taa6/, Eye. 01l71lci /taa6 ?aau2/, To be blind. 01l71ijc /taa6 ?tu2/, To be blind. 01111· /taa6 kaa3/, Common people.

01l1::1ulfl /taa6 m~3/, To be blind. 01l01fl1 /taa6 t~k5/,Aim,objective. 01l01flH /taa6 t~4/, Short-sighted 011-on /taa6 tsarJ6/, Series of marks on a steelyard for the purpose of measuring, scale. 01lal~ /taa6 xaam2/, Mood (of speech). 011au,1 /taa6 xunl/, Rank, title, position. 0112 /taa6/, Joint, knot. 01l1::1')l /taa6 mai5/, Node of a tree.

Original from


-- -


01l1::1ff • /taa6 fni2/, Fist. 01l01BH /taa6 tinl/, Ankle. 0113 /taa6/, I .anding, wharf. 01l'f1n- /taa6 he2/, Wharf, ford. 011.Al:1 /taa6 Jam5/, Landing, wharf. 0111::11-,J /taa6 maai 1/, Objective, aim. 01l1::1ij01 /taa6 mEt5/, Profit, benefit. 01lun· /taa6 pe2/, Ferry. 01lal~ /taa6 xaam4/, Ferry, wharf. 0114 /taa6/, First element in compounds. 011.Alri-AI " /taa6 IaaJJ2 Iaa3/, Monday. 011-Alri.AL]J" /taa6 laaJJ2 loi3/, Sunday. 01l"l1Uri' /taa6 SOfJ2/, Spring Festival (Burmese calendar). 01lun· /taa6 pe2/, Disciple. ml')i /taai2/, 1. To be able to reach (sth.), within one's reach. lJn ~ ~iJ"'CJLD yatJ6 taai2 Jai4 tso4. Cannot reach, to be unable to reach. 2. To drag, to pull. ~u01~D01 ~ ~ lit5 lit5 taai2 taai2. To pull randomly, to mess things up while pulling. 011'), /taai3/, To treat, to take as. ad~ ~rullHf/10 xaul taai3 mai2 pen6

sunlight (as of young plants or fish in the rice field). 011)1.A~.;j /taai6 Iim2/, 1. To faint, to get a shock. 2. To tend to forget. 01l)lalfj /taai6 xaam2/, To be unable to answer or talk back. 01lil /taak3/, To expose to the sun, to air out in the sun. ~ -vi]:.. w/ · taak3 s;,4 t,aak3 phaa4. To air out clothes in the sun.~ ~/}01 taak3 ltt3. To (be) expose(d) to the sun. 01li'f1l-,J /taak3 haail/, (To lie) face up. ~UM - J:,n2 taak3 haai 1• To lie face up. 011 i"Of /taak3 tsai6/, 1. To be discouraged, to be disappointed. 2. To change one's mind. 01li2 /taak3/, To make clicking sounds (esp. in the phrase taak3 Jin5).


01111 /taakS/, I .and leech. - ~/jj taak5 Jaai2. A kind of land leech which has spotty skin. 01112 /taak5/, To count, to calculate. - a/01 t,aak5 xaat5. To calculate, to count down.


hil? How did they treat you?

011'}) /taai 4/, The brim of a hat. 011)1 /taaj6/, 1. To die. See x:>i4. 2. To faint (over), to get a shock. 011)1'111 /taai6 haa6/, To die of a plague. 011)1'11101 /taai6 haat5/, 1. To faint. 2. To tend to forget. 01l)l1')l /taai6 kai3/, To faint, to get a shock. 011)1.Ad /taai6 lau4/, To get drunk, to be drunk. 011)1.Aijal /taai61Et3/, To die as a result of being exposed to excessive direct

Digitized by


01lfj /taam2/, 1. (To be) in order, (to follow) in sequence. '7LD~[ mai2 taam2 ko5 Jai6? Who do you follow?/ Who comes before you in sequence? 2. Site, place, area. - ~,:, taa.m2 Jai5. This area, around here. - ~U1 taanil J:,k5. To be close to outside. 01lfj1In /taarn2 lcaafj6/, In the middle. 01lfj1H /taam2 kan6/, To be in order, to follow in order. o,lfj"Df /taam2 tsai6/, Close friend, intimate friend 01ffja1::1 /taam2 xam6/, Early in the • evening.

~r -

Original from



011~ /taam3/, 1. An inherited or recurrent disease. 2. Evil deed, sin. ~ 97[_07 taam3 . hots. s·1n, cnme.

011~ /taam6/, To put an iron bar into the fire (so that it becomes red hot and is then used to make a hole in a piece of wood), to forge.

011H /taan2/, 1. To make tribute to, to offer food to (as in religious service). 2. To beat (a drum). ~ 1LJn taan2 k:Jrf. To beat a drum.

01IH 1 /taan3/, To be alike, as ...as ... (comparative), to be similar to. l::J[!f ~ rnllo7uui-i mon6 taan3 het3 p:Ji2. As busy/noisy as a temple fair. 1:Jrun1J1J7 - 1::/11 ma/l yarf su1)1 taan3 man2. You are not as tall as he/she is. 01IH1H /taan3 kan6/, 1. To be alike, to be similar. 2. To be equal to. 011Hal~I· /taan3 xaa3 laa3/, To resemble, to be like, as ...as... 81191LJ ~

1:JllY171a xan 1 h:P taan3 xaa3 Jaa3 men6 ?au6. As fast as flying.

01IH2 /taan3/, To force to take (medication).

01IH /taan4/, To speak, to talk (esp. in the phrase~ ali:i taan4 xaa,nl}. 01l.-l1l')l /taan4 kaai3/, To talk about, to be involved in, to touch upon. 011H'1LU /taan4 kop3/, To talk about. 011H'101 /taan4 kat5/, To be a good talker. 011Mul')l /taan4 paai3/, To beat about the bush. 01IH01LD /taan4 to3/, 1. To talk to, to speak to (sb.). 10 - l::JH kau6 taan4 to3 man2. I was talking to him/her. 2. To talk about. Also taan4 kop3.

Digitized by



/taan4 xaat3/, To confirrn, to



/taan4 yaap3/, To be stubborn, to be hard to convince.

01IH /taan6/, To pick, to reap. 1/·- ad kaa3 taan6 xau4. Go and reap/pick rice ears/to harvest early crops.

01111 /ta81) 1/, Onomatopoeic word describing the sound of gongs.

01111 /ta81)2/, 1. Way, road, path. - 1/ . taari kaa2. Highway.~ ;llj'JJ taarj l:Ji6. Mountain path. Also xonl. 2. From. 1::J( - 111f1:JI- ma/l taari2 thail maa2? Where do/did you come from? 3. Nominal prefix (used with verbs or adjectives to fonn abstract nouns). 01ln11u1 /ta81)2 ?ok3/, 1. Exit. 2. Product. 01ln'f1no'I /taal)2 het3/, Behaviour, way of doing things. o,lri'f"IL /taag2 hu5/, Knowledge. 0111111· /taal)2 kaa5/, Business. 01ln1ln ,laalJ2 k8a1]4f, width. 01ln1o1 /ta81)2 katl/, Cold. 01lri101 /taaJJ2 kat5/, Skill, ability. 01ln1BH /ta81)2 kin6/, Food. o,lri.-tB /taaIJ2 Ji6/, Goodness, good point, merits. 01111.-tl[l /laarJ2 lu1]6/, Clothing. 01lri~LH /taat)2 mon6/, Excitement, • noise. 01lri~U'JJ /taaJJ2 moi6/, Tiredness, exhaustion. o,lnuijn /taat)2 pEJJ2/, Love, friendship, good feeling. 01lriULD /taat)2 po3/, Happiness, joy. 01lnmlH /taag2 phaanl/, Hardship, poverty.

Original from



01lrimBD1 /taal)2 phitl/, Fault, mistake, guilt. 01lri"1JL(1 /taalj2 sul)l/, Height. 01ln01l"JJ lta81J2 taai6/, Death. 01ln01n· /taalj2 teS/, In fact, as a matter of fact. o,ln-nlH /taalj2 tsaan2/, South. o,lnaB. /taalj2 xii/, Worries. o,lriaL~ /taalj2 xoml/, Hardships. 01lnula lta81J2 yaau21, Length. 01lnun~ /taalj2 yem4/, Outlook, • op1ruon. •

o,ln 1 /taarJ3/, (Of beast of burden) to carry. 01ln2 /taarJ3/, Other, different. - 1LD 1LM taar.,3 ko5 taar.,3 kon2. Other people. - l:IIM - -VLM taaIJ3 maa4 taa,fl sonl. Other villages. 01lnJ /taarJ3/, 1. To do religious service, to offer sacrifice to. - wB, taaIJ3 phi1. To offer sacrifices to gods. 2. To surpass. 01[JM - t~n2 WUJ3. To surpass. 01lnl:lltn /taaJ]3 maat3/, The SacrificeOffering Festival (14th of August of the lunar calendar). 01lnmB •/laalJ3 phil/, To offer sacrifice to, to do religious service. 01ln4 /taa1j3/, To put or lay (sth.) on top of (another). 01ln1l1 /taal)3 kaak5/, To be very ill, to be in a critical condition.


/taa1]3/, To shaipen, to whet

(a shaver, raror, knife or suchlike).

- l:l801ml''11Ld taaq3 mit5 thaal hol. To sharpen a shaver.

Digitized by

0111"1 /taaijS/, The outlet of a ditch or stream. - ,1/ ~ taatJ5 Jaa2. The outlet of the dike of a field. 01lnt /taaJ]6/, A basket for measuring dry volume, a weight unit of this. 01lnac /taaij6 xau4/, A basket for • • measunngnce. 01ln2 /taatj6/, To work as, to replace, to substitute. l:lfUJ,P1 ~ 101/;,0, mai2 put5

taarl kau6 kaa3 1£1. You go on my behalf. 01ln01L_CJ /laafJ6 to6/, To represent, to substitute, to be on someone's behalf. 01lll l /taap3/, The inside of something - l:1"1 taap3 man4. The inside of a piece of cloth. 011Ll2 /taap3/, To slap. -

t,q/iJ,1/· taap3

faai3 Jaa4. To slap on the face.

01IU.-tU'JJ /taap5 l:>i6/, Hillside. 01lan /taat3/, Waterfall (esp. in the phrase ,1~ - Jam5 taat3}. Also Jam5 tok3 taat3. 01lti /taau2/, 1. To gather or scoop up floating things from the surface of water or a river. 2. To buy from a retailer and then to sell later. 01101 /taau3/, 1. Time (frequency) (as English 'once, twice, three times'), an act of doing something. U'JJ-V[Jrl-VlldLJ(J pai6 s~IJJ saam 1 taau3 yau5. (We/I) have been (there) a couple of times. 2. Classifier for doors. 01102 /taau3/, To put something upside down or in reverse, to reverse. See pin4. 01,:i /tai2/, Thai, Tai. 01,:i1Ld /tai2 k~/, Friend.

Go ~ gle

Original from



01')J1Ld71n. 71UH /tai2 koS ?el ?~n3/, The placenta. 01)i1Ldtr1)i"'Un" /tai2 ko5 tai2 se4/, Friends, relatives. 01)i,1la /tai2 Iaau2/, Lao. 01)i,1ijd /tai21Eu5/, Lao. D'l')J-,10. /tai2 I.SI, Tai Lue, Sipsongpanna Tai. D'l')J-,1~ • /tai2 J~l/, Tai Nuea (spoken in most parts of Dehong and adjacent areas, as parallel to tai2 tai4). D'l'JJUUl'l /tai2 pol)2/, Tai Pong. See tai2

tai4. 01'JJ"'UU'1 /tai2 sofJ2/, Tai Song, a Tai group. D1'JJD1r /tai2 tai4/, 'Wet Tai' (as parallel to tai2 Ja1). D1'JJ-OUr1 /tai2 tsol) 1/, Zhuang (also spelt as Chuang), a Tai group in Guangxi, China. D'l'JJ-OU, /tai2 tsul)2/, Yuan Jiang Tai. 01'JJa0H /tai2 xinl/, Tai KhUn, a Tai group. 01'JJUI • /tai2 yaal/, Tai Ya. 01'JJULH /tai2 yon2/, Tai Yuan. 01,;, 1 /tai3/, 1. To crawl, as of ants or small babies. f:IL018llf/- .,/8'1.J/,Jrr,iJ mot5 xeml tai3 Jal saai 1hai5. The ants were crawling on the rope/string. 2. To walk , to walk on something, to cross. - a/1:l tai3 xaam4. To cross. - rnLdvln tai3 hol saai/. To walk on top of a wall. - BLd tai3 xol. To walk on a bridge. 01)12 /tai3/, To cut open. ~ 'V'}/1;:, tai3 sai4 kai3. To cut open the intestines of the chickens. 01')) /tai4/, To light (lamp or fire). See


Digitized by

Go gle

01,l /tai5/, This one (thing or animal). Contracted fonn of ta6 Jai5 or t:P Jai5. Also tai5.

01')1 /tai6/, The protruding part of a woven object, the edge of an item of knitwear or clothing, esp. one that sticks out. 0111 /takl/, Locust. See til ta.kl

fu1) 1.

0112 /takl/, To scoop, to dip up or to fetch (water). - .,/Id taJcl Jam5. To scoop up water. Also tekl. 0113 /takl/, (To hold in) the arms, bosom. Jail ta.kl. In the arms, in the bosom.

.;/r -

0114 /takl/, To be about to, to be going to, future marker. f:IH - 1/l.Jd man2 ta.kl kaa3 yau5. He/She is leaving soon. See til. 0111 /tak5/, Level, stage, or step of a stairway. See xak5. 011aB· .Al. /tak5 xi5 Jaa3/, 1. Country. 2. China. 0112 /tak5/, To make a sound, to say things (often used in negative). un01Lr'ILJn - yar/ torr yar/ tak5. To keep quiet, to say nothing. 011"'Unn /tak5 SCfJl/, To make a sound, to speak out (often used in negative). u;:, - pai3 tak5 seIJ1. Don't make any noise, keep quiet.

01~ /tam2/, 1. To put (aside), to lay, to assemble. - .,,, .. U"JJ1/· tam2 Jaa2 pai6 kaa5. To quit farming to take up business. 2. To be engaged (to marry). - v/}0171/" tam2 S£t5 tsaa3. To be engaged to marry. 01~1.DB • /tam2 phil/, To sacrifice, to do sacrificial service. Original from




1tam2 tsai6/, To feel relief, to

be at ease, 011:ll /tarn3/, Trap (for hunting game). 1:Ji11/t,/ti - man2 kaa3 haai:,4 tam3. He went to set a trap for game. 011:ll:Jij• /tarn3 mE5/, Bandit, gangster. 011:lul /tarn3 paa6/, Fishe1111an. 011:12 /tarn3/, Low, short (in height). 1:JllH-,1Jj - men6 Jaj4 tam3 te5. To fly low. Also ?cm3. 011:13 /tam3/, 1. To weave, to knit (patterned cloth). 2. Weft (in weaving). D11:l'f'IL1 /tam3 hukl/, Weft. 011:J /tam6/, 1. To smash, to pound (rice). - ad tam6 xau4. To pound rice. - w1-,1Ld tam6 phakl Jol. To smash garlic. 2. To bribe. 1ID-VLd1/· - ?au6 sol kaa3 tam6. To bribe (sb.) with money. 011:J.-tl:J /tam6 lam6/, To bribe. O'l~~UH /tam6 monl/, To bribe. 011:J-Or /tarn6 tsai6/, To provoke, to irritate, to upset. U1!11allJu'il - u{JH taan4 xaa11.,2 pai3 tam6 tsai6 JX)n6. Don't irritate/upset others while talking. 01Hl /tan2/, To be (well) prepared (for sth. or to do sth.), to be ready (for). adw1 '17d xau4 phak1 po2 tan2 hau5? ls the food ready (to be served) yet? unul '17llrl1 yai/ paa6 tan2 het3. Have not yet done/Have not been able to do. O'IH,_,I· /tan2 saa3/, To be well-1 1:18CJ/da{ ?au6 s:Jk3 torf' toi2 Ju6 man4 t:Jn4 IBP mi2 yaau2 xai6. Use (your) elbow to measure how long this piece of cloth is. U'ILLl /top3/, 1. To hit, to strike, to pound. naau11 - ?au6 X:Jn5 top3. To beat/hit

Digitized by

with a stick. 2. To throw, to drop (bombs), to pat. - 1:1/19'1811 top3 maak3 hin1. To throw stones. - 1:1/1011}1 top3


- nll' nui1 t:Ji1 ?el ?:Jn3. To carry a baby on the back.

D'lUlJ /toi2/, 1. Volume (of books). 2. Carriage, cabin (of a train). - 4/wJ·· k:Ji2 Jaa6 thaa2. Train cabin.

D'lU,:i /toil/, 1. To knock (gently), to beat, to crack (an egg), to touch (as a gesture). - 1'}) t:Ji3 kai3. To crack an egg (before beating or cooking it). 2. A kind of wild plant, touch-me-not. - 9'1U) t:Ji3 hupl. Touch-me-not.

Original from



01U1 /tokl/, 1. To pile up into a stack, to stack. 71aal11"D8 ·· .,,,:, - rnll · ?au6 waan3 ts:>2 Jan5 t:,k3 hel. To stack up these bowls. See tol. 2. Pile, stack (of). -"8 •w8111::1Btill1.1yri - 1:11 phoo' mi2 tse' s:>1)1 t:,k3. There are two stacks of paper on the table. 01U1 1 /tok3/, Bamboo strip. Also tap3. 01U12 /tok3/, To pound, to hammer in, to drive (a stake). - -,11 t:,k3 Jakl. To drive stakes. - 1:Jl01-,1ll1 t:,k3 maat3 /ek3. To hammer in nails. 01U13 /tok3/, To, towards (a goal, destination). See to3. 01U1 /tok5/, 1. To hit or strike with the fist or elbow. 2. Self-abuse, masturbation. 01Ul::i /toml/, 1. (Of face) to be round. -,1/ · - Jaa4 t:,m 1. Round face. See mon2. 2. Piece, lump.

Jum2 phunl Jik5 ku6 meu2. To collect all sorts of materials. ]1Dl:JI.. ~ 111rnn · ?au6 maa2 t:>m5 kan6 hel. To gather (them)up. 01UH /ton2/, 1. To await the arrival of, to greet, to meet. ~ u8-,1yn t:>n2 pi6 l:>r/. To meet guests/friends. 2. To lay an ambush, to intercept. 1/" - rnfl • 1/n01/ii kaa3 t:>n2 he5 kaa,f taa,f. To go to intercept (sb.) halfway. 1LMall11 01/iirniJ kon2 xen 1 t:,n2 taarj haP. The enemy were laying an ambush. 3. To catch (sth. being thrown over). 4. Very much, most. -,11::i - Jami t:>n2. Very much, very many, most plentiful. 5. To surpass. - 1LM t:>n2 kon2. To surpass others, to be outstanding. 01UH /ton3/, 1. To quit (smoking, gambling, etc.). - u/· t:,n3 yaa4. To quit smoking. 2. To judge, to decide a case. - 71/1:JI... t:,n3 ?aa6 mu2. To decide a case.

01U.;j /tom2/, To maintain, to sustain, to keep, to support. 'Vl'JJ'TJ( t:>m2 saail tsai6. To manage/earn for a living.

01UH /ton4/, (Of the heart) to beat, to throb. "CJ( - tsai6 t:>n4. The heart beats, the heart throbs, to be wonied.

01U~ /tom3/, Pot, jar. See ?£q3. 01u~1ld /tom3 kaau4/, Calf (of leg). Also pi3 kaau4. 01u~ad /tom3 xau4/, Grain basket.

01u~ /ton5/, To jolt, to bump. ,, .._ wOd

01U~ /tom4/, To cover. ]1D1DW1"D8 .. .,f'}J ~ rnfl • ?au6 xau4 phakl ts:,2 Jai5

t:>m4 hel. Cover up the food. - -,1/ · - 01/ t:>m4 Jaa4 t:>m4 taa6. To cover one's face and eyes. See kom6. 01U~01ij~ /tom4 ttm4/, Gecko, house lizard.

01U~ /tom6/, To gather (together), to collect. -

-,1Jjiwlfi-,18111. 1:Jlld

Digitized by



kaa2 t:,n5 ph£u 1. The car was jolting badly. 01UH 1 /ton6/, Section, trunk, piece. l:JiJ -,18n mai5 t:,n6 J:1,f. A piece/trunk of wood. 1::/11 - -,18n man4 t:,n6 J:,,f. A piece of cloth. 01UH01lri /ton6 taaJ]2/, Halfway. 01UHCH /ton6 wan2/, Half-day. 01UH 2 /ton6/, 1. To castrate, to desex. 1.,:i - kai3 t:,n6. Castrated cock. - a/jj t:>n6 xaai2. To castrate a bull. 2. To trim, to prune (a plant). - LJlj01 t:>n6 y:,t5. To Original from



prune the tip of a plant (so as to keep it from growing too tall).

D1Ur1 /torJ 1I, To jump (esp. in the phrase D/}H -

wenl t:,1)1). - 4,:j t:,1)1

Ja.m5. To

dive/jump into water. See wml.

D1Uri I /tofj2/, Bronze, copper. D1Uri 2 /torJ2/, To remember, to keep in mind 1oun - 4iJLJd kau6 yatJ6 t:,rr

Jai4 yau5. I can't remember (it) now.

D1Url /tofJ3/, 1. To shine, to give off light. DH - wan2 t:,rfJ. The sun is shining. 2. Ring, circle, chain. - rn1.:t:,rfJ hul. Earring.

D1Urll:tl]J /to1J3 moi2/, Iron stick used by a Buddhist master in a religious service. •

01un /to1J4I, 1. To strike, to pound, to smash, to hit forward (as with fist, stick, etc.). 2. (Of water) to wash (away or against). 4fl - LQ/1 Jam5 t:,IJ" farjJ. The water was washing against the bank. 01un.-1ij01 /tol)4 1Et5/, To promote, to advance, to accelerate. 01 Ur1 171 l:t /t:>1)4 tam6/, 1. To contradict. 2. To upset, to stir up or arouse (the feeling). 111unml~ /tofj4 thaaml/, To visit. 111unmij~ /tofj4 thEml/, To help, to assist.

D1Ur1 /tofJ5/, Stomach, belly, abdomen. 171Ur1l:t'Jl /torJ5 mai5/, To be hungry (for). - ad t:,,r maP xau4. To be hungry for food, to feel like eating. - 4f:i t:,,r mai5 Jam5. To be thirsty for water, to feel like drinking. 01ur1aOH /togS xin4/, To have dysentery.

Digitized by

Go ~ gle


/tofJ6/, Big leaf, such as banana leaf. - 1lJil t:,r:,6 k:,i4. Banana leaf. 01unUJI. /tofj6 faaS/, Sky.


/tofj6 XEml/, Leaves for wrapping sticky rice dumplings.

mull /top 1/, To close (fingers or legs). - al' t:,pl xaal. To close one's legs. Also tup1.

171UU /top3/, To reply, to answer, to thank with gratitude. D1UUUJl1 /top3 faak3/, To offer a gift in reply. 01uu1n/top3 ke2 tsu2/, To thank with gratitude. 01UU1n· /top3 ke4/, To reply. 01uu.-1I,:; /top3 laai2/, To reply (in writing). 171LJU'1Jl}) /top3 soi4/, Revenge.


171LJU /top5/, 1. Classifier for small rooms and houses. 2. To surround, to besiege. See h:,p5, J:,m5.

171Uo1 /tot 1/, Section, chunk, segment, part. u,/ri4ll'1 - 48n taarj Jek3 t:,tl J:,,/. A section of railway. See t:,n6.

171LJln /tot3/, (Of snakes or suchlike) to bite, (of birds) to peck, to nibble. nJ.-"CJLD l)u2 t:,t3 tso4. To be beaten by a snake. 1 ii - aciud kai3 t:,t3 xau4 yau5. The chickens are pecking at the grains.

171U171 /tot5/, To cast (a fish net), to throw.

- all' t:,t5 xel. To cast nets. - u/ t:,tS paa6. To fish by casting nets. - ~/1 rnBH t:,tS maak3 hinl. To throw stones.

171L /tul/, To join (two things or parts) together. -

'VLLl'11llt11J114Lld tul sop3

Original from



hel tsutl Jom2. To breathe mouth to mouth (as in artificial respiration). 01L /tu2/, 1. A dry measure for grains (=10 litres). 2. To feel wronged and act

rashly. - 'VB· tu2 si3. To feel wronged and act rashly. t:1i1- a,:,1Jnrnfl01 man2 tu2 wai5 y81)6 het3. He/She felt wronged and didn't do the work. 01L ~e· u1· /tu2 li3 yaa5/, Music, musical instruments. 01L 01e· u1· /tu2 ti3 yaa5/, Second prize, number two, silver medal (in a game).


/tu3/, Bad smell, odour. See menl.

01L /tu4/, Evil, bad, cruel. 'TJ{ - tsai6 tu4.

Evil-hearted. - 01LJ01 tu4 t:Jt3. Evil, cruel, heartless.

01L /tu6/, We (excl.). See hau2. 01L]l /tui3/, 1. A pair (of). ml{i.,,,li - .,,,On thu,r Jam5 tui3 l:1r;f. A pair of water buckets. 2. To be co11ect, to be reasonable, to be suitable. See thukl.

01L1 /tukl/, To wash (hair or head). - ff1Ld tukl hol. To wash the head. See

01~ /tuml/, 1. A lump or ball (of sth.),

a piece, tube, chunk, log (of timber). t:1,J"Ol(I - .,,,On mail tsut.13 tuml J:1r;f. A ball of knitting wool. t:10"1t:1,:,t:1/11uri - m£k3 mai5 maa2 S:Jl)J tuml. To carry back two chunks of timber. 2. The sound of an object falling into water. 01~UJltt /tum 1 fun2/, Firewood in (unsplit) chunks. 01~~')i /tuml mai5/,Log. 01~ /tum2/, 1. To be stagnant, to be

inactive, to lay aside (things), (of goods) to overstock. - 'TJ/07 tum2 tsaat3. To be stagnant, to be inactive, to block. 2. To cease (fire), to stop (fighting). - 1181 tum2 s:1k3. To stop (fighting), to cease fire. 01~1 /tum3/, Blunt, dull, (of a sharp-

pointed object) to be worn out. See pu4. 01~2 /tum3/, 1. A swelling on the skin.

- rnLfrl tum3 hut1. Wart. - 'TJflLJ tum3 tsep3. Swelling skin ulcer. See ti,i3. 2. (Flower) bud. - t:ILJ11Jf · tum3 m:Jk3 yaa4. Flower bud. 3. Button. tum3 s;t'. Shirt button.

118 ·

sak5, suk5.


/tuk5/, (Often used in compounds) To suffer (from), to undergo. 01L1-or /tukS tsai6/, To be troubled, to be worried. 01L1al· /tuk5 xaa5/, To suffer (from), to undergo, to bear. - 'TJ/· u/· tuJc5 xaa5 tsaa3 paa3. To suffer from hardships. - 'V/ri.,,,fl ··tuk5 xaa5 saa,f Je2. To undergo suffering. - 11/ · u/ · tuk5 xaa5

saa2 paa2. To be in torment. 01L12 /tuk5/, To smear, to paint, to rub.

'TID'll"1010fdw8ui.,,,11- u001 ?au6 ?an6 Digitized by

t£m4 phitl Jan5 tuJc5 pEt5. Rub off the wrong word. See taa2, Jup5.


01U} /tum4/, A kind of small fish trap. 01~ /tum5/, To bump into, to crash (into),

to collide with. 1/ ··- 1"1 kaa2 tum5 kan6. The two cars collided.


/tum6/, 1. To gather, to crowd. IJI.. "11 yu3 tum6 kan6. To live in compact communities. 1Lfi - 11,1rniJ.,,,/01.,,,/01 ff1Lrl kon2 tum6 kan6 haP laaP laaP hol)l. The people crowded together. See Jum2, t:Jm6. 2. To crawl over. t:10rit:1Jii Original from



- w1 mt,r mun2 tum6 phaJcl. The flies

were crawling over the dish. wUn 1::JJj'11J/· phi,/ twn6 m:,k3 yaa4. The bees are crawling over the flowers.

01L(ialY ltu1J2 xaam2/, To receive an order.

01Uial~ /tulj2 xaam3/, To accept, to •


/tun2/, One of a pair. l::JJ[18ljH.AiJ l::JHIJnlJJjJD mur.f x:,nl Jai5 tun2 man2 yar/ yu3 yauS. One of this pair of baskets is missing.


/tun3/, To tender steam, to heat up, to keep (food) warm by putting it in a container and placing it in hot water. aciw1- .Ar1::JLrniJrnf1::Jlii xau4 phaJcl tun3 Jai2 mo4 haP hai4 man2. (I/She) kept the food warm in the pan for him.




D1Ltl /tun6/, 1. (Of the water level of a river) to rise as a result of being blocked at the lower ridges. 2. To fatten (a duck) by force-feeding. - ull01 tun6 pet3. To fatten a duck by force-feeding. ull01 pet3 tun6. Force-fed duck. 3. Pier (of a bridge), block (of wood). - aLd tun6 xol. Pier of a bridge.

D1U1 /tul)l/, Meat jelly.


/tu1Jl ?aa4 laatS/, Snail.

D1U, /tu1j2/, 1. To receive, to accept, to hold (with the hand or a container). mu - 1/11m/,;i hapS twJ2 kaan6 thaam2. To receive/undertake a task. 2. Small paper flag used for religious service (short fo1111 of tsaaJc5 tu,r). 01l[i'f1Uri ltu1J2 ho1J2/, To receive, to undertake, to accept. 01l[inBH /lulJ21Jin2/, (Polite) to hear. 01l[i-uB~ ltu1J2 sinl/, To be initiated into monkhood or nunhood, to be ordained. 011[i-UUl--1 ltu1J2 sonl/, To be taught, to receive education.

Digitized by


/tup 1/, To be close, to shrink back. ff1L' - hu1 tup1. (Of the ears of some animals) to press against the head. Also t:,pl.

/tupS taapS/, To be messy, to be in disorder, disorderly.


/tut 1/, Hom, bugle (musical instrument) made of either ox horn or bamboo. - ada/jj tutl xaul xaai2. Ox horn bugle.

D1U,, 1 /tutS/,Lcprosy.

01111 2

ltutS/, 1. To bum (a large number of objects). 2. (Of vegetables or suchlike) to wither (as the result of being eaten by insects).

010 · /ti 1/, To be stubborn. 01/ti1:1f]ti taarj2 tst,r ti1. To be stubborn in character.

010 ·· /ti2/, 1. To use. 01/n - taaIJ6 ti2. Tools, utensils. .AJJn - J:,r.f ti2. Use, application. 2. To hold. - 1::J801 ti2 mit5. To hold a knife. - 01fl• ti2 te3. To hold power/a position. 3. To wear (glasses, rings, hats or suchlike). - 1uJ ti2 kupl. To wear a wicker hat. 4. To spend (money), to pay (for). - 71JJ'1 ti2 ?:,k3. To pay (a bill), to spend. 010· 7lC /ti2 ?au6/, To adopt (a method). 010 · uBLl /ti2 yip1/, To make use of, to use, to adopt (a method). 71/01/nl::Jlii un1:1Lci - ?aa6 taarfl man2 yar/ tso4 ti2

Original from


182 yipl. His idea was not adopted. Also yiml t/2.

01Hn 1 /tiIJ6/, 1. Lamp, light. - UJ'}.i tirf' fai2. The light of a lamp. 2. River deer.

0101 l /tikl/, Roundwo1111, ascarid. 0101-AUH /tikl l~n6/, &rthwor1n.

mHn 2 /tifJ6/, To dash, to leap forward. ~ n/}11 ti,I ?£n3. To leap forward.

01012 /tik 1/, To block up, to be blocked up. rni.~n - hul /81)6 tikl. To have a congested nose. aLMUTlri'VllM-,111

01HD1 /titl/, To break off, to be broken or tom apart as a result of being pulled. See tit5.

ULD'11LDU811n801- uci xon 1 taair sen4 Jan5 po2 tso4 p:m6 ?;1t3 tikl yau5. That path has been blocked by someone. 0101010101H01H /tikl tikl tan6 tan6/, To block, to be blocked, (of a person) to be ignorant.

010H /tin2/, Family, clan (esp. in the phrase ~ a8- tin2 x~. 010Hl:lna /tin2 meu2/, 1. Family, clan. 2. Nature (of sth.), characteristics.

0101-t /un3/, 1. To wake up, to be awake. 1:111unul-,11111-,1fda11, uri - a,:, man2 yar:,6 paa5 J:,n2 Jam 1 xan 1, yaif tin3 wai5. He/She hasn't been asleep yet/ He/She is still awake. 1:111ULti ~ 1:1/rnci

man2 po2 tin3 maa2 hau3? Has he woken up yet? 2. To be surprised, to be shocked, (of a horse) to shy. 1am11mrirnl}ri kau6 than3 tin3 tarf h£,r. I was greatly surprised. 1:1/· ~ UT8'1Jri maa5 tin3 ti6 s81)1 ?Why did the horse shy? 3. Sleep. -,11111 - -,18n J:,n2 tin3 J:,,I. To have a sleep. 01011 /til) 1/, To solidify, to congeal, to freeze. 1:111 - man2 til}1. Congealed grease/fat, the fat/grease congealed. Also tBl)l.

010n /til)3/, Swelling on skin, lump. - -,1811 tit,f Jin6. Earth lump.

Digitized by



ltitS/, To pull, to drag (esp. in the

phrase 1C1

u,/'jj tit5 taai2). 1:1(uiJ- -,1/1

mail pai3 tit5 Jaak5 kau6. Don't you

pull me.

01u· /b2/,Excessive,excessively,extreme, extremely, to surpass.

mU- l:IIHmU· l:IUn

It~ maan4 t~

m;>rJ2/, To be incomparable, incomparably (often used with adjectives or verbs having negative meanings). a/11 - xaan5 t:,2 maan4 c:,2 m;1,j. The laziest one in the world. mu· uUH /t~ p~n6/, To be exceptional, to be an exception. 01u · mlft It~ taal)3/, To be excessive, excessively. 01u· It~/, Box made of bamboo strips. - ad t~ xau4. Lunch box. mu· /t:,-5/, 1. To stamp (one's foot). - mBu t~ tin6. To stamp one's foot. 2. To join (in), to take part in, together with. - adUJl,(1ad t~ xau4 fulJl xaul. To join their group. 3. To nod (one's head). - 9'1Ld t~ hol. To nod one's head. 1:1/ ·· 1B11ad - 10-,1/}- maa2 kin6 xau4 t~ kau6 /£2. Come and have a meal

with me. 4. (Of water) splash down (as of a waterfall) . .,/Id - u,/riJ Jam5 t~ taat3. Water splashes down from the fall. mU • 1H /t:,-5 kan6/, Together.

Original from



01fl· ad It~ xau4/, To join (in), to participate.

l::JM - .,,flJMDHf/1Jj man2 t:,k5 J~n2 wan2 haP. He/She is taking a nap. See haP.

01fl /t;,6/, General classifier for animals or written characters. Also to6.

01UH /tan3/, To scratch. - .,,ff1 t:,n3 /81)1 . To scratch one's back.


01UH /t;,n4/, 1. (Of water, pit or suchlike) to be shallow. m/ri.,,,JjaL01 - wl}d tha81Jl JaP xot5 t:,n4 ph£ul. This pit was dug too shallow . .,,ffiaJiJ- 01fl• Jam5 thai4 t:,n4 te5. The water here is really shallow. 2. (Of a person) to be ignorant, to be poorly informed.

/t;)i5/, This one (contracted for111 of

t:P laP).

01fl1 I

/t;)k3/, Small divided piece of land within a large one. - 1/ · t:,k3 kaa4. Small divided piece of land for growing young rice seedlings.

01fl12 /tak3/, 1. To fight for, to sttive for. afln - xeJJ3 t:,k3. To fight, to struggle (against). 2. To keep offering more food to (a guest) by trying to put more food on his bowl or plate. - .,,fCJ - aarnf uB.,,,LJr'I t:,k3 Jau4 t:,k3 xau4 har' pi6

l~,:r. To urge friends to have more food by putting it on their bowls or plates for them. 01fl1uLP1 /tak3 putl/, To defeat, to beat. 01fl1D1LC /t;)k3 to2/, To fight, to go to war.

01fl1-ol~ /t;)k3 tsaam3/, To fight for, to sttive for. 01fl1al~ /t;)k3 xaam3/, To fight for, to strive for. 01n1 1 /t;)k5/, 1. Box. - tJI' tJ! t:,k5 yaa4 yaa6. Medicine box. Also t£k5. 2. Bottom, end. BLH01lti- mJjtJd xon 1 taarf t:,k5 thaP yau5. The road ends here. 01U12 /t;,k5/, In the process of (doing sth.), to be doing (sth.), progressive marker (often used with hai5 or its variants). l::JM - 01/}fd.,,f/jjaJj man2 t:,k5 t£m4 laai2 waP. He/She is writing sth.

Digitized by


01U~ /tan5/, That one (contracted form of

t:P Jan5). 01Un /tafj2/, 1. Country. - .,,flJ1 t:,,r l~k3. Foreign country. Also m:,,r. 2. Pond (esp. in the phrase - .,,ffi t:,,r Jam5). 01Un11~n /tafj2 ?u4 me6/, Home country, motherland. 01Uri1J1Ldai;i /t;>fJ2 hol xam2/, Kingdom. 01nri'JILD'1Jijr1 /tafj2 ho1 SETJ 1I, China. 01Un11- /tafj2 kaa2/, Country. 01Uri'1Jlrimu,:; /t;>fj2 SaaJ)2 thoi2/, China 01Un-olu /tafj2 tsaap3/, State-run, stateowned. 01Un /t;,fj3/, To pray, to say one's prayers. - .,,,/,J t:,if3 Jaail. To pray. 01Unuln /t;,fj3 paaJ)3/, To discuss. 01Un /tafj6/, One (animal or written character). Contracted fo11n of t:P J:,rf. 01Uu /tap3/, 1. Bamboo sttip (esp. in the phrase - l::JJj t:,p3 mai5). - 01LJ1 t:,p3 t~k3. Bamboo sttip (for making fences or suchlike). Also t~k3. 2. Hair plaits

Original from



(esp. in the phrase - BLM'11Ld tap1 xon 1 hol). - uOd tap1 y£ul. Plaits.

01Uc 01Ua

/t-:Ju2/, To shake.

/t-:Ju3/, To make, to assemble. - 0111- wD1-1 tau3 taJJ3 tau3 ph:1nl. To make chairs and tables. oiUClQL. /t-:Ju3 fu2/, Beancurd.


/t~u6/, 1. To tease, to make fun of. f:Jr - f:Jl1'11llril1Jri mai2 t:1u6 rnan2 het3 SSIJJ ? What are you teasing him/her for? 2. To hold sth. with a piece of cloth, front of a garment or an apron.



ml~ /thaal/, 1. To shave, to have a haircut. - '11Ld thaal hol. To have a haircut. - ~/_07 thaal Jot3. To shave (one's) beard. 2. To collapse, to have a landslide. ~U"JJ - O?L'1f:Jlt,Orilaff1 01/ri'11f l:ii6 thaal tok3 maa2 ?~3 xonl

taai:,2 hai5. A landslide occurred which blocked the road. ml- /thaa2/, (Of plants) to be luxuriant, to increase in number, to multiply. O?LM f:JiJD1LMf:Jl1 - t:JICJd tort' mais tort' maak3 thaa2 maa2 yau5. There is a lush growth of fruit trees. 01lfl11lld1::111 - 01n· tum3 seul man2 thaa2 te5. There is plenty of acne on his face. ml~L /thaa2 lu2/, Crossbow.


/thaa3/, 1. Moment, time. - ~iJ thaa3 Jai5. This time, at the moment. - ~,;, thaa3 Jan5. (At) that time, then, at that moment. 2. An act of doing sth. ~/'}J Digitized by


laail thaa3. Many times, several times. See p:ik3. ml'" /thaa4/, To wait (for), to await. - f:Jl1 f:JlrnOtiu,;:i1u1t· thaa4 man2 maa2 h£1 ts:,m2 kan6 kaa3. Let's wait till he comes and we can go together. ULJf:J - aBnult.i y:im6 thaa4 xir,f yaa,~~- To wait for an opportunity. f:Jlln ~ a/011/01/ri m:ir/' thaa4 xaau3 saa6 taai:,2. To wait for/ expect the news. ml· ulu /thaa5 yaar,5/, Sinew (in beeO.


ml,:il /thaai2/, Mind, heart. 1/n"Of kaar/' tsai6 Jai2 thaai2. In one's heart, from the heart. 01Lri naaLdalldf:Jl1 118t.i"CJUIJ~T - tort' ?au6 xo4 xaan,2 man2 sim2 ts:im3 Jai2 thaai2. He kept his words in his heart (i.e. did not speak out). mllJUL /thaai2 pu3/, In the heart, in the mind. ml,:;1Jr-nr 1Ju- /thaai2 sail tsai6 sc2/, To be happy and glad, to be free from • womes. ml,:i2 /thaai2/, To have a foreign accent, to have unclear enunciation. 11llrlf:Jl1'11'>1 sel)l man2 thaai2 hai5. He has unclear enunciation.


/thaai5/, To guess. See saaP, sai6.

ml1 /thaak:3/, 1. To whittle, to cut (into a shape). - f:JiJ thaak3 mai5. To whittle or cut timber (into a certain shape or to make it smooth). 2. To spill. ~l:11JUld IJD Jam5 s:im4 thaak3 yau5. The sour sauce was spilled. 3. (Of a horse) to strike the ground with its hoofs. ml1 /thaak5/, (Of a monk or nun) to resume or return to a secular life, (of a serviceman) to retire from his post. 11/n Original from



- saazjJ thaak5. A monk or nun who resumes a secular life. mll:i /thaam 1/, To ask. 71l!lf/1J.'r1Lri - ?am3 hu5 tso3 thaaml. Ask if you don't understand. - 01LJU thaaml t3p3. Question and answer. mlt:ialo /thaaml xaau3/, To greet, to make a greeting. ml.;i /thaam2/, 1. To learn. ~ ul}nLJJ·

thaam2 P£IJ3 yaa3. To learn skills. 2. To do, to render service. - 1/1,,1 thaa11i2 kaan6. To work, to work on a job, to hold a position. - .,,,, - thaam2

Jaa2. To do farm work, to engage in farming. - 1::11.·· thaam2 mu2. To work, to handle an affair, to work in a post, to render service. ml.;iun· /thaam2 pe5/, To qualify, to be qualified for. ml.;ialu /thaam2 xaap3/, To take responsibility, to shoulder. mlH /thaan2/, To blame, to complain, to accuse. LJn1::18018 - 'VriLJD yBJJ6 mi2 ti6 thaan2 saIJl yau5. There is nothing to complain about. mlHl /thaaTI3/, Charcoal (esp. in the phrase - UJ,:.i thaan3 fai2). mlH1~101· /thaan3 kam3 phaa3/, Coal. mlH2 /thaan3/, To investigate, to try to discover. mls::t-or /thaan3 tsai6/, 1. To comfort. 2. To feel relieved. /thaan4/, Manger, trough. - f:Jf· thaan4 maa5. Horse's trough.


mlH2 /thaan4/, Grown-up, mature.

1LHULi:i- aiJLJD'Vri1{JLJnuun kon2 po2 thaan4 xai5 yau5 Sat)l k3" yBJJ6

Digitized by


p:JrjJ. (You) are such a grown-up person now but are still so thoughtless!


/thaaJ]l/, Pit, mire. -


X:J 1.

Mire. See l:Jl) 1. mlr12 /thaaJJl/, 1. To cut (roughly) with a sickle. noalli:i- ?au6 xeu2 thBa1J 1. To cut with a sickle. 2. To dredge. - lDLJ1 '11lJn.,,fJ·· thBalJl ph:Jk5 h:Jr/ Jaa2. To dredge the irrigation ditches in the fields. mlfil /th8aJ]3/, 1. To think (that), to reckon (that). 10 - 1::1,;i018711!11::1/uo kau6 thaar.,3 man2 til ?am3 maa2 yau5. I reckon he/she is not coming. 2. To scald. .,,fl:!J1::1,:, - "CJLd0181,,1 Jam5 mar' thaaq3 tso4 tin6. (One's) foot got scalded by boiling water. mlfiJ1ln /thaaJJ3 ?aaJJ4/, Hope, expectation, wish. mlfi-,11" /thaaJJ3 laa4/, Face, look, appearance. mlfial lth8aJJ3 waa6/, To think (that), to reckon (that). 10 ~ 1::1rLJnf:Jlrno kau6 thaar.,3 waa6 mai2 ylH)6 maa2 hau5. I thought you were not coming. mlf\2 /th8aJ]3/, Level (of a ladder), grade. - a1 thaar.,3 xak5. Grade, level. thaar.,3 J:11. Top grade, upper level.


min /thaaJJ6/, Soup. mln,La /th8aJJ6 ko6/, Small meat stall or stand in a marketplace where cooked meat is sold for customers to eat on the spot. mlu /thaap3/, Time, moment. mlll-A'Jl /thaap3 Iai5/, (At) this moment, at this time, now. mill.AH /thaap3 JanS/, (At) that time, then. mlu-,1r /thaap3 Iai6/, When. Original from




/thaap3 la1J6/, A while, a



/thaap5/, 1. To stick on, to paste, to lean or press against (sth.). ad1/· a/,;iuo;,n •xaul kaa3 thaap5 xaam2 pE5 Jel. They went to put up posters. uiJ ~ -vlr'I pai3 thaap5 Don't lean against the wall. 2. Layer. 1J.'711111. Jru6 tsan5 Jru6 thaap5. Each level and each layer. mlu011· /thaap5 taa3/, 1. To give alms, to donate. 2. Almsgiving, donation.



/thaat3/, To stop. UJlJ1ULD ~ LJD funl po2 thaat3 yau5. The rain has stopped. ~ '71(a@-v8ri'71LD thaat3 tsai6 xo2 sit/ tso6. To stop breathing.

01/n-vllH_,,,:,,L111/iLH1::Jl-un - taar1 sen4 Jai5 kon2 kaa3 kon2 maa2 yll1J6 thaat3. People keep coming and going on this road.


/thaat5/, 1. Electricity. ~ -vBri thaat5 sil)1• Electric shadow, film. 2. Torch (light).


/thaat5 to3/, Buddhist relics.

mid /thaaul/, To pull (out, back, down), to drag. ~ a/ ' thaaul xaal. To pull the leg. ~ a/]tJ/]1 thaaul xil ts:,k5. To pull down the vines entwisted on the tree.


/thaau3/, 1. Medium (size). 1::11.' ~ mul thaau3. Medium-sized pig. f::IL{l ~ muq6 thaau3. Medium-sized basket. 2. Middle age. 1LHLJll1 ~ kon2 paan6 thaau3. Middle-aged man, young man.

m')l /thail/, 1. Toplough. 1::JHl::I01m-,j1/·

- _,,, -man2 mck3 thai3 kaa3 thail Jaa2. 2. Plough. 3. To come close by, to shave in passing. 1::1/1-vynup-- 1/·

Digitized by

Go gle

maak3 ~If' y;2 thail kaa3. The bullets shaved past. 4. To be crooked, to arch, to bend. .,/f11l[1.,/f1 - JBl)l kwJl JBl)l thai1. To arch one's back, to bend low. m)i /thai3/, 1. To change (clothes). ~ -v/J'ilci1/1.11 thai3 s:t' sau4 kaa3 sak5. To change (i.e. to take off) dirty clothes to wash. 2. (Of plants) to start new leaves. 01LHl::J,:, - UJ/J ,ton4 maP thai3 f:,l. New leaves start to grow on the

trees. 3. To redeem, to ransom, to buy out. na71111/tn/t,.,,,,:, - uu11::11- ?au6 ?an6 kaa3 taaIJ3 Jan5 thai3 p:;k5 maa2. To redeem pawned goods. 1D~ /thai 4/, Here, this place. 1D~ /tham2/, Sacred writings, Buddhist


m~ /tham4/, Cave. - -"U'JJ tham4 J:;i6. Mountain cave. - rn811 tham4 hinl. Stone cave. 1D~ /tham5/, (Big) jar, vessel.~ .,/0 tham5

Jau4. Big wine jar. 1DH /than3/, Discourse particle indicating

surprise or unexpectedness on the part of the speaker. - 101ull11'718,:, than3 kat3 pen6 ts:,i5. (I) would not have expected that it should be so cold. l::JH 01IHmDrla/,;i1::1lla_,,,:, man2 than3 taan4 thil)l xaam2 meu2 Jai5? Who would have expected that he could say things that way? 1DH /than4/, There. -"J.1 ~ uy11::1J-JuJc5

than4 p:;k5 maa2. To come from there.

mr1 /th81]1/, To block, to hinder (esp. in the phrases - - mDnmDri thBl)l thBl)l thil)1thil)l, - rnfl" thBl)l he5). UiJ -

Original from



01/ri pai3 thlJl)l taarf. Don't block my

- "'l.1 -

path, get out of my way.

To bring up children, to raise children. 2. To look after, to take care of. - 1LHUflH thau5 kon2 pen6. To look after a patient. 3. To wash (rice). - ad thau5 xau4. To wash rice (before cooking). 4. To trap, to catch. - ul thau5 paa6. To trap fish.

ml"\ lth81J3/, 1. To spill out. narnlltfl .,,e, uiJ rnfl::JH - ?au6 het3 Ji6, pai3 hai4

man3 thBIJ3. Hold fmnly; don't let it spill out. 2. To rush (forward). "'LD - Jo6

thBIJ3. To rush forward. mrl /th8fJ5/, 1. To be in charge of, to handle, to take care of (a business), to serve. - 91Ldrn8i1 tharJ ho1 h~n2. To be in charge of family matters, to take care of a family. - uB.,,un tharJ pi6 J:,ry. To serve guests, to look after the guests well. 2. To separate, to keep ... away from ... a'jj chary h~ tha,r xai2. To keep away from sweat.

mo· -


/thapS/, To block. 91/.:,Lf1rnll._ 01Jri.,,U'JJ91iJLJD haal lol)l he5 thap5 taarf J:,i6 hai5 yau5. Heavy snow blocked the mountain path. See Jap5.

mo1 /that 1/, To comb (in order to get rid of dirt or to scratch an itch). hol. To comb one's head.

91Ld that1

md /thau 1/, 1. Rattan, cane. a8"- x:,2 thaul. Vine. See x:,2, waai 1. 2. System, procedure.


/thau3/, 1. To harness an animal, to hitch up (an animal), to tie (up). 71a1D 1::Jli/· - 1::JI" ?au6 ki6 maa5 kaa3 thau3 maa5. To harness a horse, to hitch up a horse with a halter. 2. To put sth. (on), such as gloves. 3. A set of (clothing).

md /thau4/, Old, elders, seniors. - 1::J/11 thau4 maan4. Seniors of a village. md /thau5/, 1. To raise (children), to breed (children), to bring up (children). Digitized by


.,,/;; thau5 Juk5 thau5 JBJUJ2.


/thail/, Where. l::Jr1/·- mai2 kaa3 thail ?Where are you going? See hitr lBf·6.

mn. /thel/, To trail along, to drag along. 1.1BuularnuuLti sin4 yaau2 h~ po2 thel Jin6 kaa3. The skirt is too long and is dragging on the ground.


mn· /the4/, 1. To lose (money). - 11Ldrnl. 11Bu the4 sol haa4 sipl. To lose fifty dollars in business. See sum2. 2. A weight unit(= 5 grams). mnr11 /thel)l/, To argue, to quarrel, to dispute. l::JruiJ- 1DLJD mai2 pai3 thel)l kau6 yau5. Don't argue with me now. - 1Jri'1H thel)l SIJl)l kan6? What were you quarrelling for? mnr11M /theJJl kan6/, To argue, to quarrel (with each other). - _,,iJ.,,yn 1Jri thel)l kan6 Jaj4 J:,IJ6 SIJl)l ? Why did you/they argue with each other? mnr12 /theJ]l/, A small temporary shelter in the fields, shed. - .,,,- thel) 1 Jaa2. A shelter in the field. mnr1m.;i /thel)l tham2/, A small house where Buddhist scriptures were chanted or sacrificial activities were perfo1111ed in the old days. mij1 /thEk3/, To cut soft things such as beancurd, cake and noodles.

Original from



/thEml/, 1. To help. - '1H th£m 1 kan6. To help each other. - l:JH11LJld w1 thEml man2 s:Jm4 phak 1. To help him to plant vegetables. 2. To replace, to substitute, to act for (esp. in the phrase - rr,llril thtml het3>. '1LH - 01/,:, kon2 thtml taan4. Spokesman. - 01/n th£m 1 taar;f. To substitute, acting.



/thtn4/, To add on. - ;/L'1'11U11 thtn4 Juk5 ?:Jn3. To have another baby (apart from the existing one or ones). 1{}1:J th£n4 k£m6. To add to, to fill in.

mijM mijr1

/thEn5/, To fill up. Also th:1m 1. /thEl)l/, To cut roughly, to slash, to

be cut (accidentally). allti - "OLD xeu2 th£1)1 tso4. To be cut by a sickle.

mijn /thEl)4/, To add on. Also thcn4. miju 1 /thEp3/, Side, such as the (two) •

sides of a road or a river. - ;f"'1Jlll:J UlLHa,:, thtp3 Jai5 s:Jm4 ton4 xai5. On this side (of the road/river) we plant willows.

miju 2

/thEp)/, To control a beast of burden (such as an ox) by moving the reins or halter. - rr,fa/i,iu,.,aJ,i n801;18n thtp3 hai4 xaai2 pai6 xanl ?itl J:1,I. To urge the ox to move faster.


/thEp5/, 1. To hit (with sticks), to whip (with thin bamboo strips). naaLJYI:.. ?au6 x:Jn5 thtp5. To beat/hit with a stick. 2. To stay close to, to be in contact with, to press against. 01ll1mllu;f8Y11/" tek3 - Jin6 kaa3. To press it down on the ground. mijumijumnmn /thEp5 thEp5 the6 the6/, Time and again, repeatedly. ad1:Jl~f]01 - xaul maa2 Jct5 thtp5 th£p5

Digitized by

Go gle

the6 the6. They came to call several times.


/thEul/, Line, row. - ;1/· th£u 1 Jaa4. Front row. mijd.Ae1 /thEul lik5/,(Written) regulations, in between the lines.


/thEu2/, To select, to choose, to make a choice. See J:,k5.

mijO mij~

/thEu3/, To be naughty.

/thEuS/, 1. To mix. - ;ffi;fLii "DJI1;18n thtu5 Jam5 lom2 tsurf' l:1,I. To make a cup of milk (from milk powder). 2. To adjust.

me- /thi2/, The top of a pagoda (which is often sharp-pointed) or (Buddhist) temple. - "DLJl1 thi2 ts:JIJ2. Top of a Buddhist temple. IDL /thj2 phu3/, Royal or imperial court, palace, government office in olden times.


me· /thi3/, 1. Dense, thick, closely spaced. 1JUl:d - s:Jm4 tm3. To plant densely, to be densely planted. 01LO;f/i,i01{),;i;1iJ nBrnnBrn tof> Jaai2 t£m4 Jai4 thi3 ?it1 ?itl. The characters were written close together. 2. Miserly, mean, stingy. '1LYI - UILd kon2 thi3 to4. Stingy person, • rruser.


me· /thi5/, A unit of weight. me~ /thim4/, 1. To discard, to throw, to get rid of. - 1:J/'1;fLii thim4 maak3 Jom2. To throw a ball. - uf]u> thim4 p£t5. To discard. See wut~ pEt~ t:Jt5. 2. To go/be on strike (esp. in the phrase - 1/H thirn4 kaan5).


/thin 1/, To be in charge, to take care of, to control, to administrate, to hold Original from



(power/position). - n/1:JJ_- thinl ?aa6 mu2. To be in charge of a business, to manage things. - '17/rlaL1 thin4 ha8.1)1 x.ok5. (In pounding rice) to take the lead in standing on the top end of a pestle, (fig.) to play a very important role. Also thin2, thiif. mBH1LH /thinl kon2/, To be in charge, to manage, to administrate. mB1-4uD" /thin I P'l1J3/, To control, to rule (over).


/thin2/, To be in charge, to take care of. Also thiif.


/thin3/, Stair, step, rung or level of stairs. - min thin3 haaI/1. Stairs, steps.


/thig2/, To be in charge, to take care of' to hold. - nlaln thiif ?aa6 x.aai:,5. To hold power. n#J - .,,/Lf:i'TJl{ltJJ· 1Jam5 thiif Jum2 tsui:,3 yaa3. To chair a meeting. mBril:IL /thig2 mu2/, To be in charge of an affair, to hold office. mBnuun /thiJ)2 pog6/, To be in charge, to head. mBnuD" /thig2 JY.n.)3/, To rule, to monopolise. mBnut· /thig2 yaa2/, To be married.


/thipl/, 1. To kick, to play (by kicking, such as a football). ad1/· 1:J/i.;1Lldi x.aul kaa3 thipl maak3 Jom2. They went to kick the ball (i.e. to play). 1:Jlfn8.;1'Ji'Tlln - 1lfi muS t:>6 laP tsaarl thipl kon2. This horse tends to kick people. 2. (Of water) to wash (out or away), to erode. .,,,,;i - UJi'1 Jam5 thip1 farjJ. Water washed the bank. 3. (Of a gun or cannon) to recoil. 1yn.,,,ti.;1,i rn/]nu,fl, k:i,f Jau2 IBP thipl ht1Jl t&.

Digitized by


This gun recoils a lot. mBLlmun /thipl thog2/, (Of water) to • wash (away or out), to erode . .;/l:J rnD1.,,/H Jam5 thipl th:iif hikl Jan3. Water washed away the banks.


/thipS/, To urge, to press. l:JHLJLD .,,,J'fJ1:J/;,/")Juy1 man2 po2 thip5 Jaai2 maa2 Jaail p:ik5. He/She has already written several times to urge (us to do sth. ). See hi,,S, Jet5.


/thol/, To move forward with one's back bent. mLdmijo, /thol th£tSJ, To walk dwarfed as in a performance where the actor or actress plays the role of a dwarf by walking with his or her legs bent.


/tho2/, 1. To push. - .;1/}n tho2 Jtl)l. To push a cart. 2. To drive, to chase (fish). - u/ tho2 paa6. To use nets to drive fish from deep to shallow water for ease of catching them. 3. To weave, to knit. - l:JH tho2 man4. To weave cloth. - -vo· tho2 s:,4. To knit a jumper. 4. To pump (air into sth.), to blow (bellows). - 'VD tho2 sau3. To pump bellows. S. (Of winds) to blow, to breez.e.

-v/°JJ.;1L,;i - 1:Jlf/lf'Tl['11ICJfl11ufld .-:BRi1 Jom2 tho2 maa2 hai4 tsai6 haa2 yen6 peu3. The brec:ze made people feel nice and cool. 6. To have magical power. 7. To sign, to make (a contract). - .;1/jj1/· al°JJ'1H tho2 Jaai2 kuS xaai1 kan6. To sign/make an agreement on trade.

mLO /tho3/, A generic tc1111 for bean. mL0LQlr1 /tho3 fWJl/, Round bean.

mLOUJL /tho3 fu2/, Beancurd. m19.-tBH /tho3 lin6/, Peanut. mLO.-tDr1

/tho31~11, Soya bean.

Original from



mLOand /tho3 xeul/, Green soya

mLH"Dl_D /thon4 tso6/, (Of crops or

bean, mung bean.

fruits) to reach at the time of ripening, to be fully grown and ripen, (of one's tenn

mLd /tho4/, To sing in reply, to reply in songs, to answer. - a/,;i11,,1 tho4 xaan.,2 kan6. To sing to each other. 71/,::, ?aan3 tho4. To reply, to answer.

mLD /tho6/, To drag, to pull. - -


tho6 tho6 Jaak5 Jaak5. To drag (heavy objects) along, to pull.

mt]) /thoi4/, 1. To pull out, to retreat .

- u/· u81

thoi4 yaa4 y:,k3. To pull out weeds. 2. To sigh (esp. in the phrases - "CJ{ thoi4 tsai6, - "CJ{ thoi4 tsai6 yai,3). See thoi6.


ml]J /thoi6/, To breathe (esp. in the phrase - "CJ{ thoi6 tsai6). See thoi4.

mL1 /thok5/, To grab, to snatch, to pull back suddenly and forcefully. 1::/11.,/J.1 1::1D1a - 1/· man2 luk5 Jai2 mi2 kau6 thok5 Jcaa3. He snatched (it) from me. ~ mu11 thok5 th:in 1• To deprive sb. of sth.



/thom4/, To flood over, (of water, • snow or suchlike) to submerge. .,/1::/.,/Un - UJri Jam5 J:irf thom4 fatJ 1. The flood submerged the banks. rn/· - 97Ldad haa3 thom4 hol xau3. Snow covered one's knees. Also thum4.


mLH /thon4/, To expire, to reach (a certain point/the limit). 71/,::, - u/1 ?aan3 thon4 paak3. To count to a hundred. 77/'1.J/1 '1.Jld ?aa6 saak5 thon4 saau2. To reach the age of twenty. mLH1Ul /thon4 kum3/, To be sufficient, to have plenty in stock. mLHD'lnl:f /thon4 tem6/, To be satisfactory.

Digitized by

Go gle

of office or employment) to expire.

mLri ltholJl/, Bag, sack, pocket. -


thotJl JIU)l. J eeather bag. - u/ · thotJ 1 paa2. Carrying bag. mLri'Jln· /thol]l he3/, Placenta, (human) afterbirth. mLri1J1Ba· /tholJI hiu4/, Handbag. mLl11JlL1 /tholJl hok5/, Womb.

mt_ll /thop3/, 1. To meet (sb.). u/·- yaa2 thop3. To meet, to come across (esp. in the phrase ulinLLJ- "OLD yaa2 hop5 thop5 tsc,4}. 2. To obtain. .,/frr,,:,1::1,:,; 1/tnu01ulun - 1181118 Jai 1hai5 man2 kaa3 t~5 paa6 ya,! thop3 sil t:,6. He went fishing this morning but caught nothing.

ml_ln /thot3/, To take off (clothes), to pull out (knives or suchlike). - '1.Jo· thot3 s:tl. To take off one's clothes, to undress. Also that3.


/thoi3/, 1. To dismantle, to disassemble. u/ · - a8n "0/1 yaa5 th:ii3 x:,r/ tsaak5. To disassemble a machine. 2. To recover (from an illness). See haail. 3. To free from. 1fi• LJUiJ- u/1 ke4 p:ii3 th:ii3 yaak5. To free sb. from hardships, to be fieed from poverty and hardships. 4. To end. unwl~/(J - ylllf phaa4 maau3 th:ii3. To be endless, to have no end.


/thok3/, To dump, to dip, to toss out (water). 101/"- UJ/ftrn811 kau6 kaa3 th:ik3 fun3 h:1n2. I went out to dump the rubbish. 71D.,/fi.,/rmlfi.,/11 - 1::1/rnf1D 1/n.,/8n ?au6 Jam5 Jai2 thu,f Jan5 th:ik3 Original from



maa2 hai4 kau6 kaatJ6 J:,q6. Dip half of the water in that bucket to me. mu1m)i /thok3 thai3/, To change clothes. .,/BDH - .,,J-µULJ1 Jj6 wan2 th:;k3 thai3 laail p:;k5. To change clothes several times a day.

mu1 /thokS/, 1. To copy. - .,f/jj th:;k5 Jaai2. To copy some writings. 2. To SUJ?r.>rt (sth., such as a slanting object).

rnLIHULD1Jli11/f/1d, 'llDl::Ji/1::JI-_ rnn · h:,n2 po2 tsaai5 kaa3 hau5, ?au6 mai5 maa2 th:;k5 hel. The house is slanting; get some timber to support it. 3. To push or move with a pole. - rn8 - th:;k5 hil. To paddle a boat. mu.,.,.L /thokS lu6/, To be considerate, to be caring. mu1ml· /thokS tha3/, To worry, to be

concerned. un1::18;,LJn - '1JrlLJd ya,! mi2 J:;,I th:;k5 thaa3 SIUJJ yau5. There is nothing to worry about, no w011ies. mu1mB· /thok5 thi3/, To consider, to be concerned. mu101Ll!I /thok5 to3/, To excuse, to pardon, to be considerate. - 111 nBo1 "'8n th:;k5 to3 kan6 ?itl J:,,I. Be more considerate of each other.


/thOI) 1/, To arrive (esp. in the phrase ~ 1Dti th:;1)1 kir.r). Also tbirJl. mur1'1Jr1 /thol)l S81]1/, As a matter of fact, in fact, in reality. - un11[l::JHUIIH th:Jl)J satJl ya,! tsai6 man2 taan4. It was not he who said (that), in fact. See th:Jl) 1 SIP, th:;IJ1 te5. mun'1Jn /thol)l se6/, As a matter of fact, in fact. mun01n• /thol) 1 te5/, In fact, in reality.

mun /thog2/, 1. (Of water) to wash (away). 11LD"'~ - 1/i.Jd tso4 Jam5 th:J,j kaa3 yau5. To be washed away by water. 2. To pound (rice, herbs or suchlike). See tam6, ts:;k5. muf\ 1 /thog3/, 1. Prison. atJ ~ xaml th:Jtf1. To be in prison, to be imprisoned. 2. Knot, loop, case - 1LJt1 th:;tf1 k:;,y. Slipknot for trapping game. mun2 /th:>IJ3/, 1. To wrap up in a piece of cloth. 2. (Of light) to shine. - rn8 th:Jtf1 h:P. To shine. mun 1 /tho1J6/, To poke, stab, to jab. - rnfiu,L(J th:;,! barf to3. To stir up a nest of hornets. /


mun 2

muH /thon 1/, To pull out, to take out (esp. in the phrase - ul}u, th:Jnl p£t5). u,ll1 th:Jnl tek3. Offprint.

muu /thopS/, To cover, to hide from view. 1::1D-'1JLJrl8lJH - u,/rr,fl •mi2 S:J1) 1 x:Jnl th:Jp5 taa6 hel. To cover the eyes with two hands. 1LH ,011d"'u 'J1DUJ8fJ ii - UILD ko m:P tsau5 Ian5 ?au6 f:,l mai5 th:Jp5 to6. People in the very old days covered themselves with leaves (i.e. used leaves as clothing).

/thom3/, To listen. - a/i;j th:;m3 xaa,n2. To listen to one's words, to be obedient. - 11/}n11/}n th:;m3 tse,I tst,I. To listen carefully. mu~i:JUY /thom3 tsom2/, To obey.

muH /thon2/, Lucky, auspicious. LJ8.,fB.,/8H - pi6 Jj6 J:,n6 th:Jn2. Auspicious days, auspicious time.

Digitized by


/thog6/, To cross (over), to wander (around), to stroll. .,/fl- Je6 th:;,!. To stroll, to wander around.

Original from





/thot3/, To take off (clothes), to pull out, to draw out. Also thot3. 2. To break (an egg). - ail111Jrlail th:,t3 JCai3 s:,IJl JCai3. To break two eggs (to make a dish). 3. Drawer. murnmurn /th:>t3 th:>t3/, To be exactly the same. 1:1/]1,1111 - m~l kan6 th~5 th:,t5. To look exactly the same.


/thotS/, Lucky, auspicious, virtuous.

DH - 0111:11]01 wan2 th:,t5 wan2 mct5. Lucky days, auspicious days. mu011::1ijrn /thotS mEt3/, 1. To be virtuous. 2. Virtue.


/thul/,1. To rub. na01un'Dl -1:1/ .. 01fl ~ W/]H ?au6 t:,,I tsaa2 maa2 thul tai:f thul ph:,nl. To rub tables and chairs with loquat leaves (to make them smooth). 2. To crawl by moving along on the buttocks or with one's chest against the ground. mL'oB' /thu 1tsi4/, Dung beetle.

1DL /thu3/, 1. Chopsticks. 2. The amount of food as picked up with a pair of chopsticks. 18uw1rnf1:111- -,1/]n kip5 phakl hai4 man2 thu3 J:,,!. To dish out some food for him using chopsticks.

1DL /thuS/, To be greedy (for), to be indulged in. uiJ - 1811 - 11ll11wl}d pai3 thu5 Jdn6 thu5 ?en4 phcul. Don't be too fond of drink and play. 1DL /thus t'JfjS/, To be very fond of food. 1Lfi - fl1Lrl kon2 thu5 t:,rf ho1Jl. A person who is very fond of food.


m~ /thui2/, (Of pigs) to dig up earth with the snout. l:IL ·- A811 mul thui2 Jin6. The

ml)' /thui6/, 1. To plane (timber). - 1:1,:,

thui6 mai5. To plane down timber. 2. Plane (tool) (esp. in the phrase - UO

thui6 pau3).

1DL1 /thukl/, 1. To be suitable, to be appropriate, to be reasonable, should. - -,1un - 01/n thuk' J:,,I thuk1 taarf. To be reasonable, sensible. -,11Jn01/n

1:1lldAiJtJnul - rnllril J:,q6 taarf meu2 JaP ya,/ paa6 thukl het3. This kind of thing shouldn't be done. 2. To be accurate, to be exact, to be definite.

01/1111llrl - 1:11}11 taan4 selJl thukl mcn6. To be accurate/exact in pronunciation. .,,/lJn"f1/ii - 1:1/ft J:,,I ?aam2 thuk1 maan3. Definite/fi11nassurance. 1DL1711U /thuk 1 ?aapS/, To be suitable for, to be fit for. 1DL11111 /thukl katl/, To catch a cold. mL'11~f\ /thukl kirj3/, To be suitable, to suit, to be reasonable. mL1l::ILC fthukl mol/, To get along well. 111Jrlal . - 11101n·s:,1Jl JCaal thuk 1 mol kan6 te5. The two of them are getting along very well. 1DL1-Ur1 /thukl saJJl/, To have (sth.) to do with, to relate, to be related. - 1:1T thukl SBJJJ mai2. (It) has something to do with you. tJn - 1Jrl1:1T ya,/ thuk1 SBJJJ mai2. It has nothing to do with you. 1DL1o,I· /thukl r.aaS/, In fact, however. 1DL1-0f /thukl tsai6/, To satisfy, to be satisfied, to be happy with.


/thum3/, To be alike, to be like, to resemble. - 111 thum3 kan6. To resemble each other. See hom6.

pig was digging up earth with the snout. See mon5.

Digitized by

Go gle

Original from



m~2 /thum3/, To spit (saliva). - ,;,ffi,;,f/jj thum3 Jam5 Jaai2. To spit saliva. See

mun /thut5/, 1. To wipe, to rub. 01/]EJ,;,fB

rnllu,:,u/ ~ u/]01a11


paa6 thut5 p£t5 xanl. Don't wipe it off

m~t /thum4/, Section, log, piece (of wood, etc.), tube or tube-shaped object. f:J'J/'1.Jl}rl - mai4 S:>IJJ thum4. Two pieces of timber. m~2 /thum4/, To saturate, to overflow with, to flood over. Also thom4.


/thum5/, Big chunk (of wood), ballshaped object. f:JiJ - ,;,/On maP thom5 l:Jt/. A large log. f:J'1'1.ll]ri - mail S:>IJJ thum5. Two balls of thread.

m~ /thunl/,Lime.

mu-t /thun6/, To swallow. ~ u/CJ/ thun6 yaa4 yaa6. To swallow some tablets. ml(i /thurJ2/, 1. Barrel, bucket. na ~

1/1.JL'1,;,/fi,;,fraDnf:JI._ ,;,/On ?au6 thu,:,2

kaa3 sok3 Jam5 Jaj2 wiIJ3 maa2 thu,:,2

J:nf. To fetch a bucket of water from the urn. 2. Law, custom (esp. in the phrase - UJBri ~ ul]n thui:,2 fir/ thu,:,2 P£1J6). mliiu~ /thu1J2 pum3/, Motto. mlii-nl1:i /thurJ2 tsaam3/, Custom. mliial~ /thurJ2 xaam2/, Sayings, proverbs.

mL(I /thurJ3/, Rheumatism.


/thupS/, 1. Package, pack, packet. ,;,/lln ~ ,;,/On let/ thup5 l~,:,6. A packet of

n/JuUJi.i'1.1JJrl -

?£p3 rai2 s:>1J1

thup5. Two packs of matches. 2. Things in packs.~ u/· thup5 yaa4. Cigarettes in


Digitized by

straight after you have finished writing. ~ '1.JLLI thut5 sop3. To wipe one's lips/ mouth. See tset5. 2. To copy. ~ ,;,f/jj thut5 Jaai2. To copy some writings. mff ~ /thin5/, To empty, to make room, to vacate. ~ 111811 tmn5 h~n2. To vacate a house. mffr1 /thirJ 1/, To arrive, to reach. ad1:J8w1,.1wl}d ~ a1101lln xaul m:P phuk5 ph£ul thii:,2 wan2 te,:,6. They will arrive at Wanding tomorrow. Also th::>1)1.

mlti /thun2/, Enclosure or pen for elephants. - "CJ/n thun2 tsaatJ5. Elephant's pen.


t£m4 Ji6 hel paiJ

Go gle

mff r1-ur1 /thirJ 1 SaJJ 1/, Or, otherwise, alternatively.~ f:Jf1/· f:JH01/11 thJgl sat)1 mai2 kaa3 t:,5 man2 taan4. Or else you go and talk to him. mffr101B /thirJ 1 ti6/, 1. To (reach) the extreme, to reach the limit, extremely, exceptionally. 107 - ua kat5 thilJl ti6 yau5. Extremely capable. 2. Even though, even if. - 101/· 018~ii01/11


"1(JLJn"ClJ.- thilJl ti6 kau6 kaa3 t:,5 man2 taan4 k~ ya,:,6 tsu2. Even though I went to talk with him, he wouldn't agree. 3. Through (doing sth.), by way of. ~

w81 rnllii ml]· , ,;,fr"Ofu11n1:JI-ma

thil)l ti6 ph~k3 hen2 h£1, Jaj2 tsai6 p:>IJ3 maa2 hau5. Through study, (I/he) had a

clearer idea (of the issue). mffr1-n~,J /thiIJ 1 ts~i 5/, If so, in that case. - ml·· "CllJld"1111/· ,;,fl]·· thi1Jl ts~P haa2 ts:>rn2 kan6 kaa3 /£2. In that case let's go together. mffnal /thifJI waa6/, If, in case, supposing (that). l/JIJ101L'1, 1D"CJLD

LJnf:JJ- ma thil)l waa6 funl tok3, kau6 Original from



tso3 y81J6 maa2 hau5. If it rains, I won't come.

mU · /th~l/, To cut (string or suchlike). - ULJ01 th~ p~t3. To cut off.


/th~k3/, Male (animal). a/,:J ~ xaai2 th:,k3. Bull.


/th~k5/, To be qualified (for) (esp. in

the phrase ~ ~}/ th:,k5 Jar'). aDn kig3 th:,k5. To be qualified for the job, to be up to standard. un - yBIJ6 t:,k5. Not qualified.


/th~ml/, To fill up.~

mlri th:,m 1

thaaJJl. To fill up a pit. mUl=imln /th~ml th8al)3/, To doubt, to suspect, to be suspicious. 1[/LJn phail kd' yBIJ6 th:,ml thaai:,3. No one has any doubt (about it).


mUH 1 /th~n3/, 1. Forest, bush, jungle. See lo,/. 2. Wild. 1iJ - kai3 th:,n3. Pheasant. l:if.. - mu1 th:,n3. Wild boar.

1:i/'11:iH - maak3 J'1Jan5 thm3. Wild plum.

mUH 2

/th~3/, 1. To plough. ~ "'"' m'}J~/- th:,n3 hai6 thail Jaa2. To plough

the fields. See thail. 2. Plough.


/th~fj2/, To be slow, slowly.

- 11Jjl n/jl '91Lri th:,,r ?o;4 ?o;4 ho1)1. To be very slow, slowly.



-ol ·

/tsaal/, Frame. ~ ~J.1 tsaa 1 /uk 1. Skeleton. ~ rr,{!,;,; saa 1 h:,n2. Frame of a house.

-ol ·al·

/tsaal waal/, To be careless.

Digitized by



/tsaa2/, 1. False, not true, unreal.


- }Csa,n2 tsaa2. Lie. See phu,f. 2. To be coarse, not smooth. 3. (Of a knife) to be sharp. aLf:i - }Com2 tsaa2. Sharp edge/

knife. See phaail. 4. (A) bunch (of). 1:i/1718ui - ~f!n maak3 ?it1 tsaa2 J:,q6. A bunch of grapes.


ftsaa3/, 1. To cover. - 'TlLl:i


hom6. To cover, to shade, to be under

the shade. - 1/.· tsaa3 kul . To protect. 2. To put up, to set up (a frame, ladder or suchlike). ~1· 11 · /tsaa3 kaa5/, To do religious • service. /tsaa3 le3/, The Tsa Le Festival, an ethnic festival falling on the 15th of August of the lunar calendar. ~1· 1.1uul01n· ttsaa3 sap5 paa6 te21, Thursday. -ol· 018· /tsaa3 ti3/, A small pagoda

~,· ~n·

built of sand. Also tse3 ti3.

-ol· 1 /tsaa5/, 1. To get angry, to be furious . - nlanla tsaa5 l)aau5 l)Bau5. To be very angry, to be furious. ~ 111


kan6. To get angry with each other, to be at odds with each other. 2. To be bad, to be vicious. l~rf tsaa-5. Vice. 1LM - kon2 tsaa-5. Bad people. 3. To be ugly. rr,/n - haat/' tsaa-5. To be ugly. 4. To be difficult, hard. 1811 - kin6 tsaa5. To be difficult to eat, not tasty. 01/,:, - taan4 tsaa5. (It's) hard to say, hard to persuade. See yaak5. -ol • -11 • /tsaa5 laa5/, To be beautiful, to be nice-looking. -01· -01· 1:1na1:1na /tsaa5 tsaa5 meu2 meu2/, Various kinds (of), all kinds (of), a full range of. -al· -nn1:1 /tsaa5 tsem6/, Since, from

~un -

Original from


195 (the time of...). -


uLtif:JB'nluBrnd ,_w,5 tsern6 phaa1cs yaanl wan2 te,I, po2 mi2 haa4 pi6 hau5. It is five years since (I/he) left Wanding.


-al· 2 /tsaa5/, Alone. na1/._ f:J(

?au6 kaa3 tsaa5 mai2 ti2 Jt2. Take it for your own use.

-al· 3 /tsaa5/, A large piece of land made up of smaller patches. -al /tsaa6/, To add. See thtl) 4, thtn4. -ol.Alri /tsaa6 lWJ2/, Numerals, number. -olji 1 /tsaai2/, 1. Elder brother, elder (male) cousin. 2. Man, male, (in certain restricted usage) classifier for male persons. uD'- pil tsaai2. Man. uB- pi6 tsaai2. Elder brother, elder male cousin (both used as reference te11ns). -ol,:i 2 /tsaai2/, Eaves (of a Buddhist temple). - a/- tsaai2 xaa2. Eaves of a thatch grass-roofed house. -al)) /tsaai3/, 1. To spend (money), to pay (off). - '11U1 tsaai3 ?~k3. To pay off (a bill), to spend. See ti2. 2. Again. - 11f!Jrnllrfluu,~8n tsaai3 sam5 het3 p~k5 J:,,I. Do it again. -nl'3-or /tsaai3 tsai6/, At one's leisure, of one's own volition. 1/"mrinB1/; wff:JH kaa3 tarf2 ?am3 kaa3, tsaai3 tsai6 phail man2. It's up to each person to decide to go or not. -al,> /tsaai5/, To be slanting, to be inclined to one side. OHU[j - IJd wan2 p~ tcMi5 yau5. The sun is to the west. - -718H718H tsaai5 tsaai5 ts:>n2 ts:>n2. To be aslant, to be crooked, to be askew. -ol')l.A1 /tsaai5 lakl/, To be heavier on

Digitized by

Go gle

one side, to pay particular attention to, to place particular emphasis on. -nl'Jl171L0 /tsaai 5 toll, To be partial to. -nl1I /tsaak3/, (Of clothes, paper, leather or suchlike) to be broken, to be tom. See y~k3. -nl12 /tsaak3/, (Of mouth) to be broad. 11@ - sop3 tsaak3. Broad mouth. Also tsEk3.

-0111 /tsaaJc5/, 1. Machine, noun stem indicating 'machine'. - n/]uad tsaak5 l)£n2 xau4. Rice grinder. - 1J/]u118 · tsaak5 ytpS s:t'. Sewing machine. 2. Adze. Also xaanl tsaak5. -0112 /tsaaJc5/, 1. To root out, to uproot, to eradicate. - IJ! · tsaak5 yaa4. To root out weeds. 2. (Of horses or suchlike) to dig the ground or tread on the trough with its hoof or hooves. f:JI · - m/,:, maa5 tsaak5 thaan4. The horse was treading on the trough (as a sign of wanting more food). -nl~ 1 /tsaam2/, 1. Tassel. 2. Classics (esp. in the phrase - ,181 tsaam2 Jik5). - IJ! · tsaam2 yaa4. Classics in medicine, phannacopoeia. -nl~2 /tsaam2/, ·l. To try, to test, to experiment. - rnllo1 t.caam2 het3. To try out, to test a product. - ,1- tsaam2 kaa2. To test-drive. 2. To be fierce, to be vicious, to be evil, to be ferocious. rnliJrnliJ- - haai5 haai5 tsaarn2 tsaam2. To be extremely vicious. 0'1LOTD8Hrnlil - to6 th:m3 /1.aai5 tsaam2. Ferocious animals. -al~ /tsaam3/, 1. To seek, to strive for, to make an attempt for. - nln,18ulla

Original from



tsaam3 ?aarf' Ji6 peu3. To seek benefit, to seek gain. - '711- al, 1811 tsaam3 tsaa2 xaal kin6. To earn a living. AIJn '711- J:,,f tsaam3 tsaa2. Life, living. 2. Verandah, porch. - min tsaam3 haarf'.Porch,verandah,corridor (upstairs). - mll11 tsaam3 hen2. Porch, verandah, corridor (downstairs). -olH /tsaan2/, 1. Verandah, porch (esp. in the phrase - min tsaan2 haa,f). 2. Frame, rack, stand - 01/}n tsaan2 tc,I. Cucumber trellis. - UJ8ti tsaan2 f:,,f. A high stand for storing straw/ hay. -olH /tsaan3/, 1. To seize, to take hold of, to occupy. - '71LD'J11Jn018A1AI' tsaan3 tso4 ?:,rf' ti6 Jakl Jaal. To occupy an important position. 2. To drill. - mBM tsaan3 hinl. To drill a stone. 3. To dip (in water), to temper by dipping in water. - UJ'jj tsaan3 fai2. To quench. -olH /tsaan4/, To dislike, to be tired of.

mru811 - "Dfi01lltnn· hai4 p:,n6 tsaan4 tsa,f u,5 te5. To be disliked by people, to be sickening. - "Of tsaan4 tsai6 . To be tired of, to be fed up with. -olril /tsaarj2/, Second Master Buddha of the Kengchang Branch of Buddhism. -olfi2 /tsa31J2/, To control, to take hold of. See thirf. -olftl /tsaaJJ3/, Account (finance). -olf\2 /tsB.arj3/, To feel bloated (as a sign of indigestion). See sin6. -oln3 /ts3afj3/, All, whole, wholly, entire, entirely. - '718-1LHAlfJ'J11J'11:J!1:J/}f11:J/}Jit tsaat.73 ts:,2 kon2 Jom3 ?:Jk3

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maa2 m£n5 mcn5. All the young men came out. - 1:J8Wl.1a11A8n tsaa,f m:P phuk5 wan2 1:,,1. The whole day tomorrow. -oln /tsaarJ4/, To hire, to employ. - 1[fi1:J/·· m/}~1l'fJrn811 tsaarf' kon2 maa2 thcml kaai3 h:,n2. To hire someone to (help) build a house. Al.1 - Juk5 tsaarf'. Employer.

-0111 /ts88J]S/, Elephant. -ol11ul,:i /ts881)5 paai2/, Male elephant. -olnt /tsaaJJ6/, 1. Artisan, expert. - aid saa,/ xam2. Goldsmith. - ABM tsaar! Jin6. Builder, brick-maker. 2. To know how to, to be skilled (at), to be able to. - mllrn tsaa,I het3. To be expert at doing (sth.), to be skilled. -oln-,tn; /ts33JJ6 lek3/, Blacksmith, ironsmith. -oln1:1'Jl /tsaarJ6 mai5/, Carpenter. -oln2 /ts3afJ6/, 1. (Of food) to be tasteless, to have no flavour, to be insipid. w1ali1AiJ18- 01n· phak1 waan3 Jai5 k:P tsaarl te5. This dish is really tasteless (i.e. it needs some salt). 2. (Of colour, esp. red) to be pale, light. x:>,:f tsaar.f. Pink.

aun -

-oln3 /tsaarJ6/, Seal. -olu /tsaap3/, (Of animals) to take a bite at (sb. or sth.), to hold sth. in the mouth. l:JL. - Aid mul tsaap3 Jam5. The pig is biting at the food. See kaap5. -olu /tsaap5/, 1. To be close together, to press together, to put (pieces) together. - 1811 tsaap5 kin2. To be close together, closely. - m/}M tsaap5 th£n4. To strengthen. 2. To match (things up), to Original from



connect. See tsapl, kapl. -olu-uijr1 /tsaapS stl)l/, To spell. -olu-uuH /tsaapS sonl/, To train. -olu01u;J /tsaapS toi2/, To be connected. -olD'l /tsaat3/, 1. (Of ships) to anchor.

rn811/riwLti- cn/.;,11!J91,:,1~.,,8n h:,2 saa,f1 pho2 tsaat3 taa6 Jam5 hai5 kam2 J:,rf. A ship cast anchor at the wharf. 2. To set aside (a small portion). -01011 /tsaatS/, Ladder. a1- xak5 tsaat5. Steps of a ladder. .,,,- m/ti - Jaa2 thaarf3 tsaat5. Terraced field. -01012 /tsaat.5/, Generation. cnri'TJL_D01h ~ tarj tso6 tarj tsaat5. A whole lifetime, the whole generation. -011 /tsak5/, To grab, to snatch. - BJJl1 tsak5 xut5. To steal, to pilfer. -011luijH /tsak5 kaa6 p£n3/, Interpreter. "018L /tsakS xuS/, Eye. -012 /tsak5/, To be lame, to be unbalanced. 1LHal ·- kon2 xaal tsak5. A lame person, a cripple. -ofj /tsam2/, In case (that). 1:Jr71{J1:J/~Jj ~, '1JI,: 1:Jyialld1:JI- BLd.;,18n mai2 ?am3

maa2 Jai4 tsani2, su4 m::,k3 xaaro2 maa2 xo4 J:,rf'. In r.ase you can't come, please let me know. '1lY /tsarr,.3/, A noun stem used in compound indicating 'the world'. "OY1::1I· ..cB /tsam3 maa3 1i6/, Ge11nany. '1lY"1JL /tsam3 su3/, The world. -OY-UL 01Bul· /tsam3 su3 ti6 paa3/, The world, the globe.

Digitized by


"O~ /tsam4/, 1. Dip into water. - 1818H tsam4 k:P kin6. To dip food into sauce while eating. See tsum3. 2. To strike. See po5. "tl~ /tsam5/, 1. Dark blue. See kam3.

2. Green, as the colour of grass. See xeul. 3. Black, as the colour of being bruised. - - 'T1U'JJ'T1U'JJ tsam5 tsam5 ts::,i6 ts::,i6. (fo be beaten) black and blue. "01::1 /tsam6/, 1. Mi11or, glass. 2. Near, close. DHl:JH - 1:JlururLJD wan2 man2 tsam6 maa2 yai2 yai2 yau5. The day is drawing near. 3. Since, from (the time of). Also tsem6. 4. And, with, together with. - uBri - "DliJ, 1:J8rn/118Li1Ld tsam6 yir:f tsam6 tsaai2, mi2 haa4 sipl ko5. There are altogether fifty people, men and women. -0l::ll.Q'JJ /tsam6 fai2/, Convex lens (which can focus light into a point to make a fire). "0~1'3 /tsam6 kai4/, Just now.

- 1:J(1/·


tsam6 kai4 mai2 kaa3

thail? Where were you/have you been just now? -01::1uijnl.QI· /tsam6 p£1J6 faaS/, Legendary magic mirror. -01::1-uijri /tsam6 S£1]1/, Legendary • • magic nurror. "OH /tsan2/, 1. To stand. 'TJf.1'TJf.1 ~ ~ ull1:101riaHun718lJ tsukl tsukl tsan2 tsan2 yem4 tarj wan2 yarf ?im3. (I/He) was not tired of standing there watching all day. See tsukl. 2. To be steep. ""ll'JJ.;,18,;.,,U'JJ - J::,i6 lirjJ J::,i6 tsan2. Steep mountains.

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"Dll /tsapl/, 1. To throw. - 1:1/1rnBH

"DH /tsan3/, To kick. See thipl. "DH.An· /tsan3 Ie3/, Saturday. "DHO'II· /tsan3 taa3/, The moon.

"D~ /tsanS/, Level (of floor), floor. rr,/r,1.1/ld ~ haiu:,4 saaml tsan5. Thrcestoreyed building. ~ ,1/J •tsan5 J:,1. Top level, upper level.~ rnf tsan5 tai4. Low level, lower level. "DH /tsan6/, 1. To pull, to drag. See Jaak5,

tit5. 2. To be a little bit too tight (to fit), to barely fit, to feel tight. See hat5.

"Ori /tsafj2/, To hate.~ 111 tsar1 kan6. To hate each other. "Dr'I /tsafj3/, Just, just now, then.

1:111 ~ 1:1/ ··

man2 tsar;r3 maa2. He/She just arrived.

rnfjt],1/-jj1:1{]11rr,ll:.. 1/· ttm4 Jaai2 mtn5 he1 tsat;f Jcaa3. Finish writing before you go. "Dr'l1U)i /lsafJ3 koi2/, Just. "Dr'I.A')l /tsaJ)3 lai4/, Now, at present. "Dr'I.A~ /tSaJ)3 JaiS/, Now. at the

moment. "Dr'I011 /tsaJ]3 tak. 1/, To be about to, to

be going to. "Dr'I01B' /ts8Jj3 ti 1/, To be about to, to be going to, future marker. "Dr'lal' /tsal)3 xaa 1/, Just now. "Df°l /tsafj4/, 1. To hold 61111, to hold on.

~ all!J1/· rnnrnDri tsaif xaam3 kaa3 ta,f2 hil)1. To hold on to the end. 2. (Of troops) to station. L(JU71J/J1 rn8m11rr,iJ fulJI s:,k3 ts81J' c;6 than4 haP. The troops stationed there.

ad tsarf xau4. 2. Weight scale.~ n/!11 tsatJ6

"Dn /tsUJ6/, 1. To weigh. -

q:1n2. A weight scale for weighing

tsapl maak3 mnl. To throw stones. 2. To join, to stick together, to be sticky. - 111 tsapl kan6. To stick together, to get stuck up, to adhere to each other. - - LJ!1LJl1 tsapl tsapl yaakl yaakl. To be sticky. to be glutinous. 3. To light (lamp/fire/cigarette).~ L(J-jj tsapl fai2. To light a fire. 4. To catch (a disease). 1/· ~

..,,,,,,. rnlriull11mr1:11- kaa3 tsapl ?aa6 Jaa3 taa,f2 pen6 thai 1 maa2?Where did (you/he/she) get the sickness from? 5. (Of children) to cling to (sh.), to be so fond of sh. as to be reluctant or unwilling to stay away from him or her. nll'iLd'1iJ ~ 1:1rull11'TJf!iJ ?el koS IBP tsap1 mai2 pen6 ts:,;5. The child is so fond of you. "Dllul· /tsap 1 paa3/, To remember, to keep in mind, to worry about, to be concerned with. "DLlUijH /tsapl ptn2/, To be attached to, to adhere to. "Dll"Df /tsap 1 tsa.6/, To remember, to think of, to keep in mind. "DLl"DUa;j /tsap 1 ts:>m2/, To follow. "DLl"DUa;j'J'IUa;jU)I /tsap 1 tsom2 hom2 pai6/, To follow, to go along (with).

"Dtr1 /tsatl/, 1. To distribute (esp. in the phrase - 1:1f}f1 tsatl mtrfl>. 2. To set aside (esp. in the phrase - aiJ tsatl wai5). 3. To arrange (time). "DD1711H /tsatl ?aan2/, To plan. "OD1"Dn- /tsat 1 tse2/, To plan. "001 /tsat5/, 1. To pull, to drag. See tsarP, Jaak5, tit5. 2. To crack, (of a wall) to have cracks. rnu-jj ~ hJi2 tsat5. Crack. See ttk3.


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rnllrft "D/]ilrnllrft- -"BLJd het3 ts~P het3 tsau3

"Oci /tsau3/, 1. (lf)... then. Jj6 yau5.

It will be good if it is done this way. 2. According to, in accordance with. - rnllrfl tsau3 het3. To do as one is told.

"DC /tsau4/, 1. Master. 2. Owner. 3. Lord, ruler. 4. Noun stem for respected persons. 1JCLQI· /tsau4 faa5/,0fficial. 1JC1J1Ur'I /tsau4 hoJJ5/, Emperor. 1JC1JlflH /tsau4 h~n2/, l.andlord,

owner (of the house). "OC1LciD'l~~I- /tsau4 ko3 tam2 maa2/, Sakyamuni. Also to3 tam2 maa2. 1JC.A8 · /tsau4 li4/, Creditor. 1JC~LH /tsau4 mon6/, Lord. 1JC1Jln /tsau4 SaaJJ3/, Monk. 1JC1Jijr1 /tsau4 SEJJ 1/, Princess, Miss. 1JC1Jln /tsau4 tsaaJ)3/, Creditor. 1JC1J8- ltsau4 tsi2/, Master Buddha. 1JC1llJ:i /tsau4 tsum6/, Wife of the ruler, wife of the Lord of the Seal. -ccald /tsau4 xaaul/, Nun. 1JCa~ /tsau4 xunl/,Young master of the house. -ccur a~.ALr1 /tsau4 yai3 xun 1 IOI) 1/, High officials and noble lords, VIPs. -ccun. /tsau4 ye5/, Lord of the Seal. "O~ /tsau5/, Early.

1/· - 1:1/ .. - kaa3 tsau5

maa2 tsau5. To go early and come back early. "Or /tw.i2/, 1. To visit (esp. in the phrase

- m/1:1 tsai2 thaarnl). - uB.,,un tsai2 pi6 /~if. To visit friends. 2. To collect (fish net, trap, game food being trapped or suchlike). 1:1111/· - UILD man2 kaa3 tsai2 to6. He went to collect fish (being

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trapped in the net). -orul, /tsat2 yaak.S/, To express condolence to or to feel sympathy for (the bereaved).


/tsai4/, The first of the twelve Earthly Branches.


/tsai5/, 1. To assign, to send (sb. to do sth.). 1:111 - rnf1a1:1/ii:Jl}l:1u/,:, man2

tsaP hai4 kau6 maa2 th£ml paan3. He assigned/sent me to handle this. 2. To serve, to render service to, to look after.

1:111018 •- ulad man2 til tsaP yaa6 xaul. She wants to look after her grandmother. -cr-uu>J /tsai5 soi 1/, To serve, to render service to, to look after.

1J r 1

/tsai6/, 1. Heart, breath, mind. 2. Head element in compound verbs denoting certain psychological state or activity. -er 11Bn /tsai6 ?i1]6/, To depend upon, to rely on. -or 71UH /tsai6 ?-:Jn3/, To be timid, to be cowardly. -erLQID'I /tsai6 faat3/, To be restless. -or LQL /tsai6 fu2/, To be kind-hearted. -er 1JII)} /t~i6 haaj5/, To be cruel, to beevil. -er /tsai6 he4/, To be biased, to be prejudiced. -or 1JIU')) /tsai6 hoi4/, To think of, to cherish, to concern. -er /tsai6 hl1]2/, To be furious, to be angry, to be ill-tempered. -er 111BL.l /tsai6 hipl/, To be narrowminded. -or 11" /tsai6 k881]4/, To be broadminded. -or1r /tsai6 kai6/, To be careless. -or 1(_D'l1Jr"LC /tsai6 kotS tsai6 1]o2/, To harbour evil intentions.



Original from



-or al~ /tsai6 xom2/, To be angry. -or .,t~ /tsai6 laml/, To be greedy. -or .,t~ /tsai6 lam6/, To be furious, to be ill-tempered. -or .-tB /tsai6 Ii6/, 1. To be kindhearted. 2. To be at leisure. -or .-tUo1 /tsai6 l~tl/, To be narrowminded, to be stingy. -or .-tUn /tsai6 l~1]2/, 1. To be ambitious. 2. (Of a ruler) to be tyrannical, to be cruel. -or .-t0o"I /tsai6 l~t3/, Tobe ill-tempered. -or 1::1101 /tsai6 maatS/,Confidence. -or~)) /tsai6 mai4/, To be quicktempered, to be ill-tempered. -or /tsai6 m~kS/, To be evilhearted, to be sinister. -or nn /tsai6 fJe6/, To be kind-hearted, to be gentle. -or UH /tsai6 pan2/, To think of, to be concerned. -or -U1 /tsai6 sakS/, To be happy, to feel comfortable. -or -UH /tsai6 san3/, To be alarmed and nervous. -uO /tsai6 5i6/, To be honest. -or 0111 /tsai6 taak3/, 1. To lose heart. 2. To change one's mind, (of a husband or wife) to be disloyal to the other. -or 01H /tsai6 tan6/, To be slow-witted. -or 01Lci /tsai6 to3/, To be honest, to be straightforward. -or 01UH /tsai6 t~n4/, To be narrowminded. -or mOrl /tsai6 thi1]1/, To think about, to call to mind. -or -ol· /tsai6 tsaaS/, 1. To be evilhearted. 2. To be ill-tempered. -or aija /tsai6 XEu2/, 1. To tend to get angry, to be easily stirred up, quick-



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tempered. 2. Evil-hearted. -or ula /tsai6 yaau2/, To be broadminded. -or /tsai6 yai3/, To be bold.


-or2 ftsai6/, To be COliCCt, to be so, yes.

un - yar/ tsai6. Not to be, no. - '11U . IS. . tsai·6 h-" ;r. y es, It -on- /tse2/, Elder sister. Also se2. -on· .-tlH /tse2 laar,2/, Telephone. -on- .-tin /tse2 l&a1]2/, Capital (finance). -on· -or /tse2 tsai6/, To be modest. -on· -onfi /tse2 tsem3/, Food. -on· -OL /tse2 tsu2/, Indebtedness. -on· -nlll /tse2 tsum3/, Complete. -on· 1 /tse3/, To borrow. - 1JLd tse3 so 1. To borrow money. -on· 2 /tse3/, To be old (not young), to be tough (not tender). 1LHWD1LH - kon2 thau4 kon2 tse3. Old people, elderly people. w1 - phakl tse3. Tough vegetables. Also k&. -on· 018· /tse3 ti3/, Small pagoda built of sand. Also tsaa3 ti3. -on. 1 /tse4/, Paper. - BLD tse4 xo3. Paper money (used in religious or sacrificial activities). -on. 2 /tse4/, To untie (a knot or


suchlike), to free from. BLD tse4 s~ xo2. To unbutton clothes, to take one's clothes off. - ULJiJWLJiJU/1 tse4 p:,i3 th:,;3 yaak5. To free (sb.) from poverty and hardships. Also kt:". -on1 /tse6/, To soak, to steep. - l/JH tse6 fan2. To soak seeds. ,1l!J97iJ tstP Jai2 Jam-5 hai5. To soak in water.


Original from



-an2 /tse6/, 1. Town, city. -


tse6 yai3 m~ lolJl. Big towns, big places. 2. A kind of toy played with by children during the Spring Festival. -any /tsem2/, To be salty. w1,1/n,1,:,;/} - ;/o1,1/o19'1Lri phakl JIUU)l Jai5 k:P tsem2 kaatl Jaatl ho1Jl. This dish is too salty. -an~ /tsem6/, 1. Since, from the time (of).

.,,,L1- 1:JliD#rlU18, m:,j, 1Jnulw/; lJIHiLD Juk5 tsem6 maa2 thitJl til thai4, yarf paa6 phaak5 yaanl ko3. (We) have never been away since we arrived here. 2. And, with, together with. ~ 1J8ri -

'71/jj, - ma - ,11fJ, U1n1:JIH1:J8 . iLH'VUriu/191/· tsem6 yir/ tsem6 t~aai2, tsem6 thau4 tsem6 Jum3, taJ:r maan4 mi2 kon2 SOIJJ paak3 haa4. There are altogether two hundred and fifty villagers, men and women, young and old. Also kem6. See tsam6. -on~JIH /tsem6 ?an6/, And, together with, with. -on~1I /tsem6 kaa6/, And, together with, with. -on~~fl /tsem6 m-:,6/, Since, from the time(of). -anH /tsen2/, 1. To wrap. Also ken2. 2. To filter. ~ O'ID91ll' '11'1'11/]' tsen2 tau6 he1 saJc5 s:,4. To filter some lye for washing clothes. -nnH /tsen3/, Dozen. 1lnH 1 /tsen6/, Blanket.

-ann2 /tseg2/, City. Also wer/.

1lnri'f'IU, /tsefJ2 hug6/, Chenghung, capital of Sipsongpanna Prefecture. -onn~flri /tserJ2 m-:,g2/, Current situation, state of affairs. -onn01L(1 /tseg2 lUfJ 1/, Chengtung (a placename). 1lnn01un /tseg2 tofJ2/, Chengtong (a placename). -onn3 /tseg2/, First.

l:Jr ~ ;/",11}-mai2

tse,r kaa3 ]£2. You go first. Also tse,t. -onn /tsefJ3/, Angle, side, aspect. '1L'71UiiL ~ ku6 ts:ik5 ku6 tseifl. All sides, all angles, all comers. '1f.'71llf1'1L ~ ku6 tseifl ku6 paa4. All sides, all directions. 1lnn /tseg4/, To be clean (esp. in the phrase ~ 'Vf tsetf' sail). Also ketf'.

-onl1 /tsefJ5/, First. l:Jr ~ 1/;,I}- mai2 tse,i5 kaa3 ]£2. You go first. Also tse,r. -onu1 /tsep3/, 1. To hurt, to ache, to suffer, to feel sore. 0'18 ~ ti6 tsep3. Sore (spot). - mfIJ/· a,,:, tsep3 thail yaa4

than4. To treat where it aches/hurts (i.e. to treat the symptoms but not the disease). 2. Skin ulcer, sore. '97/.- - hu2 tsep-1. The open part of a sore. -onu-or /tsep3 tsa.6/, To be sad, to feel hurt, to be heartbroken. -onu2 /tsep3/, To pick up, to collect. - ,1:,j tsep3 Jai4. To pick up (sth.). Also kep3.

-anH2 /tsen6/, To drill with a sharppointed knife or other similar tools.

-onm 1 /tset3/, Seven.

-nnn 1 1tse1J2,, Tripod.

-anrn 2 /tset3/, Scale (of fish, pangolin or suchlike). - ul tset3 paa6. Fish scale.

Digitized by


Original from



- ;181,1 tset3 Jin6. Pangolin, pangolin scale. Also ket3.

-onut 3

/tset3/, To skin (pumpkin seeds or suchlike) by cracking with the teeth. - 1:J001u11:J001010n tset3 m£t5 pak5 mEt5 tE,:f. To skin pumpkin seeds.

-onut 4

/tset3/, (Of a surface) not smooth, coarse. See hitl.

-on01 /tset5/, To wipe, to rub. - w8H tset5 ph:ml. To wipe tables. - 'VB ·tset5 sil. To rub oneself down with a wet towel. -on01'1JL~ /tset5 som4/, To get angry (with), to be at odds with. -ona1 /tseu2/, To be fast, to be quick, quickly. - 1/· - 1:JJ- tseu2 kaa3 tseu2 maa2. To go and come back quickly. -ona2 /tseu2/, (In traditional Chinese medicine) to treat with moxibustion. -ono1 /tseu3/, To get hooked, to hook, to get caught (by). ;1/fd- 71LD'V8. laaml tseu3 tso4 s:t'. The clothes were caught on the thorn.


/tseu3/, A discourse particle often not translated. - rnllrfl1f;d;18n tseu3 het3 kam2 Jeu6. (I/We) will do (it) in a


-and /tseu4/, To twist, to wind, to entwist. Also keu4.

-and /tseu5/, To ruminate, to chew. Also keu5. -oijil /tsEk3/, To be broken, to be shabby, to be tom. Also tsaak3. -oiji2 /tsEk3/, (Of the mouth) to be broad. Also tsaak3.

Digitized by (


. . ,, __ .. .


-oij.;j /tsEm2/, 1. To look for, to search for. Sec xaal, IEm2. 2. To keep an eye on, to spy on, to follow closely, to watch closely. - 1Jllf!J;1yn rnllrfl 01/nuun 1[fiallH tstm2 yem4 J:,,f het3 taarf p:>,:f kon2 xen 1• To watch the enemy's movements closely. -oij~ /tsEm3/, To be attentive, to know or make known clearly, to attend to detail, detailed, in detail. ;1yn - J:,,f tsEm3. Detailed infot rnation. u818ri11J/t;i01/'}J tJn - pi6 k~t3 yaani2 taai6 ya,/ tsEm3. The dates are unknown. -oij~ /tsEm4/, Cheek. Also kEm4.


/tsr.nl/, Compound element denoting 'a little bit, somewhat'. -oijH-AQn /tsEn 1 l.l1]6/, A little bit. -oijH-nijH /tsEn 1 tsr.n 1/, Just a little bit. - - 71LJH71LJH ts£nl tsEnl ts:,nl ts:,nl. To scatter around, to be very small in quantity.


/tsEn2/, 1. To hurt, to be extremely painful. See hE,r. 2. (Of sound) to be ear-piercing. 'Vllri - sel)l ts£n2. Earpiercing sound.


/tsEn3/, 1. To publish, to appear in (publications). - 71LJ1 tsEn3 ?:,k5. To publish, to be published. 2. To be hard, to be solid. Also kEn3. 3. On purpose, purposely, intentionally. l:JH rnllrflrnfu81,101fji man2 tsEn3 het3 hai4 p:,n6 toi2. He/She simply wanted to show off on purpose. 4. Discourse particle indicating a strong affix 111ati ve. - ullMl:JHtJd tsEn3 pen6 man2 yau5. That's him (not someone else). -oijH"\.111 /tsEn3 saak5/, History, record.

Original from



-oij~ /tsmS/, To choke. - ad - ,1,;, stn5 xau4 tstn5 Jam5. To choke while eating or drinking.


/tsEpS thl3/, To be careful.

-niju-niju /tsEp5 tsEp5/, Sometimes, frequently, often.

-oijH /tsEn6/, 1. Centre, core (esp. in the phrase - 1/n tsen6 kaar/). 2. Hard core (of fruit). - 1::J/1 tstn6 maaJc3. Hard core of fruit. 3. Misfortune, unlucky. Also ken6.

-niju2 /ts£p5/, Long thin bamboo strip for roofing or fencing.

-nijr1 /tsEfJl/, What (contracted fo1111 of ti 1

-nijm 2



/tsEi]l tSEl)l/, Thing,

object. /tsE1]3/, To be stubborn. 1:1ru,:, wOd mai2 pai3 tst,fl phtul. Don't you be so stubborn.


-oijn /tsEfj4/, 1. To wipe the anus with a bamboo strip after defecating (i.e. to use it as toilet paper). 2. A dry, flat piece (of earth or suchlike). -nijl1 /tsEi]S/, To sew by hand (as a special way of locking). -nijn /tsEfJ6/, 1. Chain. - aid tst,! xam2. Gold chain. 2. To cook sth. tender, to tender boil. - w1 ts£,! phakl. To tender boil vegetables. 3. To be clear, clearly, carefully, attentively. myid - th:,m3 ts£,! ts£,!. To listen carefully/attentively. -oijut lts£p3/, (Rice) husk. Also ktp3. 1:1ijll01BH /tstp3 tin6/, Shoe. Also kep3 tin6. -niju2 /tsEp3/, 1. Support, outer cover (of). 2. To get near, to lean close to, to be close to, to snuggle up to. -nOu 1 /tsEpS/, To question closely. 1:1iju.-1iju /tsEp5 lq,5/, To be careful, carefully, to be attentive, attentively.

Digitized by


-oijm I

/tsEt3/, 1. To set aside (esp. in the phrase - 1:10n tstt3 mE,fl}. 2. To classify. /tsEt3/, Square silver button in women's dress. - aLd-vlJ· tstt3 xo2 s:,4. Square silver button for women's garments.


ltsEtS/, 1. To examine, to check, to

test (esp. in the phrase - ulll!J tset5 ye.nt'}. - "Oli:i ts£t5 tsaa,n2. To test, to train or temper (sb.). 2. To be pure. - 1:JOUI ts£t5 m£t5. Pure, virtuous. 3. To filter. 4. To be slim, to be tiny.

-oij~ -nB ·

/tsEu3/, Sedan chair.

/tsi 1/, To tickle (sb.). -oB· .-1n1 /tsil lek3/,Key. -nB · .-l~H /tsi 1 l~n6/, Earthwo11n. -nB · -nln /tsil tsaaJJ6/,Naturally, automatically.


/tsi2/, 1. To be crowded, to be full (of). 1Ll1- U1ll1::J,1rrn/]11rn'jj kon2 tsi2 tem6 Jai2 han2 haP. The room is full of people. 2. To carry on the back. - nll, J1UH tsi2 ?el ?:,n3. To carry a child on the back. See t:,il. 3. Awl, drill. -oe · 1L /tsi2 )cu2/, Intention, motivation. -oB· 1lU"Jl /tsi2 tsoi2/, To worry about, to be concerned, to think of. /tsi3/, 1. Several, a couple of. - DH tsi3 wan2. Several days, a couple



Original from



of days. 2. How many. 1:JB-1LH - 1Ld mi2 kon2 tsi3 ko5? How many people are there? Also Jci3.

"DB· 2 /tsi3/, Weaving machine. Also Jci3.

"081 /tsik5/, Odd number, as opposed to ko,,S. 7111- ?an6 tsik5. Odd number. "tl81'1JH011· /tsikS san3 taa5/, Desire, wish.

"DB· 3 /tsi3/, 1. To grill or roast over a

"08.;i 1 /tsim2/, 1. Scisson. 2. Tongs.

ftre. 2. To set (sth.) in place.

"DB" /tsi4/, 1. To feel anxious, to be anxious, to huny, to be worried. - '11iJ018U'JJ tsi4 hai5 til pai6. To (want to) go in a huny, to be anxious to go. 1:JLJl1Dlnull11WI.- tsi4 phai2 m:Jrj w~ pen6 phu2. To be eager to succeed, to expect to be successful. 2. To panic. u/· uil - yaa3 pai3 tsi4. Don't panic. 3. To be worth. - '1lLda( tsi4 sol JCai6? How much is that worth? - ,,,/')J tsi4 Jai4. To be worthy, to be worth (the effort, time or suchlike)


"DB· /tsi5/, To point (at), to point one's finger at. - 71lJM'1llJ"1""ll 'tsi5 ?:Jn3 s:Jnl /el. To instruct, to give an introduction

(to). "DB• "DB•

.,.n, /tsi5 Jel/, To instruct, to teach. .,.n- /tsi5 Ie2/, To blame (sb.).

--oe· '1JL1

/tsi5 sok5/, To instigate. "DB· "tlijO'l /tsi5 tsEtS/, To blame (sb.). "DB /tsi6/, 1. (Of flowen) to be in bloom. 2. To lay out, to spread out, to display. 3. To be young. 1LH - kon2 tsi6. Young people. 4. To be happy. Also Jci6.

"tlBaB01 /tsi6 wit5/, Life. "081 /tsikl/, Top, tip (of sth.). - ,,,/lJ'JJ tsikl l:Ji6. Top of a mountain, summit. - l:JLC1'11Ld tsik1 mo3 ho1. Top of a hat. "tl81"tlUl:I /tsikl ts:>ml/, Top, tip.

Digitized by


- UJ"jj tsim2 fai2. Fire tongs. 3. Pot, jar,

bottle. - 1J0rl tsim2 S£1)1. Small glass bottle. - ,,,/Q tsim2 Jau4. Small wine jar. Also kim2. "tl8.;i2 /tsim2/, To taste. - w1 tsim2 phaJcl. To taste the dish.

"DB~ /tsim6/, 1. To bid to keep secret. 2. To insert. Also kim6. "tlBH /tsin2/, 1. To be tight. nf!J - tJam5 tsin2. To hold tight. 2. To be urgent, to be critical. 1:JB~un01/n - mj2 l:Jr:,6 taa.rl tsin2. To have something urgent. 1:JHull11 - '11il man2 pen6 tsin2 hai5. He is in a critical condition. 3. To be excessive, excessively. 1o1- 01fi• katl tsin2 te5. Exceptionally cold, icy cold. 1'JJ - wOd kai6 tsin2 phEul. Too far away. Also kin2.

"DB~ /tsin5/, Piece (of meat, cloth or suchlike). ,,,,o· - .,,On/~ tsin5 /~. A piece of meat. l:JHLJLJ'JJ - _,,On mart' y:Ji6 tsin5 J:,r:,6. A piece of decorated cloth, a rag.

"tlBH /tsin6/, To cat, to drink, to smoke (cigarettes), to take (medicine). - ad tsin6 JCau4. To eat food. - u/· tsin6 yait'. To smoke a cigarette. - ,,,/0 tsin6 Jau4. To drink wine. - ,,,/1!/ tsin6 Jam5. To drink water. Also Jcin6.

"tlBri /tsifj2/, 1. To invade, to occupy, to seize. 1:J8nu1101/n,,,,,:,, "Dli.J/11ad Original from



ad01lln91df:IJ- m:P ?:,n6 taarj Jan5, tsaa4 paan3 xaul tsi,f xau4 t:1,f hau2 maa2. The Japanese invaded our country previously. 2. To stay up late, to burn the midnight oil (esp. in the phrase - 1Du tsirf xin2>. "DBriu~n /tsilj2 IY.)Ij3/, To rule, to occupy, to seize. "DBri"Dll:l /tsi~2 tsaam3/, To invade, to occupy by force.


/tsifj3/, 1. Small branches of trees. Also kit:13. 2. Diamond.


/tsilj3/, To respect, to hold in

respect. - .,,/DfflfuB""Ur'I tsilJ3 lau4 hai4 pi6 J:,if. To propose a toast to (the health of) the guests.

xo2/, To WOit)' about (sb.), to be concerned with the health and well-being of (sb.), as of parents worrying about their children. -oBc /tsiu 1/, To seize, to catch, to grab.

91Ln - 1'JJ ho,! tsiul kai3. The eagle caught a chicken. - Bf!191Ld tsiul xonl hol. To grab the hair. 1lLC /tso 1/, To make fun of, to tease, to ridicule, to mock. 1lLci 1 /tso2/, To cook with sour sauce, to cook with vinegar, preserved sour vegetables or the like. f:IH - W '?f:ILci


man2 tso2 phaJcl mo4 J:1,!. He cooked a pot of vegetables with sour sauce.

11Bu1 /tsipl/, To cut with scissors. - u/of kipl paat3. To cut, to tailor.

1lLci2 /tso2/, To call (on), to ask or invite in advance. f:lrf:1/ -- 1D.,,/I}- mafl maa2

11Bu2 /tsipl/, Hoof (esp. in the phrase - 018H tsip1 tin6). Also Jcipl.

tso2 kau6 /£2. You come and call me.

11Bll3 /tsipl/, Section (of an orange, garlic or suchlike). - f://1 tsipl maaJc3. A section of (orange, pomelo or suchlike). Also Jcipl. 11Bu /tsipS/, To take hold of (with a tong, fingers or suchlike). Also ki,,S.

11Bo11 /tsitl/, To sprinkle, to spurt, to jet, to splash, to spray. - 10u1u/· ul tsitl ph:,k5 yaa4 yaa6. To spray with farm chemicals. - 01Uf1 tsit1 t:>if. To splash, to sprinkle.

11Bo12 /tsitl/, 1. To scratch, to hit by scratching or being scratched. See kiP, tset5. 2. To flee, to escape. See tet3,

paai6. -0Bo1-or -o8o1al_l1

Digitized by

/tsit 1 tsai6 tsit I


"DLci 3 /tso2/, A unit of dry measure for grain, equal to ten baskets. "DI_C /tso3/, Heap, pile (of unhusked rice). - aci tso3 xau4. A heap of unhusked • nee. 1lL01B· /tso3 Jci3/, Devil. 1lLd 1 /tso4/, To be one's turn. f:/p.,,/Jj wfUo191llH m:P laP tso4 phail patl h:1n2? Who is on roster today to clean the house? 1lLd2 /tso4/, 1. To be COmGt. f:lr01IHUD mai2 taan4 tso4 yau5. What you said is correct. un91llrf1- ya,! het3 tso4. Not done properly. 2. To hit the mark. unuD ··- ya,! y;2 tso4. Not hit the mark/target, to miss the target. - 11f]H tso4 s£n6. To be the lucky number (in drawing lots or suchlike). 3. A Original from



preverbal element which assigns a passive meaning to the verb it modifies, adve1sative passive marker. - 1::1/u, tso4 maat3. To be wounded, to be wounded by a gunshot. - 1::1r tso4 mail. To be fined, to get a fine, to be punished. - ,AllH tso4 Jen 1. To be tricked, to be deceived. 4. A post-verbal element associated with passiveness. uiJ rr,fn81 - pai3 hai4 ?:,k5 tso4. Don't let it be stained. uJ-- paa2 tso4. To get involved on account of someone else. 1::1/1- maak3 tso4. To be stained. u,p,::, _

tin3 tso4. To be startled, to be shocked. ,Aln - JIUUJ" tso4. To catch a cold.

-OLd /tsoS/, 1. Spoon. 2. To eradicate, to dig out.

-OLC /tso6/, 1. (Time) span, duration, period (of time), generation. - ,A.,:,1::1r,,.

mr tso6 Jai5 mai2 kaa3 thail? Where

have you been recently? 2. Tube, log, chunk. u,f]uullH'1Jl}rl - t£p3 pen6 S:>IJ1 tso6. To cut into two chunks. - UJJfi tso6 fun2. Firewood chunks. -OLD1LH /tso6 kon2/, 1. Lifetime, age, generation, time span. 2. Measurement of height or depth, equal to that of a person. ,A81'1Jl}rl - J:,k5 s:,IJ1 tso6 kon2. To be of two persons' depth. -OLD1UH /tso6 kon3/, History, the past. -OLC1UHlf'lUHUl_H /tso6 kon3 hon6 pon5/, History, the past, ever since, from ancient times to the present. -OLC-AL1UIH.-tlH /tso6 luk5 paan6 laanl/, Younger generation, offspring. -OLCUIH /tso6 paan6/, Life, age, generation. -OLCUUJIHULC /tso6 pu3 paan6 po6/,

Digitized by



"DLDDH ftso6 wan2/,Daytime.


/tso6 xin2/, Night-time.

-nl]l /tsoi5/, 1. To estimate. 2. To twist or misinterpret one's words in order to amuse people. l::JHl::ILd - alldiu8H man2 mol tsoi5 xaa,n2 p:,r,6. He is fond of twisting other people's words.

-OL1 /tsok 1/, To hold or take (with the hands), to grab, to use the fingers (in eating). uilna1::1p-- aci pai3 ?au6 mi2 tsokl xau4. Don't pick up rice/grab food with your fingers.

-OL~ /tsom2/, To be happy, to be delighted, to be excited (esp. in the phrase - '118- tsom2 s:,2). - LJLti tsom2 yo2. To celebrate, to be wild with joy. - '11Lfl tsom2 soq3. To give sb. a wann send-off, to see sb. off warmly. - rr,u tsom2 hap$. To welcome sb., to greet sb. withjoy. -OL~.At_dat_d--uu- /tsoml lol xol sill, To be wild with joy, to be delighted. '11L~8L0 /tsom2 xo3/, To congratulate.

-OLH /tson6/, 1. To rob. See ?iml. 2. Robber. - -A8ri tson6 J:,,r. Robber, bushranger. -0 Ull /tsoi 1/, Female private parts.

fflL ·· -

hu2 ts:,i1. Vagina. See hil.

-OU;i /tsoi2/, To love, to cherish, to think about sh. dearly, to be concerned. 'Or'OU'Or - tsai6 tsapl tsai6 ts:,i2. To think of sb. or somewhere dearly, to be concerned about sh.' s well-being.

-OU;i /tsoi2/, 1. To delay, to linger. 18H aciuiJ - w8H Jcin6 xau4 pai3 ts:,i2 ph:ml. Don't linger when eating. Original from



2. Incessant, continuing. UJIJ1 - u,ll · funl ts:ii2 te5. It has been drizzly and cloudy for days. 1JU'JlD1LOnl· -uijr1 /tsoi3 to3 1Jaa2 S£1) 1/, Tooth relic of Buddha. 1JU'Jlt:1I· /tsoi4 maaS/, The long hair that grows on the lower part of a horse's leg (above the hoof). 1lLJ-,ll /tsoi5/, 1. Mother's younger sister. 2. Woman, lady. 1lU'32 /tsoi5/, 1. A weight unit(= 1.5 kilograms). 2. A Bunnese monetary unit. 3. A kind of steelyard, balance, scale. 1lU')I /tsoi6/, To help (esp. in the phrase

- m/]l:J ts:,j6 thEml). - rr,yri ts:,i6 h:ilf'. To help, to support financially. See thEm 1.

1lU1 /tsok 1/, 1. To cross, to jump over. See t:>1)1. 2. Convulsion, spasm. 3. Pyramid-shaped object. 4. Hair worn in a bun or coil. 1lLJ11 /tsok3/, 1. To take sth. out (of a pocket, hole or suchlike). - 11Ld7IU'11:JI-ts:ik3 sol ?:,k3 maa2. To take money out of (the wallet). ~ WLri ts:,k3 thoIJl. To pick sb. 's pocket. 2. To chisel. See siu3. 3. To pleat. - 91U'JJ118H ts:,k3 h:,i6 sin4. To pleat a skirt. 4. To cross-stitch, as in embroidering. 1lLJ1'11· /tsok3 kaa2/, To be arrogant. 1lLJ18LJ1 /tsok3 xok3/, To be funny, tobe weird.

1lLJ12 /tsok5/, To poke (with a stick or pole), to hit (with a stick). 97£.. - 110 uyi'1 hu5 ts:,k5 tsau3 p:i,f3. No sooner (had he) poked at the thing than it broke. Also y:ik5. 1lLJ'1-Un· /tsokS se3/, To sow discord, to incite (one against the other), to instigate, to provoke. 1lLJ'18L /tsok5 xu4/, A kind of basket for carrying manure, sand and suchlike. 1lU~ /tsom 1/, Peak, summit, top. 1lu,1sut1 ts:,ml. Top, top end. u,81181 ~ ti6 tsikl ts:iml. Top (of a mountain), summit. 1JU.;j /tsom2/, To follow, to be with. - 111 ts:im2 kan6. To follow one another. - 1a1/f:D/iJ...{{!n s:im2 kau6 kait3 thaap3 Ja,f. To go with me this time. '1LH ~ kon2 ts:im2. Follower, bodyguard. 1JU.;j.-t')l /tsom2 lai4/, Because, because of the fact that... See k:>p5 Jar'. 1JU.;j.An /tsom2 J8J]3/, In accordance with, according to. ~ aa11/u,/tiu,/,;,a')J ts:im2 Ja,f3 xau3 saa6 taar:,2 taan4 xai6.. . According to what the newspaper says .. . 1JU.;j1Jf /tsom2 tsal6/, To do as one wishes, to comply with a person's wishes.

1lLJ12 /tsok3/, Sparrow. Also lok5 ts:ik3.

1lU~ /tsom3/, 1. To put in. 118Jll1..,frUJLri91iJ tsil lek3 ts:,m3 Jai2 thoIJl hai5. The key was put in the pocket. 2. A kind of fish net. 1JU~1Jf /tsom3 tsai6/, To mind (doing sth.). unu,u - ya,/ tapS ts:im3 tsai6. Please don't take it to heart.

1lU11 /tsok5/, Comer. - rn/!H ts:,k5 h~. 1be comer of a house_

'1JUH /tsonl/, To swell, to bulge, to be swollen. Also tsunl.

Digitized by


Original from



'1lUH /tson2/, Classifier for time frequency, instance of an ac~ translatable into English as 'time', as in 'once', 'twice' or 'three times' . l:JHULD 1liLD11LJrl - LJci man2 po2 kaa3 ko3 S:>1Jl ts:,n2 yau5. He/She has already gone (there) twice. Also tsm3. '1lUHnUH /tson2 1Jon2/, 1. (Of human beings) to be beautiful, good-looking. 2. (Of water) to be limpid, to be clear3. (Of human beings) to be relaxed and happy, to be carefree and joyous. '1lUH'1ll- /tson2 tsaa2/, 1. To be active. 2. To be conscientious. 1lUH /tson 3/, 1. To tum, to turn around. - 1/" - f:JI -ts:,n3 kaa3 ts:,n3 maa2. To keep moving around. - LJ!n ts:,n3 yaa,/. To wander around, to stroll. 2. Classifier for time frequency, instance of an act. Also ts:>n2. 1lUH /tson4/, Squi11el. '1lU~ /tson5/, 1. To scrape, to scoop up by scraping. See x:,t5, xutl. 2. To make a face by sticking out or protruding one's lips. 11LLJ - sop3 ts:>n5. With protruding lips. 1lUH1 /tson6/, 1. Brick. 2. A small, divided piece of land for growing vegetables, rice seedlings or other similar purposes. '1lUH2 /tson6/, To evade, to dodge. See tet3, l)ik1. '1lUri /tsol)2/, (Burmese) Buddhist temple. - u,/11 ts:,rf2 taan2. The side wings of a Buddhist temple. 1JUri'f'IUDl1I· /tso1)2 hu2 phaa2 kaa3/, Rank and file, common people.

Digitized by


'1lUri"On- /tsol)2 tse2/, To pay attention to, to take notice of. 11Un /tso1]3/, To pull or weigh down sth., such as a branch of a tree. 11Un11U~ /tso1]3 tsoi4/, To stagger. '1lUn /tsol)6/, 1. Umbrella. - l:JH ts:>r/ man4. Cloth umbrella. - 1:JllH ts:,,/ men6. Parachute. - uii ts:>r:f pau2. The umbrella of blessing, as a religious offering. 2. Kingdom. u/171d - paak3 tsau4 ts:>,/. A hundred kingdoms, so believed to have existed in history. '1lUll /tsop3/, To lure, to trick, to coax the secret out of sb. uiJ - .,/llHnllnu11 rnllr/11:1/]1 pai3 ts:,p3 Jenl ?el ?:,n3 het3 m:,k5. Don't instigate children into doing bad things. - 1/ldi1:111 ts:,p3 xaani2 man2. To coax the secret out of him/her, to trick him/her into telling the truth. '1lUUULd /tsop3 yoS/, To lure, to seduce, to trick. '1lUU /tsop5/, To be tired, to be exhausted (esp. in the phrases -"lfl - loi3 ts:,p5, - 'TILH ts:,p5 ?on4). - _,,001 ts:,p5 1£t3. To become tired from being exposed to or working in the sun for too long. '1lUU.-tUU /tsop5 lop5/, 1. A public house in a village. 2. A wing room in a Buddhist temple where monks read Buddhist scriptures and where they also retire for the night. 1lUo1 /tsot 1/, To drink. - .,/0 ts:,tl Jau4. To drink liquor, to drink wine. See lut1, sot5. 1lUUI /tsot3/, To be all over (the place), to be everywhere. a/ ,- 1L9'1l}riLJn 91H xaal ts:,t3 ku6 h:,,f yar:,6 hanl. To have searched for (sth.) everywhere but could

Original from



not find (it). 1am/1::i - '1J.'1LDIJD kau6 thaaml ts:it3 ku6 ko5 yau5. I have asked everyone. -num1lt1 /tsot3 kaaJ]4/, (To reach) far and wide. 1lLJo1.-tijH /tsot3 lrn6/, To be popular, to be common, to be universal. 1lLJm1ln- /tsot3 tse2/, To popularise. -num-oijm /tsot3 ts£t4/, To be everywhere, to be all over the place.

1lUD1 /tsot6/, (Of a buzzing sound, or a very low voice) to be heard, to get into the ear.


/tsu 1/, (Breast) milk. See ?ul, Iom2.

-nL:: /tsu2/, 1. Towards, to, in the direction of. -"/JHl:J!-- '1D len6 maa2 tsu2 kau6. To run over towards me. 91LJr'lnll111/· l:J(-"/J- h:ig5 ?enl kaa3 tsu2 mai2 J£2. To calVget the child to your place. 2. To be willing to, to agree (to). rr,llrilrr,D, U1IH1{/l:JH1Jn - het3 hil taan4 k:t' man2 rail tsu2. No matter how you persuade him/her, he/she wouldn't agree. 1lL 11ut1 /tsu2 ?orJ4/, To take up one's post/position. 1lL.. 1IHnlH /tsu2 kaan6 tJaan2/, To be employed, to enter into employment. 1lL.. 1lf /tsu2 tsai6/, To obey, to follow, to agree. 1lL.. 1lUa;i /tsu2 tsom2/, To obey.


/tsu4/, To insert, to tuck into. See

?:x~sat5, ?:m4.



1. Lover. 2. Verb stem indicating 'to join, to link up'. .-1~ ltsuS lum2/, To organise, to arrange. 1lL 01u1::1 /tsu5 tom6/, To reunite.


Digitized by


1lL auH

ltsuS xon4/, To merge, to amalgamate.

1lL /tsu6/, To loan, to let, to lease, to rent. See JCaat5.

-nl]l I /tsui3/, Crime, offence. See woP. -nl]l 2 /tsui3/, Most. - .,/811Bu8111Jd tsui3 Ji6 sil pan6 yau5. That's marvellous.

1lL1 /tsuk 1/, To stand. - 11D tsukl si6. To stand straight, to stand upright. - l:JI ·· tsuk1 maa2. To stand up.

1lL11ll')1 /tsukl tsaai3/, To spend (money).

1l~ /tsum2/, 1. Pile, heap. - -"8n11LJri tsum2 I:»;/ S:Jl)l tsum2. One or two piles. 2. Group, organisation. u;J,(twf l:J/1 furJl phail tsum2 man2. Each to his or her own group. - UJJ/1 tsum2 fuIJl. Organisation. -nUlI /tsum3/, A set (of clothes), classifier for equipment, art works and suchlike. -nUl2 /tsum3/, 1. To soak, to dip into (water). See tse6, tsim2, yam2. 2. To be sufficient (esp. in the phrase~ 118ri tsum3 sirf'>. WLJfi - ph:im5 tsum3. To be complete, to have a complete supply or range of (goods), to have a complete set (of equipment, tools or the like).

1lll:} /tsum4/, 1. Seal, official seal. 2. Strategic pass.

1l~ /tsun 1/, Protruding, to be raised, to stick out, to be convex (esp. in the phrase - l:J! ·· tsunl maa2). -nlfiiI /tsun2/, 1. To allow, to pe111tit. tJn ~ adnLJ'i yar:,6 tsun2 JCau4 ?:,k3. No admission or exit. - rr,fl:JHULJ'1 Original from



1/ir,/t,i,i tsun2 hai4 man2 pok5 kaa3 haa4

wan2. Pe11nission has been given to her to take five days' leave. 2. To be exact, to be accurate. up- 1un - 1::1/1,,1U1ll •y;2 kotJ' tsun2 maanl te5. (He) is a master shooter, that's a master shot. -nlti2 /tsun2/, Lead, black lead. O'ILD.,,/i.ito6 Jaai2 tsun2. (In printing) type, letter. -nL(I /tsufJ3/, 1. To spy (on), to scout, to detect. - my1 tsui:,3 thok5. To scout, (to be) a scout, to spy, a spy. 2. To discuss (esp. in the phrase - u/· tsui:,3 yaa3). -nL[l /tsufJ4/, Cup, mug, glass. - 'Vari tsutJ' SEIJJ. Glass. - .,/d tsutJ' Jau4. Wine cup. - O'lla/'jj tsutJ' taa6 xaai2. A small wine cup (about the size of an ox's eye). - 1::1n · tsutJ' me4. (Porcelain) mug. -01.[1 /tsufJ6/, To lead by holding the hand,

the halter and suchlike, to lead along.

- al;i'11iJU18.,,8n tsu,! xaai2 haP t~ J:,,!. To lead a buffalo. -01.[1-0H /tsUfJ6 tsan5/, Rickets.

-nuJ /tsupl/, To suck, to kiss. uiJ .,/flCJ1::1p-pai3 tsupl Jeu5 mi2. Don't suck your fingers. - .,//71fl, tsupl Jaa4 ?el. To kiss the face of a child.


/tsup5 /, 1. To wet, to make wet, to moisten. na.,,1::1- 'TllltinmJ· ?au6 Iam5 tsup5 hel tsai:,3 thaal. To make (the hair) wet before (you) shave (it). See ya.m2. 2. To toss vegetables in sour sauce. l::JL1 - mukl tsup5. Vegetables tossed in sour sauce. 3. (Of liquids, such as sweat) to drip. .,,a11'11u'110· - '11o71n 1En6 h:P h~ tsup5 h~ tse6. To be sweating from head to tail from running.

Digitized by

Go gle

-nu,1 /tsutl/, To drink, to suck, to draw (liquids). uJii- .,/80'1 yw:,2 tsutl J:,15. Mosquitos suck blood. See ?ut1, Jut1.

-OLP1 /tsut5/, To lack, to be short of, to want. - '1LM'1LD"'8n tsut5 kon2 ko5 J:,,!. To be in need of a person (to fill the position). - uui:i1fl~lri tsut5 yom2 ke2 Jaaij. To lack capital funds. -nunmlH /tsut5 phaanl/, To lack, to be in need of.


/tstl su6/, A kind of spicy herb,

used for cooking or as medicine.


/tsP/, (Of liquids) to ooze out (from

a crack), to leak slightly. See tsim2. -nHt /tsi6/, Name. - l::JM'TlLJrl'Vri fsi6 man2 hot/ S8.IJ1? What's his/her name? 1::1r - "'Uri mai2 tsi6 SBl)l? What's your name? -nH"\Jnn /tsi6 sefjl/, Reputation. .,,Ji:Jfl• - Jaa3 me3 fsi6 se1Jl. Reputation, fame. -nH2 /tsi6/, To flare up, to get cross, to get angry. uiJ - wad pai3 fsi6 phEu1. Don't get cross. - .,,Ja.,,/D'11Lri tsi6 Jaau6 Jaau6 ho1Jl. (To do or say things) angrily, to be in a furious manner. -nH1 /tsik5/, 1. To weld. - 1U tsik5 kapl. Welding, soldering. '1LM- '1U kon2 tsik5 kapl. Welder. 2. (Of rain or drizzle) to be incessant, to continue. l/JlJ1 - lJJlf1'11Ui.i funl tsik5 funl tsoi2. It has been drizzling for days. -nH1-nH1'tll'JJ'tll"JJ /tsik5 tsik5 saai 1 saai 1/, (Of people) to be in an endless stream, (to come and go) in large numbers, (of rain) to be incessant. -nH.;i /tsim2/, To ooze out, to come out.

.,,1::1 - 'Vli.imlri1::1Ld Iam5 tsim2 saai2 Original from



thtuUJl mo3. Water that comes out of the sand in a well.

-nffH /tsin6/, To wake up, to be awake (esp. in the phrase mD11 - tin3 tsin6). -u1-nffH /sakl tsin6/, (Of vision or sound) to be clear. -off ri 1 /tsifj2/, Small intestines. - f:IJ.: tsi,i mu 1. Small intestines of a pig. -nffri2 /tsig2/, 1. To stay up late at night. - aD11 tsi,i xin2. To bum the midnight oil. 2. To be non-stop, to continue. l/JJj1 - aD11 fun 1 tsi,i xin2. It rained all night LQi.iLJri - ailau fai2 ytuj tsi,i waiS xanl. The fire still continues to bum.

-off n /tsig 3/, (Of the sky) to clear up. 1.qliJLd - 1/CJa faa5 po2 tsirjl kaa3 yau5. The sky has already cleared up. -ufl- ltsill, Parts, some, plural noun or pronoun prefix. - f:Jl1']1Df:Jf;,iJ ts:,2 man2 ?au6 maa2 Jai5. That which he/she has brought back. See x:Jq6. -nfl~')l ltsil lai 5/, These. -nfl~~ ltsil lan5/, Those. ltsil la.6/, Which (parts).



/ts;t5/, Kind, type, sort. 1L - 11J:Jlld ku6 ts~ ku6 meu2. All kinds, various sorts (of). -nfl(QH /~ fan2/, Seeds. -nfl1LH /ts;tS kon2/, Anthropoid (ape). -nflfnlfi /ts;tS tun2/, Line, heritage, lineage. -nUfnffH /ts;tS tin2/, Line, heritage, lineage.

-nfl1 /ts;)k3/, 1. To borrow. See tse3. 2. (fo buy or sell) on credit. - '1.Jg· ts~k3 sP. To buy on credit. - a/'}J ts~k3

Digitized by


:xaail. To sell on credit. - mil ts~k3 hais. To give or receive credit. -nfl1 /ts;)k5/, Rope, cord, string. - LJLD ts:,k5 pc,6. Rope made of hemp, flax, jute or suchlike. "'0/0'/ - tsaat5 ts:,k5. Ropeladder.


/ts:)m6/, To sink. - aci.,,(11/· ts:,m6 xau4 Jam5 kaa3. To sink down into the water. .,//~BH.,/L,;i - O'ILD11" Jaa4 Jin6 Jom3 ts:,m6 to3 kaa3. The ground caved/ sank in. -nfl~'Jll')l /ts;)m6 haai 1/, To sink.

-0 DH 1 /ts'102/, Those (contracted fo1 ,n of

ts:,2 Jan5). Also ts:mS. -nfla-i2 /ts;)n2/, 1. To plot (against sb.), to make sb. suffer. f:J(uiJ- 1Ll1Wl}d mai2 pai3 ts:,n2 kon2 phEul. Don't you make things hard for people. 2. To be slanting, to be aslant. a11a/jja11 - wan2 waai3 wan2 ts:,n2. The sun is to the west. 3. To take (a step), to raise one's foot (to walk). - U18H'1.J8H1J- ts:,n2 tin6 sinl kaa2. To walk. -nfl~ /ts;)n5/, Like that (contracted from ts~ Jan5). -nflri /ts;)l) 1/, (Of weather) to be fine, to be sunny. Also tsirjl. -nflri /ts~fJ2/, Play, opera, theatrical perfo11nance. -nflr'I /ts~fJ5/, 1. To delay, to be delayed. uii1/"- rnDrlw/}d pai3 kaa3 ts:,qS hi1J1 phEul. Don't linger around for too long. 2. (fo do sth.) first, to give priority to. f:J( ~ 1/;,f}-mai2 ts:,qS kaa3 JE2. YOU go first. -nflr'l1Jci /ts~l)s sau2/, To stay, to linger around. Original from




lunar calendar, during which Buddhist worshippers or intending monks or nuns are initiated into monkhood or nunhood. at\lH~I· /wu3 san3 laa3/, 1. Character, personality. 2. Hobby. al\lHD'II· /wu3 san3 taa5/, Rainy season. alliLD /wu3 xo2/, Bib.

wu6/, A discourse particle denoting something contrary to fact, or a planned event which turns out to be contrary to what is expected. #:Jr /ts;)TJS

1:J8AiJU181/·, rnllril-vrl-v#Jun1/· mai2 ts:,,f waa6 m:P Jai5 til kaa3, het3 SIUJJ sam5 yaIJ6 kaa3? You said you were leaving today, how come you are not going? - l:JMULDl:Jlina ts:,,f waa6 man2 po2 maa2 hau5?Didn't you say he had already arrived? (In fact he hasn't.)


/ts-:,u2/, To differ, to vary. un 111a( yaIJ6 ts:>u2 kan6 xai6. (The two) do not differ too much from each other.


/ts;,u6/, Prefecture, an administrative area smaller than a province and larger than a county.



aI' /wu 11, A cluster of things joined together. - aBrl waal xiIJl. A cluster of • ginger.

al ·· I

/wu2/, Roofing tile. rn811 - h~n2 waa2. A tile-roofed house.

al .. 2

/wu2/, 1. A measurement of the length of an annspread. -v/,J-vllM

AiJl:JB·· -vurl -


sen4 Jai5 mj2 S::>1)1

waa2. This piece of string is two annspreads long. 2. A measure of volume, a cubic annspread. LUJfi - fun2 waa2. Firewood in piles.

al ··3

/wu2/, Yesterday. See m:P waa2.


/waa3/, The Wa Period, from the 15th of June to the 15th of September of the

Digitized by



at· U(_D

/wu3 yo3/, Wind.



/waa4/, Socks, stockings.



/wu4/, To make a tile roof.


/wu5/, The Wa nationality, a minority group in Yunnan living near the Tai.


/wu6/, 1. To say, to ask (sb. to do sth.), to talk or speak (about). l:JM -

rnf#:Jr1/· man2 waa6 hai4 mai2 kaa3. He asked you to go. #:Jr - 'Vri mai2 waa6 saIJ1 ? What did you say? uiJ u011a/,;j1:Jfld-,1iJ pai3 waa6 p:,n6 xaan12 meu2 Jai5. Don't say things/talk about others like this. 2. Indeed, truly. AB ABua Jj6 waa6 Jj6 yau5. It's really very good.

al1J1B' /waa6 hi 1/, A fo1111ulaic expression for seeking opinions, translatable as 'how, what do you say/ think about it'. 1arnlltit"DO· rnlltit,

l:Jru,8:... kau6 het3 ts:t# het3, mail til waa6 hil? I am doing it this way. What do you think? l:JH - man2 waa6 hil? What did he/she say?/What did he/she think of it?/What's his/her opinion? al1I /wu6 kaa6/, A fo1111ulaic particle to start a song or poem. alo,B /waa6 ti6/, A fu1111ulaic particle to start a song or poem. al01B1J1nEtH /wu6 ti6 he3 man2/, At least. -,1/1/11-,1/rlAiJ ~ 'Vf.1.1Bu rnOii

Original from



71t,u,8,;,I},:,~;, Jaa4 kaan6 laatJl IBP waa6 ti6 he3 man2 su4 sipl hE,r tsai:,3 til mEn5 Jai4. This job will take at least ten working days to finish.

al'Jl /waai 1/, 1. Rattan, vine. - V7/o7 waail haat3. A kind of rattan which is suitable for making walking sticks. 2. Sentence particle expressing surprise.

alji /waai2/, 1. To finish. 71/]riuLti- ud ts:,,r po2 waai2 yau5. The perfo11nance was over/has already come to an end.

u/]1-118MULD - ud1::1r71f11::1/" [X)n6 Jcin6 po2 waai2 yau5 mai2 tsari3 maa2. They had finished eating before you arrived. 2. Sentence particle expressing exclamation. alji1J1l'Jl /waai2 haai 1/, To disappear, to become extinct. alji_,,ri /waai2181)1/, Later on, afterwards. - 1::1/" u,8rnllo1 waai2 JBI)l maa2 til ml het3? What shall (we) do next/later on?~ 71r,u,/,:, waai2 JBI)l tsai:,3 taan4. (We shall) talk about it later. aljiulH /waai2 paan6/, To lose one's life, to end one's life. alji1.1I· /waai2 saa2/, To finish, to end. al)i1.1ij• /waai2 s£2/, To finish, to end.

al>i /waai3/, 1. To return, to come back. 2. (Of the sun) to be in the west. al>i-,11" /waai3 laa4/, To tum back, to comeback. a1,:;.,.1~nd.,.r1 /waai3 laa4 leul 181)1/, To look ahead and behind. al>iuu1 /waai3 p:>k5/, To return, to comeback. .,.ndal>iaOM1:1I· /leul waai3 xin2 maa2/, To come back, to return.

Digitized by


al'Jl /waai4/, 1. To row (a boat), to paddle. - V7/]" waai4 h:il. To paddle/ row a boat. - ull" waai4 pe2. To paddle a raft. 2. To cross over. - u,ll;,l}"JJ waai4 te2 J~i6. To cross over a mountain. 3. To strike, to hit.

al')l /waaiS/, To stain, to dirty. a8i:JL1 -

-vi]· x.i4 muJc5 waai5 s:tl. Some mucus stuck on the shirt/garment. aliiUILD ~,:,aB ·- aim;, xaai2 to6 Jan5 x.i4 waai5 x.aal hai5. The buffalo had some of its dung stained on its hind legs.

ali /waak3/, Plastic, chemical products. al1 /waakS/, 1. Fold. .,,f:i -

~!Jn Jaml

waak5 J:,r:,6. To double, to be twice as much as, to be one fold more. 2. Half. 1::1/}nV1llU1-VLJrl - mE,f het3 S~IJ1 waak5. To divide into two (halves). 3. To return, to come back, to tum (one's head). uil - ~/i:J/-pai3 waak5 Jaa4 maa2. Don't tum your head back. 1::1111/lol}dUILJMUlln -vl:1- aD111::1/ "man2 kaa3 phtul t~n6 uuuj sam5 waak5 x.in2 maa2. He/She went halfway and then turned back.

al~ /waam5/, To hunt, to catch (elephant). - 71/r'J waam5 tsaarf. To hunt elephants. alH /waan 1/, To be sweet, to be delicious (esp. in the phrase - ~/]1::1~/]1::1 waanl J:,m6 J:1m6). See p:,-5. a1H.,.U18M-,lr /waan 1 l:>ks xan2 lai2/, To be hypocritical and malignant (lit. to be sweet outside but bitter inside).

alH 1 /waan3/, Cup, bowl. ~ 1::1n· waan3 me4. Porcelain bowl (esp. in the phrase - V7BM waan2 hinl). - 71L{1 waan.3

Original from



tsuq4. Cup, mug. - rn1.· waan3 hu 1.

alncl')l /waaij3 waai4/, To have a


hearing impairment, to be heari.ngimpaired.

alH 2 /waan3/, To sow, to scatter (seeds). - 1/ · waan3 kaa4. To sow rice seeds - tJJHlD1 waan3 fan2 phak1. To sow vegetable seeds.

alH /waan4/, To lead, to be the leader (oO, to be in the lead. - 1Jfl11::1flt101Ld01fl1 waan4 s;1k3 m;1rf to2 t;1k3. To lead an anny out to battle.

clr1 /waatjl/, To wander, to stroll about, to loaf about. 1::1r1/· ULi'l1/· - mr, u/,;i~iJ71i'IUIJ11::ll ·· mai2 kaa3 por.f kaa3 waat)l thail, yaam2 Jai5 tsaIJ3 p~k5 maa2? Where have you been wandering? cl111Jlu,1 /waaJJl hutl/, To wander around, to stroll about, to loaf about. clricl')l /waatJ 1 waai4/, To have a hearing impairment, to be hearingimpaired.

cln I

/waatj2/, Yard, courtyard.

cln 2

/w8Mj2/, To let go, to release, to set

free. See p~l·3. clri'JILd /waarJ2 hol/, To kowtow. cln~u- /waarj2 mi2/, To let go of one's hand, to set free. clnuu')l /waarj2 p:>i3/, To let go, to release. aln-u1· /waafj2 saa2/, To finish, to end. aln-nr /w8afj2 tsai6/, To be confident, to feel at ease. alnu1· /wa8J]2 yaa3/, To end, to finish.

aln /wa8J]3/, To look, to watch. - 1/nL(J/" waar.f kaatJ6 fu5. To look into the sky.

cln.-ti: /w8afj3 lu3/, A person in charge

al" /waaJJS/, To miss out, to leave undone (unintentionally), to fail to do what should have been done. m'Ji'Tlll ' -

- aBr'laBr'I '11Lrl thail hel waai.,5 waai.,5 wi,f wiJJ5 hol)l. (In ploughing) to have a lot undone, to miss a lot.

aln /wa.arj6/, 1. To pile up (firewood, tiles, straw or suchlike) in order, to stack. 71D4J.1~8u7Jfl~111::1/ M - m'}i ?au6 Juk5 lin6 ~ Jan5 maa2 waarf that'.

To bring the bricks over here to stack. 2. Middle, in between, in the middle. - al · waarf xaal. In between the legs. - 1::1/11 waarf maan4. The centre of the village. 3. Crack, chink, crevice. aln1ln /w8afJ6 kaarJ6/, Middle, centre. aln.-tl')I /waaJJ6 laai6/, Often, usually, frequently.

aim /waatS/, 1. To enlarge, to expand (esp. in the phrases - 1/ti waat5 kaarl, -1::Jn· waat5 me-3). - 'V/jtl waat5 s~m4. To increase the growth (oO. 2. To entwine, to coil, to wind. - 8Jl1'11LO waat5 xonl hol. To p;11n hair.


/waau2/, To be dissolute and loose. - 01fl• waau2 te5. To be really dissolute, to be very loose (in moral behaviour). alci-ULLI /waau2 sop3/, Empty talk, (to pay) lip-service.

alO /waau3 loi6/, Mountain pass. a')l /wail/, 1. To walk slowly. 2. To shake, to be shaky, to be unsteady. - 8LH wail xon2. To be shaky.

of offerings during a religious service.

Digitized by


Original from





a')i /wai2/, To be quick, (to do) quickly.

rnllrfla11rnllrfl- het3 xanl het3 wai2. Be quick!/Speed up! a')ia')i /wai2 wai2/, Quickly. 1:1/ . _

maa2 wai2 wail. Come quick!IHUJTY up! a')) /wai5/, 1. To put or leave aside, to

keep (for), to store. 1:1rmf}l:11a - f/1'JJ mai2 th£ml kau6 wai5 hai5. Please would you keep (it) for me. 7101:1/-01BmiJ ?au5 maa2 wai5 ti6 thai4. Bring it over and put/leave it here. - rnfl:Jl1.,/1:J71801 waP hai4 man2 Jaml ?it3. I ,eave a bit more (money, food or suchlike) for him. 2. Progressive marker. 1:11101riu8H'1Ll:J'1H- man2 tar/ JY.'n6 kom6 kan6 wai5. He/She was talking to someone. l:JM1JJ.frl811 - man2 yu3 h:,n2 wai5. He/She is staying at home. a')l"'U0101B· /waiS satS tiS/, To be cautious, to be alert. a')l"'Uijri /waiS SEfJ2/, To keep, to reserve. C')l"'UB • /waiS si 1/, Except (for).

01/Jit71/1Jl1, - 1:111rnn ·, 1Jn1:1B -wfrna taan4 ?aa6 saak5, wai5 sil man2 hel, yar:f mi2 phajl hau5. Talking about age (limits), no one is suitable except him/ her. a')l"'UB.;. /waiS sim2/, To keep, to reserve, to store. a')lml.;. /waiS thaam2/, To remain in the post. a')l-of /waiS tsai6/, 1. To be conscientious, to keep an eye on, to be cautious. 2. To intend (to do), to plan (to do).

a')l-of"'Urale /wais tsai6 sail xo2/, To be wholly abso,bcd (in), with singlehearted devotion.

Digitized by


C)I /wai6/, To make a gesture of salutation, to greet with one's palms clasped. - w/;,J- wai6 phaa2 Jaa2. To prostrate oneself before the image of B11ddha, to worship Buddha. C)l8U)I /wai6 X'Ji6/, To worship. 01 /wak5/, 1. To grab, to snap, to grip.

- aci1J/111:1/11:1-"Dn wak5 xau4 saanl m.aa2 kam6 J:,rf. To grab a handful of rice. 2. To scratch. uiJ1l1fwl]a1:18'1.JD • "Din - '1LM pai3 ktut3 kai4 ph£u6 mil s:,l tsaarf wak5 kon2. Don't go near the bears or tigers; they scratch. C1.AUJ1 /wakS JutS/, The part on one's back where one's hand cannot reach or finds it difficult to reach.

aa;j.-tn- /wam2 le2/, To criticise, to blame. aa;jun- /wam2 pe2/, Mandarin duck. CH /wan2/, 1. The sun. - 71U'?IJD wan2 ?:;k3 yau5. The sun has risen. '1J/,J saail wan2. Sunlight. See 1£t3. 2. Day. 0181/11/1:l- til ktut3 saaml wan2. (I/He/They) will be going away for three days. CH71U1 /wan2 ?. '17/ti - haarf' we,r. A tower over a city gate, gate tower. Also

tse,r. ann111Ld /werj2 hol/, Capital city. ann01Qn /wefJ2 t~2/, Capital city. Original from



a0-'1 /w£k3/, (Of liquids) to overflow, to flow out as a result of having too much, such as when a baby is sucking breast milk, or the liquid in a tube under pressure. aij~t /wtnl/, Ring, bracelet. - rr,811 w£nl hinl. Jade bracelet. aij~2 /wtnl/, To hop, to jump. ~H .,f'iJ'JIUri'1J8u8H man2 WEnl Iai4 ?:,1) 1 sil JY.Jn6. He jumps the longest. '10 .,f'iJ'1JL(1 kau6 w£n 1 Jai4 su1Jl. I can jump very high. - 718'1 w£nl ts:>k5. Rope skipping. aOH /wtn6/, 1. To spin (thread). - ~'}i w£n6 mail. To spin threads, spinning. '1Lri - ko,r w£n6. Spinning wheel. 2. To cast (a fish net). - all' w£n6 xel. To cast a fish net.


IW£fj3/, To have a part missing, to have a gap or breach. 'VLU - sop3 w£1.l3. Harelip. '71lJ1'TIU'Tll.~na/jjuLd- tsui:,6 h~ hu2 Jar/ xaai2 po2 wEl.13. To break the nose of the buffalo by pulling or dragging the rope or string (that controls it) too hard.

ciju /wtpS/, (Of an illness) to go down, to ease down, (of floods or tides) to recede, to ebb. 01lf/'71llu~HLJLd -

1/aun.,/Bnud tum3 tsep3 man2 po2 wEp5 kaa3 x:,,/ l:>,:f yau5. His skin ulcer is easing down.


.,flJri~B.,fiJ - 1/lJ(J m;P waa2 Jam5 J:,,r m;P Jai5 w£p5 kaa3 yau5. There was a heavy flood yesterday but today it has receded. aijO /wtu3/, First element in compounds indicating 'joint' or 'comer'.

Digitized by


aOO"Ul!) /w£u3 sop3/, The comer of themouth. cOa"UO" /wEu3 s;ft/, Vent or slit in the sides of a ga.ra,.ent. aija /wEu6/, (Of flame) to come out of the hole of a stove.



/wil/, 1. Comb. wjl thi3. Fine-toothed comb. - rr,/t, wi1 haa,fl. Thin-toothed comb. 2. To comb. - 'TILd wjl hol. To comb one's hair. 3. Bundle, bunch (of bananas or similar things) .

1/jl - .,fJJ~81.1BL1rnlir1JjJ koi4 wil Jai5 ,ni2 sipl haJtl hoi3. There are fifteen bananas in this bunch.

aB ..

/wi2/, 1. Fan. - m/01 wi2 thaat5. Electric fan. 2. To fan (esp. in the phrase - "'Lli wi2 Iom2). 3. To wave (flags, hands or suchlike), to brandish or practise (with swords and spears). - LQ!"JJ'1J8;,0n wi2 faai2 sP 1£1)6.To wave red flags.

ae- '111• .-11·

/wi2 haa3 laaS/, Buddhist


aB · "DB- /wi2 tsi2/, Hell.


/wj3/, Jade.


/wiS/, Noun stem in the following

compounds. .-.1· "UI· /wil laa3 saaS/, Mountains, hills. aB· /wil le2/, The name of a Buddist script. .-18• ul· /wi 1 li3 yaaS/, 1. Personality, character. 2. Caution. 3. Endurance.




aBH /win3/, To tum around, to change direction. - .,ff·~,- "'I. win3 Jaa4 maa2 Ju6. To tum one's head around. Original from



0B01 /wit5/, 1. To whittle, to chop finely. '10 - mi; kau6 wit5 thu3. I am whittling some chopsticks. 2. To roll up (sleeves or suchlike). - all¥i1J8if1llrnllu,1IH wit5 xenl s:tl hel het3 kaan6. To roll up one's sleeves to work. Also wot5. 3. To bail (water). ad1/· - u/ xaul kaa3 wit5 paa6. They went to ladle water out to catch fish. Cl_l] /wo2/, Ox. Also l)o2. al}i /woi2/, First element in compounds meaning 'murky, indistinct (of vision)' al}i-ul· /woi2 saa2/, Indistinct (of vision), dim. al}ial)i /woi2 waai2/, 1. Indistinct, dim. 2. (Of people) to be drowsy, to be half asleep. 1JIJJ01/- saail taa6 woi2 waai2. (His) eyes were heavy with exhaustion. CIP /woi3/, 1. For, for the benefit of. - .,//1/HO'lri.,//'}J woi3 Jaa4 kaan6 tarf Jaail. For the benefit of the people. 2. (Of Buddhism) to grant, to bestow. - a/1 woi3 waak5. To bestow, to grant. Cl}l1UU /woi3 k~p5/, For, for the sake of. - 01ll11/n1:Jli:t1a1:Jflri"'rl woi3 k~,,S te3 saJUJ" maan4 kau3 m:>,r JBl)l. For building one's homeland. al]l..t'Jl /woi3 Iai4/, For, for the purpose of. al]l /woi5/, 1. To su11ound. See J:,m.5. 2. To pour a little bit of water into the pan when stir-frying food. DLH /won2/, To be mad, to get mad, to have a mental disorder. '1Ll1L.1LJr'1'1lfi - kon2 y~r;f kon2 won2. Lunatic. L.1LJr'IL.1LJr'I- - y~r;f y:,ql won2 won2.

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

To act like a lunatic, to be mentally deranged, to be flighty. DLH /won5/, 1. To discuss (esp. in the phrase - '1JIH won5 saanl). 2. To twist (strands of threads), to spin (cotton, hemp or suchlike into yam). - '17L1 won5 bu.kl. To spin cotton. DLH~n- /wonS me2/, To deal with, to handle (things). CLHUn~~or'l011.}i /won5 yem4 fflE1]3 toi2/, To analyse. DLri /wog2/, 1. Beam (of light), ray, radiance. 2. Stain. CL~ /wog5/, Legendary 'King of Heaven'.


DLn /wog6/, Period, time. - .,/'iJl::Jr wot! IBP mai2 kaa3 thail ?Where have you been recently?- .,/Hf:Jl1L.JnL.JLtn811 wot! Jan5 man2 yar/ yu3 h:>n2. During that period he/she was not home. DLn1ln /worJ6 kaal.)6/, Middle, centre. CLO'll /wot5/, Crime, offence, evil. CL0'12 /wot5/, 1. To roll up (sleeves). Also wit5. 2. To draw (a bow). DLD'18ijHUijH~o- /wot5 XEnl ptn6 rni2/, To be ready for a fight, to be itching to have a go (lit. to rub one's fists and wipe one's palms). CI_O'l-0~ /wot5 tsau5/, (To finish sth.) ahead of time/schedule. - L.JD'1IH wot5 tsau5 yau5 kaan6. To finish work ahead of schedule. au11 /w~kS/, A kind of monkey, very small in size. CU12 /w~k5/, To spin. - l:J'}J w~k5 mail. To spin a yam. See won5.

Original from



DUH /w~2/, To entreat, to endure, to tolerate, to be tolerant. CUH~O /w:,n2 lau3/, To try patiently to persuade. CUH1Jnr1 /won2 scgl/, Gentle words, tactful expressions. CUH~f /won2 tsai6/, To be patient. CUH~f 'f'lUHaLci /won2 tsai6 hon2 xo2/, To be patient.

DUHCijH /won6 W£n2/, (Door) axis, axle. - 1/- w-,n6 wEn2 kaa2. Axletree, axle. cuncijri /wofj2 W£fj2/, 1. (Of one's memory) to be dim, cannot recall. rnDrl wljdULd - 1/i:Ja hiql phEul po2 kaa3 yau5. It was a long time ago (and I) cannot remember the content (of the event) now. 2. To lose • consciousness.



DUl1 /WofJS/, 1. King, ruler. - LQ/ri w-,IJ5 The ruler of the Qing dynasty. 2. Prince. fBal)l.

cu011 /w:,tS/, Buddhist temple. See WU~ mtu3. CUO'I 2 /wotS/, 1. (Of fire) to go out gradually. LtJJJ- LJD fai2 w-,t5 yau5. The frrc has already gone out. 2. To burn

(for specific purposes such as for making lye). - 01D.,/f7 w:,t5 tau6 Jar.f1. To burn wo1111wood plants to make lye.


/wu 1/, First element in compounds denoting certain Ii ving creatures. CL-Aijrl /wul l£fJS/, Bat. clt,11 • /wul waal/, Black monkey.


/wun2/, To be fi11n, to be steady, firmly, steadily. 018H1JL'aL1- tin6 su4 tsukl wun2. (You/We) should stand firmly. See man4.

Digitized by


Cltf /wun6/, To throw away, to discard.

Sec WUP,p£t5, t-,t5_


/wutl/, To hit (with a large stick).


/wut5/, To throw, to discard (esp. in the phrase - u/]01 wut5 p£t5). - ~l,rr,811 wut5 maak3 hinl. To throw stones. Also wit5.


lwifJ 3/, Um, earthem jar. - .,/Q wirfl Jau4. Wine jar. - .,/fd wirfl Jam5. Waterjar.


/witS/, 1. To throw. Also wut5. 2. To flee, to escape. See paai6.



al· 1 /xaal/, Right (side), right-hand side. w/1ul - phaak3 paa6 xaal. Right-hand side.

al· 2

/xaal/, 1. Leg, thigh. 2. Classifier for crossbows and similar things. al· ~H /xaal Jani/, Buddhist monks who resume secular life. al· ~Lri /xaa1 lofJ 1/, Thigh. al· /xaal IEkl/, Lame person, cripple. al. au)J /xaal xoi6/, To be lame, to be crippled.


al. 3

~r -

/xaal/, To look for. 0181Jri mai2 xaal ti6 s81)1? What are you looking for? al1J1

paa4 y;u:f taan4

xaan 1 kan6. Neither side talked to/

communicated with the other. alH1lf /xaanl tsaJ6/, To be poor, to be in tight financial circumstances, to suffer. alHalf:i /xaanl xaam2/, To reply, to answer back, to talk back. alH /xaan.2/, 1. Te11~ time span, course (of study). - m/,;j xaan2 thaa,112. Te,111 of employment. 2. Grade, class (in school). alH /xaan3/, 1. To cross out. 2. To scratch, to get caught (by a hook), to be hooked by. See keu3. al.:t01IH /xaan3 taan3/, To look down upon, to belittle. al~ /xaanS/, To be lazy. alH 1 /xaan.6/, To rust, to go rusty. Also

xaa2. alH 2 /xaan6/, To be stupid, to be foolish.

promise. .AJ.1 'Vld - '11fu811 '11D 1u1cs saaul xaJJij hai4 p:,n6 hau5. The girl has promised (to marry) the other (young man). 3. To coordinate, to parallel, to go hand in hand. LJ')J - 111 pai6 xaJJij kan6. To walk shoulder to shoulder, to go side by side. - 'VLJrl xaJJij S:>IJ1. To (be)parallel, tocoordinate. al" 1 /xaatj3/, 1. Top (toy). 2. I .ane, street. - 1:1/11 xaat;f maan4. I ,ane or path in a village. al"-uB · /x881]3 si4/, Lion.

al" 2

/x881]3/, To drain (water). - .At!# xaBl.13 Jam5. To drain water.

alr'I /xaarJ4/, 1. Rib, side. .AJ.1'VB· - Jukl si4 xaarf. Ribs. 2. Classifier for roots and shoots of plants, such as bamboo shoots and ginger. aln /xa8fJ6/, A conjunctive indicating two simultaneous actions. - 01/11 - BLd xaai/ taan4 xaar/ xol. Laugh while chatting, chatting and laughing. - 'VLJH - w81 xaar/ s:>n1 xaai/ f:,k3. To teach and learn.

alr1 1 /xaatjl/, A general te11n used by the Tai people to refer to the Jingpo people.

alu /xaap3/, Crack. 0101- t£k3 xaap3. To crack, to have cracks (in).

alr12 /xaatj 1/, 1. To be in line, (to lie) crosswise. .ALJH - l:>n2 xaal}l. To lie crosswise. 2. To throw (a stick). alr11JIL /xaarJ 1 hu 1/, To pretend not to hear, to tum a deaf ear to. alr1.AL0 /xaaJJl lo3/, Vulture. alr1al_C /xaarJl xo2/, 1. Silver necklace. 2. Wooden frame of a mill.

alu /xaap5/, 1. Discarded skin, scab, crust. - n1.- xaap5 1Ju2. Discarded snake skin. - 01lfJ"Ollu xaap5 tum3 tsep3. Scab, crust. 2. Dregs of fat, dried clumps of dirt or suchlike - l:JH xaap5 man2. Residue of fat, crackling. alu11· ul • /xaap5 kaa3 yaaS/,corpse.

aln /xaatj2/, 1. To allow, to pe111tit (esp. in the phrase ?:,5 xaair). un ~ ya,! xaJJij. To not allow. 2. To

alrfl /xaat3/, 1. To (be) cut off, to be broken, to stop (breathing). I.QM - fan2 xaat3. To cut off, to sever. a/and xaau3 IJBu2 xaat3 hau5. The news was

118 ·-

Digitized by

Go ~ gle


Original from



cut off, there was no connection. "Of tsai6 xaat3. To stop breathing, to cease to breathe. 2. A general tc;1111 for a daughter born after her father's death. aim /xaatS/, 1. To gird, to tie around, to , bind up, to link up, to stitch up. - WL1 xaat5 phukl. To bind (up), to tie, to fetter. See mat5, phuk1, xun2. 2. To abound, to grow everywhere. rn8o1l111 '1J 1 '11Lri hitl xaat5 tak5 sak5 ho1J1. Scabies abound on the body. 3. To sign (an agreement). - .A81 - ,A/jj1/· a/'}JcnLD1H xaat5 Jik5 xaat5 Jaai2 kaa5 xaail to3 kan6. To sign a trade agreement/treaty. 4. To loan, to rent, to hire. n8i1 - l):Jn2 xaat5. Rent, rental. - cnp- xaat5 ti2. To hire. aid 1 /xaau 1/, White. - l/JL- xaau1 fu2. Pure white, snow white.

aid 2 /xaaul/, Buddhist nun (esp. in the phrase .A!ri - Jaarj xaaul). "Ol)ri tsoIJ2 xaaul. Buddhist nunnery. ala /xaau2/, 1. Period, time span. _ .AillJJJj1.A/'}J xaau2 IBP funl Jaai1. There has been plenty of rain over this period. 2. Distance, distance covered in a day. 71LJ1'118Hf:JI- 1J!l:1 - rnd ?ok3 h:,n2 maa2 saaml xaau2 hau5. (We) have travelled away from home for three days now. ala01lri 1xaau2 laaJJ2,, Distance. ala01')1 /xaau2 tail/, Process, (during the) course. alciaH /xaau2 wan2/, The distance covered in a day. alaula· /xaau2 yaau2I, Long te11n. alO /xaau3/, News, message. alo~r /xaau3 mail/, News.

Digitized by



/xaau3 gau2/, News, information. aloa11:1· /xaau3 -,.aam2/, News, oral

message. aid /xaauS/, Onomatopoeic word for the sound of wind, rain or water. - - a8da8d xaau5 xaau5 xiu5 xiu5. (Of winds) to rustle, (of water) to gurgle. a')l /xai 1/, 1. (Of colour) to be bright and shiny, to be lustrous, (of skin) to be smooth. .Al· f:JH - f:JI- rnd Jaa4 man2 xail maa2 hau5. His/Her face is aglow with health. 2. Grease, (animal) fat. 3. To be greasy. - unun JCail yar/ yar/. To be very greasy. a')la')l~H~H /xai 1 xai 1 man2 man2/, To be extremely g.teasy, to be full of grease or fat. a')i /xai2/, Dried sweat and dirt on skin. a')1 /xai3/, 1. Egg. - w81 JCai3 ph~k3.

Egg whites. - .A8ri xai3 l:JJJ1. Yolk. 2. To lay eggs. 1'11 - lJD kai3 xai3 yau5. The chicken (has) laid/is beginning to lay eggs. a')1UJI· /xai3 faaS/, The son of Heaven, the emperor. a')ll /xai4/, Illness, disease all1J1Ld /xai4 hol/, To have a headache. a')l,AI~ /xai4 laau4/, To have malaria. a')l~')l /xai4 mai4/, To have a fever. a')la')i /xai4 wai2/, Acute disease. a')la')ludud /xai4 xai4 yau 1 yau 1/, To be sick, to be in poor health. a')l2 /xai4/, To be willing to, to wish. Also JCai4. a')) 1 /xaiS/, Willow. Original from



a~2 /xaiS/, Intensifier, often used with adjectives to modify them. LJf - yai3 xai5. So long. .,,/f:} - Jaml xaP. So many, so much. 'Tlln.,,,B - baa,/ Ji6 xaP. So attractive, so beautiful. So (much), this much.

.,,,/Jn xai5 I~.

8)11 /xai6/, 1. To tell (a story), to narrate. - 71/ulfJ xai6 ?aa6 pum3. To tell a story. 2. To trace (footprints or suchlike). 81J71U1YU1.-tn" /xai6 ?:>k3 m:>k3 lei/, To point out the mistakes, to 001.ect e11ots. 8)1110 /xai6kaau3/, To accuse, 8)12 /xai6/, To dig (a hole) with the fingers. - 'TIJ.. u/LJllH xai6 hul paa6 yen3. To dig up an eel's hole. 81 /xakl/, To be diligent. - 1iJUJ/Ji 'TlllH xaJcl kaP f:,k3 hen2. To work hard (at one's studies). 811~ /xakl kaiS/,Diligent, hardworking. 818UH. /xakl x~2/, Diligent 81ulu /xakl yaapl/,Diligent, hardworking. 81 /xakS/, Step (of stairs), stage. - mBu xaJc5 thin3. Step of stairs. a1alM /xakS xaan2/, 1. Stair. 2. Class. - 1LH1IH ,caJc5 xaan2 kon2 kaan6. Working claM. 3. Stage, period. 818)1 /xakS xai6/, Level (of stairs), stairs. 8Y /xam 1/, To be stuck in, to fall (into).

a/i.i - 711[1 xaai2 xam1 ?url. The buffalo got stuck in/fell into the mire. ad - aLti xau4 xak5 xo2. Food got stuck in the throat.

Digitized by


al:1talH /xaml pflaanl/, To W1dcrgo sufferings. 8Y'1Jf /xaml fsai6/, To bother, to be botherso111e.


/xam2/, Gold

ay /xam6/, 1. Night, night-ti111C, nightfall. 1:1/Jal-- ~ xam6. Last night 2. To be late (refe11ing to the time from afternoon to the evening only). - w/}dLJn1/:.,'J)LJd xam6 ph£ul ya,/ kaa3 Jai4 yau5. It's too late to go back now. 8Y"'Ur.-trBl.ti /xam6 sail Jail xun2/, To be changeable. ay-ur .-.rcM ,~am6 wl tail wan2/, Morning and night, daily. 8Y&Yafta-iafta-i /xam6 xam6 xin2 xin2/, I ,ate at night, in the middle of the night.


8H 1 /xanl/, 1. A monetary unit 2. A weight unit. 3. Rate, price. - 1/ul xanl kaat3. Market price. &H.-1~ /xanl Jum2/, Total price, total value. 8H\Dr /xanl phai2/, Quickly, fast. 8H8H /xanl xanl/, Quiclcly, hurriedly.

8H 2 /xan 1/, Sentence particle (assertive). Also kanl. 8HD'ILC /xan 1 to6/, In fact, as a matter of fact. - LJn'O{ xanl to6 ya,/ tsai6. In fact it is not. 8H /xan2/, 1. To be pungent, as of the taste of uncooked taro or pepper. 2. (Of a woman) to be sexually active. 8H /xan3/, To cut (with a small knife). aHml· /xan3 thaa3/, To die, to lose one's life.

Original from



aHmB· /xanl trul/, Warhorse. aH /xan4/, To separate, to be separated (by). - ~l(/ xan4 Jam5 xan4 /:,i6.


To be separated by mountains and rivers, to be far away.

aH /xan5/, So (used as an intensifier following adjectives), so much, sentence particle. tJf - yai3 xan5. So big. ~Id ~ Jaml xan5. So many, so much. aH'JlO /xan5 haul/, 1. Perhaps, maybe. ull111:1111101/· - pen6 man2 ?au6 kaa3 xan5 haul. Maybe he has taken it away with him. 2. No matter (what/ who/where ... ). aurlwf1{J ~, '1101:JHtJnLJL: 1:1ru,8 . 1/" 71D rnflm'Vrl JC:Jl)l phail k~ xan5 hau3,

tsau4 man5 yarf yu3 mai2 til kaa3 ?au6 het3 SBJJl ? No matter whose it is, why

are you going to take it when the host is not in? aH'Jl~ /xan5 hau5/, Sentence final particle (expressing indifference). tJna/ ,

"DL01{J - yarf xaa1 tso4 k~ xanS hau5. Never mind if you cannot find it.

aH.,fnn /xanS 1~1]6/, Intensifier translatable as 'so..., such...' 1'JJ ~ kai6 xanS J:nf. So far away, such a long way.


/x81]1/, To put in(to) an enclosure, to imprison. 1jj - ~rrnLnrniJ kai3 JCat)l Jai2 holJ6 haP. The chickens were kept in the enclosure. - '1LHW8u1DLU1 JCat)l kon2 phitl wot5. To put criminals into the prison.



an /xaJ] /, 1. To moan, to groan. 2. The sound made by a spinning top.

ar't /xaJ]S/, A kind of fish net laid across the river. See xel.

Digitized by


ar't /xaJ]S/, 1. To block, to separate, to get stuck. See tlWy. 2. Not fluent (in speech).

au /xapS/, To arrange, to put in order (esp. in the phrase - '1H xap5 kan6). au71IH /xap5 ?aan2/, To arrange. auauanfjanfj /xap5 xap5 x~m2 x;,m2/, To be disorderly, to be in disorder. aumijd /xap5 thEul/, To queue, to line up.

ao1 /xatl/, 1. To resist, to oppose, to fight, to be against (esp. in the phrase ~ al}rl xatl JCEl)l). 2. To get stuck (in), to stick (by). 'Vrl'Vrl - aLdaiJ SBJJ1 SBJJJ xatl xo2 waP. Something stuck in the throat. ao11J1ijfi /xatl hE1]2/, To have a hard time doing sth., not qualified for (a job). ao11d /xat 1 kau4/, Hairpin worn by married women as an ornament. ao111101 /xat 1 t~k3/, To fight.

ad 1 /xaul/, Hom (of an animal). ad 2 /xaul/, 1. They, third person honorific address te1111. 2. Noun pluraliser.

aci /xau2/, To take an examination, to go to school, to learn. - ~81 - ~/ji xau2 Jik5 xau2 Jaai2. To learn to read and write.

a0 I /xaul/, Knee. a02 /xaul/, 1. To depend on. - 118n

u,/ri~/'}}1:1/- rnflrfl xau3 ?ilJ6 taar/ Jaail maa2 het3. (This) depends on group

efforts. 2. To shake. - 1:19- xau3 mi2. To shake hands.

Original from



ad I /xau4/, 1. To enter, to get into. - 71U1 xau4 bk3. To enter and exit. 2. To join (in), to participate. 3. Together, with (esp. in the phrase - 1Ldrr,lli xau4 ko-1 hek3). ad1l01ul01-u1· /xau4 kaatS paatS saa2/, To go to the market. ad-ar /xau4 tsai6/, 1. To understand, to keep in one's mind. 2. (Of feeling) to be moved. accl· /xau4 waa3/, The Wa-Entering Festival (on the 15th of the sixth month of the lunar calendar when Buddhists hold a religious ceremony), the DoorClosing Festival.

aa2 /xau4/, 1. A general tet1n for rice, either cooked or uncooked. 2. A generic te1111 for crops. 3. Food. 4. Noun stem denoting food or crops. aaLQI· /xau4 faas,, Maize, (sweet)corn. aCLQH /xau4 fan2/, Seeds. 8D'f1')1 /xau4 hai6/, Rice planted in upland fields. 8C'f1nri'f1(9 /xau4 hei]l ho3/, Food offered to Buddhist monks. 8D'fllff /xau4 huJJl/, Porridge. ac~I' /xau4 Iaa4/, Late rice, as opposed to xau4 tsau5. ac.-tl~un 1xau4 1aam6 p8fJ6/, Rice cooked in a bamboo tube. aa.-1~ /xau4 lam5/, Food, grain, food stock. ac~r /xau4 (ail/, Breakfast, morning meal.

ac.-tt_d /xau4 lol/, Sticky rice. aC~l]J /xau4 loi6/, Broomcorn, broomcom millet. ac.-tffn /xau4 liJJ4/, Steamed rice. ac~c /xau4 mau4/, 'Flat rice', made from freshly-harvested sticky rice, tender

Digitized by

Go gle

boiled before baiting and after that pounded flat and eaten on the occasion of celebrating the new harvest. .-llJI /xau4 nw6 loi6/, A kind of rice with hanging leaves. ad~lti /xau4 mun2/, Sweet dumplings made of sticky rice flour. /xau4 m~/, Rice flour. ad~~, /xau4 m~/, Wheat. aauijn /xau4 p£JJ4/, Cake, pancake. acu~'I /xau4 y.»k3/, Paddy. 801DU /xau4 phoil/, Lunch, noon



meal. 8C1DU'Jla~ /xau4 phoi 1 xam6/, Evening meal, supper, late night meal. ac-ulH /xau4 saanl/, Milled rice.

8D'"UijY /xau4 stml/, Sticky rice wrapped in bamboo or recd leaves. Also

xau4 xEm1.

ac01ij~ /xau4 ttk3/, Parched rice, popped-rice. ad-a~ /xau4 tsau5/, Early rice, as opposed to xau4 Jaa4. /xau4 tsuJJ3/, Wheat. aaa~ /xau4 xam6/, Evening meal, supper, dinner. acaijY /xau4 xtml/, Sticky rice wrapped in bamboo or reed leaves. Also


xau4 sEm1.

adaLC /xau4 xo4/, Fried rice. acau'Jluijn /xau4 xoi3 ptg6/, Wedding dinner, specially arranged for the newlyweds and the matchmaker. aCaL1 /xau4 xuk1/, Sorghum.


/xai3/, To be dried, to get dried, to dry up. UJ/· rr,l}riUJ/· - faa5 her/ faa5 xai3.

Dry weather.

UJJii - fun2 xai3. Dried

firewood. See he,/.

Original from





/xai4/, To wish to, to want (to), to desire, to be willing to. 1:111 - 'TIU11/· man2 x.ai4 ?:;k3 kaa3. He wants to go out. - "18. '71(1,;i"18n x.ai4 J:tl tsai6 kam2 J~q6. (I) would like to take a rest. Also x.ai4. ar.-1)) /xai4 lai4/, To desire, to love, to like, to wish to obtain. 1:1( - 1:1lld"1( mail xai4 Jai4 meu2 Jai6?Which kind do you like? ar-of• /xai4 tsaaS/, To be angry, to be furious. ar-uf /xai4 tsai6/, To consider, to think, to ponder over, to elaborate.


/xai.6/, 1. How many, how much? 1:18"ILH - mj2 kon2 x.ai6?How many people? 2. How? 1JJ - kai6 x.ai6?How far? LJ( - yai6 x.ai6? How big? 3. Too (much),excessively. LJn"11:d- yarf' Jaml x.ai6. Not too much, not too many. ar .-tDn /xai61~1)6/, How much, how many? (esp. in the phrase 1:18- - mi2 x.ai6 l~r/'l). af af /xai6 xai6/, Many, plenty, numerous, countless. u8uLd1:1/ -m/1:d 1LD _ LJD p:,6 po2 maa2 thaam1 ko3 x.ai6 x.ai6 yau5. A lot of people have already come and asked.

an. 1 /xel/, Akind of fish net. an. 2 /xel/, 1. To help sb. to get over his or her worries, to mediate, to make peace between. rr,fj - u811w8D1111 ham4 xe1 JY.Jn6 phitl kan6. To make peace between qua11elling parties. 2. To fight (a fire), to rescue. - IJJjj x.el fai2. To fight a f1re.

an· 1 /xe2/, 1. Mountain stream, river. - _,/fj x.e2 Jam5. River. .,/f!/.,/r - Jam5

2. Classifier for rivers. "1f!J'1.1Url - lam5 s:;1Jl x.e2. Two rivers.

an· 2 /xe2/, Often, frequently. LJn - 1:18 ·· yiUJ6 x.e2 mfl. Not often, not occur frequently. /xe2 xe2/, Often, frequently.

an· an· an· /xe3/, Chinese, Han. Also se3. an /xe6/, Boot. an, /xekS/, To compete (with), to have a competition, to have a contest, to race (against). - "1011 x.ek5 1En6. To race, to have a race. - aB· 1:1/· x.ek5 x.i3 maa5. To have a horserace, horseracing. 1:1rLJn "1iJufl• 1:1,;; mai2 yiUJ6 x.ek5 lai4 pe5 11lBii2. You cannot compete with him/her, you are not his/her rival. /xekS kan6/, To compete with one another. an1ann /xekS Xefj3/, To compete.



/xeml/, 1. Needle. - rDLD xem 1 tho2. Knitting needle. 2. Hook. - 1:1llril xeml met3. Fish hook.


/xenl/, 1. Calamity, disaster, tragedy. 2. Enemy (esp. in the phrase 1Ll1kon2 x.enl). 01811 - t~IJ2 x.en 1. Enemy state. - 01811 xenl t:nfl. Public enemy. ••


/xen2/, To set a limit (for), to limit, to restrict. - rnr,,,,. a11rnllri1"18 x.en2 hai4

haa4 wan2 het3 Ji6. To allow five days to finish.


/xen4/, 1. To wear out, to be worn out. 2. (Of hair or leaves) to come off, (of bees or heads of human beings) to be bare, hairless. IJJ8 •l:liJ '7JlflaUJrnrl f:,1 mai5 x.en4 tsum3 x.u.m6 hBIJ'· The trees are bare.

Jai2 x.e2. River water, stream water. Original from


228 anr1 /xefJl/, Chopping board. ann /xefJ2/, Classifier for rings or suchlike. ann 1 /xerj 3/, 1. Cupboard for dishes, shelf. 2. Table (for chopping things on), counter. ann2 /xCfJ3/, To compete. - 1H JCer;f kan6. To compete with each other. - LJ[ji JCer;f yoi2. To enter into an election contest, to campaign for (office), to run for. ann /xeg6/, 1. To pull, to spread, to stretch, to tighten, to be tight (as a result of being pulled). - w/· Utli11J/}.JCerf phaa3 taan2 s:t'. To pull the sheet (to make it even and tight). 71071/}1 1811718i1A/Jn ?au6 ts:,k5 JCe,/ kin2 ?in2 J:,,/. To pull the rope a bit tighter. 2. (Of sunlight) to be strong. 11/"}JAOtil ~ saail Jet3 JCe,/. Strong sunlight. antfl /xet3/, Small frog. 1LLI- kop3 x.et3. Frog (general). Sec kop-3. anmultfl /xet3 paat3/, A kind of small frog. an01 /xet5/, l. Big steelyard, big weighing scales. 2. To weigh. See tsar/. anal /xeu 1/, Green, blue. W1 - phakl JCeu 1. Green vegetables. Also seul. and1.1Ui:;, /xeu 1 som3/, Sky-blue. ana2 /xeul/, Poetry, love song. and3 /xeul/, To boast. 1::1111ll1 - 1::101,1 man2 kek5 JCeu 1 menl. He likes to boast, he is fond of big talk. ana /xeu2/, Sickle.

Digitized by


anO /xeu3/, 1. Chisel. 2. To chisel. Also

siu3. anO /xeu3/, Tai festoon. ano.,cl,:iUJI" /xeu3 laai2 phaa4/, A kind of Tai-style festoon quilt cover. anOuL11la /xeu3 pok5 kaau4/, Tai festoon legging. an~1 /xeu4/, Tooth. Also seu4. ana.,cltnL /xeu4 laa4 tu6/, Front tooth. ana~I.Aij~ /xeu4 maal ltm 1/, Canine tooth. ana~I" /xeu4 m88fJ4/, Missing tooth. ana~on /xeu4 mtg2/, Decayed tooth. an~nOH /xeu4 ginl/, Bucktooth. anaal,:; /xeu4 xaai2/, Molar.

ana 2

/xeu4/, To boil a liquid to a consistency, to simmer. - Al!J1JL#d JCeu4 Jam5 som4. To simmer sour sauce.

aij-1\ /xtk3/, l. Guest (esp. in the phrase 1LH - kon2 JC£k3). 2. Feast, banquet (esp. in the phrase w/]H- ph:,nl JCtk3}. 3. Wedding, marriage ceremony. '11flrh - het3 JCek3. To arrange/perfot 1n a marriage ceremony, to have a wedding. aij1 /xtk5/, Session. ~ '11Ld JC£k5 hol. The first session, first. AIB ml· - Jaam3 hait4 JCek5. The fifth session. aij~ /xtm 1/, Leaf for wrapping pyramidshaped sticky rice dumplings. aijli /xtm2/, 1. Small, twisty bamboo branches. 2. To make tenser, to strengthen, to reinforce (a fence or suchlike) by adding more (small branches, fer11 leaves or suchlike) to it. aijliUJl')l /xtm 1 faail/, l. To reinforce a dam. 2. Small branches, fem leaves or similar objects for building dams.

Original from



aijy /xm13/, Cymbals. aij~ /xtm4/, To be burnt, to be scorched. uBn - .,,,. IJO J:,4 pi,f JC£m4 kaa3

offering wine to sb., to urge (sb.) to drink more wine. See ham4.


aijH /xr.n4/, Clean, hygienic.

yauS. The meat got burnt from being over-roasted. aij~~(_[} /xtm4 mo4/, (Scorched) rice crust.

aijl-l I /xr.nS/, Boxing. aijl-l2 /xr.nS/, To be idle, to have nothing to do, to be free.

aij~ lxtm5 I, Excellent, superior. - nlld JC£m5 9aam2. Superb. 0'18 - ti6 xem5. Good points, strong points. ao~~UM /xr.m5 mon2/,Excellent, outstanding. ,181 '1.JIH - lik5 saan2 xem5 m:>n2. Excellent works.

aijn /xr.g 1/, 1. To be hard, to be solid, to be stiff, to be tough, to be strong. 1/na/' - kaaifl xaa 1 JC£1)1. Strong bow. - 0'1'10'1'1 JCEl)l tarJJ tarJl. Very hard, very solid, very tough. See k£n3. 2. (Of liquid) to harden, to freeze, to solidify.

aijH 1 /xr.nl/, Arm (esp. in the phrase 't/1Ld - ho1 X£n 1). Also s£nl. aijH'1Jn· /xr.nl s~/, Sleeve.

aijn /xr.g2/, Qassifier for rings and similar ornaments.

aijH2 /xr.nl/, To hang up. 'J1D'1.II" - u,8 1ur11llt1't/1/] '?au6 su5 JC£nl ti6 J:,l


k:>1)1 keu3 h£1. Hang up the basket on

the hook.

aijH 3 /xr.n 1/, To protect, to shield. See h:>p3.

aijM 1 /xm2/, (Of sickness) to settle down, to begin to recover, to start to get well. u,/riull11-1:11- 97d taai:f pen6 x£n2 maa2 hauS. The patient's condition is improving.

aijM 2 /xr.n2/, More than, more, rather. 1::J( '1.18, l::JH mai2 X£n2 pi2 sil man2.


You are putting on more weight than him/her. Also sen2.

aijH 1 /xr.n3 t, (Of the smell of tobacco or

aijll /xr.p 1/, Sheet, thin, flat objects such as paper and cards. aijll /xr.p3/, 1. A primary monetary unit, dollar. 2. Classifier for objects of a certain shape, such as beehives. aijll'1JLC /xr.p3 sol/, Money. aijllD'ILD /xr.p3 to3/, Lump-shaped hives of big wasps. aiju /xr.pS/, To get burnt , to wither (from too much sunshine, heat or dryness). LJ!' - LJd yaa4 x£p5 yau5. The grass withered. aijc /xr.u2/, Fishy smell. aij~ /xr.u3/, To be tilted, to tilt. Also JC£u5.

aijd 1 /xr.uS/, Buckwheat, buckwheat

wine) to be pungent.

aijH 2 /xr.n3/, To keep offering (food and wine to a guest), to urge sb. to drink at a banquet. - ,1r:} x£n3 Jau4. To keep

Digitized by

aijn /xtg6/, Shin. Also Jaa4 x£,I.



aijd 2 /xr.uS/, To be tilted. Also xeu3.

Original from



aB · /xii/, 1. To worry, to be ~011ied. - u/ji JCil yorn2. To be distrc~ to be heavyhearted, to be dejected. 2. To be sad, to be distressed (esp. in the phrase - BLtJ JCil JComl). - 1:1url JCil m~1Jl. To be pessimistic, to be sad and worried.

aB· /xi3/, To ride (a horse), to take (a bus, train or suchlike). - 1::1/· JCi3 maa5. To ride a horse. - ~/m/- JCi3 Jaa6 thaa2. To take a train.


I /xi4/,

1. Excrement, shit, faeces,

filth. 2. To empty the bowels, to defecate. aB" 1f'IL /xi4 hul/, Ear wax. aB" .-1n1.-1~ /xi4 Iek3 1~6/, Tooth of a saw.

aB" 011 /xi4 taa6/, Mucous discharge (from the eyes). aB" and /xi4 xeu4/, Tartar, dental calculus.

aB" 2 /xi4/, Tooth of a saw, comb or suchlike. - ~fl1~8 JCi4 lek3 l:P. Tooth of a saw. Also si4.

aB• /xiS/, Flag. aBHl /xinl/, To be coquettish, to be loose (in morals).

aB.-12 /xinl/, (Of a long, thin object) to be blocked at one end (as when being shoved or pushed forward). aBH-or /xinl tsai6/, To feel embarrassed, to feel awkward.

aBH /xin3/, A weight unit(= 500 grams). Also sin3.


/xifJl/, Ginger.

aBri /xirJ2I, Body. O'ILD - to6 JCi,r. (Physical) body.

Digitized by

Go gle

aBn,uji /xifj2 koi2/, Alone, by oneself, single.

aBfl lxirJ3t, Season, period. a8fl11lft /xifJ3 ?un3/, Wann season. aBflUJI· /xifj3 faaS/, Weather,clirnate. aBflUJ~ lxi1J3 fonl/, Rainy season. a8fl1JILH /xifJ3 hon6/, Warm season.

a8fl1J1ijf, a8f11D1

/xifJ3 h£g4/, Dry seaSQn. /xifJ3 1catl/, Cold season,


aBfl~')l /xifJ3 mai4/, Hot season, summer.

aBn /xifJ6/, Only in the phrase a8n1:18n JCi,I mi,!, Pure Brightness (a solar te11n). Also si,I.

a8o1 1 /xit1/, To tilt, to be slanting. 0111 1:1/-UUJ3 JCitl maa2. The bench/chair was tilted.


/xitl/, 1. To prise. 2. To pick. 3. To kick. Also sitl. See thip1.


/xiu2/, (Of a woman) to be shapely.

&Ld l /xol/, To laugh, to laugh at, to mock, to ridicule. a/B - JCa.sn>2 JCo1• Laughing stock. u;., - ul'f.Ju8H pai3 JCo1 paai3 p:,n6. Don't laugh at others.

aLd 2 /xol/, To loan, to rent, to hire. See JCaat5.

a(_d 3 /xol/, (To put on shoes) on the wrong side.

1l]u01BH1:1r-vw - 91,:,

k£p3 tin6 mai2 supl JCol haP. You've put your shoes on the wrong way (i.e. putting the left one on the right foot and vice versa).

8Ld4 /xol/, 1. Hoe. 2. Bridge. - al]H JCol JC£nl. Suspension bridge, drawbridge.

Original from



8Ld1Ur'I /xol kog3/, Arch bridge. 8Ld1:tff- /xo 1 mi2/, Arm. aLci 1 /xo2/, Neck. 8LD'J10n /xo2 htg4/, To be thirsty. 8LD'J1UlJ' /xo2 hoi 1/, Adam's apple. aLci~La· /xo2 mo2t, To snore. a(_tiul,J /xo2 paai2/, A kind of battle array in olden times. 8LD1.IC /xo2 sau3/, Kitchen, kitchen range. 8l_l]1Jfl /xo2 s.,6/, Collar. 8LD1Jfli /xo2 s.,k3/, 1. Armed force. 2. Armament. a(_ti01B1-1 /xo2 tin6/, Ankle. aLD8Ll::I /xo2 xom 1/, Sad, so11ow. 8LD 2 /xo2/, Goods, luggage, belongings. 8LD'J1flH /xo2 h.,n2/, Furniture, property. ala /xo3/, Tocongratulate. 8Ld 1 /xo4/, To fry. - w1 xo3 phak1. To fry vegetables. aLd 2 /xo4/, To confo11n to. LJn - 11,1

ya,/ xo4 kan6. Not confo1111 to each other, not fit together.

8Ld 3 /xo4/, 1. Sentence. 2. Reason, logic. rn1.· - hul xo4. To have commonsense. 8Ld 4 /xo4/, Branch, twig.

8Ld~~ · /xo4 mi2I, Joint of the finger. 8Ldal /xo4 xaa6/, Branch of a tree, twig.

aLdala;i /xo4 xaam2/, Phrasing. 8Ld I /xoS/, Calamity, disaster.

aLd 2 /xoS/, 1. Greed. 2. To be greedy. al]JI /xoil/, Son-in-law, male in-law. 41.,1 - JuJc5 xoil. Son-in-law. uB - pi6 xoi1. Elder sister's husband, brother-in-law.

Digitized by


nl- ?aa6 xoil. Father's younger sister's husband, uncle. al]J2 /xoi 1/, Fine particles of earth dug out by animals making burrows.


/xoi3/, Meeting.

8L1 /xokS/, Mortar for pounding rice, mill. 8L1.-f~ /xokS lam5/, Wate111lill. aLl::I /xoml/, Bitter. 8Li=ID1UH /xoml ton2/, To be sad, to be in deep SOIIOW. aLl::I-Of /xoml tsai6/, To be sad, to feel miserable. aLfi 1 /xom2/, The cutting edge of a knife, blade. - a/11 xorn2 raanl. The blade of an axe. 8Lfi-ol· /xom2 tsaa2/, (Of the blade of a knife) to be sharp. 8Lfi 2 /xom2/, To itch, to be itchy. - _,,,gut.,,,Dut xorn2 Jitl Jitl. To be very itchy. 8LQ /xom3/, 1. To bend over. l:JH ~ w/]11ai101/},;i.,,,/ji man2 xom3 ph:,nl waP ttm4 Jaai2. He was writing sth. with his back bent over the desk. 2. To protect. 8LQ1L_C' /xom3 kol/, To protect, to defend. aLQan' /xom3 xel/, To protect. 8LH I /xon 1/, A generic ter111 for hair or feather. au-f'JlLC' /xonl ho 1/, Hair of the head. 8LH1ld /xon 1 kaau4/, Hair of the leg. 8LHD11 /xonl taa6/, Eyebrow. 8LH 2 /xon 1/, Way, road, path. 8LHD11ri /xon 1 WU] 2/, Road, way, path. 8LHD'llritn8' /xon I taatJ2 phi 1/, The Milky Way. Original from


232 8LHD'llri-ul· /xonl taa1]2 saa3/, Crossroad. 8LH /xon2/, To mix. - u/i.J/ xon2 yaa4 yaa6. To mix herbs. 8LH.,fLC /xon2 lo2/, To mix up. 8LH 1 /xonS/, (Of the stomach) to ache, to be upset. 01yn - t:,,f xon5. To have a stomach-ache, to feel acute pain in the stomach.

8LH 2 /xonS/, To recall (esp. in the phrase - "OLD xon5 tso4}. 8LH\DIO'l /xonS phaatS/, To judge, to make a judgement. a~mU1 /xonS th:,kS/, To consider, to think, to muse. 8LH-OIH /xonS tsaan4/, To regret, to repent.


/xorJl/, (Of a river bank or dam) to fall or collapse as a result of being under 11tined.

8Lri /xofJ2/, 1. The Lu River (as it is called by the Chinese, the upper reaches of the Salween), around which area Dehong is spoken. 2. Universe, world. 3. Head element in compounds denoting 'the world' or 'universe'. 8LriUJI· /xorJ2 faaS/, Heaven. 8Lri1ln /xorJ2 k8aI]6/, The human world. 8Lri1LH /xofJ2 kon2/, World, universe. alfi.-tr /xorJ2 lai2/, Internal organs. 8Lri"'O" /xorJ2 1~11, Heaven. 8Lri8L~ /xorJ2 xom3/, World.

al(I /xofJ3/, Balcony for storing firewood, tools and other odds and ends. &Lr'lad /xorJ3 xau4/, Long bamboo dining table and seats for entertaining guests during a (religious) fair.

Digitized by


8L" /xofJS/, 1. Space, compartment, courtyard, yard. See ho,t. 2. Head element in compounds denoting 'institution' or 'organisation'. 8L"UJ01 /xorJS f~k3/, School. 8L"UJ0171UH /xofJS f~k3 ?on3/, Primary school. a(!lUJ011ln /xofJs f~k3 kWUJ6/, High school. 8L"llJ01,ALr1 /xorJS f~k3 lorJ 1I, University. 8L"-Ol1 /xofJS tsaakS/, Factory. a[!l t /xofJ6/, (Of animals) to give birth to, to breed, (of crops) to ear. l:Jl.' 1:1ll- nll' l:Jl., mul me6 xor/' ?e1 mul yau5. The sow has given birth to a litter of piglets. aln 2 /xorJ6/, Sunflower, sunflower seeds. 8LU 1 /xop3/, Cycle, year (of age for children). 8LLI 2 /xop3/, To bite. - .;1l.1 xop1 Juk1. To bite bones. 8LU /xopS/, To kneel. See J:,k5. 8LUD')J /xopS wai 6/, To greet or kneel down with the palms clasped in respect. 8LU8C /xopS xau3/, To kneel down. aLrfl I /xot3/, 1. A kind of basket. 2. The seventh of the ten Heavenly Stems. aLrf12 /xot3/, To curl up, to huddle up, to roll up, to flap or roll (the tongue). al_O'l /xotS/, To dig (deep), to hoe, to scoop. - '11l.- xot5 hu2. To dig a hole.


To envy. 10 - l:JH01ll kau6 x:,il man2 t&. I really envy him/her. aulluLC /x:,i 1 yo2/, To envy. 0

/x:,i 1/,

auji /x:,i2/, Male sex organ, penis.

Original from


233 auJ-1 /xoi3/, To cross, to intersect, to overlap. - a/ ·X:Ji3 xaal. To cross one's legs while sitting, to sit with one's legs crossed. u,8 - ti6 x:Ji3. (Point of) intersection. au)) /xoi4/, To die. See taai6. '

aU'JJ l /xoi6/, To meet, (of rivers) to join. - 1H x:Ji6 kan6. To meet with each other, to join. - ,1/u, x:Ji6 Jaat5. To communicate. au'JJ 2 /xoi6/, To be lame (esp. in the phrase a/· - xaal x:Ji6). See x:,k3. au1 /xok 1/, To engrave, to dig out with a finger or something pointed. - UILD ,1/j.i x.:Jkl to6 Jaai2. To engrave inscriptions. l.DlfJl:JiJ - phu,/ mai5 x.:Jk1. Woodcut. - aB· '11J.' x.:Jkl x.i4 hu1• To dig out earwax (with an earpick or a finger). Also x.:Jk3.

au1 1 /xok3/, To be lame, to be crippled, to be paralysed (esp. in the phrase a/·~ x.aa1 x.:Jk3).

au1 2 /xok3/, To engrave, to carve. Also x.:Jkl.

au13 /xok3/, Outer skin or layer of sth., shell. - ,1/;i x.:Jk3 Jaarj. Silkwo1111 cocoon. /xok5/,

au1 1. Jail, prison (esp. in the phrase - ml]n X:Jk5 th:Jr1}. 2. Enclosure or pen for animals. - a/jj x.:Jk5 x.aai2. Buffalo pen. - f:lJ.' x.:Jk5 mu J. Pigsty. au~ /xom4/, To lie face down, to tum upside down, to overturn. uBH - pin4 x:Jm4. To overturn, to turn upside down.

Digitized by


See pin4, k:Jp5.

au~1uu /xom4 kopS/, 1. To lie face down, to lie prostrate. 2. To crawl or creep forward. au~ /xom6/, (Of the sharp point of a knife, needle or suchlike) to wear out, to go blunt.

aUHl /xonl/, To crow. 1iJ - '11LJrl 1JD'11D kai3 x.:Jnl ~IJ1 sau6 hau5. The cock has already crowed a second time.

au"'12 /xonl/, Spirit, soul. - ad X:Jnl x.au4. The souVspirit of crops, the god of


aua-1.,fB. /xon 1 Ii 1/, The soul has left the body.

aLJH.,iU1 /xon 1 lokS/, Spirit, soul. au"'13 /xon 1/, Classifier for one of a pair, such as hands, legs or shoes. auHl /xon2/, 1. Smoke. - IJJ'j.i X.:Jn2 fai2. Fire smoke. 2. To smoke, to give off smoke. UJ'JJ - ,1ll"fai2 x.:Jn2 Je5. The fire gave off smoke. auH2 /xon2/, To wobble, to shake, not fiim or tight. uiJ ~ u,t, pai3 x.:Jn2 tatfl. Don't shake the chair. w/JH - '110 ph:,nl x:Jn2 hau5. The table wobbled/ became shaky.

au.:ti /xon3/, Long narrow flag for religious service. au.:t2 /xon3/, To exchange (esp. in the phrase - 1H X:Jn3 kan6). See lek5. auH /xon4/, To merge, to put together, to lump together. - "LB x:Jn4 Jom2. To merge into, to incorporate into. - 01LJf:1 x.:Jn4 t:Jm6. To put together, to gather together. auHaUH /xon4 xon 1/, (Of a load on Original from



both sides of a shoulder pole) to be unbalanced, one side heavier than the other. auHa~M /xon4 xin2/, Midnight. 8UH /xonS/, Stick, hammer, mallet. auH1un /xonS ko1]6/, Drumstick. auH01~ /xonS tauS/, Walking-stick. 8UHD1Ui /xonS t-:,k3/, Hammer, mallet. auHcl'))'J'IQ- /xonS waai4 h~/, Oar. 8UH /xon6/, To prise. 8Ur1 /xorJ 1/, 1. Thing (animate or inanimate), object. - UJ/i x:,IJ1 faak3. Gift, present. - 1:J8- 71( x:,IJ1 mi2 tsai6. Living things, animate objects. - ;18 x:,IJI Ji6. Good things, goodies. 2. Possessive marker. 7IH;1iJullH Wf ?ar,6 JaiS pen6 x:,l)l phail ?Whom does this belong to?/Whose is this? u,ri;1/'}J

X3l) 1

tar/ laai1. (Properties)

belonging to the public. aur17lU1 IX'Jl)l ?ok3/, Blood relation. 8Ur1'Jlijn /xogl h£1]4/, Lover, flan~, fiancec. aur1.AL /xol) 1 lu1/, A religious festival, now celebrated for harvest. aun /xol)3/, Pink. aur1\i:1ln IX'Jl)3 tsaatj6/, Pink. aun 1 /xol)4/, A kind of basket. - UJlft x:,IJ" fun3. Manure basket. aun2 /xol)4/, To come across, to stumble upon, to meet with (misfortune). - rnln x:,rf" haaIJ6. (Of misfortune or suchlike) to fall upon. See p:,IJ", hopS. aun IXOl)6/, Some, part (oO. aun.-1Qn /xorJ61~6/, Some (oO, part

Digitized by


(oO. "1LH- kon2 x:,m6 Jal. Some people. auu /xop3/, Border, boundary, edge. - ;ilrl x:,p3 Jorf'. The edge of a winnowing basket. auu'Jll>lul,,~On /xop3 haai 1 paai6 m~g2/, Border, frontier. auu'J'IBY /xop3 him2/, Border, border area. auu.-tijH /xop3 1£n6/, Border, frontier. auu~IH'J'IBY~Qri /xop3 maan4 him2 m;,1)2/, Frontier, border area. auu /xop5/, 1. To kneel. - ad h:,pS xau3. To kneel down. ;1[1"1 - J:,kS ;,c:,pS. To kneel (down). 2. (Of people) to meet. ;1iJ - ;1iJa[J'JJ Jar' h:,pS Jai4 ;,c:,;6. (fo have been able to) meet (with one another).


/xot3/, 1. Knot. 2. To make a knot. to fo11n a knot, to clench one's fists. x:,t3 tiq3. To make a knot. - UT!l:JD · 718H7J8H x:,t3 taa6 mi2 tsin2 tsin2. To clench one's fists. 3. To bring to an end (esp. in the phrase - rnlrl x:,r' ha81J 1). 4. To mass, to build up (troops), to move (troops). - -v81U181u/· ;,c:,t3 S'1k3 t'1k3 y-5. To move troops to attack. 5. To bear grudges, to harbour bitter resentment. 8Utn'f11 /xot3 hak5/, To love, to be in love, to be very fond of. aum.AID'I /xot3 Jaat5/, To conclude, conclusion. aum"UI- /xot3 saa2/, To finish, to end. aum"UIJ11 /xot3 sutl/, Finish, end. aum01B /xot3 ti6/, Result. aum01~ /x~3 tum6/, To gather, to concentrate.

- u,pn

Original from




/x:,t.3 tsai6/, 1. To intend (to do), to plan (to do). 2. To bear grudges.


/xum2/, Onomatopoeic word describing the sound of thunder or of a


aum I /xot5/, To scrape off. - '1LHl:JLD JC:Jt5 kon4 mo4. To scrape the bottom of

a pot for some left-over food.

aum 2 /xot5/, To pick up. -

'11/1 x:Jt5


/xum3/, Low-lying land, hollow.

all} /xum4/, To be bare, to be without, to be short. '1il'1LH - kai3 kon4 xum4. A

saaJc5. To pick up leftovers, such as things other people discard. See JC:Jt3.

chicken without a tail (such as one that has not fully grown up).

aum 3 /xotS/, 1. To bite (bones). - -,1L1

8ll:f /xum6/, To be bare, to be bald. 1:JiJUl'JJ- mai5 paai6 xum6. A tree with a broken top. See x,m6.

JC:Jt5 Jukl. To chew bones. 2. To scold,

to accuse.

aum-,11· /xot5 laa3/, To bitterly attack, to sharply denounce.

aL /xu2/, 1. Enclosing wall. 2. Hardships. aL: /xu5/, Small jar, (wine) gourd. aL /xu6/, 1. To cook, to boil, to stew. - -,18· nLd xu6 Ja-51)o2. To cook beef. 2. To open up (wasteland). - -,1/-xu6 Jaa2. To open up wasteland, to cultivate. al]1 /xui2/, To prise, to pull (down). - 1:JlirnBu xui2 maak5 hinl. To prise up

nobleman. 2. Head element in compounds denoting these. 3. Mother's younger brother. Also maau3 xunl. altf'Jll_da~ /xun 1 hol xam2/, King (of a small state in feudal society). altfa:t~ri- /xunl m~2/, 1. Local official. 2. King. altf1.1lr1 /xunl saagl/, God. altf1.J~"i /xun I s~k3/, Officer. 8ltf8Ul:t /xunl xom6/, Prince.


a rock/stone.


/xuiS/, 1. To soak (dried bamboo strips, strings or suchlike) so as to make it tough. - .,/fd xui5 Jam5. To soak (in order to make it soft or tough). See tse6. 2. To temper again, to temper brittleness (of an iron tool). 'Jlljl-of fhuiS tsai6/, A discourse particle expressing sarcasm. - 1:Jf

rnll01-,1iJ71[Ji1:JI-xui-5 fsai6 mai2 het3 Jai4 ?:Jt3 maa2. It's really good of you to have done that


/xuml/, Hole, pit, ditch. 8~'J10D /xuml heu6/, Grave,


Digitized by

altf /xun 1/, 1. A high male rank, a

Go ~ gle

/xun2/, Bundle.

8U11 /xun3/, To be turbid, to be muddy,

to be unclear. -,11:!J - Jam5 xun3. Muddy water. - '11lfJ71lJ) xun3 sum4 ?um4. To be very turbid. 8U12 /xun3/, (Of horses) to run quickly,

to gallop. 1:JI. -

-,1/}H018-,18 •"Vlnul. ullri rnu5 xun3 1£n6 ti6 1~ saai;,3 yaa4 perfl. The horses were galloping on the grasslands.


/xun5/, To be harsh and unreasonable, to be brutal. a~a~alr1alr1 /xunS xunS xaagl xaagl/, To be harsh and unreasonable, to be perverse and violent. Original from



auJ /xupl/, To sink in, to cave in. aU,JaU,l.-tBr'l.-tBr'I /xupl xupl li1J3 lil)3/, To be uneven, to be bumpy, to be full of bumps and hollows. au,1 /xutl/, To scrape, to shave. - ;llJl7 xutl Jut3. To shave (the beard). - u01 f:JiJ xutl p:,k3 maP. To remove the bark of a tree.

81J'1 au·

/xutS/, To flee, to escape. See paai6.

/xP/, To be arrogant. wlHuiJaB ·f:Je·· u-JJ- phaanl pai3 JCil, mil pai3 xP.

Don't be distressed when poor, don't be arrogant when rich. aff1 /xik 1/, A kind of fish net. affH /xin 1/, To return (sth.), to decline (to accept). - f:JD-Jcinl mi2. To retaliate, to return a blow. na;1/jj - 97ff:JH ?au6 laai2 Jcinl har' man2. Return the book to him/her. Also Jcin2. aOHal.;. /xinl xum.2/, 1. To talk back. 2. To reply. 3. To cancel or break off (al'agreement). affHl /xin2/, Night. - - DHDH Jcin2 JCin2 wan2 wan2. Day and night, every day and every night.


/xin2/, 1. To return, to come back. ULJ'1 - '11Uf1LJL. p:Jk5 xin2 ?:Jrf' yu3. To return to the residential place. 2. To pay back, to return. - a/,;i xin2 xaain2. To reply, to give a reply, to return a call. Also Jcinl. 3. To redo (as in weaving or knitting), to resurrect. 4. Again. f:JH 97fl01710iJal man2 Jcin2 het3 ts:,i5 waa6. He/She said it again.

aff H /xin3/, To hate, to be tired of.

Digitized by


aftH /xin4/, 1. To rise, to raise, to ascend, to go up, to grow, to increase. U">J - 1/., pai3 Jcin4 kuJ! Don't go up! 2. To ache. affH1H· /xin4 kanl/, To raise the price. affH.-tLn /xin4 lol)6/, To sweep a grave (to pay respect to the dead person at his tomb). affH'1lUri /xin4 ts:>1)2/, To pay respect to Buddha. aff Ha"l /xin4 xakS/, To be promoted, to get a promotion. aOHatJJ· /xin4 xoi 1/, To many into and live with one's bride's family. /xin4 yai3/, To grow up, to enrich.


affr1 /xil) 1/, 1. To sieve. 2. Sieve. '11D f:JI-- ad'1JIH ?au6 xil)l mail xil)l xau4

saanl. To get a sieve with which to sieve some husked rice. affnuun /xil)l p:>1)6/, To discuss. aff u /xipS/, Hand span, length span from thumb to middle finger.


/xitl/, To catch up with, to be comparable with.

affo, /xitS/, To (be able to) reach (sth.). aOH1.JJ/f wOdunna;1Ji- xenl su1J1 phtul ya,/ ?au6 Jaj4 xit5. (Sth. was)

hung up in such a high place that (one) was unable to reach it. LJn - ,1-,i ya,/ Jcit5 Jai4. Cannot reach, to be unable to reach. aO • 1 /x;l/, Mud, mire, bog, morass. - a/jj x:,l xaai2. Buffalo bog/mire. aO' 2 /x; 1/, Eggplant. Also maak3 x:,l. aO .. /x;2/, 1. Bundle (of bananas), string (of). 2. Classifier for stories, poems, songs and suchlike. 3. Vine.

Original from



an . 1JlflH /x;,2 x~ /,Familytrec,clan, family. an . .-.n" /x;,l le1/, A kind of 2

poisonous vine, whose juice can be used for poisoning fish. md /x;,2 thau 1/, Vine. ~fl1 /x;,2 ts:JkS/, Vine.

an . an . an· /x:J

4/, To scare (sb.),

to frighten, to

threaten, to bully.


/x:J6/, About, approximately, roughly.

1:J8- - 11/d119,1pn mi2 x:P saau2 ko5

J:,,I. There are about twenty people. 1::11111J,Ji- 1arniJ man2 sWJ 1 x:P kau6 haP. He/She is about my height.

an1UH71UMUL~ /x-:,6 kon3 ?on6 ponS/, Before, in previous times, historically. /x-:,6 man2/, As he/she likes, let it be (that). aflu~.A~ /x~ ponS 1anS/,Fo1111erly, previously, before.


afl1 /x-:,kS/, Magnificent, grand. afl1a~ /x~ks xam3/,Magnificent, grand.

afl1a~1J1n1Jll[I /x~kS xaml he6 huJJ6/, (Of a building or suchlike) looking splendid in green and gold, resplendent and magnificent.


/x~m 1/, To be robust, to be strong, (of a woman) to be strong and graceful.

aflnt /x~JJ6/, 1. Thing, objec~ equipmen~ apparatus. - 8Ld x:,,1 xo2.

Objects, things, luggage. See X~TJJ. 2. Classifier for ploughs, rakes and suchlike. 3. Nominal marker. - 11811 x:n:f s:,k3. Weapons, atms. - TlflH x:,,1 ?en'. Toy. x:,,I ti2. Utensils, tool.


afln2 /x:JJJ6/, 1. Half. ~ ,1pn x:,,I J:,,I. A half. - u/'i x:,,I paak3. Half of one hundred, fifty. 2. Equal, average, even, to balance. - 1H x:,rf' kan6. To be equal, tobalance. afln1ln /x~JJ6 kaag6/, Middle, centre. aflnafln /x~6 x~6/, Equally. 1:J/]f1111 - mE{f kan6 x:n:f x:n:f. To divide (sth.) equally.

afla 1 /x-:,u3/, 1. To detain, to deduct. TID1LH - mil ?au6 kon2 x:,u3 haP. To keep a person in custody, to detain a person. 2. To embezzle part of what should be issued. - ,1/· a/· u811 x:,u3 Jaa5 xaa5 p:,n6. To embezzle part of another's salary.

afl02 /x-:,u3/, To embroider (flowers on). aflaa')l /x:Ju3 wai5/, To detain, to keep in custody.

afld /x~u5/, To stick out, to protrude (as of one's forehead).

afl~ /x:Jm2/, To hinder, to block (the way, with bee branches or suchlike).

afln /X~JJ2/, To resist, to block. See xatl.


aflr'll /x~l/, Young female chicken not yet having laid eggs (esp. in the phrase

1'1 - kai3 xmfl>.


ul" /yaal/, (Of clothes) to be worn out. See y~k3.

aflr'l2 /x~3/, To be strong, to be robust.

Digitized by


Original from


238 ul .. /yaa2/, 1. To meet (esp. in the phrase - rr,11 yaa2 hanl). See hop5. 2. To get along well (with). 'VLJrlal ,- 111u,n· S:Jl)l xaal yaa2 kan6 te5. The two of them are getting along very well. ul· 1J'ILLimLll-OLd /yaa2 hopS thop3 tso4/, To meet with, to encounter. ul • m[!l /yaa2 thop3/, To meet, to come across, to bump into, to run into. ul· -Old /yaa2 tso4/, To meet, to come across, to run into. uJ· l /yaa3/, 1. Negative imperative, don't.

alid1:1lld-,1'Jj - 01/H xaam 2 meu2 laP yaa3

taan4. Don't say it in such words/Don't use such language. See pai3. 2. To stop, to end (esp. in the phrase w/·- phatt' yaa3}. 1:1/(J - maau3 yaa3. Do not end, do not stop. unwlun - yar:f phaa4 ya,! yaa3. Endless, endlessly. ul· u;; tyaa3 pai3/, Don't. - rnllm yaa3 pai3 het3. Don't do (it). ul· ul· /yaa3 yaa3/, 1. To be about to (do), to be going to, to be on the verge of (doing). u,8Jyi1- 'Vfd1:J81Li11:JJ ··

rnyr'I til l:Jn2 yaa3 yaa3 sam5 mi2 kon2 maa2 h:,ry. Just when (I) was about to sleep, someone came and called. 2. Sentence-final particle expressing strong confi1111ation, translatable as 'truly, undeniably, without any doubt' .

1ll11ull11a/i,i1:1i1 - ken3 pen6 xaai2 man2 yaa3 yaa3. It's his buffalo and no mistake. ul· 2 /yaa3/, 1. To apply (fertiliser). - IJJ/ft yaa3 fun3. To apply fertiliser. 2. To keep (offering). Also ya3. ul" 1 /yaa4/, 1. Tobacco (esp. in the phrase - a011 yaa4 x£n3). 2. Generic

Digitized by


te1m for grasses, weed. - aJ·yaa4 xaa2. Thatch grass. 3. Medicine, herb. - LJI yaa4 yaa6. Medicine, herb, medication. ul" uijH /yaa4 ptn3/, Opium. ut· /yaa4 yi5/, Tea. ut· uOi /yaa4 y~k3/, Weed, grass.


ul" 2 /yaa4/, To press down. ut· /yaa5/, 1. To dismantle (esp. in the phrase - LJU'JJ yaa5 y:,i6). See Jit5. 2. To destroy, to destruct, to knock down (a building or suchlike).

11arn0i1LJU1 - aOu, ?au6 h:,n2 y:Jk3 yaa5 w£t5. To knock down old houses. 3. To attack. - 1H yaa5 kan6. To fight each other, to attack each other. 4. (Of water) to wash away (dam, bank or suchlike). ul· .,.,,, /yaa5 Jaai6/, To change, to refo1111. ul· /yaa5 lu5/, To destroy, to destruct.


ul 1 /yaa6/, 1. To treat, to cure. 1:1i11/·-

u,/riullH man2 kaa3 yaa6 taarr pen6. • • He went to treat his patients. - a'JJ "CJ8D1LH yaa6 xai4 tsiu3 kon2. To cure the illness to save the patient. 2. To keep offering to give or sell sth. to sb. ul2 /yaa6/, I.Grandmother.See ?:Jk3 tsau4. 2. (Often used in compounds) wife, lady. Ul"J'lUH /yaa6 ?~n3/, Concubine, minor wife of a man who has more than one wife. ul1J1IH /yaa6 haan2/, Buddhist monks and nuns. ul.,.I,:; /yaa6 Iaai2/, Maternal grandmother. ul.,.l,:i1)1 /yaa6 Iaai2 kai3/, Toad.

Original from




/yaa6 loJJI/, Major wife or first wife of a man who has more than one wife. ul.-1un /yaa6 l~1]6/, The lady of either side related by the marriage of their children. ull:ILD'l /yaa6 motS/, Witch, sorceress. ulmd /yaa6 thau4/, Grandma, an elderly lady.

ulji /yaai2/, 1. To cut open (with a knife). Sec xaat3. 2. To touch (esp. in the phrase 01yiJ01yiJ - - t:,i3 t:,i3 yaai2 yaai2). Sec Jcit5, p:,rf', l)Om2.


/yaai6/, To be loose, to be loosened, no longer holding together, as of a lump of earth being dried. -vlfDLa1u11~,:, 1/i.J(J saa3 tho3 k:>n4 Jai5 yaai6 kaa3

yau5. This lump of bean dregs became loosened.

ul1 /yaakS/, To be difficult, to be hard, to be troublesome. ~un - J:,,f yaak5. Difficulties. 01/ri - taaif yaak5. (Degrees of) difficulty. Also yaap3. ul1'1Jr /yaak5 tsai6/, To be difficult. l:J8DH - m:P wan2 yaak5 tsai6. Life is difficult. ul1ulHalM"tJf /yaaJcS yaan2 xaan 1 tsa!6/, Difficulty, hardships.

ul~ /yaam2/, 1. Time, occasion, opportunity, season. - ~,:, yaa,n2 Jai5. This time, on this occasion, now. - ~H yaam2 Jan5. At that time, then, at that moment. - ~8 yaam2 Ji6. A good time, a good chance. 2. Gunpowder (esp. in the phrase - 1yri yaan>2 k:>r:,4). 3. A kind of musical instrument. ul~'fll" 011 /yaam2 haa4 w,.6/, Fortuneteller's timetable for calculating lucky

Digitized by


and unlucky days. ul~1u1 /yaam2 katl/, Winter, cold season. ul~.-.1- /yaam2 laa2/, Busy season, such as rice planting season. ul~.-tld /yaam2 laaul/, Winter. ul~.-.r /yaam2 la!6/, When, what time, what season. ul~1:1IM /yaam2 maanl/,Opportunity, chance. ul~1:1)) /yaarn2 mai4/, Summer, hot season. ul~1:1u /yaam2 m:J6/, At the time (of), when. ul~'1J~l1Jji /yaarn2 suml fai2/, The time for cooking the evening meal, around 4-5 p.m.


/yaam4/, To get used to, to be accustomed to, to be familiar with (one's work). 91flrh- het3 yaa,n4. Get used to one's work, to know one's work well. 91fltfl 91p ·- ~11 het3 ml yaam4 kanl. Practice makes perfect.


/yaarnS/, To be poor (in quality), to be inferior. 1lftl:llla~,:,- -v8u81191a kun3 meu2 Jai5 yaam5 sil JX>n6 hau5. These types of goods are of the poorest quality. 01Bu/]01aurl- til pEt5 X:>IJI yaam5. To reject the dross.


/yaarn6/, 1. (Of cloth) to be loosely woven, to become thin as the result of being worn out. See y:,k3. 2. (Of food) to be overcooked, to be well-cooked, to become very soft from being cooked. uDtad1811n11- '71n~B pil thau4 kin6 ?an6 yaam6 tsatJ3 Ji6. Eating well-cooked food is good for elderly people.


/yaan 1/, 1. To part, to leave. l:JHl:18

WL'1ULd018io/1 - 01BmiJud man2 m:P Original from



phuJc5 po2 til phaak5 yaanl ti6 thai4 yau5. He/She is leaving here tomorrow. See phaat3, phaaJc5. 2. Off, away, from (referring to the distance from one place to another). 1:JIM01I. - 118"DIH1'JJ01ll" maan4 tu6 yaaf'll s:>6 tsaan3 kai6 te5. Our village is a long way from the bus station.


/yaan2/, To hang down, to be heavy (with sth.), to droop. ,,rmLri1LH ur11ri11ri,1tJwOcJ - Jai2 thol)l kon6 pai3 SBIJl SBIJJ Jami ph£u 1 yaan2. The pockets of the trousers were heavy with too many things.


/yaan3/, Idea, thought, wisdom,

tactics, strategy, plan. - 01/1 yaan3 taak5. Strategy, plan. Also y£n3.


/yaan4/, (Of fruits or vegetables) to become rotten inside. 1:J!1LJ8H - maak3 yin4 yaan4. Lemons that were rotten from the inside.


/yaan6/, 1. Area, territory, limit, scope (either of space or time). 2. Approximate, approximately, roughly. ulH..t)l /yaan6 Jai5/, 1. Around here,

around this place. mLril:Jl101L1 - tho1J 1 man2 tok3 yaan6 Jai5. His/Her bag went missing near here. 2. Approximately, roughly, more or less, about. 1:J8 1LHUl1,18n - mi2 kon2 paak3 J:,rf yaan6 Jai5. There are about one hundred people. ul1-1~r /yaan6 lai6/, 1. When (referring to many days before or after the speech time). - l:Jl1"Df71:JI .. yaan6 Jai6 man2 tsar;,3 maa2? About when will he be coming? 2. Where, whereabouts. l:JHLJI.··- '11il man2 yu3 yaan6 Jai6 hai5?Where is he?

Digitized by


ulM..t~ /yaan6 Jan5/, 1. Around there, over there, thereabouts. na1/fnld - ?au6 kaa3 tam2 yaan6 Jan5. Put it over there. 2. Roughly, approximately, before or after (some time ahead). 111.·

mliDDri,181,111/l:1 - 'TJf1,1iJrny01 su4 thaa4 thil)l J:m6 saaml yaan6 Jan5 tsaJJ3 kaa3 Jai4 h:>t5. (We've) got to wait until about March before we can leave. ulHa~ /yaan6 xa6/, About, roughly, approximately. - rn/011 yaan6 x:>6 haa4 wan2. About five days.


/y3Mjl/, 1. To tidy up sth. fine and twisty, such as hair and thread. 2. To loosen sth. by shaking it.


/y3Mj2/, 1. Egret. 1/ - kaa6 yaarf. 2. Name of a minority group in Bwma.

ulr, 1

/yaafJ3/, 1. Kind, sort, variety.

a8n1Jii11. - x:,rf kun2 ku6 yaai;iJ. Goods of various kinds. 2. Sample, model, fashion. - 1::Jf yaai;iJ mai3. New fashion, new model. Sec y:,,I, haa,I.

ulr'l 2

/ya8fJ3/, To give way, to dodge.

- 01/ri yaai:f taarf. To give way.


/y3Mj4/, To roast or dry over a fire, to broil, to smoke (fish, mea~ rice, bamboo basket or suchlike). l:JJ,[1 rn/u,1iJ ,tiJ1:JlfJ/riu8ul'JJLJri mur/ haap3 Jai5 y8JJJJ4 Jai4 maa2 m8JJIJ4 pi6 paai6 yau5. This pair of carrying baskets has been left over the smoke for more than half a year now.

uln 1

/yaafJ6/, 1. Gum of a tree, resin (esp. in the phrase~ 01Dri yaa,I ti1) 1). 2. To be sticky. ,11:!JnyiJali/· - nDnn· Jam5 ?:>i4 xaa3 kaa3 yaB1)6 ?j5 ?i5. The sugar melted and became very sticky. 3. Blood. See J:,t5.

Original from




/y8afJ6 tarJ6/, Rubber, rubber

yaat3 Iam5. To pour or drip water, as a


uln 2

ritual in a religious ceremony.

/y8arj6/, 1. Step.

~B- -vurl - Jj6


/yaat5/, To stop (a car), to bring (sth.) to a standstill. - ,l-yaat5 kaa2. To stop a car. See sau2, thaat3.

yaar:J6 S:Jl)l yaar:J6. (To take) a step or two. 2. To walk (esp. in the phrase Ll'JJLJ'JJ ~ - pai6 pai6 yaar:J6 yaar:J6).

- 01/ri yaar:J6 taarf. To walk on the road.


a[!i01/ri97iJ- 01fl• xonl taarf sett' hai5


/yaap3/, 1. To be difficult. rnfltilhet3 yaap3. To be difficult to do . .,/'}J 01fltnfl• Iai4 yaap3 te5 te-5. Very difficult to obtain. "OfIJI." - 01fl• Jai2 fsai6 yu3


yaap3 te5. To feel awful, to feel very uncomfortable. Also yaak5. 2. To be tough (not tender).

thaat5 thaat5 hol)l yarf yEm5 Jai4. The beef is so tough that one cannot eat it. ulu-or /yaap3 tsai6/, A polite expression translatable as 'sorry to trouble (you)' or 'thanks for the trouble'. uluul1 /yaap3 yaak5/,Difficulty, hardship. uluul1UJu,1ULn /yaap3 yaak5 fut 1 yorJ4/, Difficulties, hardships.


/yaapS/, To oppress, to suppress, to force, to compel (esp. in the phrase 01fl1 - tek3 yaap5). ulu111r /yaapS hai4/, To force (sb. to do sth.). u)U-,tH /yaapS lan3/, To persecute. ulu01n1 /yaapS tek3/, To suppress. ulumBn /yaapS thirj2/, Dictatorship.


lyaat3/, 1.

yaau2 te5. This road is really long. "DLDf11#rlala - tso6 hil)l xaau2 yaau2. Year in year out, over the years. u')l /yai 1/, 1. To arrange sth. in order.

- a/ri yail xaarf. To arrange or put in a line or row. Also yai6. 2. To support a slanting object and set it upright.

_,,8. nLtiWd- w/01

wl01f/1LrlLJn1JOl:!l~iJ J:,5 l)o2 thau4 yaap3

cor water) to drop, to drip.

u/,:,_,,0-, 1:111018:... "DLd1Jd paai3 1£2,

/yaau2/, To be long (in space or time).

u;J /yai2/, Cicada. U')I

/yai6/, To put in order, to arrange. au

- xap5 yai6. To arrange in order. - a/ri yai6 xaarj. To arrange in a row or a line. Also yai1 xaarf.


/yakl/, To pinch, to nip, to pluck, to pick. - w1 yakl phakl. To pick/nip vegetables (e.g. to pick or to break beans or peas into smaller pieces and get rid of their ends before cooking).

U1 /yak5/, To play (with). -

w/· yaJc5

phaa5. To play with a knife. See ?en4. U11H /yak5 kan6/, To match each other in strength. ua;j /yam2/, To be wet, to get wet in

(water). ~ .,/Id yam2 Iam5. To get wet in water. - LQJ,t1 yam2 funl. To get wet in the rain. Ul::I /yam6/, 1. To be effective. 1J!i.J/1:1lla

01ll· yaa4 yaa6 meu2 laP yam6 te5.

man2 til yaat3 tso4 yau5. Step aside, the

.,/'}J -

oil is about to be poured on you. 2. (In religious service) to drop water. - .,/Id

This sort of medicine really works. 2. To hit, to strike. - uJ,p1 yam6 putl.

Digitized by


Original from



To break (through striking). /yam6 yefJ2/, (Of children) to show off.


UH /yan3/, 1. To let out, to release, to put sth. in place. - 1JlJrl yan3 sut1. To shut a mosquito net. - a/11.f1 yan3 xaa 1 kon6. To unroll trouser legs. 2. To look. - 1/ri yan3 kaBif. To look far, to have a longte11r1 plan. 3. To grow, to take (root). - rn/1 yan3 haak5. To take root. UH7lU-'I /yan3 ?:>k3/, To invent. UH'Jlnm /yan3 het3/, To create, to make. UH"ll{I /yan3 ku1J3/, Rangoon.

UH /yan5/, 1. To bite. See kaap5. 2. To tread, to step on. uil ~ nuri4n pai3 yan5 ?:Jif la,:f. Don't step on the seat. Also yan6. UHUH /yan5 yan5/, To be about to, to be on the verge of (doing sth.).

mB11u1rn8H - l:J81LHl:Jla/· (il ?:Jk3 h:,n2 yan5 yan5 sam5 mi2 kon2 maa2 xaal. I was about to go out when

someone called.

Ul'10'1fl'1 /yag2 bk5/, To be in the process of (doing sth.), to be still doing (sth.). l:JH - m/}f}4/'f.irniJ man2 yarf t:,k5 ttm4 Jaai2 haP. He/She is writing something. ad - rnllti11l11aiJ xau 1 yarf2 t:,k5 het3 kaan6 wai5. They are sti 11 working. unaijH /y8fj2 XEn2/, 1. (Of a patient) to get better, to recover (from an illness).

mlriull111:JH - 1:Jlaun48nua taarf pen6 man2 yarj xEn2 maa2 x:Jg6 J:,g6 yau5. He/She is getting a bit better. 2. Fortunately, luckily. - LJn71LD IJJIJ1Ui:i yam2 xEn2 ya,:f tso4 funl yam2. Fortunately (I/he) was not caught in the rain.


/y8.fJ3/, (Of bees or wasps) to sting, (of plants) to take or strike root. U1LD4Lr1

- 71LDl:JH1JUrl1:Jltil to3 loIJ 1 yarf1 tso4 man2 S:Jl)J maat3. The wasp stung him twice. wDn - '1LH phi,I yarf1 kon2. Bees sting. rn/11:JiJ - aa48111/" haak5 mai5 yBJ;f xau4 Jin6 kaa3. The roots of the tree plunge deep down into the earth.

UH /yan6/, To tread, to step on. Also yan5.

Uri /y8fJ2/, 1. To have, to own. See mi2. 2. To be rich, to be wealthy, to be welloff. See DJi2, maak3. 3. Still. l:JH u,81/aH man2 yarf til kul xan1. He/She is still hoping to go. uri-u~ /y8fJ2 sam5/, 1. A discourse particle expressing something or an act contrary to what is expected, translatable as 'unexpectedly, surprisingly'. l:JH - 1:JJ·· a/1aaH man2 yarf sam5 maa2 waa6 kau6 xanlf Quite surprisingly he blamed me! 2. Still. '1D - m81laH kau6 yarf sam5 ti1 kaa3

Digitized by

xanl. I still want to go.

Go gle


/y8.fj4/, 1. Row, line. ullH - rrTLriDiJ pen6 yar:f hoIJl wai5. To be (arranged) in rows. 2. To take root, to strike root.

un 1

/y8fJ6/, To air (in the sun).


48'1.J/')J4fl1rniJ s;t# ya.rf' J;,l saail Jek3 hai5. The clothes were hung out on the clothesline.

un 2

/y8.fJ6/, Not, not yet. - 1/" yag6 kaa3. To not go. - 1:J8 .. ya.rf' mi2. To not have, to be without. un'J'I~ /y8.fJ6 ham5/, Not very, not so. untJ1ij~ /y81J6 htm5/, Not very, not so.

Original from



Un'Jlij" /yag6 htgSJ, Not very, not so. - ~8 yarf buy Ji6. Not very good.

(money). - 1/iJLd'VlfJ"VBLJ yau5 kaa3 sol saaml sipl. Thirty dollars was spent. 5. Sentence particle (assertive). Ul}11:JI- p:;k5 maa2 yau5. (He/They) is/are back. ll}IJ1UIL'11:JI-- funl tok3 maa2 yau5. It is raining/has started to rain. Also hau5.

Un'JIUl1 /yag6 hog3/, Never. l:JH 91H1LD~LJnU1!ri1:Jlld91iJ man2 yarf h:,rfl han 1 ko3 J:;,/ taarj meu2 hai5. He/She has never seen such a thing before. l:JH - 1/" mJit man2 ya,! h:,rfl kaa3 than4. He has never been there before/He will never go there. unul ly8JJ6 paa6/, Not yet, have not (done sth.) yet. - 91fltfl ya,f paa6 het3. Have not done yet, have not started (doing) yet. - 91flrfl1:J0H yBif' paa6 het3 mcn5. Have not finished (doing sth.) yet. ununH-uri /y8Jj6 pen6 sagl/, It doesn't matter, never mind. unULC ly81J6 po2/, Not very, not so. un-uija ly81J6 s£u6/, No need to. - 1/" LJO ya,! stu6 kaa3 yau5. No need to go. - LJ!LJ"CJ{ ya,! stu6 yaap4 tsai6. You are welcome, it's a pleasure. uno,u /y8.fJ6 tap5/, Need not (do). - 91lltflLJd ya,! tap5 het3 yau5. (You/ We) need not do (it)/There is no need to do it. unalH ly8JJ6 xaan6/, Not so, not very, not quite.

UU /yap5/, To sew, to stitch. -

"V0' yap5

s:t'. To sew a garment. - "CJ/1 yap-5 tsaak5. To sew things with a sewing machine. Also ytp-5.

ud /yaul/, To wither. See heu3. ud /yau4/, To excuse. nl!J - 'Tli!JLJ/n ?an,3 yau4 ?an,3 yaarfl. To not make excuses, to not make any concession. U~ /yauS/, 1. To finish. - 1/1,1 yau5 kaan6. To finish work. 2. To die (derog.), to go to the west. 3. To shake. 4. To spend Digitized by



/yau6/, 1. Kidney (esp. in the phrase - ~o-yau6 li2). 2. Legendary monster, demon, evil spirit. - 1LJ'JJ yau6 k:n3. Monster.


/yai1-/, 1. Spider web, fibre, membrane. - 1:JLri1/a ya/1 morf kaau6. Cobwebs. 2. Warp (esp. in the phrase - '11L1 yai2 hokl).

ur /yai3/, Big, huge, great, strong. -


yai3 kaaif. To be broad, vast. - 'VJP yai,3 SUIJl. To grow up (esp. in the phrase - m/,:, yai3 thaan4 ). - '110r1 yai3 htl)l. To be physically strong. 77/"V/1 - ?aa6 saaJc5 yai3. To be senior (in age), to grow/get older. See lolJl.

un ~

/yel/, Sentence particle expressing exclamation.-, .,,n,:,~BaiJ yel, ?en4 Jj6 xai5f Oh, it's really wonderful!

un· I

/ye2/, To be alive, to be living. ul ~ - mlam/a paa6 ye2 ye2 thaau6 thaau6. The fish are jumping (out of the water) vigorously.

un· 2

/ye2/, Granary, barn. - ad ye2 xau4. Storehouse, barn, granary.


/ye3/, Dregs, residue. - l:JiJ ye3 mai5. Timber residue. un1I~ /ye3 Icaan3/, (Legendary) pond.

un'" /ye4/, 1. Name for the first daughter. 2. To drag, to pull. See Jaak5.

Original from



un 1 /ye6/, 1. Father. Sec po6, te6, ?u4. 2. Uncle. See ?aau6. un2 /ye6/, (Often used in pairs) the more ...(the more ...) - U"JJ - "011 ye6 pai6 ye6 tsan2. The higher one climbs, the steeper(themountain) becomes. un1 /yek5/, 1. To take (photos). - WJ."1 yek5 pbuk3. To take photos. 2. To look (esp. in the phrase - 01[ji yek5 toi2). AB - ABull#J Ji6 yek5 Ji6 yem4. Nicelooking, good-looking. unl:l /yem4/, To look, to watch. - l::llf1 all11::11"1ALi:i yem4 mur/ xek5 maak3 Jom2. To watch a ball game. 1Lfi - kon2 yem4. Audience. unl:l.-11 /ycm4 lakl/, To attach importance to, to think highly of, to take sth. seriously. unl:l1:1a /yem4 mau6/, To look down upon, to despise, to underestimate. unl:l1:1l01 /yem4 maat5/, To treat, to regard (sb.) as. unl:l01l}i /yem4 toi2/, To look after, to take care of. unl:lm~fi /yem4 thi1]2/, To look after, to take care of, to care for. unl:l-n)i /yem4 tsai2/, To take a look, to look at. unH /yen3/, Eel (esp. in the phrase u/ ~

unn /yefJ2/, 1. To aim at, to shoot at. - 01LDWJ.f/18~"08ri ye,f to3 phu3 him 1 tsi,f1. To shoot/aim at the invaders. 2. Towards, to, facing. - 01LDAla11nu1 ye,f to3 Jaa4 wan2 ?:,k3. Facing the east. Also y:1,f. unu /yep3/, To step on, to stamp on, to tread upon (esp. in the phrases - LJl::I yep3 yam6, - Ul::I yep3 pam6). 1::1r "DLD01BH1DLJD mai2 yep3 tso4 tin6 kau6 yau5. You are stepping on my foot.


/yet3/, To stretch out. - al' yet3 xaal. To stretch one's legs. ALJH - J::,n2 yet3. To have a stretch. 10 - Ari1fd A8na11 kau6 yet3 JBl}l kam2 J:,r/ xanl. I was lying down on my bed having a stretch for a while. unm-nr /yet3 tsai6/, To feel content with, to be reconciled to, to resign oneself to.

un01 /yet5/, To spin (esp. in the phrase - 1::1~ yet5 mail). - 1/}J yet5 Jrui6. To spin cotton into yarn. - 01[9 yet5 to2. To weave. una1 /yeu6/, 1. To urinate. 2. Urine. - AH yeu6 Janl. Incontinence of urine. una2 /yeu6/, Eagle, hawk.

paa6 yen3>. unH /yen5/, To tolerate, to be tolerant . unH /yen6/, 1. To be nice and cool, to be fresh. '1.ILJriDHA'}J - 1::1/:;.,~ud s:,1)1 wan2 Jai5 yen6 maa2 Jaml hau5. It has been nice and cool for the last couple of days. 2. To be quiet and calm, to be peaceful

Digitized by

(esp. in the phrases - nBld yen61)im2, - "CJ{ - aLD yen6 tsai6 yen6 xo2).

Go -gle

una3 /yeu6/, First element in compounds. una1L_CJ /yeu6 ko6/, To be afraid (that), to fear (that), to be worried (that). - 1::/HLJn yeu6 ko6 man2 yar/ ?:>5. I am afraid that he won't agree. una.-11 /yeu6 fakl/, 1. To fear (that), in case (that). 2. Perhaps, probably.


Original from


245 uij1 /y£k3/, A suffixing element to the word y:Jk3. See y:Jk3.

uijr1 /yEg3/, To tiptoe (esp. in the phrase - U18H yt,fJ tin6).

uij~ /yEm5/, To chew. - 1Jrl1Jrl yem5 SIUJJ SIUJJ. To chew sth.

uiju /ytpS/, To sew. - U181Jrl ytp5 ti6 SIUJJ? What are you sewing? Also yap5.

uija-1 /yEnl/, To insist on persuading or to try to persuade sb. to buy or to accept sth. 1DLJnafno, 1yjj1::111- rnf kau6 yar:f xafl ?au6, k:ii2 pen6 man2 yEnl hai4. I was not willing to accept it but he insisted on offering it to me. LJ!LJ/ - yaa6 yaa6 ytnl ytnl. To keep offering, to insist in giving (away).

uijui /yEt3/, To get dried. UJJJ1Wlcf11/· LJD, ~rl~BH1{J- 1/i.Ja funl thaat3 kaa3 yau5, JIU)l Jin6 k~ ytt3 kaa3 yau5. The rain has stopped and the ground is drying out.

uijH /yEn2/, 1. Mill (esp. in the phrase ytn2 tsi2). Also 1)£n2. 2. To insist on giving, to keep offering. 10 rnf1::111, 1::111LJn no kau6 ytn2 hai4 man2, man2 ytUJ6 ?au6. I insisted on giving it to him but he declined my offer. Also ytn 1. See yiJ, yaa6. uijH"'lJn- /yEn2 se2/, To frame a person. Also 1)£n2 se2.

- 'Tlg-

uijH /yEn3/, 1. To be willing to. See ?IUUJ", xai4. 2. Strategy, plan. Also yaan3. uijH /yrn4/, The stem of a melon, fruit or suchlike, which links the fruit with the branch or stem of the plant. Also 1)£n4. UijH"'lJLii /yEnS soil/, Coriander. uijH /yEn6/, 1. To pickle (vegetables), to salt (fish or meat), (of meat or fish) to be salted. *a~p;t· - ?au6 J:,5 kaa3 ytn6. To salt meat. ~p· - J:,5 ytn6. Salted meat. 1::1/i1Ld- maak3 ko4 ytn6. Pickled pears. 2. To flood over, to submerge, to inundate. ~1 ··'TJLD~l!J - Jaa2 tso4 Jam5 ytn6. Inundated fields.

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

uijd /yEul/, Hair (of the head), long hair. uija /yEu6/, 1. Monster, demon, evil spirit. - 1ljiJ ytu6 k:ii3. Evil spirit, monster. 2. Kidney (esp. in the phrase ytu6 Ji2). Also yau6.


uB · /yi 1/, Female private parts. Also hi1. uB·

/yi2/, 1. Long and slim. Also hi2. 2. The third of the twelve Earthly Branches. uB:U~ /yi2 sui2/, Rainy season (between May and August of the lunar calendar).

/yi4/, A kind of plant whose fibre can be used for malcing ropes. Also hi4.


uB I /yi6/, Name for the second child u82 /yi6/, To spin. - 1::1,J yi6 mail. To spin (cotton into) yam. See yet5, wtn6. uB1::1 /yim6/, To borrow. l::JHLJnrnu11u,p· uPH11.·- 1Lri man2 yar:f h:in3 t:>-5 p:m6 Jcu4 yim6 ko1. He/She has never bo11owed (money) from others before. See

tse3, ku4.

uBM /yinl/, 1. To acknowledge, to identify. ullHayriwf, wr1::1111::1/-- pen6 JC:Jl)l phail, phail man2 maa2 yinl. F.ach person is requested to come and identify

Original from


246 (the items) of his own. - 01/t, yinl

uBu01u· /yipl till, To adopt (a

taar.13. To plead guilty. 2. To make

suggestion or idea), to use.

(friends), to take (sb.) as (teachers, friends or suchlike). - 1Hf/1flriltn-fJ1LD yinl kan6 het3 tai2 ko5. To make friends (with each other). - f:JH'l1flril1Jf;,J· yinl man2 het3 saa3 Jaa3. To make him a teacher.


/yin2/, 1. To hear, to sense. Also JJin2. 2. To become addicted to. - u/· yin2 yaa4. To be addicted to tobacco. - uflH yin2 pen6. To become, to develop a habit of.


/yin3/, 1. To print, to send to press. 2. To be absorbent, as tissue or paper.


/yin5/, Barracks, military camp, position, front. uBH.AH /yin5 tan5/, Yunnan.


/yin6/, To pass over, to stretch out. - f/1f10 yin6 hai4 kau6. To pass over to me. - f:Jp- f:JJ · yin6 mi2 maa2. To stretch out one's hands. Also yin6.


/yifj2/, Female (person), woman, daughter. ~ p;l yirf. Woman . .,/In - Iaarj yirf. Lady, madam. ~ 1Jld yirf saau 1. Girl, young lady, young unmarried woman. f:JHf:JB - '1l1Jri ~ 1Jll:1'Dl-fJ man2 mi2 S:JJJJ yi,r saaml tsaai2. She has two daughters and three sons.


uD ·

/yipl/, To hold (in claws), to pick up

with fingers, to grab. - -"li71IJ,:, yipl Jam5 ?:Ji4. To grab a piece of sugar. See kip1.


/yipl phit21/, To blame sb. for sth., to hold sb. responsible for sth.

Digitized by



/yitl/, 1. To subtract, minus, to take away. - 1/· f/7/. TIH yitl Jcaa3 haa4 ?an6. To take out/away five, to be subtracted by five. 2. To withdraw, to take out. UJ-fJ'l10nwOa, - '11flaun-"8n fai2 h£,r ph£ul, yitl hel x:Jr/ l:J,I. The fire is too strong. Take out some firewood. Also YI·rJ .


/yit5/, To stretch, to be stretched. aLd - aLduB .. xo2 yit5 xo2 yi2. With a stretched neck. -"811/'}J1JflM.,/"}J

tnl11Jri1JrlwOd, - 1/· LJD J;,l saail

sen4 Jai5 taak3 SBJJJ S81)1 ph£ul, yit5 kaa3 yau5. With so much washing hanging on it, the clothesline was stretched. Also yit5.

ULti /yo2/, 1. To raise, to lift up. - f:Jp yo2 mi2. To raise one's hand. See y:)ks. 2. To arouse, to stir up (certain feelings), to instigate. See yo5. ULti1J1li;; /yo2 haam2/, To admire, to esteem, to marvel at (sb. 's ability or achievement). ULti1J'lnD'i /yo2 het3/, To hold a meeting, (of an event) to take place. U(!].AC /yo2 lau3/, 1. To comfort, to console, to soothe. 2. To cheat, to humbug, to hoodwink. ULti.Affr1 /yo2 lirJ 1I, To arouse, to mobilise. u(_tiul· /yo2 paa2/, 1. To feel distressed, to feel melancholy. 2. To be involved in trouble one should not be held responsible for, to be a scapegoat. ULtiunH /yo2pen6/, To hold or to organise (a meeting or suchlike).

Original from



ULDO'llr\ /yo2 taag3/, To show respect (to), to have respect for.

ULO /yo3/, (Of the smell corning from the hot oil when stir-frying dishes) to be pungent, to be irritating to the nose.

ULd /yo4/, 1. To put such things as clothes, books or washing into a container roughly and disorderly. 2. To push and shove. See to5, tho3. 3. To stab. See tam6, ts:,k5. 4. To soak (washing). See tse6.

ULd /yoS/, 1. To coax, to handle (children), to console.~ 71fl • 71ljl1 yo5 ?el ?,n3. To coax a child, to handle children. - 'V/}lit yo5 stn3. To console, to soothe. See yo2. 2. To request the company of, to ask in advance, to call. See tso2. ULdULd-,10-,10 /yoS yo5 lau3 lau3/, To console, to soothe.

ULC /yo6/, 1. (Of a plant) to be thin and small (i.e. not growing well), (of hair) to be thin, to be scarce. 1/ ~ kaa6 yo6. Rice plants that are not growing well. 2. (Of soil or land) to be poor, to be barren. .,,,,~ Jaa2 yo6. Barren land. 3. To gather together to create a disturbance, to jeer, to boo and hoot.

ul]l /yoil/, To point at one's own face as a gesture of referring to sb. else's shame or disgrace. U~ /yoi2/, To select, to choose (esp. in the phrase ~ l:1k5 yoi2). - 1/JLM yoi2 fon2. To select seeds, seed selection. - 1LH107 yoi2 kon2 kat5. To select capable/intelligent people.


UL1 I /yok3/, To pull out (a plant), to remove (some plants so as to thin the

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

crops for better growth). ~ LJ!CJ81 yok3 yaa4 y:,k3. To pull out weeds. 1:1ll · w1m8" wl}d, ~ u/}01rnll' aun.,,,8n me4 phak1 thi3 phEul, yok3 p£t5 hel x:,r:,6 J:,r:,6. The vegetable seedings are growing too thick; some of them have to go.

UL1 2 /yok3/, Wild banana trees. UL1 /yok5/, To lift up, to raise. ~ 1:1D · yok5 mi2. To raise one's hand. .,,,1

w/}tJ, Lin ~ .,,,'jj Jakl phEul, yar:,6 yok5 Jai4. It's too heavy to lift up. See yo2. UL1Vlnm /yok5 het3/, To hold (a meeting). UL1UH /yok5 pan6/, To provide. UL11Jf9 /yok5 sol/, To advocate. UL11JU1 /yok5 sufJI/, To raise up. UL101n· /yok5 te3/, To create, to invent, to make an achievement. UL1affl-l /yok5 xin4/, To promote.

UL~ I /yom2/, Chinese toon (Toona sinensis).

UL~ 2 /yom2/, To wither, to shrivel, to be dispirited. l:Jlj'11Dllri ~ ma m:,k3 phe,j yom2 hau5. The chrysanthemums were withering. aB:. xil yom2. To be dispirited, to be heavy-hearted, to feel dejected. Sec heu3. UL~Vlijri /yom2 htfJ2/, To feel tired, to be exhausted.

UL~ /yom5/, To smile (esp. in the phrase ~ LJ"JJ yom5 yai6).

ULH /yon2/, Name for a branch of Buddhism.

u(!i /yofJI/, 1. To loosen, to tum over (soil). - ad yol)l xau4. To loosen steamed rice. 2. To move, to dispatch Original from



(troops). - -v/]1 yol)l SQk3. To move troops. 3. To stir up (one's feelings) (esp. in the phrase a8o1- xitl yol)l).

- -Vf_LJ - a/Id yol)l sop3 yol)l JCaam2. To sow discord, to tell tales, to make mischief. ULr1"llLD /yol)l so3/, To start, to mobilise, to arouse, to instigate. u[!1-nf /yoJJl tsai6/, To stimulate. ULr'I /yofJ3/, 1. Classifier for machines, umbrellas, flowers and sets of dresses. 71/1 - ~/]n saaJc5 yor.f J:,,f. A machine. 'DLJri-Vlld - ts:Jrf saaml yor.f. Three umbrellas. l:lLJ"ILJliJurt - m:Jk3 yaa4 s:,IJ1 yor.f. Two flowe1s. 2. Noun stem for certain institutions or establishments such as factories, museums and post offices. U[IUJl"l.-tl,:i /yoJJ3 faak3 laai2/, Post office. ULr'l"UijH01-nun /yoJJ3 stnl tS':JfJ6/, Museum. ULr'lmlo, /yoJJ3 thaat5/, Power plant.

ULr'l-011 /yofJ3 tsaak3/, 1. Machine. 2. Factory. To raise, to lift up. - 01/n f/1LCJ yo,f taai:,3 hol. To raise up above the head.



ULU /yop5/, To tender boil vegetables before frying or putting them out to dry. ULD1 /yot5/, To stab, to pierce, to puncture. Also yut5. ULD1D111:f· /yot5 taam3/, To be sinister, to be vicious. UU°)) /y':Ji5/, 1. (Of liquid) to flow, to drip. aBi:JL'1 - JCi4 muk5 y:Ji5. The mucus is running. w/i:Jltf1'DLDl:JD - rnfl ,,

tso4 mil hel, /~t5 y:JP s:,t5 ~5 holJl. The hand was bleeding from a cut by a knife. 2. To hang (down), to droop, to dangle. -v/Jj'CJ8 · ~fl"ll:Jf - 01L"ll:JliJa saail tsil Jek3 mai2 y:,j5 tok3 maa2 yau5. Your key ring is drooping out (of your pocket). UU1 /y':Jkl/, (Of one's temper) to be bad, (of one's heart) to be evil. 71/71/}ri ?aa6 tstrj y:Jk1. To be bad-tempered. '1Li1'D( - f/1[!7 kon2 tsai6 y:,kl holJl. An evil-hearted person. UU1 /yok3/, 1. To tease, to mock, to make fun of. - 71llt,u,;:, y:Jk3 ?el ?:,n3. To tease a child. 2. (Of objects) to be broken, to be shabby, to be worn out. 11/JiLH - s:,4 kon6 y:,k3. Shabby clothes. -VLJri - s:Jrj y:Jk3. Broken baskets. UU11H /y':Jk3 Jcan6/, 1. To make fun of. 2. To flirt.

uu11 /y':Jk5/, To poke (at). 71aaulit ~ ?au6 x:Jn5 y:ik5. To poke (at sth.) with a stick. UU12 /yokS/, To shake, to rock.

0111, a/B11018J/}d1/11/111/i.Ja pai3 y:,k5

tarJ3, JCaal man2 til l£ul kaa3 saan2 kaa3 yau5. Don't rock the chair; you'll break it if you do. UU"lUij"l /yokS ytk5/, To be repetitious, to be longwinded, to be wordy. uiJ - wl}d pai3 y:Jk5 y£k5 phEul. Don't be so longwinded. UUl:I /yoml/, To be thin (not fat), to be skinny, to be emaciated. 1Ll1- kon2 y:,ml. A skinny person. 01LDaBnauu to6 xirj JC:Jp$ y:Jml. To be slight of figure/stature.

~D01- -vD01-v801V1Lri phaa5 maat3 Digitized by


UiJ -

Original from



UU~ /yom2/, 1. To be in debt, to owe. - 71/t, y:,m2 tsaai;i3. To be in debt. 2. To lack, to be short of. - 1JljrlnH y:,m2 s:,IJl ?an6. To be short of two (objects). 3. To be thrifty (esp. in the phrase 18H - u,g- y:,m2 kin6 y:,a,2 ti2). UU~ /yom3/, 1. Pile, heap. _,,9 _ 1Jljrl Ji6 y:,n,3 s:,IJl y:,m3. A pile or two. 2. Clump, grove, thicket. - u/ · y:,n,3 yaa4. A patch of grass. uu~ /yom5/, To dye. -


y:,m5 pen6 ?an6 1£JJ6. To dye sth. red. ~ 8LH'11Ld y:,m5xon1 hol. To dye one's hair. UU~ /yom6/, To give up, to acknowledge defeat. UUH /yon2/, To beg, to request. l:JMl:JO

710 - 1Ldad man2 m:P tsau5 y:,n2 ko3 xau4. He has begged for food before, he was once a beggar. l:JMl:JI-- 1071011 _,,gn man2 maa2 y:,n2 k~ ts£nl J~JJ6- He came over asking for some salt. UUH.-tB /yon2 Ji6/, To curry favour, to ingratiate oneself with; to fawn on. UUH171~ /yon2 tum2/, To ask for leave. UUHal~ /yon2 xaam2/, To beg, to request. uuHalH /y-:Jn2 xaan2/, To ask for leave.

UUH /yon3/, 1. To loosen, to slacken (off). - 11/°}}'11Ld1LH y:,n3 saail hol kon6. To loosen one's belt. - '110n y:,n3 hErj. To slacken off, to relax. 2. To stop, to finish, to end (esp. in the phrases - 111·· y:,n3 saa2, - w/· y:,n3 phaa4). y:,n3 J:t#. To stop for a rest.


Digitized by

Go gle

UU~ /yon4/, (Of liquid) to drop, to drip.

.,,#d,uJ- 71Ld11o· 1am5 Jcupl y:,n4 tso4 s:t'. The water from the wicker hat was dripping on the gannent. uui,i /yog3/, 1. To be crazy, to have a mental disorder. 1Ll1 ~ kon2 y:,r.,3. Lunatic. See won2. 2. To fear. 1LO 11unwlH ko6 y:,r.,3 s:,JJ3 pbaa,,6. To fear, tet I or. See ko6. uui,2 /yog3/, Water pipe, water trough (esp. in the phrase - .,/fd y:,JJ3 Jam5). uun /yog4/, To praise. a/,;i - xsa.m2 y:,rf'. Word of praise. CDH'11fn/1:10-

_,,/u, - than3 hai4 ?aa6 m£2 Jaat5 y:,rf'. To be praised by the people. uun71I~ /yog4 ?aam2/, To admire, to esteem. uun1Li, /yog4 kog3/, To celebrate. uunau-,J /yog4 xoi 1/, To praise, to admire, to appreciate. uunaOH /yog4 xin4/, To be arrogant, to be fond of being flattered. uunuLC /yorJ4 yo2/, To praise, to flatter. ULJnULJJ /yog4 yoi2/, To encourage. ULJn l /yofJ6/, Back basket. uun2 /yog6/, 1. To lift up, to carry with both hands. Also yoJJ6. See heu4. 2. To rinse, to wash a second time. uunuli, lyorJ6 paag3/, Pipal, bo tree, bodhitree.

uuu /yop 1/, A handful (of). - n011.,,0n y:,pl ?Enl J~JJ6. A handful. Also yupl. UUU /y-:Jp3/, To move quickly up and down (as of two ends of a shoulder pole in carrying a load), to move by stretching and bending, as in dancing. Original from



rn/u,11rnun1IHULii ~ haap3 Jakl h:J1)6 kaan2 po2 y:;p3. The ends of the shoulder pole moved up and down with the heavy load.~ 1/· y:;p3 kaa4. To dance. UUU /y'Jp'S/, To scrub clothes while washing them in water, to soak. '11D'118' 1/· - ,lid ?au6 s:,4 kaa3 y:Jp5 Jam5. To soak clothes, to scrub clothes in water, as in washing. UUD-1 /y'Jt3/, (Of water) to drip, to drop. ,lid - O'IL'?f:J!- Jarn5 y:>t3 tok3 maa2. Water was dripping down. UUt:n /y'Jt5/, The top of a plant, the tip of a plant. - w1 y:Jt5 phakl. The tip of vegetables. - f:J'}J y:>t5 mai5. Tip of a tree. - ,1n y:>t5 Ia.r/. Tip of nose. UL.. 1 /yu2/, Bloom (esp. in the phrase - uo1 yu2 patl). UL"2 /yu2/, Crime, offence, guilt (esp. in the phrases - u/-yu2 paa2, - u/1 yu2 paak5). UL /yu3/, 1. To be in a place, to remain, to live. f:/H - rn8HaiJ man2 yu3 h:,n2 waP. He/She is (staying) at home. rn8Had - f:Jf,:,ULD h:1n2 xaul yu3 maan4 po6. He/She lives in the Po Village. 2. State of being. 3. Assertive particle.

f:Jr01/,:,f:J/1{J'O( ~ mai2 taan4 maa2 k:t' tsai6 yu3. What you said is quite sensible. UL -,tl)J /yu3 laai6/, 1. To be idle. 2. (Of a woman) to be in confinement (i.e. the first month after giving birth to a baby). See yu3 J:,n6. UL -,t1 /yu3 lakl/, To be pregnant. UL -AB /yu3 Ii6/, To live happily, to

Digitized by


live comfortably. UL .,fOH /yu31~6/, To be in confinement. See yu3 Jaai6. UL '1JC /yu3 sau2/, To live (in). UL a')l-uaud /yu3 hai4 sau2 yaul/, To be sbllck by illness. UL aH /yu3 xanl/, A fo1111ulaic expression used by a leave-taking person to another person who is seeing him or her off. UL ulu /yu3 yaap3/, To lead a hard life, to find it hard to adapt oneself to a (new) environment, to be in poor health.

u~ /yuml/, A handful (oO, a (small) bunch of, a small pile (oO. UUi /yum2/, 1. (Of hair) to be dishevelled, to be in disorder, to be messy. rnLd - ho1 yum2. Dishevelled hair. ,//_07 ~ Jot3 yum2. Unshaven beard.

rn8H - 'VJ.11,; h:,n2 yum2 yum2 su5 su5. The house was in a mess. See ywf. 2. Bush, jungle. 3. Bushy, weedy.


/yum3/, To believe. 1DLJn - kau6 yBIJ6 yurn3. I don't believe (in it). - .,,,;i - na f:Jr yum3 ?arn3 yurn3 ?au6 tsai6 mai2. Believe it or not. uU111Bn /yum3 ?iJJ6/, To trust, to rely on. Ulit~lt:n /yum3 maat5/, To trust, to believe. Ulit1lr /yum3 tsai6/, To trust. UlitUUn /yum3 Y:JrJ4I, To convince, to be convincing.



/yum5 yaam3/, 1. (Of quality) to

be bad, to be inferior. a8naLii - x:,IJ6 xo2 yum5 yaam3. Goods of poor quality. 2. (Of people) to be muddle-headed, to be foolish. 1LH ~ kon2 yum5 yaam3. A

Original from



111nddle-headed person. 3. (Of things) to be incomplete, to have parts missing.

ul[i I /yufJ2/, Mosquito. ul[i 2 /YUfJ2/, Peacock (esp. in the phrase

.,,,L1 -

lok5 yut.r).

y;2 m:>k5. To fue a cannon. - .,,,L1 y;2 lok5. To shoot at a bird. See yi,f.


/yi6/, 1. To scare, to blackmail. See xg#. 2. To aim at , to take aim. See yi2.

uff1 /yik 1/, To be damp, to be humid, to

uL(i 3 /yufJ2/, Government office.

Utp /yufJ3/, To use. .,,/l}n - u,/;;u,g-/:>if yur:,3 taai:,2 ti2. Use, utility. See ti2. ul(J /yUfJ4/, To be messy, to be untidy, to be disorderly, to be entangled, to be confused. 91Ld - ho 1 yurf'. Dishevelled hair, untidy hair, (fig.) mind-bothering. f:,,j yurf'. Messy straw.

-v8un -


be half-dried. D'JJ 5gl yik1 wa.P. The garment is still damp. - tJ/1 yikl yaakl. Half-dried and half wet.

uffH /yin2/, Long (time). alvDii- rnDrl waa2 sin2 yin2 birJl. Long, long ago.

tQ8n -

- tJ/ii yin2 yaau2. A long time, long. uffH'l'lffrimffriula /yin2 hlrJl thifjl

- 71/dtJ!d yurf' ?aaul yaaul. To be

yaau2/, A long time, a long time span.

disorderly, to be chaotic. ul(JaLH /yug4 xon2/, To be mixed-up. to be confused. ul(Juln /yug4 YaatJ4/, To be chaotic. ul(Juld /yurJ4 yaaul/, To be confusing, to be chaotic. ul(Jur /yug4 yai2/, To complicate, to be complicated. UtpUU'JJ /yurj4 yoil/, To be disorderly, to be messy.


/yup 1/, Handful (of), small pile (of).

miJ1::18 ·-


thai4 rm2 yupl J:,,!.

Here is a handful/small pile (of things).


/yupS yaapS/, 1. The slackening and dangling skin of an ox's neck. 2. Half-0ead, dying (as of a person in a critical condition in an accident).

UII' lyutS/, To stab, to pierce, to puncture. Also yot5. See tr,j, tam6, ts:>k5.

uO · /yi1,/, To fire (a shot), to shoot. - 1lJf7 y;2 k:J,f'. To fire a shot. - l:/lj1

Digitized by

Go ~ gle


/yin6/, 1. To hand over, to present to, to pass over (to). 71au8 ·- 1:J/10 ?au6 pi4 yin6 maa2 kau6. Pass the pen over to me. 2. To stretch. - 1::1Dill-yin6 mi2 maa2. Extend your hand over, stretch your hand. Also yin6.

/yirJ2I, To take aim, to shoot (at), to fire a shot (at). See y;2. See ye,j.

uff ri

uff n

/yi:g6/, To store, to put sth. away for storage. - .,/Id yirf Jam5. (To build dams) to store water. 110'1 - sat5 yirf. To store, to pile up . .,/Id - WLf1aLd1/iJa Jam5 yirf thom4 JCo1 kaa3 yau5. The stored water flooded over the bridge.

uffo1 /yit1/, To subtract, minus, to reduce. u{jn - JJErfJ yitl. Subtraction. - a11a/'}}71LJ1 yitl JCanl xaail ?:>k3. To reduce the price for sale. - IJl}ld.,,/l}n-VJji yitl y:>m3 l:>r/ sum2. To reduce loss. Also yit1. uffo1'1'1U~UU~D1u- /yit 1 hom 1 yom2 ti2/, To be thrifty, to live frugally.

Original from



u0111 /yitS/, To be stretched, to extend. Also yit5. u0111.AI" /yitS Iaa4/, To postpone, to delay, to defer. u0111ul.;j /yif.5 yaarn2/, To postpone, to put off. u0111ula /yif.5 yaau2/, To extend. ufl- lyiJ.I, 1. To tease, to play with, to make fun of. U'}J - 1H pai3 y:il kan6. Don't tease each other. 2. (Of a horse) to run fast. 1:JlfnLD,i'JJ - u,ll" maa5 tofl Jai5 y:il te5. This horse is really fast. ufl-of /yiJ. f88i6/, 1. To be inviting. 2. To be pl~ased. ufl;.LdaLd.AM /yil Joi xol Jan2/, To be happy, to be hilarious. ufl;.t_daLd-uQ • /yil- Iol xo• sil-1, To be hilarious, to be happy and glad. ufl• /y~/, 1. Tea-leaf, tea. - ,1/]n y:>-1 IE,!. Black tea. See f:,l, /elf'. 2. To keep (offering). ufl" /y~/, 1. Grass. See yaa4, yak3. 2. Hay, animal feed. ulo'ILJ!rnufd - paat3 yaa4 h:Jml y;t#. To collect grass and gather hay.

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

ufl~ /y;)k3/, Weeds. rubbish. See yaa4 y~k3. uflM /y;)n2/, To withhold one's feelings, to tolerate. - ,1,:, y~ Jar'. To be able to tolerate, to be able to stand. LJn - ,1,:, yar/ yan2 Jar'. Cannot tolerate, cannot stand. Also yen2, y~. uflH /y;)n5/, To withhold one's feelings, to tolerate. Also yen2. uUn• /y;Jfj2/, 1. Bush.jungle, grove, clump. - ,1/f:} ya,f Jaaml. A thicket of thorns. - l:J'}J ya,f mai5. A clump of bamboo. 2. To be bushy, (of plants) to grow thickly. uflr,2 /y;)fJ2/, 1. To aim at. Also ye,j, yirf. See yi2. 2. To face, towards. Also ye,fl. ufln /y;}fJ6/, 1. Kind, sort, variety. "L 1lli1L - ku6 sam3 ku6 ya,!. All kinds of, various kinds of. Also yaar/. 2. To follow, to imitate, to copy (esp. in the phrase - rnllur y:nf het3>.

Original from




adhere tsapl adjoin him2, kai4, tsam6 administntive area s£-06 advise ham4 xel adze xaanl tsaak5 affair kaan6, mu2, l)aan2 afnid hel, ko6, phaan6, yeu6, y~i:,3 afternoon Jaa4 wan2, wan2 ts:ml, wan2 waai3 again JUn2 age ?aa6 saak5, ?aa6 yu5, paan6, phaai3 agitate m~k5, s~k5 agree ?:,5, ph~m5, tsu2 Ah Chang nationality saatJl aim (at) ye,r. y:1,r aim (objective) ti6 t:,k5 air (to) Jaazf3, ya,/ airtight hi3 alarmed and nervous tsai6 san3 alcohol Jau4, su3 Jaa3 alert stt3 alike Jai4, lat.JI, m~nl, taan3, thum3 alive ye2 all talJ2,tsaar.l3 all over (the place) ts~t3 allocate m£i:,3, phe2 allow tsun2, xaa,r alone laai6, tsaa5 along Jep5 already po2, pil

abandon 1£u5, pEt5, wut5 abate l~i6 abbot Jd2 tsau4 abdomen pum6, abduct k~i2 able tsaaJJ6 abound kin2, xaat5 about to (future marker) takl


above 1~

absorbent yin3 abundant kin2, xaat5 abuse sau3, tsaa5 accent selJl sop5 accept (offering) kaap5 accommodate phui3 accompany mon6, phuP according to tsau3, ts~m2 Jai:,3 account (finance) tsaari3 accunte (exact) thukl accunte (in shooting) m£nl accuse kaau3,xaa5 accustomed to yaam4 ache moi6, tsep3, xon5, xjrfl acknowledge yinl acne siu1 act (of doing sth.) faa4, tarf', thaa3 Adam's apple xo2 h~il add kaai3, k£m6, maai2, thE1J4, th£n4, tsaa6 addicted to yin2 address (residential place) tan2 sau2


ko4, k:t'

alter kaai2 253

Digitized by


Original from



although hanl waa6 ambitious tsai6 J:1,r anceston Jenl anchor (to) sik5, tsaat3 and ?ek3, tarfl, tsam6, tsem6 angle tser.f angry hi,r, J:,t3, maa4, tsaa5, tsai6 xom2, tsi6 animal satl anim•I feed 1Eu3 ankle taa6 tinl, xo2 tin6 annotations ?aa6 Jaak5 announce paau3 annoyed ?:,u3 answer xaanl ant mot5 antelope l)i2 anus hu2 kon4 anvil Jak5, tar/' anxious ki4, tsi4 any sak1 apparatus x:11J6 appear mEp5, po3, phutl appearance l)aai2 apply (fertiliser) ?om4, yaa3 apply to kop5 appropriate /or.f, thukl approve ?:,-5, ph:im5, tsu2 approxim•tely x:P, yaan6 aquatic moss tau2 aquatic plant pu2 arch k:>r.f, ku,r area ?ir.f, ?orf', 1En6, yaan6 argue thel) 1 rarm sEn 1,x£n 1 arm pit k:i,f' kaap3 rarmspread (measurement of length) waa2 army s:Jk3

Digitized by


arouse mok5, s:;k5, yo2, yo5 arr aoge (time) tsatl araange sth. in order yail, yai6, xap5 an est (to) kam6, l)am5, tek3 arrive ki,r, phtul, tau4, th:>1)1, thil)l araogant ?aa2,x;,5 arrow ltm4 min6, ltm4 pun6 art Jaai2 artisan mol, tsaalJ6 as m:Jn 1, thum3 ascend xin4 ash tau6 ashamed (of oneself) ?aa2 Jaa4 ask thaaml, xaam3 aslant mtu5, mitl, se4, se5, s£u4, xtu3, JCEu5

asleep Jap1 aspect tser.f assemble t:>u3 assign tsaP assist th£ml, ts:ii6 asthma m:>IJJ astringent faat3, futl at all si1 at least ?e-1 te5 k:i4 attach to faal attack paai3, po5, stul. ttn3, tEr.f, ttu3, thaak3, top3, to,f', tsam4, waai4, yaa5 attempt ?aaJJ", fai3, tai2 attentive tsEm3 attractive ?em3 ?em6 mai3 aunt (father's elder brother's wife) paa4

aunt (father's elder sister) paa4 aunt (father's younger brother's wife)

faa5 aunt (father's younger sister) ?aa6, ?aa6 Jaa,i, ?:;n3

aunt (mother's younger sister) tsoi5

Original from


255 auspicious Ji6, Jj6 maanl authority ?aa6 xaaqS average p:,rj, x:,,I avoid kam6, IJBai3 h:t', l)ik1 await (the arrival of) t:Jn2 awake tin3 award to ?aap5, porl, saarj, su2 awl tsi2 axe xaan 1 axis w:Jn6 w£n2

B back laIJ1 back (of chair) IJOtr back basket y:JIJ6 backbone kwJ2 bad tsaa5, y:Jk1 bag thol) 1 bail (to) pau2 bake ?op3, phau5 balance (to) x:,IJ6

base pun5

bashful ?aai6 basin ?aai;f basis

balcony xor;f bald Jaan4, sen4 ball-shaped object thum5 bamboo mai5 hok3 bamboo basket (bottomless) pe3 bamboo container (for storing rice) ten2 bamboo cover (to protect young chickens) sum3 bamboo curtain f:,k3 bamboo fences s£rj bamboo lid p€n6 bamboo raft ph:Jr;f bamboo shoots Jo3 bamboo spear xaak5 bamboo strip k£p5, t:,p3, t:Jk3 bamboo tube m:Jkl, m:Jk3 banana kor' Digitized by

banana flower pil, pi3 banana leaf t:J,I bandage (to) pok5 Bangkok m:,rj k:Jk3 bank (of river) fa,;f banquet x£k3 banyan tree hw:,2 bare xen4,xunr4,xum6,x:Jm6 bargain (to) set5 bark (shell) fY.'k3 bark (to) hau3 barking deer faan2 barn su2, ye2 barnyard grass W81Jl bar1acb yin5 bar1·el thurj barren (soil) yo6



basket koi6, mu,!, pep1, saa5, s:Jrj, xot3, x:J,/ basket (for holding dye) l:Jm2, l:Jrj basket (for measuring dry volume)


bat (animal) mi,;f m£1J5, wu1 1£1J5 bathe (in river) ?aap3 battlefield paar;f t:,k3 beads p:Ji2 bean tho3 bean pod fakl beancurd t:1u3 fu2 bear (animal) mil bear (children) k:,t3 bear (fruit) pen6, tim3 bear (responsibility) pui6 beard lot3 beat ma,!, telJ5 Original from


256 beat (drum) taan2 beautiful IJSam2, sett', s:,i3 because k:,p5 Jar', k:,p5 pa6, pa6 ?an6,

ts:,m2 Jar' become pen6 bed ku3 bedbug h:n5 bedroom ?:,if J:,n2, h:,IJ3, Jukl bee phiif beehive Jcipl to3 beeswax phiif before k:,n3, sin2 beg m:,r,4, y:,n2 begin te2 behind JSl)l believe yum3 belittle phe4, saa6, te4 bell hiIJ3 bellows fo,f, f:,,f belongings x.o2 below k:,if, tai4 belt saai1 bench w:,3 bend kom4, kul)l, k:,1)1, k:,m2, l)Upl sop5, x.om3 bent l)o2 bestow woi3 bet taa5, to3 betel pu5 beyond pon5 biased tsai6 he4 bid ?aap5, tsim6 big Jol)l, yai3 bind hun2, ken2, wen2, x.un2 bird Jok5 birthday wan2 ?:,k3, wan2 hanl Jaa4, wan2 k~t3 bite (to) ?om6, hEn4, kaap5, katl, tsaap3, x.op3, x.:,t5, yan5

Digitized by


bitter x.om1 black Jam6, tsam5 blackmail maap3, yi6 bladder pil p:,,f, p:,,f pil blade x.om2 blam~ k:,i3, Je2, thaan2 blanket tsen6 bless Jcu2 maa2, kum5 blighted haap3, ph:,p3 blind ?Eu2, kEu2, m:,t3 blink phEp5 blister (a) ph:,p3 blistered p:,,f bloated ?~r,4 pBa1) 1, sin6, tsaai;,3 block haa5, Jap5, paan5, pik5, sil)l, thSTJl, thap5, th:,p5, tikl, x.SIJ5 blocked x.inl blood J~t5, yaa1J6 bloom (a) yu2 bloom (to) m:,k3, tsi6 blow (away) pEu6, piu6 blow (to) pau3, tho2 blow the nose sar.,3 blue s:,m3 blunt pu4, tum3 blur1ed (of vision) ?aau2, sum6, xaa6 board pEn2, pEr,4 bout ?o2, ?aa2, mEnl, seul, x.eul



bobbin J:,t3 body si,f, ta6, x.i,f boil (to) tom4, x.eu4 boil (ulcer) fil bold tsai6 yai3 bolt (of cloth) ?up5 bone Juk1 book Jik5, Jik5 Jaai2, pap5 boot


border x.:,p3

Original from


257 bore (through) hai2 bored m:>3 born to k.>t3 boraow Ja,4, bosom taJcl

tse3, ts.>k3, yim6

bottle tau4 bottom ti2, tin6, t:,k5 bounce litl boundary x:,p3 bow koIJ6, k:,m2 bowl waan3 box ?.>p3, ?.>t3, k:,kl, t£k5, t:il, t.>k5 boxing s£n5, x£n5 bracelet w£nl braid f.> 1 brain ?:,k3, ?:,k3 ?ck3 braise ?u,,S bran ham2 branch kiIJ3, s£m2, xaa6, xa4 branch (of bamboo) s:,i4 brand (trademark) mik5 brave haanl break (to) hakl, m:,p3, p:,t3, t£k3, titl, th:,t3 breakfast l)aai2, s:,m2, xau4 Jail breast ?o,J", ?ul, 1£nl, Iom2 breast milk ?ul, Iom2, tsul breath tsai6 breathe haa6, thoi6 breed Ie,r, phe6, xoq6 brew hul)l bribe tam6 brick ts:,n6 bridge xol bright h:P, hw:,6, 1£q2, xail b1°i11• pau2, taai4 bring up Ie,r, thau5 brittle ph:,i6 broad k88IJ4, phEIJ3, tsaak3, ts£k5

Digitized by


broad-minded tsai6 k88IJ4, tsai6 yaau2 broccoli mu.r:,3 broken k£k3, m£p3, t£k3, tsaak3, tS£k3, y:,k3, xaat3 bronze t:,ql broomcorn xau4 Joi6 bruised tsam5 brush (to) fonl brush off in passing saat5 bubble pok3 bucktooth xeu4 l)inl buckwheat S£u5, x£u5 bud Ji3, IJ:>ks, tum3 Buddha mon6, puk5 thaa3, puql Jd2, phuql Jd2 Buddhism (branch of) yon2 Buddhist monks and nuns phik5 xu3 Buddhist nun xaaul Buddhist relics thaat5 to3 Buddhist temple ts:,ql, wi2 haa3 Jaa5, w:,t5 Buddhist writings tham2 buffalo kaai2, xaai2 bugle Je2, tutl build kaai3, ko3, kum2, paan4, te3 bulge p:,ql bull 1Jaan 1 bully IJ.>t5, x:tl, yi6 bump (into) p:,q4, to3, tum5 bunch fot3, f:,n6, h£u5, mam6, mat5, .- A · 1 __ ? ·J _? _? l IJE,J ·, Sil) , tsar, WI , xun-, X7, yum Bua ma (Myanmar) m.>q2 maan6, m:,rfl tai4

B11rmc1e maan6 Burmese monetary unit mu2, ts:,i5 burn h£u5, mql, Jaaml, mai4, piu6, phaul, tut5 burn (to make lye) w:,t5 burn the midnight oil tsiql, tsiql

Original from


258 burning hot h:in5 burnt xtm4, xep5 burrow mu,f bury faIJl, J:,i6, mok3 bush Joi/, th:1n3, yum2, y;,IJ2 busy maaJ.r butterfly kaap3 m~, m~ buttock., kon4 button tr.un3 buy saar:r4, s;,5 buy (from retailer and sell later) taau2 buy (on credit) s:P

C cabbage mu1J'3 cage J:,IJ2 cake pin2 calamity ?aa6 Je2, phe2, xenl, xo5 calculate s:,n3, taak5 calendar Jakl Jj4 calf (of leg) pil p:,ml, pi3 kaau4 call (cry) ho,f call (dog) ?;,u2 call (invite) tso2 can mol, tsaag6 canal h:ii:f cancel out m£n5 kan5 candle ten2 canine tooth xeu4 maal ltm 1 cannon m:ik5 capable kat5 capital (finance) pun2 capture stu4 car kaa2 card phaai5 careful tEIJ3 carefully ts£,/ careless Jaa6, tsai6 kai6

Digitized by


caress Jup-5 carp paa6 mw:,2 carriage t:ii2 carry (by two or more people) haaml carry (in general) fakl, tj2 carry ( of beast of burden) taaIJ3 carry along ftl)l carry by hand heu4 carry in the a1 md ?um4 carry on shoulder pole haap3 carry on the back paa2, t:iil, tsi2 carry on the shoulder mek3 carry sth. by holding it in the arms h:ip3 carry sth. on one end of stick or shoulder pole k:>n2 carry sth. wrappedfm a container h:;rj carry with strap hanging from shoulder phaa3 cart korr, 1£1) 1, Iim2, Jo5 carve x:,kl, x:,k3 cast (fish net) t:it5 cast (metal) Ja3 castrate t:in6 cat m£u1 cataract to4 catch kam6, IJaam2, IJam5. tek3 catch (disease) tsapl catch up with xitl caterpillar mE,j, mot/. til Caucasian kaa2 Jaa2 cave ?i,J', tham4 cave in xupl cease (fire) tum2 celebrate homl tsom2 cellar pi,J' centipede mE,j ti1 Jaarj, mtrr tsaa2 Jaarj, merr tsi 1 Jaarj centre h:,i3, k£n6, kuk5, ts£n6

Original from



chain ts£,/ chair rai:,3 change kaai2, Jaai6, Jaak3, ptn3, ph:,t3 change (clothes) thai3 change mistakenly pek3 chant (incantations) phokl chaotic hu,1 haa,1, J:,n3 character ?i,1 te3 Je3 characteristics ti6 pek5 charcoal thaan3 chase ho4, hip5, ken 1, Jip5, loi2, tirf chat kunJ6 cheap po2 cheat /en 1, minl, phaa.rj, phct5, seul check (to) ts£t5 cheek faai3 Jaa4, k£m4, ts£m4 Chenghung (placename) tse,f hu1J6 Chengtong (placename) tse,f t:,rf Chengtung (placename) tse,f tul)l cherish hak5, kek5 chest (body part) ?ok3, ?orf chest of drawen kuil chew keu5, tseu5, y£m5 chicken kai3 chicken louse hai2 child ?el, luk5 chimney peu6 fai2 chin kaa,j china me4 China saa,f th:,i2 Chinese (Han) saarf th:,i2, se3, xe3 Chinese toon yom2 Chinese unit of measure mu2 chipped maaJJ", mtrf chisel siu3, ts:,k3, xiu3 choke tscn5 cholera haa6 choose J:,k5 chop fak5, wit5

Digitized by


chopping board seIJI, xeIJl chopsticks thu3 chrysanthemum pherj Chuang tai2 ts:,1)1 chubby koml, mu4 chunk thum4, t:,n6, tuml cicada yai2 circle t:,,1 city kerj, ts&, tse,f, werf civet cat henl clan l):Jn6, soi3 meu2 clash kit1 class paan6, phaai3 classics tsaam2 classifier for animals c:,6, to6 classifier for ball-like objects mop5,

pan4 classifier for bamboo fences po1J6 classifier for beeswax s£p3 classifier for boards p£n4 classifier for boats s:Jrj classifier for books pap5 classifier for branches and similar long, thin objects xaa6 classifier for Buddhist idols and Buddhist temples su3 classifier for Buddhist monks paa2 classifier for Buddhist scriptures puk5 classifier for cakes phcn3 classifier for carts, bamboo fences, mats and suchlike s£,j classifier for children and small objects Juk5

classifier for cigarettes lik5 classifier for clothing haar/ classifier for coins pek5 classifier for crossbows and sim Uar things xaal classifier for doon, windows and suchlike saan3, taau3 Original from


260 classifier for equipment, art works and suchlike tsum3 classifier for fmger rings and similar small objects Jeu5 classifier for flat, thin objects phun 1, phin 1 classifier for flowers m:,k3

classifier for girls saaul classifier for grains, seeds and suchlike m£t5 classifier for guns, bullets and suchlike Jau2 classifier for honourable people ton6 classifier for houses JBl)l classifier for human beings ko3, ko-5,

kon2,phu3 classifier for leaves, knives, hoes, bats and suchlike mai6 classifier for lines sen4 classifier for loads JBl)l classifier for logs and trees Jon4, ton4 classifier for long, thin objects 1£m4 classifier for machines, umbrellas, flowers and sets of dresses yor.f classifier for mushrooms, fungus and similar things hul, min3 classifier for nets and similar objects h:,l classifier for objects in rolls k£n2 classifier for objects of a certain shape, such as beehives x£p3 classifier for objects with bandies kan2, m£n6 classifier for one of a pair x:,nl classifier for people m:,n2 classifier for plants kaan4, ton4 classifier for ploughs, rakes and suchlike xa1J6 classifier for poles saau4

Digitized by


classifier for rings and •imilar ornaments k£t3, XEIJ 2 classifier for rivers se2, xe2 classifier for rooms h:,rf' classifier for roots and shoots of plants

xaarf classifier for round, ball-shaped objects hoi3 classifier for sheets sil classifier for shells kaap-1 classifier for small rooms and houses

t:,p5 classifier for stories, poems, songs and suchlike x:,2 classifier for teeth si4 classifier for thin, flat objects maarf, m£n6 classifier for things and matters P:Jr/' classifier for things in general ?an6 classifier for things in pain ku6 classifier for time frequency ts:>n2, ts:,n3 classifier for tools faak5, maak5 classifier for upland fields haaif classifier for vehicles Jam2 classifier for villages maan4 classifier for walls, fences and suchlike taa3, to2 classifier for wedges, pecks and plugs Jim4, 1£m4 classifier for wheels Jim2 classifier for young seedlings me4 classify ts£t3 claw Jep5 clean kerf', serf', s£n4, x£n 4 clean up pheu4 clear (of vision, bearing or speech)

saJcl clear (of water) sail

Original from


261 clear up (of weather) 1£,y, J:Jn5, m:,IJ1,

tsii:,3 clever kaP, 1£ml, x£t3 click taak3 cliff qipl, l)~m5 climate Jaa3 Ju5, sii:,3 faa5 climb up k:Jn3 cling to (somebody) tsapl clitoris t£t3 clock Jaa3 Jj3 close hapl, hupl, lapl, t:Jpl, tupl close together tsaap5 cloth man4, phaa4 cloth (fme) poi5 cloth used to hold child on the back Jaa6 clothes s:14 clothesline haau2, saau4 cloud m:Jk3 cloudy kaam4 clump (of plants) ko6, yum2, y:,rfl clumsy pun3 cluster of things joined together waa 1 coane haap3, hau4, hitl, ket3, ~n2, tsaa2, tset3 coast fai:,3 cou (child) Jau3, ph£t5, yo5 cobn l)u2 hau4 cock's comb h:Jnl cockroach saap3 coconut maak3 ?un6 coffin k:Jm3, maP ptn4, mai5 JC:Jnl Jau6,

ptn4 tsu,f coil (a) ko,.,S, k:Jtr, toi:,3 coil up fot3, k:Ji:,3 cold katl, Jaarf' , laaul cold (dhease) ?aan6, Jaaul cold (of food) saa4 collapse JcaanS, Jom4, thaal

Digitized by


collect h:Jml, hup5, sim2, s:,u6, to2, tsai2 collide (with) phui:,3, p:Jif comb(a) wi1 comb (to) thatl, wil come maa2 come across taarf', p:Jif, X:Jif come close ?£m6, thail come off ?:Jrfl, ph:14 . comfortable saak5 saa3 commodities Jrun3 common ts:Jt3 1£n6 commonsense kun6 kon2, xa4 companion ?:,2 k:>5, tai2 comparative marker pi2, sil compare (with) ?erfl, J:,rfl, pEi:,3, t£k5 comp•rtment xory compensate saai4,sel,JC.in2 compete (with) ?erfl, sek5, serfJ, xek5, xei:,3 complain k:Ji3, Je2, minl, p:Jty, thaan2 complete ph:Jm5 compose saan2 concave l:Jkl, l:Jk3 conceal ptp5 concern paa3, pan2, ts:Ji2 condition ?a6 ts:JIJ2 confident tsai6 maat5 conform phui3, xa4 congratulate xo3 conical wicker hat kupl connect h:Jm2, kapl, ka4, tsaap5, tsapl consider mlUU.i3, m:14, saaijJ, stlJ2, UUIIJ3, thlUU.i3, xai4 considerate th:Jk5 Ju6 console yoS constellation Jaak5 xaat5 construct kaai3, ko3, Jcum2, paan4, te3 contact (to) hop5 contain hai:,2

Original from



contaminate til)l, tsapl content phu2 contest (to) se,:,3, xe,:,3 continue tsi,r contrast k:,k3 contribute ?aa,,S saaJc5, saaJc5 control thEp3, thinl, thin2, thi,r, thi,r,

tsaaif convex tsuml convulsion ts:,kl cook (to) hul)l, seu4, tarf', tso2, xu6 cooked sukl cool yen6 coordinate xaa,r copper t:->,r copulate ?Et5, saml, tsaa,,S copy th:,k5, thut5 coquettish sinl, waau2, xinl cord ts;Jk5 cord to tie on ox's nose peu6 core hoi3, kEn6 coriander yEn5 soi3 corner 1JelJ6, ts:,k5, w£u3 corpse haar/ kaa3 yaa5, xaa,,S kaa3 yaa5 correct thukl, tsai6, tso4, tui3 cost (to) ti2, tsaai3, yau5 costly pe5 cotton kui6, Jun6 cotton fibre Jun6 cough ?ai6 cough up xaak3 count ?aan3, taak5 counter se,:,3 counteract m£n5 kan6 country m;Jrr, t;,,r couple ko,,S coune (of dishes) mi3 court (to) maai6 courtyard k:,IJ6 maan4, waa,r, xory

Digitized by


couins peu2 cover (a) Jsai5, tsai6 m~k5 crunchy ph::,i6, su6, x::,p5 crush kik3, p::,rf, to3, tum5 crust xaapS cry hai4 cry out h::,,:r crying IJBBUl cucumber t£r/ cultivate Jum2, sam2 culvert li,;f CIUIDing meu4 cup k::,m3, tsurf cupboard seff, xei:,3 cupping glass k::,k3 cure yaa6 curl up xot3 curly Jiu2 curry ksal Ji6 · cone sau3, tan3, tsaa5 curve IJ::,kl cushion h::,,r custom fii:,4, thui:,2 cut (a) Jaap3 cut (cross-section) sinl cut (in general) fan2, k:)15, ma.n3, paat3, ~;2, tatl cut (in one go) fi3 cut (into small pieces) h::,n2 cut (roughly) with a sickle thSSIJl,

th£1)1 cut (soft things) th£k3 cut (string) th~ cut (whittle) ph£t3 cut (with acisson) tsipl cat (with small knife) xan3 cat off faanl, het5, kipl, t£p3 xaat3

cut open fai3, yaai2, xaat3 cycle Jun5 cymbals S£m3, xtm3

D dad


dam fBBil damage (to) Jeu6, maa3 damtaged Ju5 damp saau5, sau5, yikl dance kaa4, S£i:,2 dare hatl, k88n2 dare not do sth. IBBp3 dark Jam6, Japl sii:,3, mi4 dark blue tsam5 dark red fSSl)l dash (for) phor/, phwf, tit/ daughter born after father's death xaat3 daughter-in-law pai-5 dawn hw/ day wan2 day after tomor1 ow hi2 day before yesterday sin2 daytime te,/ wan2 c.lazz•~ to2 deaf lok3 debt Ji4 decay Jau6 deceive lenl, minl, phaarf, phet5, seul decide (a court case) phaat5 decline ph::,ml decline (to accept sth.) xinl decorate pakl deduct x~

deep l~k5 deep-fry (in oil) phau5, su6 deer fBBn2, kaar/ defeat pe5

Digitized by


Original from


264 defeated y:>m6 defecate si4, xi4 defend paP dejected IJaul delay kut5, Jut5, ts:,,i5, ts:Ji2 delicate ?ilJl tilJl delicious waanl demon yau6 demonstrate p:>i3 dense porfl, sat5, thaa2, thi3 depart kaarj, phaak5, phaat3 depend on ?irf' JY.1rf', xau3 depressed 1Jaul descend Jorfl deserted haam2 desex t:Jn6 destroy yaa5 destruct yaa5 detach hut5, Joi6, Jutl, Jut5 detailed ts£m3 detain x:,ul deteriorate ph:Jml detcrmdle pam4 fsai6 detest s£n5 develop me3 devil phaai2 dew Jaai2 dialect xaa11>2 paarf', xaam2 teg3, xaa.m2 te3 th:,g3 diamond tsig3 diarrhoea (to have) Jo,! die l:>n3, taai6, x:Ji4 differ JY.1r!, ts:,u2 different Jakl, taag3 difficult kap5 fsai6, Jaan5, tsaa5, yaak5, yaap3 dig (hole) with rmgen xai6 dig (in general) kon3, s£p3, xot5 dig deep pam4

Digitized by


dig up earth with snout (of pigs) mon5,

thui2 dignitaries m:,rfl dike (of field) rel, t£n6 diligent kai5, xakl dip (dump) Io3, th:>k3 dip (in water) tsaan3, tsam4, tsum3 dipper phEu5 direct water into paan4 direction phaak3, ph£k3 dirty ?:,k3, ?:,rfl, harf', Jai6, m£u5, saa2, sam4, sau4, waai-5 di•appear haail disuter hulJl, Jaan3, phe2 discard 1£u3, pEt5, thim4, tsapl, wum6, wut5 discharge accidentally (of rarearm.-1) S£t3

disciple taa6 pe2 discuss kum6, p:>rf', tsug3, won5 diseue

?aa3 Jaa3, xai4

disgrace yoi l dishevelled yum2, yurf dislike (to) tsaan4 dismantle Jit5, s:t', th:Ji3, yaa5 dismiss pot3, th:Jnl disobey J:,l, J:,g3 disorderly l:>n3, ywf dispatch (troops) t£u3 dispel pe3 dispene saan3 display tsi6 dispute thel)l dissemble lit5, s:,S, th:>i3, yaa5 dissolute sinl, waau2 distance xaau2 distant kai6 distiller's yeast p£q4 distinct (in pronunciation) J:,t5

Original from


265 distinguish k£t3 distiaguised F2 distort meu4 distracted kar/ dist. essed h:.,n5, xil distribute faa4, tsatl ditch h:.,IJ6 dive (under water) Jam3, Jam6 divide m£{f, sikl divinatory tools maa116 division kaai:,5, k'1,j divorced haai:,5


di Jaai2 do het3

do as one wishes ts:.,m2 tsai6 do sth. secretly l:Jml docile qe6 doctor mol dodge kam6, qaai3 h:t', qikl dog maal, su2 Jaa3 xaa5 dog-eared Jon2 domain Jaap5 donate Ju3 don't pai3, yaa3 doWDcast loi6 dowry ?om3 dozen tsen3 drag Jaak5, saai2, taai2, tho6, ye4 dragon 1J'1k5 dragonfly Jak3, m£,j mi4 drain off (water) JiJJ3, pi4, xaBl.13 drape over k:J,r draught h£if, xai3 draw (bow) wot5 draw (picture) xaa3 draw (scoop water) taJcl, tekl draw (water) with a pipe ?utl draw line (between) si5 drawer th:.,t3

Digitized by

dream fan 1 dredge haau2, thaaql dregs ?on6, h:,n2, saa3, si4, ye3 dress sd' dress up haalf' dried sweat and dirt on skin xai2 drift piu6, ph£u6 drill (to) tsaan3, tsen6, wan3 drink ?utl, ?ik5, lutl, sot5, tsotl, ts:Jtl, tsutl drip tsup5, yaat3, y:,i5, y:,n4, y:,t3 drive (cattle) hip5, ho4, kenl, Joi2, tho2,


droop loi6, yaan2, y:.,P drop Jut5, tok3, y:,n4, y:Jt3 dropsy pho2 drought 1£,r drum k:,IJ6 drunk mau2 dry h£if, wat5, xai3 dry measure for grains tu2 duck pet3 dumb mai4, qaa3, qaa5, qitl, q:tl, xaan6 dump Jo3, th:,k3 dung beetle thul tsi4 durable hanl dust ph:,ql dust·off kaai4, pat5 dusty mon3, m:,ql duty ?aa6 dwarf ?:,m2, p:,kl dye m:,n3, SEIJJ, y:Jm5


E each ku6, Ji6 each other kan6 eager ki4, tsi4 eagle ho,r, yeu6

Original from



ear (body part) hul ear (of rice, corn or wheat) horj ear (to) xo,I early tsau5 ear-piercing tsen2 earth Jaam6, Jin6 earthen bowl ho,r earthwt11 m /:,n6

emerge mep5, phutl, po3 employ tslUUJ" empty pau3 enclosing wall xu2 enclosure (for domestic animals) x:Jk5 enclosure (for elephants) thun2 enclosure (for fowls) Jau5 encounter t:,n2, thop3, x:Jp5

easy 1JBBi6

encourage so3 end (an) paai6, ti6 sutl

eat kin6, tsin6 eat with ?em4, maai3 eaves foi2, tsaai2 echo h:,ql, k:,TJ" edema pho2 edge foi2, pek5 eel yen3 effective yam6 ea xai3 eggplant x:,1 egret yaa.rf eight pEt3 eighteen sipl pet3 eighth of the ten Heavenly Stems

ho,r eighth of the twelve Earthly Branches mot5 eighty pet3 sipl elbow s:,k3 elder brother tsaai2 elder sister se2, tse2 elden ke3, thau4 electric shadow thaat5 siql electricity ten3 elephant tsaa,r eleventh of the twelve Earthly Branches met5 embezzle x:,u3 embrace k:Jt3 .embroider saa2, x:,u3

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

end (to) saat5, se2, sutl

endure haa4, kan4 enemy s:,k3 xenl engaged (to marry) tam2 English ?erj ket5 Jet5 engrave x:Jkl,x:Jk3 enjoyable s:il enlarge waat5, xaak5 enough po2 entangled ywf enter xau4 entertaining s:il entire ta.rf, tsaBJJ3 entity to6 entrust ?aap5, faak3, sa,f1 entwist ken2 envy soi4, x:,il epilepsy maa4 epoch kaap5, tsaat5 equal perj, ti2, x:,rf eradicate tsaak5, tso5 erect pakl, pok3, tBJJ4 erode thip1 error ?aa6 waat5, phit1 escape fit5, haat5, Janl, J:Jml, J:Jt5, paai6 establish taa4, tarf' estimate ?aan2, tsoi5 evade 1)ik1, tet3, ts:Jn6 even s:J,I

Original from


267 even if ?aaifl saarf, han 1 waa6, mai2 t~ evening xa.m6, xin2 every

Jru6, Jj6

everywhere ts:,t3 evidence saaJcS se3 evil tu4 examine ts£t5 exceeding paai6 excellent s£m5, x£m5 excessive kin2, tsin2, t~ exchange 1£k5, x:,n3 excrement si4, xi4 excuse yau4 exhausted Joi3, moi6, ts:,p-5 exist mi2 exit ?:,k3 expand me3 expect ?IUUJ", ?el, fai3, m:,,r, tai2 expel hip5 experience (an) hu5 hanl experience (to) fu3 experiment tsaam2 expert mol expire thon4 explain ke4, pho3 explanation ?aa6 Jaak5 explode phik5 expose Jam6, Je5 expose to the sun taak3 extend waat5, xaak5 external J:,k5 extinct moi5 extinguish Japl, m:,t3 extort m£p3 extract (oil) 1£n3 extremely sutl, tsui3, xaiS eye


eyebrow xonl taa6

Digitized by


F face Jaa4 faction kaati5, k:nj fade kat3, Jon3, men6, ph:tl faeces si4, xi4 fail h:,tl faint mw:,3, taai6 fair-skinned ?em3 ?em6, mai3 fake k£k1, ph£t5, tsaa2 fall hot/, hop3, Jan3, xaml, XOl)l fall apart he6, kon6, Jan3, paat5, putl,

saan2 fall in love


false k£kl, ph£t5, tsaa2 fame ?u6 familiar mut5, su4 family tin2 famous pi2 fan wj2 far kai6 fart tot3 fast phaail, tseu2, xanl phai-2 fasten haati5, maat3 fat (grease) man2, xai 1 fat (opposite of 'thin') mu4, pi2 fate min3, rnilJ6 father ?u4, hBif S£1)1, po6, te6, ye6 father's elder sister paa4 father's mother ?:,k3 father's older brother lu,r father's younger brother ?aau6 father's younger brother's wife Jo2 father's younger sister ?aa6, ?aa6 Jaarj father's younger sister's husband ?aa6 xoil favour ke3 tsu2 fear he1, ko6, phaan6, yeu6, y:,rfl feast x£k3 feather xonl

Original from


268 feature ti6 pEk5 feed le,r feed (animel) ?:>i3 feed (baby) mam6 feed (patient) s:Jml feel (touch) mo£>, l)Om2, sum6, tom2 feel lonely mutl feel the weight (of sth.) sau6 feel wronged and act rashly tu2 fell (trees) k~5 female (penon) yi,:r female animals not yet having produced young si3 female private parts hil, ts:Jil

fence taa2, t£n6 fern kut 1 ferocious haai5, tsaam2 fetch ?au6 fertiliser fun3 fever xai4 mai4 few ?e3,ke3 fibre yai2 fibrous saa3 fierce haai5, tsaam2 fifth daughter ?o4 fifth of the ten Heavenly Stems ,»k3 fifth of the twelve Earthly Branches si1 fifth SOD l)o5 fight hun2 fight (fire) sel, xel fight for t:1k3 file (tool) so3 fill 1£p5, m:ml, sat5, ttm6, th£n5, th;,ml fdm (movie) thaat5 sil)l filter Ji3, tsen2, tset5 filth si4, xai2, xi4 final Jun2, lin2 finalise saa2, sau2 fine (to) mail

fine (weather) l:Jn5, paaifl, tsiJJ3, ts;JIJl fine and closely woven hi3 fine particles of earth xoil finger Jeu5 finger ring haaIJ6 ts:Jp3, Jaarf ts:Jp3, se,:r fingernail kip1 mi2 finish ke,;f, men5, motl, mot3, pot3, phaa4. sam4, si,f, waai2, yau5 fire ?aa6 ki3 te3 tso3, fai2 fire a shot (to) p:>i3, y;2, yi6 fire-fly me,:r ke,:r fire ft'ood fun2 firm (steady) len4, man4, wun2 tint ?:>n6, se,:r, se,r, tse,:r, tse,r fint daughter yr:4 fint of the ten Heavenly Stems kaap3 fint of the twelve Earthly Branches

tsai4 fint-born boy ?aai4 rash (a) paa6

ruh (to) met3, p:>i3 fish basket mo1Jl,s:Jn4 fish net Ji6, m:>,:r, sel, ts:Jm3, xa,r, xe1, xik1

fish pond pok3 ruh trap sai2, sum3. to£>. tum4 fishbone kaa,f' rashing rod met3 fishy seu2, xeu2 fist taa6 mi2 fit phui3 rive bait'

rome2 Dag si5, xi5 Dame phaul, piu6 flap phaap3, phaap5, xot3 Dash maap-5, mep5 flat faap-5, maap3, mep3

Original from



- - ..


Oat (object/tool) ph8a1Jl flat rice mau4 flatter m:ik5 flea mat1 flecks saa 1 Dee paai6, sory, tsitl, xut5 Desh J~ Doat (in air) p£u6, piu6 Doat (in water) fu2 flock (a) [arf', furJl, ke6, paaJJ6, tsum2 flock (into or out of) phirr Dood (to) Jori Dood over Jupl, thorn", thum4, ytn6 floor tak5, tsan5, xak5 Dour men3 Dow (to) Jail flow back (as result of being blocked) ton5 flower m::,k3, paan2 fluent Jory fluff (cotton) hai3 flute pi3 flutter piu6, phtu6 Oy (to) men6 Oy up in the sky peu6, piu6 Dying squirrel maa.r.,3 foam pok3 fold (a) pun6, top5, waak5 fold (to) Jop5, mop5, top5 folk song x.aam2 maak5 follow Jo,I, sun3, tsom2, y:,1)6 food x.au4 foolish mar', l)aa3, l)Ba5, l);tl, l)itl foot tin6 footprint h:ii2 for (because of) kop5, woi3 forbid het5 force (sb. to do sth.) hip5, pi4, taan3 forced smile IJEnl

force-feed (a duck) tun6 forefinger Jeu5 tsi5 forehead phaak3 foreigner kaa2 Jaa2 forest Jo,I, to2, th:,n3 forge taam6 forget Jol)l, Jim2 fork l)aam6 form ?aa6 y:iIJ3 furm ean (of crops) maan2 formality ?aa6 y:iIJ3 fortress tap5 fortunate maanl,saa6 fortune kaam3, mon6 fortune-telling taa5 foster Jum2 four si3 fourth child sai3 fourth daughter ?ai3 fourth of the ten Heavenly Stems

m:,rj fourth of the twelve Earthly Branches mau4

fox maa1 Jin6 fragile phoi6 fngrant h::,ml fnme k::,pl, siu:,5 tsaal, tsaan2 fl ec. Jaai6, thoi3 free from worries paa.IJ3 frequently kai5, x.e2 fresh yen6 Friday wan2 suJcl friend ?:,i2, k:>5, se4, tai2 frighten l):Jt5, x:tf, yi6 frog kop1, set3, xet3 from Juk5, taat;,2, ti6

from DOW OD p::,i5 frost moi1 frozen tal) 1, til)1

Original from



fruit maak3 fry paan2, xo4 full (filled) ?im3, tem6 full (range) ph:Jm5 fungus hep3 fur xon 1

furious tsai6 mri, tsai6 Jam6 furniture xo2 h:1n2

G gadfly l:1k3 gallbladder /i6 gallop xun3 gamble l:J,j, taa5, to3 gang fUIJ 1 gap wtr.,3 garden son 1 gargle ?on" garment s:,4 gather (together) h:Jml, hup5, to2, t:Jm6, tum6 gather together (to dine) kum2 gather up floating things taau2 gem

S£1) 1

generation kaap5, paan6, phaai3, tsaat5 gentle 1Je6 genuine te5 Germany tsam3 maa3 Ji6 germinate por.,3 get Jai4 get along well (with) yaa2 get better stn2 get caught k:1u6, tseu3 get dried ytt3 get out of the way paai6 get promotion xaam3 get ready (for) haaif, htm2, htn2, Jaa6,


Digitized by


get stuck (in) kaari5, xaak5 get together Jum2 get up luk5 ghost phil, ph~ gibbon ?aar/ giblets tai6 gift faak3 gills h:1k3 ginger Si1) 1, JCi1) 1 gird xaat5 girl saau1 give hai4, pan6 give alms Ju3 give change pu2 give priority to ts:>,:f give up k:Jm2, 1:Jm2, y:im6 give way paai6, yaa,;f ginard tai6 glance (to) kaai5 glass tsam6

glittering h:1,j, maap3, mtp3 gloomy IJau 1 gluttonous tsai6 Jam 1 go


go against (the wind) to2 go around we6 go astray loIJ 1 go off (of food) ?im6, saa2 go out (exit) ?:Jk3 go out gradually (of fire) w:Jt5 go sour (of food) phaarf go through mon5, m:in3, wan3 goat me4 god xun 1 saaIJ 1

goiter leIJ 1 gold xam2 goldmining se2 gong m:iri good Jj6

Original from



good mannen ?ir:f te3 Je3 good-looking k£u3, s:,i3 goods Jcun3, xo2 goose haan3 gorilla ?aa,/ gourd tau4 government office yw;,2 grab hipl, Jcipl, thok5, tsak5, wak5, yipl graceful s:,i3 grade xaan2 graft (to) kapl grain m£t5, xau4 granary su2, ye2 grand x~k5 grandchild laanl grandfather lo1Jl gnndfather's younger sister ?:,k3 grandmother yaa6 gnnt woi3 grape maak3 ?itl ga·as.• yaa4, y:,4, y~k3 ga •uland paa3 yaa4 grave heu6, paa3 heu6 g, •zing land paa3 yaa4 ga ease man2, xail great lo1Jl great-g1·andparents /enl gt eed saan5, thu5, tsai6 Jaml, xo5 g1een seul,tsam5,xeul greet Jaail, to,r g1ey h:>k3, mon3, m:>1J1 grill tsj3 grind Jcik5, Jap5, ma3, soi2

grip hipl, wak5

groan xarf1 groove hiUUJ2,saau5 grope (for) sam6, sum6 groand (for specific purposes) siUUJ2 groap fwJl, tatf, ke6, mu3, JNWI, tsum2

Digitized by


grow (increase) Jcln4, yan3 grow (plants) Jum2, ~m4 grown-up thaan4 grumble p:,,r guanntee pau2 • guard (againAt) pa;,5 guess (to) saai5, sai6, thaai5 guest s£k3, x£k3 gum of tree yaa,/ gums h~k3 gun k:,rf gunpowder m:,4 gush out pun2 gust (of wind) ha3

H hailstone hep3 hair xonl hair (of the head) phoml, y£ul

hair knot kau4 hair plaits t~p3 haircut (to have a) thaal hairy po,f, pu5 half maarf, paa4, waak5, x~rl half-cooked k£n6 half-dried (of firewood) manl halt Jcitl sau2 baiter Jci6 hammer (a) x:>n5 hammer in t:,k3 hammock ku3 JC£n6 hand mf1 hand over yin6, yin6 handful (of) kam6, k:>p3, mipl, 1JEu4, yipl, y:,pl, yuml, yupl handle kan2, 1Jorf1 hang h:>r', s£nl, t£u3, xtnl hang (down) k:,m5, yaan2, y:,;5

Original from


272 hang out JBJUJ3, yBif happy ki6, peu3, po3, sil, tsi6, tsom2 hard (difficult) yaak5, yaap-1 hard (solid) ktn3, SEIJ 1, XEIJJ hardships xu2, yaap-1 yaak5 hardworking xakl h11rm(ful) phtk5 harness thau3 hanh xun-5 harvest taan6 hat mo-1 hate tsarr, xin3 haul Jaak5, tho6 have mi2 have foreign accent thaai2 have magical power tho2 have sexual intercoune paa5, tsaap5 kan 6

hawk ho,r, yeu6





head ho1 headache xai4 hol headman faa5 J:,1)1, heIJI heal hom4 healthy x:1ml, x3IJ3 heap kaa,r, tso3 heap up k:,q6, pum2 hear l)in2, yin2 heard ts:,t6 heart tsai6 heartbroken tsep-1 tsai6 heaven faa5, kaar.f haaul, m3IJ2 Ji2 paan3 heavy Jak1 heel son4 hell IJBa2 Jaai2, wi2 tsi2 help th£ml, ts:,i6 hemp maa4 herd p:,i3

here ?irf Jai5, thai4 hey ?ai2 hiccup (to) ?gf hide (skin) IBIJ 1 hide (to) ?am6, p:,m6, siIJ3, tet3, th:,p5 high SU1) 1 high (time) ter/ highland J:,n6 hill J:,i6 hillside k:,rf, taap5 J:,i6 hind IBIJ 1 hinder he5, k:1t3, x:1m2 hindered sinl hips faai3 kon4 hire tsaarf' history kaap5 k:,n3, tso6 k:,n3 hit haap-5, hEn4, k:,kl, mar/, mupl, te,/, thEp-5, top-1, t:,k5, wutl, yam6 hit the mark tso4 hoe (a) xol hoe (to) s:,k3 hogwuh mok5 hold fEIJI, kam6, qaaml hold (contain) sai3 hold (firm) tsa,f' hold back (one's feelings) tek3 hold sth. in the mouth ?om6, kaap5, qaam5, tsaap-1 hole hu2, kor/ hollow J:,kl, J:,k3, xum3 holy mEt5, th:,t5 home ?iq3 thoIJ3, ?iIJ3 yaa3, h3n2 honest tsai6 si6 honeycomb hoq2 hoof kipl, tsipl hook keu3, tseu3, xeml hop ?iql, ten4, til)l horn (instrument) tutl horn (of animal) xaul

Original from



bone maa5 hose mo3 bot (taste) phaan6 bot (tempenture) hau5, mai4 bot spring pw:,3 house h~ housefly mE,r mun2 bow het3 IJil bow many ki3, tsi3, JCai6 bug k~3 huge lol)1 humid saau5, sau5, yikl humiliate phe:4, saa6, te4 bump J::,k3 hundred paaJc3 hundred thousand s£nl, si,r bunt mu2 sil, waam5 hurry 1£t5, phaa6 phi6 hurt tsep3, ts£n2 husband phol, pu3 busk kEp3, ts£p3 busk rice (to) saak3, s::,m5, tam6 husked rice JCau4 .~aanl hygienic ketf', s£n4, tsetf', JC£n4

I I kau6 idea yaan3, y£n3 identify yinl idiot ?utl ?u6 idle Jaai6, stn5, JCEn5 idle away (time) ?e6 if thiql ~;5, thil) 1 waa6, tsau3 ignite paai3 ignorant t:,n4 illness JCar' iD-tempencl tsai6 J~3, tsai6 mai4 image hun3, l)aai2

Digitized by


imitate ts::>m2, y:,q6 impetigo hitl imprison JC8.1)1 improve sEn2 impulse (sexual) faa4 in bloom Jci6 in case (that) thil)l waa6, tsam2 in charge thinl, thin2, tm,r in need (of) ?ip1, y::,m2 in order taam2 in the process of hai5, t:,k5 in the same direction (as) sun3 in the west (of the sun) waai3 incantation ?aa6 sok3, maan2, maan3,

maan6 incessant ts::>P, tsik5 incite so5, sok5, soql inclined m:m6 incomplete yum5 yaam3 increase me3, JCin4, yan3 incubate l)am2 indeed waa6 index finger Jeu5 tsi5 indigo h::>m4, JCaam2 indulge in mau2 inferior yaam5, yum5 inherit sipS inherited disease taam3 inject tam6, tt,r ink mik5, m:t' inlay (a tooth) saar:,6, saap3 inquire k£p5 insane won2, y::,rfl insect mE,r, motf', al insert ?:,rt', ?:,r3, kim6, pak1, sat5 inside Jaj2 insipid tsaar/ insist ?in3, ytnl, y£n2 inspect saa5 Original from


274 instance thaa3 instigate so5, sok5, SOIJJ institution Jan2, xoq5, yor:f intelligent stt3 intend ?IUUJ", fai3, tai2 intercept t:,n2 intercoune (sexual) ?tt5, saml, tsaap5 internal organs tapl tai6 xo,r Jai2 interrupt kau2 intenect x:,i3 intestine sai4, tsi,r inundate thom4, thum4 invade tsi,r investigate thaan3 invite hap-5, phit5, yo5, tso2 Involve paa3 iron /ek3 iron bar saarn4 irritate kam5 island IJ:,n6 issue (an order) porf' it man2 itch xom2 itchy xom2 item paat5 ivory 1Jaa2

·J jab sapl, tam6, tE,r jackal maal xol, maal Jai2 jade wi3 jar ?tr:f, hoq5, kim2, p:,q2, phiq5, tham5, tsim2 jargon xaam2 paa1J6, xaam2 ter:f jaw kaa,;,2 jealous sofl, x:,i2 jeer yo6 jerk litl

Digitized by


jet pirf'

jewellery m£2 Jingpo xaaq 1 join (together) h:,m2, kapl, ko4, t~, cul, tsu5, xau4 joint p:,IJ", taa6, wtu3 joist pe6 jolt t:,n5 judge t:,n3 jump ?tn3, ?:,IJl, phtt3, tenl, t:,1)1, ts:,k1, wtnl jungle Jorf', to2, th;Jn3, yum2, y;J,j just DOW tsar:f

K Kachin xaaq 1 kapok tree Jiu5 keep offering more food stn3 keep secret ?am6, p:,m6, sii:,3, tet3 key Jcil Jek3, tsil lek3 Khiin (a Tai group) tai2 xinl kick (to) ?tl}l, thip 1, tsan3, xit 1 kidnap k:,i2 kidney yau6 kill html, xaa4 kilometre Jak1 kind (type) meu2, ts~, yaaq3, J;JIJ6 kind-hearted tsai6 fu2, tw6 Ji6 kindle s:,t3 kindness ke3 tsu2 king Jaa6 tsaa3, xam2 xun 1 m;,,r, xun 1 ho1 King of Heaven woq5 kingdom ts:,rf' kiss pi 1 kitchen sii:,3 knead lot5, pan4 knee kaau4, xau3

Original from


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275 kneel J:,k5, JCop5, JC:>p5 knife Jaap3, mit5, phaaS knit saanl, sonl knock hai3, t:,i3, JCaak3 knot taa6, th:,r.,3, JC:,t3 know hu5 know bow to tsaarl knowledge hu5 JCanl Korea kaau6 Jj4 Korean kaau6 Jj4 Kunming m:>rj sel


L lack ?ipl, l)aat5, phaanl, tsut5, y:,m2 lacquer haanl, hak5 ladder tsaat5 ladle (a) kaak3, kokl, moi6 ladle up kon5, sai3 lady Jaarj1, yirj lake lol)1 lame haan4, h£n4, }£kl. paai5, pe4, tsak5,

xoi6, JCok 1 lamp tir:f lance hok3 land Jaam6, Jin6, tsaa-5 land leech taak5 land rent Ji 1 landing taa6 landslide Jan3, JCOl)l lane kiu3, JCaar.,3 language xaa,n2 Lao tai2 Jaau2, tai2 1£u5 Laos m:>rj Jaau2 lap taJcl large lol) 1 lash fat5, haap5 last (in order) Jun2, lin2 latch kaar.,3, se6

Digitized by

Go gle

late Jaa4, lut5, ts;n:r, xam6 late at night likl laugh xo1 law fi,f, thurj lay (bricks) po5, si3 lay (foundation) saar:,6 lay (table) xaa 1 lay ambush t:,n2 lay out tsi6 layer hop5 layman kaa6 pi3 lazy JCaan5 lead (a life) ko3 lead (metal) tsun2 lead (the way) ?:,n6, waan4 lead (to) p:,r.,3, ph:,k5 lead by holding the band tsUl)6 leaf f:11, mai6, s£m1, tor:,6, JC£m 1 leak faau3, ho6, phiu3 lean ?ir:,6, k£p3, Jem3, peml, pem3, sakl lean (meat) mon2 leap month J:,n6 son5 learn f:,k3, hen2, thaam2 lease tsu6, xaat5, xol leather IBl) 1 leave (aside) tam2, wai5 leave (plant to grow for seeds) k£m2 leave the dead in the open siu6 leave undone haai,r leech pir:f lees ?on6, hon2, saa3, si4• ye3 left (band) saai5 leftover J:,l, saak5 leg xaa 1 leisure s£n5, x£n5 lemon maak3 yin4 lemon grass xaa2 h:,ml length span from thumb to middle rmger xip5 Original from



leprosy h:1n5, tut5 less ?e3, ke-1, Jaan2 letter sin3 level (of floor) tak5, thaai:,3 tsan5, xak5 level (to be) pe,f, x:1,I lick Je2

lid l4, the4 lose consciousness w:,rf lose flavour (of food) phui6, xaa6 lose heart tsai6 taak3 lot


louse haul, min2 love hak5, kek5, pan2, ts:;i2 love song seul, xeul lover tsu5 low (voice) ?Em3, Jol, tEm3 low-lying land xum3 luck kaam3, mon6, saa6

Original from


277 lucky th:>n2, th:Jt5 l••mp !Blf', mok5 lunar eclipse J"n6 maat3 lunch pen6, xau4 ph:>il lungs p:x3 lure paan2, s:>ks, ts:>p3 lustrous h~, xail luxuriant porj, thaa2 lye tau6 lyrics seul, xeul

M machine tsaak5 mad won2, y:>rf3 maggot l:>n 1 magic arts ?aa6 sok3 magnificent x"k5 magpie kaa6 tsaak3 maintain t:,m2 Mailreya met5 te3 yaa5 maize xau4 faa5 make het3 make (bed) siJ make (friends) yinl make a courtesy call paai4 make a face by sticking out one's lips ts:,n5 make a fire sai-3, suml, tol make a living phaan3 make a noise kan5 make a profit m£t5 make a tile roof waa4 make cord by twisting fan4 make fun of tai6, tsol, yil, y:,k3 make money m£t5 make one's way through Jan4, mon3, phon3, phut5 make things difficult (for) pe6

make tribute to taan2 Digitized by

Go ~ gle

make up pak1 make use of ?en4 malaria xai4 Jaau4 male (animal) paai2, se4, th:1k3 male (fowls) phu4 male (person) tsaai2 male in-law xoil mallet xon5 man PJ' tsaai2 manage thinl, thin2, thirj, thirj, tsaarj mandarin duck wam2 pe2 manger thaan4 mango maaJc3 mor/ mankind meu2 kon2 manner hasrl many laai1, Jsm1 march ~aai1 mark (to) maail market kaat3, saa2 married (of a man) thirj yaa2 marry (off) ?aapS, xaa3 marry bis sister-in-law after bis elder brother's death (of a man) saiu:,4 massage Jot5 muter tssu4 masturbation t:,k5 mat fuk5, phuJc5, saat3 match ?aapS, k:1k3 maternal grandmother ?ul, Jaai2 matter kaan6, mu2, 1)aan2 mature thaan4 maybe ti1 tsai6 me kau6 meadow paa3 meal maa2, taa3 mean (stingy) thi3 meaning pum3 measles ph:1t3 measure (to) tck5, tik5, tor/

Original from


278 measure of length kaai2, mai5, poq] measure of weight fun4 meat ?i2, J:>5 mediate xel medium (,iu) thaau3 meek I)& meet faaIJ", ho,,S, ton2, t:Jr.t', thop3, x:,i6, x:,r.t', x:,p-5, yaa2 meeting Jum2, xoi3 melon t£,I melt hul)l, kaIJ6, xaa3 mend ful)l mental disorder s:.,p-5 merge kan6, x:,n4 merits and virtues ?aaf, tso2, ku2 so3 message xaau3 messy hok5, yum2, rur.t' metal container purj method ptlJ3 midday te,I wan2 middle kaa,I, waa,I middle age thaau3 middle finger Jeu5 kaar/ midnight te,I xin2 migrate Jil, paan6, sut5, to5, xaai5 mile Jakl military camp yin5 milk ?ul, Jom2, tsul mill l)£n2, xok5, y£n2 milled rice xau4 saanl millet WBIJl million Jaan5 mince (to) fak5 mind (body part) thaai2, tsai6 mind (doing sth.) ts:>m3 tsai6 mine mo3 mire ?wJ6, l:>IJJ, x:,l mirror


miscarri•ge (to have a) Jot3

Digitized by


miserly tm3 misfortune k£n6, phe2, tscn6, xenl, xo5 misinterpret one's words in order to amuse people tsoi5 miss out /aan,2, paat5, waa.i:,5 missing w£1J3 mistake ?aa6 waat5, lol)l, phitl mix ?uJcl, kaul, k:,i6, Jcut5, Jo2, paan3, taul, th£u5, xon2 mix together phaa3, saan6 moan xarj mobilise so3 mock k£l) 1, y:,i6 model hun3 moisten Jai6 molar xeu4 xaai2 moment Jaam2, thaa3 Monday taa6 Jaarj Jaa3, wan2 tsanl monetary unit S£p3, xanl, x£p3 money l):ln2, sol monk saai.,3 monkey Jirj, w:,k5, wul waal monster yau6 month J:,n6 moon J:,n6, tsan3 taa3 more than s£n2, x£n2 morning Jail mosquito yurj mosquito lanra m£rj hoi2 mosquito net sutl most sutl, tsui3 mother harj xam2, me6 mother's younger brother Jaa5, xunl mother's younger sibling Jaa5 motto thur.f pum3 mould (to) ham2, s:in2, su3 mouldy xaa2 mountain J:,j6 mountain pass waau3

Original from



mountain stream hoi4, xe2 mourn stu3 moustache Jot3 mouth paak3,sop3 mouth of dam Jaai3 mouthful (of) ?ik5, kam2 ,.: 1, l)aIII", --~ paan6 , pu·, ~ 3 move l1·J , nlJ pot, --< xaa,·5, YOIJ 1, yoy ,-._1 sut-5, tcr, movie thaat5 sil)l mucus of the nose muk5 mud ?ur/, po,r, x:,l muddle-headed yum5 yaam3 muddy ?onl, hon2, xun3 muffle hu2 mug kom3, tswf' mulberry Jaa,i2, m:,r,2 multicoloured Jaai2 murder xaai3 murky mau2, woi2 mushroom hep3 music tu2 Ji3 yaa5 musical instrbments tu2 Ji3 yaa5 must su4 mustard kaat3 mute 1Jaa3, tJaa5 myna lok5 tseu3 mythical water creature l):Jk5

N nail maat3 nail on honeshoes (to) saap3 naked poi3 name(a) tsi6 name (to) pho3 name for third son saan6 nap sop5 nappies ?:,m4 naraow ?ipl, hipl, tipl

Digitized by


narrow-minded tsai6 hipl, tw6 ton4 nation ?aa6 meu2, m:,,r nationality ?aa6 meu2 natural disuter kaa3 Jaa5 nature ?aa6 Jo3 Jo3 naughty kau2, phEul, phi4, phP, th£u3 near him2, kai4, tsam6 nearly til xai4 neck xo2 need kii:f, Jo3, thukl needle seml, xem1 neighbour kai4 ?£p3 nephew laanl nervous tsai6san3 nest


new mai3 news xaau3 nibble t:,t3 nicked maarJ', m£,f niece laanl night xam6, xin2 nine kau4 ninth of the ten Heavenly Stems tau3 ninth of the twelve Earthly Branches san 1 nip off let3 nipple ho1 ?u1 no ?am3, ?iml, ?ilJ6, maau3, paa6, yar/ no matter (what/who/where/how) ?am3 waa6, xan5 hau3 nobleman xunl nod (one's head) J:,k5, IJOpl, t:P noisy ?onl, hon6, Jan2, Jon3 nominal marker x:,1J6 non-cutting edge of a knife sanl noodle mtn3 nose lat/ nostril hu2 lat/ not ?am3, ?iml, ?i1J6, maau3, paa6, yar/ Original from



not only... ?am3 kaa2 notch mak1 notes ?aa.6 Jaak5 noun pluraliser xaul nourishing pu2 nuisance paan5 tsaf6 numb phaan6, let3 number tsaa6 laa,f2 numeral tsaa6 Jaa,fZ numerous laai1, s:Jr:,2 nutritious pu2

0 obeisance (show) paai4 obey sun3 objective fi6 t:1k5 observe mu,;,6 obsessed with tan3 obstruct he5, k:,t3, x:1m2 obtain Jar', thop3 occasion xaa2, yaa,1,2 occupy by force paa3, p:,q3 ocean paaq3 Jaai3 odd ?aam2, k:Ji3 odd number tsik5 offence taam3, tsui3, wot5, yu2 offend faan3, fitl offer hai4, pan6, sorf offer food (to) mam3, taan2 offer sacrifice haai6, /aail, Jan4, taaq3,

tat/ offset m£n5 kan6 often kai5, xe2 oil man2 old kau3,ke3,thau4,tse3

old monetary unit t£u3 older sibling pi6 olive maak3 xaaml

Digitized by


on heat (of animu) Jm6 on the wrong side (to put) xo1 one ?et3, Jeu6, 1~ one another kan6 one of a pair tun2 onion mo3 only k:Ji2 oozeout pun2,tsi-5,tsim2 open ?aa4, huil, mun2, 1Jaak5 open space pllBl;f, to,;,6 open up (wasteland) xu6 opening hu2, ko,;,6, peu6 opportunity xaa2, yaam2 oppreu yaap-5 or ?am3 Janl thil)l SBl)l orange maak3 ts~k5, maak3 waan 1 order mir:,2 ore deposit kur:,2 origin l)Bu4 other taa,f3 othen p:m6 oth~, aise ?a.m3 Janl, thil)l s81) 1 otter mon4 ought to kiq3, phui3 outlet of ditch or stream taai:,5 outside l:Jk5 outstanding F oval p:Jm4 over(esceeding) m:iZJ:1l,paai6 overcast kaanr4 overcooked yaam6 overcrowded s:Jn2 • overfill sat5, sot3 overflow laat5, Jon5, l:1n6, thom4, thum4, W£k3 overhang IJ'1m5 overlap x:Ji3 overturn x:Jm4 oove kaai6, y:Jm2 t

Original from


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• ..

281 owl kau5 own mi2,ya,f

owner tsau4 0:1

l)o2, wo2

p pack ho3, hup5 package ho3,hup5 packet ho3, hup5 paddle (to) faai2, waai4 paediatric disease ku2 page Jaa4 pain k£n2, kon5, s£p3 painful s£p3, tsep1, xin4 paint haan 1, hak5 pair kaap3, kop5, Jcu6, tui3 pair up with kop3 palace Jan2, xo,r, yoi:,3 pale tsaar/ palm (body part) ?or/, ?ur:f, faa3 palm (plant) s£r:f pancreas 1£n5 pangolin Jin6 panic tsi4 panning se2 pants kon6 paper saa 1, tse4 parallel xaarf parents ?u4 me6, ha,f paa2, Jaa6 ?u3,

Jaa6 ha,f, Jaa6 paa2, Jaa6 phe2, Jaa6 se3 parotitis m:;m6 pi par1 ot Jok5 xeul part (to) kaa2, phaak5, yaanl part of loom munl part of saddle siu6 partial to h:;p3, S£nl par tition faal part(•) ts~

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

pass (a) kiu3, xaai:,3 pau (to) ?e6, kaai6 pass on/over (to) s:;n5, yin6, yin6 passive marker tso4 paste OD k:;pS, paap3, til)l pat (to) top3 patch (of land) J:;k1, Jorf paternal grandfather kwJ6, pu3 paternal gi audmother yaa6 path taa,f, xonl patrol ph:;t3 pause (to) sorr paw /ep-5 pay (to) saai4, xaai6, xin2 pay tribute to kwJ3 peaceful lim1 peach maak3 x:;i:,3, maak3 mon6 peacock yurf peak ts:;m 1 peanut tho3 Jin6 peck sak1, s:;n4 peculiar p£k3 pedal (to) Jen5, tsaak5, yan5, yan6 peel (oft) p:;k3 peep m£pl

peg lim4 pen (for animttls} x:;k5 pen (for writing) pi4 penalty mai 1 penetrate p:;i:,3 penis x:;i2 people kon2, pu1 percent pun6 perfect l)aam2, s£n4 perform p£2, p£5 perhaps ti 1, xan5 hau3 period si,i3, wolJ6, xaau2, xi{f perish moi5 ~rmit ?~, ph:;m5, tsu2, tsun2, xaarf Original from


• ' •

• •


• ••

• •

282 penist kan5 penon kon2, pul penonality ?iq3 te3 Je3 penuade ham4 pestle saak3, xok5 petal kaap3 pheasant kai4 photograph pug3, phuq3 · k ke,,-, ,__1 pit· 1, pot3, p:Jrr, -4. tsep-, •.J x1t · 1, pie JC:Jt5 pickle (to) m:Jr/', ytn6 picture pug3, phul.13 piebald Jaai:,3 piece (of land) hai6 piece (of meat or cloth) falll/', kaail, kE,j, sik5, t£p3, t:Jml, tsin5 pier (of bridge) tun6 pierce mon5, m:Jn3, sapl, tam6, t£if, wan3 pig mu1 pile (a) kaar/, k::,n4, t::,kl, tso-1, tsum2, y:Jm3 pile on sum 1 pile up waarl pillar saul pillow m::,nl pincen 1£p3 pinch yakl pine ptk3 pineapple maak3 haa1 Jaat5, maak3 ker/' pink x:Jl.13 tsaarl pipal y::,rf' paai:f pipe mol.13 pit l:Jl)l, thBal)l, xuml place ?i,j, ?::,if, hi,j, paa3, paaIJ6, tan2, ti6 placenta he3,hok5,hon5 plague haa6 plain tor/'

Digitized by


plait (to) phai2 plan (a) ?aa6 yan3 plan (to) tsatl plane (to) ho2, thui6 plane (tool) pau3, phau3, thui6 planet Jaau6 plank pEn4 plant (a) ton4 plant (to) pakl, pukl, phukl, sam2, s::,m4 plants phaa2 plastic waak3 plate hel, paan5, phaan5 plateau paa3 sul)l play (instrument) let3, paai3, se3 play (performance) ts:1,f play (to) ?en4 play (with sth.) yak5 playing cards phe2 please paaif pleat ts:Jk3 plenty .laail, Jaml plien Jdm2 plot (against sb.) ts:,n2 plot (of land) Jorf, J::,kl plough (to) sau6, s::,rf, thai1, th:1n3 pluck pitl, pot3 plug (a) lim4 plug (to) ?:,t3, sat5 plum man5 plump maak5 ply (a) ?iu6, kiu6 poem seul, xeul poetry seul, xeul point (at) tsi5 poison k:J,Y, IJOn5 poison fish (to) lau3, m:P poisonous k::,,y, l)On5 poke (to) se3, th:Jr/', ts:Jk5, y::,k5 pole haau2,saau4,saul

Original from



police pik5 Jik5 policeman pik5 Jik5 polish tset5 polite ?aa2 Jaa4 pollute laaP pomelo ?o2, tJ

tJl, t:,r:f pool kaan3, t:,,f2 poor phaan 1 poor (soil) yo6 poor eyesight faarj popular ts:Jt3 Jen6 popularise ts:Jt3 tse2 porcelain me" porch tsaam3,tsaan2 porcupine men4 porridge xau4 hul)l possess mi2, ~tJ3, yar:f possessive marker X:Jl)l post tar/ pot met', t:Jm3 potato man2 pound (to) lek3, saak3, s:Jm5, sutl, tam6, th:>,j2, t:>k3, ts:>k5 pour he4

pout (one's lips) m:m6 powder mun6, ph:>tJl power ?aa6 xaar.,5 practice Jcn3, wi2 praise y:>IJ" prawn kolJ", l)Eu2 pray t:J{f

predict ?aan2, tsoP prefecture ts:JIP prefix (plural noun or pronoun) ts:,2 prefix for ordinal numben Jaam3 pregnant faJcl, paa2 prejudiced tsi6 he4 prepare haalJ", hem2, h£n2, Jaa6, tan2

Digitized by


present (a) faaJc3 present (1th. to royalty) J::,p5 preserve with sour sauce tso2 press (to) ?itl, hi,,S, Jen3, JetJ3, tetJ6, tsaa,,S, yaa4 prevent faar:f, xenl, xom3 price kaa6, xanl prick sam2, t£,f2 primary me6 prince w::,IJ5, xunl x::,m6 princess Jaarj principle pttJ6 prise (to) S£ul, seu3, si2, x:>n6 prison th::,tJ3, x::,k5 progressive marker hai5, t:,k5, wai5 prohibit ta,,S prolong one's stay ?il)l promise xaarj proof saaJc5 se3 property xo2 h:1n2 protect faar:f,xenl,xom3 protrude kul)l, Jelf', men2, l)inl, l)in2, l):Jm5, l):Jn2, x:,u5 protruding tai6, tsunl proverb thu,j2 xaam2 provide pam2 province sin2, s:,n2 prune t::,n6 pubic hair m::>i1 public xaa3 publish tsen3 puff phu3 puff up m:>tJ6, p:>,f2 pull Jaak5, thaaul, tit5, tsan6, tsat5,

xetJ6 pull down Jrui5, Jaau5, J::,tJ3, tJaau5, ts:JtJ3, xui2 pull out heml, th::,nl, thot3, yok3 pulley ko,f2, Jim2, Jo5

Original from



pumpkin pak5 punch m:,q3, saJcl puncture sapl, sep3, ttrf pungent hin2, S£n3, xan2, xtn3, yo3 punish s:,t5 pure J:,n5, mtk5, ts£t5 Pure Brightness (a solar term) sir!

mirf purple kam3 purpose fi6 t:1k5 purposely tstn3 punue hip5, Jip5 pus /:,1)1 push son2, sui1, tau5, to5, tho2, yo4 put sai3 put aside tam2, wai5 put away for ripening mom3 put on mai6, supl, ts:,m3 put (sth.) on a rope or shoulder paat5 put one's hands around sth. h:,p5 put things in order saa1Jl put things into a container roughly yo4 put up (frame or ladder) tsaa3 pyramid-shaped object ts:,kl python liml, J:1ml •

Q quail lok5 xum4 qualified (for) th;Jk5 quality saa3 quarrel phitl, thel)l quench tsaam3, tqn14, tsum3 question (to) k:,k5, tsEJY quick fai2, phaail, phai2, wai2 quiet yen6 quit t:,n3 quite ham5, h£m5, h£q5

R rabbit paJJIJ6 taai2 rack k:,pl, saq5 tsaa1, tsaan2 raft pe2 rafter k:,n6, pe6, to,f rain fonl rainbow hurf raincape toi6 raise (children) Jeg5, thau5 raise (lift up) Jru4, yo2, yok5, yol)6 raisin ?it1 rake (to) J:,rf, ph;,1 range Jaap5 Rangoon yan3 kui:f ransack phaan5 ransom thai3 rare Jaar,2 mi2 rat Jul rattan thau 1, x;,2, waail raw Jipl ray worf reach h:,t5, su3, to3, thil)l, xit5 reach (within one's) taai2 reach out ptn6 read ?aan3, Jaail, phatl, toi2 ready haaif', htm3, htn2, Jaa6, 1Ji3 real maan3, te5 reap taan6 reason kun6 kon2, xo4 reasonable thukl, tso4 rebel (to) faar,2 recall xon5 recede wtp5 receive hap5, turf recite ?oil, ?om6, poi3 recoil thip1 recover haail, h:,m3, th:,i3, xen2 recur (of disease) faa4, faan2 red


Original from


- - ··- - --



285 redeem thai3 redo xin2 reduce yit1, yit1 reed ?o4,pe2 refine ( oil) h£t5 reflect faarj, to2

residence ?ii:,3 thoi:,3, ?ii:,3 yaa3, ti6 yu3 residue saa3, xaap5, ye3 resin yaarf resist sinl, taa5, xatl, xinl, x;,,f respect kii:,3, tsii:,3 rest (to) Jaap5 rest sth. on (sth. else) m::,nl restless tsai6 faat3

refrain kan4 regret xon5 tsaan4 reheat ?un3 reins ki6

restrict tap5, xen2 resume secular life (of a monk) thaak5

related to paa3 relations by the marriage of one's children l:Jr;f relative pi6 J::,r:,5 release p:;i3, waaq2, yan3 religion Jru2, puJc5 thaa5 phaa3 saa3 religious discipline sinl relocate paan6, sut5, to5, xaai5

resurrect xin2 retire Jaap5 retreat honl, thoi4 _., p:JA· ,,5, waa,·J, WlUIA· --L.5, JC.Jn · 1, return m.r-,

xin2 revenge t:Jp3 soi4 reverberate Jan4

rely OD p:Jm6 remainder J:,l

revene pin4, taau3 review ph:;n5 revile hitl, kol)l, Jaa3, x::,t5

remarry (of a woman) s:1u6 remember t:J,f remnants J:,1, saak5

revolve pan3 rheumatism thui:,3 rhyme seIJl hapl, seIJl tsaap5


kaan5, pot3

render service thaam2 rent tsu6, xaat5, xol repair me2 repeat fan5, sam5 . repent kan3 to2 repetitive p:;1)1 ptl)l replace uw:,6, th£ml

rice xau4 rice field Jaa2 rice seedlings kaa4 rich maaJc5, mi2, yarj ride si3, xi3

reply t:Jp3, tho4, xaan 1 report paau3 represent uw:,6, th£ml reputation Jaa3 me3, se3 Je3 request IJam6, thaaml, xaam3, y:Jn2 rescue kaai3, sel, xel resemble m:,nl, thum3 reside yu3

Digitized by

rib xaarf' ribbon pu6, saai2


ridge pe6 ridicule xol right ?aa6 xaar:,5 right in the middle tel)6 right-hand side xaal ring t::>i:,3 ring finger Jeu5 taam6 ringworm hau4 rinse ?on', y:;,I

Original from



ripe sukl rise tun6, xin4 river xe2

river bank hikl, saap3 river deer tir;f rivenide saap3 road taatf, xonl roam h:,n6 roar h:,,r roast pi,t, pui3, tsi3, yaarf' rob himl, hipl, hop3, hup5, Jo2 robber tson6 robust x~ml, x~i:,3 rock (a) phaal rock (to) y:,k5 roll (a) k£n2 roll (to) ?iif, kun2, pan4, xot3 roll up (sleeves) wot5, wit5 roof a house (to) Jop3, mu,r roofmg tile waa2 room h:>,t, sum5 root haaJc5 rope ts~k5 rot Jau6, me5, phup5, yaan4 rotten Jau6, me5, phup5, yaan4 round mon2, t:,ml roundwo1°m tikl row (line) phaai5, ya,t row a boat (to) faai2, waai4 royal court thi2 phu3 rub fon 1, Jcit5, mo4, sil, thul rubber yaar:f tar! rude haau4 ruin (to) 1£ul ruined Ju5 rule over p~i:,3 ruler Jaa6 tsaa3, tsau4, xam2 xunl m;,,f, xunl hol, w:,,r ruler (tool) mai5

Digitized by


rummage phaan5 run 1£n6 rush (fu, ward) thai:,3 rust xaa2, xaan6 rustle saatl, xaau5 rusty xaa2, xaan6 ruthless tsai6 haai5, tsai6 m~k5

s sack thoIJl sacred writings tham2 sacrificial activities s:>m2 sad h:>n5, tsep3 tsai6, }[;1 saddle ?aan6 safe and sound saak5 saa3 saliva Jaai2 salt k:P salty tsem2 Salween River }[O,j same /eu6 sample haar:f,yaar:,3,y;,r;f sand saai2 sand beach haat3 satisfied ?aa6 Jaa2, ?& saturate thom4, thum4 Saturday tsan3 J&, wan2 saul sauce te4 sausage sai4 save kaai3 saw J:,6 say paak3,

taan4, waa6

sayings thutf xaam2 scab xaap5 scabies hitl scald Jok5, thlUUJ3 scale ket3, tset3 scapula S£p3 scar maat3, paau4, peu4

Original from


--· .


287 ,__1




scare maa,,-, I)~ , JC.r, y,

scatter phaau3, phi,f, saan3 scattered about maaJc3 m~l, m~ maak3 scent h:Jml school JCory f~k3 scisson tsim2 scold hitl, kol)l, Jaa3, JC:Jt5 scoop haau2, sok3, ta.kl, tekl, thBal)l scope Jaap5, tolJ3 scorched S£m4, S£p5, JCEm4 scorpion me,f l)o2 scourge senl, JCenl scout (to) tsulJ3 scrape ts:Jn5, JC3f5, JCutl scratch (to) k~n3, saan3, t~n3, tsitl, xaan3 scratched Junl scream (to) s£n3 scrub fan-5, y:Jp5 seal tsaarf', tsum4 search for tsEm2 season ?aa6 JCaa3, ?aa6 xilJ3, ?u5 tu5, Jaa3 si3, yaam2 seasonings m:1t3 second child yi6 second daughter ?j3 second of the ten Heavenly Stems Japl second of the twelve Earthly Branches pau4 1, t:Jn6, t:Jt1, section kip 1, p:J,..4 -, p:Jt 1 thum4, tsip1 secure liml, man4, wun2 sedan chair tsEu3 seduce paan2, S:Jk5 see han 1

see (sb.) off solJ3 seed (a) hoi3, ktn6 seeds fan2 seek tsaam3 seize kam6, l)ak5, tek3, tsaan3, tsiul

Digitized by


select l~k5, th£u2, yoi2 self-abuse t:Jk5 self-esteem ?ilJ3 te3 Je3 sell xaail semen l)aanl send faak3, phaai3, solJ3 senion faa5 l:Jl)l, hel)l, thau3 sense phu2 sentence kam2, JCaam2, JCaat3, JCo4 separate phaak5, phaat3, JCan4 servant JCaa4 serve thary, tsai-5 sesame l)aa2 session faa4, maat3, paat5, JCEk5 set (a) s~,f, thau3, tsum3 set (arrange) paai2, tsi3 set aside tsaat3, tsatl, tsEt3 set deadline for sen2 set fire (to) s:Jt3 set up pok3 settle down JC£n 2 seven tset3 seventh of the ten Heavenly Stems JCot3 seventh of the twelve Earthly Branches si1 l)att5 sever Jdpl, tEp3 several Jd3, tsi3 sew ?em3, hupl, kop5, t£1J6, to4, ts£ry, yap5, yEp5 sexually active (of a woman) hit5, pot3, JCan2 sexually aroused phe5 shabby k£k3, t£k3, tsaak3, ts£k3, wai:,3, JCaat3, y:Jk3 shackles kaa2 shadow l)Bu2 shady hom6 shake Jan4, san3, t~u2

Original from



shake(hands) xau3 shaken 1JUk5 1)aak5, wai I, x:>n2 shallow t;,n4 shame yoil shapely xiu2 share p:>,r sharp (of knife) phaail, tsaa2 sharpen sem4, taai.,3 sharp-pointed }£ml shatter pBij shave thaal she man2 sheath kapl shed (a) thel)l sheep me4 sheet man4, phaa4, xEpl shelf seif, xeif shell (a) kaap3, me", p;,k3, x:,k3 shell (to) p:,k3 shellf"uh h:>i I shin kaau4 shinbone kaau4 xE,I shine p:,rj, t:>,;f, th:>,;f shiny 1£,r, p:>,;f, s:,,;,3 shirk liif shiver san3 shocked tok3 tsai6 shoe k£p3 tin6 shoot (at) phaai5, p:,;3, ye,r, yi2, yi6 shop phu3, S£,;f, t£n3 shore farjJ short (in height) ?£m3, ?:,m2, J:;tl, J:,t3, m:;tl, p:;k1, p:;tl, tam3 should Jo3, ki,;f, su4, thukl shoulder maa3 shoulder (responsibility) pui6 shoulder blade s£p3 shoulder pole kaan2 shout 'liul

show (a film) pt2, pt5, p:;;3 show (the way) ?:;n6, /el, waan4 show up m£p5, po3, phutl shower (of rain) haa3 shred ho2, thui6 shrewd he1 shrimp 1JEu2 shrink hot3, hunl, hutl, s:t', tupl, t:,pl shut ?upl, hapl, hupl shuttle of a loom tau3 shy ?aa2 Jaa4, ?aai6 sickle seu2, xeu2 sickness ?aa3 Jaa3, xai4 side faai3, faak5, kan4, Jaa4, paa4, phaak3, th£p3, tse,;,3 sideways sEif sieve xil)l sigh thoi4 sign (contract) tho2, xaat5 significance phu2 silk Jaai4, m£t3, phe2 silt ?u,I, 1Jaj6 similar Jai4, m;,nl, taan3, thum3 simmer (rice) ?u4, wan3 sin taam3 since (because) ?aai.,3 ki,;f since (the time of) tsam6, tsem6 sinew ?en6, thaa5 yaap5 sing maak3 singe h£u5, hi,r single /eu6, /;,,I sinister tsai6 haai5 sink Jom3, ts;,m6, xupl Sipsongpanna sipl s:;IJI pan2 Jaa2 sit laJJ6 site ?i,;f, ?iif, 1£n6 situation ?aa6 ts:;,r six hok3 sixteen sipl hok3

Original from





sixth of the ten Heavenly Stems katl sixth of the twelve Earthly Branches

sai4 sixth son Jok5 sixty hok3 sipl skewbald Jaar,f skill ptr.f skilled l~r/, m~n6 skillful m~n6 skin Jaql

skin (to) ket3, p~k3, tset3 skin rash ptn4 skinny y~m1 skirt sin4 skull kupl hol sky

small frog xet3 small jar l)~i2, tir.,3, xu5 small plate te4 smallpox m~k3 yaa4 smart kai5, ltml, xtt4 smash tam6 smear taa2 smooth mu.n6 snail h~i 1 snap hipl, wak5 sniff s~p3 snow haa1 snuggle (up to) tstp3 so


soak s~k3, tse6, tsim2, tsum3, xui5, yam2,



slacken y~n3 slander phtn3, xaa5 slant he4 slanting faaP, paai5, soi1, tsaaP, ts~n2 slap haap5, phaai5, phaat3, taap3 slash fan2, phatl, fi3 slaughter html, xaa4 slave xaa4 sleep J~n2 slice phtn2 slide l~r/ slim ktu3, se2, siu2, ts£t5 slip Jcut5, lutl, Jut5, paat5, so6 slippery mun6 slops mok5 slow Jaau5, J~i2, maan3, IJBp5, phis, th~,r slow-witted tsai6 tan6 sludge ?ur/, 1Jai6 small ?tnl, ?ttl, ?~nl, ?~n3, J~j5 small basket tied to waist ptm2 small box ?tp3 small branches ldr.,3, tsir.,3, xtm2 small divided piece of land t~k3, ts~n6

Digitized by


soaking wet ~k3 socks waa4 soft ?on4, ?~n3, mom6, m~n2, m~r/, poi3,p~rf soft pulp of fruits mop5 soil Jaam6, Jin6 solar eclipse kop3 Jcin6 wan2 soldier ltn3 sole ?oif, ?uif, faa3 solid ktn 3, hm2, mart', tan6, ts£n3 solidify tal) 1, til) 1 some maarf, x~rl sometimes maarf somewhat tsEnl son-in-law xoi 1 soot mi4 sore moi6, tsep3, xon5, xin4 sorghum xau4 xukl sort (kind) meu2, ts~, yaar.f, y;J,f soul x~n 1 sound mo2, SCIJ1 soup thaarf sour som4 Original from



source l)au4 south tat' sow waan-1 soya bean tho3 J:,1)1 spacious kaa,/ spade Jc,4 span tso6 spare (time) pEu3 spar1·ow ts:,k3 spane haai:,3 spasm ts:,k1 speak laat5, Jau6, paak3, taan4, waa6 spear (a) h:,k3, saam4 speckle saal spend foi3, sirf', ti2, tsaai3, yau5 spicy phet3 spicy herb tsi2 su6 spider kaau6 spider web yai2 spill hot3, phe3, ph:,k3, thaak3, tharjJ • -- 1 W£n 6, WOil"', - ~ W:)A· ,,5, yet5, y1·6 spm pan-', spirit phil' }C:,nl spit mok5, tau3, thum3, xaai2, xaak3 splash ?enl, forf, litl, senl, s:,n2, t:,S spleen 1£n5 splinter sem4 split phaa3, sikl spoil kan6 spongy mom6, m:,IJ6, p:,r.f spoon kaak3, tso5 spotty laai2 sprain man6 spray phu3 spread hol)l, laam2, me3, phaau3, phel, phe3, phir.f, s:,n5 spring (season) JCilJ3 ?on3 spring (well) mo3 Spring Festival (Burmese calendar) taa6 s:,,r

Digitized by


sprinkle litl, ph:,k3, pbu3, senl, s:,n2 sprout Ji3, 1J:,k5, tum3 spurt fat5 spy OD ts£m2 square silver button ts£t3 squat IJ:,ml, IJuml squeeze ?j2, hipl, let3, pan4, phut5 squint (at) phel squirrel ts:,n4 Sri Lanka sirfl JCo3 stab pakl, tam6, ts:,k5, yo4, yot5, yut5 stack (to) kaai3, 1Jap5, l):Jp5, s:,n5, tol, t:,kl stage haan5,saa2,yaatJ6 stagger son2 stagnant tum2 stain ?:,k3, ?:,,fl, maak3, waai5 stair thin3 stake Jakl, tatJ5 stamp (on) parn6, t:,S stand tsan2, tsukl stand on end (of hair) ku4 star laau6 starch JCaa4 stare k:,t3, Ja6, J:,k3, tarf' start (to) te2 start new leaves (of plants) thai3 starting point 1J:1n6 station tsa,/ stay f£1)1, sau2, yu3 stay close to th£p5 stay for the night J:,4 stay up late at night tsi,r, tsi,r steadfast man4 steady man4 steal Jak5 steam (to) Jirf' steam (vapour) ?aai6 steamer hail

Original from



steel kaai:,6 steelyard tsag6, ts:>P, ;,cet5 steep li,;f, tarf', tsan2 stele poi6 stem kaan4, l)£n4 step (of stain) ;,caJc5 step on taa4, yep3 sterile manl stew ?:,IJ3 stibium s::,t5 stick (a) Jaam4, ;,c:,n5 stick (on) thaap5 stick out 1£rf, l)inl, l)in2, 1):Jn2, mcn2,

;,c:,u5 stick together tsapl sticky leul, tsapl. yaai:,6 sticky rice Jol, s£ml. x£ml still JBl)l kau3, yarfl stimulate yol)l sting (of bees) ya{f sting (to) kam5 stingy thi3, tsai6 J::,tl stink menl stir up (feelings) yol)l stitch ful)l, yap5, ycp5 stomach Jau3, pum6, t::,rf stone hinl stone tablet poi6 stool ta{f stop haat3, J::,i6, sau2, tum2, xaat3, yaa3,

yaat5, y::,n3 store (to) yilJ6 story pum3 straight si6 straighten up 1£r/ strain Ji5, tsen2, tsEt5 strand ?iu6, kiu6 strange ?aam2 strangle mipl, yipl

strategic pass tsum4 strategy ?aa6 yan3

straw f:,,f street kiu3, xaar;f strength h£,f strengthen maai2, s£m2, JCEm2 stretch yet3, yin6, yit5, yin6, yit5 stride (over) supl strike po5, tcn3, t£,;f, top3, t::,rf, thaak3,

tsam4, waai4, ;,caak3, yaa5 strike (of thunder) faa5 phaa3 string ( cluster) h::,P string (line) saail string instrument tir;f strip (of cloth) phcn3 strip (off) hut5, loi6 striped Jaai2 strive for tsaam3 stroke (to) h::,t5, Jup5, ma6 stroll about /en' strong (of flavour) s£n3 strong (of sunlight) ;,celJ6 strong and fit Jau2, tan6 stronghold tap5 struggle (for) 1Ek3, maa4 stubborn kin2, Jok3, til stuffy ?am6, ?im6 stunned tok3 tsai6 stupefied sorf stupid mar', l)aa3, l)aa5, l)itl, 1):t', pun3,

;,caan6 sturdy (of plants) mu4 submerge thom4, thum4, ycn6 substitute taaif, thEml subtract yitl, yitl succeed pe-5, sip5 suck (kiss) tsupl suck (liquid) ?utl, Jutl, sot5, tsotl, ts::,tl sue kaau3 Original from



suffer ?aai5, tuk5 sufficient Jcum3, po2, tsum3 suffocate k£t5 sugar k:P waanl sugarcane ?:;;4 suitable Jar,3, thukl sulk ?ukl ?8u3 sulky ?ukl ?au3 sum1Der m:P mar' summit tsoml sun (the) l£t3, su2 Jj3 ya5, wan2 Sunday taa6 Jaaq2 Joi3, wan2 sinl, wan2 sin6 si6, wan2 tet5, wan2 titl sunflower xo,f sunken Jaan4, /:;kl, xum3 sunlight saail 1£t3, saail wan2 sunny faa5 J:;n5, 1£t3 sunstroke saa6 superior s£m5, x£m5 supper xau4 ph:;il xam6, x.au4 xam6 supply far/ support fu4, fu5, fil, kam5, th:;k5, tsoi6 suppress yaap5 surface phiul surpass taar,3, ton2 surprised tin3, waail surrender kom2, lom2 surround hop5, Jom4, J:;m5, t:;p5, woi5 survive pan4 suspend h:>i4, s£nl, x£nl sustain ?;6, taa5, tom2 swagger saai3 swallow (bird) lok5 ?:;n3 ?£n3 swallow (to) ?in6, thun6, thin6 swa1·m phal sway hom3, s:;i2 sweat h:il, Jci6 sweep patl sweet p.,-5, W8anl

Digitized by

Go ~ gle

sweet-sounding mi4 swell horj, kai6, ts:;nl, tsunl swelling on skin tum3, tir,3 swill mok5 swim J:;i2 swindle m£p3 swing s:;j2 swirl saau3 swollen kai6, mom6, pi3, pom3, toi3 sword Jaap3, phaa5 system pEIJ6

T table phanl, ser,3, xe,i3 tableland Jon6 tadpole paa6 hok5 Tai tai2 Tai festoon x.eu3 Tai Lue tai2 J;,5 Tai Nuea tai2 Jal Tai Pong tai2 p:;rj, tai2 tai4 Tai Song tai2 sorj Tai Ya tai2 yaal Tai Yuan tai2 yon2 tail h88IJ1 take ?au6, 1J881 take (a step) tsan2 take aim ye,j, yirf, yarj take care of paan3 take examination xau2 take...for... maat5 take full responsibility ?aam2, pau6 take hold of hip5, kip5, tsip5, tsokl take off J:;;3, thot3, th:;t3 take out ts:;k3 take over ptp5 take photos yek5 take root yar,3, ya,f Original from



take share in phaat5 take short cut so6, tatl take turns put5 take up in two cupped hands kop3 talk Jrum6, laat5, taan4 tall SUl)1 talon Jep5 tamarind ko,r tsi2, maak3 pu5, mu5 tame Qe6 tap off lit1 taro ph:,k3 task ?aa6 mi,r tassel pin3, tsaam2 taste (to) tsim2 tasteless tsaarf tattoo sam2 ?aarj tax kok5, k:,n6 tea f:,1, Jelf', y:,3 teach sonl teacher mol team toi3 tear (to) lok5, mi3, sikl tean Jam5 taa6 tease t:,u6, tsol, yok3, yil tell ?aan-3 tho4, mok3, xai6 temper (character) ?aa6 tsaarj temper (metal) h£t5 temple wot5, wun2, m£u3, sim3 temples (body part) faai3 sil m£p5. mop5 m£p5, molf' m£p5 ten sip1 ten million Jaak5 tender ?on", ?on3 tender boil (to) k£r:f, Jok5, mau3, ts£r:f, yop tender steam (to) tun3 tendon ?en6 tenth of the ten Heavenly Stems kaa3

Digitized by


tenth of the twelve Earthly Branches hau5 term put5, xaan2 termite mot5 ter1 aced field Jaa2 thaa.rfl tsaat5, Jaa2 tse2 ti3 ttrritory haai2, yaan6 test tsaa11i2 testicles haml tether Jaam6, 1Em3 Thai fai2 Thailand m:,,r thai2 that han5, Jan5 thatch grass xaa2 the more...the more y& then poi5 there ?i,r Jan5 these tsil Jai5 they (honorific address term) xaul thick Jaal, Jol, SEm2 thicket yom3 thighs faai3 xaal thin IEul' maarf, sail' yoml thin and small k£t5, yo6 thing lor:f, XOl)l think (contrary to facts) Jn2, y:,n5 tomato maak3 x~ som4 tomo11 ow m:P phuk5 tongs tsirn2 tongue Jin5 too (also) ko4, k3', t~ too (much) h£1J5, ph£ul, xai6 tooth (body part) seu4, xeu4 tooth (of comb) si4, xi4 top J:, 1, soi4, thi2, tsikl top (toy) xaai:f topple /om5 torchlight thaat5 torn tsaak3, yok3 toss out (water) saat3 touch (to) Jcit5, IJOrn2, pEn2, po,/, ti5,

torn2, yaai2 touch-me-not toi3 tough ke3, saa3, tse-1, yaap3 towards til, to3, tok3, tsu2, ye,f, y;,,f tower haaJJ" town tse6 trace (a) hoi2 trace (to) sin5, xai6 track down sin5, xai6 trade kaa? trademark mik5 tnil along thel tnin (to) Iurn2 trample paa1 tranquil Jiml transparent polJ3 trap (a) tam3 trap (to) thau5 tnvel hon6, 1£ul, po1J3,


Original from



bead Jen5, tw,t:5, yan5, yan6 ta eat taai3, tseu2, yaa6 tree mai5 trellis saIJ5 tsaal tremble san3 trick (to) s:Jk5, ts:Jp3 tricky meu4 trigger (oftnp or gun) minl trim hai2, t:Jn6 tripod ke,r, tse,r trough haarf, saau5 trousen kon6 true te5 trunk Jam2 truth sinl try tw,m2 T,a Le Festival tsaa3 Je3 tube mo3 tuck Jep3, Jep5 Tuesday ?aai:,3 kaa3, wan2 kaan5 tumour nan6 turbid ?onl, h:,n2, xun3 turn (a) ko,r, k:,r,r, torf turn (to) faan6, Jeul, l):Jkl, ts:Jn3, waak5,

win3, xaail turtle tau3 turtledove lok5 tu4 twelfth of the twelve Earthly Branches

tyrannical tsai6 J:,,r

u ugly tsaa5 umbrella ts:,.tJ6 uncastrated male mammals .tJBanl uncle ?aa6 xoil, ?aau6, ?:,n3, ye6 unclear (of vision) mau2, woi2 under k:Jr.,4, tai4 undergo ?aa.P,tuk5,xaam3 underneath tai4 undentand hu5, IE,r, p:,rf undo ke4, tse4 undress thot3, th:,t3 unexpectedly maa2 unit of dry measure pe4, sir.,4, tso2 unit of measure of length for cloth

hsm2 unit of weight thP univene ?aa6 kaa3, xo,r unload J:,i3, Jon4 unlucky ken6, tsen6 unoccupied haam2 unpack paak5, pit5 unreal phet5, tsaan2 unripe Jon2 unstable hurf haarf, IJuk5 IJaak5, wail,



twelve sipl S:JIJI twenty saau2 twenty-two saau2 s:,IJl twinkle phep5 twins ?el faal, ?el S:Jl)l, faal twist keu4, liul, mitl, tseu4 twisted Jiu2 two S:Jl)l two days after tomorrow J:,.tJ6 type meu2, sam3, tR5, yaarf, y:,IJ6

untamed hel untidy yum2, ywl untie ke4, tse4 upland field hai6 uproot saan2, tsaak5, tso5 urge hip5, Jet5, sat5, thip5, xen3 urgent kin2, tsin2 urinate yeu6 urine yeu6 urn ?erf, wirf us

Digitized by


hsu2 Original from




ti2, yu,I

use up k:,tl, mot3 used (second-hand) m:>IJ1 used to (to get) yaam4 useless l)uk5 l)aak5 utter paaJc3, waa6 uwla Jin5 kai3

V vacant pau3 vacate thin5

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