A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index 9780700703555, 9780700714551

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A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index
 9780700703555, 9780700714551

Table of contents :
Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Half Title
Original Title Page
Table of Contents
PREFACES
METHOD AND NOTES
INDEX OF CLASSIFICATION BY STROKES
LIST OF THE CHINESE RADICALS
CHINESE CHARACTERS WITH RADICALS NOT EASILY IDENTIFIED
CORRIGENDA
A DICTIONARY OF CHINESE BUDDHIST TERMS, ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF STROKES : CHINESE—SANSKRIT—ENGLISH
INDEXES
1. SANSKRIT AND PALI WITH PAGE AND COLUMN REFERENCE TO THE CHINESE
2. NON-SANSKRIT TERMS (TIBETAN, ETC.)

Citation preview

A DICTIO NARY OF CHINESE B U D D H IS T TERMS

This invaluable interpretive tool, first published in 1937, is now available for the first time in a paperback edition specially aimed at students of Chinese Buddhism. Those who have endeavoured to read Chinese texts apart from the apprehension of a Sanskrit background have generally made a fallacious interpretation, for the Buddhist canon is basically a translation, or analogous to translation. In consequence, a large number of terms existing are employed approximately to connote imported ideas, as the Chinese translators understood those ideas. Various translators invented different terms; and, even when the same term was finally adopted, its connotation varied, sometimes widely, from the Chinese term of phrase as normally used by the Chinese. For instance, klesa undoubtedly has a meaning in Sanskrit similar to that of, i.e. affliction, distress, trouble. In Buddhism affliction (or, as it may be understood from Chinese, the afflicters, distressers, troublers) means passions and illusions; and consequently fan-nao in Buddhist phraseology has acquired this technical connotation of the passions and illusions. Many terms of a similar character are noted in the body of this work. Consequent partly on this use of ordinary terms, even a well-educated Chinese without a knowledge of the technical equivalents finds himself unable to understand their implications.

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A DICTIONARY OF CHINESE BUDDHIST TERMS

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A DICTIONARY OF

CHINESE BUDDHIST TERMS WITH

SANSKRIT

AND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS

AND A SANSKRIT'PALI INDEX

COMPILED BY

WILLIAM EDWARD SOOTHILL M.A.

Ox o n , H o n.

M.A.

Ca n t a b .

late Professor of Chinese Language and Literature, Oxford University

AND

LEWIS HODOUS Professor of the Philosophy of Religion, Hartford Seminary Foundation, Hartford, Conn.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

P r e f a c e s .............................................................................................................................................................v ii Method a n d N otes

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

x iii

I n d e x o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y S t r o k e s ......................................................................................... x i v L i s t o f t h e C h i n e s e R a d i c a l s ........................................................................................................x v C h i n e s e Ch a r a c t e r s w i t h R a d i c a l s n o t e a s i l y I d e n t i f i e d

.

.

.

x v ii

C o r r i g e n d a ........................................................................................................................................................... x ix

A D ic t io n a r y o f C h in e s e B u d d h is t T erm s, a r r a n g e d a c c o r d in g t o t h e n u m b er of

S t r o k e s : Ch i n e s e — S a n s k r i t —E n g l i s h

.

.

.

.

1

I n d e x e s :—

1.

S a n s k r it

and

P a li w ith

page

and

c o lu m n

referen ce

to

th e

493

C h i n e s e .......................................................................................................................

2.

N o n - S a n s k r it T er m s (T ib e ta n , e t c .)

............................................................. 509

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PROFESSOR SOOTHILL’S PREFACE S compilers of the first Dictionary of Chinese Mahayana Terms, we are far from considering our attempt as final. Our desire has been to provide a key for the student with which to unlock a closed door. If it serves to reveal the riches of the great Buddhist thesaurus in China, we will gladly leave to others the correction and perfecting of our instrument. It was Dr. E. J. Eitel, of the London Missionary Society, who over sixty years ago, in 1870, provided the first means in English of studying Chinese Buddhist texts by his Handbook for the Student of Chinese Buddhism. It has been of great service; but it did not deal with Chinese Buddhist terminology in general. In form it was Sanskrit-Chinese-English, and the second edition unhappily omitted the Chinese-Sanskrit Index which was essential for the student reading the Chinese Sutras.1

A

Lacking a dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms, it was small wonder that the translation of Chinese texts has made little progress, important though these are to the understanding of Mahayana Buddhism, especially in its Far Eastern development. Two main difficulties present themselves : first of all, the special and peculiar use of numerous ordinary Chinese terms ; and, secondly, the large number of transliterated phrases. In regard to the first difficulty, those who have endeavoured to read Chinese texts apart from the apprehension of a Sanskrit background have generally made a fallacious interpretation, for the Buddhist canon is basically translation, or analogous to translation. In consequence, a large number of terms existing are employed approximately to connote imported ideas, as the various Chinese translators understood those ideas. Various translators invented different terms ; and, even when the same term was finally adopted, its connotation varied, sometimes widely, from the Chinese term or phrase as normally used by the Chinese. For instance, klesa undoubtedly has a meaning in Sanskrit similar to that of tig, i.e. affliction, distress, trouble. In Buddhism affliction (or, as it may be understood from Chinese, the afflicters, distressers, troublers) means the passions and illusions; and consequently fan-nao in Buddhist phraseology has acquired this technical connotation of the passions and illusions. Many terms of a similar character will be noted in the body of this work. Consequent partly on this use of ordinary terms, even a well-educated Chinese without a knowledge of the technical equivalents finds himself unable to understand their implications. 1 A reprint of the second edition, incorporating a Chinese Index, was published in Japan in 1904, but is very scarce.

viii

PROFESSOR

SOOTHILL’S

PREFACE

A difficulty equally serious is the transliteration of Sanskrit, a difficulty rendered far greater by the varied versions of many translators. Take, for instance, the word “ Buddha ” and its transliteration as {ft; flfc PE; # |J£, gj, ffc, P£, # PE, $1 f k> and so on. The pages of the Chinese canon are peppered with such transliterations as these from the Sanskrit, in regrettable variety. The position resembles that of Chinese terminology in Modern Science, which was often trans­ literation twenty or thirty years ago, when I drew the attention of the Board of Education in Peking to the need of a regulated terminology for Science. Similarly, in pages devoid of capitals, quotation-marks, or punctuation, transliterated Sanskritinto-Chinese may well seem to the uninitiated, whether Chinese or foreign, to be ordinary phrases out of which no meaning can be drawn. Convinced, therefore, that until an adequate dictionary was in existence, the study of Far Eastern Buddhist texts could make little progress amongst foreign students in China, I began the formation of such a work. In 1921 I discovered in Bodley’s Library, Oxford, an excellent version of the M P £ i l M F a n I M ing I Chi, i.e. Translation of Terms and Meanings, composed by & M Fa-yiin, circa the tenth century a . d . At the head of each entry in the volume I examined, some one, I know not whom, had written the Sanskrit equivalent in Sanskrit letters. These terms were at once added to my own card index. Unhappily the writer had desisted from his charitable work at the end of the third volume, and the remaining seven volumes I had laboriously to decipher with the aid of Stanislas Julien’s Methode pour dechiffrer et transcrire les noms sanscrits qui se rencontrent dans les livres chinois, 1861, and various dictionaries, notably that of Monier Williams. Not then possessed of the first edition of E itel’s Handbook, I also perforce made an index of the whole of his book. Later there came to my knowledge the admirable work of the Japanese EB 1# Oda Tokuno in his t5: iz SI A ; and also the Chinese version based upon it of T M Ting Fu-pao, called the ^ jz in sixteen volum es; also the {& f / J ' | in one volume. Apart from these, it would have been difficult for Dr. Hodous and myself to have collaborated in the production of this work. Other dictionaries and vocabularies have since appeared, not least the first three fascicules of the Hobogirin, the Japanese-Sanskrit-French Dictionary of Buddhism. When my work had made considerable progress, Dr. Y. Y. Tsu called upon me and in the course of conversation mentioned that Dr. Hodous, of Hartford Theological Seminary, Connecticut, U.S.A., who had spent many years in South China and studied its religions, was also engaged on a Buddhist Dictionary. After some delay and correspondence, an arrangement was made by which the work was divided between us, the final editing and publishing being allotted to me. Lack of time and funds has prevented our studying the Canon, especially historically, or engaging a staff of competent Chinese Buddhist scholars to study it for the purpose. We are consequently all too well aware that the Dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be.

PROFESSOR

SOOTHILL’S

PREFACE

ix

Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Chinese Buddhism as early as possible by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until our ideals are satisfied—a condition which might never be attained. We therefore issue this Compendium—for it is in reality more than a Dictionary— in the hope that many will be stimulated to devote time to a subject which presents so fascinating a study in the development of religion. My colleague and collaborator, Dr. Hodous, took an invaluable share in the draft of this work, and since its completion has carefully read over the whole of the typed pages. It may, therefore, be considered as the common work of both of us, for which we accept a common responsibility. It seemed scarcely possible for two men living outside China, separated by 2,000 miles of ocean, and with different mentalities and forms of expression, to work together to a successful conclusion. The risky experiment was hesitatingly undertaken on both sides, but we have been altogether happy in our mutual relations. To Dr. F. W. Thomas, Boden Professor of Sanskrit, Oxford University, I am deeply indebted for his great kindness in checking the Sanskrit terminology. He is in no way responsible for the translation from the Chinese; but his comments have led to certain corrections, and his help in the revision of the proper spelling of the Sanskrit words has been of very great importance. In the midst of a busy life, he has spared time, at much sacrifice, to consider the Sanskrit phrases throughout the entire work, except certain additional words that have since come to my notice. As an outstanding authority, not only on the Sanskrit language, but on Tibetan Buddhism and the Tibetan language, his aid has been doubly welcome. Similarly, Dr. Hodous wishes specially to thank his colleague at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., Dr. LeRoy Carr Barret, for the generous assistance he rendered in revising the Sanskrit terms in his section of our joint work, and for his well-considered and acceptable comments and suggestions. Dr. Lionel Giles, Keeper of the Department of Oriental Printed Books and MSS., British Museum, illustrious son of an illustrious parent, has also our special appreciation, for he magnanimously undertook to read the proofs. He brings his own ripe scholarship and experienced judgment to this long labour; and the value and precision of the Dictionary will undoubtedly be enhanced through his accurate and friendly supervision. N ext, we would most gratefully acknowledge the gift of Mrs. Paul de Witt Twinem, of Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.A. She has subscribed a sum of money which has made the publication of our work possible. To this must be added further aid in a very welcome subvention from the Prize Publication Fund of the Royal Asiatic Society. Such a practical expression of encouragement by fellow-orientalists is a matter of particular gratification.

PROFESSOR

X

SOOTHILL’S

PREFACE

Our thanks are due to Mr. Zu-liang Yih M ^ f£, who with accuracy, zeal, and faithfulness has written the large number of Chinese characters needed. To the Hon. Mrs. Wood I am grateful for help in the exacting task of transcribing. As to my daughter, Lady Hosie, I have no words to express my personal indebtedness to her. W ithout her loving and unflagging aid as amanuensis, I should have been unable to finish m y part in this work, which—so the authors hope—will once again demonstrate the implicit and universal need of the human spirit for religion, and its aspirations towards the Light that “ lighteth every man that cometh into the world ”. W. E. S O O T H IL L . Oxford, England, 1934.

PROFESSOR HODOUS’S PREFACE FTER the Dictionary went to press, Professor Soothill died. The work on the Dictionary, however, was completed. For ten years we worked together, he at Oxford and I at Hartford, and the manuscript crossed the Atlantic four times. During his semester in New York as Visiting Professor in Columbia University and on my brief visit to Oxford, we had opportunity to consult together on some outstanding problems. The work of organizing the material and harmonizing the differences was done by Professor Soothill. He was well equipped to undertake the task of producing a Buddhist Dictionary, having a thorough knowledge of the Chinese language. His Pocket Chinese Dictionary is still in use. He knew Chinese culture and religion. He possessed a keen sense for the significant and a rare ability to translate abstruse terms into terse English. But even more valuable was his profound insight into and deep sym pathy with the religious life and thought of another people.

A

The text and the indexes were again finally revised during his last long illness by Lady Hosie under his supervision. He was able also to appreciate the kind collaboration of Dr. Lionel Giles on the earlier proof-sheets. But his death meant a vastly increased amount of work for Dr. Giles who, on the other side of the Atlantic from myself, has had to assume a responsibility quite unexpected by himself and by us. For two to three years, with unfailing courtesy and patience, he has considered and corrected the very trying pages of the proofs, while the Dictionary was being printed. He gave chivalrously of his long knowledge both of Buddhism and of the Chinese literary characters. H e adds yet another laurel to the cause of Chinese learning and research. And in the same way Professor F. W. Thomas bore the brunt of the Sanskrit proof-reading. We have indeed been fortunate to have had our work checked in extenso by such exacting scholars. To Sir E. Denison Ross, who kindly looked over the proofs, and added certain welcome corrections, our thanks are due. Also we would wish to acknowledge the help of Mr. L. M. Chefdeville, who, putting his experience of various Oriental languages at our disposal, made many helpful suggestions, especially as regards the Indexes. Nor do we forget the fidelity and careful work of the printers, Messrs. Stephen Austin and Sons, who collaborated with us in every way in our desire to produce a volume a little worthy of its notable subject. Our object is well expressed by my late colleague. The difficulties in the production of the book were not small. Buddhism has a long history. Its concepts were impregnated b y different cultures, and expressed in different languages. For about a thousand years

xii

PROFESSOR

HODOUS’S PREFACE

Buddhism dominated the thought of China, and her first-rate minds were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. For a period it lagged ; but to-day is in a different position from what it was a generation ago. Buddhism is no longer a decadent religion and in certain countries it is making considerable progress. It is therefore to be hoped that this Dictionary will help to interpret Chinese culture both through the ages and to-day. L e w is

Hartford, Connecticut, 1937.

H o do us.

METHOD AND NOTES 1. The rule adopted has been to arrange the terms, first, by strokes, then by radicals, i.e. :— (a) B y the number of strokes in the initial character of a term ; then, (b) According to its radical. Thus M will be found under seven strokes and under the { radical; & under eight strokes and the / radical; under thirteen strokes and the radical. A page index is provided showing where changes in the number of strokes occur. 2. A list of difficult characters is provided. 3. An index of the Sanskrit terms is given with references to the Chinese text. 4. A limited number of abbreviations have been used, which are self-evident, e.g. tr. for translation, translator, etc. ; translit. for transliteration, transliterate, etc. ; abbrev. for abbreviation; intp. for interpreted or interpretation; u.f. for used for. “ Eitel ” refers to Dr. Eitel’s Handbook of Chinese Buddhism ; “ M.W.” to Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English D ictionary; “ Keith ” to Professor A. Berriedale Keith’s Buddhist P hilosophy; “ Getty ” to Miss Alice Getty’s The Cods of Northern Buddhism ; B.D. to the ffc -fc 4ft ; B.N. to Bunyiu Nanjio’s Catalogue. 5. Where characters are followed by others in brackets, they are used alone or in combination ; e.g. in -p # (IE the term -f* # may be used alone or in full + # IE 6. In the text a few variations occur in the romanization of Sanskrit and other non-Chinese words. These have been corrected in the Sanskrit index, which should be taken as giving the correct forms. In this Dictionary it was not possible to follow the principle of inserting hyphens between the members of Sanskrit compound words.

INDEX OF CLASSIFICATION BY STROKES No. o f Strokes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Page

1 10 54 103 164 199 223 248 295 320 341 367 395 420 430

No. of Strokes

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 I 25 1 26 27 28 29 33

Page

446 455 464 470 476 483 486 487 489 490 491

LIST OF RADICALS O n e Stro k e 1.

30.

1

31.

>

32.

2. 3. 4. 5.

J

33.

L

34.

59

J

35.

S trokes

36.

_*

37.

7. 8. 9.

A

>> 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

i )

38. 39.

16. 17. 18 .

l

41.

A n

42.

A

1 9. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 55

27. 28. 29.

55



(— * X j i

43. 55

44. 45.

u 46. J ]

II 55

u 55

3 48. t

49. c

50.

u

51.

+ b

V a r

A

X

55

59.

± t ± X

60.

61.

52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57.

55

X

t

£ 64. 'J

X

/J > 4

p

X 1

%

7r /u

ft

JL r~i r

tit ^t ~

67. 68. 69.

71. 72.

«< n

74.

8

75.

X

76.

a r ft

73.

77. 78.

X

55

£

79.

r

i_

ft X

80. 81.

t X f t

ft

84.

90.

92. 93.

55

F iv e

X X %

%

H 0 n

A A ik X

*

It

95. 96. 55

98. 99. 100. 101.

A

A

£ X s JR K 1 t ft .

18

102.

ffl

103.

/E

10 4 .

r

105.

7 *

10 6 .

108. 109. 55

ft

X

*

10 7 . #

ft

Stro kes

97.

82. 83.

89.

X

70.

lU iv t jn

55

88.

94.

X

55

J fi

91.

55

65.

A jm

87.

'£ >

4*

63.

55

4

55

A

?

86.

£

55

62.

* 5J«

55

X 9

85.

3 a

F our Strokes

66.

47. 55

58.

p

40.

55

15.

Stro kes

55

Zu

6. Two

T hree

— *

110.

111.

B X

IL 0 X A

c m

LIST OF RADICALS 112. 113. 5? 55

114.

5

135.

TIT n i ft

136. 137. 138. 139.

115.

140.

116.

59

%

55

117.

141. S ix

S trokes

118.

f*t* A

142. 143.

55

119. 120. 121. 55

122. 55 55

* & ft

$ w 'ft t m

144.

55

146. 55 Seven

147.

p w il

148.

123.

¥ 30 *

149.

125. jj

126. 127.

m *

151. 152. 153. 154.

129.



156.

130.

ft

157.

55 55

B J?

164 165 166 E ig h t

167 168 55

169 170 55

S trokes

JL

173 55

ft A M H A 5 ('■)

175 N in e

fi a * If a #

¥b. Ml 0 It JR HI

181 182 183

55

*

186

m

Te n

187

162.

L

Strokes

177

180

188

191. 192.

194.

f if #

S trokes

H #

A

E lev en Strokes

195. 196. 197. 198. 199.

201. 202.

204. T h ir t e e n

205. 206. 207. 208.

ZEEX

ft

1^1 n

193.

203.

* ffi

179

190.

Tw elve

tB efaf?

176

178

189.

200.

174

185

55

Strokes

172

158.

132.

& 15(E) m % M

171

* rm tflf

159.

161.

134.

163

184

131.

a s 0

163.

&

160.

133.

m * iL tr

150.

155.

128.

£

145.

55

124.

ft X ft A £ jW

M. A

iS

M M m

Strokes

*

A m S tro kes

iili 4H m a #

F our teen Stro kes

209. 210. F if t e e n

Strokes

211. S ix t e e n

212. 213. S eventeen

214.

Strokes

tl

ft Strokes

CHARACTERS WITH RADICALS NOT EASILY IDENTIFIED ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF STROKES St r o k e s

R a d ic a l

4.

5.

RADICAL

St r o k e s

1

10a

b

$

% T

5

20a

6.

^

6

20a

\

4

80b

£

5

80b

ft ft

7

81a

16

81a

29

82a

1

103a

ft

3

112a

ft 2

7

112a

7

112a

¥ 1L E

10

143a

45

148b

49

148b

1

164a

2. ^

3.

PAGE

X ^

7

112a

ft

1

164a

ft

1

164a

4

165b

17

* a * * * M rtf ¥ * A ¥

21

166b 168a

25

168b

28

168b

37

184b

37

184b

48

186a

50

186a

51

187b

57

187b

102

197b

102

197b

ft % 4k Tfc # Ft M ft ft 7■ % M V) m m % # 8- f t s $ ffi m &

PAGE

102

197b

8

199a

8

199b

10

201b

10

201b

11

202b

12

202b

13

203a

24

203a

26

203a

51

212b

85

241b

10

230a

10

230a

18

251a

26

233a

30

233b

57

236b

80

241a

6

248a

7

249a

7

249a

11

250a

17

250b

36

253b

ft

38

253b

& m M * w m

64

260a

72

262a

75

263b

115

276a

130

278a

130

278a

RADICAL

Str o k es

PAGE

8 M 9. H * ft # m n ft B a n 10. ^ * M * ft fit

145

280a

13

297a

ft £ ft

w M ft m m m * » « $

R a d ic a l

St ro k es

12.

ft

P age

72

374a

m a m a m

75

376b

87

383b

103

383b

136

387a

140

387a 390a 392b

24

297b

38

299b

50

300b

52

301a

64

302b

ft

143

73

304a

166

99

308b

114

311a

130

311b

4

320a

« it M ft m ft m * a m w ft

33

422a

36

422b

12

322a

14

322b

35

323a

115

335a

130

336b

5

341a

32

345a

13.

14.

5

395a

19

395b

19

396a

30

396a

73

402b

75

403a

75

402b

128

410a

30

421b

32

345a

ft

62

424a

50

349a

ft

68

424a

73

352b

73

352b

93

358b

95

359b

102

361a

122

362b

19

367b

24

368a

30

368a

32

369b

67

374a

ft ft n

15.

ft ft * m & s

73

424a

89

425b

103

425b

134

428a

136

428a

140

428a

196

430b

55

432a

61

432b

61

432b

61

433a

xviii

RADICALS NOT EASILY

Str o k es

15.

R a d ic a l

P age

64

434b

72

438b

184

446a

202

St r o k e s

154

451a

ft m

213

455b

122

461b

446a

m

134

467a

39

446b

m

154

463a

s

77

448a

m

157

463a

m

134

449b

m

171

463b

i t

140

449b

m

210

464b

* m % 16.

16.

R a d ic a l P a o e

m

#

17.

IDENTIFIED

Str o k es

18.

19.

20.

R a d ic a l P a g e

St r o k e s

*

29

464a

»

77

465a

m

134

467a

21.

m

64

471a

22.

m

97

471b

m

160

474b

23.

m

30

476a

24.

m

117

478b

29.

R a d ic a l P a g e

165

481b

m

187

483b

m

116

484a

m

30

486a

61

478b

m

149

488a

M

197 489b

m

192

20.

m

491a

CORRIGENDA p. lb , 1. 15. Place comma after 0 . p. 3a, last line. Add ft after j&. p. 3b, 1. 2. For H 2$ read ^ H. p. 3b, 1. 30. Add & after $£. p. 4b, 1. 15. For Shinron read Shinran. p. 52a, 1. 29. Before $] insert —. p. 95b, 1. 20. For Kele-yin iikin tegri read Kele-yin ukin tegri. p. 106a, 1.11. For Abrahamacarya-veramam read Abrahamararyad vairamani. p. 194b, 1. 6. Add before Mp. 216a, 1. 40. 6 strokes, reappears p. 241b, 7 strokes, p. 251a, 1. 8. %], 7 strokes, in 8 by error, p. 260a, last line. For #r read #f. p. 267b, 1. 25. D harm a; (1) thing, object, appearance ; (2) characteristic, attribute, predicate; (3) the substantial bearer of the transcendent substratum of the simple element of conscious life ; (4) element of conscious life ; (5) nirvana, i.e. dharma par excellence ; (6) the absolute, the truly rea l; (7) the teaching, the religion of Buddha. p. 363a, 1.10. H , 12 strokes, in 11 by error, p. 402a, 1.13. Transpose # and p. 446a, 1.33. 6iJ, 15 strokes, in 16 by error, p. 456b, 1. 3 from bottom. For M read p. 467a, 1. 8. ^ , 1 7 strokes, in 18 by error.

NOTE p. 15b, 1. 34. Char. 75, sometimes counted 3 strokes, to be found in 2 strokes, p. 363a, 1. 16. Char. sometimes counted 12 strokes, to be found in 11 strokes.

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A DICTIONARY OF CHINESE-BUDDHIST TERMS 1.

ONE STROKE

—* Eka. One, unity, monad, once, the sam e; immediately on (seeing, hearing, etc.). — — One by one, each, every one, severally.

‘ A . ^ J®L A I S J t One man’s untruth is propagated by a myriad men as t r u th ; famae mendacia.

* / \ Sixteen “ feet ” form, or image, said to be the height of the Buddha’s body, or “ trans­ formation ” b o d y ; v. 3^ 7^ ^

- . f t A human lifetime ; especially the lifetime of &akyamuni on earth. | | H Wt The three sections, divisions, or periods of Buddha’s teaching in his life­ time, known as ^ f r , i.e. the 0 jgfc, £pf and Wt % sutras ; ]£ & f r , i.e. $£ g and # ^ m su tra s; and ii. i.e. the H ; they are known as introductory, main discourse, and final application. There are other definitions, j | 3£ & The five periods of Buddha’s teachings, as stated by Chih-i Kg of the T‘ien-t‘ai School. The five are I p Jgc, p»f j|£! ^ ^ HI, the last two being the final period. | | ^ The whole of the Buddha’s teaching from his enlightenment to his nirvana, including Hlnayana and Mahayana teaching.

*' H i Ekagra, aikagrya. Undeflected con­ centration, meditation on one object; v. — H Bfc. ‘

A hall of spread ta b le s; idem — |§f.

* pj* r}* o ne being recognized as “ mean ” then all is of “ the mean ” ; the three aspects of reality, noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya, are identical in essence; v. jfc: 5.

* ‘ * Ekayana, One Yana, the One Yana, the vehicle of one-ness. —* fjfc The one Buddha-Yana. The One Vehicle, i.e. Mahayana, which contains the final or complete law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hlnayana. Mahayanists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirvana. I t is especially the doctrine of Jke & 0 M Lotus S u tra ; v. ^ | | The pearl of the One Yana, i.e. The Lotus Scripture. I I DO in* The T‘ien-t‘ai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehicle; v. ^ ta 7^ . I | The one-vehicle family or sect, especially the T‘ien-t‘ai or Lotus School. | | (p*J) The onevehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Sutra. | | ft f t « The One Vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus Sutra. | | ; I I tP (or 3SC) Another name for the Lotus Sfitra, so called becauhe it declares the one way of salvation, the perfect Mahayana. | | # one-vehicle enlightenment. I | [email protected] j|j( One of th$ five divisions made b y g Kuei-feng of the Hoa-yen 0 or Avatamsaka School; v. 3£ AShingon term for Amitabha. ^ “ture life in the Amitabha Pure Land.

| \ £.

* U ) 'fjDl idem — j«j ^

.

A Buddha-cosmos; a world undergoing transformation by a Buddha. j j fffe The Mahayana, or one-Buddha vehicle, especially the teaching of the Lotus Sutra. | | (PH) ih 5 idem j | ifi: Jf- A Buddha-domain; or a oneBuddha region; also the Pure Land. j | £ fjfc One Buddha or many Buddhas, i.e. some Hlnayana Schools say only one Buddha exists in the same aeon; Mahayana says m any Buddhas appear in the same aeon in many worlds. | | -p A Buddha’s Pure Land, especially th at of Amitabha. — & (1 6 3 ) Sakrdagamin. Only one more return to m ortality, v. and 0 |pJ. | | ^ v. pg H The A particle, the very least. ■—* Three honoured ones in one light or halo—Amitabha, Avalokite^vara, and Mahasthamaprapta ; o t &akyamuni, Bhaisajya the fg§ 3E and _p his younger brother.

* An atom of dust on a hare’s down (sasorna). A measure, the 22,588,608,000th part of a yojana. * The first anniversary of a death; any such anniversary; also —■ Jifj |. * 7 3 —‘ | a In carving an image of Buddha, a t each cut thrice to pay homage to the Triratna. — | 1 and — ^ indicate a similar rule for the painter and the writer. * H e A school founded by % An-hui, teaching jfr ^ fg; that cognition is sub­ jective. * ^ H§[ A one-tenth bodhisattva, or disciple ; one who keeps one-tenth of the command­ ments. * 'jTJ * 'fcjj or mental-

Sarva. All, the whole ; H , * iQ*

A-

That all things are mind,

honoured of all the world-honoured; Vairocana; v. g!.

The most a title of

A

— V) 4 1 # The most honoured among men, especially Vairocana; v. Jg. * i7 ) f P Trikona. The sign on a Buddha’s breast, especially that on Vairocana’s ; the sign of the Buddha-m ind; it is a triangle of flame pointing downwards to indicate power over all tem ptations; it is also — £P the sign of omniscience. The assembly of all the Buddhas, a term for the two mandalas, or circles; v. JflL and 4k W i-e. the Garbhadhatu and the Vajradhatu.

ty] BP —

^

* j&P all the Buddhas. ‘

j&P

V.

- BP-

Sarvatathagata, all Tathagatas,

The highest of the 108

degrees of samadhi practised by bodhisattvas, also called Sunyasamadhi, i.e. of the great void, or immateriality, and ^ RiJ H ^ Vajrasamadhi, Diamond samadhi. A samadhi on the idea that all things are of the (same) Buddhanature. — ^ to & % The talismanic pearl of all Buddhas, especially one in the Garbhadhatu mandala who holds a lotus in his left hand and the talismanic pearl in his right. — -9J t o E to The sign of the assurance of attaining Buddhahood. — m to & m t o A sign of the wisdom of all buddhas, a triangle on a lotus in the Garbha­ dhatu group.

-j

- 9 ) t o 2 f c B & ' f e , t o i JH M

H

A Vairocana-samadhi, in which the light of the Tathagata-eye streams forth radiance. Vairocana by reason of this samadhi is accredited with delivering the “ true w ord” which sums up all the principles and practices of the masters.

A lotus-samadhi of Vairocana from which Amitabha was born. I t is a Tathagata meditation, th at the fundamental nature of all existence is pure like the lotus. * 17) $ P PPJ g f §& The original oath of every Tathagata, when as with the roar of a lion he declares that all creatures shall become as himself. * 't j j i l ? Sarvajna; v. gg|, i.e. Buddhawisdom, perfect knowledge, omniscience. | | | fife The state or place of such wisdom. | | | Its thesaurus; Buddha. | | | ^ or ^ Buddha. I I I M or Its vehicle (Mahayana), which carries men to the | | | flfe. | ! | Sarvajnata, omniscience, or the state or coniiticn of such wisdom. | | |@ The 59th chapter of the ^ pSf ^ $M. | | |I? The wisdom of all wisdom, Buddha’s wisdom, including bodhi, perfect enlightenment and purity ; ^ great pity (for m ortals); and tact or skill in teaching according to receptivity. | | |•isj The state or abode of all wisdom, i.e. of Buddha; I 1.1^5 g £ « ^ £ * Sarvajnadeva, the deva (i.e. Buddha) of universal

wisdom. | I | v. g .

| | | ifo The Buddha-wisdom mind. The all-wise one, a title of Vairocana;

—* 'fit H ^ The one who completely fills all the “ four realms ” (dharmadhatu), a doctrine of the Ijj! School. m m Sarvabhava. All things or beings ; tr. of the name of Visvabhu; v. Jg,. | | ; | I ife All sentient beings. | | | 2^ The Mulasarvastivadah, a branch of the Sarvastivadin sect, which asserted the reality of things. | | '£f All phenomena, the phenom enal; all th at is produced by causative action ; everything th at is dynamic and not static. | | | p|S The realistic School, Sarvastivadah, a branch of the Vaibhasika, claiming Rahula as founder, asserting the reality of all phenomena: k — -ej 3R; m m & 2 5 ; m m M & j & m #6 — %] fjf S £|L If divided, and the following seven schools are recorded, but the list is doubtful:—Mulasarvastivadah — -$J ^ $]J. Kasyapiyah 3® H ® $£> also known as Suvarsakah m m & m ® ; m m m m and

#

M Wt

Dharmaguptah ; fcfc p|L Mahisasakah or Mahl£asikah 0

M

p& ; &

all have the Buddha-nature and must ultimately become enlightened, i.e. — £ JM & This is the doctrine of developed Mahayana, or Universalism, as opposed to the limited salvation of Hlnayana and of undeveloped M ahayana; m * m — if there be any who hear the dharma, not one will fail to become Buddha. | | | g: ^ The sects which maintain the unreality of all things; v. + * ^J] J | l j g All the “ true word ” rulers, shown in the Garbhadhatu and Vajradhatu groups. I | | | ^ A monastery wholly Hlnayana. I IA t? A monastery wholly Mahayana. | | A confirmatory reply to a question, e.g. Do not all die? All die. * Bfc v. — es. One, or the same flavour, kind or character, i.e. the Buddha’s teaching. —■ IJjc Completely, exhaustively, e.g. as water can be poured from one bottle to another without loss, so should be a master’s pouring of the Law into the minds of his disciples. chapter, or

PO ( I S ) Varga division (of a sutra).

-| U S R| and |

Anniversary of a

d e a th ;

also

" A spit or a puff, i.e. as futile as thinking that a man could puff out a burning world and blow it again into complete existence, or could with a spit or a puff put it out. *

A call, shout, deafening shout.

m A four-character line of a or verse. | | 5^ A world of four great continents surrounding a Mt. Sumeru. 0

‘ 0 A cause; the cause from which the Buddha-law arises.

s The one ground; the same ground; the Buddha-nature of all living beings, i.e. as all the plants grow out of the one ground, so all good character and works grow from the one Buddha-nature. * f c One meal a day taken before noon and without rising from the s e a t; it is the 5th of the 12 dhutas. —* One region, realm, order, or category. | | H IS The three axioms in the one category; the three are fg, and 4*, which exist in every universe; v. H IS* I t is a principle of the T‘ien-t‘ai m #• I I ra * Four different ways of looking at the same thing. Similar to — tK IS i.e. one and the same reality though seen from different aspects. — * JH A grain of dust, an atom, a particle. | I The whole in an atom, a universe in a grain of dust, one grain of dust is a microcosm of the universal whole. * A kalpa during which a human lifetime increases from ten years to 80,000 years and then decreases back to ten. At the end of the first century the increase is to 11 years ; at the end of the second century to 12 years, and so on till a lifetime lasts 80,000 years ; then decrease follows in the same ratio till 10 is reached. The whole period of accretion and declension covers a small kalpa, i.e. 16,800,000 y ears; also called 4* £JJ. m m The setting up of altars before the Vajradhatu and Garbhadhatu manglalas, each erected and worshipped separately ; also | ® J.

* ^ The great house, i.e. the burning house (of the world) in the Lotus Sutra ; also ^ | | Ifl The one great salvation vehicle of the Lotus Sutra, the Mahayana. | | ^ The one great work of a Buddha, universal enlightenment and release; also a life, or lifetime. * The one Ju, i.e. the bhutatathata, or absolute, as the norm and essence of life. The IgC. true suchness, or true character, or reality; the ^ nature of things or beings. The whole of things as they are, or seem ; a .cosmos ; a species ; things of the same order. Name of a celebrated monk, I-ju. V. — ifil; — f f . [ | fg One of the 33 representations of Kuan-yin, ascending on the clouds. | | @ ^ Immediate experiential en­ lightenment by the Tathagata tr u th ; the immediate realization that all is #n bhutatathata. * One w ord; a magic or esoteric word. I | H Three homages at every word one copies of the sutras. | | j$C ^ The “ Single-word Manjusri ” , the magic word is jHf p|gg ; or gg Pf? ; or Pfc HH ®c> an^ i® use^ to avoid difficult parturition and to heal arrow-wounds. The image used is of a youthful smiling Manjusri, wearing the felicitous pearl, with one tress on his head, hence also called — | | | | jjgg A cryptic single-word reply to a question, requiring meditation for its apprehension ; it is a Ch'an or Zen method. | | (® ) The one word goldenwheel magical method (Shingon), the one word is B hrum ; also | | |( ft M * A monasterial family party, i.e. when a monk, on becoming head of a monastery, invites its inmates to a feast.

- X The summer retreat in India of 90 days, from the 16th of the 4th moon to the 15th of the 7 th ; v. M -

* -gpt- I-ning, a monk who went to Japan in 1299 ; v. — [If.

* Z H ~'F‘ j i F A great chiliocosmos or universe of the three kinds of thousands of worlds. The three are termed —• ; 4* 5 j z ~f “* A great chiliocosmos is also termed H 41 j z Ifr ^ q.v. Each world consists of its central mountain Sumeru, surrounded by four continents, its seas being surrounded by a girdle or wall of iron ; 1,000 such worlds make a small chiliocosmos ; 1,000 of these make a medium chiliocosmos ; 1,000 of these make a great chiliocosmos, or 1,000,000,000 worlds. Later Buddhists increased this number to a figure with 4,456,489 digits. I t is a Buddha-universe.

* The one reality; the b h u tatath ata; idem — #n, — M- 1 1 ^ The one method of salvation, the — f f School. ( | ® fpi The Tathagata’s perfect vehicle, i.e. th at of the Lotus Scripture. I I (H 7R The one real and perfect school, i.e. the T‘ien-t‘ai or Lotus School. I I M The state or realm of —■ f f ; the realization of the spirituality of all things ; it is the fyn Zfe M the Tathagatadharmakaya. J | 40 The state of bhutatathata, above all differentiation, im m utable; it implies the Buddha-nature, or the immateriality and unity of all things; m ^ £ m m - m m , m m & m

; it is undivided unity apart from all phe­ nomena. | | ^ 40 The one reality being indivisible is apart from all transient (or empty) forms, and is there­ fore styled the formless, e.g. the invisible. ‘—* ^ The one precious thing, the spirit, or intelligent n a tu re ; the intelligent mind (behind all things). — * / J '' A small kalpa ; a period of the growth and decay of a universe. See —■*{§■ — and $}. — * i l l A h ill; a monastery ; I-shan, the name of a Chinese monk who voyaged to Japan in a . d . 1299 and who was also styled —• I-ning.

beyond the necessity of thinking, as in the case of a Buddha. | | H ^ I n one thought to survey or embrace the 3,000 worlds, or a chiliocosmos with all its forms of existence; to see the universe as a thought; it is a T‘ien-t‘ai mode of meditation. | | | j | At one thought the work completed ; karma complete in one thought. One repetition, or sincere thought of or faith in Amitabha’s vow, and entrance into the Pure Land is assured. | | In a moment’s thought to obtain a myriad years and no return to mortality. t t Monophysitic or “ pantheistic ” sects of Mahayana, which assert th at all beings have one and the same nature with Buddha.

An appearance, a lifetime, the period of an individual existence, also — $fj and —■ £

* A breath, i.e. inspiration-cum-expiration ; a rest, or cessation. | | ^ half a step at a breathing on arising from meditation.

* •f'fc One passage, or time, once ; on one super­ ficial going.

- * 1fi ( f f l W ) . A” o” e sands of one Ganges river.

* VyL M k A particle of d u s t; an atom, the smallest particle, a microcosm of the universe. —* W ith the whole mind or h e a r t; one mind or h e a rt; also the bhutatathata, or the whole of things ; the universe as one mind, or a spiritual unity. | | 35$ ig W ith undivided mind to call on the name (of Kuan-yin). | | H $ ; I^J ^ The T‘ien-t‘ai “ three doubts ” in the mind of a bodhisattva, producing fear of illusion, confusion through multiplicity of duties, and ignorance, i.e. Jji, J®; J|£ and ^ W q-v. | | H I? One mind and three aspects of knowledge. The J5*J ffc separates the three aspects into SjC, (g, and rfj q .v .; T‘ient ‘ai unifies them into one immediate vision, or regards the three as aspects of the one mind. | | H The above T‘ien-t‘ai insight; also simultaneous vision of past, present, and future ; also called (U H IS 5 * t* b m = m i i & m m. n ; n m n The infrangible-diamond rules of all bodhisattvas and Buddhas, a term of the T‘ien-t‘ai School, founded on the & j$l IS& A ksana, or thought; a concentration of mind ; a m om ent; the time of a thought, of which there are varying measurements from 60 ksana upwards ; the Fan-i-ming-i makes it one ksana. A reading. A repetition (especially of Amitabha’s name). The Pure-land sect identify the thought of Buddha with Amitabha’s vow, hence it is an assurance of salvation. | | ^ ^ Not a thought arising;

, i.e. as the

—* * ^J) The Hua-yen doctrine th at the law of the universal runs through the phenomenal, therefore a speck of dust is a micro­ cosmos; also that with the Tathagata’s enlighten­ ment all beings were enlightened in h im ; in the perfection of one all are perfected ; one deed in­ cludes all. Adherence to one Buddha and one sutra. * A sudden remark, or question, by a monk or master to test a disciple, a Ch‘an (Zen) method. The one finger-tip contempla­ tion used by a certain monk to bring to another a conception of the universe. Also a parable in the $if 'dm Lankavatara-sutra. The Ch‘an or Zen sect ^ regard the sutras merely as indicators, i.e. pointing fingers, their real object being only attained through personal meditation. '—* fffij A ball (or handful) of food ; one helping; a frugal meal, the sixth of the 12 dhutas ; also called and —. * Q A sun, or day from sunrise to sunset. I I —• Ahoratra. One day one night, a day and night, a division of time. | | H B# The three

divisions of a day, morning, noon, evening. | J A one-day Buddha, i.e. he who lives a whole day purely. | | A sutra copied in one day (perhaps by many hands); also styled igf

- 7 k m & The same water may be viewed in four ways—-devas see it as bejewelled land, men as water, hungry ghosts as pus and blood, fish as a place to live in. Of. — (2)

—* 0 0 Ming (i.e. bright, clear, illuminating) is the Shingon word for a dharanl, or magical form ula; especially applied to magical acts.

* A dharma, or law ; an ordered something, a thing, a matter. | J JEJ] The seal or assurance of the one tru th or law, see — jm and — *§$ ; the criterion of Mahayana doctrine, th at all is bhutata­ thata, as contrasted with the Hlnayana criteria of impermanence, non-personality, and nirvana. J \ %} The one-law abode, i.e. the sum of the 29 particular or states of perfection in the Pure-land 6astra of Yasubandhu. I I # The bhutatathata considered in terms of mind and as a whole ; a law-realm ; a spiritual realm ; a universe. | | J A mind universal, above limitations of existence or differentiation.

Ekasmin samaye (P a li: ekam samayam); “ on one occasion,” part of the usual opening phrase of a sutra—“ Thus have I heard, once,” etc. A period, e.g. a session of expounding a sutra. * l=f A com pany; monks in a monastery.

a general assembly of

* The one moon represents Buddha, the three boats represent varying ways of viewing him, e.g. according as those in an anchored boat and those in two others sailing in opposite directions see different aspects of the moon, so is it in regard to the Buddha. | | & The allegorical trikaya or three bodies of the moon, i.e. its form as f t J h its light as ^ its reflection as Jg ; the Buddha-truth has also its body, its light of wisdom and its application or use but all three are one, or a trin ity ; see Trikaya, H ‘ 80

A date, fixed time ; a lifetime.

The one ultimate, or finality ; ultimate enlightenment; the one final tru th or w ay ; the — or Absolute. A karm a; a H @ karma-cause, causa­ tive of the next form of existence. * 1/9q * TPS The is subjective ; the is objective, e.g. smoke is the objective phenomenon, fire the subjective inference. ^ The unity or continuity in the un­ broken processes of nature ; all nature, all being is but one continuous process.

A floating bubble (on the ocean), a m an’s life, or body. In one, or the same flow; of the same class. One burning of incense; a candle, or lamp. * The one way without barrier, i.e. the end of reincarnations in nirvana ; a medita­ tion on it. —* ''f* JlIP A Ch‘an sect idea—not a thing to bring or carry away, empty-handed, i.e.

£ All one’s life, a whole lifetime. | | ^ 3JE Life-long innocence—especially sexual. | I A A T‘ien-t‘ai doctrine th at Buddha-enlightenment can be attained by any in one lifetime, i.e. the present itfe. i i m m m m ^ — £ m n m mI I ^ 3^ In this one life to accomplish the three stages for final e n tr y ; it is associated with the 20th vow of A m itabha; cf. H ^ jfe* I I Eka-jati-prati-baddha; a name for Maitreya, who is to be the next Buddha in this world. Another definition is—from one enlightenment to attain to Buddhahood. J j | | 3jf jH $L A 30armed image of Maitreya.

To kill one th at many may live. A hair’s t i p ; the smallest division (of apace or time).

—* Unity-cum-differentiation; monism and pluralism ; one and many ; ekatva-anyatva, oneness and otherness.

|—| —-*L One announcement, or r, and three responses, or promises of per­ formance (karm an); it is the mode of ordaining monks, three responses to the one call of the abbot. Also & m m » ‘ 1=3 §ata. A hundred. | | A 5 f f A Asta£atam. The 108 klesa, distresses, disturbing passions, or illusions 0 of mankind, hence the 108 beads on a rosary, repetitions of the Buddha’s name, strokes of a bell, etc., one for each distress. Also, one of the Maharajas, with 108 hands, each holding a different implement. a g m Itivrttaka ; stories of the lives of saints, part of the canon ; also | 0 | |. Laksana. One aspect, form, or side; ekatva, unity as contrasted with diversity; m onism ; the bhutatathata ; the one mind in all things ; cf. — J$. | | — The term — ^0 is defined as the common mind in all beings, or the universal mind ; the — is the Buddha’s Mahayana teaching; the former is symbolized by the land, the latter by the rain fertilizing it. | | ^ A state of samadhi in which are repressed hate and love, accepting and rejecting, etc., and in which the mind reaches an undivided state, being anchored in calm and quiet. | | The wisdom th a t all is bhutatathata and a unity. I I F1] The unitary or monistic method is interpreted in more than a dozen w ay s; in general it means to reach a stage beyond differentiation where all is seen as a unity. | | 3® One-ness means none-ness ; in ultimate unity, or the unity of the absolute, there is no diversity. —* The whole of reality, the universe, the all, idem % jm \ cf. —• fa , — bhutatathata. | | fijj The state of meditation on the absolute. I I I f The dharma realm of the one reality, i.e. of the bhutatathata, complete in a speck of dust as in a universe ; such is the dharmakaya, or spiritual body of all Buddhas, eternal, above terms of being, undefinable, neither immanent nor transcendent, yet the one reality, though beyond thought. I t is the fundamental doctrine of the # $1 The ^ ^ is m m m & & & g & m % m « ft *

and th at underneath, entered a hollow in a floating lo g ; the log, tossed by the waves, happened to roll over, whereupon the turtle momentarily saw the sun and m oon; an illustration of the rareness of the appearance of a B uddha; also of the difficulty of being reborn as a man. -yfc A bald-pated “ vehicle ”—an unpro­ ductive monk or disciple. 4^

All is empty, or of the void, non-material.

Equal, all equal; of the first stage ; grade, rank. * IfE —", jjjfl Three salutations at each (use of the) pen, on painting a picture of the Buddha, or copying a scripture ; cf. — JJ H *j|. I I (f&) “ Crossed out ” with a stroke of the pen ; expunged ; forgiven. m k Four snakes in one basket, i.e. the four passions in one b o d y ; cf. pg 'sic R'J

An arrow’s flight, two li.

' * * flay t£ A thread, a butt ” ; the dragon which snatched a thread of a monk’s robe and was consequently protected from a dangerous b ird ; the ox which butted a monk’s robe and became a monk at its next transm igration; e.g. the virtue of the robe. * I p f A film on the eye ; a hindrance to en­ lightenment. * / j f |; * The end of the monastic year at the summer re tre a t; a monastic y e a r; also called ^ | or M ’ the religious year ; cf. — J [ . A colour, the same colour; the sam e; especially a thing, or a form, v. riipa -£» ; minute, trifling, an atom. | | — M W Wi An atom or an odour is a complete microcosm of the 4* middle way or golden m ean; the Mean is found in all things.

see H |K & M 4. | | M % The - * j £ f t one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is effortless, just as it is J| ffe self-existing.

* j|pL A blade of grass—may represent the Buddha, as does his image ; it is a Buddha-centre.

A sea turtle with only one eye,

A leaf; a palm-leaf or page of a sutra.

| gg

| # ^ ne on a lotus leaf.

^ ^orms

Kuan-yin, standing

—* The Lotus-flower of the Pure-land of Amitabha, idem jg g . | | £ # The certainty of being born in the Pure-land. | | £ One lotus bearing all the living, i.e. the Pure-land of Amitabha. ■ —* A liksa, a nit, the 131,712,000th part of a yojana, seven times the smallest atom. — fr One act (of body, mouth, or m ind); holding to one course ; devoted. I-hsing, a . d . 672717, a celebrated monk whose secular name was 51 Chang Sui, posthumous title ^ «£ fig gjfi ; he was versed in mathematics and astronomy, a reformer of the Chinese calendar, and author of several works. | | —• -fcJJ In one act to do all other a c ts ; the act which includes all other acts, e.g. the first step ; the one discipline which embraces all discipline; the fourth degree of a samadhi. I | H H H H i A samadhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the same ; the fff ffr says all Buddhas and all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind on Buddha. —* ^ 'fill A Ekasrnga r s i; also $j§ | | | The unicorn rsi, an ascetic born of a deer; ensnared by a woman, he lost his power, and became a minister of s ta te ; he is one of the previous incarnations of &akyamuni.

4ftpSj myrobolan.

Harltakl. A fruit of the yellow Also |Spf (or gnp i$j JfL.

w ti HP Ekavyavaharika ^ jg Inf ^lj M or (Pali) Ekabyohara §1 |5f $$ One of the 20 Hlnayana schools, a nominalistic school, which considered things as nominal, i.e. names without any underlying re a lity ; also styled j^§IS ^ ^ th at things are but * ifff The doctrine of fundamental u n ity ; an abbrev. for —■ | f the Madhyamika funda­ mental doctrine ; also, generally, in the sense of an axiom, or fundamental truth ; there are varying definitions of the one fundamental truth. ffpC One sense or perception; the one individual intelligence or soul which uses the various

3 , likened to a monkey which climbs in and out of the various windows of a house—a Satyasiddhi and Sautrantika doctrine. Also, a Vairocana manclala. | | ^j. j | Followers of the above heretical view.

SSL A turning word ; a fateful word. * ynfl Once, one recital of Buddha’s name, or of a sutra, or magic formula ; style of jjf Chihchen, founder of the ^ Ji-shu (Japan). ‘ jif f One way, the one w ay ; the way o f deliverance from mortality, the Mahayana. I-tao, a learned monk of the Pure-land sect. | | The |Sf “ A ” school (Shingon) which takes A as the alpha (and even omega) of all wisdom; the way by which all escape mortality. | | ^ Mind apart from all ideas of activity or inactivity. Also styled, or explained, by H — if fjf £n If § 14 i t - in $ ^ The third of the ten mental resting places of the esoteric school. I I # i t Inner lig h t; intuitive wisdom. * The one door out of mortality into Nirvana, i.e. the Pure-land door. | | The one door is the all-door ; by entering the one door all doors of the faith are opened.

fftj

* Ekavlcika M M M- Wc 'M Still one final stage of m ortality before nirvana. Also wrongly styled Bljaka j |. I& $0, a seed —• fjf which leads to one more reincarnation. | | The holy ones who have only one interval, or stage of mortality before nirvana. * Pp] ( j$ 0 ) Icchantika. Also — M i$5> m m m One without desire for Buddhaenlightenment; an unbeliever ; shameless, an enemy of the good; full of desires; H ^ one who has cut off his roots of goodness ; it is applied also to a bodhisattva who has made a vow not to become a Buddha until all beings are saved. This is called A § d J I the icchantika of great mercy. m

* Of the same realm or boundary, i.e. the world and nirvana are one. — f f i A rain, i.e. a lesson from the Buddha, or his teaching, see Lotus V. * ^3 The one-sound teaching, i.e. the totality of the Buddha’s doctrine ; a school founded by Kumarajiva and Bodhiruci.

— e m % The one vow, i.e. the 18th of the 48 vows of Amitabha, on which his sect is estab­ lished.



M ‘

i f e idem -

M « &•

A meal a day, one of the twelve dhutas.

* fa Though externally differing, in nature the sam e; the fundamental unity of the universe. — fit Heaven, earth, and myself have the same r o o t; all things are one corpus with me. | | H ^ The trinity of # IS Mahesvara (Siva), $JS $1 8§ Narayana (Visnu), and ^ Brahma. One being in three manifestations. I I H # In the one body of the Sangha is the whole Triratna, Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. Also, Mind, Buddha, and the living, these three are without differentiation, * f t f t M & M: — M H f t . 1-e. are all one. | | M S tS: lift In one’s own body to have the Trikaya

2. " tj

"fci The period of forty-nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day. | | The seventh seventh day of the masses for the dead. | | ^ Masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times. During this period the deceased is in the antarabhava or intermediate state, known as ^ and at the end of forty-nine days, judgment having been made, he enters upon his next state. By observing the proper rites, his family may aid him in overcoming his perils and attaining to a happy destiny. - \ j. 3 t i t , also -fc

b b

Rl i

* l § f A topknot. | | $c The one top­ knot Manjusri; there are other representations with 5 and 8 ; cf. — & £ | | M i t The female raksah styled “ Single top-knot ” , wife of a great raksah who dwells by a great ocean; on scenting blood, she can fly to it in a night 80,000 yojanas. | | | | J f | The four-handed, dark-blue raksah with the flame of fire coming out of his head, a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhatu manflala. * A hempseed and a grain of rice a day, the scanty diet to which Sakyamuni reduced himself before his enlightenment. * * « One demon a myriad arrows, i.e. to listen to one Mara-temptation opens the way for a myriad Mara-arrows.

TWO STROKES

Sapta, seven.

birth, old age, happiness (for effect 0 $ ) .

of the self-natured Buddha, i.e. by personal surrender to the Buddha. | | ^ ^ A samadhi in which instantaneous powers are acquired.

The seven unavoidables—re, death, punishment (for sin), consequences (cause and

The seven appurtenances of a monk—the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or fly-brush), stool (nisidana), paper, and material for washing.

Sapta Buddha. The seven ancient Buddhas, viz. Vipasyin j3 , Sikh in J3 §f§, Yisvabhu M & Krakucchanda Kanakamuni or Kaiyapa M , and ramuni M M- The last four are said to be of the | | 1|| ®ji The seven healing Buddhas, also | 3E> of whom there are two descriptions, one representing them as a t various places in the eastern regions of space ; another gives five in the east and two in the south.

The seven messengers, agents, or klesas— desire ; anger, or hate gj| ^ ; attachment, ; pride, or arrogance ' g ; or clinging f t ignorance, or unenlightenment fifl ; false views Jg,; and doubt |j£.

b ffl ^

v.

m % «•

b m m 3 n # Saptakotibuddha matr. The fabulous mother of seven kotis of B uddhas; i.e. Marlci also 2f| $§ Cundi, or C unda; or m « m 9 Cundi-Kuanyin, q.v., who is repre­

sented as of whitish colour, with eighteen hands and three eyes. (^ t or |£ ) The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces; the Uttarasanga, v. $ff. L i t A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven m onks: 5?. ffl. B® invoker; m m lead er; BR 0jji intoner, or leader of the chanting; ifc ?£ B® flower-scatterer; H B® master of sacred words, or S anskrit; gjp shaker of the rings on the m etal staff, or crozier; distributor of missals, etc. Another division is H 6® expounder; fg &® read er; % M 6®; H IS f>® director of the three ceremonies ; Djl B® ; B® ; and ^ M - | I & # An assembly of a monasterial fraternity. | | ^ A “ western ” term meaning an endowment for a complete monastic fraternity of seven monks. - f c A f r A; ^ f i noble paths.

The practice of the seven bodhyanga and the A JE M eight marga or

Xi

idem ^

t/P

\ s

(1) Material g ?£ Rupani, 11. (2) Mind Cittam, 1. (3) Mental qualities ,jj. ^ Cittasamprayuktasamskarah, 46. (4) Non-mental & 40 0 & Cittaviprayuktasamskarah, 14. These are the seventy-two Sarvastivadin divisions (v. Keith, B.I., p. 201). (5) In addition there are three un­ conditioned or non-phenomenal elements £ $$ Asamskrta dharma, 3 (v. Keith, p. 160). The seven excellences claimed for the Buddha’s teaching—good in its timing or season­ ableness, tH meaning, §§• expression, m m unique­ ness, Xg. completeness, pure adaptability, and $£ its noble objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups. " ti

The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra.

fya The seven defilements—desire ;gfc, false views doubt |£ , pride -{§, arrogance f{§, torpor |§g 0g, and fig stinginess; cf. $£. - \j, (!?□£) Ananda’s seven dreams, and the account of them.

jj

- \j |j ^ ^ The seven surpassing qualities of a B uddha; v. also M £ _h ; they are his body, or person, his universal law, wisdom, per­ fection, destination (nirvana), ineffable truth, and deliverance. Saptati, seventy. | | ^ H The “ Diamond world ” mandala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy-three honoured ones. The seventy-two devas, namely, sixty-nine devas, the lord of T ‘ai Shan, the god of the five roads, and j z ^ Mahairi. \ \ \ Brahma obtained seventy-two words with which to save the world, but failing he swallowed seventy, leaving one a t each side of his mouth (5$ and flg, i.e. £ and /|=f things are, things are not, being and non-being. | | | The age, 72, at which Buddha is reputed to have preached the Lotus Sutra.

"fcj X Earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), sight, and perception J&, 7JC, IS ; cf- * , 5 ± and 7^ ± and 7^ ± and ^ m L to Sapta Tathagatah. The seven Tathagatas whose names are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar (Jfc #n f f $£) in some Buddhist temples. one list is m m re , # m ffi 3E, m # , m ms m , & M , m m f f i m m M a n d % B - Another list gives Amitabha, Kan-lu-wang, $§ g, Miao-se-shen, Pao-sheng (Ratnasambhava) and £ ^ (Prabhutaratna). The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially care for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the IK, & and #)

Pancasaptati; 75. -b + 5 . & The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharma Kosa, which classifies all phenomena under seventy-five categories or elements, divided into five groups; cf. 3 l 3l ^

~\j, 7K The seven Japanese sects of # Ritsu (or Risshu), $3 Hosso, H Sanron, | j | Kegon, ^ a Tendai, £ f f Shingon, and |f[ Zen.

-fe *

ratna m *

& M to

The

seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are varying descriptions, e.g. 4k suvarna, gold; rupya, silv er; Jgj 3$ vaidurya, lapis lazuli; ^ sphatika, cry stal; musaragalva, agate ; ifc rohita-muUa, rubies or red pearls; S§ Jg asmagarbha, cornelian. Also the seven royal (cakravartin) treasures—the golden wheel; elephants ; dark swift horses ; the divine pearl, or beautiful pearls; able ministers of the Treasury; jewels of women ; and loyal generals. | | The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things—a part of the “ Pure-land ” , or Paradise. "b

®

The seven atoms composing an anu Eitel’s definition is seven atoms of dust, but the definition is doubtful. This molecule is larger than an “ atom ” , and according to the Sarvastivada it is the smallest visible particle. I t is also a division of a yojana. -b I ? - The seven realms of vijnana, or perception, produced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, to which is added thought, #£ q.v.

B

fit The seven emotions: pleasure, anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, desire. ® The seven pretensions or arrogances— ^ asserting superiority over inferiors and equality with equals, j g | superiority over equals and equality with superiors, | | superiority over manifest superiors, ^ [ egotism or overweening pride, | vaunting assertion of possessing the Truth, i|L | vaunting one’s inferiority (or false humility), and | vaunting lack of virtue for virtue.

robbing, adultery; p 0 lying, slander, abuse, double-tongue (or vain conversation). These are the first seven of the ten evils -f* M- I I & IS A method of invocation in which only seven kinds of signs and magical words are required. I t is explained in the | | | | |5jg f t part of the Vairocana sutra. | | H The karma resulting from the above seven sins.

b a? m m (1) The seven “ expedient ” or temporary attainments or positions of Hlnayana, superseded in Mahayana by the -U H ((4) or A: M f f ( f f l all preparatory to the -U lg ({4). (2) The seven vehicles, i.e. those of ordinary human beings, of devas, of sravakas, of pratyekabuddhas, and of the three bodhisattvas of the three teachings §& jj| and Jgl], (3) Also, & Z iM W i - a , i t ifc £ m m g h a , m & and III ffc £ — ^ i b (2) and (3) are T‘ien-t‘ai groups. - \j.

Ursa major ; it is worshipped in Japan as Hi nF M q-v. Wonderful Sight Bodhisattva who protects this world. -b

4?

Siddham, idem ^

||.

" t j Bfi The seven brilliant ones—the sun and moon, together with the five planets which are connected with fire, water, wood, metal, and earth. Their essence shines in the sky, but their spirits are over men as judges of their good and evil, and as rulers over good and evil fortune. The following table shows their names in

Chinese Sanskrit Sun 0 , * % Aditya |5nJ Jg ]jp t S I f i f f i Saptamatr. The seven “ divine mothers, or personified energies of the principal Moon f t , ± Soma 0 deities ” ; they are associated “ with the worshipMars of Angaraka & M JL # the god Siva ” , and attend on “ his son Skanda or Mercury Tfc | , 1 1 Budha Pb Karttikeya, to whom at first only seven Matrs were Jupiter MM Brhaspati P i Inf §£ S8£ JS assigned, but in the later mythology an innumerable Venus ^ |, i : Sukra M B number, who are sometimes represented as having Saturn ± | , g { I Sanaiscara 75 B ^ f t fg displaced the original divine mothers ” M.W. Their names are given as (1) Camunda jg or -b The seven perfections, see P$[ gjfc Ifr 9 £ fl!J ^ ; (2) Gaurl ^ PJ|; (3) Vaisnavi PJi g 55: f t ill Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature ^ Wc! (4) Kaumarl W| ; (5) IndranI, AindrI, f& Ik I I Perfect reliance on, or holding fast to or Mahendri =jnji ^ fij or fip ^ PM ; (6) Raudri the great bodhi (or, awakened mind). | ^ ® ; and (7) Yarahi X P® ; cf. Perfect resultant aim—in pity for all. iff |j | j -t: Perfect in constant performance. *5 | | Perfect in able device (for spiritual presentation). $jj| (pQ | Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. fpf jff | The seven (spreading) branches—three Perfect purity and peace. sins of the body and four of speech, H killing,

■b

L IT ; ^ The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any ^ desire-world. Also (1 ) in the hells, (2) as animals, (3) hungry ghosts, (4) gods, (5) men, (6) karma |jj|, and (7) in the inter­ mediate stage.

L # IS IB

M

The seven grounds for a happy karma through benevolence to the needy— almsgiving to visitors, to travellers, to the sick, to their nurses, gifts of gardens and groves to monas­ teries, etc., regular provision of food for them, and seasonable clothing and food for their occupants. -b P A snake whose bite brings death before seven steps can be taken. -b M -fc t t ** The seven divine mothers, also styled the seven sisters; v. ^ |§| Jg jg.. -b

I!

/E

The seven vinaya, v.

^ §§f

for judgm ent; Ift 2S itfe I | Trnastaraka-v., i.e. covering the mud with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an elder to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute. -b

I1

"b

M

-t: m m "b

The seven (unavoidable) things, v.

"b The seven riches, or seven ways of becoming rich in the Law : fg faith, jgj zeal, moral restraint, jfff ^ shame, gfl obedient hearing (of the Law), ^ abnegation, and wisdom arising from meditation. -b

'7 ? a p

see - t m

-b i i s Saptadhikarana - samatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from four causes : from argum ents; from discovery of mis­ conduct ; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance. The seven rules a r e : — Jg, 19 M IS Sammukhavinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal to the law ; I t ^ | | Smrti-v., witness or proof; $ii I I Amudha-v., irresponsibility, e.g. lunacy; if IT | | Tatsvabhavaisiya-v., voluntary confession; ^ | | Pratijnakaraka-v., decision by majority vote ; IP M I I Yadbhuyasiklya-v., condemnation of unconfessed sin by the £3 JZ3 or jnapticaturthin method, i.e. to make a statem ent and ask thrice

3 ® idem - t M M ± -

_h

idem -fc

-b 4

ft.

idem

'b it 1

The 700 disciples who met in the second synod at Vaisall; also | ] $£

-b M in

The seven aspects of the bhutatathata, v. ^ ^n. One list is gfc f f | |, I f ||, pt

m

je n

-b f&Seven forms of punishment for monks, v.

v. -b i .

1 1

1 |.

£

*

m ,

m

if

1 1,

m w

i

i> ^ d

cf. m m & s.

- b je a The seven knowings — to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, moderation, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individuals.

-b IB.

0 jg

The seven founders of the (1) Hua-yen or Kegon School, whose names are given as if Asvaghosa, fg ft} Nagarjuna, 0 (i.e. f t M ), m ft m, m m ^ ® ; (2) of the Ch‘an or Zen School, i.e. m or ® Jg | | Bodhidharm a; £ pf, f f *£ f§, & B , M $ and # W (or # # ) ; (3) of the jfi ± Ching-t‘u (Jodo) or Pure-land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, ^ fg or ifr fg Vasubandhu, § fc , & , # Ig, M f t and M S (°r f t $&)> whose teaching is contained in the ^ jjg ^ I t

The seven kinds of uncleanness, derived from the parental seed, parental intercourse, the womb, the pre-natal blood of the mother, birth, one’s own flesh, one’s own putrid corpse. | | Tfc $£ The seven kinds of almsgiving—to callers, travellers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, regular food (to monks), general alm s; v. ^ f, etc. | | f t $$ The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship : shame, a t not yet being free from mortality ; fear, of the pains of hell, etc. ; turning from the evil w orld; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to a ll; gratitude

to the B u d d h a; meditation on the unreality of the sin-nature, th a t sin arises from perversion and that it has no real existence. | | % Seven abandon­ ments or riddances—cherishing none and nothing, no relations with others, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of return. Another form is—cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger, etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above. | | $$ _k The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha :—his body with its thirty-two signs and eighty-four marks ; his way j|[ of universal m ercy; his perfect insight or doctrine jjj,; his wisdom ^ ; his supernatural power jjj$ j j ; his ability to overcome hindrances jfffr pfi, e.g. illusion, karma, and suffering; and his abiding place i.e. Nirvana. Cf. -b 0 | | *f£ Sapta-anitya. The seven impermanences, a nonBuddhist nihilistic doctrine discussed in the i&B M 4. The seven kinds of mortality, chiefly relating to bodhisattva incarna­ tion. | | jjjfl fifj} Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha, ranging from the merely external to the highest grade. | | g ^ The seven characteristics of a Buddha’s nature, v. g | | j|& v. j§ . | | The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen,' wool, or silk. | | fgBuddha’s seven modes of discourse: ® jg- from present cause to future effect; | from present effect to past cause; 0 ^ | inherent cause and effect; ^ | illustrative orfigurative ; ^ |g | spontaneous or parabolic; ifr ^ | ordinary or p opular; #u | unreserved, or as he really thought, e.g. as when he said th at all things have the Buddha-nature. | | $$ The seven rhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas :— direct and unimpeded ; acute and deep ; unlimited in scope ; irrefutable ; appropriate, or according to receptivity ; purposive or objective (i.e. nirvana); proving the universal supreme method of attainment, i.e. Mahayana. | | The seven kinds of food or ahara, sustenance :—sleep for eyes, sound for ears, fragrance for nose, taste for tongue, fine smooth things for the body, the Law for the mind, and freedom from laxness for nirvana.

" t j AV The seven unrealities orillusions, v. ig:. There are two lists: (1) fB J£, Q & I, f f |, m n \, — and | ; v. Lankavatara-sutra 1. (2) ^ |, a I, f t & I, * *1 # I, * f t |, # m I and « a # » I ; V. S a S 36.

"L i Karmavaca. punishments of a monk.

-L fg

The seven

"fcj 1^: v. -b jR | |. | | Saptadhana. The seven sacred graces, variously defined, e.g. fg faith, observance of the commandments, ^ hearing instruction, shame (for self), $f| shame (for others); Jg renunciation; and wisdom. I I J l v. -b # |§ # .

L

#

Saptabodhyanga, also | | | -b Seven characteristics of bodhi; the sixth of the b f f po in the thirty-seven categories of the bodhipaksika dharma, v. H "f* -b I I I- I t represents seven grades in bodhi, viz. (1) % & ^ % (or | | ^ % f t and so throughout), dharma-pravicaya-sambodhyanga, discrimination of the true and the false; (2) fit jf§ virya-sam., zeal, or undeflected progress ; (3) H prxti-s., joy, delight; (4) or prasrabdhi-s., riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so th a t they may be light, free, and at ease; (5) ^ smrti-s., power of remembering the various states passed through in contempla­ tion ; (6) % samadhi-s., power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted ; (7) f f or upeksas., or upeksaka, complete abandonment, auto hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-conscious or ecstatic mind.

-b f t

I f

#

b

%

m %

>\ j The seven flowers of enlightenment, idem -b nr M Another version is pure in the commandments, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana. - \j, ^ Jfjc The crag at Rajagrha on which the “ seven-leaf tree ” grew, in the cave beneath which the first “ synod ” is said to have been held after the Buddha’s death, to recall and determine his teaching.

L ®A#

The eight assemblies in seven different places, at which the sixty sections of the jH M. Avatamsaka Sutra are said to have been preached; the same sutra in eighty sections is accredited to the | | % | | zp fjjjg fg One of the thirty-two signs on the Buddha’s body—the perfection of feet, hands, shoulders, and head. " tj M The seven classes of disciples :—(1) £ bhiksu, m onk; (2) | J jg bhiksuni, a female observer of all the commandments; (3) ^ % |§f

jjVpa.mfl.nft, a novice, or observer of the six command­ ments ; ‘ (4) & m £ramanera, and (5) M gramanerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) ® |§| upasaka, male observers of the five commandments; and (7) f t f t f t upasika, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain a t home. T‘ien-t‘ai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. T‘ien-t‘ai also has a four-group. B £ M 7k The seven types who fall into the waters of this life—the first is drowned, the seventh is a Buddha ; the seven are icchantika, men and devas, ordinary believers, sravakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and B uddhas; also called

I I AB M The seven heretical views, v. S are » I, f t I. * I, K I. f t £ I, * S t I, and f t |. B

JS

f t or % , v. ^

m »

»■

b m % m The seven Sanskrit cases and nine conjugations. The former are also styled fg and d i $) subanta (or ; sometimes with the Vocative called A H ! • The % $) or tinanta ~ f ^ ^ are also styled ~ n%> i-enine parasmai and nine atmane. b m m ) The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins—shedding a Buddha’s blood, killing father, mother, monk, teacher, subverting or disrupting monks, killing an arhat. v. ^ f. ~b Concealing, or non-confession of, any one of the seven deadly sins for which it is also used. B I I t r in Paradise.

The seven avenues of gem trees

-b & Oj The seven concentric mountain ranges which surround Sumeru, the central mountain of a universe, each range separated from the others by a se a ; see % |Jj A Their names are it;, » «h. m * ( m * j l * s , i t m ( also known as

has eight. As high as eight tala (palmyra)

trees, very high.

A * (MS*)

The eight great naraka, or hot hells : (1) sanjiva ^ fg hell of rebirth into (2) kalasutra H $§, i.e. the hell of black cords or chains ; (3) sanghata ^ in which all are squeezed into a mass between two mountains falling together; (4) raurava hell of crying and wailing; (5) maharaurava ^ H-j. hell of great crying; (6) tapana hell of burning ; (7) pratapana ^ hell of fierce h e a t; (8) avici ^ fa) unintermitted rebirth into its sufferings with no respite, v. SJjjfc and A m % m -

A * m =E

The eight diamond-kings, or bodhisattvas, in their representations as fierce guard­ ians of Yairocana ^ B 5 S'J ^ is represented as^HiBr; # ^ as * g g ;

1=1 m m m ; m as # g .

transportation, manifesting countless forms per­ manently in one and the same place, use of one physical organ in place of another, obtaining all things as if nothing, expounding a stanza through countless kalpas, ability to traverse the solid as space, v. fg H 23.

m

. $ as ^

a jz g & a

m # ; and $

m

The eight great powers of personality or sovereign independence, as one of the four qualities ^ |g£ ^ ^ of nirvana : powers of self-manifolding, infinite expansion, levitation and

The eight attendants on Pp g) $§ ]£ (cf. A i z m 3E)- They are g ft, g g , g g £ £ , fit « , *8 H , and

PL

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St The eight great spirit or sacred stupas erected at (1) Kapilavastu, Buddha’s birthplace; (2) Magadha, where he was first en­ lightened ; (3) the deer-park Benares, where he first preached ; (4) Jetavana, where he revealed his super­ natural powers ; (5) Kanyakubja (Kanauj), where he descended from Indra’s heavens ; (6) Rajagrha, where Devadatta was destroyed and the Sangha purified; (7) Yaisali, where he announced his speedy nirvana; (8) Kusinagara, where he entered nirvana. There is another slightly variant list.

A +

The eight leading characters of the Jg chapter in the Nirvana sutra ^ g, m m % m , the teaching of the sutra is death, or nirvana, as entry into joy. | | ^ The eight magic words to be placed on eight parts of the body. I I ^ The eight-word dharani, esoteric methods connected with Vairocana and Manju&i. A-

The eight devalokas, i.e. four dhyana

The A g m ®.

AThe eight degrees of fixed abstraction, i.e. the four dhyanas corresponding to the four divisions in the heavens of form, and the four degrees of absolute fixed abstraction on the or immaterial, corresponding to the arupadhatu, i.e. heavens of formlessness.

.A . >§ he. th at truth j|jr is obtained through absence of desire, contentment, aloneness, zeal, correct thinking, a fixed mind, wisdom, and inner joy. v. A & H -

A

or A f Eight of the early Japanese sects : {1 . Kusha, | f Jojitsu, Ritsu, Hosso, H tfo Sanron, fjfc Kegon, A -p Tendai, m ® Shingon. | | % £ ; A % % The above eight with the Zen jjjjji school added. The first four are almost or entirely extinct.

A A The eight cold and eight hot hells. a m m m m The eight cold narakas,

or hells: (1) £j| |5£ arbuda, tumours, blains ; (2) f t # PE nirarbuda, enlarged ditto.; $$, ^ bursting blains ; (3) |5nl. P t Pf* atata, chattering (teeth ); (4) fijj #£ hahava, or ababa, the only sound possible to frozen tongues; (5) Pg ^ ahaha, or hahava, ditto to frozen th ro a ts; (6) m & m utpala, blue lotus flower, the flesh being covered with sores resembling i t ; (7) $£ M. ^ padma, red lotus flower, d itto ; (8) f t p£ flj pundarika, the great lotus, ditto, v. fljj ^ and A A fife i t A

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Wem A K *■

A W

The eight teachers—murder, robbery, adultery, lying, drinking, age, sickness, and d e a th ; v. i i m -

A &

The eight ksanti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two realms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the tru th of the Four Axioms, [B3 $$ ; these four give rise to the jZ9 & i.e. fg, it & the endurance or patient pursuit th a t results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are called the pq jg.. By patient meditation the M ^ se or perplexed views will cease, and the A. eight kinds of jnana or gnosis be acquired; therefore ^§? results from and the sixteen, A A (or M)> are called the -J- A i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of jg, j|f;, when illusions or perplexities of view are de­ stroyed. Such is the teaching of the Pf£ §g|

are

fg, fc&, £

devalokas of the region of form, and four arupalokas ; m f t A and m £ & .

& and =g=, etc.

A ( or ’l i t ) ^ E Bashpa, Phagspa, Baghcheba, Blo-gros-rgyal-mtshan. A sramana of Tibet, teacher and confidential adviser of Kublai Khan, who appointed him head of the Buddhist church of Tibet a . d . 1260. He is the author of a manual of Buddhist terminology and translated another work into Chinese. In a . d . 1269 he constructed an alphabet for the Mongol language, “ adapted from the Tibetan and written vertically,” and a syllabary borrowed from Tibetan, known by the name of Hkhor-yig, for which, however, the Lama Chos-kyi-hod-zer 1307-1311 sub­ stituted another alphabet based on that of !§akyapandita.

A

The eight kinds of pride, mana, arrogance, or self-conceit, jua though inferior, to think one­ self equal to others (in religion); i§ to think oneself superior among manifest superiors ; ^ | to think oneself not so much inferior among manifest superiors ; iff _h | to think one has attained more than is the fact, or when it is not the f a c t; ^5 | self-superiority, or self-sufficiency; | pride in false views, or doings; f g | arrogance; A I ex' treme arrogance. A . The eight kinds of pride, or arrogance, resulting in domineering: because of strength; of clan, or name ; of wealth ; of independence, or position; of years, or age ; of cleverness, or wisdom ; of good or charitable deeds ; of good looks. Of these, eight birds are named as ty p e s: gj| j || two kinds of owl, eagle, vulture, crow, magpie, pigeon, wagtail. A 1% idem A 40 i t - I I At 0 The eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism. /A . G ilf) The first eight of the ten command­ ments, see ; not to k ill; not to take things not given ; no ignoble (i.e. sexual) conduct; not to speak

falsely; not to drink wine ; not to indulge in cos­ metics, personal adornments, dancing, or m usic; not to sleep on fine beds, but on a m at on the ground ; and not to eat out of regulation Lours, i.e. after noon. Another group divides the sixth into two—against cosmetics and adornments and against dancing and m usic; the first eight are then called the eight prohibitory commands and the last the or fasting commandment. Also | 7$ ;

| IM (or j£) X ; cf. A 8

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A t f c The eight T‘ien-t‘ai classifications of gakyamuni’s teaching, from the Avatamsaka to the Lotus and Nirvana sutras, divided into the two sections (1) ffc his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples ; (2) \ t pg ffc his four modes of instruction. (1) The four i t M are : (a) ~EL ^ The Tripitaka or Hinayana teaching, for sravakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive sunya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi sastra. (6) His later “ intermediate ” teaching which contained Hinayana and Mahayana doctrine for sravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhi­ sattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalaksana or Yogacarya and Madhyamika schools, (c) JglJ ^ His differentiated, or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahayana. (d) (J ffc His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvana sutras. (2) The four methods of instruction i t ^ are : (a) ijjff %'i Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 0 Jgj sutra. (b) Gradual or graded, e.g. the |5jiJ -ft and ^ sutras ; all the four i t are also included under this head­ ing. (c) Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly, (d) 0 | General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his inter­ pretation. /V Jl3c The eight commands given by the Buddha to his foster-mother, i.e. aunt, when she was admitted to the order, and which remain as commands to nuns : (1) even though a hundred years old a mm must pay respect to a monk, how­ ever young, and offer her seat to him ; (2) must never scold a m onk; (3) never accuse, or speak of his misdeeds; but a monk may speak of hers ; (4) a t his hands obtain reception into the order; (5) confess sin (sexual or other) before the assembly of monks and nuns ; (6) ask the fraternity for a monk as preceptor ; (7) never share the same summer resort with m onks; (8) after the summer retreat

she must report and ask for a responsible confessor. Also | | | 0 . pf M (or M) I # Jf v. pg # # 48. idem A iE j f ; also the eight sections of the A Sastra; also a term for the first eight commandments. A # ± T The four quarters, the four m half-quarters and above and below, i.e. the universe in all directions. | | ^ The eight heavens and devas at the eight points of the compass: E., the Indra, or Sakra heaven; S., the Yama heaven ; W., the Varuna, or water heaven ; N., the Vaisramana, or Pluto heaven; N.E., the Isana, or &iva heaven; S.E., the Homa, or fire heaven; S.W., the Nirrti, or Raksah heaven; N.W., the Vayu, or wind heaven. All these may be considered as devalokas or heavens. /V An Indian division of the day into eight “ hours ” , four for day and four for night.

A ^

The

m &^ and ^

; see A &•

/V The 0 Hua-yen sutra, as de­ livered at eight assemblies.

A

j f i idem A f t X X-

A jH i t m Aryamarga. The eight right or correct ways, the “ eightfold noble path ” for the arhat to nirvana; also styled A M An, A IE P'f, a

&f t , a m f t ,

a m m %,

am

ft,

A W. ft, A i: The eight a r e : (1) jRj|, Samyag-drsti, correct views in regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) IE JB Samyak-samkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) jR Samyag-vac, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) jR |j| Samyak-karmanta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) jR ^ Samyag-ajiva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) IR ft jf| Samyag-vyayama, correct zeal,or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvana. (7) jR ^ Samyak-smrti, correct remem­ brance, or memory, which retains the true and ex­ cludes the false. (8) jR %, Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or abstraction. The jR means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being Iffl or heterodox, and wrong. | | | jg£ Buddha-bhasita-astanga-samyan-marga-sutra. Tr. by

An Shih-kao of the Eastern Han. B.N. 659 ; being an earlier translation of the Samyuktagama $§ j5pj & imA 7 k Eight rivers of India—Ganges, Jumna, g l Jg ? Sarasvati, Hiranyavati or Ajiravati, J§| fpj ? Mahi, Indus, Oxus, and Slta. A- ^ The eight dharmas, things, or methods. There are three groups : (1) idem /V jg, q.v. (2) 0 f z and 0 Wc q.v. (3) The eight essential things, i.e. instruction, g | doctrine, ^ knowledge or wisdom attained, ||fff cutting away of delusion, f f practice of the religious life, progressive status, HJ pro­ ducing the fruit of saintliness. Of these \ f IfL are known as the pg

A /ft or A W. H The eight parajika, in relation to the sins of a n u n ; for the first four see pg | | | ; (5) libidinous contact with a m ale; (6) any sort of improper association (leading to adultery); (7) concealing the misbehaviour (of an equal, or inferior); (8) improper dealings with a monk.

A $ 1 v. a m A m A M m The eight conditions of no leisure or

time to hear a Buddha ot his truth, idem / \ fj|. I I m The eight universalized powers of the fjjlj six senses, ^ ^ the mind and the ^ dharmadhatu.

A W( fife ifc v. a * m it

A l l

The eight skandhas or sections of the Abhidharma, i.e. miscellaneous ; concerning bondage to the passions, e tc .; wisdom ; practice ; the four fundamentals, or elements; the roots, or organs; m editation; and views. The | | in thirty sec­ tions, attributed to Katyayana, is in the Abhidharma. / V E E “ E The eight sons of the last of the 20,000 shining Buddhas born before he left home to become a monk ; their names are given in the first chapter of the Lotus sutra. In Japan there are also eight sons of a Shinto deity, reincarnated as one of the six Kuan-yin. | | 0 The eight royal days, i.e. the solstices, the equinoxes, and the first day of each of the four seasons. A

d 3 f f , also A

t f i (or a ) idem | JE St.

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ffl also A fQ ypc Eight aspects of the Buddha’s life, which the ff| f£r gives a s : (1) descent into and abode in the Tusita heaven; (2) entry into his mother’s womb ; (3) abode there visibly preaching to the devas; (4) birth from mother’s side in Lum bini; (5) leaving home at 19 (or 25) as a herm it; (6) after six years’ suffering attaining enlightenment; (7) rolling the Law-wheel, or preaching; (8) at 80 entering nirvana. The E9 %L S i group of T‘ien-t‘ai is slightly different— descent from Tusita, entry into womb, birth, leaving home, subjection of Mara, attaining perfect wisdom, preaching, nirvana. See also the two JZ9 +0, i.e.

K

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A fj* i® idem A # itThe succession of the eight founders of the esoteric sect, j j| | f or Shingon, i.e. ± b , % m. n & m ^ jg Jg; and the Japanese % f£. A .

idem / \ $C-

Afa £

®

The eight happy conditions in which he may be reborn who keeps the five com­ mands and the ten good ways and bestows alm s: (1) rich and honourable among m en ; (2) in the heavens of the four deva kings ; (3) the Indra heavens; (4) Suyama heavens ; (5) Tusita heaven ; (6) ffc nirmanarati heaven, i.e. the fifth devaloka ; (7) fijj, ffc paranirmita-vasavartin, i.e. the sixth devaloka heaven; (8) the brahma-heavens. | | ffj The eight fields for cultivating blessedness : Buddhas ; arhats (or saints); preaching monks (upadhyaya); teachers (acarya); friars; fath er; m other; the sick. Buddhas, arhats, and friars (or monks in general) are termed H reverence-fields ; the sick are M EH compassion-fields; the rest are Eg, fg grace- or gratitude-fields. Another group is : to make roads and wells ; canals and bridges ; repair dangerous roads; be dutiful to parents; support m onks; tend the sick; save from disaster or dis­ tress ; provide for a quinquennial assembly. A nother: serving the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha ; the L aw ; the Order; parents; the monks as teachers ; the poor ; the sick ; animals.

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Differentiated rules of liberation for the eight orders—mon k s; n u n s; mendicants ; novices male ; and female ; disciples m ale; and female; and the laity who observe the first eight commandments. | | j$$ The eight kinds of surpassing things, i.e. those who keep the

first eight commandments receive the eight kinds of reward—they escape from falling into the hells ; becoming pretas ; or animals ; or asuras ; they will be born among men, become monks, and obtain the tr u th ; in the heavens of desire; in the brahmaheaven, or meet a B u ddha; and obtain perfect enlightenment. | | §$} The eight kinds of congee, or gruel, served by the citizens to the Buddha and his disciples when in retreat in the bamboo grove of K asI; they were of butter, or fats, or hempseed, milk, peas, beans, sesamum, or plain gruel. | | (^j) Eight causes of giving—convenience; fear; g ratitu d e; reward-seeking; traditional (or customary); hoping for heaven ; name and fame ; personal virtue. | | S 12 The eight kinds of pre­ diction—made known to self, not to others ; to others not to self; to self and others ; unknown to self or others; the near made known but the remote not ; the remote made known but not the intermediate steps; near and remote both made know n; near and remote both not made known. | | idem | ; also eight divisions of the -f* ^ q.v. I I fr? M Pleasant breezes from the eight direc­ tions of the compass.

a m

Eight things unclean to a monk : buying land for self, not for Buddha or the fraternity; ditto cultivating; ditto laying by or storing u p ; ditto keeping servants (or slaves); keeping animals (for slaughter); treasuring up gold, e tc .; ivory and ornaments ; utensils for private use. A

t ?

& W\ ® -?•

idem A *

/ V /f3c The eight rafts, idem A IE i t eightfold noble path.

The

a m

The eight entanglements, or evils : to be without shame ; without a blush ; envious ; mean ; unregretful; sleepy (or indolent) ; ambitious ; stupid (or depressed). A . 10* The pg [f»j and I I m % ) idem A IE A

S

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pg ^

of sravakas.

A f f 5 c The eight-arm deva ; an epithet of Brahma as Narayanadeva 2$ JjE ^ creator of men. (t

A g

The eight distresses—birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meeting with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas.

A A

#

K

i *

a

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idem A *

£

H An abbreviation for A M E9 (T1) The number of atoms in the human body is supposed to be 84,000. Hence the term is used for a number of things, often in the general sense of a great number. I t is also the age apex of life in each human world. There are the 84,000 stupas erected by ASoka, each to accommodate one of the 84,000 relics of the Buddha’s b o d y ; also the 84,000 forms of illumina­ tion shed by Amitabha ; the 84,000 excellent physical signs of a B uddha; the 84,000 mortal distresses, i.e. 84,000 jgj or 0 ; also the cure found in the 84,000 methods, i.e. ^ fg , f'L or M. P^- I I — An abbreviation for A H 0 ^ the 84,000 teachings or lessons credited to the Buddha for the cure of all sufferings, and the H w|S H 12 sutras in which they are contained. I I iH The bodhisattva’s 80,000 duties.

A m

The eight lotus-petals, a name for Su­ meru. | | ^ is the central court of the Up J§t Jfwith Vairocana as its central figure, also termed I I jH S or JH An esoteric name for the heart is the eight-petal fleshly heart, and being the seat of meditation it gives rise to the term eight-leaf lotus meditation.

A

f t The eight (wrong) perceptions or thoughts, i.e. desire; h a te ; vexation (with others); fg gg home-sickness; patriotism (or thoughts of the country’s welfare); dislike of d e a th ; ambition for one’s clan or fam ily; slighting or being rude to others. 0 13.

a mm

idem A ffl

idem i #

A 1 * t o The Amitabha eight pennons of various colours, indicating the eight directions of space.

Asta-vimoksa, moksa, vimukti, mukti. Liberation, deliverance, freedom, emancipa­ tion, escape, release—in eight forms ; also A f f and cf. |%and A W §- M- The eight are stages of mental concentration: (1 ) f t /faf -gj ff* fg f t m m Liberation, when subjective desire arises, by examination of the object, or of all things and realization of their filthiness. (2) |Aj ^ -g, fjs gg - ft Liberation, when no subjective desire

arises, by still meditating as above. These two are deliverance by meditation on impurity, the next on purity. (3) & % f t m A & & m L ^^tion by concentration on the pure to the realization of a permanent state of freedom from all desire. The above three “ correspond to 'the four Dhyanas (Eitel.) (4) Q 0* ffl Liberation in realiza­ tion of the infinity of space, or the immaterial. (5) 1$ iHk lit ffl Jift Liberation in realization of infinite knowledge. (6) i ^ H i Liberation in realization of nothingness, or nowhereness. (7) # § # ^ ^ ^ i Liberation in the state of mind where there is neither thought nor absence of thought. These four arise out of abstract meditation in regard to desire and form, ^ and are associated with the jg Jg 5^. (8) M Liberation by means of a state of mind in which there is final extinction, nirvana, of both sensation, vedana, and consciousness, samjna.

a m Eight physical sensations which hinder meditation in its early stages : restlessness, itching, buoyancy, heaviness, coldness, heat, roughness, smoothness, jE 8.

A

pflfl The eight 6astras ; there are three lists of eig h t; one non-Buddhist; one by $$§ H Asanga, founder of the Yoga School; a third by gjff Jina Dinnaga. Details are given in the ^ ^ ^ 4 and

J* * A

s® The eight truths, postulates, or judg­ ments of the 4® Dharmalaksana school, i.e. four common or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postulates on reality, considering the nominal as real, e.g. a p o t; (2) com­ mon doctrinal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four noble truths pg ; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the material. The second abstract or philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas ; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the 0 g§ ; (7) on the void, the im­ material, or reality ; and (8) on the pure inexpres­ sible ultimate or absolute. / V H it The eight parijnana, or kinds of cognition, perception, or consciousness. They are the five senses of caksur-vijnana, srotra-v., ghrana-v., jihva-v., and kaya-v., i.e. seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touch. The sixth is mano-vijnana, the mental sense, or intellect, v. ^ I t is defined as mentality, apprehension, or by some as will. The seventh is styled klista-mano-vijnana 5jc 3$ | discriminated from the last as M iH pondering, calculating; it

is the discriminating and constructive sense, more than the intellectually perceptive ; as infected by the alaya-v., or receiving “ seeds ” from it, it is con­ sidered as the cause of all egoism and individualizing, i.e. of men and things, therefore of all illusion arising from assuming the seeming as the real. The eighth is the alaya-vijnana, JJjif | which is the store­ house, or basis from which come all “ seeds ” of consciousness. The seventh is also defined as the adana |!jij |?£ | or “ laying hold of ” or “ holding on to ” consciousness. | | jfr 5E The eight funda­ mental powers of the | ] and J ) the eight powers functioning, or the concomitant sensations. I I f ! — The eight perceptions are fundamentally a unity, opposed by the Pf£ fjj| school with the doctrine | | JglJ th at they are fundamentally discrete.

a m Eight characteristics of a Buddha’s speak­ ing : never hectoring; never misleading or confused ; fearless ; never haughty ; perfect in meaning ; and in flavour; free from harshness; seasonable (or, suited to the occasion). a § n t Eight supernatural powers of trans­ formation, characteristics of every B uddha: (X) to shrink self or others, or the world and all things to an ato m ; (2) to enlarge ditto to fill all space ; (3) to make the same light as a feather; (4) to make the same any size or anywhere at w ill; (5) everywhere and in everything to be om nipotent; (6) to be any­ where at will, either by self-transportation, or bring­ ing the destination to himself, e tc .; (7) to shake all things (in the six, or eighteen ways); (8) to be one or many and at will pass through the solid* or through space, or through fire or water, or transform the four elements at will, e.g. turn earth into water. Also I M> « ; I g «• a

m

The eight (spoke) wheel, idem A IE I -

A

The eight grades, i.e. those who have attained the [?g |pjj and Eg JfL. /V The eight misleading terms, which form the basis of the logic of the 4 * i-ebirth, death, ^ past, future, — identity, J| difference, m annihilation, ^ perpetuity (or eternity). The H ^ regard these as unreal; v. A 'F* ‘I* ill-

A A M (£

idem A IE Stor ^

or 4f ) idem A IE Jt*

A

bH

A H ffr term for A ^

*1 q.v.

denies them now, but asserts them in nirvana. Also | #J.

A M The eight heterodox or improper prac­ tices, the opposite of the eight correct paths A IE 5l-

The eight winds, or influences which fan the passions, i.e. _gain, loss ; defamation, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy. Also |

A(^T c) The eight classes of supernatural beings in the Lotus sutra : deva, flU naga,, ^ % yaksa, $£ Si H gandharva, |vj J | asura, 'M f§ garuda, W kinnara, 0 Bf£ $ | mahoraga. Also called ^ fg A ofi and fg jptg A nPI ’l Jfe. The eight groups of demonfollowers of the four maharajas, i.e. gandharvas, pisacas, kumbhandas, pretas, nagas, putanas, yaksas, and raksasas.

/V The eight Maras, or destroyers : £ff I the maras of the passions; [% | the skandhamaras, v. 3 l ; Ifc | death-m ara; ftfe gj Lt | the mara-king. The above four are ordinarily termed the four maras ; the other four are the four Hlnayana delusions of sravakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. M impermanence ; joylessness ; 4® ^ impersonality; |H§ im purity; cf. | [email protected]

A S * # The eight weighty and truly precious things, i.e. the eight metals, which depend for evaluation on gold, the highest and greatest, used to illustrate the Buddha as supreme and the other classes in grades beneath him. Also | | m m> he. the eight priceless things.

A PI

(Z2 or ^ Eight kinds of syllogisms in Buddhist logic ; v. @ BJ3 A IE S i m- (1) AC a valid proposition; (2) fg $£ an invalid proposi­ tion ; (3) fg doubtful, or seemingly valid but fau lty ; (4) (g) tb seemingly invalid, and assailable; (5) Jg, flj; manifest, or evidential; (6) J t j | inferential; (7) fib M m seemingly evidential; (8) fib b t ^ seemingly inferential.

A a m

idem A

The eight conditions in which it is difficult to see a Buddha or hear his dharma : in the hells ; as hungry ghosts ; as animals ; in Uttarakuru (the northern continent where all is pleasant); in the long-life heavens (where life is long and easy); as deaf, blind, and dumb ; as a worldly philosopher ; in the intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor. Also | fat 0g .

A

The eight tones of a Buddha’s v o ic e beautiful, flexible, harmonious, respect-producing, not effeminate (i.e. manly), unerring, deep and resonant.

A J^l

A M (flK) idem

7J ih

The hill of swords in one of the hells.

b i i The gati or path of rebirth as an animal, so called because animals are subjects of the butcher’s knife.

J] a

The wind that cuts all living beings to pieces—at the approach of a world-kalpa’s end ; also described as the disintegrating force at death. ^ Bala ; power, strength, of which there are several categories : Z2 | power of choice and of practice ; H | the power of Buddha ; of meditation (samadhi) and of practice. | Pancabala, the five powers of faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom. A | A child’s power is in crying; a woman’s in resentm ent; a king’s in domineering ; an arbat’s in zeal (or progress); a Buddha’s in mercy ; and a bhiksu’s in endurance (of despite), -f- | q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

13 ± . 13 i t Vlra. A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod. Used for the Licchavi, also jljf j|f ; M (or ^ ) ^ ; % | 8. The terms # ± $ and ;/j -j- ££ jfe are defined as Kusinagara. 13 i t (M ®) A monk who degrades himself by becoming a fighter (e.g. boxer), or a slave.

A

« « The eight upside-down views : here­ tics believe in ^ ^ permanence, pleasure, personality, and p u rity ; the two Hlnayana vehicles deny these both now and in nirvana. Mahayana

p i t m The virya-paramita. | | | | H One of the twenty-eight honoured ones in the Garbhadhatu group.

u m m XS^ The is intp. as the ten powers of a Buddha, the g are his four qualities of

U Power-born; one who is born from the Truth, a monk. , ten, the perfect number. ~f'* “ Ekadasa, eleven. | — Ten uni­ versal, or modes of contemplating the universe from ten aspects, i.e. from the viewpoint of earth, water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, space, or mind. For example, contemplated under the aspect of water, then the universe is regarded as in flux and change. Also called -f-p j g Jg I t is one of the*H | | ® H f The eleven-faced Kuanyin, especially connected with tantric performances, ekadasam ukha; there are three or more sutras on the subject. + —- Trayodasa; thirteen. | | fj& The thirteen Shingon rulers of the dead during the fortynine days and until the thirty-third commemoration. The thirteen are ^ 3E» ^ * m m m, m m, P£, m S . A 0 and i g 1 ; each has his place, duties, magical letter, signs, etc. | | The thirteen powers or bodhisattva balas of the Pureland school: 0 |, f t |, M I, m I, # I. S I. * i, * i. m i, ^ m i. w « & « m m Urn % I, IE & IE and in & s i lit ^ M I- | | ^ The thirteen Buddhist schools of China, v.

A T‘ien-t‘ai mode of meditation in ten “ vehicles ” or stages, for the attainment of bodhi. | | The comfort or ease of progress produced by the above is compared to a couch or divan. | | J^, The above method like a breeze blows away error and falsity as dust. The bodhisattva-merit resulting from the attainment of the ten groups of excellences in the southern version of the Nirvana Sutra $5 $?£ 19-24. There is an unimportant t* m m not connected with the above. I I 0 t* Ten unlawful things said to have been advocated by the Yaisall monks, which led to the calling of the second Council. +

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“ f’*' ___ 'fflj The twelve Buddhas of the esoteric sect placed three on the east, one in each of the other seven directions, and one each for zenith and nadir. Amitabha’s twelve titles of light. The $$ J | % $1 Jh gives them as i t i%>> etc., i.e. the Buddha of light that is im­ measurable, boundless, irresistible, incomparable, yama (or flaming), pure, joy, wisdom, unceasing, surpassing thought, ineffable, surpassing sun and moon. Another list is given in the ^ g ^ N I R - i n

t l l P 1 The school of the ten pairs of unified opposites founded by jflJ Ching-ch‘i on the teaching of the Lotus sutra. There are several books bearing the name. The unifying principle is th at of the identity of contraries, and the ten apparent contraries are m atter and mind, internal and external, fg practice and proof (or realization), cause and effect, impurity and purity, objective and subjective, self and other, = |j | action, speech, and thought, jpf relative and absolute, the fertilized and the fertilizer (i.e. receiver and giver). There are several treatises on the subject in the Canon. | | |j | (or J t ) idem -+* M (M)- I I The ten rules which produce no regrets—not to kill, steal, fornicate, lie, tell of a fellow-Buddhist’s sins, deal in wine, praise oneself and discredit others, be mean, be angry, defame the Triratna (Buddha, Law, Fraternity).

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SC ; 0 § f t ; i i H . They are the twelve links in the chain of existence : ( 1 ) 4h§ ifl avidya, ignorance, or unenlightenment; (2) iff samskara, action, activity, conception, “ dispositions,” Keith ; (3) vijnana, consciousness ; (4) -g, namarupa, name and form ; (5) A A sadayatana, the six sense organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and m ind; (6) $|) sparsa, contact, touch; (7) vedana, sensation, feeling; (8) trsna, thirst, desire, craving; (9) ^ upadana, laying hold of, grasping; (10) bhava, being, exist­ ing ; (1 1 ) jati, b ir th ; (12) ^ jaramarana, old age, death. The “ classical formula ” reads “ By reason of ignorance dispositions ; by reason of

dispositions consciousness ” , etc. A further applica­ tion of the twelve nidanas is made in regard to their causation of rebirth : (1 ) ignorance, as inherited passion from the beginningless p a s t; (2) karma, good and evil, of past lives ; (3) conception as a form of perception; (4) namarupa, or body and mind evolving (in the wom b); (5) the six organs on the verge of b ir th ; (6) childhood whose intelligence is limited to sparsa, contact or touch ; (7) receptivity or budding intelligence and discrimination from 6 or 7 years ; (8) thirst, desire, or love, age of puberty ; (9) the urge of sensuous existence; (10) forming the substance, bhava, of future karma ; ( 11 ) the completed karma ready for re b irth ; (12) old age and death. The two first are associated with the previous life, the other ten with the present. The theory is equally applicable to all realms of reincarnation. The twelve links are also represented in a chart, a t the centre of which are the serpent (anger), boar (ignorance, or stupidity), and dove (lust) representing the fundamental sins. Each catches the other by the tail, typifying the train of sins pro­ ducing the wheel of life. In another circle the twelve links are represented as follows: (1 ) ignorance, a blind w om an; (2) action, a potter at work, or a man gathering fru it; (3) consciousness, a restless monkey; (4) name and form, a b o a t; (5) sense organs, a house; (6) contact, a man and woman sitting together; (7) sensation, a man pierced by an arrow ; (8) desire, a man drinking w ine; (9) craving, a couple in union ; (10) existence through childbirth; (11 ) birth, a man carrying a corpse; (12) disease, old age, death, an old woman leaning on a stick, v. -f- — [3 Hfc Jjnl Pratltya-samutpada sastra. To the

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® Jfe q-v. + __ _ ( A or _fc.) H i! The twelve vows of the Master of H ealing; v. gift. “ I-* ___ ^ The twelve devas (especially of the Shingon se ct): Brahma ; the deva of earth ; of the moon ; of the sun ; Indra ; of fire ; Yama ; of the raksas (or demons); of w ater; of w ind; Vaisramana (wealth); and Mahesvara (Siva). Also | | * a at + * The twelve zodiacal mansions : east— gemini A or §g A ; aries ^ ; taurus A ; west—libra ; Scorpio ; Sagittarius pj or A $ | ; south—aquarius ffg ; pisces ; capricornus A ; north—cancer g f ; leo $$ J - ; virgo (or twin maidens fg A )- They are used in

the vajradhatu group of the Garbhadhatu mandala, E. W. S. N. nr S The twelve bad occupa­ + tions : sheep-butcher ; poulterer (or hen-breeder); pork butcher ; fowler ; fisherman ; hunter ; thief; executioner ; jailer ; juggler ; dog-butcher ; beater (i.e. hunt servant). + Z 1 & A Those who follow the twelve practices of the ascetics: (1 ) live in a herm itage; (2) always beg for food ; (3) take turns at begging food; (4) one meal a d a y ; (5) reduce amount of food ; (6) do not take a drink made of fruit or honey after midday ; (7) wear dust-heap garments ; (8) wear only the three clerical garm ents; (9) dwell among graves ; (10) stay under a tree ; ( 11 ) on the dewy ground; ( 12) sit and never lie. The homa-, or fire-spirits ; whose representations, colours, magic words, signs, symbols, and mode of worship are given in the A H ^ ©ft 20. Also I I I # ; | | 0i A The twelve fire-spirits are : (1) Indra or Vairocana, the discoverer or source of fire, symbolizing knowledge; (2) the moon $§ which progresses to fullness, with mercy as root and enlightenment as fruit, i.e. B uddha; (3) the wind, represented as a half-moon, fanner of flame, of zeal, and by driving away dark clouds, of enlightenment; (4) the red rays of the rising sun, rohitaka, his swords (or rays) indicating wisdom ; (5) ^ a form half stern, half smiling, sternly driving away the passions and trials ; (6) irate, bellowing with open mouth, showing four teeth, flowing locks, one eye closed; (7) Ffi f f fire burning within, i.e. the inner witness, or realization ; (8) *£ M 15 the waster, or destroyer of waste and injurious products within, i.e. inner purification; (9) ill the producer at will, capable of all variety, resembling Visvakarman, the Brahmanic Vulcan; ( 10) W Wt the fire-eater; ( 11 ) untraceable; (12 ) |H the completer, also the subduer of demons.

+ H ^ M v. + - m in. The twelve lamps used in the cult of the Master of Healing ^ fjjji. + __ f§£ The twelve animals for the “ twelve horary branches ” with their names, hours, and the Chinese transliterations of their Sanskrit equivalents ; v- A flc 23 and 56. There are also the thirty-six animals, three for each hour. The twelve are: Serpent EL> 9-11 a.m. jgj ^ ; Horse

JBf 4^, 11-1 noon % g ; Sheep ^ pfc, 1-3 p.m. g U S ; Monkey 3-5 p.m. M 5 Cock m ]5j, 5-7 p.m. Jj§£ $U H ; Dog i t &> 7-9 p.m. m M ; Boar ^ % , 9-11 p.m. $£ % ; R at BL 11-1 midnight $jj} ; Ox ^ 3 b 1-3 a.m. ^ fij ?> ; Tiger (or Lion) ^ 3-5 a.m. g g ; Hare £ JJ[], 5-7 a.m. ^ & Pfc &! J Dragon f l 7-9 a.m. + r * in The twelve aspects of the bhutatathata or the ultimate, which is also styled the | | Iffi “ inactive” or nirvana-like: and the I I “ v o id ” or immaterial: (1) The chen ju itself; (2) ££ ^ as the medium of all things; (3) f t as the nature of all th in g s; (1) ^ jf|j % f t its reality contra the unreality of phenomena ; (5 ) H§ H f t its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal variation ; (6) 2p ^ f t as universal or undifferentiated; (7) ffe & f t as immortal, i.e. apart from birth and death, or creation and destruc­ tion ; (8) as eternal, its nature ever su re; (9) Hi as the abode of all things ; (10) ^ as the bounds of all reality; (11 ) Ji}g as the realm of space, the void, or immateriality ; (12) sft ® PH ^ as the realm beyond thought or expression. JpSjjl ( 0^ The twelve spirits con­ nected with the cult of $$ (lift the Master of Healing. Also | | They are associated with the twelve hours of the day, of which they are guardian spirits. Their names are as follows: ^ (or -^) Mi M K um bhira; ffi H V ajra; ££ || Mihira ; £ Jg $i Andira ; g f f$ Anila ; M JS m ^an d ila; g I n d ra ; $ M $1 P ajra; J f £g Mahoraga; He Kmnara ^ f t | C atu ra; and g* f t Vikarala.

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Twelve divisions of the Maha­ |j| su tra ; (2) jjffi ^ geya ; (4) /g PE nidana, also ^ itiv rttak a; (6) g ^ f&p )$e adbhuta-dharma, i.e. the

w i l l abhidharm a; (8) f t $ PE avadana; (9) jg ^ $§ & upadesa; (10) jg |J£ ^ u d an a; (11 ) g. fi)fe f t vaipulya; (12) ifrp g vyakarana. Cf. A pfl @“ I-* — » 3$f Dvadasaviharana sutra. The life of Sakyamuni to his twelfth year, translated by Kalodaka a . d . 392. + Z 1 P I idem | | S I I I Bvadasanikaya ^astra. One of the rx fife; composed by Nagarjuna, translated by Kumarajlva a . d . 408. There are several works on it. + H K 3 E The twelve-vow king, i.e. Yao Shih ^ £ifi, the Master of Healing. “P* Pancadasa, fifteen. | | ^ The fifteen honoured ones, with whom certain jUL gf Shingon devotees seek by yoga to become un ited ; of the fifteen, each represents a part of the whole, e.g. the eyes, ears, mouth, hands, feet, etc. v. SR 0 in its ^ |ij g t i§ , etc., chapter. | | | | f The fifteen kinds of Kuan-yin’s images—normal face, with thousand hands, horse’s head, eleven faces, as Cunda (Mariei), with the jtR ^ talismanic wheel, net, white robe, leaf robe, moon, willow, fruit, as Tara, with azure neck, and as Gandharaja. | | ^ The fifteen days of the waxing moon are likened to the fifteen kinds of increasing wisdom ^ , and the fifteen waning days to the fifteen kinds of deliverance from evil g)f. The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattvawisdom, prajna fife are the -j; the merits or character attained are the -f* jfa q.v. Two inter­ pretations may be given. In the first of these, the first four stages are likened to entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Ksatriya prince. The ten stages are (1 ) )§£• ,jj, | the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood ; (2) ^ fitl | clear understanding and mental control; (3) .ff | unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) "H | acquiring the Tathagata nature or seed ; (5) JI- JE. | perfect adaptability and resem­ blance in self-development and development of others; (6) IE I the whole mind becoming Buddha-like ; (7) s f IS I no retrogression, perfect unity and con­ stant progress; (8) Ig ^ | as a Buddha-son now com plete; (9) 3E -f- I as prince of the law ; (10 ) m Jff j baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of kings. Another interpretation of the above is :

(1 ) spiritual resolve, stage of srota-apanna ; (2) sub­ mission to rule, preparation for Sakrdagamin stage; (3) cultivation of virtue, attainm ent of Sakrdagamin stage ; (4) noble birth, preparation for the anagamin stage; (5) perfect means, attainm ent of anagamin stage; (6) right mind, preparation for arhatship; (7 ) no-retrogradation, the attainm ent of arhatship ; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabuddhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood ; (10) baptism as the summit of attainment, the con­ ception of Buddhahood. | | jfr Ten stages of mental or spiritual development in the jg. ^ Shingon sect, beginning with the human animal and ending with perfect enlightenm ent; a category by the Japanese monk % Koho, founded on the + 0 $1 + 4j* pp- I I Ks Ut Dasabhumivibhasa sastra. A commentary by Nagarjuna on the + |g and the + |!n, said to contain the earliest teach­ ing regarding Amitabha ; translated by Kumarajiva circa a . d . 405. + « There are several groups; that of the Hua-yen sutra is Kaiyapa, Kanakamuni, Krakucchanda, Visvabhu, &ikhin, Vipasyi, Tisya (or Pusya), Tissa, ? Padma, and Dipankara. Another group is that of the Amitabha cult, one for each of the ten directions. There are other groups. The ten rhymes in “ lai ” , a verse which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of moral determinism, i.e. th at the position anyone now occupies is solely the result of his character in past lives; heredity and environment having nothing to do with his present condition, for, whether in prince or beggar, it is the reward of past deeds. The upright from the forbearing come, The poor from the mean and greedy come, Those of high rank from worshippers come, The low and common from the prideful come, Those who are dumb from slanderers come, The blind and deaf from unbelievers come, The long-lived from the merciful come, The short-lived from life-takers come, The deficient in faculties from command-breakers come, The complete in faculties from command-keepers come. /N a A JE

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+ The ten messengers, deluders, fundamental passions ; they are divided into five sharp and five d u ll; the five dull ones are desire, hate, stupidity, pride, and d o u b t; the five sharp jflj are §{ j^ ,

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The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten in the fifty-two bodhisattva positions: (1 ) fg faith (which destroys illusion and results in) (2) & remembrance, or unforgetfulness; (3) ff!f jfg zealous progress; (4) fg wisdom; (5) ^ settled firmness in concentration; (6) sfi f || non-retrogression; (7) ^ protection of the T ru th ; (8) $ | |pj reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth ; (9) the nirvana mind in ^ effortlessness; (10) Hg action at will in any­ thing and everywhere. I ' / V Astadasa, eighteen. II A Avenikadharma, or buddhadharma, the eighteen different characteristics of a Buddha as compared with bodhisattvas, i.e. his perfection of body (or person), mouth (or speech), memory, impartiality to all, serenity, self-sacrifice, unceasing desire to save, unflagging zeal therein, unfailing thought thereto, wisdom in it, powers of deliverance, the principles of it, revealing perfect wisdom in deed, in word, in thought, perfect knowledge of past, future, and present, v. ^ efa 26. | | g] The eighteen perfections of a buddha’s sambhogakaya, v. H A* Also | | | $ j. | | Jz Brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of form, rupadhatu, three of the first dhyana, I; $S I; + three of the second, + it I ; + W I; three of the third, I; i t (Jf | ;| ; and nine of the fourth, & m i ; m £ i ; m * i ; m m i ; |. “ Southern Buddhism knows only sixteen. Those two which Northern Buddhists added are Punya-prasava jpg ife and Anabhraka Hf.” Eitel. | | The eighteen Japanese Buddhist sects, i.e. H » ; & *0; m » ; # ; f t f t ; aft f t ; % i n ; m m ; fit & f t f t ; W ± ; m ; 0 m - , m ; iM m - , w m -, m m - , f t i t ; and f t let I I S m The eighteen arhats. | | % The eighteen things a monk should carry in the performance of his duties—willow twigs, soap, the three garments, a water-bottle, a begging-bowl, m at, staff, censer, filter, handkerchief, knife, fire-producer, pincers, hammock, sutra, the vinaya, the Buddha’s image, and bodhisattva image or images; cf. $£ jj-jg 37. | | ife JH The eighteen Brahmalokas, where rebirth is necessary, i.e. where mortality still exists. | | The eighteen dhatu, or realms of sense, i.e.

aC UL i0£, s \ IS the six organs, their objects or conditions, and their perceptions. | | (jz ) ; | | PJ] The eighteen Indian non-Buddhist classics, i.e. the four vedas, six sastras, and eight sastras. i i * m or m ; i i m ; i i % m ▼. ^ Jfl. | | p|i The eighteen schools of Hlnayana as formerly existing in In d ia ; v. /J\ | | If jfe ^ The eighteen layers of hells, which are de­ scribed by one writer as the conditions in which the six sense organs, their six objects, and the six perceptions do not harmonize. Another says the eighteen are the hell of knives, the boiling sands, the boiling excrement, the fiery carriage, the boiling cauldron, the iron bed, etc. | | j || In the two mandalas, Vajradhatu and Garbhadhatu, each has nine central objects of worship. The Shingon disciple devotes himself to meditation on one of these eighteen each day. + A Sodasa. Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number, just as ten is the perfect number in the Hua-yen sutra and generally, see j z 0 m ©ft 5. I I i.e. the A & and A t II ( ^ ) ^ The sixteen devas are E. Indra and his wife ; S.E. the fire deva and his wife ; S. Yama and his wife ; S.W. Yaksa-raja (Kuvera) and wife ; W. the water deva and his naga wife (Sakti); N.W. the wind deva and w ife; N. Vaisramana and w ife; N.E. Isana and wife. | | ffiji The sixteen nonBuddhist “ heretical ” Indian philosophers. | | The sixteen lessons of the Prajna-paramita. | | (>6 ) ; I I a t H idem | | f t +0- The sixteen ft °f the Four Axioms JSJ i.e. four forms of considering each of the axioms, associated with Jj|. | | || Two lists are given, one of sixteen j z maharajas ; another of sixteen H ^ good spirits or gods ; all of them are guardians of the good and enemies of evil. | | iU 3E M A ® The sixteen ancient kingdoms of India whose kings are addressed in the ft. 3E 2 ; i-e. Vaisall, Kosala, ^ravasti, Magadha, Baranasi, Kapilavastu, Kusinagara, Kausambi, Pancala, Pataliputra, Mathura, Usa (Usira), Punyavardhana, Devavatara, Kasi, and Campa. | | j z The sixteen great powers obtainable by a bodhisattva, i.e. of will, mind, action, shame (to do evil), energy, firmness, wisdom, virtue, reasoning, personal appearance, physical powers, wealth, spirit, magic, spreading the truth, subduing demons. | | « *S idem + * * 8. I I I ? (* ); i i » m The sixteen princes in the Lotus Sutra who became Buddhas after hearing their father preach it. | | J|L ; I I # 3% The sixteen heretical views on me and mine, i.e. the ego in self and others, determinism or fate, immortality, etc.;

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of the m ffc exoteric, one of the $r esoteric cults; the exoteric list is indefinite; the esoteric has two lists, one is of four bodhisattvas to each of the Buddhas of the four quarters of the Diamond R ealm ; the other is of the sixteen who represent the body of bodhisattvas in a ^ kalpa, such as the present • E. ffi * i§ , & « , & r n ; S.$ * m, & m m , n

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& H'J I I The sixteen meditations of Amitabha on the setting sun, water (as ice, crystal, etc.), the earth, and so on. | | fjf Sixteen necessaries of a strict observer of ascetic rules, ranging from garments made of rags collected from the dust heap to sleeping among graves. + 50] There are many groups of ten profitable things or advantages, e.g. ten in regard to edibles, ten to congee, to learning, to study of the Scriptures, to wisdom, to zeal, etc.

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Dasabala. The ten powers of a Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1 ) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future ; (3) all stages of dhyana liberation, and sam adhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws ; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality ; (9) the end of all beings and nirvana; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind. See the ^ ^ St 25 and the f t 29. | | fi: The religion of Him who has the ten powers, i.e. Buddhism. | | (Iffi ^ ) ^ The honoured (unequalled) possessor of the ten powers, Buddha. | | M Dasabala-Kasyapa, one of the first five disciples. | | Pfi The ten powers and ten understandings of a Buddha.

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Ten merits (or powers) com­ mended by the Buddha to his bhiksus—zealous pro­ gress, contentment with few desires, courage, learning (so as to teach), fearlessness, perfect observance of the commands and the fraternity’s regulations, perfect meditation, perfect wisdom, perfect liberation, and perfect understanding of it.

+ m The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitabha made his forty-eight vows, or | | j£ H attained complete bodhi, hence he is styled -jThese ten kalpas as seen by P ‘u-hsien are f |l ^ but as a moment.

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+ J $ 4 t The ten paramitas observed by bodhisattvas, see + and -f* ft.J I in a y a n a has another group, adding to the four IPS q.v. the six of sacri­ ficing one’s life to save m other; or fath er; or a B uddha; to become a m onk; to induce another to become a m onk; to obtain authority to preach. +

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The ten questions to the Buddha, put into the mouth of Vajrapani, which, with the answers given, form the basis of the A 0 W hat is (or are) (1 ) the nature of the bodhi-mind ? (2) its form or forms ? (3) the mental stages requisite to attainment ? (4) the difference between them ? (5) the time required ? (6) the character of the merits attained ? (7) the activities or practices necessary ? (8) the way of such practices ? (9) the condition of the uncultivated and cultivated mind ? (10) the difference between it and th a t of the follower of Yoga?

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m ) The ten good characteristics, or virtues, defined as the non-committal of the -f* igi ten evils, q.v. T‘ien-t‘ai has two groups, one of ceasing jfc to do evil, the other of learning to do well f f . l i f t ; I I jfc j } ; | | i The position, or power, attained in the next life by observing the ten commandments here, to be born in the heavens, or as rulers of men. | | P; The ten good crafts, or meditations of pratyeka-buddhas, i.e. on the five skandhas, twelve Jg, eighteen twelve -j^, etc. | | The ten commandments (as observed by the laity). | | U| (jH) The excellent karma resulting from practice of the ten commandments. | | ^fr HI The bodhisattvas of the + * t t q.v. + m Caturdasa, fourteen. | | H ft ft The fourteen other-world realms of fourteen Buddhas, i.e. this realm of &akyamuni and thirteen others. I I JF$ 3E The fourteen devas and nine dragon and other kings, who went in the train of ManjusrI to thank the Buddha at the last of his Hua-yen addresses ; for list see 61. | | | |l f t The fourteen transformations th at are connected with the four dhyana heavens. | | f$j The fourteen difficult questions of the “ heretics ” to which the Buddha made no reply, for, as it is said, the questions were no more properly put than if one asked “ How much milk can you get from a cow’s horn ? ” They are forms o f : All is per­ manent, impermanent, both or neither; all changes, changes not, both, neither ; a t death a spirit departs, does not, both, neither; after death we have the

same body (or personality) and spirit, or body and spirit are different. Dasabhumi; v. | f t . The “ ten stages ” in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the -f- 0 fpj he proceeds to the -f* fi|j. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles H are : (1 ) jjr£ f§; fijj dry wisdom stage, i.e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) ^ | the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the P9 H ; (3) / \ A (or E>) l> stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) % | of freedom from wrong views; (5) $$ | of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice ; (6) £jf£ | of freedom from the remaining th ree; (7) g, j complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an a rh a t; (8) (J^) £ i t | pratyekabuddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to s if t; (9) g | | bodhisattvahood ; (10) | Buddhahood. v. ^ £ fir 78. II. ± ^ I I "t* Jtfl The ten stages of Mahayana bodhi­ sattva development a r e : ( 1 ) |gfc | | | Pramudita, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) | Vimala, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of p u rity ; (3) ^ | Prabhakarl, stage of further enlightenment; (4) jg |§t | Arcismatl, of glowing wisdom; (5) ;gi 0 | Sudurjaya, mastery of utmost or final difficulties ; (6) Ig, filj | Abhimukhi, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and p u rity ; (7) j g | Duramgama, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 7ft jgf | Acala, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) H H I Sadhumatl, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the -f* J j ten powers; (10) f t |[ | | Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten para­ mitas, v. Each of the [2J fj| or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The J|£ Hfl ^ -f* fife ten &ravaka stages are : (1 ) ^ E£ §8? | initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha; (2) f t | belief, or the faith-root; (3) fj| ^ | belief in the four tru th s ; (4) p*J /L A I ordinary disciples who observe the 3 £ ^ Hg, e tc .; (5) Jf! f t 5$ those who pursue the H ^ three studies; (6) /V. A (i.e. jg.) | the stage of Jg, Jg seeing the true Way ; (7) ^ |Jg yg | srota-apanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvana ; (8) (S£ ^ | sakrdagamin, only one more reb irth ; (9) M Hi c*!' I anagamin, no rebirth ; and (10) M H I arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the pratyekabuddha ^ | | are (1 ) perfect asceticism; (2)

mastery of the twelve links of causation ; (3) of the four noble tr u th s ; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5 ) of the eightfold noble p a th ; (6) of the three realms H & ; (7) of the nirvana state ; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive sta g e; (10) mastery of the remaining in­ fluence of former habits. Y. fjjj | | The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposi­ tion, discrimination, mara-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group -j- jjjj -fsee -f- jfr ; and there are other groups. | | pp The twenty-second chapter of the sixty-chapter version of the 4jj£ Jj| |g5, the twenty-sixth of the eighty-chapter version. I I M i f The vow of bodhisattvas to attain the 4 - % by fulfilling the ten paramitas, v. -f* $£. J | ifo Ten stages of mind, or mental development, i.e. (1 ) P9 the four kinds of boundless m in d ; (2) 4 * H 'fr the mind of the ten good qualities; (3) Jt the illuminated m in d ; (4) jfeU H the mind of glowing wisdom; (5) the mind of m astery; (6) Jg, fff & the mind of the open way (above normal definitions); (7) $$ the mind of no rebirth; (8) © pH the mind of the inexpressible ; (9) H Jfc the mind of wisdom-radiance; ( 10) $ the mind of perfect receptivity, v. also -f* >jj.. Ten objects of or stages in meditation Jg| in the T‘ien-t‘ai school, i.e. |% | the five skandhas ; 0 $§ | life’s distresses and delusion; and f t . Some­ times the three vehicles are defined as ^ ^ Sravaka, th at of the hearer or obedient disciple; ^ f t Pratyeka-buddha, th at of the enlightened for self; these are described as /J-* because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is gf? Bodhisattva, or ^ ppf Mahayana, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as H $ three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares th at the three are really the One Buddhavehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples’ capacity, the Lotus Sutra being the unifying, complete, and final ex­ position. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahayana recognizes (a) Sravaka, called Hlnayana, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship ; (b) Pratyekabuddha, called Madhyamayana, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Maha­ yana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifice

in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hlnayana is also de­ scribed as possessing three vehicles m , m , « or /J>, -fc, the /J> and conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the ^ leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha’s way. Further definitions of the Triyana a r e : (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the ; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 4 * ; and 6ravaka with ignorant asceticism for the /J>. (4) (a) — ^ The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood; of this the |j£ Hua-yen and Fa-hua are typical exponents; (6) Z ^ the threevehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the gg ^ ; (c) /J' ^ e Hinayana pure and simple as seen in the P9 pfl ^ fg Four Agamas. Sravakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to th at degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidanas gj ; the bodhisattvas make the ^ J§[ or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sutra really treats the EE Three Vehicles as ^ ^ or expedient ways, and offers a Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle. | | ^ The Dharmalaksana School of the Three Vehicles, led by the ^ | | ifft f t — 0 iS ® The H %. consider the Triyana as real, and the “ one vehicle ” of the Lotus School as merely tactical, or an expedient form of expression. J|i* The commands relating to body, speech, and mind # , □ , £ . | | I f v. H j| | | ;j$j (or fe ) A term for a monk’s robe of five, seven, or nine patches.

'fill

__ * The three rsis or wise men and the two devas, i.e. fg, H Kapila, founder of the Samkhya philosophy; 8| or fg |! | Uluka or Kanada, founder of the 0 f t or Vaisesika philosophy; and M Ksabha, founder of the Nirgranthas; with Siva and Visnu as the two deities. Sam vaji; the heretical people of Vrji, an ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, south­ east of Nepal. (Eitel.) TnJ Trikaya, v. H # . Also the three or founders of the ^ branch of the Ch‘an (Zen) School, i.e. % Hui-chfin, jg Chfing-yiian,

and Wj K ‘o-ch‘in. | | The three Buddhalands, realms, or environment, corresponding to the Trikaya; v. H M and M ±L ■ I I ^ All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kinds the commonalty are -J- external sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles, /]> and are $£ secondary sons (i.e. of con­ cubines) ; the bodhisattvas (i.e. mahayanists) are •g true sons, or sons in the truth. | | ^ The three kinds of Buddha-nature : (1) g ^ ff, the Buddha-nature which is in all living beings, even those in the three evil paths (gati). (2) »J| ft} ^ the Buddha-nature developed by the right discipline. (3) M ® fih 14 fke final or perfected Buddhanature resulting from the development of the original potentiality. I I He Samvrti, which means concealed, not apparent, is intp. as common ideas -jfr M or phenomenal t r u th ; it is also intp. as th at which hides reality, or seems to be real, the seeming. | | ^IF £§ The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikaya, H J h i-e- that under the bodhi tree, th at of parinirvana, that of tathagatagarbha in its eternal nirvana aspect. | | fg- The Buddha’s three modes of discourse—unqualified, i.e. out of the fullness of his n a tu re ; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers ; and both. | | Si idem H $[• I I Sam buddha; the truly en­ lightened one, or correct enlightenment.

H « The three (divine) messengers—birth, sickness, death; v. $». Also | ^ |. ZH fjlsr The three ways of discipline, i.e. three sravaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three sravaka ways are $t£ H? no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 0 ^ joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvana-joy; ^ non­ ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these. —. ®

idem H SB W-

H t i T Under three rafters—the regula­ tion space for a monk’s bed or s e a t; in meditation. -71 ilM. Prajnapti. The word jg q.v. in Buddhist terminology means th at everything is merely pheno­ menal, and consists of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existence, but all is empty and unreal, ^ ^ ^ The three jg are things, ^ sensations, and ;g names. | | Jfe f£ ; H §1 }*§ The three fallacious postulates in regard to ££, *§£•, and ig . | | ffg The meditations on the above.

n

i t

id e m h

m ft m

The three misleading things : gj| ire, and perverted views, = fg.

desire,

H The three half-true, or partial revelations of the /]>, and -fc and the true one of the Lotus Sutra. —1 fig The 300,000 families of SravastI city who had never heard of the Buddha’s epiphany— though he was often among them.

Sun, moon, and stars. Also, in the second dhyana of the form-world there are the two deva regions A? i t M jg; i t and i t H* 5^ q.v. Also m Avalokitesvara is styled p ^ sun-prince, or divine son of the sun, ic M Mahasthamaprapta is styled ^ ^ ^ divine son of the moon, and i § 1 f | the bodhisattva of the empyrean, is styled PJ J | ^ ^ divine son of the bright stars. H A H The eighth, eighteenth, and twentyeighth days of a moon. * * / \ Eighteen, especially referring to the eighteen sects of Hlnayana. % An esoteric objection to three, six, or nine persons worshipping together. n / E The three essential articles for worship: flower-vase, candlestick, and censer. *. The three powers, of which there are various groups : (1 ) (a) personal power ; (b) tathagata-power ; (c) power of the Buddha-nature within. (2) (a) power of a wise eye to see the Buddha-medicine (for evil); (b) of diagnosis of the ailm ent; (c) of suiting and applying the medicine to the disease. (3) (a) the power of Buddha ; (b) of sam adhi; (c) of personal achievement or merit. | | jg, The triple-power verse :—• Jji

DUj] OH M W f j

&

M

& iJ

m

m

#

In the power of my virtue, And the aiding power of the Tathagata, And the power of the spiritual realm, i can go anywhere in the land of the living.

= m m The three divisions of a treatise on a sutra, i.e. fif- f t introduction, ^ dis­ cussion of the subject, jij| $*■ application. *. £ ) ) The three asankhyeya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattva’s develop­ ment ; also the past #£ |, the present 55 |, and the future Ig fjf | kalpas. There are other groups. | | H ^ Ki The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas. H + Tridasa. T h irty ; abbreviation for the thirty-three deities, heavens, etc. "f* __ .. Dvatrimsa. Thirty-two. | | | jjjgj (or S%) The thirty-two forms of Kuan-yin, and of P ‘u-hsien, ranging from that of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a raksas; similar to the thirtythree forms named in the Lotus Sutra. | | I +0 5 I I I "fc A ^ Dvatrimsadvaralaksana. The thirty-two laksanas, or physical marks of a cakravarti, or “ wheel-king ” , especially of the Buddha, i.e. level feet, thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hands reaching below the knees, wellretracted male organ, height and stretch of arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured, body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the -fc f t , i-e. two soles, two palms, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-shaped body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the four canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and resonant, eyes deep blue, eye­ lashes like a royal bull, a white urna or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an usnisa or fleshy pro­ tuberance on the crown. These are from the H m ?±- M 48, with which the $ f>& 4, fg $ | 28, PSJ H + ~ +B M generally agree. The 0 has a different list. | | | ( H The eleventh chapter of the |5j} fS- | | | | The twenty-first of Amitabha’s vows, v. I l l : $ i^" f* ZH x

Trayastrimsat. Thirty-three. | | | & m & & m &; m m w ta m j & Trayastrimsas. The Indra heaven, the second of the six heavens of form. Its capital is situated on the summit of Mt. Sumeru, where Indra rules over his thirty-two devas, who reside on thirty-two peaks of Sumeru, eight in each of the four directions. Indra’s

^ ; in m ta m & s

; ta m m ; ta

capital is called Tjfa 0 Sudarsana, | f j | Joyview city. Its people are a yojana in height, each one’s clothing weighs 7^ fjfc (£- oz.), and they live 1,000 years, a day and night being equal to 100 earthly years. Eitel says Indra’s heaven “ tallies in all its details with the Svarga of Brahminic mytho­ logy ” and suggests th at “ the whole myth may have an astronomical meaning ” , or be connected with “ the atmosphere with its phenomena, which strengthens Koeppen’s hypothesis explaining the number thirty-three as referring to the eight Yasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, and two Asvins of Vedic mythology ” . In his palace called Vaijayanta “ Indra is enthroned with 1,000 eyes with four arms grasping the vajra. There he revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife &aci. . . and with 119,000 concubines with whom he associates by means of transformation ” . | | | (HO tU i t - The thirty-three forms in which Kuan-yin is represented : with willow, dragon, sutra, halo, as strolling, with white robe, as lotus-sleeping, with fishing-creel, as medicine-bestowing, with folded hands, holding a lotus, pouring water, etc. | | | jg The thirty-three possible fallacies in the statement of a syllogism, nine in the proposition pratijna, fourteen in the reason |ij hetu, and ten in the example Ajjfc udaharana. \ \ \ The thirty-three forms in which Avalokitesvara (Kuan-yin) is said to have presented him­ self, from that of a Buddha to that of a woman or a raksas. Cf. Lotus Sutra H chapter. The thirty-five Buddhas before whom those who have committed sins involving interminable suffering should heartily repent. There are different lists. * “ The thirty-six physical parts and excretions of the human body, all being unclean, i.e. the vile body. “L ~\* / \ (pifr) The thirty-six depart­ mental guardian divinities given in the $g Jpf . . . |J£. Each is styled (jjft I$S gg mrdu, benign, kindly, for which is used. Their Sanskrit and Chinese names are given in Chinese as follows: ( I ) 'T' M H or H i t kindly light, has to do with attacks of disease; (2) P5J or H Pfi headaches; (3) jp ^ or | f t fevers; (4) tni P£ IS or | R disorders ofthe stom ach;(5) (5£ M f or | | l tum ours; (6) ppf g or | madness; (7) $|] ^ or | % stupidity ; (8) # or j U irascibility ; (9) jg| or | % lust; (10) H ^ H or | ^ devils; (I I ) BnT H ^ or | deadly injuries; (12 ) ^ 1 or | fig graves; (13) ^ f t fh or | %

&

the four quarters ; (14) -jjg H or | % enemies ; (15) j | i J l or | ± robbers; (16) % PE or | % creditors ; (17) Jg or | thieves ; (18) % & ffl or I 'M pestilence ; (19) ft? g ^ or | ^ the five plagues (? typhoid); (20) §g Jf£ or I lU corpse worms; (21 ) z t M or I IBH continuous concentration ; (22) M I £ °r I {H restlessness; (23) f lj |$£ or | attraction ; (24) $ fij gji or | ft* evil cabals; (25) j t ftp or | a, deadly poison; (26) jg ^ | £ or | *£ fear; (27) ^ Pb IP or | % calamities ; (28) ftp or | 'M childbirth and nursing; (29) Rif fj? ftp or | M Hie district magistracy; (30) flj Jf£ or | |?r| altercations; (31) (5|if ftp ,§£ or | US anxieties and distresses; (32) ^ fnjf igf or { ^ uneasiness; (33) ^11 jfl or | Jg supernatural manifestations ; (34) £{$ or | ^ jealousy; (35) m FE M or | # curses; (36) Ijr pg g or | #i' exorcism. They have innumerable assistants. He who writes their names and carries them with him can be free from all fear. —. | *( i i j j ) i l l p p Bodhipaksika dharma. H + -fc m m ) f r m , H + ^ 55 The thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi, or Buddha­ hood, i.e. |Z9 ^ JH smrtyupasthana, four states of memory, or subjects of reflection; |Z9 j£ 1ifr samyakprahana, four proper lines of exertion; [3} jff Jg, rddhipada, four steps towards supernatural power ; fg panca indriyani, five spiritual faculties ; 3£ panca balani, their five powers sapta bodhyanga, seven degrees of enlightenment, or intelligence ; and A iE asta-marga, the eight­ fold noble path. | | | 1s£ The thirty-seven heads in the Vajradhatu or Diamond-realm mandala. I I I I B3 4ft Tlie four large circles in each of which the thirty-seven are represented, in one all hold the diamond-realm symbol, the v a jra ; in another, the symbol relating to the triple realm of time, past, present, future ; in another, the Kuanyin sym bol; and in another, the symbol of infinite space.

Mahabhijnabhibhu ( ^ jj | ; 0 t ) , mentioned in the Lotus Sutra, i.e. a kalpa of incalculable antiquity, e.g. surpassing the number of the particles of a chiliocosm which has been ground to powder, turned into ink, and dropped, drop by drop, at vast distances throughout boundless space. | | ^ ifr Tri-sahasra-maha-sahasra-loka-dhatu, a great chiliocosm; £ H T* (ife) Mt. Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world ; 1,000 of these form a small chiliocosm /]> T* flh 1^. ; 1,000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm * T t # ; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm ^ ifi: f t , which thus consists of 1,000,000,000 small worlds. The H indicates the above three kinds of thousands, there­ fore H "E j z =p §?. is the same as -fc ^p fti; Jfl, which is one Buddha-world. | | ^ ^@ The reality at the basis of all things, a T‘ien-t‘ai doctrine, i.e. the in or fj-c idem f£ A+0 . | | *£ — ^ The udumbara flower which flowers but once in 3.000 years ; v. | | (H A bhiksu’s regula­ tions amount to about 250 ; these are multiplied by four for the conditions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1,000 ; again multiplied by three for past, present, and future, they become 3.000 regulations. | | | | jgg The sutra of this name. I The three signs or proofs of a Hinayana sutra—non-permanence, non-personality, nir­ vana ; without these the sutra is spurious and the doctrine is of Mara ; the proof of a Mahayana sutra is the doctrine of — ^ ultimate reality, q.v. Also I & IBP — * The three vehicles (Hlnayana, Madhyamayana, Mahayana) are one, i.e. the three lead to bodhisattvaship and Buddhahood for all.

H + & In each of the -f* ten states there are three conditions, A> H:> Hi) entry, stay, exit, hence the “ thirty lives ” .

The three states of Vedana, i.e. sensation, are divided into painful, pleasurable, and freedom from both ^ , |^ , $j*. When things are opposed to desire, pain arises ; when accordant, there is pleasure and a desire for their continuance; when neither, one is detached or free. ^ fit 1. [ | H The karma or results arising from the pursuit of courses th at produce pain, pleasure, or freedom from both.

Trisahasra, three thousand ; a term used by the T‘ien-t‘ai School for — f t § i.e. all things, everything in a chiliocosm, or Buddhaworld ; V. H T -k t l i t , idem = gb. I I M 15 M The kalpa of the ancient Buddha

Three cryptic questions of ® Yunmen, founder of the Yiin-men Chcan School. They are : (1) jglr ^ W hat is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the fg is — ijj., i.e. the realization of the oneness of



1&

W

l

idem ® st # to arhats H BJ|. (a) BJJ Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) ^ 93 supernatural insight into future mortal conditions ; (c) 'M H 80 nirvana insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome all passions or tem pta­ tions. In the j^. ^ 27 the three are termed

m a w m m; n £

I I I and

mm

j i I-

For ^ v. ^ pSf ^ 16. | | ( U) Trividya. The three clear conceptions that (1) all is imper­ manent & anitya ; (2) all is sorrowful ^ duhkha ; (3) all is devoid of a self t e ^ anatman. Samadhi, “ putting together, com­ posing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object

of meditation.” (M. W.) Also (j§, p , jg or Jg). Interpreted by ^ or J£ the mind fixed and undisturbed; by ^ correct sensation of the object contemplated ; by fpj jg % ordering and fixing the mind ; by |ft the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the o b ject; by Jjt & the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind ; by ^ ^ the mind held in equilibrium ; by 0 i-e. ik to stay the breathing. I t is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is J}£, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. I t may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyana % repre­ sents a simpler form of contem plation; samapatti H 0 ££ a stage further advanced ; and samadhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samadhi. The M W? 31 say s: © H when the mind has been concentrated, then — /f. ft- the will is undivided ; when ^ active thought has been put to rest, then jjh{i gfj the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 5, 20, 23, 28 ; jfc gg 2 ; ± ^ ^ % 9, 13, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samadhi. | | fi| Samadhi Buddha, one of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the 0 | | H ’> H — The candra-mandala, i.e. moon-wheel or disc sam adhi; Nagarjuna is said to have entered it and taken his departure as a cicada after delivering the Law (or patriarchate) to Kanadeva. | | >X. Lire of samadhi, the fire th at consumed the body of Buddha when he entered nirvana. | I JEH The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flower with a merciful or a white image. | | The different stages of a bodhisattva’s sam adhi; cf. ^ ^ gfe 28. | | )|g Samadhimara, one of the ten maras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in meditation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom. H B * ( J $ ) Samaya is variously defined as bl­ ooming together, meeting, convention ; timely ; in agreement, of the same class; ^ equal, equalized; fg aroused, w arned; [5£ rid­ dance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhi­ sattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva. | | | The distinguishing symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of K uan-yin; also used f°r I I I q.v. | | | ff£ Samaya command­

ments : the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in the esoteric sects. | | | J§> ^ £g Samaya-mandala. One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are represented by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sword. | | | Samaya wisdom. In esoteric teaching, the characteristic of a Buddha’s or bodhisattva’s wisdom, as shown in the mandala. | | | ^ The Samaya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine mandalas, consisting of seventy-three saints repre­ sented by the symbols of their power. I I I j^rSamaya world, a general name for the esoteric sect. I I I M (or M ) The embodiment of Samaya, a term of the esoteric se c t; i.e. the symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stupa as one of the symbols of Vairocana j z 0 ; the lotus of Kuan-yin, etc. is used for a Buddha, for a bodhisattva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the fg sambhogakaya.

H Iff The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon, and evening ; also the three periods, after his nirvana, of every Buddha’s teaching, viz., ]£ correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, ^ semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and end, the period of decline and termination. | | ^ fig The thrice a day medita­ tion—about 10 a.m. and 4 and 8 p.m. | | ^ gg The three periods of Buddhism—1,000 years of pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,000 years of resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of decay. Other definitions are and \% 500 years each, or IE 1,000 and 500, or 500 and $L 1,000. | | ^ i-e- f f i t t c HI H v. H f t . I I ffc (*J) The three periods and characteristics of Buddha’s teaching, as defined by the Dharmalaksana school fg They a r e : (1) ^ , when he taught the 3§f ^ reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common belief in jjf real personality or a permanent soul; this period is represented by the four |5pf agamas and other Hlnayana sutras. (2) Jg &unya, when he negatived the idea of the reality of things and advocated that all was unreal; the period of the ^ ^ $£ prajna sutras. (3) 4* Madhyama, the mean, th at mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school’s specific sutra the flL also the 0 and later sutras. In the two earlier periods he is said to have adapted his teaching to the development of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doctrine. Another division by the is (1) as above; (2) the early period of the Mahayana represented by the gjf ; (3) the higher Mahayana as in the ^ j^ . v. also H | | U| The three stages of karma—in the present life because of present deeds ; in the next life because

of present actions; and in future lives because of present actions. The three kinds of wisdom : (1) (a) —• -IjJJ | sravaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge th at all the dharma or laws are Ig void and unreal; (b) tOl 4H I bodhisattva-knowledge of all things in their proper discrimination ; (c) —■•§) fjg | Buddhaknowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. T‘ien-t‘ai associates the above with § , i g , 4* • (2) (a) -fit fbl | earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) ifi: | supra-mundane, or spiritual (sravaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom ; (c) fU] _k JL I supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas, v. ^ £ iif e 2 7 ,jtiJ i3 ,a n d $ { J ii^ 3 . *. ^ ^ Sanskrit.

God of the wind, which is Yata in

H fb # Sam anta; tr. by |ff, jg uni­ versal, everywhere; also | | PE, H ?3§ I I (or M ) PE (or 1®) Samantagandha, ^ H univer­ sally fragrant. A tree in Paradise ; a title of a Buddha. I I (PE) S i PE (IS ); I I PB Samantabhadra, j g P ‘u-hsien; v. — $g. 1 I T The three kinds of bhava, or exist­ ence ; idem H q-v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i.e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is Ig, ^ present existence, or the present body and mind ; ^ in a future state ;4» antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. | | |£j- The three sets of limitation on freedom : (a) direct resistance or opposition ; (b) environment or condition ; (c) attach­ ment. | | ^ The three active or functioning dharmas : (1) pratigha, matter or form, i.e. th at which has “ substantial resistance ” ; (2) mind ; and (3) 0 'fe 0 ifj>entities neitherof m atter nor m ind; cf. -t; -j— I | M 40 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i.e. life), d e a th ; utpada, sthiti, and nirvana. Sammata, intp. as dir t ’f unani­ mously accorded ’’ ; i.e. name of the first king (elected) at the beginning of each world-kalpa. H i ;jfv The third of the Hlnayana JSJ JfL four fruits or results, i.e. non-return to mortality. The three tree-trunks, or main stems— desire, hate, stupidity; v. H

. The three (evil) “ roots ”—desire, hate, stupidity, idem H Another group is the three grades of good “ ro o ts” , or abilities J^, superior, medium, and inferior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness H $£ M £&• *1 The three Brahma heavens of the first d hyana: th at of ^ ^ Brahma-parisadya, the assembly of Brahma ; ^ $j§ Brahma-purohitas, his attendants ; ^ 3* Mahabrahma, Great Brahma. . 'jsB ^ The three smallest things, i.e. an atom as the smallest particle of m a tte r; a letter as the shortest possible nam e; a ksana, as the shortest period of time. H i Trividha-dvara. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, J^, □ (2) (a) Present-life happy karma ; (b) present-life unhappy karma ; (c) ^ gUj karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (6) ev il; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) M I Karma of ordinary rebirth ; (b) | karma of Hinayana nirvana ; (c) 0 jjg karma of neither, independent of both, Mahayana nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life conse­ quences ; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life. There are other groups of three. I I ; I I 40 H To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth, and m in d ; the second form means that in worship all three corre­ spond. H The three joys—the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvana. H

S

v.

h

«.

~ The three kinds of dana, i.e. ch arity ; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearidem = ;£fe. * jpq The T‘ien-t‘ai division of the Schools of Buddhism into four, three termed |ft temporary, i.e. j j , and JglJ q.v., the fourth is the or | ] real or perfect School of Salvation by faith to Buddhahood, especially as revealed in the Lotus Sutra, see — j f . The three lusts, i.e. for ft? fg form, carriage or beauty, and $Ij refinement, or softness to the touch.

j K The three emperors Wu who persecuted Buddhism : °f the Wei dynasty a .t >. 424-452 ; ^ of the Chou a . d . 561-578 ; ^ of the T ang a . d . 841-7. —1 TriSarana, or Sarana-gamana. The three surrenders to, or “ formulas of refuge ” in, the Three Precious Ones H he. to the Buddha ffe, the Dharma f t , the Sangha ffj\ The three formulas are Hr j$c Buddham saranam gacchami, §§ 0c f t Dharmam Saranam gacchami, BS 0C f f - Sangham saranam gacchami. I t is “ the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists ” . The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher jjjjj, the Law as medicine Ufii, the Ecclesia as friends These are known as the H Hr 0c- | | ^ f t The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the above three surrenders. | | (3l) 1$ The ceremony which makes the recipient a §$ US or §jj % upasaka or upasika, male or female disciple, accepting the five commandments. There are 3 l H H Hr five stages of san-kuei; the first two are as above, at the third the eight com­ mandments are accepted, at the fourth the ten, at the fifth all the commandments. H H is also a general term for a Buddhist.

* * . -fijr Thethree poisons, also styled H ; H W 5 they are concupiscence, or wrong desire, jjS| anger, hate, or resentment, and $jj stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept B uddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia, v. ^ jg fgf 19, 31. j | P ^lj The &ri (i.e. goddess of Fortune) of the three poisons, a title of Manjusri. H

Vo

The three gates to the city of nirvana, i.e. IK 40, and the void (or the immaterial), formlessness, and inactivity; idem

h m ^ The three kinds of “ clean ” flesh —when a monk has not seen the creature killed, has not heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon.

h m # m, » «

Samantabhadra, in­ terpreted |!jf P ‘u-hsien, pervading goodness, or “ all gracious ” , E lio t; also pf universal fortune ; also styled Yisvabhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of O-mei shan. He is the special patron of followers of the Lotus Sutra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school. v. H f c . 1 The three progressive developments of the Buddha’s teaching according to the Prajna school: (a) the jjg initial stage in the LumbinI deer p a rk ; (b) the period of the eight succeeding years ; (c) the ^ prajna or wisdom period which succeeded. *1 The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transm igration: ^ desire; (material, or phenomenal) existence; §0 igno­ rance (of the way of escape), jg 22.

idem

The three dharma, i.e. ^ | the Buddha’s teaching ; | the practice of i t ; | realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvana. | | fip idem H fiP- I I S idem H S - F °r I I ip v. H Z Z S c M 3 i l idem H M H HI q.v. | | The three law-wheels, or periods of the Buddha’s preaching, according to Param artha, to ^ ^ Chiahsiang of the H school, and to Hsiiantsang of the f t school. Hi

a term used a t the conclusion of Homa or Fireworship. I I 18 jS IS The three prajnapti, ^ jg q.v. | | |nf Sampaha, according to Eitel, Malasa, a valley in the upper P u n jab ; but perhaps $ambl, a state north of Citral in the Hindukush.

^

S am apta; finished, ended, perfect;

H A The three fires—desire, hate, and stu­ pidity; v. H ^ The three calamities; they are of two kinds, minor and major. The minor, appearing during a decadent world-period, are sword, pestilence, and fam ine; the major, for world-destruction, are fire, water, and wind. f|L ^ 12. h

m

m

-

H ».

—I The three distresses of which dragons and dragon-kings are afraid—fiery heat, fierce wind, and the garuda bird which preys on them for food.

m

m c m ) The three th at are without difference, i.e. are of the same n a tu re : (a) The nature of mind is the same in Buddhas, and men, and all the living; (b) {$ the nature and enlightenment of all Buddhas is the same ; (c) ^ ^ the nature and enlightenment of all the living is the same. The 0 f§ $g says jgl]. 11 ^ The three things without a nature or separate existence of their ow n: (a) ^ form, appearance or seeming, is unreal, e.g. a rope appearing like a snake ; (6) ^ ^ ^ life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived from constituent materials ; (c) j H ^ the JH H , concept of the if( or bhutatathata is unreal, e.g. the hemp of which the rope is m ade; the bhutatathata is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and unreal. The three are also known as n ft. * e I I S m .The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration : (a) ^ Moral discipline ; (b) meditation, or trance ; (c) | | the resulting wisdom. | | fik The three roots for the passionless life and final escape from trans­ migration, i.e. the last three of the Zl “h Z1 ^ q.v. An older group was £n £n $ ; $; *A»23. I The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories, i.e. the JJ-, p , deeds, words, and thoughts of a Buddha. ‘ M The three shinings ; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to T‘ien-t£ai teaching of the Hua-yen sutra, the Buddha’s doctrine had three periods of such shining: (a) first, he taught the Hua-yen sutra, transforming his chief disciples into bodhi­ sattvas ; (6) second, the Hlnayana sutras in general to sravakas and pratyeka-buddhas in the Lumbini garden; (c) third, the ^ sutras down to the for all the living. See the ^ -f- 0 j§| ^ 35, where the order is five, i.e. bodhisattvas, pratyekabuddhas, Sravakas, lay disciples, and all creatures. H Samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the ^ or ^ i.e. the second of the Four Truths, the aggregation of suffering. H I S The three monkeys, one guarding its eyes, another its ears, a third its mouth. ZH The three animals—hare, horse, elephant— crossing a stream. The sravaka is like the hare who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka-buddha is like the horse who crosses deeper

than the h a re ; the bodhisattva is like the elephant who walks across on the bottom. Also likened to the triyana. 2g $?£ 23, 27. H ffi curd.

The three sweet things—cream, honey,

4 * The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. T‘ien-t‘ai has (a) fjg planting the seed ; (b) fit, ripening ; (c) liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Hua-yen has (a) ^ ^ a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth ; (b) fife f f ^ liberation in the present life ; (c) \ ^ realization of life in Buddha­ hood. This is also called H {$, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.

ff)

* The three “ fields ” of varying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, sravakas, and icchantis, respectively producing a hundred-fold, fifty-fold, one­ fold. m m U Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms ; also ££ . I t is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhur, bhuvah, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are "fe, and i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) ^ | Kamadhatu is the realm of sensuous desire, of and 'f t sex and food ; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) Rupadhatu is the realm of form, meaning fg that which is substantial and resistant; it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful—a semi-material conception like th at in Revelation; it is represented in the {5} jjj|[ or Brahmalokas. (c) IS “fe !?• Arupadhatu, or arupyadhatu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is conceived of in four stages, i.e. JB3 ^ the four “ empty ” regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are |29 -£& the four “ form­ less ” realms, or realms beyond form ; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. m » i& lffl I U i v . j L i . | | — The triple world is but one m ind; from a verse of the m * su tra ; it proceeds M JSU

M: ~ IK ^ #'] “ outside mind there is no other thing ; mind, Buddha, and all the living, these three are not different ” ; in other words, there is no differentiating between these three, for all is mind. | | :f£ The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha. | [ ££ The kindly father of the triple world—Buddha. | | ^5 The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus Sutra parable. | | The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering. | | gg The trailokya eye, i.e. Buddha, who sees all the realms and the way of universal escape. | | M The tablet used at the annual ceremonial offerings to “ all souls ” , v. ^|j. | | jjgf The trailokya-garbha, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational. | | i f The hero of the trailokya —Buddha. — The three doubts—of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.

; 'fjkj The three ailm ents : (1 ) (a) ^ lust, for which the Tp, |f | meditation on uncleanness is the rem edy; (b) gj| anger, or hate, remedy ^ meditation on kindness and pity ; (c) j§§ stupidity, or ignorance, remedy @ He H meditation on causality. (2) (a) |§ Slander of M ahayana; (b) 5 3$r ffl the five gross sins ; (c) to be a “ heathen ” or outsider ; the forms recorded seem to be icchantika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. H i§j. ZZ ^ i f r The three resolves of the fg f,5ii Awakening of F a ith : (a) fg j$; j | to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of fa ith ; (b) I I to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) jj£ | | the realization, or proof of or union with bodhi. * r*j / V

The three white foods—milk, cream (or curd), and rice (especially upland rice); | | ££ is the rule of these three.

H I H tA

)

(or — The 348 or 341 rules for a nun ; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules. I I ~h The reputed and disputed number (360) of Sakyamuni’s assemblies for preaching. | | gj The 300 yoj anas parable of the Magic City, erected by a leader who feared th at his people would become weary and re tu rn ; i.e. Hlnayana nirvana, a temporary rest on the way to the real land of precious things, or true nirvana; v. & m i t m ZZ

6 5 idem H §§•

— . IfiL idem ^

#£.

~Z § The three-eyed, a term for &iva, i.e. M ahesvara; simile for the dharmakaya, or spiritual body, prajna, or wisdom, and nirvana emancipation.

43

Z m The three forms or positions: nirvana ; $ t 40 no nirvana ; ^ or 0 0 £ rf* M absence of both, or the “ middle way ” of neither. | | £ff The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings, who arise out of the five skandhas ; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of moral karma causes. Three aspects of the bhutatathata, implying that it is above the limitations of form, creation, or a soul. (1) (a) $£ ^0 I I without form ; (b) 55 I I without creation; (c) | | without anything that can be called a nature for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) H | | The bhutatathata as good; (b) H | | as evil; (c) fg ££ | ( a s neutral, or neither good nor evil. ~Z H m S a bodhisattva khyeyas |5ijf fgto acquire the of a Buddha ;

§1$ Sammatlya, v. H 3S He( J c ) m The period necessary for to become a Buddha, i.e. three asanto attain the 7^ and 100 kalpas thirty-two or characteristic marks cf. H Pnf-

The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The H H H has the felicity of (a) fg; | filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) 5$ | of keeping the other commandments; (c) | of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The f|L 18, has the blessedness of (a) | almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth ; (6) IS I observance of the (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the 3H Ulc (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens ; (c) fgf ||j | observance of medita­ tion in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. H f§ ^ M- I I M The three things that bring a happy lot—almsgiving, impartial kindness and love, pondering over the demands of the life beyond. ZZ The third dhyana heaven of form, the highest paradise of form.

*L jfis Worship with and mind.

P,

L ^4* The three categories of or X> and eighteen JJL

body, mouth,

|g , -f- H jg

The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for J^, p , and ; i.e. the symbol; the mystic word, or sound; the meditation of the mind. The j | | Iff* is a term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol, and the image. 1

Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc.

*. 111* Three kinds of past, present, and future as intp. according to jfi; gg, jpiji jg , and If ft. ‘ ^»|| ||§ , The three types of meditation on the principles of the q.v., i.e. the dogmas of

H ® 1ft ® v. H t B.

q*gl X Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heaven, e tc .; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods ; (c) the pure Buddha-land. ‘ ^ fj ^ A Buddha in his three eternal quali­ ties : («) X 14 I in his nature or dharm akaya; (b) Z f g ff | in his unbroken eternity, sambhogakaya ; (c) Wt I bi bis continuous and eternally varied forms, nirmanakaya. — I ® ' f r 3 r The three kinds of mental dis­ tress : desire, anger, stupidity, idem H Patience or forbearance of body, mouth, and mind. Three modes of repentance: (a) I to meditate on the way to prevent wrong thoughts and delusions; (6) ^ | to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts and passions; (c) ® in proper form to confess one’s breach of the rules before the Buddha and seek remission.

Three modes of serving (the Buddha, e tc .): (a) offerings of incense, flowers, food, e tc .; (6) of praise and reverence ; (c) of right con­ duct.

S i l l (or Wf. The three reasons of a bodhisattva’s pity—because all beings are like helpless infants ; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences ; without external cause, i.e. because of his own nature.

H ® W The three kinds of lig h t: (a) ex­ ternal—sun, moon, stars, lamps, e tc .; (b) dharma, or the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitted by Buddhas, bodhi­ sattvas, devas.

The three modes of the Buddha’s teaching of the Southern Sects: iljff im­ mediate, j||f gradual or progressive, and i f indeterminate.

The three kinds of hells—hot,

S i f The three kinds of uccheda—cuttingoff, excision, or bringing to an end : (1) (a) § '|4 I with the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) s f £ | with realization of the doctrine that all is Jg unreal, evil karma ceases to arise ; (c) $$ | illusion being ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappears and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three sravaka or ascetic stages are (a) Jjl, jjjf | ending the condition of false views; (b) | getting rid of desire and illusion in practice ; (c) ^ | no more illusion or desire to be cut off.

—I jpg X The three major kinds of wis­ dom : (a) self-acquired, no master needed; (b) un­ acquired and n atu ral; (c) universal.

•'jgr The wisdom of common men, of the heterodox, and of Buddhism ; i.e. (a) jg: fflj | normal, worldly knowledge or ideas ; (b) flj jg: fflj j other­ worldly wisdom, e.g. of Hinayana; (c) ff} jg; faj _L |

— The three kinds of good roots— almsgiving, mercy, and wisdom. —1 ( H pgljl Three kinds of unity or identity of (a) 3||. gg phenomena with “ substance ” , e.g. waves and the w ater; (b) IjJ l j | phenomena with pheno­ mena, e.g. wave with w ave; (c) gg gg substance with substance, e.g. water with water.

cold, and solitary.

the highest other-worldly wisdom, of M ahayana; cf.

i i& m

Three kinds of existence : (a) +0 ^ | th at of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length and short­ ness ; (b) jit ^5 | th at of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a m a n ; (c) ££ | th at of the noumenal, or imaginary, understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a “ hare’s horns ” or a “ turtle’s fur ” . Three kinds of desire—food, sleep,

—. tH H§, Three T£ien-t£ai modes of enter­ ing dhyana : (a) $jff gradual, from the shallow to the deep, the simple to the complex; (b) irregular, simple, and complex m ixed; (c) [gj fljg immediate and whole.

H l f f l The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts : (a) |§£ ^0 inferential, as fire is inferred from smoke ; (b) ^ +0 formal or spatial, as length, breadth, e tc .; (c) jfg | qualitative, as heat is in fire, etc. (2) (a) lit +0 names, which are merely indications of the tem poral; (b) ^0 dharmas, or “ things ” ; (c) Jtt ^ +0 the formless—all three are incorrect positions. h ® m m Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering the pains of hell, i.e. physically, by super­ natural powers, change of form, e tc .; ^ mentally, through powers of memory and enlightenment; p orally, by moral exhortation. Hi , 431 Three kinds of rupa, i.e. appearance or object: (1 ) (a) visible objects; (b) invisible objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or ab­ stract objects. (2) (a) colour, (b) shape, (c) quality.

ft ft r i ® i f c M W . The three kinds of paramita ideals, or methods of perfection : («) ifr HU | | | that of people in general relating to this world ; (6) in t n i i i th at of sravakas and pratyekabuddhas relating to the future life for themselves; (c) fli ifib Rg _h _ t I | | the supreme one of bodhi­ sattvas, relating to the future life for a ll; cf. | | ^ . The threefold way of obtaining a pure karma, idem H MH l l The three purities of a bodhi­ sattva—a mind free from all impurity, a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance perfectly pure and adorned. ZH JM Three kinds of baptism : (1 ) (a) | H $ H Every Buddha baptizes a disciple by laying a hand on his h e a d ; (b) |£ | | by pre­ dicting Buddhahood to him ; (c) Jfc % | | by reveal­ ing his glory to him to his profit. (2) Shingon has (a) baptism on acquiring the mystic w ord; (b) on remission of sin and prayer for blessing and protec­ tion ; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life. = * The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions : (a) | the mind, or active th o u g h t; (b) | the objective w orld; (c) fife | their constant interaction, or the con­ tinuous stream of latent predispositions.

s a i l Three classes of delusive views, or illusions—those common to hum anity; those of the inquiring m in d ; and those of the learned and settled mind. h i # The T£ien-t‘ai School has a definition of g | the physical body of the Buddha ; & | his psychological body with its vast variety; j(f +0 | his real body, or dharmakaya. The esoteric sect ascribes a trikaya to each of its honoured ones, v. H JW- I I I ^ The three duhkha or afflictions of the body—old age, sickness, death. HU ’j/j- The three kinds of icchantika: (a) — Pfi ^ jSS the wicked; (&) H M $5 called A m M S bodhisattvas who become icchantika to save all beings ; (c) jSjfl j|g j!c $5 otherwise M Pfl $1 those without a nature for final nirvana. Cf. H MThree kinds of scent, or incense, i.e. from root, branch, or flower. I The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) § , (6) $£ *0 , (c) 4$ 0 , v. Bfc. The second, (a) ffc |, (b) ^ |, (c) {g. | the self, things, all phenomena as “ empty ” or im­ material. The third relates to charity: (a) giver, (b) receiver, (c) gift, all are “ empty ” . | | (jfg) f'J idem The three equal and universal charac-

teristics of the one Tathagata, an esoteric definition : (1) (a) his $j[ body, (b) discourse, (c) ^ mind. (2) (a) his life or works ^ ; (6) spiritual body ; (c) salvation £ ; in their equal values and universality. | | Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. i the certain con­ sequences th at follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; jg J J the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous life’s ill deeds, e.g. shortened life from taking life ; | | each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind.

mm

—I

fy4

idem jn |j8 tripitaka.

—~ The three divisions of the -f- “ 0 ^ twelve nidanas, q .v .: (a) past, i.e. the first tw o ; (6) present—the next eight; (c) future—the last two. — The three auras of earth, of the ani­ mate, and of the inanimate invoked against demon influences. , 1 tJhQ The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with the 7^ H cruder or common con­ cepts, in the Awakening of Faith fH Snfr. The three are |j|| FJ0 H 40 “ ignorance ” , or the unenlightened condition, considered as in primal action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty ; ^ ability to perceive phenom ena; perceptive faculties; Jf| ijf. the object perceived, or the empirical world. The first is associated with the « corpus or substance, the second and third with function, but both must have co-existence, e.g. water and waves, v. «• —* The three ties : (a) j|, |, the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego ; (6) ^ | of dis­ cipline ; (c) H | of doubt. The three are also parts of j | jg and used for it. — ]$rn * gffij The three sutras and one sastra on which the Pure Land sect bases its teaching :

IS ; m m vz m -, ‘ j|P§J The three bonds, i.e. directors of a m onastery: (a) ® sthavira, elder, president; (b) $ 3 ^ viharasvamin, v. the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) $t karmadana, v. who directs the monks. Another m eaning: (a) _E ; (6) H M ; (c) ^ M. viharapala, v. J | director of worship. The three vary in different countries.

. idem H

The three bonds—desire, anger, stupidity;

*1 The three nidanas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure Land se ct: (a) | th at he hears those who call his name, sees their worship, knows their hearts and is one with them ; (b) jjf. | that he shows himself to those who desire to see him ; (c) fg' _E j th at at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a dis­ ciple at death. - 1 g lj J H The three things that work for punishment—body, mouth, and mind.

^

IP H v. -*

1 The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The 0 Hua-yen have Vairocana in the centre with Manjusri on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The [Jg Mi-t‘o, or Pure-land sect, have Amitabha in the centre, with Avalokitesvara on his left and Mahasthamaprapta on his right. The T‘ien-t‘ai use the term for the jglj, and Q0 f t v. H I t •H i The three groups, i.e. IE % | Those decided for the tr u th ; Ijffl j those who are decided for heresy; ^ | the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools. | [ (££) The three cumulative commandments : (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the r e s t; (b) whatever works for goodness ; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings. H M [81 interprets the above three as implicit in each of the ten com­ mandments, e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation. The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect knowledge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affairs of countless ages ; (c) save countless beings. B ut he cannot (a) annihi­ late causality, i.e. karma ; (6) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living. Hi f l v. H S only associated with

I (P*3), but the former is $g|, or nirvana.

—* |=J Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third g ill self-control, the fourth and fifth g self-purification, the last three g self-development in the religious life and in wisdom. Also g g f, g f t , g f t , substance, form, and function. —\ The three exposures, i.e. the three sins of a monk each entailing his unfrocking—wilful non-confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine.

BMMM

The three laksa ; a laksa is a mark, sign, token, aim, object; it is also 100,000, i.e. an fg. The three laksa of the esoteric sects are the ^ or magic word, the fip symbol and the i f ^ object worshipped. Other such threes are body, mouth, and mind ; morning, noon, and evening ; cold, heat, and rain, etc. v. |g£. | | A T‘ien-t‘ai name for Hlnayana, whose tripitaka is ascribed to Mahakasyapa. | 1 student of Hlnayana. | | |jp A teacher of the Law ; especially jgf ^ Hsiian-tsang of the T‘ang dynasty; and cf. 5^.

v .-

i f The three prajnas, or perfect en­ lightenments : (a) ^ I I wisdom in its essence or reality; (&) ||g BB ( | the wisdom of perceiving the real meaning of the la st; (c) HI J | or ^ (| the wisdom of knowing things in their temporary and changing condition. 1 The three kinds of rupa, or form-realms : the five organs (of sense), their objects, and invisible perceptions, or ideas. Cf. j— fj| -fe. H S The three kinds of duhkha, pain, or suffering: ^ ^ that produced by direct causes; !g | by loss or deprivation; fx | by the passing or impermanency of all things. . ^ __ . y fv A parable in the Lotus Sutra ; the small plants representing ordinary men and devas, medium sized plants sravakas and pratyeka-buddhas, and -fc /J> ^ and ^ ^ tall plants and small and large trees three grades of bodhisattvas. Another definition applies the term to the 3£ f{§ five “vehicles”. There are also others. rfl" The three adornments, or glories, of a country: material attractions; religion and learning; men, i.e. religious men and bodhisattvas. /(d[) Sambhoga or Sambhuta. An ancient rsi of Mathura. | | | 2S Sambhogakaya. (1) The “ body of enjoyment ” or recompense-body of a Buddha; his ^ or reward-body, one of the Trikaya, H (2) The third of the buddhaksetra the domain in which all respond perfectly to their Buddha. ca ^ Sambodhi, ipf intp. IE ft* Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened; v. # m .

— fife (®)- The third of the ten titles of a Buddha, defined as IE ® & (or ji)> or IE j | , etc., one who has perfect universal knowledge or understand­ ing ; omniscient. | | | ^ ; H $$ I® ; - ® ^ Samyak-sambodhi. Correct universal intelligence, IE ^ £n ( j§ )• Correct equal or universal enlightenment (IE H ). Correct universal perfect enlightenment (IE ^ IE ^ )- An epithet of every Buddha. The full term is anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, perfect universal enlightenment, knowledge, or under­ standing ; omniscience. —I The three kinds of skandhas, aggrega­ tions, or combinations, into which all life may be expressed according to the or Mahlsasakah school: —■^ | combination for a moment, momen­ tary existence; — $0 I combination for a period, e.g. a single human lifetime; ^ | the total existence of all beings. H % # The three places where Sakyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought direct and without speech to Kasyapa : at the fH |If by a smile when plucking a flower ; at the ^ £F* ^ when he shared his seat with him ; finally by putting his foot out of his coffin. | | 7fc The moksa of the three places, i.e. moral control over body, mouth, and mind. | | §§ Three classes of aranyakah or ascetics distinguished by their three kinds of abode —those who dwell in retired places, as in forests; among tombs; in deserts; v. fSSf gtj H f t Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. the ten good deeds that cause happy karma ; the ten evil deeds that cause unhappy karma ; * M M or IfE ltM:r karma arising without activity, e.g. meditation on error and its remedy. The three yana, or vehicles to nirvana,

i.e. sravaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, v. h mThree devices in meditation for getting rid of Mara-hindrances : within, to get rid of passion and delusion; without, to refuse or to withdraw from external temptation. H * The three regulation garments of a monk, 51 He kasaya, i.e. {§■ -fim %. sanghati, assembly robe ; ^ 0 M uttarasanga, upper garment worn over the PE # antarvasaka, vest or shirt, jp. | | The only proper garments of a monk. —

The three deteriorators, idem H

H « H Samputa. One of the twelve ways of putting the hands together in worship, i.e. bringing the hands together without the palms touching. H i ^ 2 /V The three reports and eight investigations. H | denote a day in each of the first, fifth, and ninth months when the recording angels of the four Lokapalas report on the conduct of each in­ dividual ; A | are the opening days of the four seasons and the two solstices and two equinoxes during which similar investigations are made. Two angels, fp] ££ and JpJ observe each individual, the first a female at his right shoulder noting the evil deeds; the second, a male, at his left shoulder noting the good deeds; both report on high and in hades six times a month. Thus in each month there 8X6 an 3$F and in each year H S and H * The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) g ; 0 ^7 ill 0P Exponents of the above doctrine. | pp The mouth sign, one of the fourteen symbols of 1|; q.v. | fU Harmony of mouths or voices, unanimous approval. | |SJ The four evils of the mouth, lying, double tongue, ill words, and

exaggeration; cf. -f* | ; ®!fOne of the H • Secret or magical words, either definite formu­ las of the Buddha or secret words from his dharma­ kaya, or spirit. | jQ, Patience of the mouth, uttering no rebuke under insult or persecution; there are similarly | and |. | H ; f g H One of the H U - (1) The work of the mouth, i.e. talk, speech. (2) The evil karma produced by the mouth, especially from lying, double-tongue, ill words, and exaggera­ tion. | H ^ The offering of the praise or worship of the lip s; also JfM | | and & I | |. I ®ft; H lift Esoteric commentary, or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated. | $$ Invocation. | | H The samadhi in which with a quiet heart the individual repeats the name of Buddha, or the samadhi attained by such repetition. | Orally transmitted decisions or instructions. I f t ; IE f t f t One of the ^ The wheel of the mouth, or the wheel of the true teaching; Buddha’s teaching rolling on every where, like a chariot-wheel, destroying misery. I Ilf Mouth meditation, i.e. dependence on the leading of others, inability to enter into personal meditation. ~H Bhu ; bhum i; prthivi. Earth, locality, local, vulgar. | jjj$ The local guardian deity of the soil or locality, deus loci; in the classics and govern­ ment sacrifices known as ; as guardian deity of the grave jp J ; . The ± itlj 'i* is the shrine of this deity as ruler of the site of a monastery, and is usually east of the main hall. On the 2nd and 16th of each month a i or reading of a sutra should be done at the shrine. IS ; 73r HC ^ $ t Sanaiscara. Saturn. Sani, the Hindu ruler of the planet, was “ identified with the planet itself ” . [Eitel.] | f e Tibet. | ® ^ ; \ \M W The putting of earth on the grave 108 times by the Shingon se c t; they also put it on the deceased’s body, and even on the sick, as a kind of baptism for sin, to save the deceased from the hells and base reincarnations, and bring them to the Pure Land. | Jg ; fgft jfg Jg Sthulatyaya. Serious sin. | §g gg An earthen loaf, i.e. a grave; but v. i » Asoka is said to have become king as a reward for offering, when a child in a previous incarnation, a double-handful of sand as wheat or food to the Buddha.

it am

± ft m-

± A gentleman, scholar, officer. | ^ v. ^ ^ Purusa. | ^ ^ One of the eight heterodox views, i.e. the pride arising from belief in a purusa, ^ J%[ q.v. | fg gg Sma^ana. A crematory ; a burial place for remains from cremation. A grave ; v. ^ fg gg. The form is doubtful.

Evening. | JjjJl The evening service, as ^ is the morning service. Maha. 0 PT ; |££ Great, large, b ig ; allpervading, all-embracing ; numerous ; surpassing 0 ; mysterious ftp ; beyond comprehension 7f> pf © ! omnipresent fg Tfi. %£. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) H The three all-per­ vasive qualities of the JfiL fta q-v.: its fg , sub­ stance, form, and functions, v. fff |fr. (b) (Z9 The four tanm atra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the {1. gft. (c) 3£ ^ The five, i.e. the last four and space v. ^ 0 g . (^) aC The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind f§|. Hlnayana, emphasizing imperson­ ality A considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahayana, emphasizing the unreality of all things ^ counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind fffc dom inant; the esoteric sect emphasizing non­ production, or non-creation, regards them as uni­ versal and as the Absolute in differentiation, (e) The jg| |S adds ^ perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs ^ ^ Mahasammata. The first of the five kings of the Vivarta kalpa (jfc 2£ 3E), one of the ancestors of the Sakya clan. Avantikas. The great school of the son who “ could not be aban­ doned ” (a subdivision of the Sammatlyas H J®;), whose founder when a newborn babe was abandoned by his parents. m m m istics of the evil state, or disgrace, shameless.

described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness ; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahayana, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. I t has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas g§, i.e. beings who deny them­ selves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (6) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddhas or bodhi­ sattvas ; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hlnayana is sometimes described as gj flj self-benefiting, and Mahayana as g} flj ipj fk self­ benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahayana. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas; the triyana may be sravaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock c a r t; the one-yana is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according to the capacity of his hearers, v. $>. Though Maha­ yana tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahayana has been attributed to Nagarjuna f | “ The charac­ teristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samadhi and Dhyana) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hlnayana school.” [Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 3g fit p& and the ftp 31 # IS, but a large number of Mahayana sutras are ascribed to the Buddha.

The two great character­ no sense of shame

M ahayana; also called _h J ; ftp | ; B \ ; m _k I; * J t _L I; I; 4*3E |; tS ^ ^ I; I l f f i The great yana, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the /J'. | Hlnayana. I t indicates Universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddha and will attain bodhi. I t is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. I t is also called Northern Buddhism. I t is interpreted as ^ ^ the greater teaching as compared with /]> ^ the smaller, or inferior. Hlnayana, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly

The two Mahayana kinds of Buddhahood : (1) that of natural purity, for every one has the inherent n atu re; (2) that attained by practice. S t ^ ® W - The Mahayana good roots realm, a name for the Amitabha Pure-land of the West. J \t?9 ;ljc The four fruits, or bodhisattva stages in Mahayana, the fourth being that of a B uddha: ^ |5£ fg srota-apanna, m re & sakrdagamin, ffi & anagamin, and pif fg arhan. This is a j || ^ category. •

^ 0 Mahayana “ cause ” is variously de­ scribed as the mind of enlightenment $j§ ^C The school of Mahayana, attributed to the rise in India of the Madhyamika, i.e. the * f t or r i afo school ascribed to Nagarjuna, and the Yoga Jjjfc {fai or Dharmalaksana ^0 school, the other schools being Hlnayana. In China and Japan the {ft and jpg; j§f are classed as Hlnayana, the rest being Mahayana, of which the principal schools are # , £ f t , H f t , # f t , ^ 6 , H # ±, H q.v. The mind or heart of the M ahayana; seeking the mind of Buddha by means of Maha­ yana. ^ The commands or prohibitions for bodhisattvas and monks, also styled ^ f t | ; H f t f t I; III f t I and other titles according to the school. The gives ten weighty prohibitions and forty-eight lighter ones; v. also I I I f t~K H I

V.

j z ^ ; for I I I X

V.

j i f t-

* m -% m m * The sutras and scriptures of the Mahayana, their doctrines being J£ square and correct and 2p ^ for all equally, or universal. X J t Wi l i P ft M I B Vimaatikavijnaptim atratasiddhi-sastra. A title of one of three treatises by Vasubandhu, tr. a .d . 508-535, -am m m m 557- 509, and m m ~ + f t tr. by Hsiian-tsang in 661 being the other two. title for

f t v. | | f t .

& V- &

xmm±m

The supreme Mahayana truth, according to the {|jb f§?, is that of ultimate reality in contrast with the temporary and apparent; also reliance on the power of the vow of the bodhi­ sattva. HI tff- j C The Mahayana great moral law involving no external action ; a T‘ien-t‘ai expression for the inner change which occurs in the recipient of ordination; it is the activity w ithin; “iso I I I I IB « « ; * * * *.

x m.m#

The lands wholly devoted to Mahayana, i.e. China and Japan, where in practice there is no Hlnayana. Mahayana sutras, the Sutra-pitaka. Discourses ascribed to the Buddha, presumed to be written in India and translated into Chinese. These are divided into five classes corresponding to the Mahayana theory of the Buddha’s life : (1) Avatamsaka, |jp f t , the sermons first preached by Sakyamuni after enlightenment; (2) Yaipulya, ; (3) Prajna Paramita, ^ ; (4) Saddharma Pundarika, ^ 0 ; and last (5) Mahaparinirvana, g! f t . Another list of Mahayana sutras is ^ ; § g [; X M > Ip f t and Jg f t . The sutras of Hlnayana are given as the Agamas pif etc. tr a Mahayanasutra lamkara-tika. An exposition of the teachings of the Vijnana-vada School, by Asanga, tr. a . d . 630-3 by Prabhakaramitra. 13 chiian. ^P* f g pro Mahayana - sraddhotpadasastra, attributed to Asvaghosa (without sufficient evidence), tr. by Paramartha a . d . 553 and Siksananda between 695-700; there are nineteen commentaries on it. I t is described as the founda­ tion work of the Mahayana. Tr. into English by Timothy Richard and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith. 3fv jlro Abhidharma of the Mahayana, the collection of discourses on metaphysics and doctrines. ^Pf. J f l ~F. Yimalakixti-nirdesa-sutra, is the Sanskrit title of a work of which there exist six translations, one made by Upasunya a . d . 502-557.

For the sake of a great cause, or because of a great m atter—the Buddha appeared, i.e. for changing illusion into enlightenment. The Lotus interprets it as enlightenm ent; the Nirvana as the B uddha-nature; the ^ as the joy of Paradise.

* A

ffi Sealed with the sign of man­ hood, i.e. of the religious life. Maharsi. Great sages, applied to Buddhist saints as superior to ordinary “ immortals ” ; also to sravakas, and especially to B uddha; | | are the Buddha’s laws or commands. Vasistha ^ f was one of the seven rsis j|lj of Brahmanic mythology. X TPl A title of the esoteric sect for their form of Buddha, or Buddhas, especially of Vairocana of the Vajradhatu and Sakyamuni of the Garbha­ dhatu groups. Also, an abbreviation of a dharani as is | | | |j|g of a sutra, and there are other | | | scriptures.

world; also

|

Ended, finished; dead to the Jfg.

Great or firm faith in, or surrender to Buddha, especially to Amitabha. | | | A heart of faith great as the ocean.

* it

A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhiksu as contrasted with the sramana. | | The Director or Pope of monks ; an office under Wu-ti, a .d . 502550, of the Liang dynasty, for the control of the monks. Wen Ti, 560-7, of the Ch‘en dynasty appointed a | |or Director over the monks in his capital. 7C M i 98 EE The great commander, one of the sixteen RjJ q-v., named Atavika [5pJ PL iS j$0 (or ffl. °r -^). There are four sutras, chiefly spells connected with his cult.

±

% m 3E The Great-Light Ming-wang, &akyamuni in a previous existence, when king of Jambudvipa, at Benares. There his white elephant, stirred by the sight of a female elephant, ran away with him into the forest, where he rebuked his mahout, who replied, “ I can only control the body not the mind, only a Buddha can control the mind.” Thereupon the royal rider made his resolve to attain bodhi and become a Buddha. Later, he gave to all

th at asked, finally even his own head to a Brahman who demanded it, at the instigation of an enemy king. I I Hr Abhasvara. The third of the celestial regions in the second dhyana heaven of the form realm; v. gg |g[ | | BS The great light shining everywhere, especially the ray of light that streamed from between the Buddha’s eyebrows, re­ ferred to in the Lotus sutra. | I I I |Pi i f ’ One of the six forms of Kuan-yin. Maha-cundi, a form of Kuan-yin. There are dharanis beginning with the name Cundl. Mahakalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed and another begins in its place. I t has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta $ v - JL 3E* There are seven sets of spells connected with him.

A $

Mahendra, or Mahendri, or Rajamahendri. A city near the mouth of the Godavery, the present Rajamundry. | | ® The great comforter, or pacifier—a Buddha’s title. Great insight, great wisdom, great pity, the three virtues H of a Buddha by which he achieves enlightenment and wisdom and saves all beings. 7 ^ / I I The samadhi which the Tathagata enters, of perfect tranquillity and concentration with total absence of any perturbing elem ent; also parinirvana. Also | | f£f H $c ; | | H 0 fife- I I $£ -E The great tranquil or nirvana dharma-king, i.e. Vairocana. | [ ^ Parinirvana ; the great nirvana. iz % W The grove of great cold, sitavana, i.e. burial stupas, the graveyard. ^A S t Great Jewel, most precious thing, i.e. the Dharma or Buddha-law; the bodhisattva; the fire-altar of the esoteric cult. | | The “ great precious region ” , described in the ^ ^ sutra as situated between the world of desire and the world of form. | | & M The great precious mani, or pure pearl, the Buddha-truth. | | 3E Maharatnadharma-raja. Title of the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow sect, b. a . d . 1417, worshipped as an incarnation of Amitabha, now incarnate in every Bogdo gegen H utuktu reigning in Mongolia. He received this title in a . d . 1426. v. B Tsong-kha-pa. | | The “ great precious ocean ” (of the merit of Amitabha). | | $3 Maharatnakuta-sutra. Collection of forty-nine sutras, of which thirty-six were translated by Bodhiruei and collated by him with various previous translations. | | |jj£ The great precious flower, a lotus made of pearls. | | | 3£ King of jewel-lotuses, i.e. the finest of such gem-flowers. | | | | ^ A throne of such. i i * The great precious treasury, con­ taining the gems of the Buddha-truth. A t F Mahavihara. The Great Monastery, especially th at in Ceylon visited by Fa-hsien about a .d . 400, when it had 3,000 ii g 3* »■

The great guide, i.e. Buddha, or a Bodhisattva. ^ /J'* __ The two vehicles, Mahayana and Hinayana ; v. A and /J> f£ . Great teacher, or leader, one of the ten titles of a Buddha. * m Buddha.

m

Great magician, a title given to a

lit Great leader across mortality to nir­ vana, i.e. Buddha, or Bodhisattva. Ilf J|§£ He of great, wide wisdom in the Tripitaka, a title of Amogha pSf g -jUl Bhadanta. |S P£ Most virtuous, a title of honour of a Buddha ; in the Yinaya applied to monks.

iz it

The great mind and power, or wisdom and activity of Buddha. | | Great mind ocean, i.e. omniscience. Invoking Buddha with a loud voice ; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration.

iz £

The monk Ta-chih who sacri­ ficed himself on the pyre, and thus caused Yang Ti of the Sui dynasty to withdraw his order for dis­ persing the monks. The great realm for learning patience, i.e. the present world.

iz Bife i

The Lord of great grace and teacher of men, Buddha. jc ^ tamed heart.

The great wild elephant, i.e. the un­

Mahakaruna, “ great pity ” ; i.e. greatly pitiful, a heart th at seeks to save the suffering; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas; especially to Kuan-yin. | | H Rfe The samadhi of great pity, in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas develop

their great pity. | | f t Vicarious suffering (in purgatory) for all beings, the work of bodhi­ sattvas. The same idea in regard to Kuan-yin is conveyed in | | " f ^ (fife) i t | [ Another name of the or ^ |S£ Jg JE containing a spell against lust. | | fji The altar of pity, a term for the Garbhadhatu mandala, or for the Sakyamuni group. | | p J The bow of great pity. Pity, a bow in the left h a n d ; wisdom ^jj», an arrow in the right hand. | | P9 A Jd The thirty-two or thirty-three manifestations of the Allpitiful Kuan-yin responding to every need. | | ^ ^ Great pity universally manifested, i.e. Kuan-yin, who in thirty-three manifestations meets every need. I I ri Jfll The samadhi of Maitreya. j | ^ Mahakaruna-pundarlka sutra, tr. by Narendrayasas and Dharmaprajna a . d . 552, f i v e books. | | ^ The great pitiful one, Kuan-yin. | | ifn The womb—store of great pity, the fundamental heart of bodhi in a ll; this womb is likened to a heart opening as an eight-leaved lotus, in the centre being Vairocana, the source of pity. | | ( | |) ^ The mandala of the above. | | | | H $c The samadhi in which Vairocana evolves the group, and it is described as the “ mother of all Buddhasons ’’• i i m m Kuan-yin, the Bodhisattva of great pity. | | (ifc) W Kuan-yin, the greatly pitiful regarder of (earth’s) cries. I I fa PI A degree of samadhi in which Vairocana produced the Bodhisattva Vajrapala ^ pjlj fg 3 m who protects men like a helmet and surrounds them like mail by his great pity. | | pV) $§ The greatly pitiful icchantikah, who cannot become a Buddha till his saving work is done, i.e. Kuan-yin, Ti-tsang. A aS Great mercy, or compassion. | | A ^ Great mercy and great pity, characteristics of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, i.e. kindness in giving joy and compassion in saving from suffering. I t is especially applied to Kuan-yin. | | -f£ The honoured one of great kindness, Maitreya. | | ^ The monastery of “ Great Kindness and Grace ” , built in Ch‘ang-an by the crown prince of T‘ai Tsung a .d . 648, where Hsiian-tsang lived and worked and to which in 652 he added its pagoda, said to be 200 feet high, for storing the scriptures and relics he had brought from India. | | | | H JK “ Tripitaka of the Ta T‘zu En Ssu ” is one of his titles. ^ i 4 i m The director or fosterer of pity among all the living, i.e. the fifth in the ^ H ^ court of the Garbhadhatu group. Also A m m -, n m m m m , m & & mHis Sanskrit name is translit. Bfe ta m % m a

The general meaning or summary of a sutra or sastra. Also, the name of a youth, a former incarnation of the Buddha ; to save his nation from their poverty, he plunged into the sea to obtain a valuable pearl from the sea-god who, alarmed by the aid rendered by Indra, gave up the p earl; v. | 1 tr. by Gunabhadra of the Liu Sung dynasty, 1 chiian. 'ft S S Mahaprajapati, 0 |5f jfc f$ Jjfc $§ Gautama’s aunt and foster-mother, also styled Gotami or Gautami, the first woman received into the order. There are sutras known by her name. ^ jg; is also a name for the sea-god.

* m m Mahakausthila, JSI Inf {J| (or lit) an eminent disciple of ^akyamuni, maternal uncle of Sariputra, reputed author of the Samgitiparyaya Sastra.

iZ M

Sudan.,

mm (or * )

* ! *

*

# J

i.e. Sakyamuni as a prince in a former life, when he forfeited the throne by his generosity.

X

The great all-embracing receiver— a title of a Buddha, especially Amitabha.

Mahasambhava. Great completion. The imaginary realm in which (in turn) appeared 20,000 kotls of Buddhas all of the same title, Bhlsmagarjita-

The great teaching. (1) That of the Buddha. (2) Tantrayana. The mahatantra, yoga, yogacarya, or tantra school which claims Samantabhadra as its founder. I t aims at ecstatic union of the individual soul with the world soul, Isvara. From this result the eight great powers of Siddhi (Asta-mahasiddhi), namely, ability to (1) make one’s body lighter (laghiman); (2) heavier (gariman); (3) smaller (anim an); (4) larger (mahiman) than anything in the world ; (5) reach any place (prapti); (6) assume any shape (prakamya); (7) control all natural laws (igitva); (8) make everything depend upon oneself (va&tva) ; all at will (v. in M M and # J5L)- By means of mystic formulas (tantras or dharanis), or spells (mantras), accompanied by music and manipulation of the hands (mudra), a state of mental fixity characterized neither by thought nor the annihilation of thought, can be reached. This consists of six-fold bodily and mental happiness (yoga), and from this results power to work miracles. Asanga compiled his mystic doctrines circa a .d . 5 00 . The system was introduced into China a .d . 647 by Hsiian-tsang’s translation of the Yogacarya-bhumisastra {ftp gift ffe ; v. Jgf. On the basis of this, Amoghavajra established the Chinese branch of the school a .d . 7 2 0 ; v. |5$ g . This was popularized by the labours of Vajrabodhi a .d . 7 3 2 ; v. ^ P|j . | | U idem * & W\ ® & . | | M The net of the great teaching, which saves men from the sea of mortal life.

The complete commandments of Hina­ yana and Mahayana, especially of the latter.

M ahopaya; the great appropriate means, or expedient method of teaching by buddhas and bodhisattvas; v. -gg.

The greater self, or the true personality Hinayana is accused of only knowing and denying the common idea of a self, or soul, whereas there is a greater self, which is a nirvana self. I t especially refers to the Great Ego, the Buddha, but also to any B uddha; v. ^ 0 1, etc., and m m m 23.

j z n m Mahavaipulya ; cf. | | The great Vaipulyas, or sutras of Mahayana. -ft J f and ^ f ^ are similar in meaning. Yaipulya is extension, spaciousness, widespread, and this is the idea ex­ pressed both in JH broad, widespread, as opposed to narrow, restricted, and in levelled up, equal everywhere, universal. These terms suggest the

The great worshipful—one of the ten titles of a Buddha. /H |r A general assembly. assembly (of the saints).

| |

The general

^ The “ greatly ignorant” , name of a monastery and title of its patriarch, of the Ch‘an (Zen) or intuitive school. J c I g t Mahamati Jj§£ fpf J§£ Jfg. (1) Great wisdom, the leading bodhisattva of the Laiikavatara sutra. (2) Name of a Hangchow master of the Ch'an school, Tii Tsung-kao of the Sung dynasty, whose works are the | | ^ :. (3) Posthumous title of — I-hsing, a master of the Ch‘an school, T‘ang dynasty. | | JJ PP The sign of the great wisdom sword, the same esoteric sign as the f t PP and $jf pp. There are two books, the abbreviated titles of which are | | $§ and its supplement the I I I * * .

broadening of the basis of Buddhism, as is found in Mahayana. The Vaipulya works are styled sutras, for the broad doctrine of universalism, very different from the traditional account of his discourses, is put into the mouth of the Buddha in wider, or universal aspect. These sutras are those of uni­ versalism, of which the Lotus ^ 0 is an outstanding example. The form Vaitulya instead of Vaipulya is found in some Kashgar MSS. of the Lotus, suggesting th a t in the Vetulla sect lies the origin of the Vaipulyas, and with them of Mahayana, but the evidence is inadequate. | | | The ^ # fundamental honoured one of the m m ® , described as the Buddha who has realized the universal law. i i i i m m ® Buddha vatamsaka-mahavaipulya-sutra; the Avatamsaka, Hua-yen, or Kegon s u tra ; tr. by Buddhabhadra and others a . d . 418-420. The various trans­ lations are in 60, 80, and 40 chiian, v. 0 fg I | I £□ & ^ ® Tathagata-garbha-sutra, tr. a . d . 350-431, idem j c # # £u & M ® , tr. by Buddhabhadra a . d . 417-420, 1 chiian. ^A A Mahavaipulya or Vaipulya ^ -jj ; Bit They are called ji; i l sutras of infinite meaning, or of the infinite ; first introduced into China by Dharmaraksa ( a . d . 266-317). The name is common to Hlnayana and Mahayana, but chiefly claimed by the latter for its special sutras as extending and universalizing the Buddha’s earlier preliminary teaching, v. ^ -jf |H and ^ III M ® Mahavaipulya-mahasamnipatasutra, tr. a . d . 397-439, said to have been preached by the Buddha “ from the age of 45 to 49 . . . to Buddhas and bodhisattvas assembled from every region, by a great staircase made between the world of desire and th at of form ” . B.N. Another version was made by Jnanagupta and- others in a . d . 594 called | | | | | J | g « . I I I IB BE f t f t Vimalakirtti-nirdesa-sutra, tr. by Dharmaraksa a . d . 265-316. jR I Mihirakula ^ I 5S i , an ancient Htina king in the Punjab circa a .d . 520 who persecuted Buddhism ; v, | £ 4. A A - ? (or g f t) . The great princely almsgiver, i.e. Sakyamuni in a previous life; also ft m i i ^ i d . i i # ; m m * # Mok?amaha-parisad ; a great gathering for almsgiving to all, rich and poor, nominally quinquennial. A

0

Vairocana, or Maha vairocana f t 0 jm

f t 3E The sun, “ shining everywhere.”

The chief

object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, “ represented by the gigantic image in the temple a t N ara.” (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichinyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyanibuddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arupadhatu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra (P‘u-hsien) is his dhyani-bodhisattva. The I I ® “ teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhatu (material) and Vajradhatu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhatu. The manifestations of Vairocana’s body to himself—that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas —are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ” . Eliot. In the Pijij JffL or Vajradhatu mandala he is the centre of the five groups. In the Jj§£ or Garbhadhatu he is the centre of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an em­ bodiment of the Truth fa , both in the sense of Dharmakaya fa and Dharmaratna fa Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakaya of Sakyamuni f t 0 J8I. f ? Ip ] — but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as ;f| £g m in * , the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. f t 0 I I 'f ' ifr RE is described as one of his transformations. Also, a 3ramana of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-sambhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of M anjusri; the king Vijaya Sambhava built a monastery for him. | | fit A meeting for the worship of Vairocana. | j The cult of Vairocana especially associated with the JJn J§c Garbhako4adhatu, or phenomenal world. | | ^ The Vairocana sutra, styled in full Jg ^ $£ jjjfc # ® # IS, tr. in the T‘ang dynasty by &ubhakarasimha |§i g in 7 chiian, of which the first six are the text and the seventh instructions for worship. I t is one of the three sutras of the esoteric school. Its teaching pairs with that of the ^ Kij m ® - There are two versions of notes and com­ ments on the text, the i I i m 20 chiian, and i l l m m 14 chiian; and other works, e.g. . I l l m m ; 1.1 1 7 A IB ft; I I I H & in four versions with different titles. The cult has its chief vogue in Japan. | | f t EE Vairocana, the king of bodhi. The angels or messengers of Vairo­ cana, v. m 3E- I I H J K A I f c 0 m T h e“ Great Ming ” dynasty catalogue of the Tripitaka, made during the reign of the emperor Yung Lo ; it is the catalogue of the northern collection. I I

The great bright white-bodied bodhisattva, sixth in the first row of the Garbhadhatu Kuan-yin group. I I A M f t M Supplementary miscellaneous collection of Buddhist books, made under the Ming dynasty a . d . 1 3 6 8 -1 6 4 4 . M aham ati; cf. ^ 8gr; Great Wisdom, Buddha-wisdom, omniscience ; a title of Manjusri, as the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom. | | ffo A sastra ascribed to Nagarjuna on the greater Prajna-paramita sutra ; the Sastra was tr. by Kumarajiva, a . d . 3 9 7 -4 1 5 , in 1 0 0 chiian. | | f | The Buddha-door of great wisdom, as contrasted with that of his A ^ great compassion. | | IH ilil The stage of the Great Wisdom chrism, or anointing of a Buddha, as having attained to the Great Wisdom, or omniscience ; it is the eleventh stage. | | $§£ The Buddha-wisdom store. %Z J H ) The great m andala; one of four groups of Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the esoteric school. The esoteric word pnj “ a ” is styled the great man minor.

inferior position, being looked upon not as Creator, but as a transitory devata whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodhi. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-pundarika calls Brahma ‘ the father of all living beings ’ ” —■ 5£Mahabrahman is the unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially according to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over these heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b) Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-parisadyah (people). His heavens are also known as the middle dhyana heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhyanas. He is often repre­ sented on the right of the Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Narayana, from Brahma’s mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms the ksatriyas, from his thighs the vaisyas, and from his feet the sudras; (2) as born from Visnu ; (3) as a trimurti, evidently that of Brahma, Visnu, and &iva, but Buddhists define Mahabrahma’s dharmakaya as Mahesvara (Siva), his sambhogakaya as Narayana, and his nirmanakaya as Brahma. He is depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans. | | jjg; A idem | | A The term is incorrectly said by Chinese interpreters to mean freedom from sexual desire. He is associated with Vairocana, and with fire. v. also P § {§. | | A3EMahabrahma devaraja, king of the eighteen Brahmalokas.

A * 4 #

Mahavana-sangharama Jj§| |nf 'ftp ^ 0 “ The monastery of the great forest ” , S. of Mongali. | | & The Venuvana monastery, called f f | | or and f f Venuvana vihara, in the K aranda venuvana, near Rajagrha, a favourite resort of Sakyamuni.

Mahapratibhana. A bodhisattva in the Lotus sutra, noted for pleasant discourse. | | & ; I I & PH (31 & ) “ Unceasing great joy ” , a Shingon name for the second of its eight patriarchs, P ‘u-hsien, v. & W\ U & There are works under this title.

ffi Maharupa ; great form. The kalpa of Mahabhijna-jnanabhibhu, who is to appear as Buddha in a realm called Sambhava.

A

A sutra, also called -jB: |§|, on Buddhist cosmology, 6 chiian, tr. by ^ Fa-li and others ; $»g is a Sanskrit term meaning }$, creation and destruction.

The great taint, or dharma of defile­ ment, sex-attraction, associated with flfi 3E Eros, the god of love.

HI The great opportunity, or Mahayana method of becoming a bodhisattva.

^ Mahabrahmanas ; the third Brahmaloka, the third region of the first dhyana. Mahabrahman ; the great Brahma, | | A ; it is also a title of one of the six Kuan-yin of the T ‘ien-t‘ai sect.

A %

A

Mahabrahman; B rahm a; ff W .B } f c m n m - , 3E ; & 3E $£. Eitel says : “ The first person of the Brahminical Trimurti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an

Great trees, i.e. bodhisattvas, cf. H I I # A Mahavrksa rsi, the ascetic Vayu, who meditated so long th at a big tree grew out of his shoulders. Seeing a hundred beautiful princesses he desired th e m ; being spurned, he was filled with hatred, and with a spell turned them into hunchbacks; henceKanyakubja, v. or Jpj the city of hump-backed maidens ; its king was ? Brahmadatta. v. ® fg 5.

His sutra is ] | | | | by Kumarajiva.

4 chiian, tr.

7 C ffg Tbe great potentiality; or the great power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transform themselves into others, by which e.g. Maya becomes the mother of 1,000 Buddhas, Bahula the son of 1,000 Buddhas, and all beings are within the potency of the dharmakaya. | | H is an abbreviation

of m ± m m m i i i i- i i e m m m a

bodhisattva—protector of monasteries, depicted as shading his eyes with his hand and looking afar, said to have been a Warden of the Coast under the emperor Asoka.

One who has swept away com­ pletely all illusions, or all consciousness ; also ^ ffc « is

k

its.

Great bhiksu, i.e. one of virtue and old a g e; similar to -fc 1*1• Maha vairocana, v. ^

0.

M ahapralaya; the final and utter destruction of a universe by (wind), flood, and fire. I I M Great red lotuses—name of a cold hell where the skin is covered with chaps like lotuses. Mahasramana. The great shaman, i.e. Buddha ; also any bhiksu in full orders. \ \ \%ft A director of the order appointed by Wen Ti of the Sui dynasty, a .d . 581-618. ^ The great Dharma, or Law (of Mahayana salvation). | | Intellectual pride, arrogance through possession of the Truth. | | 3 i Sudharmaraja, King of the Sudharma Kinnaras, the horse­ headed human-bodied musicians of Kuvera. | | 4$ The Great Law conch, or Mahayana bugle. j j The Great Law drum ; v. | | | Mahabheriharaka-parivarta ; tr. by Gunabhadra a . d . 420-479. [ | Hf The raining, i.e. preaching, of the Mahayana. H I l i * The great paramitas, or perfec­ tions, of bodhisattvas, i.e. the ten paramitas above the / \ fife-

k

iffl

A great continent; one of the four great continents of a world; v. [23

k M Mahasamudra-sagara 0 |6[ — -fif: |g m m m The Ocean. I I A ^ 1 i The eight marvellous characteristics of the ocean—its gradually increasing depth, its unfathomableness, its universal saltness, its punctual tides, its stores of precious things, its enormous creatures, its objection to corpses, its unvarying level despite all th at pours into it. | | -f* 40 The ten aspects of the ocean, the Hua-yen sutra adds two more to the above eight, i.e. all other waters lose their names in i t ; its vast­ ness of expanse. | | pp The ocean symbol, i.e. as the face of the sea reflects all forms, so the samadhi of a bodhisattva reflects to him all tru th s ; it is also termed pp H $c- \ \ & The great ocean congregation; as all waters flowing into the sea become salty, so all ranks flowing into the sangha become of one flavour and lose old differentiations.

PJlJ ^1?

The first two of the j£ m three Buddha-powers; they are (a) his prin­ ciple of nirvana, i.e. the extinction of suffering, and (b) his supreme or vajra wisdom.

k M Great, full, or complete ; tr. of mahapurna, king of monster birds or garudas who are enemies of the nagas or serpents ; he is the vehicle of Visnu in Brahmanism. I | £§ H One of the sixteen bodhisattvas of the southern quarter, born by the will of Vairocana. i l l H I The greater baptism, used on special occasions by the Shingon sect, for washing away sin and evil and entering into virtue ; v. $g ]J| |g . ^ Pratapana or Mahatapana ; the hell of great heat, the seventh of the eight hot hells.

k

to

idem ^

q.v.

k fM 1$ ±& m . The six things or mental conditions producing passion and delusion : stupidity, excess, laziness, unbelief, confusion, discontent (or am bition); v. fji. & 4. )8

Ic

S

v. i c M. & Pratapana, above.

The great blazing perfect light, tUc a title of & f t f t £ The great ox cart in the Lotus sutra parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahayana. | | ifKroSa ; the distance of the lowing of a great ox,

the “ eighth ” (more correctly fourth) part of a y o jan a; v. jl£.

have been a disciple of Mahadeva, a former incarna­ tion of Sakyamuni.

~ X ~T*~ Maharaja Jfj four guardians of the universe,

Applied to the

J e m & The great propitious anniversary, i.e. a sacrifice every third year.

^ 4 i Mahaprajapati J£f PT & i j ^ j§ , great “ lady of the living” , the older translation being jz. jE great way (or exemplar) of love ; also 0 head of the community (of nuns), i.e. Gautami, the aunt and nurse of Sakyamuni, the first nun. She is to be reborn as a Buddha named Sarvasatt vapriyadar^ana.

~ X llH The four great seeds, or elements (R3 ^c) which enter into all things, i.e. earth, water, fire, and wind, from which, as from seed, all things spring.

H

^ 3E -

X

The area of a vihara or monastic estab­ lishment. | | Four characters often placed on the boundary stones of monasterial grounds.

The “ mother of Buddhas ” with her great snow-white (radiant) umbrella, emblem of her protection of all beings; there are two dharani-sutras th a t bear this name and give her description, flf | | | [ and (jfc g& \ \ \ \ m & m m %mi i x # ; ? Uttaraka. The deva of the Himalayas, one of the retinue of the -f* 1 1 ^ The great white-bullock cart of tlie Lotus sutra, the Mahayana, as contrasted with the deer-cart and goat-cart of sravakas and pratyeka-buddhas, i.e. of Hinayana. | | 0 The great mandara J | |S£ H flower, also called | | g] |. I | 3c Pandaravasini, the great white-robed one, a form of Kuan-yin all in white, with white lotus, throne, etc., also called fi 3c or £ % H

X ^

The great void, or the Mahayana parinirvana, as being more complete and final than the nirvana of Hinayana. I t is used in the Shingon sect for the great immaterial or spiritual wisdom, with its esoteric sym bols; its weapons, such as the vajra ; its samadhis ; its sacred circles, or mandalas, etc. I t is used also for space, in which there is neither east, west, north, nor south.

iZ % (W3D *Vajrahasa R9f g The great laughing Ming-wang, v.

ft St S

Sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church ; an elder ; an a b b o t; a priest licensed to preach and become an a b b o t; also

izIS it mm

&ura, a hero bodhisattva, one of the sixteen in the southern external part of the ^ fglj R group. ]X The head of the order, an office insti­ tuted by Wen Ti of the Sui dynasty; cf. Jz (§}■ j£.

Mahamaudgalyayana ; v. J|f |5f

b

m a-

iz m

H # The great aid-the-dynasty monastery at Kaifeng, Honan, founded in a .d . 555, first named [§§, changed circa 700 to the above; rebuilt 996, repaired by the Kin, the Yuan, and Ming emperors, swept away in a Yellow River flood, rebuilt under Shun Chih, restored under Ch'ien Lung. | | ^ The reception by an abbot of all his monks on the first day of the tenth moon. ^ Supernatural or magical powers. | | are dharani spells or magical formulae con­ nected with these powers. | | 3 i The great deva­ luing, Mahakala, the great black one, (1) title of Mahe&vura, i.e. &iva ; (2) a guardian of monasteries, with black face, in the dining h a ll; he is said to

X The great sutra, i.e. the 2-chuan fg; S % socalled by the Pure-land sect and by T‘ien-t‘ai, the Amida sutra being the /]> ^ smaller su tra ; cf. Jz. and -fz 0 | | M A term for the heart. IX The main principles of Buddhism, likened to the great ropes of a net.

iz.mm

totality of things, and Mind v. m m 3£r-

The Bhutatathata as the jgC. jm as the Absolute,

(§ EE

X (or The king, or city, of all ideas, or aims, i.e. the heart as mind. ^X

The great sage or saint, a title of a Buddha;

or a bodhisattva of high rank ; as also are | | JH: ^ and | | the great holy honoured one, or lord. For | | idem | | f t ^ ^ v. f t H on % whom there are three works. | | ^ pEjlJ one of the five ^ BJ £ . For | | ^ jjft and I I Hi see Manjusri ; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under | | ~$C I^vara, self-existent, sovereign, inde­ pendent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. | | | 5 ^ Mahesvara, 0 gg ^ M p °r &vai lord of the present chiliocosm, or universe; he is described under two forms, one as the prince of demons, the other as divine, i.e. Jjl fg Pi&Lcamahe^vara and Jg ^uddhavasa- or &uddhodanamahesvara. As Pisaca, head of the demons, he is represented with three eyes and eight arms, and riding on a white b u ll; a bull or a linga being his symbol. The esoteric school takes him for the transformation body of Vairocana, and as appearing in many forms, e.g. Visriu, Narayana (i.e. Brahma), etc. His wife (sakti) is Bhima, or | | | | As Suddhavasa, or Pure dwelling, he is described as a bodhisattva of the tenth or highest degree, on the point of entering Buddhahood. There is dispute as to whether both are the same being, or entirely different. The term also means the sixth or highest of the six desireheavens. | | | ^ The abode of Mahesvara at the apex of the Form-realm. Also, the condition or place from which the highest type of bodhisattva proceeds to Buddhahood, whence it is also styled w m 5^ the pure abode heaven. The great goodness-promoting monastery, one of the ten great T‘ang monasteries a t Ch‘ang-an, commenced in the Sui dynasty. The great ship of salvation—Mahayana. | | gp Its captain, Buddha, Mahaparinirvana, explained by * a m & the great, or final entrance into extinction and cessation ; or f t IB Wi A great entrance into perfect r e s t; great extinction and passing over (from mortality). I t is inter­ preted in Mahayana as meaning the cessation or extinction of passion and delusion, of mortality, and of all activities, and deliverance into a state beyond these concepts. In Mahayana it is not understood as the annihilation, or cessation of exis­ tence ; the reappearance of Dipaihkara #£ (who had long entered nirvana) along with Sakyamuni on the Vulture Peak supports this view. I t is a state above all terms of human expression. See the

Lotus sutra and the Nirvana sutra. | | | | @ The Maha-parinirvana sutras, commonly called the M ifM Nirvana sutras, said to have been delivered by Sakyamuni just before his death. The two H ina' yana versions are found in the pnj ^ ft The Mahayana has two Chinese versions, the northern in 40 chiian, and the southern, a revision of the northern version, in 3 6 chiian. Fa-hsien’s version is styled | | '/Jf 6 chiian. Treatises on the sutra are | | | | | ^ ^ 2 chiian tr. by Jnanabhadra; | | | | | f t 33 chiian; | | | | | f t 1 chiian by Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhidharma.

*sutra.t i |t | *| OK) The Maha-prajna-paramita | | The worship of a new copy of the sutra when finished, an act first attributed to Hsiian-tsang. | | | (#£ H §1: % ) Maha-prajnaparamita sutra, said to have been delivered by Sakyamuni in four places at sixteen assemblies, i.e. Gridhrakuta near Rajagrha (Vulture P eak); S ravasti; Paranirmitavasavartin, and Veluvana near Rajagrha (Bamboo Garden). I t consists of 600 chiian as translated by Hsiian-tsang. Parts of it were translated by others under various titles and considerable differences are found in them. I t is the fundamental philosophical work of the Mahayana school, the formulation of wisdom, which is the sixth paramita. The great bitter sea, or great sea of suffering, i.e. of mortality in the six gati, or ways of incarnate existence. * £ m Mahavyuha ; great fabric ; greatly adorned, the kalpa or Buddha-seon of Mahakasyapa. I ] I ifir The great ornate world; i.e. the uni­ verse of Akasagarbha Bodhisattva ^ § g |; it is placed in the west by the sutra of th at name, in the east by the 12. | | | Vaipulya-mahavyuha-sutra, tr. by Divakara, T‘ang dynasty, 12 chiian; in which the Buddha describes his life in the Tusita heaven and his descent to save the world. | | | $£ or Sutralahkara£astra. A work by Aivaghosa, tr. by Kumarajiva a . d . 405, 15 chiian. ( 'L ' ) The great bodhi, i.e. Mahayanaor Buddha-enlightenment, as contrasted with the inferior bodhi of the Sravaka and pratyeka-buddha. I l l ® The banner of great bodhi, an esoteric symbol of Buddha-enlightenment. ^ clr H I Bodhisattva.

Bodhisattva-mahasattva,

a

great

^ H Pundarika, # |5£ * lj; £ * lj; # & the great white lotus ; the last of the eight cold hells is so called. | | | # 3j?- The great Lotus heaven in the Paradise of the West. | | | # B H J* « The wisdom of the great lotus, samadhi-wisdom, the penetrating wisdom of Amitabha. Mahasatya-nirgrantha. An ascetic who is said to have become a disciple of the Buddha. The Tripitaka ; the Buddhist canon. | | — fg “ The Tripitaka at a Glance ” in 10 chiian bygg I f Ch'en Shih of the Ming dynasty. | | g A catalogue of the Korean canon in 3 chiian. - k f f i i>4 Maharaurava f t flij-; f t P f The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells. k M Mahasangha. The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody. | | p|J The seal of a monastery. | | | ^ ^ g Stage-struck, awed by an assembly, one of the five fflf g . | | ; 0 M ft" Mahasanghikah, the school of the community, or m ajority; one of the chief early divisions, cf. pft Mahasthavirah or Sthavirah, i.e. the elders. There are two usages of the term, first, when the sthavira, or older disciples assembled in the cave after the Buddha’s death, and the others, the * assembled outside. As sects, the principal division was th at which took place later. The Chinese attribute this division to the influence of f t f t Mahadeva, a century after the Nirvana, and its subsequent five subdivisions are also associated with his nam e; they are Purvasailah, Avarasailah, Haimavatah, Lokottara-vadinah, and Prajnapti-vadinah; v. /J-. The monk’s patch-robe, made in varying from nine to twenty-five patches. k f t The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and the enlightening power of a Buddha. | | tfr ^ The Worl^rhonoured One of the great enlightenment, an appellation of the Buddha. | | -BJ: The mother of the great enlightenment, an appellation of Manjuirl. I I £ fll The great enlightened golden rsi, a name given to Buddha in the Sung dynasty. I ra idem | jg? |. | | ^ Mahavadin, Doctor of the Sastras, a title given to eminent teachers, ■especially of the Sankhya and Yaisesika schools.

k $ k Sarasvati | | * % ( * ) ; | | ( * ) S H ; « S « » ffi I 8 » RS ffi A river, “ the modern Sursooty ” ; the goddess of it, who “ was persuaded to descend from heaven and confer her invention of language and letters on the human race by the sage Bharata, whence one of her names is Bharat! ” ; sometimes assumes the form of a sw an; eloquence, or literary elegance is associated with her. Cf. M.W. Known as the mother of speech, eloquence, letters, and music. Chinese texts describe this deity sometimes as male, but generally as female, and under several forms. As “ goddess of music and poetry ” she is styled (or | | ) 'fj f t ; # HI f t > f II She is represented in two forms, one with two arms and a lute, another with eight arms. Sister of Yama. “ A consort of both Brahma and Manjusri,” Getty. In Japan, when with a lute, Benten is a form of Saravasti, colour white, and riding a peacock. Tib. sbyans-can-ma, or nag-gi-lha-mo; M. kele-yin iikin teg ri; J. ben-zai-ten, or benten. The great protective sign, a manual sign, accompanied with a transliterated repetition of “ Namah sarva-tathagatebhyah ; Sarvatha Ham Kham Raksas! m ahabali; Sarva-tathagata-punyo n irja ti; Hum Hum Trata Trata apratihati svaha ” . ^ Great elephant (or naga) treasure, an incense supposed to be produced by nagas or dragons fighting. k f t Ta-hsien (Jap. Daiken), a Korean monk who lived in China during the T‘ang dynasty, of the 40 Dharmalaksana school, noted for his annotations on the sutras and styled f £ the archaeologist. ^ The sutra of this name (Maharatnakuta) tr. by Bodhiruci (in abridged form) and others. A ^ Mahamanjusaka Iff M M or rubia cordifolia, from which madder is made. j$Ht jHH Born by the v. ^1 ffl Cunda; also jjfe|I£. A # The great body, i.e. or transformable body ffc of Mahakaya, a king of garudas.

highway

side,

the nirmanakaya, a Buddha. Also,

J \ . i f l The great bullock-cart in the parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahayana, v. Lotus sutra.

^ |SjlJ One of the thirty-three bodhi­ sattvas in the & m ^ court of the Garbhadhatu group, destroyer of delusion. Also | | $}

X IS

;fcfS$B3Ev.* » & m. i i litn

$$£ The great hero—a Buddha’s title, indi­ cating his power over demons. | | Great cock peak, any outstanding peak.

idem

Iff # .

Mahakatyayana or Katyayana # fSf to $£ ^ M> v - J® and $8- (J) A disciple of Sakyamuni. (2) Name of many persons. | | ^ Mahakaiyapa, v. Jg faf | |. Mahabhijna Jnanabhibhu. The great Buddha of supreme penetration and wisdom. “ A fabulous Buddha whose realm was Sambhava, his kalpa Maharupa. Having spent ten middling kalpas in ecstatic meditation he became a Buddha, and retired again in meditation for 84,000 kalpas, during which his sixteen sons continued (as Buddhas) his preaching. Incarnations of his sons are,” Aksobhya, Merukuta, Simhaghosa, Simhadhvaja, Akasapratisthita, Nityaparivrtta, Indradhvaja, Brahmadhvaja, Amitabha, Sarvalokadhatupadravodvegapratyuttirna, Tamala-patra-candanagandha, Merukalpa, Meghasvara, Meghasvararaja, Sarvaloka-bhayastambhitatva-vidhvamsanakara, and Sakyam uni; v. Eitel. He is said to have lived in a kalpa earlier than the present by kalpas as numerous as the atoms of a chiliocosm. Amitabha is his ninth son, Sakyamuni his sixteenth, and the present ^ or assembly of believers are said to be the reincarna­ tion of those who were his disciples in th at former aeon; v. Lotus Sutra, chapter 7. | | 5fp Title of j$ Shen-hsiu, a disciple of the fifth patriarch. ^ One who has the mind of or for supreme enlightenment, e.g. a bodhisattva-mahasattva.

Hi ~F. Great Lord of healing, an epithet of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The great bell in the bell tower of a large monastery. J z m m ( l U ) Mahacakravala. The great circular “ iron ” enclosure ; the higher of the double circle of mountains forming the outer periphery of every world, concentric to the seven circles around Sumeru. (jfllfi Bljj) The great mirror, posthumous title of the sixth jjg$ Ch'an (Zen) patriarch, fg Hui-neng, imperially bestowed in a . d . 815.

$§£ yV. Four fundamentals, i.e. the 3E 1^, + A R , and -f- ~ A q-v.

>^C ^ j ® Mahasamghata-sutra ^ ^ ^ ^ M The sutra of the great assembly of Bodhi­ sattvas from -f* every direction, and of the apocalpytic sermons delivered to them by the Buddha ; 60 chiian, tr. in parts at various times by various translators. There are several works con­ nected with it and others independent, e.g. | | ^ m m i i h (and m m . m , i i m ) * m> i i # ih & n , 1.1 f % 3E m , etc. i i f t Mahasamnipata. A division of the sutrapitaka con­ taining avadanas, i.e. comparisons, metaphors, para­ bles, and stories illustrating the doctrines. A monastery for Uigur Manicheeans, ordered to be built by ^ a .d . 765. j * . Mahanlla. m m js n A precious stone, large and blue, perhaps identical with Indranila-mukta, i.e. the Indra of precious stones, a “ sapphire ” (M. W.). ^ The great vow, of a Buddha, or bodhi­ sattva, to save all the living and bring them to Buddhahood. | | |J | j ] The forty-eight vows and the great meritorious power of Amitabha, or the efficacy of his vows. | | ffs i The Pure Reward-Land of Amitabha, the reward resulting from his vows. | | The great vow boat, i.e. th at of Amitabha, which ferries the believer over the sea of mortality to the Pure Land. i t Ta Tien, the appellation of a famous monk and writer, named f f j j | Pao-t‘ung, whom tigers followed ; he died at 93 years of age in a.d. 824; author of & % & m m. £ i& $SL and & ftj g . m m^ JUl M Great Storms, the third of the three destructive calamities to end the world. ^ Mahakaiyapa q.v., he who “ drank in fight ” (with his mother’s milk), she having become radiant with golden-hued fight through obtaining a golden-coloured pearl, a relic of Vipasyin, the first of the seven former Buddhas ; it is a false etymology..

liab ~K Abhyudgata-raja. Great august monarch, name of the kalpa in which ^ubha-vyuha 0 #£ $Sc I . who is not known in the older literature, is to be reborn as a Buddha.

ft

Mi

Makara £

($ |) a monster fish.

Mahakala £ M M (or gif) & the great black deva | | jp$. Two interpretations are given. The esoteric cult describes the deva as the masculine form of Kali, i.e. Durga, the wife of $iva ; with one face and eight arms, or three faces and six arms, a necklace of skulls, etc. He is worshipped as giving warlike power, and fierceness; said also to be an incarnation of Vairocana for the purpose of destroying the dem ons; and is described as ft the “ great time ” (-keeper) which seems to indicate Vairocana, the sun. The exoteric cult in­ terprets him as a beneficent deva, a Pluto, or god of wealth. Consequently he is represented in two forms, by the one school as a fierce deva, by the other as a kindly happy deva. He is shown as one of the eight fierce guardians with trident, generally blue-black but sometimes white ; he may have two elephants underfoot. Six arms and hands hold jewel, skull cup, chopper, drum, trident, elephant-goad. He is the tutelary god of Mongolian Buddhism. Six forms of Mahakala are noted : (1) ft H A black-faced disciple of the Buddha, said to be the Buddha as Mahadeva in a previous incarnation, now guardian of the refectory. (2) J|g f5f g| ft S f t Kali the wife of Siva. (3) £ -?• jg f t £ The son of Siva. (4) 1(1 p'£ f t ® Cinta-mani, with the talismanic pearl, symbol of bestowing fortune. (5) t X A I Subduer of demons. (6) £ M 1 ft Mahakala, who carries a bag on his back and holds a hammer in his right hand. J., Daikoku ; M., Yeke-gara ; T., Nag-po c’en-po. | | ^ 0 The black deva’s flying shard magic : take the twig of a ^ chia tree (Catalpa Bungei), the twig pointing north-west; twist it to the shape of a buckwheat grain, write the Sanskrit letter on each of its three faces, place it before the deva, recite his spell a thousand times, then cast the charm into the house of a prosperous person, saying may his wealth come to me. (" it" )

A feast given to monks.

y C HM i l l The Bodhisattva who, having attained the f t stage, by the power of his vow transformed himself into a dragon-king, j§ fg 1 . ~k

Women, female ; u.f. ^

thou, you.

k A

Woman, described in the Nirvana sutra 9 as the “ abode of all evil ” , - -BJ T h e * /* * 14 says: f t f t & & % f t , tit M, U M & m

m

m

A

“ Fierce fire th at would burn men may yet be approached, clear breezes without form may yet be grasped, cobras th at harbour poison may yet be touched, but a woman’s heart is never to be relied upon.” The Buddha ordered Ananda : “ Do not look at a w om an; if you must, then do not talk with h e r ; if you must, then call on the Buddha with all your m in d ”—an evidently apocryphal statement of f t 8. | | f t The six feminine attractions; eight are given, but the sixth and eighth are considered to be included in the others : colour, looks, style, carriage, talk, voice, refinement, and appearance. | | ^ v. # ^jP tfj | | f t £ gg The thirty-fifth vow of Amitabha th at he will refuse to enter into his final joy until every woman who calls on his name rejoices in enlightenment and who, hating her woman’s body, has ceased to be reborn as a woman ; also | | ^ f$j $g. | | ^ A woman’s salutation, greeting, or obeisance, performed by standing and bending the knees, or putting hands together before the breast and bending the body. I | ^ $] “ Women forbidden to approach,” a sign placed on certain altars. | | # ] || Hr One of the twenty heretical sects, who held th at Mahesvara created the first woman, who begot all creatures. 4ft* A nun, or J:b J£ JB bhiksunl, which is abbreviated to Jg. The first nunnery in China is said to have been established in the Han dynasty. ~ tc |Hl The woman-kingdom, where matriarchal government is said to have prevailed, e.g. Brahmapura, v. H , and Suvarnagotra, v. j$|. ic Female devas in the desire-realm. In and above the Brahmalokas •g, JfL they do not exist.

k ^ ai

The story of a woman named Li-i ^ who was so deeply in samadhi before the Buddha th at Manjusri could not arouse h e r ; she could only be aroused by a bodhisattva who has sloughed off the skandhas and attained enlightenment. k m ± to Buddhism.

A lay woman who devotes herself

1/C A woman of virtue, i.e. a nun, or bhiksunl. The emperor Hui Tsung of the Sung dynasty ( a . d . 1101-1126) changed the term /g to f t Iff. o

k If k « km

Sexual desire. Yoni.

The female sex-organ. An inch.

The woman offence, i.e. sexual immorality on the p art of a monk.

JjC

Small courts and buildings attached to a central monastery.

Woman as a disease ; feminine disease.

JjC Female beauty—is a chain, a serious de­ lusion, a grievous calamity. The ^ 14 says it is better to burn out the eyes with a red-hot iron than behold woman with unsteady heart. Woman the robber, as the cause of sexual passion, stealing away the riches of religion, v. U M Sfir 14. ic Woman as chain, or lock, the binding power of sex. ^ Jgr ggf 14. K um ara; so n ; seed; s i r ; 11-1 midnight. ^ ® Kukyar, Kokyar, or Kukejar, a country west of Khotan, 1,000 li from Kashgar, perhaps Yarkand. |U f The seed fig -p- cut off, i.e. the seed which produces the miseries of transmigration. f t Seed and f ru it; seed-produced fruit is -Y- m , fruit-produced seed is Jfl Y"- The fruit pro­ duced by illusion in former incarnation is ^ which the Hinayana arhat has not yet finally cut off. I t is necessary to enter Nirvana without remnant of mortality to be free from its “ fruit ” , or karma. Jfv

The fruit full of seeds, the pome­

granate. A famous learned monk Tzu-hsiian, of the Sung dynasty whose style was yfc Ch‘angshui, the name of his d istrict; he had a large follow­ ing ; at first he specialized on the ^uramgama M M l later he adopted the teaching of -|jHsien-shou of the 0 Hua-yen school. The seed bond, or delusion of the mind, which keeps men in bondage.

Questioned as to what he did with his day, H 1 0 Lu Hsiian-jih replied “ one does not hang things on an inch of thread ” . /J'*

Small, little ; mean, p e tty ; inferior.

Hinayana 0 The small, or in­ ferior wain, or vehicle ; the form of Buddhism which developed after Sakyamuni’s death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahayana doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahayanism which developed on lines funda­ mentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigra­ tion. He “ turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations ; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal ” (Keith). Metaphysical specula­ tions arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hinayana schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahayana. Hinayana remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahayana, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the sur­ viving form of Hinayana, Sanskrit of Mahayana. The term Hinayana is of Mahayanist origination to emphasize the universalism and. altruism of Maha­ yana over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahayana teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transforma­ tion of all the living in the future state ; it declares that Hinayana, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahoood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvana. For arhatship the IS IS Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyeka-buddhahood the -f* H 0 ^ twelvenidanas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles “ T‘ien-t‘ai sometimes calls them the (Hinayana) Tripitaka school. Three of the eighteen Hinayana schools were transported to China: (Abhidharma) K osa; Satyasiddhi ; and the school of Harivarman, the Vinaya school. These are described by Mahayanists

as the Buddha’s adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahayana all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahayana view of Hlnayana, and if the Yaipulya sutras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hinayana, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahayana in condemning Hinayana must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sutras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authen­ ticity ; while those of Hinayana cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hinayana is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Sakyamuni, when the sthavira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as “ the cave ” , some place at Rajagrha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside ; these two are the first J t rB and i z ^ $B q.v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk Mahadeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha’s nirvana and during the reign of Asoka ; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahadeva’s sect became the Mahasanghika, the other the Sthavira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called “ twenty sects ” of Hinayana. Another division of four sects, referred to by I-ching, is th at of the $B (Arya) Mahasanghanikaya, _L M £B Aryasthavirah, & Mulasarvastivadah, and IF f t ofi Sammatiyah. There is still another division of five sects, 3 £ $5 For the eighteen Hinayana sects see below.

iz iz

iz

—I The three characteristic marks of all Hinayana su tra s: the impermanence of phenomena, the unreality of the ego, and nirvana.

'b M X SP The nine classes of works be­ longing to the Hinayana, i.e. the whole of the twelve classes, v. -f- JH less the Udana or Voluntary discourses; the Vaipulya, or broader teaching; and the Vyakarana, or prophesies.

A

* m + to A Chinese list of the “ eighteen ” sects of the Hinayana, omitting Mahasanghikah, Sthavira, and Sarvastivadah as generic schools : I. i z M pB The Mahasanghikah is divided into eight schools as follows : (1 ) — fg; Ekavyavaharikah; (2) jf£ $ f t #B Lokottaravadinah; (3) f t jUL £B Kaukkutikah (Gokulika); (4) ^ ^ B ahusrutiyah; (5) fg; fg ^ Prajnaptivadinah; (6) $lj g dj -$B Jetavaniyah, or Caityasailah ; (7) ffi ill Hi rB Aparasailah; (8) 4b ill rB UttaraiSailah. II- _b ^ «B Aryasthavirah, or Sthavira­ vadin, divided into eight schools: ( 1 ) Up ill rB Haimavatah. The g£ —■ ^0 nB Sarvastivadah gave rise to (2) ^ ^ Vatsiputriyah, which gave rise to (3) ^ £B D harm ottariyah; (4) jt| #B Bhadrayaniyah; (5) IE f t |£B Sam m atiyah; and (6) $£ di £|S Sannagarikah; (7) Mahisasakah produced (8) ^ ^ Dharmaguptah. From the Sarvastivadins arose also (9) ffc nB Kasyahpiya and ( 10) jgg f t £B Sautrantikah. v. 7^ lit- Cf. Keith, 149-150. The division of the two schools is ascribed to Mahadeva a century after the Nirvana. Under I the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvana, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable. Under II, the Haimavatah and the Sarvastivadah are dated some 200 years after the Nirvana ; from the Sarvastivadins soon arose the Vatsiputriyas, from whom soon sprang the third, fourth, fifth, and six th ; then from the Sarvasti­ vadins there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, nearing the 400th year, the Sarvastivadins gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth. In the list of eighteen the Sarvasti­ vadah is not counted, as it split into all the rest. /J'* jZQ T ‘ien-t‘ai’s division of Hina­ yana into four schools or doctrines : ( 1 ) 4? pj Of reality, the existence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being (cf. ^ 7^ Jg, pfa, etc.); (2) f'j of unreality, or non-existence (cf. )& H jft); (3) UE # g of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence (cf. M ^ F&); (4) 0 g of neither, or transcending existence and non-existence (cf. m m m m

pif) The _E JH rB Sthaviravadin, School of Presbyters, and ^ Sarvastivadin, q.v.

/b m k a Hinayana and the heretical sects; also, Hinayana is a heretical sect.

'b m m m « The Hinayana partial and gradual method of obeying laws and commandments, as compared with the full and immediate salvation of Mahayana.

/ j '' The commandments of the Hina­ yana, also recognized by the Mahayana : the five, eight, and ten commandments, the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns.

iz

7 lv fPjThe Hinayana sutras, the four sections of the Agamas pSf ^ $g, v. /b jh U jiffi! The Hinayana sastras or Abhidharma I I H ®fc ^ The philosophical canon of the Hinayana, now supposed to consist of some thirtyseven works, the earliest of which is said to be the Gunanirdesa sastra, tr. as # ^ pm? before a . d . 220. “ The date of the Abhidharma ” is “ unknown to us ” (Keith). /]> 3QL /t ^ The robe of five patches worn by some monks in China and by the 0 J ; ^ Jodo sect of Japan ; v. /j> To urinate ; also /J-* f t . Buddhist monks are enjoined to urinate only in one fixed spot. Antara-kalpa, or intermediate k a lp a ; according to the ffo it is the period in which human life increases by one year a century till it reaches 84,000 with men 8,400 feet high ; then it is reduced at the same rate till the life-period reaches ten years with men a foot high ; these two are each a small kalpa ; the Jg? jifr reckons the two together as one kalpa ; and there are other definitions. f f i f f i ( 1 f t I f ) A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds each with its Mt. Sumeru, continents, seas, and ring of iron m ountains; v. H =f- * /J'* Small group, a class for instruction out­ side the regular morning or evening services; also a class in a household ; the leader is called | [ gf. 71^

PO A summarized version. I I H ^ Kumarajiva’s abbreviated version, in tep chiian, of the Maha-prajna-paramita-sutra.

TP To repeat Buddha’s name in a quiet voice, opposite of |.

('b ) m m-

ffi ffi ; /b $£

t ]?

Having a mind fit only for

Hinayana doctrine. ffi ff i Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower v. H & “ * • 'b 7 k I ? 'S A little water or “ dripping water penetrates stone ” ; the reward of the religious life, though difficult to attain, yields to persistent effort. ffi m

The laws or methods of Hinayana.

7]^ fjp|j 5^ Upaklesabhumikah. The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations, one of the five groups of mental conditions of the seventyfive Hinayana elements. They are the minor moral defects arising from 4fl£ fifi unenlightenment; i.e. anger, jg hidden sin, stinginess, envy, ^ vexation, ^ ill-will, hate, ^8 adulation, f$E deceit, pride. 7 ^ EEl The small rajas, called scattering kings.

5E millet-

ffi # A small assembly of monks for cere­ monial purposes. /J'* }zj One of the four divine flowers, the mandara-flower, v. J | . TJ'* @ The small Maudgalyayana, one of six of th at name, v. g . ffi I f

/J'*

A small volume ; T‘ien-t‘ai’s term for the P t £1 ; ^ e large sutra being the M jg;

&

An anniversary (sacrifice).

The sects of Hinayana.

/ J '' (jlfj A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy title for a disciple ; and a self-depreciatory title of any monk ; v. dahara. ' p T h e rules and regulations for monks and nuns in Hinayana.

T l'' The Hinayana doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahayana. 8 2 v.

I

also styled | 1

(.

/J'* The Hinayana saint, or arhat. The in­ ferior saint, or bodhisattva, as compared with the Buddha.

/J'* JpL Smaller herbs, those who keep the five commandments and do the ten good deeds, thereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas, v. H ^ Zl ^C. /]' f t The practice, or discipline of Hlnayana ; also, urination. /J> # H Manjusaka. g fp & ; M Explained by |j | pliable. Rubia cordifolia, yielding the madder (munjeeth) of Bengal.

P

m

$j p

Kusinagara or Kusigramaka.

m ® ; f t p m m m; f t n w m ;

ft p &

Explained by ;± ^ the birthplace of nine scholars. An ancient kingdom and city, near Kasiah, 180 miles north of Patna ; the place where &akyamuni died.

P ^

Sitavana, v. P |Jg ^fc.

P

(or jfjj;) cemetery, idem p |T£

&masana, Asmasayana, a

The monk |§j Hui-yiian of the Sui dynasty. There was a § Chin dynasty monk of the same name.

£rlguna, J|L Df* abundantly virtuous, a title of a Buddha.

/b H ® ten years.

M

/ J ''

A junior teacher.

f t iif »6P

A junior monk ordained less than

The small meal, breakfast, also called

A corpse ;

to manage ; u.f. p fg.

p

m sri. m m - , m m - , m m ; m m ; m ; la Pjg ; m (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, success, good fortune, virtues, these four are named as its connotation. (2) The wife of Visnu. (3) An honorific prefix or affix to names of gods, great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of liturgies. (5) An abbreviation for Manjusri. | | jgf Sribhuja, i.e. Malaya. [ | Sriyasas, a god who bestows good luck. | | ^ ; | | $! ; ^ f ij fp ; & Iff Sirisa. Acacia sirissa. The marriage tree 'o’ #§ fat- The | | fyp is described as with large leaves and f r u it; another kind the | | J§£ with small leaves and fruit. Also called fp ffj. | | '{p jjg Sirisaka. Name of a monk. | | fH ; | j % ; m m % & % &rigupta, an elder in Rajagrha, who tried to kill the Buddha with fire and poison; v. i i i i £ m * • . i i $ m m m Srimitra, an Indian prince who resigned his throne to his younger brother, became a monk, came to China, translated the m & and other books. rpQ y ii a person by the |5£ |g vetala method of obtaining magic power by incan­ tations on a dead body; when a headless corpse, or some part of the body, is used it is ^ p ; when the whole corpse it is p .

P

^

g ik h r n ,^ * ;

p

*

MS (or f t ) ;

P :M ; crested, or a flame; explained by fire ; jfclj P |f§ Ratnasikhin occurs in the Abhidharma. In the ^ it is ^ §f a shell­ like tuft of hair. (1 ) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, whom Sakyamuni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, born in Prabhadvaja +0 #c as a Ksatriya. (3) A Mahabrahma, whose name flikhin is defined as ]Jf i f or JH having a flaming tuft on his head ; connected with the world-destruction by fire. The Fan-i ming-i describes £ikhin as or A. "tt- flame, or a flaming head and as the god of fire, styled also fjf $§ Suddha, pure ; he observed the Fire Dhyana, broke the lures of the realm of desire, and followed virtue. | | gi A deva of music located in the East. m Sivi, I I $J1 ; | | ; also wrongly ; one of Sakyamuni’s former incarnations, when to save the life of a dove he cut off and gave his own flesh to an eagle which pursued it, which eagle was $iva transformed in order to test him. £ M » 35p

m

P IB

p

p{

Sila, ; 0 p . intp. by fjf pure and cool, i.e. chaste ; also by ^ restraint, or keeping the commandments ; also by ^ ^ of good disposition. I t is the second paramita, moral purity, i.e. of thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of sila are chaste, calm, quiet, extinguished, i.e. no longer perturbed by the passions. Also, perhaps sila, a stone, i.e. a precious stone, pearl, or coral. For the ten silas or commandments v. -f* the first five, or panca-slla, are for all Buddhists. | | -f* If the sila, or moral state, is not pure, none can enter samadhi. | | ij£ j$| ^ ^ilaparamita. Morality, the second of the paramitas. | | lj|f A curtain made of chaste precious stones. | |

PE $1 ! 5 f Silabhadra, a prince mentioned in !K J& 6 . | | fpj $1 Moral purity, essential to enter into samadhi. j | $§ SravastI, idem I I P£ 31 &labhadra. A learned monk of Nalanda, teacher of Hsiian-tsang, a . d . 625. | | ^ ^ Siladharma, a sramana of Khotan. | | ££ jSfg Sllaprabha, the Sanskrit name of a learned monk. I IM ^ Siladitya, son of Pratapaditya and brother of Rajyavardhana. Under the spiritual auspices of Avalokitesvara, he became king of Kanyakubja a .d . 606 and conquered India and the Punjab. He was merciful to all creatures, strained drinking water for horses and elephants, was a most liberal patron of Buddhism, re-established the great quinquennial assembly, built many stupas, showed special favour to Silabhadra and Hsiian-tsang, and composed the A ft % IS Astama-hasri-caitya-samskrtastotra. He reigned about forty years. P M J t Also (or p or Jg- Chavannes accepts the identification with Chighnan, a region of the Pamirs (Documents snr les Tou-kiue Occidentaux, p. 162). p m . m « m Hiranyavatl, BP jplj % IS ; PH p. IS ; ^ g°W river, a river of Nepal, now called the GandakI, near which Sakyamuni is said to have entered nirvana. The river is identified with the Ajitavati.

P

Said to be Sujata, son of an elder of Rajagrha and the same as [>£. P

P lf ( t t - ) Sltavana, P ^ ; P ^ ;P #1$ 5 M PE c°ld grove i.e. a place for exposing corpses, a cemetery. I t is also styled 3S M

£ pe

|11

fa m inf **;

also v.

p

Mor mm

A hill, mountain ; a monastery.

Of 1f t

“ Mountain world,” i.e. monasteries.

lb i f

( 1 ) “ Hill monk ” , self-deprecatory term used by monks. (2) A monk dwelling apart from monasteries.

lb

f t A branch of the T'ien-t‘ai School founded by BgWu fin (d. a . d . 986) giving the “ shallower ” interpretation of the teaching of this se c t; called Shan-wai because it was developed in temples away from the T!ien-t‘ai mountain. The “ profounder ” sect was developed at T‘ien-t‘ai and

is known as |Jj ^ ^ “ the sect of the mountain fam ily” , or home sect.

|Jj

The mountain school ” , the pro­ founder ” interpretation of T‘ien-t‘ai doctrines de­ veloped by 23 Ssu-ming; v. last entry.

lL| ff

The weight of a mountain, or of Sumeru— may be more readily ascertained than the eternity of the Buddha.

jij

Writing brushes as numerous as mountains, or as the trees on the mountains (and ink as vast as the ocean).

lb

1ft “

Mountain and water robe,” the name of a monastic garment during the Sung dynasty; later this was the name given to a richly embroidered dress. i b i S 1 t P 3 f e Sagara-varadhara-buddhi-vikriditabhijna. Oj % p (or * ) g & £ 1m The name under which Ananda is to reappear as Buddha, in Anavanamita-vaijayanta, during the kalpa Manojna-sabdabhigarjita, v. 0 $®. | | ^ rtf “ Moun­ tains, seas, the sky, the (busy) market place ” cannot conceal one from the eye of M *■£ Impermanence, the messenger of death, a phrase summing up a story of four brothers who tried to use their miraculous power to escape death by hiding in the mountains, seas, sky, and market places. The one in the market place was the first to be reported as dead, 2. [Ij EH peak.

The king of the mountains, i.e. the highest

!b PI

The gate of a monastery ; a monastery.

J11 A stream, a mountain stream ; Ssu-ch‘uan province. | fg Making offerings at the streams to the ghosts of the drowned. T Work, a period of work, a job. | ^ Time, work, a term for meditation ; also Jjjj | Pj Silpasthana-vidya. f PJ One of the five departments of knowledge dealing with the arts, e.g. the various crafts, mechanics, natural science (yin-yang), calculations (especially for the calendar and astrology), etc. | % Nata, a dancer; the skilful or wily one, i.e. the heart or mind. 2 l Self, personal, own. | flj Personal advantage, or profit. | One’s own heart. | ;

| ifr + Jjfr f ? 8 ; P1! The method of the self-realiza­ tion of truth, the intuitive method of meditation, it H 1* \ 'ft- The Buddhakaya, or realm of Buddha in contrast with the realm of ordinary beings. | f|£, g Self-attained assurance of the truth, such as th at of the Buddha. [ P£ ^ Myself (is) Amitabha, my mind (is) the Pure Land. All things are but the one Mind, so that outside existing beings there is no Buddha and no Pure Land. Thus Amitabha is the Amitabha within and the Pure Land is the Pure Land of the mind. I t is an expression of Buddhist pantheism, that all is Buddha and Buddha is all. P i Already, p a s t; end, cease. [ ^ ^ Past, present, future, & I 4* ^ £ Those born into the “ future life ” (of the Pure Land) in the past, in the present, and to be born in the future, j^ Bhuta. Become, the moment just come into existence, the present m om ent; being, existing ; a being, ghost, dem on; a f a c t; an element, of which the Hindus have five—earth, water, fire, air, ether ; the past. | Ajnendriya. The second of the j | IS q.v. One who already knows the indriya or roots th at arise from the practical stage associated with the Four Dogmas, i.e. purpose, joy, pleasure, renunciation, faith, zeal, memory, abstract

4. *

No, not, none.

meditation, wisdom. | * m A monk far ad­ vanced in religion ; an arhat. | jg Already returned, or, begun again, e.g. the recommencement of a cycle, or course. \ Wt H Those who have abandoned the desire-realm; divided into two classes, J | ^ ordinary people who have left desire, but will be born into the six g a ti; gg ^ the saints, who will not be reborn into the desire-realm; e.g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists. “ f* A shield ; a stem, or pole ; to offend ; to con­ cern ; to seek. | a s # ; l ! B ± ; « m t t ; f c fl] £ Hrd, hrdaya, the physical heart. | |gj ; H Kancana, golden; i.e. a tree, a shrub of the same type, with golden hue, described as of the leguminous order; perhaps the Kunjara. Wrongly written (or ffl) and =f- |$ ^ Dhanus. A bo w ; a bow's length, i.e. the 4,000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat make 1 finger-joint ^ '|ji ; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit JJJ ; 4 cubits make 1 bow ; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1. elbow or cu b it; 4 cubits make 1 bow ; 300 bows make 1 l i ; but the measures are variously given, j Kumbhanda demons, v.

FOUR STROKES

(Sanskrit a, an.)

Neither unity nor diversity, or doctrine of the 4* v- A 'f*Not long (in time). | | Hr Not long before he visits the place of enlightenment or of Truth, i.e. soon will become a Buddha. ^ T Not to bring to a finish, not to make plain, not plain, not to understand, incomprehensible, i \ m m Texts th at do not make plain the Buddha’s whole truth, such as Hlnayana and $j| or inter­ mediate Mahayana texts. | \ ify The incompre­ hensible wisdom of Buddha. Advaya. No second, non-duality, the one and undivided, the unity of all things, the one reality, the universal Buddha-nature. There are numerous combinations, e.g. ^ ^ n good and evil are not a dualism ; nor are % and the material and immaterial, nor are ££ and (jg delusion and aware­ ness—all these are of the one Buddha-nature. sfi Z2 yfi H neither plural nor diverse, e.g. neither two kinds

of nature nor difference in form. | | £ The one undivided truth, the Buddha-truth. Also, the unity of the Buddha-nature. | | ££ is sim ilar; also the cult of the monistic doctrine ; and the immediacy of entering into the truth. “ Not only the void ” ; or, non-void ; sravakas and pratyeka-buddhas see only the “ void” , bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence j | | is the 4* all Sr “ v°id ' of the “ mean ” . I t is a term of the & m Intermediate school. Not coming (back to mortality), an explana­ tion of |5nJ anagamin. | | ^ i Anagamananirgama. Neither coming into nor going out of existence, i.e. the original constituents of all things are eternal; the eternal conservation of energy, or of the primal substance. | | jQl Without being called he comes to welcome; the Pure-land sect believes that Amitabha himself comes to welcome departing souls of his followers on their calling upon him, but the ^ Jh st; (Jodo Shin-shu sect) teaches that belief in him at any time ensures rebirth in the Pure Land, independently of calling on him at death.

it

One of the ten kinds of here­ sies ” founded by Sanjayin Vairatiputra, v. who taught th at there is no need to ^ seek the right path, as when the necessary kalpas have passed, m ortality ends and nirvana naturally follows. * m $ Adinnadana-veramani; the second of the ten commandments, Thou shalt not steal. Not in the same class, dissimilar, dis­ tinctive, each its own. | I H & Asakrt-samadhi; a samadhi in more than one formula, or mode. I I 'f ' One of the six Tfi % @ indefinite state­ ments of a syllogism, where proposition and example do not agree. | | 4* d t The general among the particulars, the whole in the parts. | | |jj| Varied, or individual karma ; each_ causing and receiving his own recompense, j | Avenika-buddhadharma. The characteristics, achievements, and doctrine of Buddha which distinguish him from all others, -f* /V | | | the eighteen distinctive characteristics as defined by Hlnayana are his -f* j j , © H -ffi and his ^ ^ ; the Mahayana eighteen are perfection of b o d y ; of speech ; of m em ory; impartiality or universality; ever in sam adhi; entire self-abnegation ; never diminishing will (to save); zeal; th o u g h t; wisdom; salvation; in­ sight into salvation; deeds and mind accordant with wisdom ; also his speech; also his m in d ; omniscience in regard to the p a s t; also to the p resent; and to the future. | | PJj Distinctive kinds of unenlightenment, one of the two kinds of ignorance, also styled gH fHf ; particular results arising from particular evils. | | Dis­ similarity, singularity, sui generis. | | ^ The things special to bodhisattvas in the $$ ^ |S in contrast with the things they have in common with sravakas and pratyeka-buddhas. | j Varied, or individual conditions resulting from k arm a; every one is his own transm igration; one of the m ft. ^

f t

m

The indivisible, or middle way 4* dt-

* W ) Acala ; niscala ; dhruva. The unmoved, immobile, or motionless; also m m the term is used for the unvarying or unchanging, for the pole-star, for fearlessness, for indifference to passion or temptation. I t is a special term of Shingon tf applied to its most important Bodhisattva, the | | m 3E q-v. | | f t ; ^ W) in & ; Pi? f t ( f t or f t ) Aksobhya, one of the 3 £ Five Wisdom, or Dhyani-Buddhas, viz., Vairocana, Aksobhya, Katnasambhava, Amitabha, and Amoghasiddhi. He

is especially worshipped by the Shingon sect, as a disciple of Vairocana. As Amitabha is Buddha in the western heavens, so Aksobhya is Buddha in the eastern heaven of Abhirati, the realm of joy, hence he is styled or J£, also 4ff£ ^ free from anger. His cult has existed since the Han dynasty, see the Aksobhya-tathagatasya-vyuha. He is first mentioned in the Prajnaparamita sutra, then in the Lotus, where he is the first of the sixteen sons of Mahabhijna - jnanabhibhu. His dhyanibodhisattva is Vajrapani. His appearance is variously described, but he generally sits on a lotus, feet crossed, soles upward, left hand closed holding robe, right hand fingers extended touching ground calling it as witness ; he is seated above a blue elephant; his colour is pale gold, some say blue ; a vajra is before him. His esoteric word is H u m ; his element the air, his human form Kanakamuni, v. . Jap. Ashuku, Fudo, and Mudo ; Tib. mi-bskyod-pa, mi-’khrugspa (mintug-pa); Mong. iilii kiidelukci. v. ^ ifr Rfj 3E | | f t Offerings to | 1 B0 3E- | I f t * His messengers. | | f t ; I I 8 ft; | I8 f| ft;

iipeii;

i I ft

m m m %) m m

Prayers and spells associated with him and his messengers. | [ The eighth of the ten stages in a Buddha’s advance to perfection. | | Prayers to | | 4D ZK t° protect the house. | | % The samadhi, or abstract meditation, in which he abides. | I f?j 3E I I ^ Aryacalanatha |55f ^ m m tr. jg|j and ^ W] ^ and Acalaceta, Pi? M H 'M PL fr- 'T' Wl f t The mouthpiece or messenger, e.g. the Mercury, of the Buddhas ; and the chief of the five Ming Wang. He is regarded as the third person in the Vairocana trinity. He has a fierce mien overawing all evil spirits. He is said to have attained to Buddhahood, but also still to retain his position with Vairocana. He has many descriptive titles, e.g. 'f ' W) 3E> etc. Five different verbal signs are given to him. He carries a sharp wisdom-sword, a noose, a thunder-bolt. The colour of his images is various—black, blue, purple. He has a youthful appearance; his hair falls over his left shoulder; he stands or sits on a rock ; left eye closed ; mouth shut, teeth gripping upper lip, wrinkled forehead, seven locks of hair, full-bodied. A second repre­ sentation is with four faces and four arms, angry mien, protruding teeth, with flames around him. A third with necklaces. A fourth, red, seated on a rock, flames, trident, etc. There are other forms. He has fourteen distinguishing symbols, and many dharanls associated with the realm of fire, of saving those in distress, and of wisdom. He has two mes­ sengers ~ M Kimkara H and Cetaka rfH] PL and, including these, a group of eight messengers A i z i t 'f ' ea°h with image, symbol, word-sign, etc. Cf. y f W} ■ | | j£- Prayer for

the aid of | | to end calamity and cause prosperity. | | Jg One of the six % kinds of inaction, or laissez-aller, the state of being unmoved by pleasure or pain. Similarly \ \ Jjfik liberation from being disturbed (by the illusions of life); and I | M SI an arhat who has attained to this state. j | ^ JE Immortality, nirvana. | | Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void. | | An assembly for preaching and praising the virtues of | | # . | | W\ W I The | | # as the vajra representative, or embodiment, of Vairo­ cana for saving all sentient beings.

^ f*P ^ it

Neither the thing itself nor something apart, e.g. the water and the w ave; similar to ~ sfi J | . * M iE m M Amitabha’s vow of not taking up his Buddhahood till each of his forty-eight vows is fulfilled, an affix to each of the vows. 'ft ^ Free from the receptivity, or sensation, of things, emancipated from desire. I | H In the Lotus sutra, cap. 25, the bodhi­ sattva gg ^ obeying the Buddha’s command, offered Kuan-yin a jewel-garland, which the latter refused saying he had not received the Buddha’s command to accept it. This attitude is attributed to his Pfi samadhi, the samadhi of J|| jj| utter “ voidness ” , or spirituality.

sutra. I J I I » Aft & W The samadhi, or libera­ tion of mind, th at ensures a vision of the ineffable. | | The existence of those who do the ^ qf, or forbidden, i.e. the hells. | | §f§ Not to be cast­ away—said to be the name of the founder of the Mahisasikah, or -ffc fife school, cast into a well at birth by his mother, saved by his father, at first a brahman, afterwards a B uddhist; v. ^ fiSj but probably apocryphal. | | fj$ The Buddhawisdom th at in its variety is beyond description. I I B 4* S fe The fest refers to invisible, perceptible, or material things, e.g. sound, smell, e tc .; the second to invisible, imperceptible, or immaterial things. | | fj£ Unmentionable, in­ definable ; truth th at can be thought but not ex­ pressed. 11 I {& G anendra; the 733rd of the Buddhas of the present kalpa § ^jj, in which 1,000 Buddhas are to appear, of whom four have appeared. I I M ^5* HI Two guardians of the Law on the right of ManjusrI in the Garbhadhatu mandala, named m & and m B ^ m the 5£

&

«

Unharmonizing natures, one of

S U Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e.g. ^ “F MM# idem 0 # i.e. ^ & or 0 ^ jfc. Ignorant, rustic;

immature or

ignorant. ^ is T May not, can n o t ; unpermissible, for­ bidden ; unable. | | A nupalabhya; Alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable, unknowable, unreal, another name for ^ the void. H ifir * ^ pf ^ The mind or thought, past, present, future, cannot be held fast; the past is gone, the future not arrived, the present does not stay. | | ffi £ One of the eighteen ; it is the | f tT M $§ 3L the “ void ” th at is beyond words or thought. | | J® j^§ Beyond thought or description, v. Zf. jg =||. Pu-k‘o, the name of a monk of the gf Ling Miao monastery in the T ‘ang dynasty, a disciple of Subhakarasimha, and one of the founders of Jj|. H Shingon. The four indescribables, v. i g —■ ^ ^ 18, are the worlds ; living beings ; dragons (nagas); and the size of the Buddha-lands. The five, of the ^ M ffr 30, a r e : The number of living beings; all the consequences of karma ; the powers of a state of d h y an a; the powers of nagas ; the powers of the Buddhas. | | | | # ; | | | [ f t fa The in­ effable Honoured O ne; the Tathagata of ineffable light; titles of Amitabha. I | I I (#¥ Aft) A name for the 0 M M Hua-yen sutra. The full title is also a name for the $£ 0 Vimalaldrtti

' f t % 1^1 S I Anucca^ayanamahasayana. Not to sit on a high, broad, large bed, the ninth of the ten commandments. S i t * m Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In reference to the absolute ^ S M nothing can be added or taken aw ay ; vice versa with the relative. I I^ the unvarying Jg. fa Bhutatathata, one of the ten jg. fa ; also the eighth of the -f- fife. r - m Avinasya; indestructible, never decay­ ing, eternal. | | %] A term in f | Shingon for the magic word fSjiJ “ a ” , the indestructible embodi­ ment of Vairocana. | | P9 H The four dhyana heavens, where the samadhi mind of meditation is indestructible, and the external world is indestruc­ tible by the three final catastrophes. | | Two kinds of arhats practise the Q # tS skull medita­ tion, the dull who consider the dead as ashes, the intelligent who do not, but derive supernatural powers from the meditation, j | ^ gij Vairocana

the indestructible, or eternal. | | | | i t Rfi fflt The luminous mind-temple of the eternal ^ 0 Vairocana, the place in the Vajradhatu, or Diamondrealm, of Vairocana as teacher. * On m £ The twenty-sixth patriarch, said to be Puryam itra (Bitel), son of a king in Southern India, laboured in eastern India, d. a .d . 388 by samadhi.

* m A term of greeting between monks, i.e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring into your condition. * m Anagamin. He who does not re tu rn ; one exempt from transmigration. Practices not in accord with the rule ; immoral or subverted rules, i.e. to do evil, or prevent good ; heretical rules and practices.

'f t ^ §13 Musavada-veramani, the fourth com­ mandment, thou shalt not lie ; no false speaking. ' f t f $ s iilyt Abrahamacarya-veramani, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery, i.e. against fornication and adultery for the lay, and against all unchastity for the clerics. Asaiksa ; no longer studying, graduated, one who has attained. * % Unfixed, unsettled, undetermined, un­ certain. | | H One of the “ four karma ”— aniyata or indefinite k arm a; opposite of ^ |j |. I I M One of the six mental conditions, that of undetermined character, open to any influence good or evil. | | (ff|) ^ Of indeterminate nature. The ^ Dharmalaksana school divides all beings into five classes according to their poten­ tialities. This is one of the divisions and contains four combinations: (1) Bodhisattva-cum-sravaka, with uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two ; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyeka-buddha ; (3) sravaka-cum-pratyeka-buddha ; (4) the character­ istics of all three vehicles intermingled with uncertain resu lts; the third cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may. || ^ ; | | ^ One of the three T‘ien-t‘ai groups of humanity, the indeterminate normal class of people, as contrasted with sages IE % f t ISI whose natures are determined for goodness, and the wicked IfJS % ££ whose natures are determined for evil. | | Indeterminate teaching. T‘ien-t‘ai divides the Buddha’s mode of teaching into four ; this one means that Buddha, by his extraordinary powers of upaya-kausalva, or adaptability, could confer Mahayana benefits on his hearers out of his Hinayana teaching and vice versa, dependent on the capacity of his hearers. I I ( i t) SS Direct insight without any gradual process of sam adhi; one of three forms of T‘ien-t‘ai meditation. Ahimsa. Harmlessness, not injuring, doing harm to none.

The meditation against forgetfulness. m

Acintya. ppj *and words, beyond conception,

^ Beyond thought baffling description, amazing. | | | The ineffable vehicle, Buddhism. I I I 3C The youth of ineffable wisdom, one of the eight youths in the ManjuSri court of the Garbhadhatu. | | | ^ Acintya-jnana, incon­ ceivable wisdom, the indescribable Buddha-wisdom. | | | H Inexpressible karma-merit always working for the benefit of the living. | | | Acintyadhatu. The realm beyond thought and words, ja\. | | | another name for the Bhutatathata, ifir I f jiE The practice of the presence of the invisible Dharmakaya in the esoteric word. | | | ; fg — § The Void beyond thought or dis­ cussion, a conception of the void, or that which is beyond the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas. | | | | U The wisdom thus attained which removes all distresses and illusions. | | | (ffl W I I The 0 H £§£ Hua-yen sutra. I | | H The indescribable vasana, i.e. suffusion, or “ Aiming ” , or influence of primal ignorance, on the Jg. jan bhutatathata, producing all illusion, v. fjf ffe Awakening of Faith. | | | |g The indescribable changes of the bhutatathata in the multitudinous forms of all things. | | | | ^ Ineffable changes and transmigrations, i.e. to the higher stages of mortality above the traidhatuka or trailokya H 3$-^ f t Unhappy, fluence of desire.

uneasy,

the disturbing in­

* .1® The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one’s life (for the sake of bodhi). f t ® # The excommimication of an unrepen­ tant monk ; one of the H If!X rebuke.

m

Neither clever nor pure—a term of

sf* Lay Buddhists may not pay homage to the gods or demons of other religions; monks and nuns may not pay homage to kings or parents.

*

m

^

m

4t

m

m m

Jataru p a-rajata-p ratig rahanad vairamani (virati). The tenth commandment, not to take or possess uncoined or coined gold and silver, or jewels. Amitabha’s vow of non-aban­ donment, not to enter Buddhahood till all were born into his Paradise.

^ MM

No slackness or looseness; concen­ tration of mind and will on the good. |f[f W ithout ceasing, unceasing. | | ^ The unceasing light (or glory) of Amitabha. | | % {% One of the twelve shining Buddhas. | | Unceasing continuity. | | ^ Unceasing remembrance, or invocation of the Buddha. i I m Pk One of the I I (If) Unceasing reading of the sutras. | | $j|jj Unceasing turning of the wheel, as in a monastery by relays of prayer and medita­ tion. The sixth, or highest of the six types of arhats ; the other five groups have to bide their time and opportunity flf JJft for liberation in samadhi, the sixth can enter immediately. JC H I The second of Amitabha’s forty-eight vows, th at those born in his kingdom should never again enter the three evil lower paths of transmigration. * % ift m m Unsullied by the things of the world (e.g. the lotus). | | Uncon­ taminated ignorance. | | ft & H The samadhi which is uncontaminated by any (evil) thing, the samadhi of purity ; i.e. Manjusri in samadhi holding as symbol of it a blue lotus in his left hand.

Undying, immortal. | | H? Sweet dew of immortality, a baptismal water of |f Shingon. | | $§ Medicine of immortality, called giSf So-ho, which grows on f j the Himalayas and bestows on anyone seeing it endless and painless life. | | One of the eight the desire for long life. | | ptj The gate of immortality or nirvapa, i.e. mahayana. Pranatipatad vairamani (virati). The first commandment, Thou shalt not kill the living. * a Not in acccordance with the Buddhalaw, wrong, improper, unlawful. The fear of giving all and having nothing to keep one alive ; one of the five fears. * m Anirodha, not destroyed, not subject to annihilation. | | ^ Anirodhanupada, neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. ^ Unclean, common, vile.

| | jjjfc

; | |

& m ; & m (or « ) fp m m i ; m & pi>j

Ucchusma, a bodhisattva connected with ^ BE 3E who controls unclean demons. | | “ Unclean ” almsgiving, i.e. looking for its reward in this or the next life. | | “ Unclean ” flesh, i.e. th at of animals, fishes, etc., seen being killed, heard being killed, or suspected of being killed; Hlnayana forbids these, Mahayana forbids all flesh. | | f f J # $£ Ur Ignoble or impure deeds, sexual immorality. | | ||g The meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others, e.g. the nine stages of dis­ integration of the dead body % q.v. ; it is a meditation to destroy ^ desire ; other details are : parental seed, womb, the nine excretory passages, the body’s component parts, worm-devoured corpse —all unclean. | | | A sutra of Dharmatrata. I | St “ Unclean” preaching, i.e. to preach, whether rightly or wrongly, from an impure motive, e.g. for making a living. | | One of the three : impermanence, impurity, distress

m s , * m, Natya-gita-vaditra-visukadarsanad vairamani (virati). The seventh commandment against taking part in singing, dancing, plays, or going to watch and hear them.

IE 'k

Not strict food, not exactly food, things th at do not count as a meal, e.g. fruit and nuts.

A nutpatti; anutpada. N on-birth; not to be reborn, exempt from reb irth ; arhan is mis­ takenly interpreted as “ not born ” , meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The “ nir ” in nir­ vana is also erroneously said to mean “ not born ” ; certain schools say th at nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word JSf “ a ” is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated.

The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathagata, who is not born, but eternal; hence by implica­ tion the term means “ eternal Adi, which means “ at first ” , “ beginning ” , “ primary ” , is also inter­ preted as ^ ^ uncreated. | | Hf One of the H Hr, when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in the evil paths are ended. | | ^ Neither (to be) born nor ended ” is another term for ^ f£ permanent, eternal; nothing having been created nothing can be destroyed; Hinayana limits the meaning to the state of nirvana, no more births and deaths ; Mahayana in its Madhya­ mika form extends it universally, no birth and death, no creation and annihilation, see 4* Ifr- The 0 | | are th at nothing is produced (1 ) of itself; (2) of another, i.e. of a cause without itself; (3) of both ; (4) of no-cause. * m in doubt th a t the creature has been killed to feed me, v. ^ . m m * The non-interrelated mind, see fit fib I I I f f Actions non-interrelated (with mind). *

•4^

Amogha, Amoghavajra. ^ g - f ; Not empty (or not in vain) vajra. The famous head of the Yogacara school in China. A Singhalese of northern brahmanic descent, having lost his father, he came at the age of 15 with his uncle to jff the eastern sea, or China, where in 718 he became a disciple of 1? Vajrabodhi. After the latter’s death in 732, and at his wish, Eliot says in 741, he went to India and Ceylon in search of esoteric or tantric writings, and returned in 746, when he baptized the emperor Hsiian Tsung. He was especially noted for rain-making and stilling storms. In 749 he received permission to return home, b ut was stopped by imperial orders when in the south of China. In ? 756 under Su Tsung he was recalled to the capital. His time until 771 was spent translating and editing tantric books in 120 volumes, and the Yogacara $$ fjc rose to its peak of prosperity. He died greatly honoured at 70 years of age, in 774, the twelfth year of Tai Tsung, the third emperor under whom he had served. The festival of feeding the hungry spirits ggj -gf is attributed to him. His titles of ^ and | | are Thesaurus of Wisdom and Amogha Tripi­ taka. | | g§ Aryamogha-puxnamani, also styled $U M & H'J “At will vajra ” ; in the Garbhadhatu mandala, the fifth on the south of the * fife court. | \ iu M'> I IIK #n The realm of phenom ena; in contrast with the universal fa or Jf| dharmakaya, unmingled with the

illusion of phenomena. | | jgfc Amoghasiddhi. The Tathagata of unerring performance, the fifth of the five wisdom or dhyani-buddhas of the diamond-realm. He is placed in the north ; his image is gold-coloured, left hand clenched, right fingers extended pointing to breast. Also, “ He is seated in ‘ adamantine ’ pose (legs closely locked) ” (Getty), soles apparent, left hand in lap, palm up­ wards, may balance a double vajra, or sword ; right hand erect in blessing, fingers extended. Symbol, double vajra ; colour, green (Getty); word, ah !; blue-green lotus ; element, earth ; animal, garuda ; Sakti (female personification), T a ra ; Manusi-Buddha (human or saviour Buddha), Maitreya. T., dongrub; J., Fuku jo-ju. | | ^ (fg # or ~E or & g i) ; Amoghapasa M f&P B*- Hot empty (or unerring) net, or lasso. One of the six forms of Kuan-yin in the Garbhadhatu group, catching deva and human fish for the bodhi-shore. The image has three faces, each with three eyes and six arms, but other forms have existed, one with three heads and ten arms, one with one head and four arms. The hands hold a net, lotus, trident, halberd, the gift of courage, and a plenipotentiary staff; sometimes accompanied by “ the green Tara, Sudhana-Kumara, Hayagriva and Bhrkuti ” (Getty). There are numerous sutras, etc. | | | | i§r jH Amoghadarsin, the unerringly seeing Bodhi­ sattva, shown in the upper second place of Titsang’s court in the G arbhadhatu; also fj| & M- I I # R'J ^ SI Amoghavajra. |SJ g fg {If gg A Bodhisattva in the fij} court of the Garbhadhatu. I I $0 § 8, H' Amoghankusa. ^ fM. ^ Kuan-yin of the “ Unerring hook ” , similar to | | f | ^ | | ; also styled jgt 0 $1 3E ; in the court of the empyrean. ^ ± 3S t 4 s ( i f e ) The j® Ch‘an or intuitive School does “ not set up scriptures ” ; it lays stress on meditation and intuition rather than on books and other external aid s; cf. Lankavatara sutra. Never Despise, ^ | | g§ a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose con­ stant greeting to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persecution; see the chapter of this title in the Lotus sutra. | | yff The practice of “ Never Despise ” . ^ |p Unrefined, indecent, improper, or smart speech.

Mala-gandha-vilepana - dharana-man cf- 3E f t3 t j§> m i-

The

35

The five delusions, idem 3l 1$ $>.

~Ft. The feelings, or passions, which are stirred by the £ 4Ji five senses. 35 The five sins—killing, stealing, adultery, lying, drinking intoxicants. Cf. | | ^ idem 3£1 . | | m idem J t and 3 l M-

five angry ones, idem 3£ ^

35 The five devotional gates of the Pure-land s e c t: (1) worship of Amitabha with the |j» b o d y ; (2) invocation with the p m outh; (3) resolve with the ^ mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of that land, e tc .; (5) resolve to bestow one’s merits, e.g. works of supererogation, on all creatures.

35 'IS

The five kinds of selfishness, or meanness : monopolizing (1 ) an abode ; (2) an almsgiving house­ hold ; (3) alms received ; (4) praise ; (5) knowledge of the truth, e.g. of a sutra.

5. ® (S )

;

3 t JH I t I t idem £ |*

».

c Panca veram anl the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adul­ tery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. §£. * ft ; * m m ; * £ m ; * f t m They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as S . f t The fivedifferent natures as grouped byon monks and nuns. The observance of these five the ^ 49 ^ Dharmalaksana se c t; of thesetheensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command first and second, while able to attain to non-return has five spirits to guard its observer 3£ 3 E Iffyto mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach i t ; the The five Buddha-ksetra, or de­ fifth will be reborn as devas or men : ( 1 ) sravakas pendencies, the realms, or conditions of a Buddha. for a rh a ts; (2) pratyeka-buddhas for pratyekaThey a r e : (1 ) & & ± his dharmakaya-ksetra, or buddhahood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; realm of his “ spiritual nature ” , dependent on and (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddhayet identical with the im bhutatathata ; (2) mind. The ® has another group, i.e. the his g $ i or sambhogakaya realm natures of ( 1 ) ordinary good people ; (2) Sravakas with its five immortal skandhas, i.e. his glorified and pratyeka-buddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) in­ body for his own enjoym ent; (3) -g, 4=0 ± the land definite ; (5) heretics. | | ^ idem or condition of his self-expression as wisdom; (4) 'ftfe ^ ffl i sambhogakaya realm for the joy of £ ( # ) 33^ The five fears of beginners in the others ; (5) 4P ffc -p the realm on which his nirmana­ bodhisattva-way: fear of (1 ) giving away all lest kaya depends, that of the wisdom of perfect service they should have no means of livelihood ; (2) sacri­ of all, which results in his relation to every kind of ficing their reputation; (3) sacrificing themselves condition. through dread of dying ; (4) falling into ev il; (5) addressing an assembly, especially of men of position. 5 . f f The five stages in a penitential service. T‘ien-t‘ai gives: (1 ) confession of past sins and forbidding them for the fu tu re; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to keep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the good in self and others; (4) |ts] offering all one’s goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-w ay; (5) resolve, or vows, i.e. the 0 §/, f f . The =§■ Shingon sect divides the ten great vows of ^ jjyj Samantabhadra into five m , the first three vows being included under ffj ^ or submission; the fourth is repentance ; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the B uddhas; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired merit.

3 t« 7J K

The five skandhas, idem

J] .

3 5 "jltf Hflil A sastra of Asanga also tr. as the ffl Snf, giving a description of Mahayana doctrine ; Vasubandhu prepared a summary of i t ; tr. by Wu-hsing. Translations were also made by Paramartha and Hsiian-tsang; other versions and treatises under various names exist. 35 ( or ^ ^ The five parts (avayava) of a syllogism: jfc gz pratijna, the proposition; @ hetu, the reason; ? | f t udaharana, the

example ; & upanaya, the application; and nigamana, the summing up, or conclusion. These are also expressed in other terms, e.g. jfc @; ^ iw , Hr ; and | | The five moral laws or principles arising out of the idea of the maha-nirvana in the -fc § 11 . S i f e The five divisions of Buddhism according to the Hua-yen School, of which there are two groups. That of H® Tu-shun down to Jj| ^ Hsien-shou is (1) /J> | Hlnayana which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) j z ^ jfe | the primary stage of Mahayana, with two sections the | and g ffe | or realistic and idealistic ; (3) ^ | Mahayana in its final stage, teaching the % jm and universal Buddhahood ; (4) ^ J the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e.g. by right concentra­ tion of thought, or faith, apart from “ works ” ; (5) m i the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayen, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into -j- ^ ten schools. The other division, by ^ % Kueifeng of the same school, is ( 1 ) X 5^ I rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five com­ mandments and as devas those who keep the -f* q-v.; (2) /fr HI | as above; (3) ^ i gb A I as *0 | above; (4) ^ I as £ | above; and (5) — ffe M $■ \ the one vehicle which reveals the universal B uddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 3 t I* f t I | jf| The work in three chiian by fjfc Wl Fa-tsang of the T'ang dynasty, explaining the doctrines of the Five Schools. jfL ^ 3 5 . ^=j The five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five regions; see the esoteric 3 £ ■%;. | | An abbreviation for J . 3£ he. H ~1‘ 3 l I I 5 also the T‘ien-t£ai | | | ^ £ M in Vajradhatu.

The five Dhyani-Buddhas of the

£ 1 0 Pancabhijna. The five supernatural or magical pow ers; six is the more common number in Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. | j# & . 3 L J |£ watch.

The five night w atches; also the fifth

-It Pancavidya, the five sciences or studies of India : (1 ) sabda, grammar and composition; silpakarmasthana, the arts and mathematics ; cikitsa, medicine ; hetu, logic ; adhyatma, philosophy, which

Monier Williams says is the “ knowledge of the su­ preme spirit, or of atman ” , the basis of the four V edas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripitaka and the -f- Z1 pfi as their ft f$, i.e. their inner or special philosophy. ~Ft. The five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and M ercury; also £

55.

A $k

a t ‘ien-t‘ai classification of the Buddha’s teaching into five periods and eight kinds of doctrine, which eight are subdivided into two groups of four each, j t M ^ and i t & 0 %kI I (%&) The five periods or divisions of $akyamuni’s teaching. According to T‘ien-t‘ai they are (1 ) 0 f^p the Avatamsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the contents of this sutra ; (2) Jg[ ^ Rf the twelve years of his preaching the agamas |5pf ^ in the deer p a rk ; (3) |^p the eight years of preaching mahayana-cum-hxnayana doctrines, the vaipulya period ; (4) the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajna or wisdom su tra s; (5) fl;- Ijl Bvp the eight years of his preaching the Lotus sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the T‘ien-t‘ai) they are ( 1 ) H ^ ^ 1] ^ the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the |2J Four Noble Truths for sravakas, the -f- H g | Twelve Nidanas for pratyeka-buddhas, and the 7^ Ijc Six Paramitas for bodhisattvas ; (2) H HI the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the ^ ^ ; (3) $1 }§ the teaching of the | | | , the J®, ^ ^ J&f 181 aQd other sutras extolfing the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for sravakas; (4) |fjj $£ the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) ^ f t ffc the teaching of eternal life, i.e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood ; these five are also called # ; M 40; $ $ ; ^ — ; and [Q S - According to §lj 4L Liu Ch‘iu of the Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into |ft immediate and gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 3E J^P similar to those of the T‘ien-t‘ai group. According to ^ ^ Fa-pao of the T‘ang dynasty the five are (1) /]> ; (2) W . m or * * ; (3) f t & or = HI: (4) & # or - H I ; (5) m & or flfe & ~f]i The five kinds of wisdom of the ^ "gShingon School. Of the six elements 7^ ^ earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) i£E, and

consciousness (or mind gjjfc), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhatu, the womb of all things Jf., the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhatu ^ Pjij sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijnana, is further subdivided into five called the 3 £ Five Wisdoms : (1 ) ?£ ffi g Dharmadhatu-prakrti-jnana, derived from the amala-vijnana, or pure fg| ; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhatu, defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana ^ 0 , in the centre, who abides in this sam adhi; it also corresponds to the ether element. (2) -fc [gj Adarsana-jnana, the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the alaya-vijnana, reflecting all things ; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Aksobhya and the east. (3) Zp ^ Samata-jnana, derived from manovijnana, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasambhava and the south. W lift Pratyaveksana-jnana, derived from ^ f}|, wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-destruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitabha and the west. (5) j K r t y a n u s t h a n a - j n a n a , derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others ; corresponds to air jjH, and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyani-Buddhas are the Jj_ The five kinds of wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-reflecting, universal, all-discerning, and all-perfect­ ing. I l i n | | 3E #5; £ A ; 3£ ia # The five Dhyani-Buddhas, or Wisdom-Tathagatas of the Vajradhatu ^ S'J $ •, idealizations of five aspects of wisdom ; possibly of Nepalese origin. The WisdomBuddha represents the dharmakaya or Buddha-mind, also the Dharma of the triratna, or trinity. Each evolves one of the five colours, one of the five senses, a Dhyani-bodhisattva in two forms (one gracious, the other fierce), and a Manusi-Buddha ; each has his own sakti, i.e. feminine energy or complement; also his own blja, or germ-sound ffi or £p seal, i.e. Jj|. if real or substantive word, the five being for B am, for [Sgf gg hum, for ^ ? hrih, for ffi [Jg ? ah, for ^ ^ ? ah. The five are also de­ scribed as the emanations or forms of an Adi-Buddha, Vajrasattva ; the four are considered by others to be emanations or forms of Vairocana as the Supreme Buddha. The five are not always described as the same, e.g. they may be (or 3E) Bhaisajya, 0 ^ Prabhutaratna, Vairocana, Aksobhya, and either Amoghasiddhi or Sakyamuni. Below is a classified list of the generally accepted five with

certain particulars connected with them, but these differ in different places, and the list can only be a general guide. As to the Dhyani-bodhisattvas, each Buddha evolves three forms 3 £ ^ &£ j£|, 3l B'L 3 l i-e- (1 ) a bodhisattva who repre­ sents the Buddha’s dharmakaya, or spiritual b o d y ; (2) a vajra or diamond form who represents his wisdom in graciousness ; and (3) a fierce or angry form, the 3E who represents his power against evil. ( 1 ) Vairocana appears in the three forms of $ | g§ Vajra-paramita Bodhisattva, jg Bg ^ pgij Universally Shining Vajrasattva, and fljl 3E Arya-Acalanatha Raja ; (2) Aksobhya’s three forms are H Akasagarbha, jcn ;§£ complete power, and j|[ ^ %\\ J K undali-raja; (3) Ratnasambhava’s are # * Samantabhadra, m m Sattvavajra, and ® ^ or ^ H H J Trailokyavijayar a j a ; (4) Amitabha’s are | | |fr § Avalokitesvara, ^ & W'J Dharmaraja, and fl| g t W 3E Hayagriva, the horse-head Dharmapala ; (5) Amoghasiddhi’s are ffi j$ j Maitreya, |jt & P|iJ Karmavajra, and ^ pjlj $ % Vajrayaksa. The above Bodhisattvas differ from those in the following l i s t :— P osition. U

V a iro ca n a A k so b h y a

PHI S 3 R a tn a sa m b h a v a W ^ A m ita b h a A m o g h a sid d h i Germ. am h um

A n im a l. lio n

f f i PB sfi.

E lem ent.

Sense.

Colour.

centre

ether

sig h t

w h ite

east south

e arth

sound

blue

fire

sm ell

yellow

w ater

taste

red

a ir

touch

west n orth

D hyani-B odhisattva. S a m antabh adra ^

elephant V a jra p a n i

? ah

horse

?hr"*

peacock [A v a lo k ite s v a r a g a ru d a V isv a p a n i ?

? ah

| |

^

|5|lj

R a tn a p a n i ^

green

B uddha. K ra k u c c h a n d a Kanakam uni K a iy a p a

f|g ^

S Mem I « f{ S .

gakyam uni M aitreya

I IR 4 H #

Each of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas is accredited with the three forms which represent his |j | body, p U| speech, and ;f£ |j | mind, e.g. the embodiment of Wisdom is Vairocana, his preaching form is Hf JiJ, and his will form is ^ 3E i the embodiment g ' of the mirror is Aksobhya, his p is Manjusri, his ^ is ^ H iH: $>J ; and so o n ; v. above. 3 l # & # Five ways of intoning “ Amita­ bha ” established by HB Fa-chao of the T'ang dynasty, known as 35; ^ ^ g|i from his brochure

S . & The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e.g. I. (1) J | ^ 5, ^ fruit ripening divergently, e.g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories ; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) ^ ^

fruit of the same order, e.g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) ^ present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives ; (4) Jg^ superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavour and superior capacity; (5) g t Jft fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or reb irth : (1) fffc conception (viewed psychologically); (2) g , -g, formation mental and physical; (3) ^ Jjg the six organs of perception complete ; (4) flg their birth and contact with the w orld; (5) ^ consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods. Pancendriyani. (1) The five roots, i.e. the five organs of the senses : eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body as roots of knowing. (2) The five spiritual organs or positive agents : fg faith, Jfg jf| energy, ^ memory, % visionary meditation, *§ wisdom. The 3 £ q.v. are regarded as negative agents. For | | see 3£ -g,. | | They are the six great klesa, i.e. passions, or disturbers, minus views, or delusions ; i.e. desire, anger, stupidity (or ignorance), pride, and doubt. H The five kinds of k a rm a : of which the groups are numerous and differ. ~Ft.

The pleasures of the five senses, v. next.

3 l. ^ The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and sleep. 3 £ I E 1 5 , idem s I i n ; i a I I The five proper courses to ensure the bliss of the Pure Land : ( 1 ) Intone the three sutras j| H l i t W and M SB (2) meditate on the Pure L a n d ; (3) worship solely A m itabha; (4) invoke his n am e; (5) extol and make offerings to him. Service of other Buddhas, etc., is styled £ ( » ) m 4t- I I t ; i l M Pancabhojaniya. The five foods considered proper for monks in early Buddhism : boiled rice, boiled grain or pease, parched grain, flesh, cakes. 3 l JKt ( f l p or ^ PM ); also | -£, or | J}£ The five-pronged vajra or thunderbolt emblem of the 3 l r P f i y o groups and 5 ff fij? five wisdom powers of the vajradhatu ; doubled it is an emblem of the ten paramitas. In the esoteric cult the 3 £ )}§ pp five-pronged vajra is the symbol of the 3 £ ^ five wisdom powers and the 5ff f$> five Buddhas, and has

several names 3 l PP, 3l t? PP, 5ff PP 5 # W. P|L ± PP> and ± ^ U % PP> and has many definitions. i l k & The first five of Buddha’s converts, also called 3£ -=p, Ajnata-Kaundinya, Asvajit, Bhadrika, Dasabala - Kasyapa, and Mahanama Kulika, i.e. M ; M M ^ ’ but there are numerous other forms of their names.

"ft. Pancadharma. The five laws or cate­ gories, of which four groups are as follows : I. 40 ^ 3£ ^ The five categories of form and name : (1) 40 appearances, or phenom ena; (2) % their names ; (3) JS*J sometimes called ordinary mental discrimination of them—(1 ) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) JE corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the la s t; (5) ixa jea the Jj| B hutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 91 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. J|£ gg 3 l The five categories into which things and their prin­ ciples are divided : (1 ) m ind; (2) | mental conditions or activities; (3) -g, | the actual states or categories as conceived ; (4) sfi 40 jRI I hypothetic categories, P$[ has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen ; (5) i t ^ | the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things ; the first four are the ^ and the last the gg. III. gg ^ iff cfi iff & ! the five categories of essential wis­ dom : (1 ) jg; fxs the absolute ; (2) f | § wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things ; (3) 2p | wisdom of the equal Buddhanature of all beings ; (4) | wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and d o u b t; (5) Jjjfc ^ | wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. J(§ igg 3£ The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta : not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor s a lt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is : to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from Followers of all kinds of flesh, milk, etc. | | \ the five ascetic rules of Devadatta, the enemy of the Buddha. | | $ ; # idem | 40 I I I I # idem | # | |. 3 t f ! The five paramitas (omitting the sixth, wisdom), i.e. dana, almsgiving; slla, com­ mandment-keeping ; ksanti, patience (under provoca­ tion) ; virya, zeal; and dhyana, meditation. 'M The five “ seas ” or infinities seen in a vision by P ‘u-hsien, v. | j | 0 jfjjc H 3, viz., (1) all B

worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future. The five “ clean ” products of the cow, its panca-gavya, i.e. urine, dung, milk, cream (or sour milk), and cheese (or b u tte r); cf. M. W. | | ^ ). I ^ 1 ^ Cf. The five puredwelling heavens in the fourth dhyana heaven, into which arhats are finally b o rn : ^ ^ Avrhas, the heaven free from all trouble; ^ | Atapas, of no heat or distress ; f t | Sudr^as, of beautiful presentation; f t HL | Sudarsanas, beautiful; and Akanisthas, the highest heaven of the form-realm. | | | 3® I I idem 3£

35

; | ; | if[ The five kasaya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i.e. of d ecay; they are accredited to the kalpa, see P3 £}}, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1 ) | the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing fo rm ; (2) j | | deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) £11 I the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) §£. I in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) fir | human lifetime gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the m itself and the fourth and fifth its results. | | ig' The above period of increasing turbidity or decay.

35

The five burnings, or £ § five pains, i.e. infraction of the first five commandments leads to state punishment in this life and the hells in the next. ~Ft. I I I The five infinites, or immeasurables —body, mind, wisdom, space, and all the living— as represented respectively by the five DhyaniBuddhas, i.e. m n , ± 0 ,' and ^ • | | ffS The uninterrupted, or no-interval hell, i.e. avici hell, the worst, or eighth of the eight hells. I t is ceaseless in five respects—karma and its effects are an endless chain with no escape ; its sufferings are ceaseless; it is timeless ; its fate or life is endless ; it is ceaselessly full. Another in­ terpretation takes the second, third, and fifth of the above and adds th at it is packed with Jj| £§ imple­ ments of torture, and that it is full of all kinds of living beings. | | | | j | or Jp The five karma, or sins, leading to the avici hell, v. ijfr.

mm, m

35 ® $k

The five Teng-lu are (1 )

H jg

. 1004-8; (2) j | | and (5) f t I | ; the are later collections.

a .d

| ; (3) jgf | | ; (4) |, | | f t j t and | | f t f t

35 ^

The five vases used by the esoteric school for offering flowers to their Buddha, the flowers are stuck in a mixture of the five precious things, the five grains and the five medicines mingled with scented water. | | f t ?JC The five vases are emblems of the five departments of the Vajradhatu, and the fragrant water the wisdom of the five WisdomBuddhas. | | $ | ® Baptism with water of the five vases representing the wisdom of these five Buddhas. jE . Five rebirths, i.e. five states, or conditions of a bodhisattva’s rebirth : (1 ) to stay calamities, e.g. by sacrificing him self; (2) in any class th at may need him ^ (3) in superior condition, handsome, wealthy, or noble ; (4) in various grades of kingship ; (5) final rebirth before Buddhahood; v. J§£ -flip m 4.

35. S

idem

35 5ii idem

£ |

g.

~fr. Pancasata. Five hundred, of which there are numerous instances, e.g. 500 former existences; the 500 disciples, etc. | | -ffi: or 500 generations. | | | A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn without hands for 500 generations ; v. % $} "p. I l ( * ) m m 500 great arhats who formed the synod under Kaniska and are the supposed compilers of the Abhidharma-mahavibliasa-sastra, 400 years after Buddha entered nirvana (pfij Pit 0 0 ^ Pit f i r ) ) tr. by Hsiian-tsang ( a .d . 656-9). The 500 Lohans found in some monasteries have various definitions. | | ^ The “ five hundred ” rules for nuns, reallv 348, viz. 8 17 ftf $$, 30 & H , 178 H £ , 8 £ & jg, 100 $ a n d T i i .

I

I £

idem

|

| ifr.

|

|

| | /]» |( ij; I | | | The 500 sects according to the 500 years after the Buddha’s d e a th ; f t jf? ffr 63. | | fgj (l§£) The 500 questions of Mahamaudgalyayana to the Buddha on discipline. | | frj The 500 yojanas of difficult and perilous journey to the Land of Treasures; v. the Lotus Sutra.

35

l§ f The mental and physical suffer­ ings arising from the full-orbed activities of the skandhas J l ||£, one of the eight sufferings; also X & f t (ft).

3 5 . 01^ The five kinds of eyes or vision : hum an; deva (attainable by men in dhyana); Hinayana wisdom ; bodhisattva truth ; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more related to omni­ science making -f* gj| ten kinds of eyes or vision. J t idem | | and I I Wu % (#&) A- contemplation of the five stages in Vairocana Buddhahood—entry into the bodhi-mind; main­ tenance of i t ; attainm ent of the diamond m in d ; realization of the diamond em bodim ent; and perfect attainm ent of Buddhahood. I t refers also to the J l ^ of the Vairocana group ; also | (or

love of all the living comes n e x t; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds. | | | f i or -f# § ^ H The mandala of this group contains seventeen figures representing the five above named, with their twelve subordinates. ~Ft. The five k inds; but frequently the fig is omitted, e.g. for | | ■fj: see jg. -f£. £ H i The five modes of trisarana, or formulas of trust in the Triratna, taken by those who ( 1 ) ffli JjS turn from heresy; (2) take the five commandments; (3) the eight commandments; (4) the ten commandments; (5) the complete com­ mandments.

The five indriyas or organs of per­ ception—eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. v. 3 £ JR. $ $ idem & | $ .

complete females, * j* « 32.

The five kinds of sexually in­ jg , 0 , fa, and Jgc. v. ^

3 t @ The five kinds of {# » & pandakas, i.e.eunuchs, or impotent males : by birth ; emasculation; uncontrollable emission; herma­ phrodite ; impotent for half the m o n th ; they are known as J | Jfg Sandha ; -g? ? B u n d a; # ^ Irsyapandaka ; ^f2 j® Pandaka ; 3t Paksapandaka; there are numerous subdivisions.

® (or g l) Pancabhijna ; also J i * 1 Cfr) the five supernatural powers. (1 ) (I? IS) M divyacaksus ; deva-vision, instantaneous view of any­ thing anywhere in the form-realm. (2) 5 M) -jj| divyasrotra, ability to hear any sound anywhere. (3) ftfe ifr ( ^ !§ ) $j| paracitta-jnana, ability to know the thoughts of all other minds. (4) Iff fit ( ^ if£) purvanivasanusmrti-jnana, knowledge of all former existences of self and others. (5) jj$ j$j. (U f£) ; W JE. •, M & rddhi-saksatkrlya, power to be anywhere or do anything a t will. See f? 5. Powers similar to these are also attainable by meditation, incantations, and drugs, hence heterodox teachers also may possess them.

~Ftr The five kinds of terms which Hsiian-tsang did not translate but transliterated— the esoteric; those with several meanings; those without equivalent in China ; old-established terms ; and those which would be less impressive when translated.

3t H

i

The five patriarchs. Those of the Hua-yen (Kegon) sect are $£ flg ; # # 1 ? ® # & IK ; fit W, ^ and £ £ g The Pure-land sect five patriarchs are § ; j || ^ ; m m , and A? jffc. The ( 6 ) 31 f£ Lien-she sect has # 3 1 ; « ffi; 4 ' * ; # « , “ d ® » • i f . i w idem Tl. The five esoteric or occult ones, i.e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the m iddle; desire on the e a s t; contact, so u th ; love, w est; and f f pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six funda­ mental elements of sentient existence and here in­ dicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is th at of bodhi and the salvation of a ll; contact with the needy world for its salvation follows;

i

^ i The five kinds of anagamins who never return to the desire-realm: (1 ) the anagamin who enters on the intermediate stage between the realm of desire and the higher realm of form ; (2) £ who is born into the formworld and soon overcomes the remains of illusion; (3) ^ f t Hlk who diligently works his way through the final stages; (4) f t tiSt whose final departure is delayed through lack of aid and slackness; (5) _h AS who proceeds from lower to higher heavens into nirvapa. Also j | and j | J|£, the being “ parmirvana ” . 5 ; a i ! S f t Five kinds of esoteric cere­ monial, i.e. (1) J§j J[g j® 4antika, for stopping calamities ; (2) or j® paustika, for success or prosperity; (3) fSJ fs£ M "S 3S abhicaraka, for suppressing, or exorcising ; (4) ^ ^1? jg akarsani,

for calling, or attracting (good beings, or a id ); (5) M M # $L vaslkarana, for seeking the aid of Buddhas and bodhisattvas ; also 3£ and cf. £ « f t IITf ^ v. 5 B&-

The signs of the five kinds of vision,

T f. ^ P ft f§jc The five kinds of wei-shih, or idealistic representation in the sutras and sastras as summed up by Tzu-en Jgjl of the Dharmalaksana school: (1) if| Pf£ ft§ wisdom or insight in objective conditions; (2) j$jr [ ( i n interpretation; (3) gg | | in principles; (4) ( | in meditation and practice; (5) Jft j | in the fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subjective. ~fj. ^jK 5^ ceremonials, v.

The ^

five kinds

of mandala

3 l (§ 1 ) ^ ^ ; 3£ Five excellent causes, e.g. of blessedness : keeping the command­ ments ; sufficient food and clothing ; a secluded abode ; cessation of worry ; good friendship. Another group is : riddance of s in ; protection through long life ; vision of Buddha (or Amitabha, etc.); uni­ versal salvation (by Am itabha); assurance of Amitabha’s heaven. The five kinds of almsgiving or danas—to those from afar, to those going afar, to the sick, the hungry, and those wise in Buddhist doctrine. 3 l S The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva developm ent: (1 ) f f | | the germnature of study of the g void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the -fstage; (2) ^ | | that of ability to discriminate all the ££ natures of pheno­ mena and transform the living; the -f-* stage; (3) jE I I (the middle-)way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the -f|pj ; (4) ]g | | the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the -f* $jj, in which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the and becomes ; (5) ( j the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i.e. ^ J|£. I! Five epidemics in Vaisali during the Buddha’s lifetime—bleeding from the eyes, pus from the ears, nose-bleeding, lockjaw, and astringent taste of all food.

5 (fit HL The five kinds of mental aberra­ tion : ( 1 ) the five senses themselves not functioning properly; (2) external distraction, or inability to concentrate the attention; (3) internal distraction, or mental confusion ; (4) distraction caused by ideas' of me and mine, personality, possession, e tc .; (5) con­ fusion of thought produced by hinayana ideas. TT. jjlu M The five inferences in (Indian) logic : (1 ) +0 from appearance, e.g. fire from smoke ; (2) m from the corporeal, e.g. two or more things from o n e; (3) Jj| from action, e.g. the animal from its footm ark; (4) jfe from recognized law, old age from b ir th ; (5) 0 ^ from cause and effect, that a traveller has a destination. -S S t The five kinds of masters of the Law, v. Lotus Sutra, fSji —one who receives and keeps ; reads ; recites ; expounds ; and copies the sutra. The Hua-yen school’s five forms of dharm adhatu: (1 ) or 1|£ | | the phenomenal realm ; (2) ffi J?jL or gg | | the inactive, quiescent, or noumenal realm ; (3) ffi /^f M o r J f r J I f c S i I I both, i.e. inter­ dependent and interactive ; (4) ffi % ffi ffi ffi | | neither active nor inactive, but it is d s o m m m m | |, e.g. water and wave, wave being water and water w ave; (5) & $ | | or ^ ^ | | the unimpeded realm, the unity of the phenomenal and noumenal, of the collective and individual. 3l S t The five kinds of a Buddha’s dharmakaya. There are four groups. I. (1 ) jtn M the spiritual body of bhutatathata-wisdom ; (2) 5 b ^ | | of all virtuous achievement; (3) of incarnation in the w orld; (4) JH ffc I I of un­ limited powers of transformation; (5) j® ^ | | of unlimited space ; the first and second are defined as sambhogakaya, the third and fourth as nirmanakaya, and the fifth as the dharmakaya, but all are included under dharmakaya as it possesses all the others. II. The esoteric cult uses the first four and adds as fifth & 0k indicating the universe as pan-Buddha. III. Hua-yen gives (1) ^ ^ ^ 0k the body or person of Buddha born from the dharman a tu re ; (2) yjj ^ 0k the dharmakaya evolved by Buddha virtue, or achievement; (3) Jg {£ | | the dharmakaya with unlimited powers of transforma­ tion ; (4) $0 | | the real dharm akaya; (5) li I I the universal dharmakaya. IY. Hina­ yana defines them as 55 ^ ( | q.v.

g| |

H The five abhisecani baptisms of the esoteric school—for ordaining acaryas, teachers, or preachers of the L aw ; for admitting disciples ; for putting an end to calamities or suffering for sins ; for advancement, or success ; and for controlling (evil spirits) or getting rid of difficulties, cf. 5 . fg|