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A description and evaluation of the United States Air Force teacher training program

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A DESCRIPTION AND EVALUATION OF THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by William T. Daly January 1950

UMI Number: EP56127

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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UMI EP56127 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ire c tio n o f the C h a irm a n o f the candidate’s G u id a n ce C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d by a l l m embers o f the C o m m itte e , has been presented to a n d accepted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n o f the U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th e rn C a li f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the require m en ts f o r the degree o f M a s te r o f Science in E d u c a tio n .



January 26, 1950

Date .....................

Dean Guidance Committee

Chairman

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED . . , The problem .....................

II.

1

. . . . . .

2

Statement of the p r o b l e m ................

2

Delimitation of. the p r o b l e m ..............

2

Importance of the s t u d y ...................

3

Definitions of terms used ...................

4

Sources of d a t a .............................

7

S u m m a r y ................................. ..

8

.

Organization of remainder of thesis ........

8

SURVEY OF RELATED L I T E R A T U R E ................

10

Literature directly bearing on the problem •

................

10

Literature furnishing background for the p r o b l e m .......... S u m m a r y .................... III.

HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT AND ORGANIZATION ........

11 15 17

History and development .....................

17

O r g a n i z a t i o n ................

23

Division Director .........................

23

Deputy D i r e c t o r ........................

24

Chief of Reading Lab o r a t o r y ..............

25

The Chief of the Grading S e c t i o n ........

25

lii CHAPTER

PAGE The Chief of the Administrative Section

..

26

The Chief of the Educational Plans S e c t i o n ............

27

The Chief of the Instructional and Training S e c t i o n ..............

27

The Chief of the Research and Development S e c t i o n ......................

28

The Chief Civilian Consultant . . . . . . .

28

The Three Civilian Consultants

29

..........

Each Section C h i e f ..................

30

Advisory-Tutorial System

...................

31

Allied Civilian Agencies

. • . .

34

........

Educational Advisory S t a f f ........ .. . .

34

Board of V i s i t o r s ................ . . . . •

37

S u m m a r y ................................. IV.

40

PURPOSE OF PROGRAM AND DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRICULUM

....

V.

. . . . . . . . . .

Mission, scope, purpose

.

41

............

41

C u r r i c u l u m ................................ . G e n e r a l .............................. General phase . ............

. . . . . . . .

45 45 46

Communication skills

.....................

47

Practice teaching .

.....................

50

iv CHAPTER

PAGE The lecture m e t h o d ....................

50

The socialized recitation method . . . .

50

The conference method

51

................

The performance m e t h o d ..........

52

The summary test of instruction

52

p r o f i c i e n c y .................. Practice teaching

.......................

E v a l u a t i o n ......................

54 55

Curriculum planning and supervision

. .

57

S u m m a r y ............ V.

59

EVALUATION OP THE ACADEMIC INSTRUCTOR DIVISION . . . . . . . . .

..............

60

Student analyses of course ..............

60

Information from student diagnostic

60

appraisal f o r m s .................. Typical student comments . . .

63

........

Opinions of authorities on teacher training and evaluation

.

..........

64

. .

69

............

69

Efforts toward improvement ofprogram Participation in program by civilian educators

. . . . . . .

Participation in non-federal con­ ference and m e e t i n g s ..........

72

V

CHAPTER

PAGE Rapport between students and faculty . , .

73

Growth through adaptation of suggestions and s e l f - a n a l y s i s ..................... Plans for research and development . . . .

7^ 78

Future plans for Air Force teacher 79

training S u m m a r y ........................... . . . VI.

.

8l

CONCLUSIONS AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S ............

82

. . .........................

82

R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .........................

85

Conclusions

BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................

88

A P P E N D I X E S .........................................

92

A. B.

Organization Chart of AirUniversity .........

92

Organization Chart Academic Instructor D i v i s i o n ...................................

9^

C.

Board of Visitors to Air University 1949-50

.

96

D.

Academic Instructor Course Master Schedule .

.

98

E.

Follow-up Study of Instructor Training . . . .

100

LIST OP TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE Student Reactions to Twenty-nine Representative Units of Instruction, Academic instructor Division, USAP Special Staff School, September 19^8 - September 1 9 ^ 9 ..........

62

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AMD DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED Everyone old enough to remember World War II is aware of the strides made by the Air Force toward the perfection of the science of aerial warfare, and the revolutionary changes that this science has undergone in the past few years.

How­

ever, relatively few are aware of a similar and parallel advancement made by the Air Force in the field of education since the enactment of the National Defense Act of 1947, when the United States Air Force was established as a sepa­ rate department of the National Military Establishment, co­ equal with the Departments of the Army and Navy. To have the most efficient Air Force in the world it was necessary to have the best trained, as well as the best educated personnel.

The first step in this direction was

taken with the activation of the Air University Command, a Major Command under the direct supervision of the Chief of Staff, United States Air Force (see Appendix A, Organization Chart Air University).

The motto this new command adopted,

"We Proceed Unhampered By Tradition** is descriptive of the spirit of the new Air Force as a whole and is particularly significant to this study.

To have the best educated Air

Force in the world it was a matter of necessity that the

2

most effective instructors possible be developed to meet this challenge.

A school for this purpose was established

in September of 1948 at USAF Special Staff School, Graig Air Force Base, Alabama.

This school, The Academic Instruc­

tor Division, demonstrates the degree to which the Air Force has progressed "unhampered by tradition,” in the educational sense in its effort to produce competent instructors in a matter of weeks.

I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem.

It was the purpose of this

study to answer the following questions:

(l) What is the

present Air Force program for training instructors?

(2) How

well does this program prepare Air Force officers to instruct in the Air Force educational program? Delimitation of the problem.

This study is concerned,

not with military education in general, but specifically with a particular United States Air Force facility, within the Air University Command, known as the Academic Instructor Division.

This course is of six weeks duration, with the

primary mission of preparing Air Force personnel for instruc­ tional assignments throughout the Department of Defense. The study will describe the course of instruction, and

3 present an evaluation of the course based, on the judgment of those students who have attended the school, as well as the judgments of renowned educators who have examined the school. Importance of the study.

During World War II the

American Council on Education realized that the training of over twelve million men and women by the armed services must have some implications for civilian education.

In the

stammer of 19^5 this agency appointed a commission, the function of which was “to identify features of the wartime training and educational programs worthy of possible adap­ tation in peacetime civilian education of all types and levels.

*tl

In every field investigated, from curriculum to

instructional materials, from Instructor training to audio­ visual aids to learning, the commission saw many implications of value to civilian education.

If the commission found

much worthy of study in their investigation of the acceler­ ated war-time training program, it is reasonable to believe that as many, If not more, implications for civilian

1 Alonzo G. Grace, “Lessons from Wartime Training,“ The General Report of the American Council on Education Commission on Impllcations~f Armed Services Educational Programs (American Council on Education: Washington, D.G., 1948), Foreword.

4 education may be realized through a study of a teacher training program conceived in times of peace, relieved of wartime pressures, and enjoying a high priority within the Air Force in matters of personnel and equipment. During World War II the Air Force gained experience and growth in a large measure due to the assistance, and in many eases the guidance and direction, of civilian edu­ cators.

These men brought back from the war new viewpoints,

methods, and procedures.

The desire that this mutually

beneficial exchange be continued prompted the preparation of this paper.

II.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

There are terms commonly used In the military service, and the Air Force in particular, which differ from the com­ monly accepted dictionary definition both as to meaning and connotation.

For that reason the following words and terms

are defined to clarify their meaning as used in this study: The Academic Instructor Course is a teacher education program operated by the United States Air Force.

The course

Is designed primarily to develop basic knowledge, attitudes and skills such as understanding and appreciation of recog­ nized principles and methods of learning and teaching, and

the organization and administration of an educational or training program.

The student body is composed of Air

Force personnel who are to serve as instructors throughout the educational system of the Air Force, including Air ROTG instructors at many civilian educational institutions.

The

faculty is composed of Air Force officers as well as civilian educators. The Academic Instructor Division is the Air Force organization charged with conducting the Academic Instructor Course.

It is one of the five specialized schools of the

USAF Special Staff School of the Air University Command, and is located at Craig Air Force Base, Alabama. Activation is the establishment and putting a military organization into operation by official order. Board of Visitors is a board comprised of eleven out­ standing civilian educators which visits schools of the Air University twice each year critically examining its curricu­ lum, educational policies and practices and discusses its findings with the Commanding General of the Air University and his staff.

The board also reports to the Chief of Staff,

United States Air Force on conditions found.

The comments

and recommendations of the board are carefully studied at

6 Air Force Headquarters and at the Air University, Command* is one of the large administrative subdi­ visions of the Air Force.

There are nine such subdivisions

within the continental United States. The Conference Method is an exercise designed to develop shill in presenting a problem for discussion, en­ couraging participation by conferences, recording and inter­ preting contributions, organizing findings and summarizing conclusions. The Educational Advisory Staff is a group of fifteen professional civilian educators, among them specialists in instructional materials and methods, instructor training, and evaluation, assigned to the staff of the Air University. Mission is a definite task, duty, or assignment given to an individual or unit in the military service. Objective is the military result to be accomplished; the goal to be reached. The Performance Method is an exercise designed to develop skill in leading and supervising student work activi­ ties which have rich learning significance.

7 The Socialized Recitation Method is an exercise designed to develop skill in stimulating reactions, contri­ butions and discussion in a classroom situation based upon an assigned chapter of an educational text. Summary Test of Instructional Proficiency is a full period (fifty minutes) in which the student demonstrates the skills and knowledge he has gained throughout the course* Technical manual is one of a series of official hand­ books that contains technical, detailed information and in­ structions for the specialized training of military personnel.

Ill*

SOURCES OP DATA

The necessary data for this study were obtained (1) by means of library research to find published related general background literature; (1) through a search of official Air Force publications, letters and memoranda; (3)

through study of materials used in the course of in­

struction at the Academic Instructor Course; (4) through analysis of written critique forms accomplished by students in the course of instruction; (5) by personal interview of members of the faculty, administration personnel, and students.

8 IV.

SUMMARY

The field of military education has been relatively widely studied and understood but the training of competent instructors in the comparatively short period of six weeks being conducted by the Air Force is known by relatively few people in the educational field.

It Is the purpose of this

study to present the Air Force program of instructor training and to evaluate its worth.

V.

ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THESIS

Chapter II contains a survey of the literature which serves as a background to the problem as well as to military education in general. The history, organization and development of the Academic Instructor Course is presented in Chapter III. In addition, the advisory-tutorial system is explained, as well as the functions of the Board of Visitors and the Edu­ cational Advisory Staff. The purpose of the course, including its mission and scope, as well as a detailed analysis of the curriculum Is made in Chapter IV. Chapter V presents an evaluation of the school, In the light of the reactions of students upon completion of

the course, judgments of recognized educators who have examined the course, and through an examination of the school*s efforts toward self-improvement. Chapter VI makes conclusions from the evidence sub­ mitted and submits recommendations for improvement of the program.

CHAPTER II SURVEY OP RELATED LITERATURE Literature directly tearing on the problem.

Inasmuch

as the Academic Instructor Course was not in full operation until the fall of 19^8 , the only writings directly related to this problem are the official Air Force correspondence and intra-departmental studies incident to its activation and operation.

The most significant and pertinent of these

is an unpublished study by Myers and Peterson,1 respectively Director and Associate Director of the school, who did not attempt to evaluate the course but who gave a clear succinct picture of the history, objectives, and content of the course. The authors summarized the philosophy underlying the course as follows: The entire course of instruction, including its durriculum, organization, and operation, is based on the philosophy that instructor education and training should be concerned with the total teaching act, that they should provide orientation in the conceptual background and as wide training as pos­ sible in each of the skills essential to the total teaching act, that these results can best be accom­ plished by guided and appropriately varied practice

1 Eugene 1. Myers and John C. Provides Teacher Preparation for its with Implication of this Program for published study, The Air University, 19^9), P. 23.

Peterson, ”How the USAF University Instructors Higher Education," (un­ Selma, Alabama, July

11 experiences.^ Literature furnishing background for the problem. The American Council on Education, as previously mentioned, evidenced great interest in the armed services training pro­ grams, and appointed a commission under the direction of Alonzo G. Graced to study their implications.

Although the

Academic Instructor Course was not in operation at the time the commission conducted its investigation, its findings are of direct concern to this Study, for the school as established is a direct outgrowth of the various programs conducted during the war, and the findings of the commis­ sion are in general incorporated in the present course at Craig Air Force Base. The report of this commission contains much of interest to anyone attempting to arrive at an understanding of the viewpoint of the military forces in regard to edu­ cation.

Some of the more pertinent findings of this com­

mission are given to serve as a basis for better under­ standing of the problem as a whole.

Following are a few

2 Ibid., p. 10. 3 Alonzo G. Grace, "Lessons from Wartime Training," The General Report of the American Council on Education Commission on""Implications~f Armed Services Educational Programs (American Council on Education: Washington, C.C., 1945), Foreword.

12 areas in which a study of the armed forces has proven fruit­ ful, the first such area is concerned with general education and professional education: It has shown how the fundamental principles of learning and teaching, normally spread over several semesters of professional courses in teacher educa­ tion institutions, were condensed in a simple volume of reference material, and taught intensively over a comparatively short time. . . .The final results as shown by the effectiveness of instructors so trained, indicate that an individual so trained who has complete mastery of his subject matter and shows an aptitude for teaching can become a proficient in­ structor in a reasonably short time 3 The subject of effective oral exposition the commis­ sion felt has been slighted by civilian teacher training institutions, but felt the armed forces were taking full advantage of this means of communication, as follows: The power of oral exposition was recognized by the armed forces as an outstanding characteristic of an efficient instructor, and the power of ar­ ticulate expression was found to be a rare quality in the make-up of potential instructors. . . . Through a combination of lecture, speech recording, and auditing, and constructive criticism, tonguetied student instructors became in a short time articulate instructors. Men who had never dreamed of standing on their feet and addressing their peers in a few short weeks were lecturing lucidly and conducting lively conferences as instructors with a self-confidence born of the ability to organize and present effectively one's thoughts to others.5

* Ibid., p. 198. 5 Ibid., p. 200.

In the field of supervision and counseling the report of the commission had this to say: fhe professional growth of the military instructor was not allowed to stop upon his completion of the course ‘Methods of Instruction.1 Staffs 6f technical supervisors were always available to lend their aid in connection with problems of a technical nature, and to Insure that the instructor was effectively presented the technical material of his course. Counselors dropped into the classroom frequently to observe his teaching methods. After class, a conference between counselor and instructor was held, during which time helpful suggestions were given, strengths praised, and weaknesses were con­ structively criticized. . . .The large staffs of supervisory and counseling personnel increased the per capita cost of instruction considerably, but the continued improvement of instruction justified the additional cost. 6 The principal characteristics of armed forces training in general were summarized by the commission as follows: The principle characteristics of armed services training were (1) clarity of objective and definition of aims, (2) learning by doing, (3) recognition of the end as more important than the means to the end, (4) standardization of methods of instruction, (5) liberal use of training aids, (6) wide use of tests, and (7) provision for small classes and individual instruction.7 The reader is referred to the report of the commission for further conclusions in the areas of.Local Initiative, Selection of Instructors, Visual Training Aids for Training Teachers, Lesson Planning by Instructors, Classroom

6 Ibid., p. 203. 7 Ibid., p. 30.

14 Administration, Development of Instructors Personality, Instructor Visitation, Instructor Recognition, and Instructor; Shortages. Dale^ attributes the success of Air Force instruction as a whole to the intensive training of instructors chosen from the results of classification tests, the definite ob­ jective, the wide variety of teaching tools, the use of manuals and films produced by educational experts, the con­ stant revision of the curriculum, and the small classes and individual instruction. A most valuable source of information bearing on the subject of military education, is the United States War Department Training Film, "Military Training.

This film

presents an excellent overview of Army teaching materials and training methods.

No other source in the opinion of

the writer illustrates so well the doctrine, the problems, and the methods of military instruction, including the use of training aids. Any review of the literature of military education

8 Edgar Dalle, "Can Schools Teach the G. I. Way?" Journal of Education, CXXVIII (April, 1945), 119-121. 9 United States War Department. Military Training, War Department Training Film, TF 7-295. (l6mm Sound Film. Available from Chief Signal Officer at the headquarters of the respective Service Commands, United States Army), n.d.

15 would not toe complete without mention of the United States War Department Technical Manual, "Army Instruction,1,10 This manual was In the past considered the toible for service instructors and was designed to assist them in carrying out their teaching objectives efficiently.

It stresses the

Herbart steps of learning; Preparation, Presentation, Appli­ cation, Examination, Discussion and Critique.

This manual

gives special emphasis to the function of supervision and the importance of training aids.

The Honorable Robert P.

Patterson, then Secretary of War, prefaces this manual with the now famous expression, "The ideal officer is not afraid of anything— not even a new idea. " H Summary.

The absence of published literature on the

subject of the Academic Instructor Course is attributable to (l) the short period of time the course has been in operation; (2) the relatively few professional educators associated with the program; and (3) the comparatively small size and narrow scope of the course itself. The literature on general military education offers indications that civilian education in general might profit

10 United States War Department. Army Instruction, Technical Manual TM 21-250, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 19^3), PP. ii-^7. 11 Ibid., p. i.

by a deeper study of particular courses, or areas instruction, as conducted by the armed services.

CHAPTER III HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT AND ORGANIZATION It is the purpose of this chapter to narrate the history and development of the Air Force teacher-training program, as well as to explain the organization or frame­ work within which this program is administered.

A brief

account of the advisory tutorial system used and the func­ tion of two civilian agencies, the Board of Visitors and the Educational Advisory Staff, is included in order to convey a more comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the scope of the program.

I.

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT

The prominent position in which the Air Force has been placed as a result of the unprecedented technological, tactical and strategical developments of the past decade also carried a grave responsibility with it.

This was the

necessity and duty of the Air Force to provide education for its personnel far beyond existing educational facili­ ties.

The challenge was squarely faced by the Air Force

by establishing the Air University as one of its major commands in December 19^5.

The minds that conceived Air

University did not assume that highly competent specialists

would necessarily make the most effective instructors.

As

pointed out by Williams and Jenkins: The mere possession of a Ph.D. by an instructor in, let us say, biology may indicate that he is an authority when it comes to discussing germinology, but it does not necessarily mean that he is an ex­ pert when it comes to adapting content, methods, and materials to the needs of his students.1 Therefore, the Air University's first assumption was that the degree to which students were to benefit from the instructor's experience and technical knowledge was directly proportioned to his ability to communicate his knowledge and experience to his students.

General Muir S. Fairchild, the

first Commanding General of the Air University, fully real­ ized the magnitude of this problem when he stated: We who planned the Air University were conscious of the grave responsibility which had been placed upon us. We were also conscious of the fact that, however outstanding our staff and faculty might be in their own fields of military specialization, few if any of us had had experience as educators. We determined, therefore, that the educational world would be utilized as fully as possible in carrying out our mission. 2 As a result of this realization, the Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force appointed a Board of Visitors composed of eleven outstanding civilian educators in America

1 Kenneth R. Williams and Alder M. Jenkins, nImproving Instruction in Institutions of Higher Education,” The Educa­ t i o n ^ Record , XXIX (April, 1948), 146. ® Muir S. Fairchild, Air Affairs, Vol. II, No. 2 (Winter 1948), 216.

which was to visit Air University twice each year critically examining its curricula, educational policies and practices and to discuss its findings with the Commanding General and his staff.

In addition to this, General Fairchild continued

Further, to assume continuous improvement of instruction in the Air University, an Educational Advisory Staff was created and made responsible to the Commanding General for advice on all matters of educational policy and procedure. This staff consists of fifteen professional educators, among them specialists in instructional materials and methods, instructor training, and evaluation.3 This group of professional educators initiated, upon the request of the Commanding General of the Air University, a program of inservice training to aid the officers detailed as instructors in becoming competent teachers in as short a time as possible.

The time element is an important consider

ation due to the Air Force policy of rotation of personnel every three years from staff or administration to other fields, in order to allow officers an opportunity to main­ tain their professional training.

In the absence of career

teachers, a compromise was considered desirable in combining the maximum military experience and background with profi­ ciency as a teacher. This inservice training was not to take the place of a lack of preservice training; rather, this training was

necessary in order to strengthen former training and reapply the teaching principles to the actual situation.

The report

of the Presidents Commission on Higher Education brings out the importance of inservice training as follows:

"The process

of strengthening the effectiveness of the faculty cannot be left to chance.

Comprehensive programs for inservice educa­

tion are needed on every college and university campus.”^ The Educational Advisory Staff, therefore, established a four week instructor-training program.

The course was given

to new instructors who entered the Air University system.

The

course was geared to the aims, doctrine, curriculum, methods and facilities of the Air University and of the particular school in which the instructor was to teach. The above program was conducted for the first two years the Air University was in operation.

Due to the custom in the

military establishment of transferring officers after two or three year tour of duty, and because of expansion in size of the schools of the Air University, the need for a program to develop competent instructors for the Air University increased markedly.

Other commands of the Air Force, such as The Train­

ing Command, learning of the excellent program for developing competent instructors at the Air University began to ask for

^ Francis J. Brown, "Presidents Commission oh Higher Education Heports Further," Higher Education, IV (March 1,

similar training for their instructors. Requests for such instruction were accommodated whereever and whenever possible.

However, this meant the Educa­

tional Advisory Staff was devoting an increasing amount of time to this phase of the Air University program and, as a consequence, were finding less time for the other important work which it was charged to fulfill.

The Plans Division of

the Academic Staff, the Air University, studied the problem and concluded a need existed for an Academic Instructor Course, separate and distinct as such, within the Air Uni­ versity system.

It was decided that this school should

take Its place within the USAP Special Staff School, Craig Air Force Base, Alabama and should not only meet the re­ quirements for instructors in the Air University, but also groom competent instructors for all Air Force Commands. The Academic Instructor Division was organized in the summer of 19^8 to satisfy the Air Force1s need for com­ petent teachers*

Those who planned the Academic Instructor

Division profitted by the experience the Educational Advisory Staff had had in their endeavor.

Specifically, the mission

of the Academic Instructor Division is to provide model in­ structional facilities and instruction essential to the de­ velopment of effective military instructors for the United States Air Force.

The Division is responsible for the

development, preparation and presentation of the Academic Instructor Course and for the operation of the USAF Special Staff School Reading Laboratory.

Other Academic Instructor

Division responsibilities are: the development, preparation and presentation of instruction of educational subjects in other courses of the USAF Special Staff School or in other schools of the Air University, if required; the development, preparation and presentation of such other courses of in­ struction as may be required by the Air Force; and a con­ tinuing program of significant research in education. The aim of the Academic Instructor Division is to provide officers with an understanding of the principles of learning and their application.

In addition, it aims

to develop the techniques for evaluation and improving in­ struction, with the ability to set up immediate and longrange educational objectives and follow suitable methods of accomplishing these objectives; and the ability to or­ ganize clearly, develop vividly and present lectures, demon­ strations, problems, exercises, and skits forcefully, as well as with ability to lead conference, seminars and other forms of directed discussion.

II,

ORGANIZATION

The organization of the school is intended to be a model from the standpoint of both military and educational administration.

A study of the Academic Instructor Division

Organization Chart (Appendix B) shows the degree to which military and civilian personnel have been integrated.

The

general and specific duties and responsibilities of each individual is prescribed in appropriate memoranda.

By this

means each individual in the school knows exactly his role in the organization.

Following is a breakdown of the duties

and responsibilities of the Director, Assistant Director, the six Assistant Section Chiefs, as well as the Chief Ci­ vilian Consultant and three other educational specialists. Division Director.

He is responsible for the suc­

cessful execution of the mission of the Academic Instructor Division.

He exercises control over activities through the

Deputy Director and the Chief Civilian Consultant.

He is

responsible for all matters concerning the status of the Academic Instructor Division and matters of policy, and for all course changes; is responsible for all final course directives; is responsible for operational changes such as those relating to organization.

He consults with civilian

specialists in educational matters, and serves as principal

military liaison between Academic Instructor Division and other military commands and civilian agencies.

In short,

he is responsible for the successful attainment of the school mission. Deputy Director.

He acts as Director of the Academic

Instructor Division In the absence of the Director.

He is

directly responsible to the Division Director for the suc­ cessful completion of instructional and non-instructional activities affecting the Division and operates in the line of command between the Director and Section Chiefs.

He

allocates work among the appropriate sections, explains needs and desires of the Director to the Section Chiefs. He frequently works closely with them and insures that the work of sections is completed and in final form before be­ ing submitted to the Director.

He insures the coordinated

activity of all Sections and may hold conferences of all Section Chiefs.

He confers with appropriate civilian con­

sultants to secure professional advice, works closely with them on numerous projects, and may delegate professional matters, activities, and projects of work to them.

He

gives final approval to numerous routine administrative projects of work to them.

He gives final approval to

numerous routine administrative and operational matters as authorized by the Division Director.

Chief of Reading Laboratory coordinates the setting­ up and operating of the reading laboratory.

He supervises

preparation of all data and records with reference to student reading performance.

He coordinates scheduling of the read­

ing laboratory and is responsible for instruction in the reading laboratory.

His five enlisted assistants perform

the following functions:

They conduct instruction in the

reading laboratory; make reading assignments and issue reading material; administrate comprehensive tests; collect, compile, score and evaluate reading data for records; assist students in use of the laboratory; and maintain the reading laboratory in proper working order through proper mainte­ nance of the facility and its equipment. The Chief of the Grading Section is eharged with the responsibility for the maintenance and completion of the Academic Record according to directives and existing Aca­ demic Instructor Division policy.

He insures that proper

number and kinds of grades are obtained, as well as supple­ mentary data required for the study of the grading system. He insures that data required by the advisory system are prepared by instructors adequately and on time; approves and edits final word pictures from the standpoint of grammar and readability.

He determines final numerical grade for

all students; recommends cutting points for final grade

distribution; recommends corresponding predictive categories; and recommends on further schooling.

He is responsible for

the final preparation of rating forms, tests, etc., which are used in grading and the study of grading.

He is respon­

sible for the procedures used in the advisory system, for its operation, for the techniques to be used for specifi­ cation of the form of final word pictures.

He is respon­

sible for all methods, procedures, and forms used to secure information; to record information; and to otherwise imple­ ment the grading system. The Chief of the Administrative Section is responsible for the preparation of orders for staff personnel and the im­ plementation upon their approval.

He prepares reports; han­

dles routine correspondence; has typing and mimeographing done for staff personnel.

He is responsible for all supply

functions including maintenance, requisitions, procurements; for condition of classrooms, heating facilities, availability of classrooms and arrangement of desks; for dissemination of orders of the Division Director, and posting of notices on bulletin boards.

He arranges time, place and facilities for

such activities as pictures of staff, staff meeting, etc. He is responsible for security measures and all routine military housekeeping functions.

The Chief of the Educational Plans Section is directly responsible to the Deputy Director for the preparation of all new course directives and for revision of.existing directives, and coordinates with other military organizations in matters pertaining to the course.

He determines specific topics to

be included in the course; determines the time to be allotted to each topic; determines the sequence of topics for schedul­ ing purposes; determines the overall procedure employed by instructors in preparing lesson plans or instructional folders both for form and general content.

He is responsible

for the preparation, revision, distribution and accuracy of materials designed for general orientation and information of students.

He is responsible for the quality and mainte­

nance of instructional folders. The Chief of the Instructional and Training Section is directly responsible to the Deputy Director for the quality of instruction in the classroom.

He visits classrooms for

the purpose of making constructive criticisms to instructors. He plans and conducts inservice instructor training.

He is

responsible for the orientation and training of new instruc­ tors; assigns instructors to classes and topics according to the index-time spent in non-instructional duties; determines conformity to instruction and directives by visiting classes and inspection of instructional folders; and assigns faculty

personnel as advisers. The Chief of the Research and Development Section is responsible for the implementation of work designed for the progress of the Academic Instructor Course.

He promotes

research studies which may be conducted by staff personnel. He may locate and recommend problems requiring systematic study and undertake their solution; conduct systematic studies and research designed to implement the mission of the Academic Instructor Division and to coordinate division public relations activities.

He advises regarding plans,

techniques, and overall designs to be used in systematic studies; determines priority and coordinates all major re­ search undertaken by Academic Instructor Division personnel. He is responsible for stimulating and promoting the profes­ sional growth of staff personnel and the progress of the course.

He directs the preparation of research material

for publication, and reviews and edits all materials which reflect upon the Academie.Instructor Division prior to pub­ lication to public media.

He stimulates; promotes and/or

advises regarding the securing of guest lecturers. The Chief Civilian Consultant, who serves as Associate Director, is the principal consultant to the Director and is responsible for expert advice in all educational matters.

He stimulates and promotes developmental activity and points out needs and techniques for resolving educational problems. He represents the Director in educational and professional activities concerned with the furtherance of division sta­ tus and policy.

He may plan and conduct research designed

to implement the work of the division.

He assists in re­

ceiving important personages and in orienting them in the professional spirit of the command; and in furthering the training of personnel in the command through advice, dis­ semination of literature, etc.

He is responsible for the

continuous review and evaluation of the effectiveness of the Academic Instructor Division in accomplishing its mission.

He may visit other military commands and educa­

tional institutions including civilian, to observe, pro­ vide expert advice, to secure information and for liaison purposes. The Three Civilian Consultants provide expert ad­ vice and information In their areas of activity.

They

keep the Director and Associate Director informed of their progress, and on important matters such as the method of operation of the Division or Division policy, route through the Chief Civilian Consultant for approval.

They provide

expert advice and assistance to the Section Chief as indi­ cated on the Organization Chart, and are responsible for

the continuous review and evaluation of the effectiveness of a section in accomplishing its mission.

The function here

is advisory, guiding, promotional, liaison and developmental — not administrative.

They may provide expert advice to

personnel in other sections when advisable, and provide the Deputy Director with expert advice in the area in which he has direct professional supervisory functions.

They may

suggest, plan, stimulate or conduct studies or research designed to implement the program.

They may visit other

military commands and educational institutions including civilian, to observe, provide expert advice, to secure information and for liaison purposes. Each Section Chief is directly responsible to the Deputy Director for the successful completion of the mission of the respective section.

This responsibility is opera­

tional and administrative.

Each Section Chief works with

the professional guidance of a civilian consultant and receives assignments from the Deputy Director and allocates the work within his section.

He is also required to coor­

dinate the work of his section with that of other interested sections.

31 III.

ADVISORY-TUTORIAL SYSTEM

Pre-war service schools were never famous for their consideration of the individual1s learning problems.

This

was due to the strictly military nature of the schools and the feeling that attendance was a military duty and should be performed in a military manner* Probably the most radical and educationally progres­ sive departure from this concept is the Advisory-Tutorial system employed in the Academic Instructor Course.

The ob­

jectives of this system have been stated in a USAF Special Staff School Memorandum as follows: 1. To permit more personalized and effective guidance and counseling of students throughout the Academic Instructor Course than Is practicable in classroom situations, where confidences and exhaustive diagnoses are often impossible. 2. To establish closer instruetor-student re­ lationships, wherein students may feel free to consult their assigned advisors (counselors) in privacy and confidence regarding actual or imagined deficiencies and academic problems. 3. To permit advisers and tutors to review pro-, gress of students under their supervision, and to furnish instructors with opportunities to suggest methods for improvement or to advise remedial action, when such action may be indicated. A*. To enable advisers to paint final word pic­ tures more accurately and to obtain material for developing word pictures throughout the course.5

^ Advisory-Tutorial System, (Air University, USAF Special Staff School, Craig Air Force Base, Alabama, July, 1949), p. 1.

In actual operation the system follows the following plan:

Two instructors are assigned to each group of ten

students for the first Practice Teaching experience.

These

two instructors act as advisers (counselors) and coadvisers for students comprising their particular group for the dura­ tion of the course.

The instructor listed first acts as

adviser to the first five students appearing on the group roster.

The instructor listed second acts as adviser to

the last five students appearing on the roster.

Bach in­

structor acts as coadviser to the five students not assigned to him as advisees, and performs such advisory services as may be necessary in the absence of the adviser. In order to observe progress under classroom con­ ditions, advisers supervise the practice teaching sessions devoted to the Conference Method in the assignment of students. To attain uniform distribution of verbal intelligence and the correlative capacity to succeed in group situations, assignments of students to groups are based upon the results of two vocabulary tests administered on the first day of the course.

Insofar as possible, high, intermediate, and low

scorers on these tests are distributed equally among all practice teaching groups. The assignment of students to respective faculty advisers for the duration of a course does not preclude

students from approaching other faculty members for assist­ ance in academic problems.

Advisers are told to feel free

to suggest that advisees consult other instructors, includ­ ing the civilian educational consultants, on problems of a specific nature, when in the judgment of the adviser, tech­ nical or specialized, counseling is desirable. Biographic Information Records are distributed to students by the instructor of Policies, Procedures, and Facilities on the second hour, first day, of the Academic Instructor Course.

This officer instructs students to fill

these in and they are collected later in the day.

This

officer submits the Biographic Information Records to the Division Grading Officer, instruetor-advisers then obtain from the Grading Officer the Biographic Information Records of their respective advisees. Advisers establish and maintain Individual cumulative files for all advisees, which are submitted to the Grading Officer for permanent file and future reference upon com­ pletion of the course.

It is believed that such files prove

Invaluable in furnishing advisers with "case history" material of advisees, giving them more insight into students* backgrounds, more perspective as to their progress and work throughout the course, and more material from which to draw for word pictures. Biographic Information Records are submitted to the administrative

34

officer by the adviser within ten days of the end of each course. All published course procedures serve as criteria for operation of the advisory-tutorial system.

All advisers and

tutors adhere strictly to the policy of orientation for any course assignment as presented from the platform by the in­ structor charged with such responsibility.

Tutors attend

the instruction immediately preceding each tutorial period which explains the requirements for the particular practice teaching laboratory involved. Instructor-advisors are also responsible for the accom­ plishment of Pinal Word Pictures (Analytic and Descriptive Appraisal of Student) of assigned advisees* which become a part of each student*s Academic Record.

IV.

ALLIED CIVILIAN AGENCIES

Any study of the Air Force educational system would be incomplete without a word about the function of two agen­ cies composed of civilian educators* and the tremendous in­ fluence and assistance which they have on the teacher-training functions of the Air University.

They are the Educational

Advisory Staff and the Board of Visitors. Educational Advisory Staff.

One of the most unique

and significant aspects of the Air University was its con­ sideration and decision that civilian professional personnel and civilian institutions would be used to maintain instruc­ tion on a high plane. The administration of the Air University devoted much of its energies to guarentee the effectiveness of instruction, and to facilitate this task: created a staff ageney, the Edu­ cational Advisory Staff. To staff this unit, the Air University turned to civilian institutions to secure specialists in each of the following four areas; instructional materials, methods of instruction, testing and evaluation, and instructor training. Two problems were encountered in attempting to staff this unit with the quality of personnel desired.

The quality of

the personnel desired necessitated an extremely careful se­ lection and the problem was made more difficult as civilian institutions were likewise bidding for the services of the same type of individuals.

Secondly, there was a natural

reluctance for educators to give up the pattern of university life and come into a new, and somewhat different, educational atmosphere. The Educational Advisory Staff has the responsibility for initiating and coordinating research in instruction in the Air Force educational program and is advisor to the Air

University on all matters of teaching methods and procedures. To carry out his functions the Director of the Educa­ tional Advisory Staff has organized his staff into three "branches:

Instructional Methods and Materials Branch; Evalu­

ation Branch; and the Reading Branch. The Instructional Methods and Materials Branch has a Chief and three specialists; a methods specialist, a materials specialist and an audio-visual specialist. The Evaluation Branch has a Chief and an evaluation specialist, and the Reading Branch has a Chief and a reading specialist. In all, the Educational Advisory Staff is staffed with a total of nineteen personnel, eleven of whom are professional educators with specialties as cited above, and eight are ste­ nographic and statistical assistants necessary for the Educa­ tional Advisory Staff to carry out its mission successfully. Dr. Kenneth R. Williams, Director of the Educational Advisory Staff, summarized the philosophy of that group In an address to the Air University Board of Visitors in this manner: The staff members of the Educational Services Division are conscious that the instructional prob­ lems faced in the Air University can be solved only by careful research and by adapting the best from civilian and service educational experiences. A priori conclusions regarding instruction cannot be tolerated. Various methods must be tested and re­ viewed and adapted before being termed acceptable.

37 In addition to the research we shall do in instructional methods, we shall attempt to bring the best possible experience from ci­ vilian and military institutions, modifying that as needs be into an effective and effi­ cient instructional program by means of which the mission of the Air University can be at­ tained, 6 One of the most recent moves of the staff has been the decision to place one of its members in actual residence at each of the schools.

This serves a double purpose as it

keeps the Advisory Staff completely familiar with the in­ struction in each school, and at the same time makes an educational expert available at all times to assist and advise the commandant on academic matters. Board of Visitors.

One of the early steps taken by

the first Commanding General of the Air University was to turn to the wealth of experience in the educational field for assistance.

This was a wise and necessary step, as the

Commanding General? stated that by no stretch of the imagi­ nation could he nor the majority of his officers be classed as educators. In forming the Board of Visitors it was determined that the great fund of knowledge and store of experience

6 First Report of the Board of Visitors, (Air Univer­ sity, Maxwell Field, Alabama, lb July, 1946), p. 35. 7 0£. cit., p. 7.

38 that had been accumulated in the institutions of higher learning, would not-be ignored in forming Air University. It was hoped that through the aid, advice and assist­ ance of the outstanding leaders of education in the United States (See Appendix C for composition of Board of Visitors) it would be possible to build up in the Air University a forward looking educational institution comparable, in some respects at least, with the outstanding civilian educational institutions of the country. The type of assistance expected or desired from the Board of Visitors was outlined to them by Major General Muir S. Fairchild on the occasion of the board1s first meeting. In forming the Board of Visitors, it was hoped that the Board would meet here from time to time as circumstances warrant and as the heavy demands upon the time of the individual members would per­ mit, and the Board might advise with us here di­ rectly and informally, suggesting better methods of procedure, pointing out the mistakes that we were making and recommending in general the course that we should pursue in order to build up our in­ stitution to a place in the field of education of which we could be proud. It was hoped that the Board might feel inclined to report directly to General Spaatz, presumably by letter, the condi­ tions that they found at the Air University, the progress which it was mking, and to recommend to him changes in major policies which the management of the Air University either could not or would not put into effeet and also of course to recommend to him such changes in the personnel of the management as in the judgement of the Board of Visitors might improve the functioning of the School. I believe that those two major points constitute what we hoped

from the Board of Visitors.® General Fairchild went on to say, nI might say we desire your full and frank comments and criticisms.

I ask

you not to be afraid of hurting our feelings as we have no pride of authorship here.

What we are looking for is frank,

constructive criticism."9 Frank, constructive criticism is what the Board has rendered in its semi-annual reports of its visits to the Air University.

While the Board has been most generous in

its praise of the accomplishments of Air University, it is well realized by all in the program that much of this suc­ cess is directly attributed to the comments and suggestions of the Board. Each school in the Air University system is visited twice each year by the board at which time the members talk with students and instructors, as well as the school offi­ cials in determining how the system is functioning.

The

outstanding qualifications of the members of the board add considerable confidence to all members within the educa­ tional system, for with their guidance and approval Air University can progress with its various programs confident that the right path, educationally, is being followed.

40 V.

SUMMARY

The USAF teacher-training program has been a matter of concern to the Air Force1s highest officials.

No effort

has been spared in the desire to take advantage of the nation*s civilian experience in this field.

The exterior

marks of a military organization have been retained, each person*s responsibilities have been clearly defined; how­ ever, a framework of professional civilian personnel of high educational attainment has been interwoven into the structure to provide for the maximum utilization of their experience and educational "know-how.”

CHAPTER IV PURPOSE OF PROGRAM AND DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRICULUM To function within the military framework any program or organization must be assigned a mission, the scope of its activities must be delineated and the purpose must be clearly stated.

This chapter will present the mission, scope and

purpose of the USAF teacher-training program and will in­ clude a description of the curriculum which is designed to carry out the responsibility charged to the program.

I.

MISSION, SCOPE AND PURPOSE

The mission, scope and purpose of the school is set forth by the school authorities in Curriculum for Academic Instructor Course, as follows: 1. MISSION. - The mission of this course is to prepare selected officers for duty as instructors within the training and educational system of the United States Air Force, for educational liaison duties, and for special educational assignments. 2. SCOPE, - The scope of instruction includes: a. Background in educational philosophy, educational psychology, and principles of education. b. Problems of education and training in the Air Force. c. Experience in planning, preparation, and

flexible application of instructional methods and instructional aids. d. Practice in speaking, writing, group dis­ cussion, reading, listening, and observing, as contributing to effective methods of communicating. e. Evaluation procedures and techniques, applied to student and instructor situations. 3. PURPOSE. - The Academic Instructor Course is designed primarily to develop the following educa­ tional knowledges, attitudes, and skills. a. Understanding and appreciation of recog­ nized principles and methods of learning and educa­ tion. b. Understanding and appreciation of the organization and administration of an educational and/or training program. c. Competency in organizing and planning instruction and in evaluating student achievement. d. Precision in thinking, and poise and ef­ fectiveness in presenting and projecting instruction. e. Background for supervision of instructional activities. f. Awareness of student responsibilities in learning situations.1 An examination of the above will reveal no mention of mastery of subject matter.

All is pointed to the total teach­

ing act as contrasted to current teachers college curricula which of necessity must include mastery of at least one field, such as, Political or Physical Sciences, Sociology, Mathematics

1 Curriculum for Academic Instructor Course (Air Uni­ versity, USAF Special Staff School, Craig Air Force Base, Alabama, 1 July, 19^9 )» P. !•

or some such general area in order to teach students to teach something.

The elimination of the necessity of teaching sub­

ject matter fields is possible only because all students by virtue of their previous military training and experience are well versed in the field in which they will instruct. The entire emphasis, therefore, is directed toward teaching, and the various components which enter into the total teach­ ing act. any time.

There is no departure from this central idea at The following statement by the school's authori­

ties provides the philosophical basis upon which the entire curriculum is constructed. A Statement Concerning the Educational Philosophy of the Academic Instructor Division, USAF SSS, as Applied to Training of Classroom Instructors. 1 • Instructor training should be concerned with the total teaching act. The training of thestudentinstruetor should be directed toward a simulated or, preferably, actual classroom situation, in which he plans, teaches, and evaluates an instructional situ­ ation, using whatever materials and methods are ap­ propriate to the objectives and student learning out­ comes of the situation. 2. Instructor training should provide as wide training as possible in the skills involved in the total teaching act. fEe s tudent-ins true tor should receive orientation lecturers concerning each of these skills; in addition, he should be given an opportunity to develop skills of planning and evalu­ ating in coordination with his skill in communication. 3. Instructor training is best accomplished by practice experiences. AjufTechniques of teaching should be developed to a minimum skill through prac­ tice experiences; the minimum, however, should be the

44 expected level of competency and the training should be aimed at higher levels for those who can reach them, 4. The basic purpose of instructor training is to produce instructors wEo' are adept in the arts of communication involved in the total teaching act. The student-instructor should receive laboratory or apprenticeship training in each of the arts of com­ munication through practice experience. These ex­ periences should be established for instructional situations involving use of various methods of in­ struction, including lecture, conference discussion, seminar, and applicatory exercise or demonstration. They should be established for instructional situ­ ations involving use of various methods of evalu­ ation, including end-of-course testing and group rating. 5• Instructor training should be conducted by personnel who excell in thejbeachlng skillsT~ The ins true tional staff o T ~the Instructor Training Division should have abilities in communication, in use of instructional materials and methods, and in evaluation. While each member of this staff should have general skills in all of these fields, different members should represent special strengths in each of the three areas. All instructors who participate in instructor training practice ex­ periences should be adept as classroom teachers. 6. An instructor training program should be adaptable to the needs of the students. The In­ structorTraining Division- should establish a. basic course for classroom instructors. Modifi­ cations of this course should be made in terms of the instructional situation to which the studentinstructors are assigned. The modifications should consist of selective assignments to practice ex­ periences emphasizing particular methods of instruc­ tion and of evaluation. Student-instructors prepar­ ing to teach entirely or largely with small seminar groups should be assigned more time in seminar practice experiences and less time in lecture prac­ tice experiences. These assignments should be re­ versed for student-instruetors preparing to teach entirely or largely with large audience groups.

45 7* The Academic Instructor Course is preservlciT'Feachlng experience. The Ins^Fuctor Training Division recognizes the fact that the Academic Instructor Course is a pre-service teaching experience and should be followed by continuous in-service training and supervision by the school to which the instructor is ulti­ mately assigned.2

II.

CURRICULUM

The curriculum, while taught as a core, for purposes of description and analysis may be broken into five broad areas:

(l) General; (2) Communication Skills; (3) Practice

Teaching; (4) Evaluation Skills; and (5) Curriculum Planning and Supervision.

A breakdown by hours of instruction and

the purpose of each hour will demonstrate the adherence to the fundamental and underlying purpose for which the sehool has been established.

The schedule of instruction (Appendix

D) indicates the actual chronological hourly sequence of in­ struction, the broad areas above are merely for ease in ana­ lyzing the curriculum. General.

This phase might be called the orientation

-■ phase and contains twenty-six hours.

In it is the irreduci­

ble minimum of military and administrative Instruction

2 A Statement Concerning the Educational Philosophy at the Academic Instructor Bivision, USAF Special Staff School, as applled to Trainingof Classroom instructors (Air University, USAF Special Staff School", Craig Air.Force Base, Alabama, July, 1949), P. 1.

46 required of all students in all schools by Air Force Regulations and policies. GENERAL PHASE3 Title

Objective

Welcome by Commandant and Division Director

To welcome the student body to USAF Special Staff School.

Policies, Procedures, and Facilities

To familiarize students with Craig Air Force Base and Aca­ demic Instructor Course facilities.

The Educational and Training Program of the USAF

To describe and explain the Educational and Training Program of the USAF.

The Importance of an Instructional Assignment

To explain the contribution of instructors to the progress of the Air Force.

Tutorial Periods

To orient student instructors to specific practice teaching assignments.

Preface to Professional Ethics

To indoctrinate the students with their moral leadership responsibilities.

Student Interviews

To interview students. To determine their needs, problems, and background.

Effectiveness Reports

To instruct the students on the content of AF Reg. 36-10.

Critique of the Course

To receive suggestions from the students for future courses.

3 Curriculum for Academic Instructor Course, op. cit. pp. 2-3*

47 GENERAL PHASE (Continued) Title

Objective

Philosophy of Education

To present the philosophy of the Academic Instructor Course against a simplified background of general educational philoso-

Educational Psychology

To present and explain the edu­ cational psychology which guides this course.

Use of the Library Facilities in Reference and Research

To acquaint student instructors with the library as an official source and research agency.

Principles and Charac­ teristics of Learning

To present and explain the prin­ ciples and characteristics of learning.

Communication Skills:

As set forth in mission, scope

and purpose above, the basic purpose of instructor training is to produce instructors who are adept in the acts of com­ munication involved in the total teaching act. late instructor is an ineffective teacher.

An inarticu­

The following

hours of instruction, when coupled with the succeeding phase of Practice Teaching, bring out the emphasis which is placed on the all-important area of Communication Skills. In this area of instruction the class is divided into groups of approximately ten students for each exercise.

It

will be observed that each student participates in nine ex­ periences in verbal communication.

The first phase, the

public speaking laboratory, consists of four exercises as

follows: First, an introductory talk, which consists of a three minute talk in which the student introduces himself to the group, tells something about his background and experience, and describes his previous and proposed future career assignments.

No preparation is necessary for this

exercise. A five minute verbal precision talk on an assigned topic.

Each student presentation is followed by a critique

by the instructor and the class. A five minute impromptu talk without preparation followed by a critique by the instructor and the class. The public speaking phase is concluded by a five minute extemporaneous talk on a topic chosen by the student The student prepares the scope of his material in advance and arranges his ideas in a meaningful sequence, but the phraseology and manner of delivery should be spontaneous and original. delivery.

The emphasis here is away from memorized

49 COMMUNICATION SKILLS Title

Objective

Effective Written C ommunication

To motivate students to improve their written communication and to present principles under­ lying good writing in lesson plans, research papers, and written reports.

Reading Proficiency

To explain how reading can be Improved In the laboratory, to motivate students to make maxi­ mum use of reading equipment, and to improve the reading speed and comprehension of students.

Principles and Tech­ niques of Briefing

To present and explain briefing methods and techniques.

How to listen Efficiently

To explain the listening skills which contribute to effective listening.

Public Speaking

To explain the ultimate and immediate objectives of speech, to describe and explain a basic system for the organization of a speech, to explain the pro­ gressive steps useful in the preparation of a speech, to dis­ cuss effective speaker projection, and to furnish experience in a speech laboratory aimed to develop student speaking skills.

Planning and Preparation

To enable students to conduct research and make preparation for communication skills activities.

4 Ibid., pp. 4-5.

t 50 Practice Teaching.

Upon completion of the public

speaking phase of this course, the student then embarks upon the practice teaching assignments, which are five in number and are designed to increase the studentfs proficiency in the methods of communication and presentation work suita­ ble for teaching. The Lecture Method.

This is a thirty-five minute

exercise designed to aid student instructors in developing skill in the use of the lecture as a teaching method.

The

use of some type or types of instructional aids, ineluding the blackboard, is required.

The lecture is projected in

the informal extemporaneous style encouraged in the Public Speaking Laboratory.

Questions pertaining to the subject

are invited and are answered as they arise (during the pre­ sentation) as well as at the end of the period.

A lesson

plan is prepared and handed to the instructor immediately preceding the presentation. the student.

The topic may be chosen by

A list of suggested topics for this presen­

tation is made available by the tutor of each group during the first weekly tutorial period.

The critique following

each student presentation normally takes the form of a group discussion introduced and led by the instructor. The Socialized Recitation Method.

This is a thirty-

51 five minute exercise designed to develop skill in stimulating reactions, contributions and discussion in a classroom situ­ ation based upon an assigned chapter of an educational text. Ground work for discussion may be laid through the use of lecturettes, training film, the blackboard, case histories, thought-provoking situations, or current events.

Student

instructors frame thought-questions and draw conclusions from the material under consideration.

The nsocializedM

nature of the method requires that the student instructor stimulate all members of the class to respond either by pooling information about the subject or by doing creative thinking with the group.

A lesson plan is prepared and

handed to the instructor immediately preceding the presen­ tation.

The chapters for each student presentation are

assigned during the second weekly tutorial period.

Each

presentation is followed by a critique by the instructor and the class. The Conference Method.

This is a thirty-five minute

exercise designed to stimulate skill in presenting a problem or case for discussion, encouraging participation by con­ ference, recording and integrating contributions, organizing findings, and summarizing conclusions.

The role of the

leader both as a chairman and as contributor to the dis­ cussion is emphasized; however, leaders control the procedure

and not the thinking of the group.

A lesson plan (agenda)

is prepared and handed to the instructor immediately pre­ ceding the conference.

Student instructors may select their

own problems for discussion with the advice and consent of the tutor.

A critique follows each conference.

The Performance Method.

This is a thirty-five

minute exercise designed to develop skill in leading and supervising student work activities which have rich learning significance.

Student instructors stimulate "learning by

doing” in one or more of the following ways: student par­ ticipation in the form of reports, blackboard work, pencil and paper tests, committee work, map work, skill exercises, or any of the various laboratory techniques. flexibility is encouraged.

Classroom

The role of the student instruc­

tor is predominately that of an aid and a guide rather than a performer.

Topics may be chosen by the student but are

cleared with the tutor during the fourth weekly tutorial period.

A lesson plan is prepared by each student instruc­

tor and handed to the instructor immediately preceding the instruction.

A critique follows each student period.

The Summary Test of Instruction Proficiency.

This

is a fifty minute, full scale period of instruction in which the student instructor demonstrates the skills and knowledge

he has gained throughout the course. methods, is optional with the student.

The method, or He is encouraged

to use the method, or combination of methods, he believes will be of greatest utility to him in future assignments. As many techniques are demonstrated as are practicable in developing his subject.

The topic may be chosen by the

student with the advice and consent of his adviser.

While

the adviser acts as the tutor during the fifth weekly tu­ torial period, th’e student is encouraged to seek preliminary advice on the final practice teaching experience early in the course because preparation for this exercise takes con­ siderably more time than the others.

At the beginning of

the hour assigned for his presentation, the student instruc­ tor presents to the instructor two copies of a complete in­ structional folder.

One eopy of the folder is retained by

the Academic Instructor Division.

The instructional folder

is evaluated for preparation, research, utilization of methods, handouts, written communication, and adherence to accepted form.

During the third week a special con­

ference is conducted by the adviser of each group for the purpose of explaining in detail the requirements for the instructional folder and answering student questions. The student gets all the practice possible in the time allowed, not only to demonstrate his proficiency but

f>4 also to evaluate the efforts and progress of his fellow students, which has proven most beneficial as a means of self-improvement.

It will be observed that instructional

aids and lesson plans are included as a part of teaching. PRACTICE TEACHING5 Title

Objective

Requisites of a Highly Competent Instructor

To explain and discuss the attributes essential to a highly competent instructor.

Criteria for Determining Instructional Method

To explain the considerations involved in selecting the specific types of instructional methods to be employed in the classroom.

Instructional Aids and Their Use.

To identify instructional aids, to explain their most effective use, and to motivate students in the manufacture of aids in the laboratory.

Lesson Plans

To explain the purpose and the form of lesson plans.

The Use of the Question in Teaching

To explain the use of the ques­ tion, in expediting learning.

The Lecture Method

To furnish experience and to develop skill in using the lec­ ture as a teaching method.

The Socialized Recitation Method

To explain the procedure of the socialized recitation and to de­ velop skill in stimulating reac­ tions, contributions, and discus­ sions while teaching from a text­ book or other organized body of knowledge.

5 ibid., pp. 5-6.

55 PRACTICE TEACHING (Continued) Title

Objective

The Conference Method

To develop skill in leading roundtable discussion, to de­ velop attitudes, appreciations and understandings by group processes, and to develop ability to problem solving.

The Performance Method

To develop skill in leading and supervising student work activi­ ties which have rich learning significance.

Summary Test of Instruc­ tional Proficiency

To evaluate student performance in a summary, full-scale period of instruction in which multiple methods and techniques of teach­ ing are demonstrated by the students.

Planning and Preparation

To enable students to conduct research and make preparations for practice teaching laboratories.

Evaluations

The determination of instructional effective­

ness, as judged by the amount of learning or change which has taken place in the student, is a large and relatively open field.

However, each student is made to feel the importance

of evaluation as an aid to effective teaching and each is allowed to participate in constructing evaluation instruments and is informed of the principles involved in evaluation. Students participate in two evaluation laboratories, one in the third week and one in the fifth week of the course. The first is a three hour problem in objective test construction.

Student instructors are required to prepare from assigned text material five true-false items, three multiple choice items, and three completion items before coming to the laboratory.

The text material is assigned during the

lecture on "Objective Tests" in the second week.

During

the first hour of the laboratory the class is divided into groups of ten students each; the group considers all of the objective test items prepared by members of that group.

The

group selects the best five true-false items, the best three multiple choice items, and the best three completion items. This selection is made by free discussion led by the ranking member of the group.

During the second hour of the laboratory

the best test of each group is interchanged between groups. Each group then analyzes and critiques the test prepared by a different group.

During the third hour, each group chair­

man reads the critique of the test considered by the group. This is followed by an open discussion of the tests conducted by the instructor. The second is a three hour problem during which an evaluation instrument is constructed by each student instruc­ tor.

The instrument is one of the performance type and is

designed to evaluate the desired learning outcomes of the unit of instruction which the student helped to prepare through committee work in the Curriculum Laboratory.

This

57 Laboratory follows closely the work in curriculum planning. Students are required to meet in groups but work individually during this period, using any school facility necessary for the construction of the instrument. EVALUATION6 Title

Objective

Uses of Evaluation

To explain the various uses of evaluation in the educational system.

Grading Procedures

To develop a knowledge of factors to be considered in interpreting evaluation results and assigning grades.

Objective Tests

To present principles and tech­ niques of text construction and to furnish experience for student construction of tests in the laboratory.

Performance Instruments

To present principles and tech­ niques of performance-type in­ struments and to guide students in the construction of these instruments in the laboratory.

Planning and Preparation

To enable students to conduct research and make preparation for evaluation laboratory assign­ ments.

Curriculum Planning and Supervision:

The very essence

of the educational philosophy of the Air University is to

6 Ibid., pp. 6 -7 .

58 encourage and foster creative and critical thinking, remove the aura of mystery and authority surrounding the statements of persons in high places and to use one *s own analytical powers to arrive at sound and logical conclusions.

Air

Force teachers in the field units often devise entire courses of instruction, or completely revise existing ones, due to changes in the international situation, or based on changes in American national policy or new technological developments.

The physical construction and development

of an entire course of instruction, including appropriate schedules and sample unit plans, are evolved in committees which is the normal means used in the field. CURRICULUM PLANNING AND SUPERVISION? Title

Objective

Curriculum Planning

To present general principles of curriculum construction and to guide students in the develop­ ment of a course of instruction.

Supervision of Instruction

To discuss constructive super­ vision, scheduling procedure, administrative methods, and teach morale.

Planning and Preparation

To enable students to conduct research and make preparations for curriculum assignments.

7 Ibid., p. 7 .

Students participate in a Curriculum Planning Laboratory during the fourth and fifth weeks of the course. Students work in committees to prepare a complete curri­ culum for a course of instruction in whfc h the individual will be teaching or would like to teach.

The Academic

Instructor Course Curriculum is used as a guide in con­ structing the form of the over-all course.

In addition,

appropriate schedules and a sample unit plan within the course are required.

The form for this unit plan is made

available to students by the Curriculum Staff in the laboratory.

No specific preparation is necessary prior

to the first laboratory hour.

The curriculum materials

are developed under the guidance of the Curriculum Staff In the Laboratory.

III.

SUMMARY

The high level of specialized training and experience with which the students come into this school makes it pos­ sible for the entire program to be geared to the central theme of teacher-training.

The curriculum is intended to

concentrate on the areas wherein it is thought the greatest benefit can be derived in attaining the assigned mission; that of preparing selected officers for duty as instructors within the educational system of the United States Air Force.

CHAPTER V EVALUATION OP THE ACADEMIC INSTRUCTOR DIVISION To give an objective appraisal of how well the Aca­ demic Instructor Division prepares Air Force personnel as instructors in the Air Force training and education program would be to answer the question, long a stumbling block to teaeher-evaluation efforts, "What makes a good teacher?” If some evaluation instrument were available to apply to graduates of this school and thereby measure their growth as teachers, the problem of evaluating this course would be a simple one.

Unfortunately, no such instrument exists,

so one must look for other ways to determine how well this course prepares teachers.

This chapter will explore the

available means of appraisal in an effort to evaluate this program.

These means ares

(1) student analyses of the

course; (2) opinions of experts in the field of teacher training and evaluation; and (3) efforts toward self-improve­ ment engaged in by the Academic Instructor Division.

I.

STUDENT ANALYSES OF COURSE

Information from student diagnostic appraisal forms. Not wishing to ignore any source which may offer ideas for Improvement of the course, the reactions of the student body

61 to the course are solicited by the Academic Instructor Division.

Prior to each weeks' instruction, the student

receives a diagnostic evaluation form upon which is listed a breakdown of the instruction for the ensuing week.

The

student is asked to indicate his reactions to the instruc­ tion and turn in the form at the end of the week.

Since

the forms are unsigned, comments are made frankly and ob­ jectively.

In order to get as many returns as possible,

pains have been taken to make the form easy to use.

The

student is merely asked to eheck an appropriate remark: (a) leave course as is, (b) allow more time, (c) allow less time, or (d) change or eliminate instruction.

Additionally,

a space is provided for the student to explain his thinking regarding each of his checks. The data submitted by 364 students leads to the con­ clusion that 8 1 .5 per cent of the student body were in general agreement that the material as presented, whether lecture, discussion, practice teaching or laboratory work, was considered to be a ppropriate by them.

Inasmuch as

students were under no compulsion to turn in these forms, the number of returns varied with the individuals' interest in the particular unit of work under consideration. Table I contains data turned in on twenty-nine rep­ resentative units of instruction which have been conducted

TABLE 1 STUDENT REACTIONS TO TWENTY-NINE REPRESENTATIVE UNITS OF INSTRUCTION ACADEMIC INSTRUCTOR DIVISION, USAF SPECIAL STAFP SCHOOL, SEPTEMBER 1948 - SEPTEMBER 1949

Unit of instruction

> Importance of an Instructional Assignment Education and Training Program of USAF Requisites of Highly Competent Instructor Object!res of Instruction Organisation of a Lecture Instructional Aids and Their Use Rating Soales and Their Use Use of Question in Teaohing The Direoted Disoussion Constructing Objective Teats The Lesson Plan The Instructional Folder Principles of Learning Interpretation of Teat Soores Uses of Results of Evaluation Effective Written Communication Educational Psychology Philosophy of Education Instructional Aida Laboratory Evaluation Laboratory Curriculum Laboratory Currioulxas Planning Practice Teaching I Praetloe Teaching II Fraction Teaching III Praetloe Teaohing IV Practice Teaching V Practice Teaching VI Practice Teaohing VII

TOTALS

Number responding*

Allow more time

Leave as is

I T ”

No.

$

Ho".

111 203 267 166 261 274 232 267 161 205 255 226 227 224 227 323 242 199 273 261 244 271 364 262 223 212 219 205 152

104 165 233 163 243 232 173 221 120 144 203 169 167 164 188 274 154 139 216 169 178 214 337 247 210 184 192 174 145

93.7 81.3 87.3 92.2 93.1 84.7 74.6 82.6 79.6 70.2 79.6 74.1 69.2 73.2 62.8 84.8 63.6 69.8 79.1 64.8 73.0 79.0 92.6 94.3 94.2 86.8 87.7 64.9 96.0

2 13 18 4 8 24 26 19 9 26 26 27 31 26 16 17 37 19 19 35 13 13 5 10 2 11 8 9 3

1.8 6.4 6.7 2.4 3.1 8.8 11.2 7.1 6.0 12,7 10.2 11.8 13.7 11.6 7.0 5.3 16.3 9.5 7.0 13.4 5.3 4.8 1.4 3.8 0.9 6.2 3.7 4.4 2.0

6,748

5,602

81.5

476

7.1

Allow less time

Change or eliminate

No.

%

1 11 3 2 3 8 12 12 2 7 6 3

0.9 5.4 1.1 1.2 1.1 2.9 6.2 4.5 1.3 3.4 2.4 1.3 3.6 5.8 2.2 1.9 2.9 4.0 8.8 5.4 7.8 7.4 1.6 0.4 0.4 0.9 1.4 1.0

8 13 5 6 7

8 24 14 19 20 6 1 1

2 3 2 0 209

“ SoT" ~ * -4 14 13 7 7 10 21 16 20 28 20 29 31

21 18 26 44 33 14 48 34 24 16 4

10

0

15 16 20 4

3.1

661

3.6 6.9 4.9 4.2 2.7 3.6 9.1 5.6 13.2 13.7 7.8 12.7 13.7 9.4 7.9 8.0 16.2 16.6 5.1 16.6 13.9 8.9 4.4 1.6 4.6 7.1 7.3 9.8

2.6 8.5

^ ^ 7 « s p O T *« *ira r^ v lu S t« i7 « ^ w ^ a S E ? !^ « ^ o n id S n ^ v S iT « ^ v R ? lM ^ ,T S 3T T F HIS S fru o S ^ T o o o r3 I^ to The T n fe rS R o f eaoh ln a iv ia lfc l.

with little change throughout the period for which returns were submitted.

These returns were made by 364 students

during the period September 1948 and September 1949. Typical student comments.

In addition to the specific

information requested above, the forms provide space for the student to submit frank comments on the school or any phase of the program.

Much constructive criticism has been re­

ceived in this fashion.

The form aids in keeping the faculty

continually aware of students needs, and serious consideration is given each suggestion.

The tenor of the comments, in the

main has been quite enthusiastic.

A glance at some of these

commentsi considered typical by the school faculty gives, a fair indication of how Students undergoing this training react to the course. On the whole this is one of the best schools I fve ever attended, either civilian or.military. I have attended many Army schools and have had five years of college. This school is the best I have ever attended. The student-centered attitude of the entire school made this course most profitable and pleasant. The technical ability of the instructor per­ sonnel is excellent. This is an outstanding course.

1 Comments on file at Academic Instructor Division, Special Staff School, Craig Air Force Base, Alabama.

64 The school was well organized. physical plant,

An ideal

I would recommend this school above all others in the Air Force, The short duration of the course and the limited time devoted to each phase, is the major complaint of students: Insufficient time for curriculum planning. Lengthen course to expand present program. I would like more on the construction of training aids. More time for evaluation studies. Add more educational psychology. Give more time to written communication. I think more time should be spent on actual experience and use of training films. In reading the above statements one should consider the maturity of the students.

They range from the early

twenties up to the middle forties in age.

All comments are

submitted anonymously so they can reliably be assumed to represent true feelings and reactions.

II.

OPINIONS OF AUTHORITIES ON TEACHER TRAINING AND'EVALUATION

Outstanding authorities in the fields of teacher training and educational evaluation have been extremely generous in giving their time to the Academic Instructor

65 Division.

The list of educators who have visited the school

is a long and distinguished one.

These civilian leaders

seldom fail to be impressed with the school*s efforts toward self-improvement and its willingness and ability to adapt new ideas and practices. Following are a few comments by educators who have visited the school and who have had an opportunity to evaluate it. Dr. L. Thomas Hopkins, Professor of Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, in a letter to the Commandant of the school said: pioneering work.

MYour school is doing real

I count myself extremely fortunate to

have had the opportunity to learn through direct experience how it operates.,fg Dr. Richard E. Fox of the Department of Testing and Education of the University of Colorado, expressed his views on the caliber of the faculty as follows:

MI know of no

more progressive-minded group of educators and see in them the potential for real educational leadership in the Armed Services and in civilian activities of our country,”3

2 L. Thomas Hopkins, letter to Commandant, USAF Special Staff School, November 4, 19^7* 3 Richard E. Fox, letter to Commandant, USAF Special Staff School, November 7* 19^7•

66 Dr. Paul B. Rickard of the Department of Speech of Wayne University wrote the following to the school commandant. . . .1 am deeply impressed with the fine work being done in the Academic Instructor Division. My only regret is that more.educators have not had the opportunity to become familiar with the educational objectives and practices of Air Uni­ versity.^ Dr. William J. Haggerty, president of State Teachers College of New Paltz, New York, expressed to the commandant of the school his opinion as follows:

MAs I have said when

I was down there, I believe that what you are doing in the Air University has many implications for civilian educational programs."5 In an address to the American Psychological Associ­ ation at their meeting at Denver in the summer of 19^9, the following tribute was paid by Dr. John Gray Peatman, Asso­ ciate Dean and Associate Professor of Psychology of the City College of New York: A unique development in higher education began operation last September at the Air University of the USAP at Craig Air Force Base_in Alabama. For the first time, to our.knowledge, a systematic, and well integrated attempt has been made to train teachers at the university level in the arts of effective teaching.

^ Paul B. Rickard, letter to Commandant, USAP Special Staff School, February 19, 19^9. 5 William J. Haggerty, letter to Commandant, USAP Special Staff School, October IS, 19^9.

67 The program for the preparation of teachers in the,Air University represents a sound approach to the problem of improving the quality of instruc­ tion and might well be emulated by civilian col­ leges and universities.6 An educational survey of the Air Command and Staff School at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama was conducted in Autust of 1949 by a group of educational specialists.

In

the course of this survey the group found it desirable to also examine the Academic Instructor Division as it was the agency providing teacher training to instructors in the Air Command and Staff School.

This survey group under

the direction of Dr. Jacob S. Orleans, Professor of Edu­ cation at the City College at New York and Director of Research and Education for the Committee on Coordination of Teacher Training Education of the College of the City of New York, made the following observations in their re­ port to the Commanding General of Air University: . . .Since September 1948, the Academic Instruc­ tors* Course of six weeks* duration has been operat­ ing at Craig Air Force Base. . . .In view of the excellent training provided at Craig Air Force Base in the brief period of six weeks and the unanimity of the graduates as to the worthwhileness of this preparation, no new instructor at Air Command and Staff School should undertake teaching responsibili­ ties without this background or its equivalent. It is particularly important that Chiefs of Divisions

6 John Gray Peatman, ”The USAF Trains its University Instructors How to Teach,” (unpublished paper read before a meeting of the American Psychological Association, Denver, Colorado, September 7, 19%.)

and all engaged in the monitoring of instruction be graduates of the Academic Instructors* Course . . • .Every effort should be.made in scheduling to postpone the instructor*s initial classroom appearance until he has completed the course at Craig. A number of visits to Craig by members of the Survey Commission and an examination of their pro­ gram have revealed that the course is meeting a real need in a superior manner. The program of instruction is carefully selected, planned and conducted. The morale among the faculty and students is unusually good and the graduates are enthusiastic about the value of the course. The instruction is individualized through small classes and the emphasis is upon practical ex­ perience similar to probable future teaching duties.7 The following basic recommendation by the Orleans survey group was made to Commanding General, Air University: It is recommended that the policy be rigidly enforced that all new instructors complete the Academic Instructors* Course before appearing as instructors at the Air Command and Staff School.^

7 A Report to the Commanding General, Air University of An Educational Survey of the Air Command and Staff Schools, "(unpublished survey, Air University Human Resources Research Institute, Maxwell Air Force Base, Montgomery, Alabama~ Sep­ tember 1, 19^9 .)> P. 83* The, following educators constituted, the Survey Board headed by D r . Orleans: Dr. Joseph E. Barmack, Associate Professor of Psychology, The City College, New York; Dr. Mitchell Dreese, Dean, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.; Dr. Samuel M. Goodman, Lecturer, Education Department, Queens College, New York; Dr..Edwin R. Henry, Advisor on Personnel Measurement, Standard.Oil Co.,. (N.J.), Director, Richardson, Bellows, Henry and Co., Management „ Consultants; Mr. Robert S. Jones, Psychology Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Dr. Thomas R. Palfrey, Professor of Romance Languages, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 8 Ibid., p. 84v

69 III.

EFFORTS TOWARD IMPROVEMENT OF PROGRAM

Participation in program by civilian educators.

Many

civilian educators, have contributed their time and educa­ tional "know-how” to the program.

The Academic Instructor

Course has benefited greatly by their assistance.

Fre­

quently, groups of evaluation specialists visit Craig Air Force Base at the invitation of the commandant and critically examine the course of instruction.

This practice keeps the

course dynamic and obviates the possibility of the adminis­ tration of the school becoming stagnant and overly satis­ fied with the program.

A description of several of these

meetings will illustrate the caliber of the personnel attend­ ing and the type of critical examination to which the course is subjected. In May of 19^-9 a careful analysis of the evaluation plan used by the Academic Instructor Division in determining student achievement was the subject of a clinic and round table discussion.9

Current techniques and practices were *

9 The list of consultants participating in this meeting included the following listed distinguished personages in the field of educational evaluation: Dr. Edwin R. Henry, Adviser on Personnel Measurement of the Standard Oil Co. (N.J.), and Director of Richardson, Bellows,- Henry and Co., Management Consultants; Dr. John Gray Peatman, Associate Dean and Asso­ ciate Professor of Psychology of the„City College of New York; Dr. Joseph E. Barmack, Professor of Psychology, The City College of New, York; Dr. Jacob S. Orleans, Professor of

70 reviewed and possible means for future development were dis­ cussed.

Tentative plans were made for a program of research

and development to provide more effective instruments and procedures for detailed and overall evaluation of the Aca­ demic Instructor Division and its products. The need for more reliable instruments to aid in pre­ dicting the teaching success of Academic Instructor Division graduates repeatedly made itself evident.

The Director of

the school again invited a group of civilian specialists to come to the school in November of 1949 to assist in the improvement of the evaluation techniques.

The group again

included Dr. Orleans, Dr. Coakley and Dr. Peatman. tion, Dr. Richard E.

In addi­

Fox of the Department of Testing

Evaluation of the University of Colorado attended.

and

Dr.

Ralph W. Tyler, Dean of the Division of Social Sciences and Chairman of Board of Examiners, University of Chicago wrote: Although I am pressed for time this quarter, a significant research on the prediction of teacher effectiveness and/or appraising teacher training programs would be of so much Importance that I should do everything possible to get away. If you think this is going to shape up into a research project that can be carried through carefully and

(Footnote 9 continued) Education and Director of Research .and Evaluation for the Committee on Coordination of Teacher Education of The City College of New York; Dr. John D. Coakley, Dunlap, Morris and Associates, New York; Dr. Mitchell Dreese, Dean of Summer Studies, George Washington University; Dr. Samuel M..Goodman, College of Education, Queens College, New York.

71 fully, I should certainly like to participate.

io

Again significant assistance was afforded the school, and the evaluation system was revised in accordance with the recommendations of the visiting group.

The primary purpose

of this meeting was to establish foundations of research through which the content of the Academic Instructor Course can be better fitted to the actual needs of the students. This meeting provided the basis for the long range research and development plan to be discussed later in this chapter. Dr. L. Thomas Hopkins, Professor of Education and curriculum expert from Teachers* College, Columbia University, spent several days in October of 19^9 with the Academic In­ structor Division.

Dr. Hopkins conducted several inservice

training conferences with members of the faculty.

In this

way the faculty received first hand an exposition, as well as the application of the organismic psychology approach to curriculum construction by one of its greatest living exponents. Dr. Ralph Nichols, Professor of Speech at the Uni­ versity of Minnesota, gave his assistance to the develop­ ment of a new unit on the listening skills. Many educators hold commissions as officers in the

3-0 Ralph W. Tyler, letter to Commandant, USAF Special Staff School, November 1, 19^9*

72 reserve component of the United States Air Force,

Each year

they are required to spend a period of time on active duty with an Air Force unit.

These educators have been screened

and a program is under way to have them ordered to active duty each year with the Academic Instructor Division.

It

is anticipated that this source of experience will be most valuable and will continue to inject a healthy stream of new life into the course each year.

During the summer of

1949 Dr. Louis Shores, Dean of Libraries at Florida State College, was one of ten educators in American colleges and universities on active duty as a faculty member of the school which benefited greatly by his experience. Participation in non-federal conference and meetings. In order to have the benefit of the thinking of civilian educational leaders and to broaden members of Academic Instructor Division faculty professionally, a vigorous program of attendance at non-federal conferences and edu­ cational meetings is followed.

Attendance is normally

rotated among faculty members in order to give all an oppor­ tunity to engage in this most refreshing type of educational experience. Since the inception of the school, members of the Academic Instructor Division have attended and participated in meetings and conferences conducted by the following

73 agencies: American Educational Reserach Association American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education American Association of School Administrators Association for Supervision and.Curriculum Development National Conference on Higher Education Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations Speech Association of America Department of Audio-Visual Instruction American Psychological Association Training Laboratory in Group Development at Bethel, . Maine Conference at Esso Training Center,-Standard Oil Com­ pany of New Jersey Symposium on Teaching of Conference Procedures at City College of New York Minnesota Psychological Association Western Psychological Association Mid-western Psychological Association National Vocational Guidance Association Central Speech Association Testing Problems Conference National Commission on Teacher Education and Profes­ sional Standards National University Extension Association Rapport between students and faculty.

The first

several classes of the Academic Instructor Course were small enough to enable the director of the school to personally confer with each student.

Through these personal meetings

the director was able to remain in intimate contact with the student body as a whole.

However, as the classes in­

creased in size it was determined that this procedure, though highly desirable, was too time-consuming.

Any

student has the privilege and is encouraged to see the director at any time.

The emphasis placed upon the adviser

74 tutorial system has shifted much of this personalized relationship to the faculty members serving as advisers. The director, however, has not allowed himself to be divorced from the student body entirely and continues to meet a representative group of students selected at random from each class.

This serves to keep him continually

and personally in touch with the student body. In addition each class has a class president, the senior officer of the student body, who meets with the school director periodically, at which meetings student problems are discussed and usually resolved on the spot. Growth through adaptation of suggestions and selfanalysis.

As a result of the activities mentioned above,

the school is placed under the microscope continually, and suggestions for Improvement of the course present themselves in an almost continuous stream.

Here is demonstrated the

flexibility of the school and the readiness to adapt new ideas to improve the course of instruction.

As the Director

of the school has considerable latitude in how he is to accomplish his mission, changes are made rapidly with a minimum of administrative “red tape.11 Germs of ideas are offered by students; many are suggested as a result of conferences and visits by civilian educators; and of course the bulk are suggested by the

75 faculty itself.

A few adaptations recently made by the

school will illustrate the type and scope of the changes, and are good examples of flexibility in the curriculum. a. The number of practice teaching experiences has been increased from seven to nine, and the first four are grouped into a new unit called Public Speaking in which the student is not graded.

This was done in order to put the

student at ease during his initial presentation* b. Written lesson plans are required for all practice teaching experiences. the final session.

Formerly, this was required for only

This additional requirement was added

to insure more sound and careful planning of practice teaching and to provide more experience in the written communication skills. c. Evaluation Laboratory assignments were changed to allow all students to construct test items on the same materials, thus acquiring a common background of experience for group discussion and evaluation of the resulting test times. d. A unit on Written Communication has been added to the course for the purpose of improving the students* ability to write and to teach acceptable English prose. This was the result of an Air Force policy which indicated general disapproval of the average Air Force officers*

76 ability along these lines. e. The Evaluation phase has been changed to provide more laboratory time in which students may actively work in preparing and utilizing evaluation instruments.

Less

time is devoted to statistics and more to practical grading procedures.

The student diagnostic evaluation forms pro­

vided the basis for this change. f. All course material pertaining specifically to each practice teaching unit is presented to the students prior to the assignment of that unit.

This provides stu­

dent with more information with which to plan his presen­ tation. g. Practice teaching sessions are scheduled before lectures and other classroom activities in the mornings. This was instituted at the request of the students as it aids in relieving anxiety and increases attention to the lectures. h. In order to promote student interest in research, the most accurate and effective student research papers on educational subjects are published in the Division news­ letter, nThe Academic Instructor,M which Is sent to all graduates of the course and friends of the Division. i. Students offered the opinion that educational psychology and philosophy was too concentrated, all being

77 offered at the start of the course.

As a result, this type

of background instruction is spaced throughout the course, allowing sufficient time between presentations for reflec­ tion and intellectual digestion. j . The instructional folder has been streamlined into what is believed to be a more concise practicable instrument, applicable to any teaching situation.

Emphasis has been

placed on student learning outcomes. k. Instruction on the supervision of instruction has been introduced.

This was designed to fill the need of the

many supervisory personnel attending the school. 1. The subject matter content of an educational nature that the student is exposed to has been increased nearly three times by having student practice teaching sessions deal with matters of an academic and educational nature. m. A special tutorial hour has been scheduled approxi­ mately one week in advance of each practice teaching experi­ ence.

Here the student meets the instructor who is to super­

vise him in that particular session.

The purpose of this

hour is to clarify the assignment, answer questions, approve the topic selected, and generally advise and aid the student in his preparation and lesson planning.

This has been enthu­

siastically received by the student body. All these changes were instituted to assist the student

76 in realizing his objective of becoming an effective teacher. Any portion of instruction, or practice of the school, is almost immediately modified if any evidence exists that the best interests of the student is not thereby served. Plans for research and development.

The instructional

assignments of Academic Instructor Division graduates are many and varied.

Some graduates are assigned as instructors

in the Air War College, which is the most advanced Air Force school where many future.Air Force and Department of Defense plans are formulated.

Other graduates are assigned to various

instructional assignments throughout Air University.

At least

one class each year is devoted almost exclusively to future Air R.O.T.C. instructors who will be concerned with instruc­ tion of university and college students.

Still others re­

ceive instructional assignments in the various training command units of the Air Force and may be concerned with teaching the operation of intricate technical equipment. If the basic factors which comprise effective instruc­ tion in the Air Force could be isolated and identified, the course could then be constructed to satisfy those needs. The Academic Instructor Division authorities have long been keenly conscious of this need.

However, these factors can

be identified only by a scientific study, which by reason of time and manpower limitations the Division has been unable

79 to undertake. The first step in arranging for such an all-important study was taken by the Division Director.

A memorandum

(Appendix E) was submitted on June 19, 19^9 to the Commandant of the USAF Special Staff School requesting that such a study be instituted.

The memorandum was forwarded to the Command­

ing General of Air University where it is presently under consideration.

Indications are that this study will either

be undertaken by the Air University Human Resources Research Institute, currently headed by Dr. Raymond V. Bowers formerly executive director of the Committee on Human Resources, Re­ search and Development Board, Office of the Secratary of Defense, Washington, D.C. or will be undertaken by a psy­ chological research agency. This is a long-range plan and it will be a matter of months and probably years before definite results are announced. When, and if, the factors which comprise effective teaching in the Air Force are identified and isolated, a reexamination of the Academic Instructor Course will be undertaken to deter­ mine to what extent the curriculum and methods used will have to be modified.

Such data would also enable the school to

clearly define entrance as well as graduation requirements. Future plans for Air Force teacher training.

Lt.

Colonel Eugene E. Myers, Director of the Academic Instructor

80 Division, informally expressed himself on future Air Force requirements in regard to teacher training and education as follows: The Academic Instructor Division is changed with setting the tone.of instruction in the Air Force. The Air Force requirement for teacher preparation is shaping up more clearly in our minds. A require­ ment for an Academic Instructor Course such as the one we present for those officers who will instruct in our military schools and who will he responsible ■ for educational liaison duty is very evident. We have been made acutely aware, however, of the need for some program of instruction for those officers who wi2)l occupy positions of a supervisory and ad­ ministrative nature in our schools. Emphasis in such a course would not then be on teaching, but rather on how to set up a school, how to formulate a curriculum, how to evaluate teachers, the place and importance of student morale, the requirements for an effective physical plant, and such things. Such a school would be for officers of high rank, Generals and Colonels, and others of broad military background. The school should be small, say about twenty or thirty to a class. The aim of such a course would be to provide these officers with specific background for big jobs in the Air Force educational system. Another requirement which is becoming apparent, is a school for airmen who will occupy key places in the training system of the Air Force. Such a course would be beamed specifically to the needs of the airman instructor. A study is currently underway to determine Academic Instructor Division capabilities for providing such,a program of teacher and supervisor preparation.il This is typical of the thinking of the Academic Instruc­ tor Division, and indicates trends of this, the USAF College

11 Interview with I*t. Colonel Eugene E. Myers, Academic Instructor Division Director, November 18, 19^9*.

81 of Education.

If present thinking is approved and imple­

mented, one can expect the following three schools to con­ stitute the Air Force program: a. The present Academic Instructor Course modified in accordance with results of the study by the Air University Human Resources Institute.

This study was described in

section on plans for Research and Development. b. A supervisor^ course for senior officers who will occupy key assignments throughout the educational system of the Air Force. c. A course specifically designed for airmen instruc­ tors, primarily for those who will be assigned as instructors in the various technical schools in the Air Force.

IV.

SUMMARY

The evaluation of teacher training is a complex and difficult task.

The degree to which the Academic Instructor

Course is preparing teachers is demonstrated by the over­ whelming satisfaction of the student body with the course as presented; by the weight of evidence expressed in opinions of outstanding leaders in the field of education and evalu­ ation; and by the untiring efforts of the Division Adminis­ tration towards improvement of the course.

The next chapter

will be concerned with conclusions and will make recommendaticn s for improving the existing program.

CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Two questions were raised in Chapter I.

The first of

these, “What is the present Air Force program for training instructors?" has been described in considerable detail in the preceding chapters*

The answer to the second of these

questions, “How well does this program prepare Air Force officers to instruct in the Air Force educational program?” will be the principal objective of this final chapter.

Rec­

ommendations for the improvement of this program as well as the implication of this program for civilian education will be offered. Conclusions.

The answer to how well the Air Force

trains its Instructors to teach in the Air Force educational system was obtained by examining the program itself; by ana­ lyzing the opinions of the student body, and, by taking into consideration the opinions of experts in the field of educa­ tional evaluation and teacher training. The program is centered around the student and is directed to his needs, insofar as those needs are known at the present time.

The emphasis is upon the total teaching

act throughout the course. Significant assistance has been offered the program

by civilian educators of high standing and long experience. This has kept the Academic Instructor Division faculty sensible to current thought and practice in the educational world. All members of the faculty of the Academic Instructor Division assure themselves of professional alertness by means of frequent attendance at, and participation in, meetings and conferences of national and regional organizations of speech, psychology, and education. The close rapport existing between faculty and student body has resulted from a conscious program to produce this relationship.

By being continually aware of the feelings

and attitudes of the student body, the school is able to react to the needs expressed. The adaptability of the program to changing conditions is typical of the attitude and feeling which permeates the entire administration and faculty.

This willingness to have

the program examined and to profit by criticism offered has been noted by observers both in the field of education and by leaders in the Department of Defense. The plans for research and development, as well as the future plans for the program as a whole, are meaningful earmarks of the progressive approach this school has adopted for the effective training of teachers.

84

-

Three hundred and sixty-four mature officers ranging in age from their middle twenties to their late forties of­ fered 6747 judgments on various phases of the program.

These

were offered while they were members of the student body dur­ ing the period September 1948 to September 1949.

Their high

satisfaction with the course as presented is noteworthy; 8 1 .5 per cent of the students felt that no change in the course should be made. Additional unsigned comments of students, almost unani­ mously expressed high praise for the course in general.

It

is worth noting that the only adverse reactions of students were directed at the length of the course.

Not that it was

too long, but rather that not enough time was available for all the areas covered!

The duration of the course is de­

termined at Headquarters United States Air Force in Washington and is not within the power of the Academic Instructor Division to change. The most conclusive evidence as to how well the course serves its purpose comes from civilian educators of national reputation.

Many of these have examined the course, many

have participated in it.

Without exception, their opinions

have been expressed in superlatives.

It is rather significant

educationally when advocates of various educational philoso­ phies and psychologies of education can come to agreement on

the worth of this new educational venture. Hecommendations.

In view of the brief time the Aca­

demic Instructor Course has been offered, it is understanda­ ble that all of its problems have not yet been solved.

The

most perplexing and far reaching problem at the present time is the determination of what the factors are that comprise effective teaching in the Air Force.

It is recommended that

this study be undertaken as soon as possible and be pursued aggressively. The training of a teacher is a complex undertaking. Although the current program has received a fair share of praise, efforts should be made to extend the length of the course to enable full treatment of all essential phases of the program. Inasmuch as all officers are required to attend the Academic Instructor Course prior *to instructing in the Air University system, it is suggested that consideration be given to allow the already proficient teacher to progress through the school on a proficiency basis.

The student who

is weak in one or more areas considered essential prior to graduating might be given additional opportunities for ex­ periences in those areas. Stability of a faculty has long been recognized by civilian educators, and tenure is granted after a successful

86 apprenticeship.

It will be difficult for the Air Force to

obtain any great degree of stability or continuity in this program as long as the practice of one hundred per cent turn-over of personnel each three years is continued.

The

tour of duty for administration and faculty should be in­ creased to five years, with the option of this tour being extended indefinitely if mutually satisfactory. The present practice of recalling reserve officers with educational experience to duty with the Academic Instruc­ tor Division is a healthy one.

This source of new educational

experience should be tapped to the fullest.

This is a dis­

tinct advantage of the military school over the civilian educational Institution and should be aggressively exploited. These officers should be personally contacted several months before they are ordered to active duty, and their interests and experience should be determined.

A specific job should

be waiting for them when they report for duty.

Only in this

way can this resource be fully exploited and the maximum benefit derived from it. There are many implications in this program for civilian education.

It is one of the very few educational programs

devoted to the training of teachers on the college level. The fact that a preservice course of college' Instructor edu­ cation and training is now satisfactorily filling a widespread

87 need in the Air Foree may be a significant factor in pointing the way to satisfaction of an even more extensive need in civilian higher education.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

PERIODICAL LITERATURE

Brown, Francis J., “President *s Commission on Higher Educa­ tion Reports Further,n Higher Education, IV (March 1, 1948), 147. . Dale, Edgar, “Can Schools Teach the G.I. Way?” Journal of Education, CXXVTII (April 1945), 119-21. .. ~ Fairchild, Muir S., Air Affairs, Vol. II, No. 2 (Winter 1948), 2 1 6 . “ Magill, Walter H., “Wartime Training and Post War Education,11 Educational. Outlook, XIX (March 1945), 137-41.. Williams, Kenneth R., and Alder M. Jenkins, “improving In­ struction in Institutions of Higher Learning,” The Eduoational Record, XXIX (April 1948), 146. .‘

B.

PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

Chamblis, M.M., Opinions on Gains for American Education from War-time Armed Services Training. Washington, £).C.s American Council on Education, 1946. pp. 79. "Education in the Armed Forces," National Education Associa­ tion, Department of Supervision and Curriculum Develop­ ment, Washington: National Education Association, 1946. pp. 64. First Report of the Board of Visitors. Maxwell Field, Alabama: ~Tir University Press, 1946. pp. 79. Goodman, Samuel M . , Curriculum Implications of Armed Services Educational Programs. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1947. PP. 101. Grace, Alonzo G., “The General Report of the American Council on Education Commission on Implications of Armed Forces Educational Programs,“ Educational Lessons from Wartime Training. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Educa­ tion, 1948. pp. 254.

89 "Group Processes in Supervision," National Education Associa­ tion for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Washington, D.C.1 National Education Association, 194d. p p . 1 3 0 .

G.

AIH FORCE PUBLICATIONS

Air Force Letter 50-18, "Specialized Training of USAF Person­ nel a t .Civilian Educational Institutions." Washington, D.C.: Headquarters U.S. Air.Force, 29 April,. 1948. p. 1. Air Force Letter 50-21, "Graduate Training of AAF Officers, in Civilian Educational.Institutions.11 Washington, D.C.: Headquarters U.S. Air Force, 6 August, 1947. pp. ,3 . Air Force Letter 50-71* "Undergraduate College Education in Civilian Institutions for Air Corps Officers, Regular Army.” Washington, D.C.: Headquarters U.S. Air Force, 24 September, 1947. p p . ,4. Air Force Letter 53-4, "Academic Instructor Course." Washing­ ton, D.C.: Headquarters U.S.,Air Force, 22 September, 1948. pp. 2. Air Force Regulation 23-3* "Organization df Air University." Washington, D.C.: Headquarters U.S. Air Force, 4 April, 1949. P. 1.Air University Regulation 11-10, "Screening and Distribution of Outstanding Research Papers and Curriculum Studies." Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Headquarters Air University, 25 March, 1949. pp. 2. Air University Regulation 11-11, "Procurement of Consultant, Technical and Professional Experts, and Special Lecturers." Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Headquarters Air University, 11 August, 1948. pp. 2. Air University Regulation 20-10, "USAF Special Staff School." Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.:. Headquarters Air University, 22 October, 1948. p. 1. Air University Regulation 53-2, "Grading, Academic Records and Reports." Maxwell Air Force.Base, Ala.: Headquarters Air University, 22 December, 1948,. p p .. 4.

90 Air University Regulation 53-3* “Cross Monitoring of Instruc­ tion, “ Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Headquarters Air University, 10 August, 19^9. P • 1. Air University Regulation 53-5* “Education.tt Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Headquarters Air University, 1 February, 1949. PP. 3. Air University Regulation 53-12, “Completion of Academic In­ structor Course.” Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Head­ quarters Air University, 3 December, 19^8. p. 1, .

D.

USAF SPECIAL STAFF SCHOOL PUBLICATIONS

Academic Instructor Course Master Schedule, Craig Air Force Base, Ala.: Air University USAF Special Staff School, October, 19^9. PP. 7. Advisory-Tutorial System. Craig Air Force Base, Ala.: Air University USAF Special Staff School, July, 19^9.. P.. 1. A Statement Concerning the Educational Philosophy of the In­ structor^ Training Division USAF Special Staff SchooT, as Applied to Training of Classroom Instructors. Craig Air Force Base, Ala.: Air University.USAF Special Staff School, July, 19^9. p. 1. Curriculum for Academic Instructor Course. Craig Air Force Base, Ala.: Air University USAF Special Staff School, July, 19^9. p. 1.

E.

U.S. WAR DEPARTMENT PUBLICATIONS

War Department Army Ordnance School, Training Standards Branch, Chalk Talk. Aberdeen, Md.: Army Ordnanee School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 19^4. pp. 7. War Department. How to Use Visual Aids. Aberdeen, Md.: Army Ordnance. School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 19^5. PP. 18.

War Department Technical Manual 21-250, Army Instruction. Washington,.D.C.: Government Printing Office, September,

^.

19 3

pp.227.

P.

U.S. WAR DEPARTMENT TRAINING FILM

War Department, Military Training. War Department Training Film TF 7-295> lbmmsound film. Available from Chief Signal .Officer at the Headquarters of the respective Service Commands, United States Army.

G.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

Myers, Eugene E., and John C. Peterson, “How the USAF Pro­ vides Teacher Preparation for its University Instructors with Implication of this Program for Higher Education.” Unpublished study, The Air University., Craig Air Force. Base, Ala., July, 19^9. PP. 37. Orleans, Jacob S., ”A Report to the Commanding General, Air University of an Educational Survey of the Air Command and Staff School.? Unpublished survey, Air University Human Resources Research Institute, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., September 1, 19^9. PP. 179. Peatman, John Gray, “The USAF Trains its University Instruc­ tors How to Teach.” Unpublished paper read before the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Denver, Colorado, September,2, 19^9.

A P P E N D I X E S

92

APPENDIX "A" ORGANIZATION CHART OF AIR UNIVERSITY

AIR

U N IV E R S IT Y

COMMANDING AIR

GENERAL

UNIV E R S ITY

DE P UTY COMMANDING GENERAL

(EDUCATION)

( M A X W E L L AFB) (MAXWELL AFB)

(CRAIG AFB)

(RANDOLPH

AFB)

9^

APPENDIX "B" ORGANIZATION CHART ACADEMIC INSTRUCTOR DIVISION

ACADEM IC INSTRUCTOR D IV IS IO N O R G A N IZ A T IO N

CHART CHIEF C IV ILIA N

D IVISIO N DIRECTOR ASST D IR E C TO R C H IE F G R A D IN G PROCEDURES S E C T IO N

CH I EF R E A D IN G L A B

ASS ISTA N T

ASS ISTANT G RAD IN G O

CH I EF ADMINISTRATION

C AF PERSONNEL

AIRM A N OR CIV CLERK

A IR M EN

CHIEF

CLERK

A IR M E N

SERVIC ES O FFICER

AI R M E N

CONSULTANT C O N SU LTAN T

CH I EF I N S T R U C T IO N 6* T N G SEC

CH IEF R E S E A R C H &i DEVELOPMENT SECTION

A S S T PLANS O (GENERAL)

A S S T CHIEF I N S T R S. T N G S E C TIO N

A S ST RE SE AR C H &l D E V E L O P M E N T O FFI CER

O (EDUC PSVCHOLOGV)

AS ST RESEARCH Si D E V E L O P M E N T O F F IC E R

A S S T PLANS O ( C O M M U N S K IL L S )

O

A S S T PLANS O ( EDU C P R I N C I P L E S 8. M E T H O D S ) A S ST PLANS O (EDUC PSVCHOLOGV) LINE

OF C O M M A N D OBSERVATION

&

GUIDANCE

CONSULTANT

C H IE F EDUCATIONAL PLAN S S E C TIO N

ASST PLANS (E V A L )

PROFESSIONAL

CONSULTANT

ASST I S T O (GENERAL)

ASST I S*T O (C O M M U N S K ILLS)

ASST I 6» T O ( EVAL)

A S S T I S»T O (EOUC P R I N C I P L E S 6*. M E T H O D S )

T R A I N ING AIDS O

A I R M E N

aiH SEPT 1949

6J o vo

96

APPENDIX "C" BOARD OP VISITORS TO AIR UNIVERSITY 1949-50

97 BOARD OF VISITORS TO AIR UNIVERSITY

I949.I95O Dr. Raymond B. Allen, President University of Washington Dr. William S. Carlson, President University of Delaware Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, President California Institute of Technology Dr. William Y. Elliott Head of Department of Geography Harvard University Dr. Willard E. Givens Executive Secretary National Education Association Dr. Frederick L. Hovde, President Purdue University. Dr. James R. Killian, President Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dr. Harry S. Rogers, President Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute Dr. Carl Sauer, Geographer University of California Dr. Francis T. Spaulding, President University of the State of New York and Commissioner of Education Dr. Robert L. Stearns, President (Chairman) University of Colorado Dr. George F. Zook, President American Council on Education

98

APPENDIX "D" ACADEMIC INSTRUCTOR COURSE MASTER SCHEDULE

JTRSFWSEK

Tuesday, 1 Hotember 19^9

Monday, 31 October 19^9 0800

welcome by Comdt & Div Director

0#U0

Policies, Procedures & Facilities

0330

Educational & Trng Program of tne USAF

1030

Objectives of a

1055

VIP Briefing

II3O

Public

Speech (Lecture Hr I)(23— 6l)

Speaking (Introductory Talk)(23-6l)

1330

Public

Speaking (Lecture Hr Il)(23~6l)

1*430

Public

Speaking (Lecture Kr IIl)(23-6l)

1530

Vocabulary Inventory

0820

Public Sneaking (lecture Kr IV)(2 ^— 6 1 )

0930

Public Speaking (Verbal Precision Te.lk)( 23- 6 1 )

1030

Public Speaking (Verbal Precision Talk)(23- 6l )

1130

Public Speaking (Verbal Precision Talk)(23-61)

1330

How to Listen Efficiently (23-55)

1*430

Use of library Facilities in Reference and Research (23- 6 )

1530

Briefing of Plying Personnel

Wednesday, 2 November 19*49

Thursday, 3 November 19*49

0820

Public Speaking (Imoromptu Talk(23~ 6l )

Requisites of a Highly Public Speaking (23-6 1 ) Competent Instructor (23-?) (Extemporaneous Talk)

Uses of Evaluation (23- 6 2 )

0930

Public Speaking (23-6 1 ) (impromptu Talk)

Reouisites of a Highly Public Speaking Competent Instructor (2 3—7) (Extemporaneous

Educational Psychology

1030

Public Speaking (23- 61) (Impromptu Talk)

Reading Proficiency ( 23- k j )

Preface to Professional Ethics

Criteria for Determining Instructional Method(23~9)

1130

Tutorial Period

Lesson Plans (23-2 0 )

Public Speaking (23- 61) (Extemporaneous Talk)

Criteria for Determining Instructional Method(23-9)

1330

Instructional Aids & Instructional Aids & Their Use(23-13)(Lecture) Their Use(23-1 3 )(lab)

Reading Proficiency

Reading Proficiency

(23-1+7)

(25-1+7)

Instructional Aids & Their Use(23- 1 3 ) (Lab)

Reading Proficiency

Reading Proficiency

(23-U7)

(23-U7)

1^30 1530

Instructional Aids & Their U Se(23-13)(Lab)

Instructional Aids & Their Use(2>13)(Lab)

Friday, *4 November 19*49

(23-6l) Talk)

Saturday, 5 November 19*49

(23-U)

AIR u u i v m s m U 5AF SPECIAL STAFF SCr.GOL ACADUi.IC IFSTRUCTCR DIVISION Craig Air Force Base Alabama

CLASS &-^9 ACAD3MIC IIIST .IUCT0R COURS3 MASTER S :E.IDUL3 31 October - 9 December 19^-9

SBCQIID V i Monday,

Tuesday, 8 November 19*49

7 November 19*+9

0820

Prin & Characteristics of Learning (23-19)

The Lecture

Method (P. T. I) (23-71)‘

0930

Prin & Characteristics of Learning (23-I9 )

The Lecture

Method (P, T. 1)(23-71)

1030

Objective Tests (23-6*4)

The Lecture

Method

1130

Effective written Communication (23-2*4)

The Socialized Recitation (23- 7 2 )(Lecture)(P.

I33O

Beading Proficiency (23~*47)/Interviews

Reading Proficiency (23-*47)

1U3O

Reading Prof iciency (23-*47)/3-n tervicws

Reading Proficiency (23-*47)

Wednesday,

(P.T. I)(23-71)

Thursday, 10 Hoveniber 19*49

9 November 19*49

0820

The Lecture Method (P. T. I)(2>7l)

The Lecture

Method (P. T. l)(23-7l)

0930

The Lecture Method (P. T. I)(23~7l)

The Lecture

Method (P. T. l)(23~7l)

1030

The Lecture Method

(P. T. l)(23~7l)

The Lecture

Method (P. T. l)(23-7l)

1130

Tutorial Period

The Lecture

Method (P. T. l)(23~7l)

1330

Plying/Reading Proficiency

1*430

Plying/Reading Proficiency (23-*47)

(23~*47)

Reading Proficiency (23~*47) Reading Proficiency (23-*47)

- 2

THIRD .nSEK Tuesday, 15 hovem'ber 19^9

Monday, lh November 19^9 0820

Effective 'Written Communication (23-2U)

Philosophy of Education (23— 3)

0930

Objective Tests (23-6^)(Lai))

Use of the Question in Teaching (23— 2 3 )

1030

Objective Tests (23-64)(Lab)

Effective Written Communication (23— 2U)

1130

Objective Tests (23-6U)(lab)

The Conference hethod (Lecture Hr. l)(23-73)

1330

Reading Proficiency (23-^7)

Reading Proficiency (23-^7)

1430

Reading Proficiency (23-^7 )

Reading Proficiency (23-^7 )

• • Wednesday, l6 November 19^9

Thursday, 17 November 19^9

Priday, 18 November 19^-9

0820

The Socialized Recitation liethod (23-72)(P. T. II) '

The Socialized Recitation Method (23— 72)(P. T. II)

The Socialized Recitation Method (23-72)tP. T, II)

O93O

The Socialized Recitation Method (23-72)(P. T. II)

The Socialized Recitation Method (23-72)(P. T. II)

The Socialized.Recitation Method (23-72)(P. T. IT)

1030

The Socialized Recitation Method (23-72)(P. T. II)

The Socialized Recitation Method (23-72X?. T. II)

The Socialized Recitation Method (23-72)(P. T, II)

1130

The Conference hethod (23-73)(Lscture Hr II)

Tutorial Period

The Socialized Recitation Method (27-72)(P. T* II)

1330

Plying/Reading Proficiency

Reading Proficisncy and Interviews with idvisers



(23-^7) 1^30

Plying/Reading Proficiency

(23-^7)

Reading Proficiency and Interviews with advisers

-

3

-





FOURTH vJEHK Tuesday, 22 November 19^9

Monday, 21 November 19^9 0820

The Conference Method(23-73)(Lecture Kr III)

The Conference Method (23~73)(F- T. IIP)

0930

The Conference Method (23~73)(F. T.

Ill)

The Conference Method (23—73)(P* T. Ill)

IO3O

The Conference Method (23-73)(T>. T.

Ill)

The Conference Method (23-73)(P- T.-III)

1130

The Conference Method (23-73)(TM T.

Ill)

The Performance Method (23-7^)(Pecture)

I33O

Reading Proficiency (23— M7 )

Reading Proficiency (23—^7 )

1U3O

Reading Proficiency (23-^7 )

Reading Proficiency (23-V?)

Wednesday, 23 Rovemher 19U9 0820

The

Conference Method (23~ 7 3)(P.

T. Ill)

O93O

The

Conference Method- ( 2 J ~ J ^ ) ( P .

T. Ill)

IO3 O

The

Conference Method (23~73)(P*

T. Ill)

1130

The

Conference Method (23-73)(P.

T. Ill)

1330

Flying/Reading Proficiency (23-U7 )

IU3O

Flying/Reading Proficiency (23-^7 )

■ FIFTH -.flagg

Tuesday, 29 November 19H9

Monday, 28 dovem'ber 19^-9 0820

Grading Procedures (23- 6 3 )

The Performance Method (23- 7^)(P*

T. IV)

0930

Grading Procedures (23-6 3 )

The Performance Method (23—7^0 (F*

T. IV)

1030

Reading Proficiency (Guest Speaker)

The Performance Method (23— 7*i0(P«

T. IV)

1130

Supervision of Instruction (23-53)

The Performance Method (23— 7^)(P«

T. IV)

1330

Reading Proficiency(23-^7) and Interviews with advisers

Reading Proficiency (23-^7)

1U3O

Reading Proficiency (23-^7) and Interviews with advisers

Reading Proficiency (23-^7 )

Wednesday, 30 November 19^9

Thursday, 1 B;ceiat>cr 1S49

Friday, 2 Secem'ber 19^-9

0820

The Performance Method (23-7U)(P. T. IV)

The Performance Method

Curriculum Planning (23-51 )(lj0-'b)

The Performance iiethod

The Performance Method (23-7U)(P. T. IV)

093G

(23-74)(P. T. IT) 1030

, .

The Performance Method

(23-74)(P. T. IT) Curriculum" Planning (23—51)(Rad)

)(Conf)

Curr iculum Planning (2 3-51) (lah)

Curriculum Planning (23-51)(Conf)

Curriculum Planning (23-5l)(lal>)

Curriculum Planning (23—

(2 3 -71+)(P. T. IT) 1130

The Performance Method

(23-74)(P. T. IT) 1330

Flying/Reading Prof iciency(23-^7)-Gvaluat ion Test (23-6U)

1^30

Flying/Reading Proficiency(23~^7 )Hvaluation Test Critique

-

5

-

SIXTH VffiSK

Monday, 5 December I9U9

Tuesday, 6 Decem'ber 19*+9

0820

Curriculum Planning (23“ 5l)(l