A description and evaluation of the training program for selected senior girl scouts at a girl scout camp

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A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Social Work The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Social Work

by Barbara Field Hallman June 1950

UMI Number: EP66343

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Dissertation PiuMsJing

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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the ca n d id a te ’s F a c u lt y

C o m m itte e a n d a p p ro v e d

by a l l its m em bers, has been p resen ted to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the G ra d u a te S c h o o l o f S o c ia l W o r k in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the re ­ q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f


D ean


Thesis of.

Barbara Field Hallman

Faculty Committee

& C hairm an

Q ~ /\





Importance of the study. . • • . • • • • • • •


Scope and method Definitions of certain terms peculiar to . camping and the Girl Scout organization. . •




History of the training program at Camp Sugar Pine


Who are the trainees?

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Selection of trainees. • • • • • • • III.






The particular camp setting. . . * • • • • • •


Agency objectives


• • • • • . • • • • • • • •

The process and methods of the training pro­ gram • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


IV. RESULTS OF THE TRAINING.......................


The living arrangements. • • • • • • • • • • .


The learnings from the formal training program


The learnings from assignments to activities groups


The learnings from assignment to caper groups.




PAGE Learnings from working with unit groups . . . .


Signs of integrated .learning................


Highlights of the training. • • • • • • • • • •


The feeling of preparedness for the next step in the experience...................... Objectives................................... V.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .



^9 55

Living in a group a p a r t ............. • • • • •


Where learnings arise



Feeling of readiness for counselor responsi­ bility..................................... Other objectives.


BIBLIOGRAPHY........ .................................

59 60 63


Interview Schedules................. .


Application for Camp Sugar Pine Program


Aide or Apprentice...........



Reference Form



Suggested Outline for Apprentice Coun­ selor Course

. . . . . . . . . . . .

• • • • • • • • . • • • •


Suggestions for Staff Training, 19^9• .


Investiture of Counselors-in-Training, 19^9.................................

77 8b




Although organized camping for children and youth has been going on for a number of years, many changes in standards and philosophy have taken place, but relatively little has been written on leadership training for older campers.


history we learn that: Organized summer camping began as •welfare* work, and then, with our progressive enlighten­ ment as to its potentialities, camping blossomed forth successively as recreation, as education, and as group work,1 It has retained elements of all these disciplines, and even today the American Camping Association membership is made up of educators, recreation workers and group workers who gather to discuss the problems of camping. In 1938 the American Camping Association made the statement: The problem of camp personnel stood at the top of the list when the problems uncovered • , , were examined. This was to have been expected. Camps are essentially educational enterprises. Leadership is the heart of the whole matter,2

1 Louis H, Blumenthal, “Group Work in Camping, Yester­ day, Today and Tomorrow, “ 4 Decade of Group Work (New York: Association Press, 19^ 8$, p. 9* 2

(New York:

Report of the Studies and Research Committee American Camping Association, 1938), p, 10. 1

2 Tills is reiterated ten years later when Louis H. Blumenthal states:

”The final group work condition— trained

leadership— on which all else rests, represents the number one 3 problem in camping.11 As long ago as 1935? Charles Hendry suggests in a description of an ideal camp counselor: scarce.

"Such persons are

Camps may have to grow them,*1 and in 1939 Hedley

Dimock goes as far as to suggest a way of ”growing them1*: . . . a well-planned eounselor-in-training pro­ gram for selected older campers who possess the qualifications of prospective counselors has^ large value for a limited number of persons.7 The Girl Scouts of the United States of America are in the process of developing a plan for the training of selected older campers.

The National Organization has pub­

lished a four-page mimeographed statement entitled, ,fProgram


Aides for Camping— All Types.”

Although information about

this program is gathered in the national office with the camp reports from all local communities, the Senior Scout Advisor

3 Blumenthal, o p . cit., pp. 1**-15. k Charles E. Hendry, ,fLong Term Private Camp,*1 Character Education in the Summer Camp (New York: Association Press, 193^, P. *6. ' Hedley S. Dimock, “Developing an Adequate Program for Older Campers,** Some Frontiers in Camping (New York: Associa­ tion Press, 1939), p. 20. 6 uprogram Aides for Camping— All Types,” Camp Cues (March 19*+9), pp. 2-5*

3 of the National Program Department says of it in a letter to the writer:

“This seems to be very elusive material since

there has been no compilation of reports from local councils on Program Aide Training.11 Three articles in Camping Magazine deal with the Girl 7 Scout program. One explains the national plan, and two show 8 very different experiments on the local level. These latter were made previous to the publication of the National plan. To summarize, leadership is of prime importance to the camping program, and the securing of adequate leadership is recognized by the American Camping Association as one of its major problems.

One suggestion has been to “grow your own

leadership*1 through an in-camp training program for older campers.

The Girl Scouts of the U* S. A. are experimenting

with such a plan in various ones of their local units. The San Francisco Girl Scout Council in their Camp Sugar Pine was one of the first local organizations to pioneer in_ such a training program.

As early as 1939, ten

San Francisco girls started their first training at the new established eamp site.

Yearly reports were made to the


Margarite Hall. “A Service Program for Older Campers,** Camning Magazine. XVII (June, 19^5), 9, 10, 25, 26. ® Madeline S. Murphy, “How We Develop Leadership Through Our *C-I-T* Program,** Camping Magazine, XVIII (January, 19^),


Ida M. Smith, “Today*s C-T*s— -Tomorrow's Counselors,1* Camping Magazine. XIX (February, 19^7), 21+-25.

National Organization as to the progress or the program, and yearly improvements have been made from suggestions of the trainees, the staff, and the camp committee who carefully evaluated th*e p^^ocess . II.


The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate a training program for older girls in 19^9 at one Girl Scout camp.

The results are based on the opinions of the groups

and individuals who were directly involved. The camp selected was* the San. Francisco Girl Scout camp in the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in Calaveras County, serving registered members of the local organization. Selected campers between the ages of fifteen and one half and eighteen are given leadership training in a three-year prepara­ tion to become camp counselors.

The agency hoped through this

program to hold the interest of the older girls in continuing their camp experience, to prepare new staff members, and to insure some continuity on the summer staff. The writer discussed with the girls at a meeting held in the Spring of 19^9 ? what they as a group hoped to gain from the experience.

Before camp was two days old, each

trainee was Interviewed as to what her personal objectives for the summer experience would be.

She was also given a

notebook and instructed to write as much or as little as she

5 chose about the experiences of the summer which were meaning­ ful.

She was urged to think about the day’s experiences at a

set time— such as just before retiring or during rest hour in the middle of the day.

She was also given a few concrete

examples of things about which she might write. The two adults who were most closely connected with the training experience of these girls— the unit head, and the agency executive who gave the first three weeks of the course— were also interviewed and asked to keep notebooks. They were instructed to observe and comment upon individual and group reactions to the training experience. The agency executive was the camp director for the first three weeks of the camping season, at which time she left and the writer assumed that position. At the end of three weeks, the middle of the six-week camping season, another group interview was held. At the end of the summer, a third group interview was held, individual interviews were held, and notebooks collected. All the girls who participated in the program for four weeks or more during the summer were chosen for this study. This included all counselors-in-training (the advanced group), and ten apprentice counselors (the second-year group).


apprentice counselor came for two weeks as an exception to the rule as it was necessary for her to work during the summer to be able to continue school.

She was not included

in this study.

The program aides (the youngest group) were

not a part of this study as they stayed for only a two-week period and have no training course, but are assigned to help in a given activity and on a given job. III.


Much of the material in later chapters will be com­ prised of direct quotations, hence, a definition of certain terms will clarify the reading. Canm committee.

A sub-committee of the board of

directors responsible for the camping program.

This group

not only assumes the policy-making function in line with the local and national organizations, but actually does a great deal of the administrative work, such as interviewing prospec­ tive staff, ordering supplies, and letting contracts. Leader,, counselorT staff.

Terms used interchangeably

to denote the adults in the camp situation.

Although “leader*1

is becoming a term meaning indigenous leadership within the group, it has long been used in camping circles with a prefix such as unit-leader, and caper-leader. Established camn.

“Girls from many troops come

together to live in an outdoor environment for a period of



time under the leadership of a resident staff.11 Camping period.

Because of the large number of girls

who wish to be accommodated, the camping season is broken up into periods of two weeks each.

Campers may stay for one

period only.

^ The Established Camp Book (New York: National Organization, 1 9 w ) , p. b .

Girl Scouts,



The training of apprentice counselors began in 1939, the year that Camp Sugar Pine opened.

Previous to that time,

the San Francisco Girl Scouts had two years of camping at a rented site.

There were several older girls in the program

who were not yet old enough to be counselors, but who showed promise of leadership.

They indicated an interest in return­

ing to camp if there were a training program. These girls were interviewed and selected to serve as apprentice counselors in 1939• A course was set up and conducted by the director. Trainees were assigned to assist with various activity groups in sharing their skills.

Several of the girls made good

progress, although there were some obvious mistakes in selec­ tion.

The plan was well accepted by the staff, and otherwise

seemed successful. At the end of the summer, the apprentice counselors were given a dinner and taken to the movies in Angels Camp, the nearest town of any size.

In discussing where they would

fit in the next year, it became apparent that while some could go directly on the staff, others would be too young. 8


9 agreed that they should be “second year A.P. *s.1,1 The next year, the “second year A . P ^ s 11 were not so interested in the formal training course*

Instead, they were

given the assignment of working in a unit or living group. They helped with records, hikes, campfires and other unit activities* This plan seemed to be a good one and was continued for two more years •

Each group of trainees was different, but in

most instances, a strong group feeling developed, and lasting friendships were made. together in the city*

The trainees often had parties The director and camp committee recog­

nized the potential leadership in such a group and invited the girls to one or two “party-meetings11 during the year* Program plans for camp were discussed and many suggestions were made by the trainees*

At one meeting they completely

changed the system of getting the many necessary jobs done by the campers*

They also suggested new program activities*

The camp committee decided to try a group of program aides for one year*

These girls were a year younger than the

apprentice counselors.

This proved to be a good way for

prospective apprentice counselors to see whether or not they would enjoy the program.


Girls who were not serious or who

Apprentice counselors.

1G were unsuited to camp leadership, often eliminated themselves. The following year, the name of the 11second year A.P. ,s,t was changed to counselor-in-training.

They attended regular

staff training, and. had supervision in their work in the living units. The plan grew and developed as the need for it arose. The agency executive, camp committee and trainees, themselves, helped in its evolution. II.


Trainees are campers who have chosen to and have been selected to participate in a program of preparing themselves for leadership in the camping situation.

Because of their

youth and emotional development, the camp committee feels that it is important for them to be campers in status with a unit of their own, where counselors can give guidance, and where

they can relax and have the fun of activities with

their associates. Program a:j.des must be at least fifteen and one-half years of age and have completed the first year of high school. They must have had a camping experience of at least one period with a good record of social adjustment, health and activities, and should have at least one camp skill which they can share with others.

Usually not more than four girls are accepted

for each camping period.

This group of girls will not be

11 Included in this study, because of the limited period of their stay, and because they have no formal training. The requirements for apprentice counselors are higher. They must be sixteen and one-half years of age and have com­ pleted the second year of high school.

Preference is given

to campers who have given satisfactory service as program aides.

They, too, must have a skill to share.

Usually not

more than eight girls, are accepted for the six weeks summer season, as supervision of more than this number is not feasi­ ble with the present staff and living arrangements. Counselors-in-training must be seventeen and one-half years of age and must have completed their third year of high school.

In addition, they must have given satisfactory ser­

vice as an apprentice counselor and be potential counselor material. developed.

The girls1 skills are expected to be more highly Usually not more than four are accepted for the

summer season, because only four unit assignments are avail­ able. III.


The selection of trainees goes on each summer on an informal basis.

Counselors often recommend girls who show

2 information secured from an interview with Ida M. Smith, Executive Director, San Francisco Girl Scout Council, Inc.

12 signs of leadership, and speak to these girls about the train­ ing program, urging them to develop skills in activities and in working with people*

Girls who represent their units in

camp council meetings are often the indigenous leaders of the group and these girls are urged to consider the training program*

On two occasions, the trainees made comments in

their notebooks about girls with whom they had been working who showed signs of leadership*

Scholarships are often given

for several years in succession to girls who show promise of leadership ability and who are interested in the program. The choice is made, on the other hand, by the campers as they progress from unit to unit in their camping experience and become aware of the trainingprogram and the older campers who are involved in it. The year before a camper is eligible to apply to become a program aide, a meeting is held for might be interested in applying*

those who think

Themeeting is held near the

end of each camping period, and the program and application procedure are explained in detail at this time*

The unit

leader of the oldest (Woodsmen) unit submits a list of girls who are interested and indicates what abilities they have shown in the unit activities* Interviews are held by the camp director beginning in 3 February of each year. An application form is filled out 3 See Appendix, p* 70*


13 and submitted prior to this time, and the people whose names have been submitted as references are asked to make recom­ mendations*

Records of the girls’ previous camping experi­

ence are reviewed.

The camper’s previous camping experience

and adjustment are discussed in this interview as well as the skills that she can contribute to the camping program* A small committee composed of the camp director, one

or two members of the camp committee, and the unit leader of the training unit review the applications* In selecting program aides, consideration is given to most applicants who show some maturity, a willingness to co-operate and are generally able to camp*

If they have no

particular skill to share, they are given the opportunity to try to develop one during their two weeks at camp. The apprentice counselors are selected with more care* They must show evidence of leadership, have ability to face their shortcomings and must have developed some skill in teaching.

Sometimes girls are asked to repeat their program

aide year if they do not show sufficient maturity. Since counselors-in-training will become counselors, particular consideration is given to their applications. They have been helped and observed through one or two previ­ ous years of training and are well aware, by this time, of their own progress and ability.

After the committee has made its selection, the girls are notified by mail#

Usually some indication has been given

in the interview as to whether or not the applicant will be accepted#



Camp Sugar Pine is located one hundred and sixty-three miles east of San Francisco in the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in Calaveras County#

It serves three hundred and sixty *

registered members of the San Francisco Girl Scout Council, Inc#, each season.

The ages of the campers range from ten to

eighteen years# Upon arrival at camp, campers are assigned to one of five living groups or units of from twenty-five to thirty in each group#

The assignments are made primarily on the basis

of the campers* age, school grade, and previous camping experi­ ence# The main objective in placing a girl in a unit is to find for her a group with which she can work and play happily and with a kind of equality that will give each a chance at selfexpression#^Each unit has its own name#

For purposes of clarifica­

tion of later reading they are— youngest to oldest;


Frogs, Rainbow Trout, Gold Nuggets, Woodsmen, and Malpaso Hill (for trainees) # As the camp is located in the Mother

^ The Established Camp Book (New York: National Organization, 19^), p. 5#


Girl Scouts,

16 Lode country near old mining and current logging industries, camp names are derived largely from the surrounding community. Each living group or unit , is under the supervision of a unit leader whose primary responsibility is to see that the campers are as happy and as well adjusted as possible.


units plan program activities according to their needs and wishes, being restricted only in matters concerning health 2 and safety. Plans must be cleared with the program director if the activity involves the use of community equipment, food from the kitchen, or services of staff members not connected with the unit • Within the units, small groups of from three to seven girls select a site on which to make their beds, and construct facilities for storing and hanging clothing and other personal equipment.

Because there is no appreciable summer rainfall,

tents or cabins are not provided.

These small groups are

known as nests. A tentative daily schedule is made out for the first

few days of camp while nests are being built and unit represen­ tatives chosen to the central planning body, known as the camp council.

This planning group includes two representatives

from each unit, the unit leaders, the camp program director


Standards as set down in Established Gamp Standards for Girl Scouts (New York: Girl Scouts, 19*+7), 32 pp.

17 and the camp director.

Unit plans are cleared at these meet­

ings, the daily schedule changed or retained and usually some all-camp activities scheduled, for which the camp council may assume some planning responsibility. During two hours of the morning, various extra-unit program activities are available for those units who wish to take advantage of them.

These activity groups may consist

of girls of any age or unit or even nest group.

These are

known as activity or club groups. In addition to the above groupings, Camp Sugar Pine has a system of dividing the daily work that must be done, such as table setting and dish washing, so that each individ­ ual has a small share each day.

Groups made up of one or two

campers from each unit and two leaders rotate on the jobs, but remain as a group throughout the two week camping period. These jobs and the group that does them are known as capers. Girls from the training unit as well as counselors are used as caper leaders and assistant leaders. There are, then, six types of camp groups of different composition formed for different purposes, to which campers belong.

These groups remain more or less stable for a two

weeks* camping period.

They are, to enumerate again:


total camp group, the unit group, the nest group, the caper group, the club or activities group, and the camp council. These different groupings give the campers an opportunity to

18 play different roles and adjust on different relationship levels*

Blumenthal comments:

Because of its small and varied groupings, because of its supplementary individual approach, because it can. also relate the camper to the larger camp group with its greater variety of experiences and persons, camp possesses those means, which, when implemented by wise leadership, make it a significant educational ageney*^ The trainees have an opportunity to work directly with, or observe each of these groupings* II.


The agency objectives for the training program formu­ lated by the agency executive and camp committee are fivefold: 1. To prepare new staff members. 2. To insure continuity on the staff. 3* To help older campers to grow more easily into adulthood. . To give girls training for and opportunity to be of real service. h 5* To carry on the ideals of Girl Scouting. The question has often been asked as this thesis has been discussed, if the staff does not become ingrown and dominated by young counselors who perpetuate old outgrown traditions. During the summer of 19^9 the staff of forty-three, exclusive of administrative and custodial help, was composed

3 Louis H. Blumenthal, Group Work in Camping (New York: Association Press, 1937)» P* 39* ** San Francisco Girl Scouts, "Suggested Outline for Apprentice Counselor Course,11 (unpublished), p* 1. See Appendix, p. 7 7 *

19 of seventeen former trainees*

In addition, twelve college

girls were on the staff representing at least five different colleges or universities, and fourteen of the staff were leaders of Girl Scout troops or committee members from the on-going agency program* III.


The method of the training program is to offer the trainees as complete a supervised experience as possible in learning to be camp counselors, with the theory commensurate with the actual practice.

The trainees live together in a

unit of their own, with a unit leader, who is thoroughly familiar with the training program and who watches and helps the development of the individual girl in an effort to help her reach her full potential as an individual and as a pros­ pective camp counselor.

Harleigh B. Treeker says;


method we call social group work is operating to its fullest extent when it makes for the release of individual capacities and the growth of well-balanced personalities•" The apprentice counselors, or second-year group of trainees, have their own training course which meets three

Harleigh B. Treeker, Social.Group Work, Principles and Practices (New York: Women's Press, 19W ) , p* 13*

20 times a week for one hour at each session*

Previous to their

arrival at camp, they meet in the city, and with the agency executive draw up a list of the subject matter they would like to cover during the course of the training period*



of presentation of subject matter include lectures, book reports, discussions and the use of role playing* There is an arbitrary assignment of the individuals in this group to a caper*

In some instances this is as the

caper leader, but more often as an assistant to a new coun­ selor who is not so familiar with the camp as her assistant* In the application interview with the agency executive, each prospective apprentice counselor discusses her skills in the areas of the proposed club or activities groups and she indicates a preference and a second and third choice in groups where she feels competent to assist.

At the last group meet­

ing of all the trainees before their arrival at camp, the agency executive reads their individual assignments, a differ­ ent one, in most cases, for each of the three two-week camp periods*

There is an adjustment at this time in these assign­

ments to everyone*s satisfaction. Once each period, the apprentice counselors take charge of unit campfires while counselors attend staff meeting.


or three apprentice counselors plan and execute the project

See Appendix, p.


21 with much planning and. great care*

The trainees rotate

their experiences— working with a different unit each period. Plans and the evaluation of these campfire experiences are discussed in training meetings, as are all the other phases of their training assignments. During the fifth week of their training in 19*4-9> the apprentice counselors asked to have the opportunity of taking over the operation of the camp for a day.

There was too much

preparation necessary for this in the limited time span, but staff, campers and the director agreed that it could be worked out for the afternoon and evening.

The camp director, cooks

and kitchen help, maintenance man, nurse and waterfront direc­ tor were asked to stay on their regular jobs as a matter of health and safety.

The rest of the staff left camp.

The counselors-in-training group, or third-year trainees, attend regular staff meetings.

The training plan here is less

formal than the apprentice counselor course and develops more from the expressed needs of the counselors and counselors-intraining. Assignment is also made to assist in one unit during the summer.

This assignment is to be on call of the unit

leader for special unit activities.

Sometimes this is to

work with unit committees, to assist on hikes, or when the campers are cooking their own meals in their unit or away from camp.

Sometimes it involves working with a nest group

22 or helping with singing or a play for campfire. In addition to help, which is available from the unit leader or two other unit counselors, the trainees have a supervisory conference with the camp director at the end of three weeks.

They are also free to make appointments with

her at other times if they wish to talk over any problems or experiences.

CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE TRAINING The results of the training program are measured in terms of the opinions of those most closely involved: the apprentice counselors, the eounselors-in-training, the unit leader, and the camp director who gave the course*


quotations are used directly from the notebooks kept by the girls and leaders, showing the range of reactions*

Most of

the comments were written hurriedly and notebooks were collected before there was time to reread to correct mistakes of spelling, grammar, and punctuation*

The writer has taken

the liberty of making these corrections without changing sentence form or wording*

The names of the girls are changed

in this thesis by agreement in order that the trainees would write and express themselves more freely.

No credit is given,

therefore, in footnotes for quotations taken from their note­ books ♦ As the training experience is evaluated, it is well to remember that it is made up of a formal training class, assignment to help in an activity, a caper group and a unit group*

These various experiences are integrated through the

training and in informal discussions in the living group* The unit leader is therefore a very important part of the program as the trainees often come to her with their problems* 23




It is possible to provide a separate living unit for the trainees#

As the training program grew, from 1939 to

19^9 > this separation from the other campers came as a sugges­ tion from the girls themselves, and they participated actively in raising money and making plans for the new site. The camp committee watched with interest the reactions of the girls, living in their own separate unit. The unit leader comments on the arrival of the girls in the unit on the first day of camp in 19^9 when this study was made: Spoke to whole group to outline general ways of living on Malpaso Hill. Told girls: Living very informal— do things when convenient to themselves remembering, however, consideration of others No rules except the general camp rules regarding health and safety Counselors in the capacity of observers, but always available for advice and help— Encouraged them to try to work out own problems, but not to stay with them too long— come for a word of suggestion1, Sylvia comments on the difference in the unit atmos­ phere when other campers were invited to come up:

Isabelle Hauser, Notebook (unpublished), p. 1

25 n

The Woodsmen came, up to our campfire to discuss plans for change day and I noticed how different it was on the Hill with another unit up here. We couldn*t just do anything we wanted to, but had to stand on ceremony. The final group interview brought a consensus that the unit for trainees alone was a good plan.

It was mentioned

that it was a place to “let off on problems, 11 “no one is push­ ing you,11 there is no set program, you can go to bed early or late, and that it must help the Woodsmen to “get rid of us*1 so that they will have an opportunity to develop their own leadership. In the final interview, the unit leader said that the counselors-in-training did not feel guilty about not being present in the unit for unit activities, and when they did come back, often asked to stay up and discuss what had been happening in the unit in vhich they had been helping during the day.

This feeling is epitomized in a song which the

apprentice counselors made up for an impromptu campfire entertainment near the end of the camping season.

The chorus

runs as follows: Home, home on the Hill, Where the P.A. fs and A.P.*s all play Where the work’s quickly done, And there* s much time for fun As the C.T.'s run in and out all day. The unit, therefore, is an important part of the training process, since it gives the girls a feeling of freedom and informality with an opportunity to discuss the

26 learning experience of the day with counselors who are a part of the program, II.


Apprentice counselors participate in a training course held on three days a week and lasting an hour each session, Counselors-in-training are invited to regular staff training held three days a week for an hour at each meeting.


attendance is not compulsory since the training comes at an hour when campers are usually in their units , washing clothes, making their beds, building the campfire, and straightening up for the day.

The new members of the staff are particularly

encouraged to come. Lois observes in her notebook that the discussion about democracy in staff training, had made her give consideration to this matters

“Everybody works in groups, with the campers

taking responsibility according to their ability.


respects both campers and counselors♦11 Both Lois and Val commented in their interviews that they felt it was a practical course, as the counselors brought their current problems to it to be discussed. The apprentice counselors had more of a variety of reactions to their formal training.

Beth says in her notebook;

“The training program gave me a lot of general material about standards and the running of the camp.“

27 From Ruth we learn: Although we have not, for the past few days followed our outlines, I think most of us have learned so much planning for the A.P. change day.*-^-* More about running a camp, etc. A third reaction from Gerrie was: A.P. training was interesting. Except for a few specific camp sections, it seemed as though I had heard most of it in school, but under a different light . . . those parts that were directly connected with camp, however, were very interesting. Each apprentice counselor is asked to read a book during the course of the training and report on it at one of * the training meetings.

111 learned a great deal,11 says Beth,

flabout neurosis from Our Inner Conflicts.

I also learned

some things from Understanding the Adolescent Girl.11 The group reaction was that some got more out of that particular assignment than others.

One member felt the book

reports were a **side line,11 and wished for more on the sub­ ject of camping. The unit leader says in her notebook:

11comments about

1being watched*.

Worry about being psychoanalyzed— *Those 3 Books * assigned to read in A.P. course. In the final conference with the unit leader, she


Details of„ this project are given under Section ¥11 of this chapter, p. *fl. 3 Hauser, c>p. cit., p. 6 .

28 elaborated more on this comment*

She felt that the assign­

ment of books came early, that it “knocked them for a loop but made them grow up in a hurry. ** Her suggestion was that there be more opportunity for them to talk over the material as they came to it, rather than waiting for their turn to report at the training meeting. their reactions as:

Ihe unit leader described

“feeling like specimens under a micro­

scope,tf and she felt that the group as a whole was troubled during a period of two or three days. At one meeting of the training course, the director introduced “role playing” in a discussion of different types of leaders.

She reports:

Introduced *role playing1 in discussion of different types of leaders. Gave brief outline of use of role playing, difference between socio and psycho drama, use of, etc. Discussed demo­ cratic, laissez-faire, and autocratic leadership. Asked for volunteers for socio-drama based on one type. [Nancy] volunteered to be leader and [Sylvia] camper. Wonderful role playing of auto­ cratic leader on plans for a hike. LSylvia] finally became frustrated and said she did not want to go on hike. [Ruth] volunteered to be different kind of camper with same leader. Ended by asking if there wasn*t something else she could carry on the hike (had been assigned large part of lunch and equipment.) Group very hilarious. Good discussion about what might have happened. Some thought [Sylvia] might eventually have taken over leadership if she wanted to go badly enough. Others thought no one would want to go on hike. All agreed group experience was negative. Next •role playing* was by entire group. [Ruth] asked if she might be leader. First sen­ tence ^ *Now girls, how would you like to go on a hike tomorrow?* showed by tone of voice and

29 attitude that she was ’laissez-faire1 leader. When girls showed interest at first and asked where they were going, she said it didn’t matter. They could go up the stream or maybe down. She didn’t care. They said, ’Let’s decide,1 but she thought tomorrow could take care of that. They asked what they could have to eat. She said probably anything but it seemed impossible to get any part of the menu decided. The result turned out to be about the same as in the first ’role playing.1 No one cared much about going. Lively discussion on what group might have done to assume leadership and arrive at plans.4* Thegroup, in the final interview, agreed that a lot from this particular meeting. in their final interviews. in working with girls.


Two girls mentioned it

Ruth comments that it helped her

Sylvia says in her notebooks


ing was very interesting this morning when we acted out the roles of different kinds of leaders and campers.” From the evidence of the notebooks and of the inter­ views the following points seem clears

(1) The staff course,

taken by the counselors-in-training, was felt to be practical. (2) The apprentice counselor course was interesting but there were some questions of content and of the assignment of books for reading. III.

(3) All enjoyed the experience of role playing.

THE LEARNINGS FROM ASSIGNMENTS TO ACTIVITIES GROUPS Campers are free to go to a variety of activity groups

or clubs for two hours in the morning.

Since campers have a

^ Ida M. Smith, Notebook (unpublished), pp. 12-16.

free choice of clubs, the activities include girls of a variety of ages.

Counselor s-in-training and apprentice

counselors as well as the younger program aides are assigned to one of these activities for a two-week period, or they may choose to assist the nurse or the counselor in the camp store instead.

They also help with such program activities

as the singing in the dining room after meals, and special camp parties.

The following comments are self-explanatory.

In observing the requests that children make for songs to sing, [Nancy says], I draw the follow­ ing conclusions: 1. Older groups like new and different songs and many of the old ones once in a while. 2. Younger groups request old songs that many other people are weary of. I think the younger ones ask for these songs again and again because they feel secure in doing something extremely well in a place where many other things are completely strange. This morning I had the chance to learn something very vital and to see another idea we had been taught put into action, [says Val] • The first thing I learned was never let a camper,-no matter how good a rider she may be, mount herself on a horse. X let an experienced rider mount by herself , although nothing happened, I saw how something serious could easily have happened. The thing that was put into action was this: two Jumping Progs wished to ride the same horse. I hoped they would draw straws or something similar to that, but since I didnft want to come right out and say it, I said, •Well, what do you think we should do about it? 1 They both looked very serious and then the smallest one said, ’Why, let's draw straws, and the longest one will get to ride the horse.*

31 This may seem like a very simple problem, but it certainly wasn’t to the two Frogs. And by letting them decide the choice for themselves they seemed both pleased and proud. Shirley observes: For one thing, I learned that in taking a club like the Hiding Club, that if you do not know a certain subject that the children must learn, that the children appreciate it if you, instead of saying ’I don’t know,1 and skipping it, sit down with them and learn the subject with them. Considering the older girls in my club, [says Ruth], who, I sometimes feel that because an A.P. or C»T. is so close to their age, don’t always respect our adviceJ If you give them more respon­ sibility as leaders, they work better and show their leadership" qualities to an advantage. We have a problem child in archery, [Eileen comments]. She needs a great deal of attention, and tries to attract it by staying near to [the leader] and me. I imagine that the best way to deal with it is to draw attention to her good shots, but try to ignore her constant presence. That should show her that people notice when she does something outstanding, but not just every time she breathes. Almost without exception, there were comments such as the foregoing_in each trainee’s notebook, showing that a variety of activities gave opportunity for learning experi­ ences about children’s reaction to the program, and insight into leadership, health and safety, and children’s behavior. IV.

THE LEARNINGS FROM ASSIGNMENT TO CAPER GROUPS The camp is divided into fourteen work or ’’caper”


These remain a group throughout a two-week camping

period, but every day the jobs change.

Girls of all ages

32 make up the group which also consists of two leaders,


latter are sometimes counselors-in-training, apprentice coun­ selors or program aides.

The trainees often act in the

capacity of assistant leader of the group, and frequently know more about techniques, developed over the past few years, of the most efficient organization for a particular job, than the adult leader.

This tends to put them in an

awkward position at times, and became one of the main points for discussion at one of the training meetings near the end of the season.

An unhappy comment on this situation comes

from Eileen who had not solved her dilemma: It seems that not all our leaders are perfect. On my caper, the girls have no respect for the leader because she herself knows so little about the jobs. Also, she shows no desire to learn* or do anything on the caper, I hardly know how to act, or exactly how much to take over. It's a rather precarious position. Maybe things will be better in a few days. Happily Eileen's problem does work out: Today, I suddenly realized how much our caper has improved in the past week. The leader seems to have taken a real interest and everything is going very much more smoothly. After describing a particularly successful caper, Lois writes:‘ They are full of life and do everything the caper leader directs and think itfs fun. It is fun because the girls all know each other and they even sing while they work. I never boss them but let all of them know before we start in just what has to be done and then assign differ­ ent jobs. I think that it is very important to the girls to know each other and to know the job that is being done.

33 Other Interesting comments are those of Hath and Sylvia respectively: Capers seem to go better if you gather around for a few last minute instructions and then assign each girl to a post* I helped a friend of mine on set and serve and noticed how yelling and bossing around does not help to get a caper done* The leader on this caper screamed at a little Jumping Frog who got the cereal a little mixed up. The child was all upset and bewildered but a little explanation and encourage­ ment was all she needed and then she was fine and did her job v e r y well* A questionable learning experience shows in Louise’s notebook: [Shirley] and I took over the caper and they were terrible. They were noisy, wouldn’t work and no matter what we did. they just laughed. We gave them quite a talking to and it quieted them down and I think they’ll work better. Learnings from caper assignments center around the problems of co-operative endeavor, the role of the counselor in defining the task to be done and in helping the campers learn to share it. V.


The counselors-in-training are assigned to assist in specific units or living groups, and are on call of the unit leader to help with hikes, cooking meals out-of-doors, camp­ fires, or other unit projects.

On one night every two weeks

the apprentice counselors take charge of unit campfires.


serves a dual purpose as it relieves the staff for a training

3^ meeting and gives the trainees another experience*


campers always look forward to this evening during their stay, and the comments from them are most favorable. The apprentice counselors planned their first unit campfires for the evening of July 20, twelve days after camp had opened*

The night before, a bear had broken into the

camp ice box, going through two heavy doors to get at the food*

The camp director and unit leaders decided in confer­

ence that each unit counselor would handle this as she felt best for her particular group of campers*

The apprentice

counselors got various reactions to this situation at camp­ fire time*

Eileen and Shirley comment on the campfire of the

youngest age unit: Talking over the campfires tonight was really quite a new experience* Everything went fine at campfire— the Progs were very easy to keep amused* But at bedtime, the question of the bear arose, and once started, it was difficult to keep down* The kids were really panic-stricken* Those who weren't afraid teased and fooled around so much that the others were in hysterics. [Gerrie], [Shirley 1, and I had a terrible time quieting them down, but partially succeeded by showing them how calm we were ourselves* [53 It was the night.the ladies from National „ were here and also one of the nights during the scare of the bear. The one lady visited our campfire and proceeded to tell them about the


' National staff representing the Girl Scout Organiza­

tion, who spend twenty-four hours on the campsite to observe, suggest, and determine if National Minimum Standards are adhered to*

35 bear* Of course the children were scared and couldn’t be calmed down* It was really quite interesting to see the reactions of the chil­ dren as the realization of a bear came over them* A comment on what happened in the next to youngest age group reads as follows:

”We did find that they had lively imagina­

tions, for the stories which

they cooked up were fantastic.

Those who weren’t frightened

were silly and scared the others*”

The next to oldest age group had a problem of a differ­ ent sort on this evening: Trouble developed with the campfire that [Beth] and I had planned when we found out that the Nuggets expected a folk dance. At first they were very rebellious, but we didn’t get mad at them and just continued on with our program and pretty soon they got interested and forgot all about ever wanting folk dancing. They were a very good group and responsive to all our games and songs, etc. Reports from the oldest unit run: We took over campfires. Why do the Woodsmen hide candy? I think that they do it to see if they can get away with it. It, I had to admit served them right, for when they heard of the bear, they immediately dug it up. . . . The girls, [Elaine], [Carol], and I, who took over eampfxre did, I think, quiet them down and we assured them if they had no candy they had nothing to worry about. . • • Next time if I take over Woodsmen campfires, I think we should do paper bag dramatics! [Carol, Ruth], and I took over the Woodsmen campfire tonight. The kids tried to give us a bad time, but I think we succeeded with our campfire. We had more planned than necessary, which was, of course, very good.

36 The camp director tells of a discussion in training course two days later: A.P.'s took over unit campfires while staff held meeting. Good plans. Staff later reported that in each case the program had been interesting, well planned and successfully executed. In a few instances girls showed fear at bed time because of having been told that there was a bear in camp on two previous nights. However they handled it well, telling the truth,5escorting girls to bed, leaving extra lights, etc. The subject appeared again: Discussion led to behavior problems in campers, among them (uppermost apparently in their minds) . (1) keeping food in nests, and (2) whether or not children should have been told that there might be bears about. Divided in opinion on latter. All agreed that girls should have better explanation for why food is not kept in nests, how and when they n share it to prevent 'trying to put something over.1 From two counselors-in-training we have comments on two different types of unit experiences.

Annette says:

Today I went over campers' r e c o r d o f my working unit. It was very interesting because while going over these records I seemed to under­ stand why this or that particular girl acted the way she did and how she could be helped to improve. Val tells about going on a trip with her unit to cook their supper over the campfire.

After describing the activity, she

remarks: ^ Smith, op. cit.T pp. 6-7. ? Ibid., pp. 10-11. ® Parents are requested to fill out forms in regard to their child's social development and health.

37 Each group has their own campfire where they do all their own cooking. This seems like a very good plan for getting the nesting groups better acquainted and it is also an easy way for you to learn a group of names without any trouble. The experiences in units brought forth problems sur­ rounding the living situation and what it means to face and deal with them. VI.


Whereas it cannot be said in the foregoing examples of learning that these experiences are not without integra­ tion, the following observations tend to show that there is relatedness in the various phases of the summer*s experiences, and some awareness of the situations facing a camp counselor. It is interesting that two of the counselors-in-training showed frequent signs of this integration in their notebooks. From Val we have the following comments: Today I had a very pleasant experience. IfcQwas my duty to help the girls of the color g u a r d . I found that by a simple explanation and by letting the girls ask questions the whole task went much smoother. This was one of the things we were taught in A.P. training last year, and this was the first time I really had the opportunity to use it. It really worked out quite beautifully. Tonight I had to plan our unit campfire. I was very thankful for all the training we received on

9 a group in charge of raising and lowering the American and camp flags. A different group does it every day, hence must be trained.

38 the Hill in this one thing* were taught to let the girls do the activity but let them know that there is some organization* We did some singing, active game, had a treat, were told stories and did more singing* The campfire was a great success* Even though campfires may seem like very simple things, a good one gives the unit a feeling of belonging together* Tonight was the last night of camp* It was the first time I'd been in a unit as a leader. I saw how the girls felt about leaving. It is a funny thing, they seem sad but yet you can't really say it is sincere. I think with the Nuggets it is just a stage to put on great emotional feeling to see who can do the best job. But the girls think it is all very ,true. Lois has three examples in her notebook of what her joint* experience has taught hers Helping a camper to think for herself is some­ thing I have learned in training and have also put into practice. If a camper or a group of campers have small problems that can easily be solved by themselves, it is wise to let them solve them themselves by saying, 'Well, what will we do about this now,' and nearly always the campers will come to some decision. Then all the girls feel that they have done the solving themselves. Lois describes how the campers in her activities group co-operated while cooking over the fire and comments: "It shows how the campers soon learn the give and take of community living at camp.


It also shows progress and

a group feeling." On another occasion she observes an activity in which a large number of girls wanted to participate.

The group

was too large to be manageable, so two counselors from another activity volunteered to help out:

39 This dividing of the group shows that in this camp we, the counselors, come to camp for one reason and that is to help the campers to have an enjoyable two weeks, so we do more than our own jobs. The apprentice counselors do not show as frequently in their notes that they are as aware of the integration of the learning or of the situations facing a counselor, but we do find the following signs from the notebooks of Haney, Kuth, Beth, Carol, and Sylvia: I realized at dinner today how important it is to keep all those at the table in.the conversation. It is so easy for two or three older girls to monopolize the table talk with their own experi­ ences. Some children are naturally quiet at meals but most of them like to talk and be included in everything. This fact should be considered by everyone. The Jumping Frog on my caper informed me that she was leaving to go home Sunday. Of course we had talked about this certain little girl in training, but I feel sure that I could help her. [And later]— The little girl on my caper went home. I tried many things I had learned in training and from [the unit leader], but I guess she had it in her mind from the start that she wanted to go home. Although I feel a little disappointed, I did tryi It is very important to think of the things you do in terms of how they might affect the campers and their attitudes when you are in a position to be observed by them. All during my work in the infirmary I have come in contact with the campers and know somewhat of how they feel when they enter the portals. . . . Some of them seem so calm and regard their visit as a chore or some as an adventure or some as a frightening ordeal which they have no choice about going through with or not.

**•0 This was the first visiting Sunday „ in which I had no visitors so I really got a chance to observe parents in general* The attitude of the different ones as they waited at the gate was most interesting* Some were understanding. Some interested about eamp and asked many questions, while others were impatient and wanted to know why they couldn’t see little Jane even if everyone else had to wait* July 21 was a particularly trying day in camp.


camp director describes it in part: Had just started evaluation of last night*s campfire programs when one A.P. calmly said, MThere*s the bear*11 It was within a few feet of us. Watched Uncle Charlie kill it* Returned to meeting place and took rest of time discussing situation— what we would tell girls, our own emo­ tions, etc. All girls responded in most mature manner. ’Greenie Banquet.1 A.P.*s helped a great deal with plans and program. Emergency over girl who had to be sent out in ambulance for emergency opera­ tion was skillfully handled. Two directors absent from banquet as well as unit leader. Not a comment from A.P.*s except when one came out to say, ’Don’t worry about a thing. We can take care of everything inside.* Sensed anxiety and did their part.11 Sylvia has recorded the following observation: I found out today that the camp must be very well organized because although many unusual things came about today, all the day*s schedule went along as planned and most of the campers didn’t seem to know the difference. These evidences of integrated learning come in many

Parents and friends are invited to visit every second Sunday of the camping period between certain specified hours. 11 Smith, op. cit., pp. 8-9*

different forms and from many different situations indicating that the trainees were drawing together their experiences into a whole. VII.


In the middle of the fifth week of camp, the apprentice counselors asked in their training course if they could take charge of camp for a day, and let the regular counselors have the day out of camp. previously.

This had been done about three years

Some of the girls remembered it as campers and

were eager to have the experience of doing it themselves. The camp director tended to be discouraging.


pointed out that this would take a great deal of planning and preparation, not only on the part of the apprentice counselors, but on the part of the staff, director, and other campers as well.

After discussion in the training meeting of all the

problems involved, it was agreed that if the Camp Council and counselors approved of the idea, and if the apprentice coun­ selors could draw up a plan satisfactory to the director, they could take charge of the camp from noon to bed time. Approval was secured from all. the various groups, and a satisfactory plan made which included keeping the following adults in camp for reasons of health and safety:

the camp

director, nurse, two cooks and kitchen helpers, maintenance man, and head of the swimming department.

The staff took the

*+2 horses out, so an adult was not necessary for that activity. The emergency drill was revised to the extent that apprentice counselors took up the stations assigned to regular counselors. The Woodsmen were asked to assist in various ways* The staff who stayed in camp did only the jobs assigned to them and ate dinner at a separate table, so that the appren­ tice counselors could have as complete an experience as possible.

The regular camp program schedule for that day

was followed. The trainees1 unit leader comments on preparations for the day as she observed them in the living groups A gathering around unit headfs nest. Thousands of questions about little things that might come up on the morrow. Great preparation for change day— shampoos— showers, clean [camp uniforms!, etc.— Excited but controlled— a few worried— a few too sure— a few waiting to see. 2 The camp director noted that during the afternoon and evening things seemed to be going as usual during a camp day, although she did not go out of her way to observe the activi­ ties.

The Camp Council was asked at its next regular meeting

how the day had gone as far as the campers were concerned. Replies were:

,fWonderfulJ11 ,fWe enjoyed it very much.’* to the

question, flDid it go as well as when the counselors were

12 Hauser, op. cit•, pp. 11, 13*

**3 there?11 a Woodsman replied without thinking, !1Even better,11 13 then looked at the counselors and began to apoligize, J The unit leader records the reactions of the appren­ tice counselors in casual conversation in their own unit as they recalled their experiences: Gee— but it sure was different, we didn’t realize how much. How darling the Frogs are. I’m glad it was Rainbow Trout wash day— I didn’t realize how much help they needed around inky.1H: Boy, were the Woodsmen wonderful, especially the ones who had been disappointed.1? All but one of the trainees who participated in the activities of the day commented in their notebooks,

All were

favorable, and all were impressed with the details of unit living,

A few reactions read as follows:

Today we, the apprentice counselors, with the aid of younger trainees and some older campers took over the camp [writes Haney], It helped a great deal for all of us to feel this-responsibility. We liked planning program for afternoon, dinner, and evening, but even more, it was fascinating to live in the units with the children. Thus we were able to feel responsible for the whereabouts of the campers. Before this day, I worked with the program of the Woodsmen and Nuggets and it was a big surprise to me to see the difference between those and that of the Frogs, Although we have learned that it is the girls that count more than the program, with the Frogs it


Barbara Hallman, Notebook (unpublished), p, 7*

lU* A large covered can used to heat water over an open fire.


. cit.? p.

Hauser, ojd


bh must be well planned, with ideas in back of your head that if necessary you can use* Exciting different themes also attract them* We had a few calamities before bed. first ants, then one girl who had to go to [the nurse]. I found that a leader must be cool, calm,-and collected, and not get excited, for the girls seem to sense it, for this was a sure example if the leader is nervous, etc. I also think in comparison to the first period when the bear episode was announced and many of the girls frightened that second and third periods were less tense. Maybe the girls should not have been told. I also found that the Jumping Frogs do need more than three leaders, [says Ruth], for we really had to be everywhere at once. I took the Gold Nuggets, [Shirley says]. They were really a swell bunch of kids and terrifically cooperative. However, I never realized children of that age are so prone to crushes. I knew they were very impressionable but when [Nancy] and X left the unit, almost everyone of them had a-crush on one of us. I found through this day, however, that it is really loads of fun to work in a unit where you can work with the children the whole way through and not just in the club. I think it would be interest­ ing to work with a unit and to observe the maladjusted and try to help them indirectly. Today was the most wonderful day I have ever had at camp. Being unit head of the Woodsmen for a day was a wonderful experience, [says Sylvia], I noticed a lot of little things that one would never think of just working with girls in clubs and capers. It certainly was gratifying to have the Woodsmen who griped so much about our taking over be the ones who said how super they thought everything was. I want to be a leader in the Woodsmen very much. The change day proved to be a most profitable experi­ ence filled with learning opportunities relevant to individual behavior and group living.




In the final interview, each apprentice counselor was asked if she felt ready to become a counselor-in-training next year. Seven of the ten replied that they did feel they were qualified and ready. she was tired.

One said that it was hard to say, that

Another, who felt she did better work the

first two weeks in camp, and had become tired of the camp situation at the end of six weeks, said it would be up to the staff to decide.

The tenth apprentice counselor said that

her family had plans for an extended vacation during the summer of 1950 and wanted her to go with them. The counselors-in-training all had favorable reactions to their graduation, at the end of the second camping period, to full members of the camp staff.

A banquet was planned by

representatives from each unit, and the ceremony of graduation was arranged and executed by twelve former trainees who were 16 staff members. The three new counselors comments Tonight was a night that I have waited and worked for for a long time. I was made a counselor along with two other trainees. The ceremony was similar to


The ceremony is to be found in the Appendix, p. 87#

H6 that of a knight receiving his armor after his training* It was very impressive and it made me realize the satisfaction and joy of working for something* In talking to two former Boy Scouts of a near by Scout camp, I realized that the training method is much better here, because in training we really get to know the camp, its workings, the way it is run, the campers and their feelings and problems. The way this other camp is run doesnft afford any progression for the boys to work up to, about fif­ teen out of forty boys are chosen and they go to camp with their own skills and without a way to learn more. Both the boys agreed that our system of training for counselorship was much better because it gives us something to work and strive for. It isn’t just a summer job to be picked up because there isn’t anything else to do. Lois reacts to her first day as a counselors This is my first day as a counselor and I feel very secure as a counselor. I really feel like I fve accomplished something worth while. It’s like a graduation and now we1re ready to start a new life as adults with more responsibility and new names.Ll/I jt certainly is a swell feeling to know that I*ve*finally reached my goal as a coun­ selor and I feel fully capable of doing my job and more. Val has mueh to say on being a new counselor, too: Today is our last full day as campers. It seems almost impossible, but yet it is true. In a few short hours we will have our dream of many years come true. We have the entire day to ourselves, with the exception of checking the girls at club for the completion of badge requirements. W e ’ve been sitting in our nest and realizing all that our three years of training did for us.

3-7 Staff members are called by nick names rather than the more formal Miss or Mrs.


The understanding, the quickness of thinking, the security, the feeling of helpfulness— all these wonderful things and many more have been given to us. Me also realize how wonderful it has been that in criticism of us it has always been con­ structive and never just criticism to find fault with us. I know, I am, and I am sure [Annette] and [Lois] are grateful for this. Tomorrow we start a new step in our Scouting career, but we know well that this is not the ending of our learning but just the beginning of an endless chain of things to be learned through the experiences of ourself and others. I certainly wish I could better express how we feel, but I don’t have the words that could be used. You would be amazed at the difference in a name. Now we are using our camp names and it seems to make the girls listen more attentively to what you have to say. We are shown more respect, but of course this puts us in a different situation when we have to act a little more adult and can’t fool around so much with the kids. Annette tells how it feels: Last night X became a counselor and already there is an unexplainable difference in me. I am certainly more relaxed, but the change is greater and deeper than relaxation. The change is inside. I feel as if now I really am an adult. Other reactions to the ceremony included a comment as made by two members of the youngest unit and overheard by the director: expect?

”It was so solemn, I cried.”

”What would you


It’s serious being a counselor.”

Hallman, on. cit., p. 2.

w The unit leader says of the apprentice counselors: »Great joy over C.T* graduation* Determination to help them 19 all they can.** Six days later she writes: f,Val seeking me out to tell me*--now she realised what the training program had meant to be* How comfortable she felt in the Gold Mugget 20 unit*11 Lois has written earlier in her notebook that she felt this year was of value: This is my last two weeks as a camper and I am looking forward more than ever to becoming a coun­ selor* Even now I am glad that I did not have to miss my year as a C.T. I think that it is very important in completing the last step to becoming a full fledged counselor* She repeated this statement in her final interview* Val made an interesting comment in her final confer­ ence to the effect that it was much easier being a counselor than a counselor-in-training *

There is security in having

achieved the goal of being a counselor*

She felt that she

had been adequately prepared, knew what lay ahead for her, and was not afraid of mistakes.

Although she had made mis­

takes in the past, and would in the future,' she knew she would be helped to correct them* There were no girls who felt they were not ready for the next experience, and most felt enthusiastically able to handle it.

3-9 Hauser, op* cit*, p. 10* ^

Loc. cit*



Are the objectives of the individual girls, the group, and the Girl Scout Board of Directors, who administer the camp, being met?

As we have seen, each individual, the group,

and the Board of Directors started the summer with specific objectives.

Most of the girls summarized their experiences

at the end of their notebooks: Today is my last day at camp, and although it wasn't all.that I expected [says Gerrie], I really enjoyed it very much. What I had expected was more working with the kids themselves • As I said I did enjoy myself very much but if I am invited back, I'd like a little different job, maybe something different than swimming and riding. This has really been one of the most wonderful summers I've ever spent [Eileen says]. I feel that I've grown in experience every day. -My only hope is that others will feel as I do when I say I think I am ready to go on next year as a C.T. Everything I've done this year has been with my best ability. I've tried hard, and that's what counts, or so I'm told. For me this was a wonderful summer, [Val comments], I feel as if I've learned ever so much and have had the opportunity to put a little of my own ways, knowledge and methods over. It has been a great summer and one I won't forget for a long time. We have had our difficulties between riding and swim­ ming, but I believe we've all grown wiser from it. Today is the closing day of the camp season [writes Lois], and I really have accomplished a great deal in these six weeks. I've learned how to get along with all types of campers. I used to be able to get along with them, but now I have a better understanding of them and this is partly from staff training because there we learned about campers of all types and how to help them.

Louise has a long and varied comment on her experiences This summer I have learned a lot in the handling of little children; I have learned to really enjoy working with them. For the first time, I have learned how to handle children.in regard to disci­ pline— this has been very interesting and also very educational. I have learned several new skills, and have improved my old ones. I have made new friends not only among the A.P.'s but also among the campers. Life as an A.P. has been difficult in some respects, but has also been fun. I have not enjoyed myself in riding as much as I thought, because my interest in riding is greater, but I have not had the opportunity to do much. I enjoy teaching children to ride but I haven*t had much of an opportunity for that either. I don*t mind hard work and never have, but I do mind being left all the dirty work t o do. This is the case in my activity, because I have found that some of the leaders are expert in *passing the buck.* Swimming— that is teaching swimming— has been an entirely new experience. I enjoyed it and I would like to do more of it. This summer has been a very different one and I imagine I will have to see exactly how I feel about it later on. Then I will be able to look back and evaluate it impartially. Elaine says $ These past six weeks will always live in my mind as not only being enjoyable, but as growing up some and understanding children from ten to fifteen a lot better. I have always enjoyed work­ ing with girls, at least I thought I did and now I*m convinced that it's what I want to do when I grow up and start a career. Now that I've been an A.P. for six weeks, I am so thankful and wouldn't have missed it for words. I just hope I did my jobs well enough to be a C.T. next year. Annette says: One lesson I have certainly learned is patience. Patience with the campers, with the staff, and most

51 of all with myself* I have learned to relax and have fun with the campers and by so doing help them to enjoy them­ selves more. I have learned how to get along on a more equal plane with those my age and older than myself. I have found myself regretting that I was not able to attend more staff training sessions. I think that the staff manual has helped me considerably and I really didn’t know what I would have done without it. All in all, I feel that this has been a most profitable summer to me and I wouldn’t have missed it for anything. Other than this, I feel that the Training Program that the camp has is very important, helpful, and worthwhile. Sylvia’s remark is brief but meaningful: This is, the last entry I will make in this book. What is in it Is only a small picture of my A.P. year, which has been from beginning to end a most wonderful one. Shirley writes: On the whole I think this summer has really been wonderful and I would never exchange the experiences X had for the world. In my opinion first period was rowdyish and second and third were good. I found that when you have the quieter ones that your own camping experience is much more fun. On the whole the girls in the riding club were co-operative and very willing to learn. I enjoyed working with them and learned as much from them as they from me. I find that there is an art to serving tables. You must be able to control your table and at the same time keep up a good conversation and have a good time. The first time I did this was not as

52 successful as the other times but I feel that through the summer I have learned this* Through the course of the summer I have had all the units* Thinking them,over I think I had the most fun with the Nuggets and/or the Trout* Altogether I think this summer has been so much fun and I hate to have to leave* Beth adds three elements to her final comments: The training program, gave me a lot of general material about standards and the running of the camp. Also the change day provided much of this sort of knowledge because of the planning involved* The time and good conditions for thinking helped me develop further my general philosophy* I acquired an appreciation of nature1s beauty and a larger knowledge of it* Buth's final remarks read as follows: Well, this is practically the last day and summing up this summer, all I can say is this is the best way anyone would spend a vacation* I feel that I have learned oh, so much, and I hope that the girls have learned some from mei Carol writes: This experience as the nurses* assistant has made a perfectly well-rounded training course for me, first period being in the [eamp store], I got one viewpoint of the camper, second in crafts, another in [the infirmary] but all going together to form a wonderfully run- organization of a young girl's vacation away from home* These same reactions were borne out in the final interviews* The one girl who did not summarize her book indicated in her final interview that it had been a happy and worth-while summer*

53 The group had only two objectives, work and fun, which they agreed were interrelated, and which they agreed in the final evaluation were fulfilled*

From the foregoing excerpts

we may conclude that they had a work experience*

A few more

samples will tend to show that fun was mixed in too:


Played ‘ghost* at Loafer's ^ afterwards— was one of the best times I've had at camp this summer as far as pure fun and enjoyment goes. Everyone seemed to be getting a big kick out of the game* Our folk dance with the counselors was a lot of fun* I think it is fun for the staff and Hill to get together once in a while for pure relaxation. When I was younger I thought that counselors took time off just to get out of camp* I never thought that they needed a rest or a change. All I could think of was that they went out of camp just to be going out* How I know that time off depends on the individual person. It is for refreshing you not for tiring you out so that you can't do your job in camp. Tonight we went to the show which was refreshing because we were doing something different. I took my day off today and a few of us hiked up the creek a ways, and spent the time reading, writing, and just taking it easy. It was a won­ derful daypand I am all prepared for tomorrow's overnight. ^ The board of directors' objectives may best be summed up in the statement by the camp director made on July 28: I was really sorry to leave the course half way through. It has been stimulating to me as a

^ Loafer's Retreat is the name of the staff campfire where counselors may go to relax away from the children.


Two-day trip out of camp.


a leader and as a student. Girls all show good promise of leadership. [Beth] is still slow but improving and means well. At-this point I would probably recommend all ten as 1950 C.T.’s. Girls have handled emergencies with good judg­ ment, loyalty, a sense of honor and helpfulness and real knowledge. In the last three weeks, emergencies were: bears, one case of appendicitis, another case of illness which caused some gossip on the part of others (but not the A.P.’s), some disturbance in riding staff, a water accident, a very poor counselor who might have affected less steady girls ^ an unhappy situation for a few days with one A.P., etc. These are only the usual things affecting groups. But as this group of A.P.1s handled them better as a group than some of the staff groups, I feel that their training, their purposeful plans for the future and their real feelings about the camp and Girl Scouting were helpful. 25 In conclusion, the objectives of the Board of Directors, the group of trainees, and of the individual girls were met, at least in part.

Some girls felt that the experience was a

particularly profitable and happy one, and all had fun.


Smith, o£. cit., pp. 16-19*

CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this study was to see whether or not the objectives of individual trainees, the trainees as a group, and the board of directors were met through the training pro­ gram for selected Senior Girl Scouts at Camp Sugar Pine in 19^9*

Since the meeting of objectives is dependent on a

successful training process, this will be examined first: 1*

It is important that girls of this age be con­

sidered campers and have their own living group with counse­ lors, to whom they can turn for help, 2,

Learnings arose from a rounded experience of help­

ing and observing different camp groupings and the integration came in the formal training and in informal discussions in the living situation, 3»

A growing individual maturity is evidenced by the

type of thinking that is illustrated in excerpts from the notebooks in Chapter IV,

Particular evidence of this is shown

under section nine, entitled, “Objectives,*1 in which twelve of the girls summarized their experiences of the summer, *f.

Ten of the thirteen girls felt ready and eager for

the next step of their experience, whether as staff members or as counselors-in-training.

The other three had good experi­

ences, but were not ready to state plans for 1950,


56 5.

The training program is an evolving, dynamic pro­

cess in which staff, campers, trainees and camp committee have a vital interest and part* I.


An examination of the foregoing material gives no indication that there were undesirable features in the living arrangements*

The advantages of having a separate unit for

trainees are three in numbers

(1) The girls had an opportun­

ity to discuss their daily experiences in an informal situa­ tion with counselors who were familiar with and part of the training program*

(2) The opportunity to have fun on their

own level of maturity, with their own group of friends seemed to be an important consideration,

(3) The activities program

could be adjusted and changed easily so that the trainees did not feel pressures in the living group, II.


There was indication from the material examined that although learning arose from many types of experiences, it became an integrated part of the total training experience in most instances where it was recorded in notebooks. From the formal training, comments in notebooks, and interviews, it is evident that the meeting of the course in which they participated in role playing had great interest

57 for the apprentice counselors.

Democratic leadership was

also discussed in the leader*s training meetings which the counselors-in-training attended, and received only one comment from three notebooks.

Was the subject matter more

interesting or the method of presentation in the apprentice course? There was questioning by the unit leader on the assign­ ment of books for reports.

She indicates in her notebook that

the group was disturbed, and felt they were rlbeing watched,1* **psychoanalyzed,** **under a microscope,** as a reaction to the books that were assigned the day after their arrival in camp. The notation of the reaction was dated four days later.


further says, however, that it made them **grow up in a hurry.1* Whether this latter comment was because the girls had read the books, had had an opportunity to discuss the content of the books, or became adjusted to the camping situation is not determined here. It was stated twice in notebooks that the psychology seemed repetitious, and there was preference for more material on camping.

The group felt that some individuals gained more

from it than others. It is interesting in view of the foregoing that there was considerable awareness in the comments in notebooks of individual behavior and of group interaction. Questions to be raised in the area of the formal

training program should be in the matters of:

assignment of

psychology books, a later timing of assignments of reading of this type, timing of discussion of the material on a formal or informal basis, and a consideration as to 'whether or not and how extensively psychology and/or group work are handled in the school program. The records reveal that there were learnings in the assignment to unit, activity and caper groups.

In the case

of the latter, the problem of being an assistant and knowing more than the counselor about the job to be done, can be eased by recognition and discussion, but must be solved by skill in human relationships which comes only with the work­ ing out by each individual, and in an understanding super­ vision* The change day program with the opportunity to be responsible for children in the living situation was a source of much satisfactory learning.

It should be pointed

out, however, that this group of apprentice counselors asked for the experience, faced and helped work out the problems surrounding it, and were ready to assume the responsibility of the campers for a defined period of time, and within given limits of health and safety.

59 III*

FEELING OF READINESS FOR COUNSELOR RESPONSIBILITY The last section of Chapter IV would indicate that

objectives of individuals, group, and board of directors had been met at least in part*

The individual and group objec­

tives were discussed in some detail there*

The statement of

the camp director was all the evidence to substantiate the board of directors* objectives, and, since this group will implement basic changes, it may be well to review them point by point• The first objective of the board of directors, and the one which can be most tangibly determined, is the prepara­ tion of new staff members. This is probably best expressed in remarks in Chapter IV taken from the girls* notebooks about what it means to be responsible for children in the living unit 5 the realization that counselors have to do more than just their assigned job; the recognition by one trainee that a counselor can be wrong; the sensitivity developed for individuals within the group, and how group interaction took place* A further indication of preparedness lies in the fact that all three counselors-in-training said they felt comfort­ able in going on the staff at the end of four weeks.


of the ten apprentice counselors felt they were ready to become counselors-in-training in 1950.

60 IV.


No attempt was made to set up criteria for measuring these last four objectives as the focus was primarily on leadership preparation.

However, these will be examined

briefly. The board of directors* second objective was to insure continuity on the staff. mined at this time.

This, of course, can not be deter­

If records of past years are any indica­

tion, however, there is a good possibility of return to the staff following the training experience.

Records from 1939

to 19^9 show that more than 60 per cent did return. Miether or not the program has helped older campers to grow more easily into adulthood is a difficult thing to measure.

If the gaining of skills, knowledge of people and

groups, and self-understanding expedite this process, then an examination of the foregoing material will bear this out. That the girls had an opportunity to be of real service is undeniable.

An examination of the camp director*s final

statement on pages 53 and 5*+ reveals that the girls handled emergencies with good Judgment, loyalty, a sense of honor and real knowledge. The trainees were all registered members of San Francisco Girl Scout troops, and had been for a number of years.

From their records, three had been members for

only five years, and two had been registered as long as ten

61 years*

The rest fall somewhere in between*

If their troop

and camping experiences have been meaningful at all, they will have the opportunity to carry out the ideals of Girl Scouting as they return to the staff in years to come* The basic elements of the training program consist of: (1) having the selected trainees live in a group apart with leadership that is part of the training process, (2) formal training meetings, (3) assignment to help in various types of camp groupings under supervision, (*+) making the program an integral part of the total camp situation. This program has been a growing, evolving one, related to the needs of the agency and the campers*

Each year it is

carefully evaluated, and the necessary changes made when possible.

The San Francisco Girl Scout Council is alert to

the future course of the program, and it will be developed in different ways as the need arises.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Blumenthal, Louis H ., Group Work in Camping, Association Press, 1937* 97 PP*

New York:

Boorman, Harvie J., Hedley S. Dimock, Harry D. Edgren, Ray E. Johns, Roy Sorenson, coaming; a Democracy, Character Education in the Summer Camp VII, New York: Association Press, 19?1. 52 pp. Character Education in the Summer Camp III, Setting Standards in the Summer Camp, New York: Association Press, 1935* pp. Dimock, Hedley S., editor, Character Education in the Summer Camp II, New York: Association Press, 1931* PP* ______, Putting Standards into the Summer Camp, Character Education in the Summer Camp IV, New York: Association Press, 193^7 65 pp. ______, Charles E. Hendry, Ruth Perkins, Roy Sorenson, Character Education in the Summer Camp. Chicago: The Religious Education Association, 1930. 35 PP* ______, ______ , and Roy Sorenson, Some Frontiers in Camping, Character Education in the Summer Camp VI. New York: Association Press, 19397 52 pp. Extending Education through Camping. Inc., 1955. 130 pp.

New York:

Life Camps,

Graham, Abbie, Hedley S. Dimock, Roy Sorenson, Marshall H. Levy^ Appraising the Summer Camp, Character Education in the Summer Camp V. New York: Association Press, 1937* 52 pp. “ , Working at Play. 12o pp.

New York:

The Women's Press, 1951.

Hall, Margarite, rlA Service Program for Older Campers,11 Camping Magazine, XVII (June, 1955), 9-10, 25, 26. Hammett, Catherine T., '‘Methods and Techniques for Training Your Camp Staff,'1 Camping Magazine. XX (November, 1958), 8-9*


Hendry, Charles E., editor, 4 Decade of Group Work* Association Press, 19t o . 189 PP*

New Yorks

Murphy, Madeline S., “How We Develop Leadership through Our 1C-I-T1 Program,*1 Camping Magazine. XVIII (January, 19*+6), if-6*

“Program Aides for Camping— All Types,1* Camp Cues (March 19^9) > 2-5. Report of the Studies and Research Committee. Camping Association, 1938* 33 PP*

New York:


Sharp, Lloyd Burgess, Education and the Summer Camp* New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University, 1930. ll*f pp. Smith, Ida M. , “Today’s C-T’s— Tomorrow’s Counselors,” Camping Magazine. XIX (February, 19^7)> 2^-25. The Established Camp Book. New York: Organization, 19**^ 306 pp.

Girl Scouts, National

Trecker, Harleigh B*, Social Group Work, Principles and Prac­ tices* New York: The Women’s Press, 19^8. 313 PP*



SCHEDULE FOE INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS OF TRAINEES First Interview (beginning of the 19^9 season) 1. 2* 3« 5* o*

What are your plans after high school? What kind of profession interests you? Would you have come back to Camp Sugar Pine if it were not for the training unit? What do you want from the summer? How long have you been a Girl Scout? What has been your previous camping experience?

Final Interview (end of the 19^9 season) 1* 2. 3.

How did things work out for you this summer? Did you gain what you wanted from the summer experience? (referring back to first interview) Section XIV (Growth of the A*P* During Summer) of the. .^Suggested Outline for Apprentice Counselor Course11 was discussed individually at this time*


As a group, what do you hope to get from your summer experience?

Second Interview (end of the first three weeks in the 19^9 season) 1* 2*

How do you feel about the first half of your camping experience? Are you getting the things you want? What things are missing?

Final Interview (end of the 19*f9 season) 1*

How do you feel about the actual training course?


How did the living unit work out?


68 3* *f.

Did you gain what you wanted to from the field work experience? Was there both fun and work as you asked in the first meeting? What suggestions do you have for the 1950 pro­ gram?


APPLICATION FOE CAMP SUGAE PINE PBOGEAM AIDE OE APPEENTICE (Please send to San Francisco Girl Scout Council, Inc*, U6$ Post St., San Francisco 2, California) Decisions will be made by the Sugar Pine Committee in April. Interviews will be held with applicants if necessary. Name:__________________ Troop #___ Date of Application_____ Address:____ Zone Telephone Date of Birth Eeligious Preference, Dates available ______ " I wish to apply as Program Aide Apprentice Counselorin-Training ___ Camping Experience: At Sugar Pine: Unit_________ Year Activity, At Other Camps: Name of Camp________ Year. Latest school attended: W h e r e ? _____________________ When? _______ Maior? School offices held:_ Grade as of September this year: Girl Scout Eeeord: Year first registered:_____ Has your membership been con­ tinuous since then? Work Eeeord: Positions held:______________________ Duties? Where? ; _______ When? ^ Check once subjects In which you have an interest and twiceT those which you feel qualified to teach: Archery____________ Folk Dancing__________Hiding________ Art____________ Geology Singing ___ _ Basketry H iking ____________ Sket ching Bird Study _______ Leather Craft________ .Star Study Block Printing______.Metal Craft ______ Stenciling Camp Cooking Nature (General) Swimming Craft strip ______ Pioneering Tree Study___ Dramatics Pottery Wood Carving Flower Study Puppetry_____________ Others


71 Red Cross Certificates check year received: Life Savings Junior________ First Aid: Standard. Senior________ Advanced" REQUIREMENTS FOR PROGRAM AIDE (Passed by Sugar Pine CommitteeMay 1 9 ^ 5 amended 19^7) AGE - at least 15 1/2 SCHOOL - must have completed first year high school CAMPING - at least one period (preferably at Sugar Pine) with a good record on social adjustment, health and activities. SKILLS - at least one Camp skill which can be shared with others, under supervision. LIVING CONDITIONS - Program Aides register in the regular way, pay full fee and come as regular campers for one period only, living on Malpaso Hill. NUMBER ACCEPTED - not more than b each period usually. TRAINING - one session at camp. Personal interviews. REQUIREMENTS FOR APPRENTICES (passed by Sugar Pine Committee in 1939) AGE - at least 16 1/2 SCHOOL - must have completed second year of high school. CAMPING - same as for Program Aide (preference given to Campers who have given satisfactory service as Program Aides). SKILLS - same as for Program Aides. LIVING CONDITIONS - Apprentices register in usual way, pay full fee for periods and none for the third. They are expected to remain for 6 weeks. They live on Malpaso Hill. NUMBER ACCEPTED - not more than 8 usually. TRAINING - 3 days a week at Camp. Personal Interviews. REQUIREMENTS FOR COUNSELORS-IN-TRAINING AGE - at least 17 1/2 SCHOOL - must have completed third year of high school. CAMPING - must have given satisfactory service as an Apprentice. SKILLS - Potential counselor material. More highly developed than Apprentice. LIVING CONDITIONS - Registration in usual way, paying fee for 1 period only. They are expected to remain for 6 weeks. They live on Malpaso Hill but each Is assigned to another Unit for experience and training. NUMBER ACCEPTED - Not more than b usually. - Privilege of attending Staff Training. Personal interviews.

72 Give name and address and zone number of 3 people for refer­ ence: (not members of your family) 1. 2

, ____________________________________________


3._________________________________________________________ )|C3|»3$*3|>3§t

4* 3|*3|&3|S3|C3i»3|»3{tj|C3t?3f»3|C3|C9|;j|*j|C3|t3jC5|:5|cj|c

Signature of Parent, denoting approval -

..... ......... '

Signature of Leader denoting indorsement - ________________


SAN FRANCISCO GIRL SCOUT COUNCIL, INC. Women1s City Club, b 6 5 Post St., Room 20kSan Franeisco 2, California Telephone: GArfield 2539 Date______ ______________________________ has applied for a position as a counselor at Camp Sugar Pine, the San Francisco Girl Scout Camp at Borrington in Calavares County, and has given your name as a reference* For many years, we have experienced happy and success­ ful camping* We feel this has been due to the high standard of leadership which we have been able to maintain* We depend on the frank statement of opinion given to us by those to whom we write concerning the applicants* Will you help us to maintain this high quality of leadership by rating the appli­ cant on the following points. Your reply will be considered confidential. Camp Director Length of time and capacity in which you have known appli cant _______________________________________ _______ Character Per sona lity____________ _ Responsibility_______ _ Init iat ive_________________________________________________ Loyalty




Health__________________ ________ __________________________ Ability to get along with adults__________ ______ _________ _ Ability in leadership of girls between the ages of 10 and 18

Any reasons why you might hesitate to employ applicant for such a position__________________________________________



Your comments on her special skill or ability.

Other remarks:_____ ________ ______________________________ Note: The back of this sheet may he used for further recom­ mendations* Please return this sheet to Miss Ida M* Smith, b 6 5 Post St., San Francisco, California, Member Agency Community Chest of San Francisco Date Signature




Reasons for Pre-Counselor training* (1) To prepare new staff members. (2) To insure continuity on staff. (3) To help older campers to grow more easily into adulthood. (*0 To give girls training for and opportunity to be of real service. (5) To carry on ideals of Girl Scouting.


Place of camping in field of social work. (1) Discussion of group work* (2) Discussion of case work. (3) Discussion of methods used in preparation of workers. (a) Training. (b) Field Work* (c) Supervision.


Plans for course. (1) Training. (a) Time - Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday 9:30 to l Q i b 5 A.M. (b) Place - Hollow Tree. (c) Method: .Lecture Discussion Role Play , Assignments Book Reviews Visiting “professors** Self training . ' * (reading, observation, understudying experienced staff, discussion among selves). 77

73 (2) Field Work (a) Time - at least 1 1/2 hours daily allowed. (b) Excuses - 2 each period. Arrange with unit head and activity head. Arrange riding and trips aeeoi*dingly. (c) Place Mostly in activities, crafts, nature, swimming, riding, archery, dramatics, scratch gulch, trading post, etc. Help units on invitation of Unit Head or C. T. (d) Methods of working with: Staff Campers Malpaso Hill (3) Supervision by: (a) (b) (c) (d)

Unit Head Activity Head Director Others

(if) Evaluation (a) Written record (b) Interviews (c) Self evaluation. (5) Privileges (a) In unit. (b) Days out of camp - one each period. D. II.

Assignments to Activities


What each A.P. hopes to get from this summer’s experience.


As a group of A.P.’s, what you hope to get (assign for later discussion.)


Camp Committee (Assign A.P. to interview members.)

79 D.

Directors (Assign to be interviewed.)


Unit Head (Assign to be interviewed.)




AIMS OF CAMPING AS EXPRESSED BY VARIOUS PEOPLE (Assignment for interviewers: topic - “What are we try­ ing to get from camping experience.*1)




Young, New Campers.


Camper of several years.


Young, college staff member


Older staff member.




Cooks or Nurse.




Camp Committee.


Neighbors or trades people.


Study and discussion (Staff manual)


Comparison with findings in Topic IV.


Success or failures with: ^


(1) Campers (2) Staff (3) Head of department

Learning on jo b (1) What (2) How




Exchange of successful methods*


Plans for needed help to be given*






Discussion led by: (1) reviewer (2) director (3) A.P.



Behavior Patterns


Growth (1) Physical (2) Emotional (3) Mental ( h ) Spiritual


Basic Needs and How Met (1) (2) (3) (4-) C5) (6)

To belong - security Code of behavior Share in managing own affairs Outlet for energies and interest Establishing philosophy of life Fun - adventure


Interests and How Determined


Major Adjustments in Adolescence


Assignments (1) Observe campers who seem to be adjusting to camp life. (a) easily (b) with great difficulty (c) slowly

81 (2) Discuss possible reasons and how camper can be helped. IX.


Qualifications of a good counselor. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


Role of the Leader ins (1) (2) (3) (4)


Physical Social Intellectual Emotional Aesthetic

Unit Staff group Activity group Guidance

Types (1) Authoritative (2) Laissez-faire (3) Democratic

D. X.


Training and Preparation.


Characteristics of a good camp* (Use Fretwell’s 10 tests and G.S. Minimum Standards.)


The Camp site.


The Camp set-up.


Entire camp group.





82 D.







Special Committees.


In understanding of philosophy of camp.


In maturity.

^ C.


In helping campers.


In relationships to others •


In ideals of Girl Scouting.


In ability to go on as C.T.'s or Staff members




Democracy in camping A.

Discuss “Democracy at Work11 from Staff Manual for framework of democratic workings


Use “Democracy in Camp11 (yellow paper) 1* Discuss 12 “Evidences of a Democratic Camp11 2* Divide into groups of 3 or b to discuss and grade Sugar Pine (a) Excellent, little room for improve­ ment (b) Average, good (c) Below average, poor, needs great improvement 3.


Discuss results of #2 and get suggestions for improvement in anything graded B or C

Camp Groupings A.

Discuss “Camp Groupings“ from Staff Manual 1.

What types of campers might be most success­ ful in each group 2. Most unsuccessful



*f. How staff can help campers to have greater success in groups III.

Camp Program A.

Use “Camping is the Program11 from Staff manual


Discuss “Tests of a Good Program11 (same page) 1.


Examples to see how they “test.11 Unit camp­ fires and cookouts, Crafts, Nature, Riding, Scouts Own,Banquets, etc.

Counselor Methods A#

Use “Counselor Methods11 from Staff Manual. 8*f

85 B. V. VI*

Discuss your most successful counselor methods.

Health and Safety from Staff Manual Girls 10 to 18 A*





Growing up process.

How camp can help



Tonight we are about to witness a solemn cere­ mony in which the three counselors-in-training with whom we have worked are to be made full counselors. This is indeed an important moment for these girls who have worked many years to obtain this goal. These girls are following in the footsteps of thirtynine trainees— who have already become staff members. As the ceremony progresses you will see and hear twelve counselors who were once trainees, and who have now taken their places on the Camp Sugar Pine staff. The training and progression of a camper to counselor is. amazingly comparable to that of a youth in the medieval ages, who wished to achieve the position of knight in his master’s court. Just as the untried knights of the medieval age, these girls will be handed unblazoned shields. It will be up to them to fight conflict and strife to achieve their goal.


______to the first step.” ’’Proceed____________________ ,


_____________________? When you were a camper you were untried, but during those years, the qualities of your leadership shone forth, and you were a tenta­ tive candidate for counselor ship. Just as a youth in medieval times, you as a camper had the ambition to become a leader, but it took many years for you to develop into a competent staff member.


’’Proceed____________________ _____ to the next step.


When you became old enough you took your first big step. As in the days of old when a boy became a page on his way to knighthood, so you made the decision of becoming a Program Aide. You realized some of your faults and tried to correct them. As your experiences in leadership grew, so did your character grow. On every hike, on every caper, in every club, you received invaluable experience by training on the During this year of training, you were considered mostly a camper, but cautiously, you were given more responsi­ bility, and when it was seen that you accepted your position fully you were ready for the next great step.


’’Proceed to the next step.”


Again you returned to camp, and once more you were guided into new paths of leadership as an 87

88 apprentice counselor. For the next six weeks, you led a difficult life for your responsibilities were great, and your problems numerous. During that year you could be compared with the squire of old. Just as a squire, you had reached the intermediate step of your training. This was a trying time, because it decided the success or failure of your goal. There were many ups and downs, but by using common sense, and by applying the tools of leadership which you were taught, success was yours. H.K.

“Proceed to the next step.”


Now____________________ , for the past four weeks, you have lived the life of an untried knight, whose shield remains unblazoned. It was the custom to blazon or color the shield when the first great deeds of the untried knights were accomplished. As you made this step to counselor-in-training, your shield of leadership was prepared for blazoning, and now your period of trial is over, and you have your worthiness to become a member of the Camp Sugar Pine Staff.


“Proceed to the final step.1* As you stand before the altar of leadership, and receive your coat-of-arms, remember that you must always keep your ideals of leadership high. Remember that your standards of leadership must be strong enough to weather many a storm. As you now receive blazoning on your shield, you are considered a tried knight. Remember that this night you have overcome many obstacles and have renewed your strength to go forth among Girl Scouts as a leader and as a counselor. (Go down stairs and wait at the side until all C.T.*S have gone through the ceremony.) Repeat after me the oath which appears on your shields:

Listen well to this pledge, for as counselors you should accept its teachings as your own. On the top step I stand Ready to enter through the gateway Where I shall take on my share of camp responsibility I look backwards over the years When others then standing at this place Showed me the beauties And the joys of camp life.

89 Camp Sugar Pine I pledge to you Whatever of fineness lies within me* Those qualities which I look for in others I will demand of myself* When I set a yardstick for the stature of others I will see that my height is measured against it. What I know is of value in me That will I find in others. And what of meanness I condemn— -that will I Know lies somewhere within me— as well. For all life is of a piece And as a leader I shall seek for that which likens Not for that which separates. A fine leader is a facile learner A good loser and one who triumphs In the success of others. Do you accept this pledge? Pins

The conclusion of the ceremony of knighthood was the presentation of swords to the newly made knights. In this light, we now present to you, your animal pins and names. « from this moment forth you shall he known to all Sugar Pine campers and staff members as ' _______ • Gold Nugget Presentation of Tree

END With the completion of this ceremony, we wish to con­ gratulate you, the new members of the Camp Sugar Pine Staff.