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The proposed book “Physics for University Students” is devoted for gifted students of technical specialties as the gener
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An Essential Collection of Essays and Musings on Graphic Design from One of the Field's Leading Educators In this w
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A COURSE OF STUDY IN ADVERTISING DESIGN FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
A Project Presented
the Faculty of the School of Education Qhe University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
fry Jack D. Stoops June 1950
UMI Number: EP46599
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP46599 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. Ail rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
uest ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346
/ T h is p ro ject rep o rt, w ritte n under the direction of the candidate’s adviser a n d a p p ro v e d hy h im , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lt y of the School of E d u c a tio n in p a r t i a l f u lf i ll m e n t of the requirem ents f o r the degree
o f M a s t e r of
Science in E d u catio n .
D ate.............................................. .........................
A d v is e r
The illustrations and arrangement of the exhibits in this project, par ticularly the bleeding and the use of color, are hereby approved*
INTRODUCTION Nov/ is the time to establish first rate training for students of advertising art on the university level.
struggle to accomplish this end is now being waged and needs every assistance to gain successful status, recognition, and support.
Tbe professional aims must be stated clearly, and
the rightful position of advertising design in art education must be presented strongly. Trends.
The whole nature of the aims of university
education is undergoing a change to include curriculum that will be of practical value to its student body.
This is not
to way that the university is becoming a glorified trade school.
It is not.
The change is more in the nature of a
stirring out of a long and deep academic lethargy, and a growing awareness of the currents and movements going on in the world that supports these great institutions. Social Aim.
There is danger and disillusionment in an
art program on any educational level that does not recognize social utility, and in which a maladjusted artist is likely to be produced.
This problem confronts us in designing the
art program for the university student who is apt to become intently absorbed in an isolated and completely introspective consideration of his art.
We must take positive steps to
combat this possibility and try to eliminate all tendency toward capsule thinking.
(An art educator acquaintance in
England ably called it "water-tight compartmentarianismfl.)
i i i
John Dewey in his Democracy and Education describes the pitfall accurately when he says: The very word art may become associated not with specific transformation of things, making them more significant for mind, but with stimu lation of eccentric fancy and with emotional in dulgences* The separation and mutual contempt of the "practical” man and the man of theory or culture, the divorce of fine and industrial art are indications of this situation* The same con ditions force many people back upon themselves* They take refuge in an inner play of sentiment and fancies* They are aesthetic, but not artistic, since their feelings and ideas are turned upon themselves, instead of being methods in acts which modify conditions* Even the pursuit of science may become an asylum of refuge from the hard conditions of life - not a temporary retreat for the sake of recuperation and clarification in future dealings with the world* In many ways the foregoing description fits the tradi tional pattern of the university, and throws into sharp relief the awakening that Is stirring in many a hallowed hall* University art departments are slow to accept this re-direction, but some encouraging steps have been taken*
manage to design our whole curriculum in tune with the hard conditions of life, our art training program Is incomplete and a fraud.
For the primitive man and the child, art is
not extraneous and removed from life, but rather an intensi fication of life*
Art is regarded by primitive man as so
important that its use is socialized; and an artist for art’s sake would probably have been killed as a dangerous devil, but an artist for the communityfs sake became a priest and a king*
Let us become the priests and kings of our day by teach
ing art as a practical pursuit.
Art vs. Fine Art.
This presents the whole problem of
the arts in a new light.
Academicians love the distinction -
"Fine” and ,fApplied” art - they cling to it as though it were a healthy new idea instead of an ancient Renaissance one. Before the Renaissance, the so-called ,fFine Arts” (architec ture, sculpture, painting, poetry, and music) were not ex plicitly named nor distinctly recognized as a separate class; even in classical Greece there was only one word, "tokhne” for both kinds of art.
This unfortunate schism has flourished
until the advent of the industrial revolution.
of the position, and the application of "tasteful” decoration on machine made produc ts has at last become evident, and a new, emancipated, structural art is evolving, unfettered by the chains of the traditional. Integration.
Since we believe that education deals
with modifying and changing human behavior for the better rather than with just cerebral gymnastics, then we have an excellent case for the arts - especially those tagged by Renaissance thinking as the Applied Arts, a lesser category than those so-called Fine Arts.
The tongues that clack the
loudest at the low level of public taste are usually the tongues that speak of art in revered, removed tones - reaching always the same audience which essentially agrees with the Fine Arts attitude already, thus perpetuating the market for the cheap and shallow.
Fortunately, creative thinking in the
20th century has begun to think the Applied Arts into their
rightful high status among the Arts* be made*
No distinction should
It is interesting that we are approaching a re
integration of the arts - a family reunion and a social re union.
Perseverance will be needed if this integrating
process is to flourish because there are persistent, tradi tional, academic voices raised in the interest of research and history that condemn the practical arts*
snobs scorn the practical arts as lacking purity of creativeness.
There are figures of influence in university education
circles who question the inclusion of advertising art in the University Art curriculum.
Banish it to the trade and art
schools - too much compromise with the creative spirit is en countered In advertising design]
To call it a compromise to
adapt art to a practical need seems to be a symptom of with drawal of a most serious nature - what value is pure creativi ty?
What value to himself or society is the rigid, uncom
We recognize him as an ill, maladjusted
person and recommend psychiatric treatment to reintegrate him in society. Influence.
The Idea that the advertising designer is in
complete contact with business is a revolting thought to the ivory tower boys.
Some of their revulsion of course is jus
tified - advertising certainly can be a coarse and ugly mon ster.
In Chapter 9 of The Mature Mind Professor Harry A.
Overstreet discusses this aspect of public contact. Pour influences continually at work in the shaping of our character are newspapers, radio, movies, and advertising. We need now to ask the psychosocial
vl question whether the influence of these has, in the main, been for or against our maturing. Advertising is the nation1s biggest business. It is also one of the biggest and most continuous psychological influences in our lives. Advertising halts our psychological growth to the extent that it makes us do too much wanting and makes us want things for the wrong reasons. Responsibility.
Advertising art as a means of communica
tion reaches directly into millions of personsf lives daily through many media - on busses, street cars, billboards placed strategically at important traffic intersections, in window display, newspaper ads, magazine ads, motion pictures, television programs and brochures. its Influence is inescapable.
Unless you are a hermit
Thus, it has a real responsibili
ty, and advertisers are slowly coming to this awareness.
course, the central aim is to sell the product visually - and this has led to blatant and offensive examples, a distinct air of irresponsibility, and, all too often, an appeal to the coarse and base in human nature.
Gan this pattern be
changed? The Solution.
Now arises the problem of the best way in
which to combat these unhealthy and crass influences.
very important aveune is the training of our advertising de signers, who will exercize a refining influence upon all they are called upon to design.
Theirs is a very precarious course,
and calls for the best of tact and a truly broad background not only in the arts, but in writing, psychology, history, and business education.
The advertising designer must navigate
a course between two reefs, the demogogy of the advertiser and the esoterism of his own artistry.
The business man,
whether out of routine or prejudice, is anxious above all to comply with what he considers public taste, though it is just this type of advertising that the public does not see, since its own mimicry conceals it in the mass of other advertisements.
The artist too sometimes thinks primarily
of satisfying his own aesthetic concepts and thus loses his objectivity.
Advertising art does not answer to any trans
cendental idea of beauty for its own sake, but to the notion of utility.
The intervention of the artist is justified be
cause, with his creative imagination, his gift of expression, and his mastery of form, he is more efficacious than the non artist.
The first aim of publicity is to put over an idea.
It imposes a subject, a strictly prescribed theme, from which the artist must not diverge.
Creative advertising art there
fore demands talent and inventive powers, but even more so a certain capacity of mind which, after having assimilated the data of a problem, can arrive at a solution which is satisfy ing both in psychological and aesthetic respects.
certainly in the realm of university training; the trade and art schools simply do not have the facilities and breadth of cultural offering that are found in most modern universities. So we must offer this training, shape it finer and make it conform to the changing, hard conditions of the very real ad vertising world. Literature.
Reliable and stimulating texts on the teach
ing of advertising art are few; there are no projects to be found in the library on this subject.
Most of the books and
brochures touch only on isolated aspects of the advertising designers* art, so it is hoped that this project will pull some of these aspects of advertising design into one unified whole.
Perhaps the one creative approach has been written
by Paul Rand, Some Thoughts on Design, who is well qualified to author such a book, being one of the most outstanding ad vertising designers in America today.
However, it is of an
inspirational nature rather than one which can be adapted to laboratory use.
There are some important new developments in
the designing of visual elements, and it is hoped that these will be obvious in each of the chapters.
Both The Language of
Vision by G. Kepes, and Vision in Motion by Moholy-Nagy are essential in the library of both the instructor of advertising design and the prospective student.
Although these books do
not deal with advertising design specifically, they are indis pensable in providing an understanding background of contempor ary, visual developments and in keeping up to date. The Problem.
The challenge to provide a practical, con
temporary and refining course of study in advertising design must be met by university art departments or the influence will remain where it is - in the trade and art schools which prepare for the business world as it is, instead of striving to prepare and instill a reforming zeal.
The best education in any field
accomplishes more than mere perpetuation - it works to get things done on a higher plane as well.
It is the aim of this
syllabus to provide a workable course of study which will meet the needs of the advertising world in a consistently better manner.
PREFACE TO INSTRUCTORS Are you interested in modernizing and streamlining your course of study in advertising design?
It is to your ever
lasting credit if you are so concerned, as there are few fields that fall into disrepair so quickly as the art of ad vertising.
The styles and trends develop very briskly, and
it requires an alert Instructor to keep his problems and con tent current.
The material and design methods outlined In
this course of study for university advertising design students are planned to meet your need. The last two years of the art program for the advertising design student is covered here.
It is based on an assumption
that a thorough training in art structure and drawing have been required and mastered in the two years preceding the area outlined in this course of study.
Some of the chapters
are broad enough to comprise a complete termfs work; for ex ample, the chapters on lettering and layout easily would make a full termTs study for complete and professional mastery. The area of fashion Illustration has been omitted purposely as it is a rather specialized art in its own right and deserves separate attention. A knowledge of technical skills, design sensitivity, imaginative Inventiveness, and visual sales psychology are to be stressed at all times, plus an awareness of contempor ary trends in the space arts.
These are the prime requisites
for the top flight design instructor.
A lack of these in
gradients cannot be concealed for one moment in the creative art classroom as their presence or lack will be reflected directly in the results your students achieve.
cannot be hidden; so you owe it not only to yourself, but to your students to exude good taste, know the best, and to keep up to date.
Students will produce dated items because
they are surrounded with them every day, and you must do something positive to refine their visual environment. Screen all your samples with utmost care and present only the finest contemporary work. phere beyond reproach.
Keep the illustrative atmos
Under these favorable environmental
influences produced and controlled by you, your students are bound to flourish and grow. Special thanks are due to Mr. Kenneth Kingrey, instructor in advertising design at the University of California at Los Angeles, who has given freely of his guidance and pro fessional experience In helping to make this project cover many of the practical problems which arise in teaching this subject in a university art department.
Also the typing and
editing services of Mrs. Dorothy Cox have been most helpful in advancing this project.
PREFACE TO STUDENTS As a student of advertising design obviously you will want to have every assurance that the curriculum offered you is realistically and practically planned, that it is contemporary and not dated, and that it will be the best possible broad preparation for the work you aspire to do. Your portfolio of original work is your passport to the pro fession, so it is extremely important to see that the finest calibre creative work goes into it.
You will want to create
and accumulate this evidence of your ability under the best possible guidance.
In fact, competent instruction is your
only assurance that your portfolio contains first rate ad vertising design. The contents of the portfolio provide concrete expression of the growth which has taken place in your ability to make your advertising efforts a genuine art.
This growth is all
important - a growth that is not just a technical flash of brilliance, but one that is buttressed by broad understanding of design principles, selling psychology, social sciences, history and all that a university can offer to you - a variety that a trade school or a specialized art school is not equipped to offer.
The university is striving to train you as a leader
in your field, not to train you as a hack advertising artist equipped with the usual technical cliches.
Also the univer
sity will foster a deep desire in you to do your part in im-
proving the quality of advertising design.
training will go "beyond mere learning how the work is done now, and will always strive to have you learn how it can be done better. It is hoped that this reforming zeal will be tempered with tact, diplomacy, and a serene patience.
It would be
(and has been) a serious handicap for you as a beginner to stride into your first Job and antagonize all your col leagues at the outset.
This happens to the over-zealous
regularly, and is perhaps the result of a neglected facet of training.
It always destroys the opportunity to accom
plish anything constructive. So herefs to talent, imaginative inventiveness, and the personal qualities that will help you to get along with all the various skilled workers with whom you will work in the fl eId •
TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER
PAGE PART I. THE ADVERTISING MEDIA HOW TO GAIN A SENSE OP REALISM IN CLASS PROBLEMS
to design for the daily advertise ...........
H oy ;
MAGAZINE: How to win the attention of the reader of periodicals....................................
How to sell music visually • • • * *
DIRECT MAIL: How to prevent the demise of the advertiser’s pamphlet in the circular file* * . • •
PACKAGING: How to design a distinguished container • • • .......... • • • • • • • • • • • •
How to arrest the fast moving eye • . .
EXHIBIT: How to plan an effective display in a .........................42 three dimensional space PART II. THE PROFESSIONAL WORLD HOW TO PROGRESS IN YOUR PROFESSION
YOUR FIRST JOB: How to make a successful search for a position...................................... 49
How to keep from going stale* . . .
How to preserve harmony. •
PART III. THE DESIGNERS’ TOOLS HOW TO MASTER THE BASIC MEANS OF EXPRESSION 11.
LETlERING: How to gain skill in the selection and use of modern letter f o r m s .................... 68
LAYOUT: How to utilize a given space to the best optical advantage ........................ 77
COLOR: How to achieve the best psychological and aesthetic e f f e c t ...........
PHOTOGRAPHY: How to incorporate the picture successfully........ ............... . . . . . . .
SUBJECT MATTER: How to design visual ideas in the moderni d i o m * ................................... 99
PRODUCTION METHODS: How to prepare your art work for massreproduction.......................... 109
GLOSSARY............................................... 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................... 119
LIST OP EXHIBITS EXHIBIT
A. Examples of 2 and 3 Column Newspaper Ads . . .
B. Samples of Magazine Advertising Design • « • •.
C. Car Card Used in Subway Advertising Campaign . •
D« Record Album Covers.
E* Well Designed Enclosures................
P. Samples of Lettering and
G. Examples of Skilful Use of Layout Space........83 H. Samples of Ideas in the Modern I d i o m ......... . 106
LIST OF CHARTS CHART I.
Color Association C h a r t ....................
PART I. THE ADVERTISING MEDIA HOW TO GAIN A SENSE OP REALISM IN CLASS PROBLEMS It would "be sheer folly for the advertising design student of today to pursue a course of study at any school which has failed to plan that course around life needs* Since advertising is in dead earnest with its aims, so must he the training of its futuro dosignor3* There is a strong undertone of unreality in most school situations, very often due to unrealistic planning. Much of this "remov ed” atmosphere can he shaken if the content of a particular course is arranged around problems and situations needing solution in the everyday pursuit of the art. Here is a series of very real adver tising situations which you will find challenging to your creative energies.
CHAPTER 1. NEWSPAPER HOY/ TO DESIGN FOR THE DAILY ADVERTISEMENT A*
MOTIVATION;_^ Returns that will come from designing a good newspaper advertisement* 1.
FEELING FOR TEMPO:
You will capture a sense of the
rapid fire make-up and distribution of a daily paper* 2.
Designing for the unit sizes
of a newspaper (from one column to a full page) de mands quick adjustability* 3. MORE QUALIQY:
Familiarity with the special design
problems of newspaper will lead you to improve its visual appeal* B»
Suggestions on how to meet the requirements
inherent in newspaper advertising* 1. How to lend a.
realism to the newspaper design problem*
Work in newspaper unit sizes* (1) Use one column width. (2) Use a full page size*
Limit the time in order to create the pressure of a deadline.
Choose a seasonal subject. (1) Make use of weather conditions. (2) Capture the mood of a holiday. (3) Capitalize on a current event.
Select a newsworthy scoop item from a current news paper advertisement*
Cover a wide range of merchandise subjects* (1) Apparel*
(5) Furni ture•
Render your rough sketches on news stock in black grease crayon.
Work in line or line and value (groy3).
Mount sketches on a printed newspaper page.
Develop sketches from actual objects. (1) Bowls. (2) Chairs. (3) Lamps.
Use a line rule to determine depth of layout.
How to gain visual impact. a.
Work for quickness of reading by discarding all unessentials•
Make layout strong and simple by using few direc tions for better visual order.
Donft lead into next layout.
(Always lead into
your own material.) d.
Use the “white fence11 (blank space) to keep the other ads away.
Employ strong contrasts of dark and light.
Make your headings short.
Use simple letter forms.
Employ color accent if budget will allow.
How to solve special layout problems peculiar to the newspaper* a.
Make a normal column layout a "scant11 width to avoid crowding adjacent matter* (1) Make a scant one column space (2 inches) fit into 1-7/811• (2) Make a scant two column space fit into 3-3/4”. (3) Make a scant three column opaco fit into 5-1/2”.
Plan as much white space as possible since it is often impossible to predict the position of the ad on the page.
Locate full page ads in right hand position. (The left hand page in opening a paper is likely to be foreshortened, whereas the right hand full page commands immediate attention*)
Keep art work simple and large in detail as possible. (Fineness of detail will be lost because of the coarse, soft texture of newsprint.)
Projects to improve your grasp of
advertising design for the newspaper. 1.
Choose a poorly planned newspaper advertisement from today1s newspaper and re-design it using same elements, same size, and same position on page.
Design a full page advertisement as a starting campaign for Safeway Stores7 new price schedule, using photo.
Design an advertising series (one week) for a tele vision show for children.
Some methods of checking up on the salient
points of newspaper advertisement. 1.
Place X in the correct space for true
or false. T F a. ( )( ) Newspaper ads require many details to hold readers1 a ttention. b. ( )( ) Color is used extensively in newspaper ads today. 2.
Place the number of the best answer in
the parentheses. a. ( ) In newspaper ads it is not a good technique to (1) Leave plenty of white space.
strongly toward the right with a heading. (3) Employ simple type forms.
(4) Locate ads
on right hand side of page. b. ( ) When designing for the newspaper you can gain visual impact by: space.
(1) Designing in a large
(2) Embellishing the layout.
ploying strong contrasts of dark and light values. 3.
(4) Using complex letter forms. Place X in the spaces to represent the
skills in which you are most proficient. a. ( ) Quick idea roughs.
Meeting the publishing deadline
Simplifying your idea.
Dramatizing your layout.
The finished layout.
The small advertisement.
The full page advertisement.
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:
Reading which will aid you
Chenault, Richard S.:
Advertising Layout. 5:40-49
Heck-Cattell Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1946. 2.
Advertising and Editorial Layout.
7:257-285. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1949.
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EXHIBIT A 2 COLUMN NEWSPAPER PROOF
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EXHIBIT A (Cont'd) A SAMPLE OP A GOOD 3 COLUMN NEWSPAPER AD
CHAPTER 2. MAGAZINE HOW TO WIN THE ATTENTION OF THE READER OF PERIODICALS A. MOTIVATION:
Sales skills that you can add to your
advertising repertoire* 1. ATTRACTION:
Your skill In capturing the eye will
increase sales. 2.
You will learn to maintain a style charac
teristic of a given magazine. 3. DRAMATIZATION:
Your design sense will aid you in
making relatively dull material appear exciting. 4. ORIGINALITY:
You will discover that it is a sign
of weakness to imitate other publications in the field. B. DIRECTIONS:
Some techniques you must employ in designing
for the modern magazine. 1.
How to add sales appeal to the magazine layout through intelligent use of color. a.
Increase the interest 4 to 1 over black and white ads by using color.
Make the color integrate with the product to glorify it, and the value may run well over 100 per cent. (1) A national advertiser offering a give-away picture states that full color reproductions drew 4 times as many inquiries as did black and white. (2) A mail order company reproduced an article in natural color for half the run and black
and white for the other half; the color page pulled 15 times better. c.
Use color for higher noticeability, but remember that black and white has greater readership.
Because color is compelling it may also be distract ing, so keep the proportions fine.
How to classify and analyze a magazine to get the nfeeln of its character. a.
Determine if it is styled for consistency.
Check to see if it is styled far variety.
Find out if it is a conservative publication.
Examine the contents to see if it verges on the sensational.
Look to see if it is highly sophisticated.
Hov; to design the interior pages. a.
Use the following methods in straight presentation format. (1 ) Confine the shapes to plain rectangles. (2) Arrange the rectangle formally or semi-formally. (3) Design the total double page. (4) Avoid any visual stunts. (5) Adhere to conventional themes.
Use the following devices in designing for dramatiza tion.
(The trend is toward greater vitality - less of
the conservative.) (1) Play upon the unexpected. (2) Make use of large scale illustrations.
(3) Select bold lettering. (4) Work for contrasting values. (5) Use interesting detail.
(Most magazine paper
is superior to newspaper and allows greater re finement. ) (6 ) Experiment with something small on large, plain field for drama. 4.
How to relate photograph to type. a.
Allow the mood of the photo to help decide its position and treatment.
b. Pick up the edge of a photo with the line of the
c. Allow the type to bite into the photo if it doesnft create a jumbled effect. d. Limit the number of angles to create order. e. Play up the dominance of one photo. f. Pick up some dominant line movement in the photo
follow in type, title, and other photos. g. Crop the photo for better composition and dramatic effect. h.
Make use of ghost pages.
i. Avoid cliches; e.g. amoeba shapes, j. Leave ample white space. 5.
How to design the magazine cover. a.
Consider the nature of the contents. (1) Humor - Hew Yorker. (2) Flowers - House & Garden. (3) Antiques - House Beautiful.
(4) Personalities - Time. (5) Abstractions - Arts and Architecture* (6 ) Travel - Holiday. (7) Science - Popular Mechanics* (S) Industry - Fortune* b.
Select theme from a feature article.
Make use of abstraction for sophisticated magazine•
Use colored photography*
Keep the title bold and clear by eliminating detail behind it.
Make use of seasonal material,
Remember the decided advantage of color over black and white. (See Ch. 13.)
Some practical ways to enlarge
your experience as a designer for magazines. 1.
Design cover for Collierfs magazine, size and format, and a double page spread for a featured article in the same magazine (to be imagined by the student). Use theme photo plus 3 subordinate photos.
Design a cover for Fortune magazine which dramatizes an article in the issue on the oil industry of California.
Analyze tlie New Yorker, Time, House Beautiful, Fortune, and Arts and Architecture as to style, audience, content, and mood and list the signifi cant differences important to the designer.
design an appropriate ad making use of each style. D.
Samples of ways in which your mastery of
designing for the magazine may be checked. 1.
Place X in the correct space for true or
false• T F a. ( )( ) Greater intricacy of detail is possible in magazine design. b. ( )( ) Each page should be designed independently. 2.
Place the number of the best answer in
the parentheses. a. ( ) The layout trend in most current magazines is toward: (1) Greater conservatism. photographs.
(3) Less bleeding of photographs.
(4) Greater dramatization. b. ( ) To design a better magazine cover you should: (1) Always choose a humorous subject. use of abstraction.
(3) Relate the subject and
treatment to the style of the magazine. (4) Stick to feminine figures. 3.
Place X in the space for the ones in
which you feel most qualified.
a, ( ) Analyzing the character requirements of a magazine# b#
() Selling the magazine by an irresistible
() Integrating the double page spread.
() Dramatizing dull material by effectiveidea layout#
e. ( ) Controlling the color to make it attractive rather than distracting. ( E.
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:
Supplementary reading you will
find helpful. 1.
Chenault, Richard S.:
Advertising Layout. 4: 33-39.
Heck-Cattell Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1946. 2.
Price, Matlack: 6
Advertising and Editorial Layout.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1949.
Fortune MAY 1946
lir .m is
S iim iiK 'i
I .I c i i h -i i I t
iiisliiw . IV rsenl'
EXHIBIT B EXAMPLES OP CONTEMPORARY MAGAZINE COVERS
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IJ J le n tu r y J ’h ea tre , 7th Ave. & 59th St. • Mats. Wed. & Sat.
EXHIBIT B (Cont*d) SINGLE COLUMN MAGAZINE ADS
CHAPTER 3. BILLBOARD HOW TO ARREST THE PAST MOVING EYE A. MOTIVATION:Visual dividends that will become yours when you meet the design needs of the billboard# 1.
MORE MEMORABLE ADS: eye day
Keeping the product in the public
and night will hammer the name into consciousness
The very size of your billboard
will capture notice* 3*
Dramatic use of strong letter
forms plus contrasting values will make your bill board stand out from all others. 4.
IMPROVED PUBLIC TASTE: public.
You will bring art to the
The billboard is the working man’s art
gallery. B. DIRECTIONS:
Design problems that are peculiar to large
scale advertising. 1.
How to start your design. a.
Remember that your audience is a large, average one.
Avoid extreme abstractions In idea that will lack mass appeal.
List all the possible visual approaches inherent in your subject.
Select one or two of the most striking factors and start sketching them in the idea rough.
Measure the actual size of the billboard for which you are designing.
Scale your thumb sketches down to a preferred proportional size.
g. Rough in the lettering. h.
Plan and think colorright along with your idea. (You may prefer to begin your idea rough in color at the outset.)
How to increase the visibility of your design, a*
Eliminate most of the small detail.
Use high visibility color.
(Research has proven
that color varies in visibility in the following order:)
(1) Black on yellow.
Blue on white.
(2) Green on white.
(5) White on blue.
(3) Red on white.
(6 ) Black on white.
Plan the lettering for readability and visibility at long range.
Stylize your subject matter.
realistic and pictorial detail adapts it for quick seeing.) e.
If you use realism, dramatize it by making it large and surrounding it with plain space. is difficult to stylize food and retain its edible appeal.)
Always plan ample plain space no matter what style you adopt.
How to design lettering for large advertising. a. Choose simple type forms; e.g. Futura and Stymie. b.
Dramatize lower case Roman by enlarging it. (Enlarged lower case lettering produces a startle effect.)
Make use of script.
(Larger rhythmic effects create
eye catching movement.) d. Place key words in prominent positions. e.
Pull attention with strong dark and light contrasts.
f. Use the productsf familiar logotype. g. Let the illustration do most of the talking. h.
Use maximum of 10 words.
(Fewer are better as the
average reading time for 24 sheet posters on our highways has been estimated at 4 seconds.) i. Use line direction as eye direction. 3
. Introduce a diagonal line of lettering to lead the eye.
How to make use of sure fire billboard advertising methods. a.
Exhibit the message and name as often as possible. (Repetition.)
Introduce bold, clear, pure hues.
Maintain large scale ads; the very magnitude lends emphasis.
Utilize all types of outdoor advertising. (1) Post panel (24 sheet) 12*x 251 which is the standard size billboard on which the familiar paper sheets are pasted.
(2) Painted bulletin, 12-l/2*x 47!.
a band painted ad on steel panels executed in the studio which is changed three times per year*) (3) Painted wall.
(Varies in size according to
the building wall area, and is changed in frequently. ) (4) Spectacular.
(Illuminated sign which has
special attraction at night.) (5) Roof sign.
(Sold and handled the same way as
painted bulletins.) (6 ) Car cards.
(Pit into exhibit panels on street
cars and buses and may be more detailed as passengers have longer time to absorb the message.) 5.
(See Exhibit C.)
How to reproduce your small idea to the billboard size. a.
Have the original lithographed in color and en larged into paper paste up panels.
advertisers get uniformity and rapid spread of in formation this way.) b.
Project the scale design onto a paper wall in a studio by means of a reflectoscope and copy the format.
(Poster-Kleiser makes use of this method
of reproduction.) c.
Cut silk screens for each color and print on paper.
Hand paint directly onto wall or panels from scale drawing.
Laboratory performances that will
Iielp you in getting the xeel of the large billboard. 1.
Completely design to scale for a 12-l/2*x 47* painted panel billboard an advertisement for circus peanuts. Pay special attention to the following factors: a*
Mood and scale of the lettering and illustration. (Render some tempting peanuts.)
school!s reflectoscope and project the finished design on a large wall space to get large effect, b. 2.
Visibility of color and values.
Design a car card for any nationally advertised pro duct.
Work in actual car card size.
Limit to 3
colors and black. D.
Samples of ways your ability to design the
large advertisement can be checked. 1.
Place X in the correct space for true
or false. a.
T F ()( )Repetition is one important device
use to stamp a product into public thinking. b.
()( )Car cards can be more detailed and have more reading matter than outdoor billboards as passengers have more time to absorb the message•
()( )Black on white is the highest on the list of high visibility color combinations.
Place the number of the best answer
in the parentheses. a. ( ) To gain readership on large billboards you should use not more than: (2)
(4) 2 words.
b. ( ) For the best color legibility you should employ: (1) Purple and black. white.
(3) Green and red.
(2) Red and
(4) Yellow and
Place X in the spaces for which you
qualify. a. ( ) Originality. b. ( ) Legibility. c. ( ) Feeling for the large scale. d. ( ) Elimination of distracting detail. e • ( ) Adapting your subject to good poster style f. ( ) Dramatic presentation. ( E.
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:
Where to find further assistance.
Chenault, Richard S.:
Heck-Cattell Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1946.
EXHIBIT C CAR CARD USED IK SUBWAY ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN
CHAPTER 4. RECORD ALBUM HOW TO SELL MUSIC VISUALLY A.
Advantages that will be yours when your de
sign is visual music, 1. INCREASED SALES;
An eye catching album cover is
definite sales asset* 2. PERSONAL PRESTIGE:
When you design successfully for
music, you indicate superior visual mastery* 3*
Your well designed cover will be
used for window display, counter display; whereas the dull, uninteresting album covers will stay hidden. 4* WIDER PUBLICITY;
Your name will become known and as
sociated with fine things. B*
Some problems you will encounter when you
design for music* 1.
How to produce an album cover that is in harmony with the mood of the music* a.
Listen to the records two or three times at one sitting to absorb the total effect.
Make note of the tempo.
(It will give you a clue
as to visual treatment of line and pattern.) c.
Analyze the melodic line.
Absorb the musical mood.
(Dreamy and slow,
sprightly, agitated, ponderous, tragic, dissonant, humorous, simple, or abstract.)
Deliberately design in the appropriate mood.
Find out what the composer!s inspirational sub ject was.
g. Study the composerfs life, times, and other compositions• h.
Determine if a certain musical instrument was featured.
i. Obtain the reaction of musicians. j. Listen to the records alone again. k.
Aim at real mood, not superficial literal inter pretation.
Express your best interpretation of the music. (No two people will agree exactly as to inter pretation. )
Write down all your impressions and mull through them as you make your beginning roughs.
How to break the design job down into workable parts. a.
Decide on the media best suited to your music.
Choose a tool that helps express the spirit of the music•
Make your beginning roughs in the chosen media.
Pill your inind with the music.
Work while the records are playing.
Examine your first roughs critically and re-combine your best ideas.
Make a careful choice of lettering and typography for appropriate style.
Ascertain if there are any special requirements. (1) Margins. (2) Size -
”, 12”, or long playing.
(3) Color restrictions. (4) Number of words. (5) Order of importance of words. (6 ) Ideas of your superiors. I.
Complete your rendering with professional accuracy,
If it is to be reproduced for production, prepare acetate overlays for each color separation, and key to the basic composition.
How to support the idea with color. a.
Select a medium that seems appropriate:
charcoal, pastel, ink, scratch board. b.
Apply the color while the paper is wet for ethereal effects.
Apply the color in opaque flat washes for firmer, more studied effects.
Treat the color in as complex a fashion as a painting If the effect is right.
Utilize subtle hue and value gradations for atmos pheric impression.
Mix color with other media; e.g. charcoal, pen and ink, or pencil.
Refer to the color association chart.
(See Chart I.)
How to make use of architecture and accessories. a.
Make a thorough research on architectural detail if the music has a particular locale.
Draw details accurately even though you intend to treat them abstractly in the composition.
c. Allow a single item to tell a story mood; e.g. a clock, a rose, an eye, d.
or to set a an urn, etc.
Make use of delicate tracery in architecture to express intricacy in musical passages.
Utilize both interior and exterior architectural motifs for interest.
Call upon the magic of symbols to put across the idea.
How to make use of the figure in album cover design. a.
Draw from the model for authenticity.
Dress the model in appropriate clothing.
Choose a model that has the proper character; e.g. jolly, old, female, male, delicate,
Distort your drawing for decorative effect.
Place the model in an appropriate setting.
Simplify the drawing of the figure for force.
Laboratory work that will help you
along in designing for music sales. 1.
Design a 10fl album cover for Carmen Miranda1 s latest group of fiery Latin recordings. a.
Brisk, volatile mood*
Design an L. P. album cover for the Sitwellfs album called ffPacade”•
3his will appeal to a sophisticated
audience, so you can emphasize the abstract, the sym bolic, and the interpretive* 3*
Design a 12,f album cover for a group of blues songs interpreted and sung by Josh White*
Some evaluation instruments for checking your
progress in album cover design* 1*
Place X in the correct space for true or
T F ()( ) To grasp the mood of a piece of music you should rely only on the judgment of a pro fessional musician.
()( ) You will find little help in studying the life and times of the composer*
Place the number of the correct answer
in the parentheses* a. ( ) To achieve an ethereal mood you should use: (1) Pen and ink. (3) Pencil* b.
(2) Plat color washes*
(4) Wet color.
() In interpreting a composition with an historical or local flavor you should: (1) Do some research on the local architecture.
(2) Read the history
of the period* (3) Pind a model from the country. (4) Utilize non-objective forms.
Place X in the space for which you
feel best qualified.
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:
Where to find good supplementary
Gruber, Fritz L*: “Design for Music.“ Graph!s, 5:14-23 (July, 1949)*
Armstutz and Herdeg Graphis Press,
Columbia readby ORSON WFl.lF S
IAM I s h a i r
( C . olnmbia)
6) h a i r i ) ( P e t r a )