A course of study for the Biology Survey I course at Orange Coast College

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A Project Presented to The Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California

In P a rtia l Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Hueston M. Harper August 1950

UMI Number: EP46346

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T h i s p r o j e c t r e p o r t, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n of the c a n d i d a t e ’s a d v i s e r a n d a p p r o v e d b y h im , has been p r e s e n t e d to a n d a c c e p t e d by the F a c u l t y of the S c h o o l of E d u c a t i o n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the r eq u ir e m e n t s f o r the d e g r e e of M a s t e r of S c ie n c e in E d u c a ti o n .


.C i

'iS O ? ......




THE PROBLEM........................................................................................


Biology I at Orange Coast College...............................


Background and needs of students ...............................


Sources of information for organizing a course of study for Biology I at Oraige Coast College .........................................................


Shortcomings of traditional methods of teaching biology . ...................................


General philosophy of education of a functional course...................................................................


Aims and purposes of a functional biology course

. . .


General and specific objectives of a biological science course.............................. Skills to be developed in a biologycourse . .


Outline of the lesson plan .


.......................... . .

Functional a c tiv itie s under theproblem. Proposed course sequence II.


. . .




LESSON PLANS...................................................................................... Unit I .

General B iology.................................................... Chapter 1.

B iology.......................................... .

19 19 19


. Chapter 2




Chapter 3.



Chapter 4.



Chapter 5.



Chapter 6 .



Unit I I .

Human B iology...........................


Chapter 7.



Chapter 8 .

Physiology. . . . . . . .


Chapter 9.




Chapter 10.



Chapter 11.

Immunology. . . . . . . .


Chapter 12.




Plant Biology..................................................


Unit I I I .

Chapter 13.



Chapter 14.

Phytophysiology ....................


Chapter 15.



Chapter 16.

A g ric u ltu re ..............................


Chapter 17.

B acterio log y ..........................


Unit IV.Animal Biology.



Chapter 18.

Zoology . . . . . . . . .


Chapter 19.



Chapter 20.



Chapter 21.



Chapter 22.





Unit V.

Social Biology....................................................


Chapter 23.



Chapter 24.

G e n e tics....................................


Chapter 25.

E ugenics...................................


Chapter 26.



Ghapter 27.



Chapter 28.

Philosophy ..............................








THE RAM ASSIGNED BY PUPILS TO TOPICS IN BIOLOGY............................................................................................


CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM The purpose of th is project was to develop a eourse of study for the Biology Survey I eourse at Orarge Coast College.

This paper was designed to serve as a guide to

the instructor hy presentirg lesson units in problems char­ a c te ristic of the different fields of biological sciences. Biology I at Orarge Coast College.

The Orarge Coast

catalogue states that Biology I w ill be a survey of the biological sciences dealing with the development of these sciences, and including a brief introduction to each of the main field s.

It' is a one-semester three-unit elective

eourse which f u l f i l l s the state requirements in hygiene. The text to be used is Life Science—A Survey of the Var­ ious Fields of Science. 1 Background and needs of students. signed for no specific group of students.

Biology I is de­ I t can be used

to p artially f u l f i l l the university lower division require­ ment of ten to twelve units in natural science for those

^ M. W. de Laubenfels, Life Science—A Survey of the Various Fields of Science (New York: Prentice Hall, 1948), 320 pp.

students who intend to transfer to a university.

I t is re ­

commended for those students who have not had a biological science eourse in high school and who are unprepared to handle a technical laboratory science.

Thus, the students

in the class form a heterogeneous group, with wide diver­ sific a tio n in th e ir background, in terests, and previous ex­ periences.

The vast majority of those who enroll in Biology

I w ill not become specialists in aiy field of science; In­ stead, they are lay persons who want to learn important principles of science which will aid them in understand!rg such things as the functioniig of th e ir own bodies, how to be in tellig ent consumers, the methods used in improving plants and animal stocks, and the complexities of th e ir science-dominated world.

This course in biology may be the

only contact that some students w ill have with natural sci­ ence duriig th e ir formal education. Sources of information for organizing; a course of study for Biology I a t Orange Coast College. 1. Survey of courses of study of other junior col­ leges. 2. Survey of the college texts in biological sci­ ence. 3. Survey of the high school texts in biologieal seienee. 4. Survey of masters’ theses and masters* projects

on the same problem. 5. Survey of the course of study for l i f e science in the Los Aigeles City Schools. 6 . Ideas obtained from participation in the Workshop

for Instructors of Scienees in Junior Colleges under Dr. Bingham of Northwestern University at the University of Southern California summer session 1950* 7. The author’s fourteen years of experience as an instructor. 8 . V isitatio n of various school biological science

departments. 9. Reading of texts on methods of teaching lif e sciences. 1 0 . Reading of miscellaneous

a rtic le s on the subject.

11. Reading of pamphlets and manuals on techniques in biological sciences. Shortcomings of traditional methods of teachjig biol ogy.

Mary courses in l i f e sciences are designed to be of

value to those few who may become research biologists or technicians.

Usually these eourses are organized around a

botany or zoology te x t.

Often the subject matter as pre­

sented is merely knowledge for the sake of knowledge, and in soma cases subject matter is selected that w ill enable the students to a tta in high averages on achievement or stand-

ardized te s ts .

A similar opinion was expressed by Dr.

Ralph Eckert, State Department of Eduction consultant, in an address made before the Pasadena Teachers Summer ftfork2 shop and reported in the Los Argeles Times. The day of teaching mainly facts has passed. Today*s schools feel the obligation of helpirg stu­ dents to come to terms with th e ir own feelings. W e must nourish a sequence of emotional growth—to raise future parents who w ill be more affectionate, respon­ sible, and with a sense of humour and wholesome a t t i ­ tudes toward sex. Subject matter, which is actually the tools of the functional eourse, should be used as a means to an end, instead of existing as an end in i t s e l f .

Subject matter

furnishes the facts that should stimulate activity which in turn will help students solve th e ir everyday problems.


result is that the student is able to live more effectively than he could have done i f he had not made an analysis of the situation.

As an example, many biology courses have

considered the structure and c la ssificatio n of plants and animals important when the emphasis should be on the rea­ sons for study of the structure and classification, such as the methods of dealing with factors that would improve the raisirg of plants and animals.

The work in the classroom

should apply to facts or problems that face the students in order that they may deal with th eir problems more effee2 pg. 1 .

Los Argeles Times for July 3, 1950.

Section I I ,


The attitudes and philosophy that resu lt from th is

experience will he more valuable to them in solving th e ir problems than a great number of undigested facts that they have small chance to use a fte r they finish the course.


dens should feel that they are getting somethirg out of the course because i t supplies a f e lt need within themselves instead of beiig made to 'f e e l that they are confronted with a series of dull facts and definitions which have l i t t l e connection with li f e as they know i t . Many teachers of biology have been guilty of teach­ ing facts for th eir informational value, without regard for th e ir connections with student problems.

At the junior col­

lege level students definitely have problems of a biological nature and a re seriously attempting to solve them.


more, they are more willing to diseuss these problems than they were a t an e a rlie r age.

The instructor in th is case

does not have to be the sole motivating foree i f the course is centered around student problems.

Making the course

functional in i t s e l f solves one-of the big motivating fac­ to rs.

In the functional course, the content must include

problems of the individual that arise out of everyday liv Ing.

Living problems need solving.

The actual discussion

and solution of these problems w ill enable the individual to be happier as well as better able to cope with the prob­ lems of out-of-school situations.

Instead of walking die-

tionaries “ we want and need more individuals who are better able to understand and cope with the factors of th e ir enviro me nt. General philosophy of education o f _a functional eourse.

In organizing a eourse of study for Biology I at

Orange Coast College i t was imperative to have clearly in mind a philosophy of education that would serve as a guide in setting up aims or objectives for a functional eourse. The problem of th is study was to set up general objectives that developed out of a pragmatic and functional philos­ ophy to give direction and value to th is course.

The fo l­

lowing general objectives were kept in mind in the construc­ tio n of the course; 1. To use present problems as the starting point for eaeh unit. 2. To set up specific objectives that are concerned with students* needs instead of objectives imposed by adult standards. 3. To set up specific objectives in the daily lesson plans in the form of d iffic u ltie s or problems in need of being overcome. 4. To make the problems of Biology I functional. 5. To integrate classroom work with the students* environment.

6 . To substitute the application of scien tific in­

formation in the solution of problems for the collection of scien tific facts without appli­ cation. Aims and purposes of a functional biology course. The functional eoneept in education aims to f a c ilita te the educational process by choosing curriculum materials that give educa.tion a ehance to operate.

In a li f e science

course subject matter is selected that can be applied to the solution of real lif e problems.

Students’ needs and

interests are of prime importance, and there must be an active teaeher-pupil relationship in discussirg these stu­ dent in terests.

Teaching practical subjeet matter without

any thought of i t s definite application is wasted e ffo rt. Application cannot be le f t to chance. premise in a lif e science course.

This is a major

The purpose of this

course was to organize Biology I around v ita l and active curricular materials and methods.

The approach, or s ta r t—

irg point, is by discussirg present-day problems rather than d r illiig on mere subject matter to be learned by rote. The discussion of present-day problems should help deter­ mine the purpose of the present-day biology course.


Claude C. Crawford, How to Teach (Los Aigeles:' Southern California School Book Depository, 1938) p. x 420.

8 The purposes of the present-day biology course em­ anate from the principle that education is concerned with the needs and interests of the learner.

Biology can be an

outstandiig example of the application of th is principle, as the subject matter is an integral part of human lif e . These purposes are manifestly different from the purposes in vogue when biology was considered a set body of subject matter to be mastered for i t s own sake. One purpose of present-day biology is to help the student think c ritic a lly about biological problems.


tic a l thitikirg enables him to break down superstitions, analyze propaganda, become systematic and accurate, and use the facts and principles of biology more intelligently in meeting his own problems.

Another purpose of present-

day biology is to provide the student with fundamental concepts in biological sciences.

An analysis of practical

requirements indicates that biological facts and principles are fundamental only when they serve a useful purpose in the present or future lif e of the student.


present-day biology aims to help the student apply biolog­ ical concepts to practical situations.

The student is

concerned with scien tific knowledge about bacteria, in­ sects, birds, trees and other forms of li f e because of th e ir effect upon man.

How these forms of lif e affect man,

and what man should do to control them are as fundamental*.

to the student as the scientific knowledge i t s e l f .


quently, biology becomes a factor in achieving such worthy aims as maintaining health, choosing a vocation, securing recreation, and practicing conservation of our material re­ sources.

For example, in the most important field of biol­

ogy—man’ s health—i t helps the student to re late anatom­ ical and physiological details to a program of physical health and mental vigor.

In the field of vocations i t

helps the student to learn something of the various fields of v/ork associated with forms of l i f e ,

such as agriculture,

forestry, medicine, bacteriology, entomology, and ornith­ ology. A study made by J.W. Schneek in the Milwaukee Public Schools helps to indicate the needs and interests of the pupils.

Table I shows a compilation of the interest ranking

assigned by one hundred and thirty-one pupils to seventysix topics in biology. General and specific objectives o f _a biological science course.

The aims of a biological science course

were ably stated by a committee composed of members of the Biological Science Department of Michigan State Gollege::4


Chester A . Lawson, ”Basic Biological Seienee at Michigan State College.” Journal of General Education. 2*'75, October 1947.




Pupil Rank

Structure of human biology 1 Laboratory work by pupils 2 Function of parts of body 3 Study of disease 4 Sex 5 Control of disease 6 Study of communicable disease 7 Study of venereal disease 8 Study of cancer 9 Use of microscope 10 Study of tuberculosis 11 Dissection of animals 12 Bacteria 13 Personal health problems 14 Food as a health factor 15 F irst aid 16 Reproduction 17 Pollination 18 Vitamins 19 Mental health 20 Movies 21 Animal structure 22 Lecture demonstrations 23 Types of reproduction 24 Functional parts of animals 25 Control of disease 26 Mammal study 27 Breedir^ of animals 28 Care of growiig plants 29 5 I. W. Schneck, "The Practical Value of Certain , Topics in a Course in Biology ,M School Science and Math, 46:319, April, 1946.



Psychology and the study of the mind Planting Scientific method Field trip s Community health Eugenics Value of plants as food Heredity Animals as a source of food Photosynthesis Medicines derived from plants Adaptations of living things Principles of genetics Study of birds Study of fish Hormones Distinction between plants and animals Plant and animal behavior Interdependence of lif e Study of cells Nature and origin of lif e Plant structure Ductless glands How plants obtain food Functions of parts of plants Reptile study Theory of evolution Plant identification Grafting C lassification and identification of plants Respiration of plants Breeding by buds, etc. Natural selections Metamorphosis Appreciation of nature

Pupil Rank

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64



Vocational suggestions Parasites Propagation other than seed Single celled animals Study of plant cells Survival of the f i t t e s t Leisure time suggestians Movie write-ups Cla ssific a tio n of plants Prehistoric animals Biographies of scientists Plants of the past

Fupil Rank

65 66

67 68

69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

13 Aims of a biologieal science course: 1. A knowledge and understanding of the organrism as expressed by assimilation and u tiliz a tio n of energy; characteristics of growth; reproduction; adap­ tatio n to environment; structure and function; aging and death. 2. A knowledge and understanding of cooperative and competitive interrelationships among plants and animals. r 3. S kills and a b ilitie s in observation and organization of scien tific fa cts;- in the attainment of correct current interpretation and logical con­ clusions; in the clear expression of biological think­ ing; in the technique of experimentation; and in the application of the results of experimentation. 4. Attitudes and appreciations which lead to in tellectual curiosity; clear thought processes r e l ­ ative to biological facts; an understanding of present and possible future a chievements of scienee; recog­ nition of and willirgness to be guided by competent scienee authority; and perception of aesthetic values in nature. Skills to be developed in a biology course.


enee courses contribute to the development of useful sk ills; such s k ills can be applied to the problems that will arise in the lif e of the student.

These sk ills can be the normal

outcome of instruction when the instructor plans for th eir development in the classroom.

The follow! ig l i s t of sk ills

was offered by the Life Science Curriculum Committee for the Los Angeles City Schools: 6 1 . Readirg science content with understand!

g Life Science—Outline Course of Study for Los Angeles Schools. ' Office of Superintendent of Los Argeles City Schools. Publication No. 441—1947, pg. 14.

and satisfaction. 2. Locating sources materials. 3 . Usixg source materials.

4. Making observations suitable for solving a problem. 5 . Writiig about science a c tiv itie s with understandiig and clearness. 6 . Using elements of the scien tific method.

a. b. e. d. e. f.

Sensing a problem. Definiig a problem. Gathering facts. Explanation. Generalization from facts. Conclusions.

Outline of the lesson plan.

The lesson plan out­

line follows the same sequence as the text 7 which is divided into five units based on the general fields in biology, and these are in turn divided into the main fields in biological sciences.

Accordiig to the author of the

tex t, Dr. de Laubenfels, these have beanrworked out by careful research duriig eleven years* experimentation with the cooperation of nearly 3,000 students.

The text was

selected because of i t s functional approach to biology. The lesson units are composed of::

(1) Aims and

objectives; those outcomes the instructor keeps in mind as the class procedes through the unit.

(2) Functional prob­

lems;. these introduce the unit and are stated in the form

7 de Laubenfels,

op. c i t . 320 pp.

15 of questions which center around any activity that would make the problem a part of the student’s l i f e .

(3) Suggest­

ed a c tiv itie s and approach; contains points that will be discussed in attackirg the problem, and those in which the student or instructor participates to develop a. learning situation.

(4) Materials; those objects used for the ac­

tiv ity of attacking the problem,' periodicals, and visual aids that will aid in motivating the class or in solving the problem.


Functional a c tiv itie s under the problem.

The ac­

tiv itie s that the instructor or the student participates in are a very v ita l part of the eourse, since the prob­ lems are so stated as to make the a c tiv itie s a natural out­ growth of the situation.

I f the a c tiv itie s are carried

out as the situation demands, an environment favorable to the learning process will be produced.

The a c tiv itie s will

serve to motivate interest and participation in the learn­ ing process.

These a c tiv itie s are in the form of key

problems, key demonstrations, or stimulating questions for discussion.

Crawford states clearly the nature of activ­

i tie s and the c r ite r ia by which they should be selected in the following words:® I t is much more important that an activity be

®Crawford, _0 £. c i t .

pp. 405-406.

16 genuine than large. I t should he re al, life lik e , with an immediate purpose, perhaps leading to lif e long u til it y , related to aetual lif e situations, contributing useful training for actual needs, af­ fecting the liv es, conduct and behavior of the pupils and possessing genuine functional worth to a l l involved. This sort of genuineness is in con­ tr a s t with the a r tif ic ia lity of a c tiv itie s that are chosen merely to support or to lead to tra d i­ tional subject matter. The a c tiv itie s as presented in the various units are intended to serve as guides to the instructor.


w ill vary from year to year as th e .expressed needs of the students vary, and as the local materials and socialeconomic situation ehaiges.

Materials available at various

times may influence the a c tiv itie s of the class, while the presence of living things or the actual materials used w ill stimulate and motivate the members to activity and diseussion.

F lexib ility of instructional and informational

materials to meet particular situations and lo c a litie s is a desirable feature of a functional course. Proposed course sequence.

The Biology I course

ranges over the great fie ld of lif e sciences.

The chapter

sequence will be the same as that followed in the text for the course.

The special problems in each of the biological

science fields as they are related to man form the basis for the curriculum.

Obviously, the enormous field of lif e

science is merely sampled.

I t is , therefore, proposed to

give th is course a name in keeping with a broad outlook

17 and with i t s survey character::

namely, Life Scienee.

low! rg are the chapter topics: Unit I .

General Biology.

Chapter 1.


Chapter 2.


Chapter 3.


Chapter 4. .Cytology. Chapter 5.


Chapter 6 .


Unit I I .

Human Biology.

Chapter 7.


Chapter 8 .


Chapter 9.


Chapter 10.


Chapter 11.


Chapter 12.

D ietetics.

Unit I I I .

Plant Biology.

Chapt er 13.

Bot a ry.

Chapter 14.


Chapter 15.


Chapter 16.


Chapter 17.


Unit IV.

Animal Biology.

Chapter 18.


Chapter 19.



Chapter SO.


Chapter SI.


Chapter 22.


Unit V.

Social Biology.

Chapter 23.


Chapter 24.


Chapter 25.


Chapter 26.


Chapter 27.


Chapter 28.



General Biology

Chapter 1. Biology. What-is-"Science" in general and "Life ■ Scienee" in particular?. A. Aims and objectives. 1. Orient the student in the course. 2. Give the student a b rief over-all introduction to the wide scope of l if e science and the methods of study required. 3. Stimulate the student to seek a fu lle r li f e through better understanding of himself and other liv iig th iig s. 4. Implant the idea that lif e scienee is a study of a l l living thirds individually and in re ­ latio n to each other. 5. Develop an interest in lif e science. B. Functional problems. 1. What is biology? Why should th is locality lend i t s e l f well to the study of biology? 2. What areas of study are included in th is sci­ ence? 3. What occupations are concerned with biology? 4. Of what present practical use can biology be to us? 5. What are the advantages of attack! rg a problem with a scien tific attitude instead of beixg swayed by superstitions’

20 6 . How can we cheek on that which is

supposed to he

a fact? 7. What are some of man’s biological discoveries that have affected the li f e of mankind? C. Suggested approach and a c tiv itie s . 1. Through class discussions, develop a direct approach and respect for a l l contributions to the class. 2. Go through the contents of the text and mention the different fields of science- included in the biology course. 3. Develop an interesting and attractiv e class­ room through displays and collections of biological subjects that are of interest to stud-ents. 4. Observe specimens and discuss th e ir purpose. 5. Discuss and give instructions on use of var­ ious pieces of equipment. 6 . Differentiate between liv irg and non-living

things. 7. Demonstrate an experiment in which the scien­ t i f i c method is applied. 8 . Have students collect and bring to class such

living things as snails, insects, plants. 9. Discuss the adaptation that the above liv iig things have made to th e ir environment. D. Materials. 1 . Liviig plants and animals. 2 . science books and magazines.

3. Charts, models, photographs. 4. Prepared specimens. 5. Hobby displays.

21 6 . Aquarium, terrarium, microscope.

7. One quart of milk and two milk b o ttles.


8 . Rocks, minerals, and non-living materials.


Chapter 2. Biophysios. What contribution to lif e sci­ ence is made by physical science?? A. Aims and objectives. 1. Show how some principles of physics apply to the activity of liv iig th iig s. 2. Acquaint the class with different forms or states of matter. 3. Encourage interest and inquisitiveness in the mysteries of the liviqg world. 4. Inculcate the idea that there is a cause for every effect. 5. Instruct students in the use of the microscope. B. Functional problems. 1 . In what situations do the principles of physics

apply to liv iig things? 2. Of what is a l l matter composed?^ 3. What are molecules, atoms, electrons, protons, neutrons, uranium, radio-active materials, the atom bomb, etc.?? 4. What are states of matter?? 5. How does water get from the tree roots to the top of the tree?? 6 . In what state of matter are liv irg thirgs?

7. What is meant when we say 11our energy comes from the sun?” 8.

What forms of energy are present on earth?

9. Of what substance is liv iig material composed?' 10. Why is i t impossible for humans to drink ocean water and live??

23 C. Suggested approach and a c tiv itie s . 1. Demonstrate the principles of levers. 2. Make a l i s t of the different units of measure­ ment. 3. Set up a diffusion experiment. 4. Set up an osmosis experiment. 5. Set up a lens experiment usiig water. 6 . Learn the names of parts of the microscope.

7. Discuss the sim ilarity between human beiigs and machines. 8 . Discuss the food factors in plant leaves.

D. Materials. 1. An especially constructed hixge and s triig s to demonstrate lever action of the elbow. 2. Animal membrane, egg or carrot, glass tubiig, wax, sugar. 3. Blue stone, bent glass tube. 4. Florence flask, ele ctric lig h t.


Chapter 3. Biochemistry. What contribution to li f e sci­ ence is made by chemistry? A. Aims and objectives. 1. To acquaint the student with the chemicals that compose livirg matter. 2. To develop the use of the scien tific attitude through experimentation. 3. Give the student some knowledge of the chem­ ical composition of liv irg thirgs. 4. Acquaint the student with some a c tiv itie s carried on by a l l living thirgs. B. Functional problems. 1. What are some of the materials or chemicals of which our bodies are composed?^ 2. How can we distinguish between liv irg and non­ living thirgs?? 3. What are some of the chemical processes carried on by liv irg thirgs?: 4. Why can’t man make liv irg thirgs?? 5. What evidence is there that chemical charges are produced by the body? G. Suggested approach and a c tiv itie s . 1. Display elements and compounds. 2. Set up experiments to prepare hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. 3. Demonstrate the properties of different chem­ ic a ls. 4. Demonstrate the difference between physical and chemical charges in materials. 5. Discuss some of the chemical processes that take place in liv irg th irgs.

25 6. Look at some living cells through the micro­ scope. 7. Have students briig various kinds of hydro­ carbons and carbohydrates. 8. Discuss the source of the ehemicals that com­ pose our bodies. D. Materials. 1. Chemical substances—carbon in different forms, phosphorus, sulphur, etc. 2. Microscope with prepared slides showing proto­ plasm. 3. Carbon compounds—hydrocarbons such as o il, carbohydrates such as sugar.


Chapter_4. duction.


C riteria of lif e , cells and repro­

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Develop a philosophy concerning liv irg things. 2. Acquaint- students with some living processes. 3. Eliminate the idea that there is conflict be­ tween science and religion. 4. Show that the c e ll is the basic unit of l i f e . 5. Shovf c e ll processes. 6. Acquaint the student with the a c tiv itie s car­ ried on by c e lls. 7. Learn some appropriate vocabulary for c e ll study. B. Functional problems. 1. What is life?' 2. What are some evidences of life? 3. How small can a particle be and s t i l l be living matter?: 4. What materials and conditions are necessary to maintain life?? 5. What are some products and by-products of living things? 6. How do thirgs grow?? 7. How does human growth d iffer from reproduction (fission) in bacteria?'8 8. Compare advantages of asexual reproduction to those of sexual reproduction. 9. What are some methods of reproduction without sex?

Z7 C. Suggested approach and a c tiv itie s . 1. Discuss the evidence that there is no conflict between science and religion. 2. Make a l i s t of the a c tiv itie s of liv irg thirgs that indicate that they are alive. 3. Draw a typical c ell and label its parts. 4. Observe the a c tiv itie s of cells under the mi­ croscope. 5. Make a l i s t of the vocabulary words needed to study c e lls. 6. Explain cell division with a drawirg on the board. 7. Explain how asexual reproduction is similar to mitosis. 8. Compare liv irg -c e lls to cells in a honeycomb. D. Materials. 1. Microscope.

Common cells prepared on slide.

2 . Models for demonstrating mitosis. 3. Slide showirg cells in process of division. 4. Honeycomb.


Chapter 5 .

Embryology♦ Sex and how an embryo begins.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Study lif e in i t s beginning forms. 2. Develop a philosophy of sex. 3. Get an insight into the physiology of human developme nfc. B. Junctional problems. 1. When does li f e begin for a new individual? 2. When does a living thirg reach i t s oldest age?' 3. What is the basis of a ttractio n in the op­ posite sex?; 4. What is spontaneous generation? 5. Is i t possible for some tribes of people to be unaware of the connection between sexual intercourse and child birth? C. Suggested a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Observe an embryo in different stages of de­ velopment. 2. Observe embryos of different liv irg things. 3. Discuss the different types of reproduction. 4. Discuss the advantages of bi-sexual reproduc­ tion. 5. Disseet an animal to show embryonic develop­ ment. 6. Arrange a display of pictures on embryology. 7. Assemble and define a l l words pertaining to embryology from the chapter. 8. Incubate eggs and disseet and observe at in­ tervals.

9. Have frog or other eggs maturing. 10. Discuss and demonstrate by drawing the devel­ opment of the early stages of the embryos. Materials. 1. Embryos of different animals. 2. Embryos of plants (seeds). 3. Eilm on reproduction at the different levels. 4. Eamily of new-born animals. 5. Pictures of human embryology from wLifew mag­ azine.


Chapter 6.


Cell sorts and-"division of labor.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To acquaint the student with the types of cells that compose the human body. 2. Show how the various tissues develop into d if­ ferent organs. 3. Acquaint the student with the functions of the various c e lls. B. Functional problems. 1. What is meant by the statement that "each of us is carryiig around protoplasm that has been constantly alive sinee the creation of life?* 2. Why don’t we live forever? 3. Why do we often look like our parents? 4. Why can’t animals of radically different types cross breed? 5. What makes freaks or mutations appear? C.

Suggested a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Study the different types of cells under the microscope. 2. Explain the difference between germ cells and somatic c e lls. 3. I llu s tr a te by drawirg on the board how the d if­ ferent layers are formed in the embryo. 4. Discuss some of the mysteries of the c e ll. 5. Make a l i s t of the different cells or tissues and indicate the function of each.

D. Materials. 1. Microscope and prepared slides of different kinds of tissues.

Normal bones and bones that have been broken and have then healed.


Unit I I ,

Human Biology

Chapter _7. Anatomy, Catalogue of the parts or organs of which we are made. A. Aims and objectives. 1. Acquaint the student with the different or­ gans and systems of the body. 2. Explain the technique of dissection. 3. Show how the scientific attitu de has increased our information about the body. B. Functional problems. 1. What coordinates a ll of the a c tiv itie s of the different systems of the body?" 2. What is the value of disseetioitf 3. What are your attitudes on vivisection? 4. How has information on the anatomy of the human body been obtained? 5. What prevented more rapid accumulation of knowledge of anatomy prior to the la st 100 years? 6. How can a knowledge of anatomy help us in our everyday living? C. Suggested a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Display charts that show various organs. 2. Trace food and blood through the body. 3. Make a l i s t of the different systems and indi­ cate the most important organs of each. 4. Disseet an animal to locate various organs of the body. 5. Make models of different organs..

6. Look at different types of tissue under the microscope. Materials. 1. Mannikin. .2. Frog or guinea pig to be used for dissection. 3. Charts of organs and systems of the body. 4. Models of different parts of the body. 5. Microscope.


Chapter J3.


How our organs work.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Learn the functions of the organs and the or­ ganic systems of living thirgs. 2. Stimulate individuals to use th is information in guard!rg th e ir health. 3. Develop an appreciation of the functions of the various organs so that individuals w ill live in a manner that w ill a ssist these organs in performiig th e ir functions. B. Functional problems. 1. What makes us tick? 2. What are some of the functions of liv irg thirgs? 3. How can the food that we eat keep us alive? 4. What other uses does the body make of food? 5. How is the food converted into energy? 6. How can our strergth be increased? 7. How can our coordination be improved? 8. What determines howr lorg we will live? 9. What causes a person to breathe faster and deep­ er, and his heart to beat faster when he exer­ cises? 10. Why are we mueh strorger or speedier when we are argry or afraid? 11. What keeps a ll of the v ita l processes of a normal body so nicely coordinated? 12. Why do the testes and scrotum vary in th e ir distance from the body a t various times? 13. Why can’t we use a p ill to obtain a ll of the food elements that we need to live oif?

Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Make a l i s t of the functions of liv irg thirgs. 2. Make a l i s t of the functions of the various organs. 3. Use the spirometer to measure lurg capacity. 4. Use the stethoscope to lis te n to the heart heat. 5. Make a study of liv irg muscle reaction by using the kymograph. 6. Obtain an animal heart for dissection. 7. Obtain an animal kidney for dissection. 8. Listen to an animal*s heart beat—cat, dog. 9. Make a l i s t of materials that are carried in the blood. 10. Observe a film on the functions of the different systems of the body. 11. Listen to the heart after exercise. 12. Locate the various endocrine glands, and in­ dicate th e ir function and diseases''associated with them. 13. Explain how food and other substances get to a ll parts of the body. 14. Use a microscope to observe the flow of blood in a fish*s t a i l . 15. Demonstrate the respiratory process by use of a b ell jar and balloon. Materials. 1. Kymograph, frog s . 2. Spirometer, stethoscope. 3. Animal heart from pig or cow.

36 4. Animal kidney. 5. Gat or dog. 6. Film on functions of the "body. 7. Microscope, fish . 8. Bell jar, balloons for demonstratirg resp ir­ ation.


Chapter 9 . Psychology. and nerves.

The special problem of senses

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To understand human behavior. 2. Make students more conscious of the effect that th eir actions have on other people. 3. Produce understanding of how the body is con­ tro lled by the brain and nerves. B. Functional problems. 1. What happens when we think? 2. What determines the choices that we make?. 3. How does polio cause cripplixg? 4. What is intelligence? 5. Why aren’t people conscious of a ll;o f the ac­ t i v itie s in which th e ir bodies participate? 6. What indicates that man is the most intelligen t animal? 7. What causes a person to go to sleep? 8. Why does the drunk person have poor control over his activities? 9. What determines how mueh we can learnt? (Intelligence.) 10. What are some causes of insanity? 11. What can be done to prevent insanity? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Make a l i s t of the different senses and indi­ cate where each is loeated. 2. Set up equipment to demonstrate eye-musele coordination..

38 3. Make a model of the eye from an ele ctric light bulb with s triig s attached to act as muscles. 4. Make a six inch drawiig of the eye and label i t s parts. 5. By tise of wall charts describe the workings of the various sense organs. "6. Observe the response of microscopic animals to chemical stimuli. 7. 8.

By use of a maze show how a r a t learns. Observethe response of an earthwrorm to lig h t, heat, acid, touch.

9. Discuss the formation of habits good and bad. 10. Expose nerve of a frog*s leg and show how an electric current can cause muscle contraction. 11. 12.

Dissect frog and locate nervous system. Discussthe importance of experience in the be­ havior pattern.

D. Materials. 1. Equipment for setting up eye-muscle coordination demonstration. 2. E lectric light bulb, small box, string, tape. 3. Wall-charts of sense organs. 4. Microscope and microscopic animals. 5. Rats and maze. 6. Earthworm, acid. 7. Frog, low voltage current. 8. Models of various animal brains.


Chapter 10.


Methods of earing for our bodies.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To develop an appreciation of the importance of having good health. 2. Develop a desire to practice those habits that v d . l l insure b etter health. 3. Acquire some knowledge of cause and effect of some of our common diseases. 4. Give some practical f i r s t aid instruction. B. Functional problems. 1. What are some of the thirgs that cause us to lose our health? 2. Are companies making dishonest advertising claims subject to ary penalty? 3. Why are we in America the healthiest people in the world? 4.

What is the f i r s t thiig to check on a person who has been injured in. an accident?

' *5. Is i t possible for an individual’s sight or hearing to be well below normal without his realizing it? 6. How much blood can a person lose without danger to his life? 7. Why are wounds dangerous? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Make a l i s t of those things man does to protect himself against disease or mishap. B.

Make a l i s t of good health practices.


Take the blood pressure of several students.

40 4. Raise some cultures of bacteria from different sources. 5. Locate pressure points at various points on the body. 6. Read the a rtic le "The Harrison Case" about venereal disease to the class. 7. List the benefits of exercise. 8. List the benefits of good posture. 9. Make a l i s t of thirgs we can do to improve apprearance and personality. 10. Demonstrate the application of a tourniquet. 11. Demonstrate a r ti f i c i a l respiration. D. Materials. 1. Microscope...

Prepared slides of germs.

2. Sphygmomanometer. 3. P etri dishes for bacteria culture. 4. A rticle on "The Harrison Case."

Chapter 11.


How we get well and stay well.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Understanding of the causes of diseases and ab normalities. 2 . Develop an attitude of individual responsibil­ ity in contributiig towards community health. 3. Give students practical information that can be used to protect themselves from diseases and th e ir effects. B. Functional problems. 1. How do germs make us sick? 2. What makes certain diseases contagious? 3. What methods are used to obtain immunization? 4. What factors determine i f we w ill contract a disease and how severe i t s effects will be? 5. Can immunity be inherited? 6. How can inoculations prevent us from eontractiig certain diseases? 7. Why can’t we be immunized against a ll diseases? 8. What can we do as individuals to ensure better health for our community? 9. How can one be sure that he has a good doctor? 10. Why are quack medical practitioners so preval­ ent? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Make a l i s t of the means the body uses to pro­ tect i t s e l f against disease or misfortune. 2. Look at different disease-eausli^ microbes under the microscope.

42 3. Explain how immunization prevents the disease from having fu ll effect. 4. Compare hody resistance, natural immunity, and acquired immunity. 5. Set up a blood eount demonstration. 6. Make a l i s t of agencies whose function i t is to protect the health of our community. 7. Collect illu stra tio n s of quack advertisements. 8. Under a microscope observe the corpuscles and other materials carried in the blood. 9. Observe poisonous plants and animals. 10. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using tobacco and alcohol. 11. By experiment show the effect of nicotine on a fish . D. Materials. 1. Microseope. es.

Prepared slides of disease microb­

2. Equipment for blood eount demonstration. 3. Slides of corpuscles and other blood components. 4. Poisonous plants and animals. 5. Fish and equipment for illu stra tin g the effect of nicotine.-


Chapter 12. and eating.

D ietetics.

The special problem of foods

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To give the student a knowledge of the gen.eral rules of diet that w ill provide him with a balanced meal. 2. Develop some ab ility to select proper foods instead of being swayed by advertisiig propa­ ganda. 3. Provide student with knowledge of the effects on the body of a deficient diet and undesir­ able stimulants. B. Functional problems. 1. Why can’t we use p ills for a complete diet? 2. Why are attractiv e food and pleasant surround­ ings desirable at meal times? 3. Does eatirg animal brains improve human in te l­ ligence, or does eatirg steaks make men strorger? 4. How does eating before meal time interfere with our consumption of our' regular meal? 5. How can we discriminate between facts and fancy in food advertisements? 6. What are the five or six most important foods in the human diet? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Why do we need food? 2. Discuss the reasons for “eatirg to live” in­ stead of “liv irg to e a t.” 3. Discuss some of the best way of gainirg and losirg weight. 4. Analyze the advertisirg of various foods.

5. Display food advertisements. 6. Perform some elementary demonstrations to de­ termine the classes of foods. 7. Carryr on experiments with ra ts to show the effects of various diets. 8. Discuss the conflict between proper diet and the popular feminine figure. 9. List the advantages of eatirg a balanced diet. Materials. 1. Good and bad food advertisements. 2. Equipment to te s t classes of foods. te s t. 3. Rats.

Varied diets to feed them.

Foods to


Unit i n . Chapter 13.


Plant. Biology

Plant anatomy.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To acquaint the students with the anatomy of a typical plant. 2. To acquaint the students with the steps in the development of a typical plant. 3. To impress the students with the economic importance of plants to man. B. Functional problems. 1. Why should man be concerned with the study of plants? 2. Where is a l l of the food of the world manu­ factured? 3. What are the four most important parts of a typical plant? 4. What are the conditions necessary for the normal development of a plant? . 5. What factors determine the type of plant that will grow in a given locality? G. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. List some of the benefits that man derives from plants. 2. Sprout beans to study parts. 3. Sprout corn to study parts. 4. Observe some plant cells under the microscope. 5. Observe a cross-section of stem under the microscope. 5. Collect various kinds of stems and roots.

46 7. Set up experiments to demonstrate tropisms. 8. Study and diseuss the various functions of dif­ ferent parts of plants while referring to various pictures in the text. 9. Identify the various parts of a typical living plant. 10. On Turtox sheets of typical plants identify parts. 11. Collect various kinds of leaves. D. Materials. 1. Seeds of heans and corn. 2 . Microscope. seetion.

Sawdust for sprouting.

Slides of plant c e lls, stem eross-

5. Potted plants of nasturtium, geranium. 4. Turtox sheets of typical plants.


Chapter 14.


The physiology of plants.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To acquaint students with the functions of different parts of plants. 2. Develop an appreciation of the economic impor­ tance of plants. 3. Create a desire to grow plants for leisure time activity and for beauty. B. Functional problems. 1. Why can we say that plants are the food fac­ to ries of our earth? 2. Why do we put f e r tiliz e r around plants? 3. Can a ll forms of energy on the earth be traced back to the sun? 4. Why can too much f e r tiliz e r k i l l a plant? 5. What are the raw materials used in the plant factory—the process-called photosynthesis? 6. What forces make water flow to the top of a tree? 7. What are the products of the plant factory? 8. Compare the functional processes in plants to the corresponding functions in animals. . 9. Are plants obliged to compete for survival with things in th eir environment as animals do? 10. Why are leaves or parts of a plant removed when i t is transplanted? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Compare the process of photosynthesis in a plant with the manufacturing process in a fac­ tory, usiig pictures of each.

2 ..Explain the process of photosynthesis. 3. Discuss why a knowledge of plant functions is desirable. 4. Set up experiments as outlined in the text to demonstrate certain physiological principles i plants. 5. Discuss the difference between osmosis, capil­ lary attractio n, and transpiration. 6. Observe a film on plant growth and function. 7. Observe some demonstrations of tropism. 8. Observe a leaf of elodea under the microscope for movement of protoplasm in the c e lls. 9. Diseuss various means of pollination. Materials. 1. Pictures of factory and plant in cross section 2. Film on plant growth and functions. 3. Potted plants of coleus. 4. Seeds of peas, beans, corn. 5. Section of an elodea plant.


Chapter 15. world?


What sorts of plants inhabit our

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To acquaint students with the different classes in the plant kingdom. 2.

Learn the names of a few typical plants of the four main divisions of the plant world.

3. Develop an interest in taxonomy as a hobby. B. Functional problems. 1. What is the value of the classifica tio n of plants? 2. Why is i t d iffic u lt to classify individual plants? 3. Why has man classified plants? 4.

Why are there lawsprohibit!pg the picking of certain flowers or plants in the woods and wild spots? •

5. What does the identification of fo ssil plants reveal? 6. Have a l l plants existing on the earth been classified and named? 7. What types of occupations require the identi­ ficatio n and learning of the names of 'maiy plants? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Collect specimens of plants and determine the classes to which they belong. 2. Take a field trip around campus. Make a l i s t of plants noted and determine the different classes to which they beloig. 3. Make a trip to a large nursery and have the

nurseryman name the various plants, shrubs, tre e s . 4. Have each member of the class prepare an herb arium of twelve plants of wide variety. Materials. 1. A collection of representative types of plant showirg the different divisions of the plant kirgdom. 5. Microscope.

Specimens of mold, moss.

5. Taxonomy books.

51 Chapter 16. Agriculture. Conservation, and raising useful plants on farms, in home gardens, and as forests. A. Aims and objectives. 1. To acquaint students with some of the funda­ mentals of agriculture. 2. Develop an interest in conservation' of our national resources. 3. Increase the interest of the students in agricul­ ture. B. Functional problems. 1. Why should we concern ourselves with farming problems when we aren 't farmers? 2. What are some of the improvements that man has made in agriculture duriig the centuries? 3. What are some of our natural resources that are in danger of depletion? 4. What are some causes of the depletion of various natural resources? 5. What conditions are necessary for seed germi nation? 6. Why do some plants grow better in certain climates than others do? 7. Why can't a branch from an apple tree be g ra ft­ ed on an orarge tree? 8. What are some of the obstacles that a farmer has to overcome in order to make farmiig profitable? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Name some businesses that concern themselves with agriculture. 2 . Observe specimens of various types of so il. 3. Observe various materials that compose so ils.

52 4. Set up a hydroponics demonstration. 5. Show a film on the evolution of methods of farmipg. 6. Make a l i s t of our national resources that are heeoming- searce. 7. Discuss some of the improvements that man has made in farming in the la s t one hundred years. 8. Set up control experiments for seed germination with various degrees of temperature and mois­ ture. 9. Show a film on the importance of eonservirg our national resources. D. Materials. 1. Film on agriculture through the ages. 2. Collection of soil samples in v ials. 3. Collection of so il ingredients in v ials.. 4. Seeds for germination experiment. 5. Film on conservation of natural resources. 6. Hydroponics materials and equipment.


Chapter 17.


The yery small living things.

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Acquaint the student with the most abundant living things on the earth. 2. Develop an appreciation of the importance of the effect of bacteria in our lives. 3. Make i t possible for the student to observe p ro tista. B. Functional problems. 1. Would ’’Microbiology* be a better term as a t i t l e for th is chapter? 2. Why is i t d iffic u lt to distinguish between plants and animals when they are of a microscop­ ic size? 3. What are s’ome of the forms of energy we use. here on earth that can be traced baek through the diatom to the sun? 4. What distiiguishes plants from animals? 5. Why has man been unable to see some of the very small bacteria? 6. Why should man be concerned with the study of protista?? 7. Why is i t so d iffic u lt to identify bacteria?. 8. How do most bacteria reproduce? 9. What is the philosopher’s or s c ie n tis t’s theory as to the origin of lif e on our planet? 10. Would the earth be better off i f no bacteria existed at all? 11. Why has man been unable to control some of the common diseases like the cold??

54 G. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Discuss some p o ssib ilitie s of the use of bacteria as a weapon in warfare. 2 . Set up some bacteria cultures to be studied under the microscope. 3. Observe various types of disease produeiig baeteria under the microscope. 4. Show a film demonstrating the effect of bacteria on the body. 5. Observe bacteria in the various stages of re­ production or spore forms. 6. Discuss some good and bad economic implications of bacteria. 7. Discuss some of the methods we use to control bacteria. D. Materials. 1. Microscope.

Bacteria cultures.

2 . Slides of disease productrg bacteria. 3. Film "The Body Fights Bacteria."


Unit IV. Chapter 18. types.


Animal Biology

Description of assorted animal

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Acquaint the student with the divisions of the animal kipgdom. 2. Impress students with the economic importance of animals to man. 3. Show how animals are adapted to th e ir kinds of environment. B. Functional problems. 1. Why can the higher forms of animals adapt themselves to th eir environment better than lower forms? 2. Why should we be concerned with the study of animals? 3. What are the typical differences between plants and animals? 4. Of what economic value are animals to mart? 5. What evidence is there that the idea of the survival of the f i t t e s t applies to animals at a ll levels? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Observe some living parameeium and identify the important parts of th e ir bodies. 2. Study parameeium to observe them performing th e ir biologieal functions. 3. Compare the organs that perform the same functions in various animals in different divisions. 4. Compare the efficiency of the organs that per­ form the same functions in different animals.

56 5. Observe the metamorphosis of the frog. 6. Dissect an earthworm and have students identify organs of the different systems. 7. Dissect a frog and eompare the organs with those of the earthworm. 8. Collect representatives for each of the main divisions of the animal kingdom. D. Materials. 1. Microscope.


2. Earthworms.


3. Comparative anatomy charts. 4. Prog or toad eggs.


Chapter 19. Oceanography. v is it -to“rEhe seashore.

A student of "biology needs a

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Acquaint the student with the lowest and the highest forms of animals in the phyla of animals. 2. Give the student an opportunity to observe the adaptations that the various classes have made to th e ir environment. B. Functional problems. 1. Why are more forms of li f e found at the sea­ shore than at aqy other place? 2. What animals or plants found at the seashore have economic value? 3. What are some of the dangers involved in studyipg or catehixg seashore life? 4. What is there to indicate that animals of the seashore are well adapted to th e ir environment? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Set up a sa lt water aquarium and place in i t specimens that have been collected from the seashore. 2. V isit the seashore and study living thirgs there. Identify as many as possible. 3. Learn the names of representatives of each of the phyla of the animal kiigdom. 4. Dissect specimens obtained at the seashore to locate and compare functional organs. 5. Compare the development of the various functional organs of specimens obtained. 6. Arrange a collection of skeletons found at the seashore.

58 D. M a te r ia ls . 1. s a lt water aquarium with aerating device. 2. Disseetiig equipment. 3. G-lass bottomed buckets for observation of the ocean bottom through the water. 4. Containers for earryirg specimens.


Chapter 20. Parasitology. s itic animals..

The special problem of para­

A. Aims and objectives. 1. To impress students with the importance of clean­ liness to prevent parasitic infection. 2. Point out the conditions and resu lts that exist in lo c a lities where parasites are not controlled. B. Functional problems. 1. Why are parasites a major health problem in so many countries? 2. What are some precautions that man can use throughout the world to prevent his infection by parasites? 3. What precautions do we need tt> take to guard against parasitic infection in the United States? 4. What are some symptoms of parasitic infection? 5. What other living creatures besides man are affected by parasites? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Name some of the diseases that are caused by animal parasites. 2. Diseuss the complicated lif e cycle that some parasites pass through before they can affect humans. 5. Make a l i s t of parasites that affeet man. 4. Observe some preserved specimens of parasites. 5. Dissect some animal that has symptoms of worm infection to observe parasites. D. Materials. 1. Preserved specimens of parasites.

60 3. Animal infected with worm parasites. 3. Dissectirg tools. 4. Binoculars.


Chapter 2 1 . Entomology. and th e ir relativ es.

The special problem of instects

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Familiarize students with the economic impor­ tance of insects. 2 . Help the student to realize that a l l insects or bugs are not destructive. 3. Acquaint the students with some of the means man uses to control insects. B. Functional problems. 1. What

are some

beneficial insects?

2. What

are some

destructive insects?

3. What are some methods that man usesto control undesirable insects? 4. What are some natural controls of insects? 5. Would man be better off without insects? 6. How can a balance in nature help control insects? C. F unetional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Observe a typical insect to study morphology and physiology. 2 . Make a collection of twelve different kinds of insects in v ia ls. 3. Discuss the importance of eertain functions of beneficial insects. 4. Discuss the economic importance of the insect family as a whole. 5. Discuss the methods of control of certain de­ structive insects.

62 D. M a t e r ia ls . 1. Chart to study metamorphosis of a typical insect. 2. Mounts of some common beneficial and destructive insects. 5. Equipment to collect, k i l l , and mount insects. 4*. Vials for collecting insects.

63 Chapter 2 2 . animals.

Zoogeography. A zoo is a good plaGe to study

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Acquaint students with different types of ani­ mals that inhabit different parts of the world. 2. Develop an appreciation of the part that animals play in the balance of nature. 3. Increase students* desire to protect our bene­ f ic ia l animals. B. Functional problems. 1. Why is there such great contrast to be found in types of animals from different parts of the world? 2. Why are the animals of Australia so very d if­ ferent from animals of ary other continent? 3. What animals have become extinct, and which ones are in danger of becoming extinct? 4. What are some of the economic uses that man has made of animals? 5. How has man controlled the undesirable animals or prevented them from affec'tiig him? G. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. V isit a zoo as individuals during the course of the year. 2. V isit the Los Angeles Museum of Natural History to observe mounted animals of other countries. 3. Show a film depicting wild* animals in their natural state. 4. Without killixg them, trap small wild local animals for observation. 5. Show a film emphasizirg the adaptations that different animals have made to th e ir environ­ ment.

M a te r ia ls . 1. Film of animals in th e ir natural state. 2. Collection of local animals. 3. Pictures of beneficial animals. 4. Film on animal adaptaion to environment.


Unit V. Chapter 25. beings.


social Biology

How surroundings affect liv irg

A. Aims and objectives. 1. Show how environment controls liv irg thirgs. 2. Show how every living thing is selected by i t s environment. . 3. Appreciate man’s ab ility to charge his environ­ ment to his advantage. B. Functional problems. 1. What control does climate exert over an animal’s environment? 2. What two climatic factors have the most influ­ ence over the environment? 3. Can living in a state of symbiosis be an advan­ tage or a disadvantage? 4. How does man interfere with the balance in nature? 5. Why does cactus die when planted in th£ tropics, but grow well in the desert? 6. What happens to an animal that has a weakness in i t s a b ility to adapt to i t s environment, such as beiig crippled? 7. Why would our domesticated animals fare poorly . i f returned to th e ir natural environment? C. Functional a c tiv itie s and approach. 1. Discuss the reasons for the different kinds of climate on the surface of the earth. 2. Give examples of how animals can help animals or plants that are living in the same environment.

66 3. Give examples of how nature maintains i t s ballance in a locality. 4. Discuss reasons why animals which are adapted to th e ir environment survive. 5. Observe wild animals for th e ir camouflage. 6. Explain why animals taken out of th e ir environ­ ment may die. 7. Explain why mutations are sometimes better adapted to th e ir environment—for example, the halibut fish. D. Materials. 1. Globe map of the world. S. Local animals that are well adapted to th e ir environment. 3. Pictures of the feet of animals, showirg forms that are particularly adapted for different types of liv iig .

67 Chapter