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A COURSE IN MATHEMATICS FOR HOME MAKERS
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Jerry Craig Oarlock August 4, 1950
UMI Number: EP46320
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP46320 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is project report, w ritten under the direction of the candidate's adviser and approved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l f u lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree
of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
Z r i L d t ® . ............
A d v is e r
ii TABLE OP CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF T A B L E S .....................................
LIST OF F I G U R E S ............. PREFACE TO TEACHERS
PREFACE TO STUDENTS
HOW TO BEAUTIFY YOUR HOME WITH
CERTAIN MATHEMATICAL A I D S ................. 1.
How to calculate the
amount of paint needed to cover 2.
• • 1
How to figure the
proper amount of paint required to paint the inside of your home 3*
• « * • • • . . . . •
How to determine the amount
of wall paper required to paper 4.
• • • • • • •
HOW TO APPORTION MEALS PROPERLY
• • * • •
How to hang pictures at
the same height around the room 2.
• • 8
How to figure the correct
amounts of linoleum and rugs needed 5.
• • • . • • • • • • • » . . • • • . .
How to Increase and decrease
How to find the proper
calorie content when cooking . . .
How to balance meals properly • • • • • 19
How to save food by measur
ing the proper amount of foods • • • * • • • • 5.
How to order the proper amount
of food for a large party 6.
• • • • • • • • • «
HOW TO SEW WITH THE AID OF
MATHEMATICAL HINTS * ................... 1.
How to find the proper
amounts of food when canning • • • • • • • • • 5.
How to measure for curtains
. • • • • • • • • • • • • . • •
How to figure the alteration
of commercial patterns so they will fit
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
How to figure the desired size
of an article when knitting if a different size is given as a pattern • • • • . • • • • • 4*
How to order the correct
amount of yardage for furniture coverings 5.
How to figure the correct
measurements when copying designs for sewing, knitting, needlepoint, crocheting, and embroidering • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • •
iv CHAPTER 4.
HOW TO BEAUTIFY YOUR GARDEN 48
WITH THE AID OF MATHEMATICS................... 1*
How to figure the proper amount
of grass seed • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « 2.
How to calculate the
proper proportions of fertilizer to he used in your garden 3.
How to find the correct
amount of spray, which will he suitable for your garden » • • • • • • • • . • • • • • 4. FLOWERBEDS:
How to lay out a flower
garden with mathematical aids . . . . . . . 5*
How to find the cost
of owning and operating your car
• • . . . .
How to reckon your routes
by referring to a road map 3.
HOW TO TRAVEL ECONOMICALLY
WITH THE AID OF MATHEMATICS.......... . . . . 1*
How to calculate the amount
and cost of a fence • • • • • • • • • • • . . 5.
• • • • • • . • •
How to estimate the
cost of taking a trip
PAGE SELECTING TRANSPORTATIONS
How to compute
the cost of various types of transporta tion enabling you to select a type suit able to your budget 6.
HOW TO BUY HOUSEHOLD FURNISH
INGS W I S E L Y ........... 1.
FURNITURE: How to figure a fair price on furniture
• • » • • • • • « • . « • » » •
................ * •
RENTING: How to figure the rent on a house computable to
How to calculate installment
prices accurately • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8*
INSURANCE: How to figure an increase on your insurance • • • • • • • » • • • • • •
YOUR HOME: How to figure the cost of a house compatable to your income • • • • • «
How to figure a fair price
on food 4*
ATTIRE: How to figure a fair price on clothes • • • • • . . .
TAXES: How to compute the taxes on articles
• • • • • • • • • • •
vi CHAPTER 7»
HOW TO BALANCE YOUR MONETARY
AFFAIRS EFFICIENTLY......................... 1* FAMILY MONEY;
2. CHECKING ACCOUNTS
• • . » • • • * • • • • • • • • • • •
How to save money on small
economics 5. DISCOUNTS;
How to save part of your
4« SAVINGS: ^
• • • • • •
How to conduct checking
accounts efficiently THRIFTY:
How to budget or plan
the spending of the family funds
89 How to calculate a discount♦ • •
vil LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.
PAGE APPROXIMATE COVERING CAPACITY OF PAINTING MATERIAL...................................
APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES OF INGREDIENTS FOR ONE GALLON OF PAINT
III* IV. V. VI. VII.
VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV.
TABLE OF FOOD V A L U E S ...............
RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES . . . . * . . . *
EQUIVALENT MEASURES AND W E I G H T S ........... *
STANDARD SIZES IN CANS AND THEIR CAPACITIES ................ . . . . . . . . .
AMOUNTS REQUIRED TO SERVE .50 PEOPLE
. . . . .
CAPACITY OF COOKERS OF VARIOUS SIZES . . . . .
BRINE STRENGTH . . . • • • ........... . . .
DIMENSIONS FOR SLIP-COVERS AND BEDSPREADS
CALCULATION OF 10 PER CENT INTEREST ON $115 FOR ONE Y E A R ..........................
UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS SERIES E TABLE OF REDEMPTION V A L U E S
viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE
ix PREFACE TO TEACHERS Tremendous amounts of time and energy are being .............................
dissipated by students who are taught subject matter which' they will, literally, never use.
Of course, no one knows
exactly what knowledge the students will use in future years* This problem may be partially remedied by gradually eliminating certain non-functional learning situations from the curriculum, but, probably, it can be more thoroughly remedied by establishing an entirely new curriculum based on functional lifelike activities* This course of study is an attempt to eliminate any functionless learning and to emphasize the problems, pertaining to mathematics, that are confronted in daily living.
Most secondary schools require each pupil to enroll
in at least one mathematics course before graduating.
students following a homemaking course and enrolled in a mathematics class should find this outline able to meet most of their needs* A glance at the number of divorces each year shows that there is need for better home makers.
With this in
view, it cannot be denied that our future homemakers need to be trained.
If this project or any part of it can be
used to aid anyone in this vocation, they are extended a warn hand of encouragement to further this work*
X PREFACE TO STUDENTS
The purpose of this course is to give you the mathematics that is necessary for you to take your place in a home and assume your roll as a father or a mother. By following the suggestions and solving your problems in the manner shown, you will receive certain rewards.
rewards are listed in each chapter but throughout the entire project you will be able to save money, save time, and save the materials you are using. the usefulness of the course.
An added reward is
Everything you learn in
this course will be used throughout your married life to help to enrich the happiness of your family.
HOW TO BEAUTIFY YOUR HOME WITH CERTAIN MATHEMATICAL AIDS A# MOTIVATION:
Rewards for being able to figure the
amount and coat of materials for decorating* 1*
The proper proportion of
paint mixing can make the difference in a profess ional and a poor appearing job* 2.
By ordering materials in correct
amounts and costs, you are essentually putting money in the bank. 3*
ADMIRATION OF FRIENDS:
Being able to calculate the
exact amount of material for home decorating will win the esteem of your friends. B. DIRECTIONS:
the use of mathematics in
maintenance of the home. 1.
How to calculate the amount of
paint needed to cover your home, a.
Calculate the approximate surface area to be painted. (1)
This method will give a rough over-all estimate, but accuracy is not too important for relatively inexperienced painters whose covering powers differ.
Do not skimp on estimates, since excess paint can be put to good use in the future*
Measure the perimeter of your home*
Multiply the perimeter by the height of the outside (from the ground to the eves or cornices)*
Increase the accuracy of your estimate, if you are working on a strict budget, by using the following procedures (1)
Subtract the door and window areas from the total exterior surface area*
Add the area of trim,
(This is found by
multiplying the length in linear feet by the width, in feet*) (3)
Add the area needed for the window frames and doors (if painted)*
area needed for one type of window and then multiply this by the number of windows of that type*) (4)
Add the area of the cornices*
of the cornices is found by multiplying the length in linear feet by the girth, in
Determine the covering capacity of the paint to be used from Table I, or if well-known brands of ready**prepared paints are used, the covering capacity or spreading rate will be printed on the label*
Mix the paint to the proportions given in Table II, in order to obtain the approximate quantities of ingredients for each gallon of paint *
Calculate the number of gallons of paint required to cover the exterior of your home* (1)
Divide the area, in square feet, of the surface to be covered by the covering capacity of the paint to be used*
Calculate the number of gallons of paint that must be used for coats other than the first*
Find the total number of gallons of paint needed*
Figure the amount of trim needed* (1)
If the trim is the same color as the bulk head being painted, order no more paint since it is already included in the over all estimate*
TABLE I APPROXIMATE COVERING CAPACITY OP PAINTING MATERIALS
Metal, any coat
Wood, first coat
Wood, second coat
Plaster, Plaster, first second coat coat
White lead and oil
300-400 400-500200-300 300-500
Zinc white and oil
400-500 500-600 250-350 400-600
400-500 500-600 300-400 400-600
400-500 500-600 350-450 400-600
Good ready mixed paint exterior) Enamel Floor enamel
400-600 500-700 400-550 500-700
Interior flat paint
400-500 500-600 300-450 400-550
Interior gloss paint
250-350 300-450 200-300 300-400
400-500 500-600 350-450 400-600
Wall primer Wood paste filler
5 TABLE II APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES OP INGREDIENTS FOR ONE GALLON OP PAINT
White lead, pounds
Linseed oil gallons
Turpen tine, gallons
If the trim is a different color than the bulkhead, order no more paint, but mix the amount of trim desired (taken from the over-all amount of paint) with the desired color*
Figure the cost of paint to be used by multiply ing the cost per gallon by the number of gallons required*
How to figure the proper amount
of paint required to paint the inside of your home* a*
Find the surface area of each room that is to be painted* (1)
Find the perimeter of each room*
Obtain the area of the walls by multiplying the perimeter by the height of the room*
Obtain the area of the ceiling by multiply ing the length of the room by the width*
For more exact results, subtract the areas of the windows and doors from the total surface area of the room*
Find the areas of irregularly shaped walls and ceilings by dividing the surfaces into rectan gles and triangles, finding the area of each, and taking a summation to obtain the entire area*
Figure the amount of painting area required for any interior trim, by measuring the number of linear feet of trim and taking that amount as the number of square feet needed.
(This is true
since it is customary to consider each linear foot of wood trim as one square foot•) Determine the covering capacity of the paint to be used from Table I.
(The covering capacity
may be printed on the paint can label.) Mix the paint to the proportions given in Table II, giving the approximate quantities of ingredients for each gallon of paint. Calculate the number of gallons of paint re quired to cover the inside of your home. (1)
Use the formula, gallons of paint »
area k® covered , covering capacity
Find the total number ofgallons of paint needed by summing the number of gallons for each coat.
Figure the cost of paint to be used by multiply ing the cost per gallon by the number of gallons to be used.
How to determine the amount of wall
paper required to paper your home* a*
Calculate the number of rolls of wall paper in less important work*
(For closets, hidden
corners, and certain small rooms, matching isn’t too important.) (1)
Obtain the gross area of the walls and ceiling*
Deduct the area of the door and window openings*
Divide the new area by 36 (sq. ft* in a roll) to obtain the number of single rolls*
If the wall paper used on the ceiling Is not the same as that used on therwalls, then tlfe walls and ceiling must be figured separately*
Figure the number of rolls of wall paper requir ed for more expensive work* (1)
Find the perimeter of the room in feet, and divide this by 1.5 to obtain the number of strips*
The number of strips that can be cut from the roll is found by dividing the length of the roll by the length of a strip (height of room)*
9 The length of a single roll la 24 feet, or 8 yards, and a double roll is 48 feet, or 16 yards* (4)
Find the number of rolls required for the walls by dividing the total number of strips by the number of strips that can be cut from one roll*
Find the number of rolls for the ceiling in the same manner*
Deduct only half the area of the openings for 20 sq* feet or larger, to allow for cutting and fitting around openings*
Allow certain portions of paper for wasting* (1)
5 per cent, for paper with no figured pattern*
10 per cent, for paper with a small figured pattern*
13 per cent, for paper with a large figured pattern*
Use double rolls, as the waste caused by cutting and matching is less than with single rolls*
Determine the cost of paper by multiplying the cost per roll by the number of rolls required*
Calculate the amount of paste required*
gallon of paste will be sufficient for about:)
3 double rolls of heavy-weight paper*
4 double rolls of medium-weight paper*
5 or 6 double rolls of light-weight paper*
Find the cost of paste by multiplying the number of gallons of paint by the price per gallon*
How to figure the correct amounts
of linoleum and carpeting needed* a*
Find the floor area of a rectangular floor* (1)
Multiply length by the width*
Increase the building measurements to the next half or whole foot, if fractional, before computing*
Calculate the area of an irregularly shaped floor. (1)
Multiply the largest length measurement by the largest width measurement*
Subtract the open areas.
Fractional floor measurements are increased to next half foot or whole foot before computing*
Find the amount of linoleum required for the floor* (1)
Since the eommon standard width is 6 feet, you must select a layout that will utilize this width with the least amount of cutting and joining possible*
If the length or the width of the floor is a multiple of 6 feet, use that multiple to lay out strips of standard 6 foot widths*
For plain or solid color linoleum, figure the area of the floor in square yards and add five per cent*
(There is very little
waste in laying solid color linoleum*) (4)
For stamped, printed, or inlaid linoleum the total yards purchased will be in excess of the actual floor area, due to irregular ities of shape and matching of patterns*
In making the layout to determine the number of square yards of linoleum needed, you should make use of the fact that the pattern repeats itself each eighteen inches of width or length*
Determine the amount of asphalt tile needed to cover a certain size floor* (1)
The most commonly used asphalt tile is 3/16 inch thick and 9 inches on a side*
Compute the area of the floor to he covered and multiply by 1.78, giving the number of asphalt tiles required*
Figure the cost of linoleum and paste* (1)
Multiply the square yards of linoleum to be ordered by the price of one square yard*
Divide the number of square yards of linoleum by eight, and multiply by the price of one gallon of paste*
Find the cost of asphalt tile and paste* (1)
Asphalt tile can be purchased by the square foot of coverage or by the tile*
If purchased by the square foot, multiply the area of the floor by the price per square foot of asphalt tile*
If purchased by the unit tile, multiply the area by 1*78, and multiply this product by the price of one tile*
Divide the floor area by 65, and multiply the quotient by the cost of one gallon of paste*
Determine the amount of carpeting needed for your home. (1)
Measure the size rug desired to fit your rooms.
If wall to wall carpeting is used, find the area of the room.
Obtain the number of square yards desired, by dividing the number of square feet needed by 9.
Flan to buy a rug pad since it saves up to 50$ wear on your rug.
Determine the cost of carpeting. (1)
Multiply the number of square yards needed by the priee per yard.
Find the cost of the pad andadd this to the price of the carpeting toobtain the total cost.
How to hang pictures at the same
height around the room. a.
Hand the first picture in your room at the desired height.
Measure the distance from the floor to the top of the picture.
Locate the approximate location of each picture to be hung.
Place the remaining pictures the same height, measuring from the top of the picture, as the first picture that was hung*
(The bottom of
each picture may be at a different length from the floor, but the top of each picture should be at the same level.) e.
Hang similar pairs of pictures symmetrically* (1)
Locate the approximate position of the pictures*
Find the exact centerline that you wish for the line of symmetry*
The distance from the centerline to one of the pictures should be equal to the dis tance from the centerline to the other picture*
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER;
Where to get further
Local home estimators for demonstrating purposes, and for giving current information*
Homes that are being decorated make a fine guide*
The home decorating section in your local library*
Pamphlets on home decorating from your local stores*
Pulver, H* E.:
Construction estimates and costs.
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., Now York, 1940. C.
Learning experiences to help to
compute the materials and cost of home decorating. 1.
Calculate the amount and cost of
material to redecorate your home. 2.
Figure the amount and cost of
material to decorate the school cottage or a section of the school. 3.
Estimate the amount and cost of
material to redecorate your elassroom. D.
Methods which may be employed in checking
your computations of home decorating. 1.
Place an X in the correct space for
true or false. T F a. ( )( ) In order to find the number of gallons of paint needed for a job, you should divide the area of the surface to be covered by the covering capacity of the paint to be used. b.
When estimating wall paper, for better type jobs, you should allow fifteen per cent over the calculated amount if the paper has no figured pattern.
Place the number of the best answer in
the parentheses* a*
( ) The number of asphalt tile you will have to buy to cover a floor 18 feet long and 12 feet wide is: (3)
( > When calculating floor tile work, the amount of waste you should allow for every 25 square feet of floor area is: sq. ft. (4)
2 sq. ft.
4 sq. ft.
( ) The number of gallons of paste you should buy in order to lay 24 square yards of linoleum is: (4)
( ) The best way to order linoleum is by: (1)
Gubic feet. The roll.
Place an X in each space for which
you qualify. a.
Ability to find the areas of common figures.
Ability to read a ruler correctly.
Ability to estimate the cost of painting.
Ability to estimate the cost of papering.
17 CHAPTER 2*
HOW TO APPORTION MEALS PROPERLY A.
a i m iu a w w im w — ■—
i ■m an
Rewards that come from cooking more effi-
— ■ — m—
■■■ i— — * n * i — i —
a im —
w — r~— — r - m -------------------t ~■ — i— ■— r r —
When the proper amount of food is pre
pared there is little waste# 2*
Finding the proper nutritional
values in food will give you more energy* 3*
Well planned and properly app
ortioned meals will bring you praises* B*
Suggestions on the use of mathematics in
home cooking* 1*
How to increase and decrease recipes*
Plan how much food will be needed for a par ticular occasion* (1)
The amount may be determined by the number of people to be served*
The amount may be limited by a limited amount of a certain ingredient*
Find the ratio, amount of food needed amount of food given in recipe
Procure the desired recipe by multiplying the ratio found In section 2Blb by each ingredient of the recipe*
How to find the proper calorie content
when cooking meals. a.
Find out how many calories are necessary for the members of your family to keep them in sound physical condition. (1)
Estimate the ideal weight for your height and build.
(Most weight charts are for the
Large-boned people may top
this average by 10 or 20 per cent, whereas, slender-boned people fall under it.) (2) Multiply your ideal weight by 15.
body needs 15 to 20 calories per pound a day.) ,(3)
In order to lose weight, reduce the answer above by one-third.
(The result is your
calorie quota for one day.) (4)
In order to gain weight, in most cases, add one-third.
(The result Is your calorie
quota for one day.) b.
Determine how many calories are best for each meal of the day. (1)
About 20$ of the day’s calories are needed for breakfast.
About 20$ of the day’s calories are needed for lunch.
About 60$ of the day's calories are needed for dinner*
Compute the number of calories certain meals comprise by multiplying the amount of food by the number of calories (per unit amount of food)*
Refer to Table III for the recommended dally allowance of calories for you and the members of your family.
How to balance meals properly,
Select one food that is rich in protein, one that is rich in fat, and one that is rich in carbo hydrates (sugars and starches) for a well bal anced dally meal*
Find the approximate amounts of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates for a sound meal. (1)
Supply about 60$ of the total energy your body needs to operate with carbohydrates*
Supply about 25$ to 30$ with fats.
Supply about 10$ to 15$ with proteins*
Use Table IV to find the proper amounts of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates for one day.
Refer to Table IV for _t;he recommended daily allowance of vitamins*
Find the food nutritional values in Table III*
20 TABLE III TABLE OP POOD VALUES
Angel food cake
l£ x 2 xj^
4jP at cir* 300
3 lg« half
2& x 7/8"
Beef, liver raw
4 x 3 x
Cheese, American 1 tbsp.
Distribution of Calories Protein Pat Carbohy*
21 TABLE IV RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES
Pro tein gram
Cal cium gram
Thia min (BX) mg.A
Ribo flavin G or B2 mg.
Ascorblc acid C
Vitamin D LU.
Man (154 lbs.) Moderately active
Women (123 lbs.) Moderately active
Children up to 12 yrs. Under 1 year 1-3 years
Children over 12 years 13-15 years
Check the nutritional value of the meal. (1)
Multiply the amount of each food by the number of nutritional units (per unit amount of the food).
If this quantity of food does not give enough nutritional value of that particular food, prepare another type of food rich in that nutritional unit as a supplement.
How to save food by measuring the
proper amount of foods. a.
Look up in Tables V, VI, and VII the measure and weight equivalents, food equivalents, and can size equivalents, respectively, for proper cooking amounts.
Measure the proper amount of food required in a particular unit, when it is given In a different unit.
(You can only compare different foods If
they are in the same units.) (1)
For each unit of the required quantity, obtain the number of units of the different quantity,giving a numeral.
Multiply the number of units of the requir ed quantity by the numeral obtained in 2B4b.
Make all measurements of dry materials level.
TABLE V EQUIVALENT MEASURES AMD WEIGHTS
3 teaspoons* * * • 1 tablespoon
4 cups. *
*. • • 1 quart
16 tablespoons . • 1 cup
2 pints •
•• • • 1 quart
4 tablespoons* • • £ cup
•• • • 1 gallon
i§- cup* • • • • • •
** . • 1 peck
4 gill . * . . . *
4 pecks •
•• • • 1 bushel
2 cups • • • • • •
• • • • 1 pound
24 TABLE VI POOD EQUIVALENTS
about 6 apricots
about 3 bananas
about 2 cups
about 2 cups
16 squares or 5 tablespoons
Coffe e (ground)
50 to 60 dates
4 to 6 eggs
about 4 cups
40 to 60 prunes
about 2-3/4 cups
about 2 cups
25 TABLE VII STANDARD SIZES IK CANS AND THEIR CAPACITIES
No. £ cans
4 to 4]| oz.
No. ■§ cans
NO. 1 cans (small or short)9^ to 13 oz.
No. 1 cans (Tailor square) 1 lb.
No. 2 cans
1 lb. 10 oz. to 2 lbs.
No. 2^f- cans
1 lb. 10 oz. to 2 lbs.3oz» 3|? cups
No. 3 cans No. 10 cans
, 2 lbs. 6 lbs. to 8 lbs.
4 cups 13 cups
Measure a fraction of a cup of fat without waste* (1)
Subtract .the fraction of a cup of fat you desire from unity to obtain the desired fraction*
Pour this desired amount of w$.ter into a cup.
Then fill the cup with fat until the water reaches one full cup*
How to order the proper amount of food
for a large party* a.
Select the desired quantity of food by extend ing small recipes.
(This is not too accurate,
as all materials gain when measured in quantity, but you can obtain the approximate amount of food you will need*) (1)
Find out how many people your small recipe will serve*
Divide the number of people you wish to serve by the number of people the recipe will serve*
Multiply this answer by each ingredient of the recipe, to obtain the approximate amount of ingredients you will need*
Multiply a recipe apportioned for six people by 8, in order to obtain the amount of food to feed fifty people.
(This apparently leaves two
people unprovided for, but, actually, the amount will be sufficient to feed fifty-four* c.
See Table VIII for the amounts of food required to serve 50 people*
Extend large recipes rather than small recipes when serving a large group of people.
less waste when cooking for a large group.) e*
Take advantage of buying in large quantities. (Considerable savings can be obtained when you buy by the crate or bushel*)
Omit one egg for every four called for, when estimating eggs for large cakes or puddings. (Example, if 6 times an ordinary (4 egg) cake recipe is being made, use 18 eggs*)
How to find the proper amounts of
food when canning* a.
Put up one hundred quarts of food for each member of the family, if possible*
Choose the steam pressure cooker size that best meets your needs for canning. IX.)
(Refer to Table
28 TABLE VIII
AMOUNTS REQUIRED TO SERVE 50 PEOPLE
Sauce for beef loaf
3 to 4 quarts
£ pound raw per person
^ pound raw per person
Vegetable, potato salad
6 to 8 quarts
6 large heads
Baked pork and beans
3 jt quarts
4 no. 10 cans
2 per person
6 servings per quart
7 portions per pie
TABLE IX CAPACITY OF COOKERS OF VARIOUS SIZES
Size of canner
Ho* 2 cans
No* 3 cans
Any size smaller than 18 quart capacity is not practical for canning purposes*
Divide your canning roughly into three cate gories* (1)
One-third of each hundred quarts should be fruit.
One-third should be vegetables (particularly green and leafy vegetables)*
One-third tomatoes or tomato juice*
Order the proper amount of food to fill a desir ed number of bottles. (1)
fable X gives the amount of raw food for each quart of canned food.
To obtain the amount of raw food you must purchase, multiply the number of quarts you wish by the corresponding amount of raw food found in Table X.
Compute the amounts of salt and water to make brine • (1)
The amount of brine needed is approximate one-half the volume of the vegetable*
Decide what strength of brine solution you desire.
Obtain the amount of water and salt that is required from Table XI.
31 TABUS X CANNING YIELD
1^ - l|f pounds
2 - 2-sl pounds
1& - 2 pounds
3 - 3 ^ quarts
Corn (cut from cob)
6 • 6^ pounds
Lima beans (unshelled)
4 - 4 ^ - pounds
2 ^ - 3 pounds
TABLE XI BRIBE STRENGTH
Percentage of solution
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:
Where to get further
Menus, for the purpose of sleeting the proper food values*
The cooking shelf of your local library*
The school cafeteria and chef*
Mrs* Allen on Cooking. Menus. Service*
Doubleday, Page and Company, New York,' .1946* C*
Projects that will help in
cooking by the proper use of mathematics* 1*
Figure the amount and cost of food
for a meal that you wish to prepare for your family* 2.
Figure the amount and cost of food
required to feed your family for a period of one week* 3*
Find the amount and cost of food for
a party that you wish to have* D*
Ways in which your mastery of cooking and
nutrition may be checked* 1*
Place an X in the correct space for
true or false* T F a. ( )( ) You should obtain about 50# of your calories for one day at your breakfast* b.
( )( )
If there were 5 people in your family, you should can about 50 quarts of fruit
in order to be properly supplied. BEST ANSWER:
Place the number of the best answers
in parentheses. a.
When figuring the energy needed for your body, the per cent of carbohydrates should be about: (4)
If your ideal weight is 110 pounds, the number of calories you should have for one day is approximately: (3)
Place an X in each space for which
you are qualified. a.
Ability to find proportions correctly.
Ability to measure liquid measures accurate ly.
Ability to measure dry measures accurately.
Ability to find the correct calorie value of meals.
Ability to figure well balanced meals. Total
35 CHAPTER 3.
HOW TO SEW WITH THE AID OF MATHEMATICAL HINTS A*
MOTIVATION; Advantages of being able to do the mathematics of sewing* 1*
The ability to figure the correct
measurements that fit to your form can give you that needed sparkle* 2*
Incorrect measurements will
give your work that “homemade** appearance* 3*
Calculating the correct amount of
yardage will save you material, enabling you to apply this savings to other clothing* B*
DIRECTIONS: Some pointers to help you sew more effi ciently by the proper use of mathematics*