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- Jerry Craig

A COURSE IN MATHEMATICS FOR HOME MAKERS

A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Jerry Craig Oarlock August 4, 1950

UMI Number: EP46320

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP46320 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

££

'S~t

$3

P

T h is project report, w ritten under the direction of the candidate's adviser and approved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l f u lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in Education.

Date

Z r i L d t ® . ............

A d v is e r

Dean

ii TABLE OP CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF T A B L E S .....................................

vii

LIST OF F I G U R E S ............. PREFACE TO TEACHERS

viii

.

.

PREFACE TO STUDENTS

ix

.............

X

CHAPTER 1.

HOME DECORATING;

HOW TO BEAUTIFY YOUR HOME WITH

CERTAIN MATHEMATICAL A I D S ................. 1.

EXTERIOR PAINTING:

How to calculate the

amount of paint needed to cover 2.

1

INTERIOR PAINTING:.

your home

• • 1

How to figure the

proper amount of paint required to paint the inside of your home 3*

WALL PAPER:

• « * • • • . . . . •

How to determine the amount

of wall paper required to paper 4.

FLOOR COVERINGS:

your home

PICTURE HANGING:

COOKING: 1.

• • • • • • •

HOW TO APPORTION MEALS PROPERLY

RECIPES: recipes

2.

• • * • •

10

How to hang pictures at

the same height around the room 2.

• • 8

How to figure the correct

amounts of linoleum and rugs needed 5.

6

13

....

17

• • • . • • • • • • • » . . • • • . .

17

How to Increase and decrease

NOURISHMENT:

How to find the proper

calorie content when cooking . . .

..........

18

ill CHAPTER

PAGE

3*

MENU:

How to balance meals properly • • • • • 19

4.

MENSURATION:

How to save food by measur

ing the proper amount of foods • • • * • • • • 5.

QUANTITY:

How to order the proper amount

of food for a large party 6.

FOOD PRESERVING:

• • • • • • • • • «

NEEDLBWORKING:

2.

27

HOW TO SEW WITH THE AID OF

MATHEMATICAL HINTS * ................... 1.

26

How to find the proper

amounts of food when canning • • • • • • • • • 5.

22

DRAPERIES:

35

How to measure for curtains

and draperies

. • • • • • • • • • • • • . • •

MODIFICATION:

How to figure the alteration

35

of commercial patterns so they will fit

3*

your form

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

KNITTING:

How to figure the desired size

38

of an article when knitting if a different size is given as a pattern • • • • . • • • • • 4*

ESTIMATING:

How to order the correct

amount of yardage for furniture coverings 5.

DESIGNS:

40

• •

41

How to figure the correct

measurements when copying designs for sewing, knitting, needlepoint, crocheting, and embroidering • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • •

42

iv CHAPTER 4.

PAGE

LANDSCAPING:

HOW TO BEAUTIFY YOUR GARDEN 48

WITH THE AID OF MATHEMATICS................... 1*

LAWNS:

How to figure the proper amount

of grass seed • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « 2.

SOIL PREPARATION:

48

How to calculate the

proper proportions of fertilizer to he used in your garden 3.

INSECTICIDES:

*

50

How to find the correct

amount of spray, which will he suitable for your garden » • • • • • • • • . • • • • • 4. FLOWERBEDS:

How to lay out a flower

garden with mathematical aids . . . . . . . 5*

FENCING:

•

TRAVELING:

AUTOMOBILE SAVINGS:

2. NAVIGATING:

. .

58

How to find the cost

of owning and operating your car

• • . . . .

58

How to reckon your routes

by referring to a road map 3.

54

HOW TO TRAVEL ECONOMICALLY

WITH THE AID OF MATHEMATICS.......... . . . . 1*

52

How to calculate the amount

and cost of a fence • • • • • • • • • • • . . 5.

51

THRIFTY DRIVING:

• • • • • • . • •

60

How to estimate the

cost of taking a trip

61

V

CHAPTER 4.

PAGE SELECTING TRANSPORTATIONS

How to compute

the cost of various types of transporta tion enabling you to select a type suit able to your budget 6.

PURCHASINGS

................

HOW TO BUY HOUSEHOLD FURNISH

INGS W I S E L Y ........... 1.

69

FURNITURE: How to figure a fair price on furniture

2*

• • » • • • • • « • . « • » » •

GROCERIES:

................ * •

72

RENTING: How to figure the rent on a house computable to

5* —

........

yourIncome

CREDIT:

76

How to calculate installment

prices accurately • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 8*

75

INSURANCE: How to figure an increase on your insurance • • • • • • • » • • • • • •

7*

74

YOUR HOME: How to figure the cost of a house compatable to your income • • • • • «

6#

71

How to figure a fair price

on food 4*

69

ATTIRE: How to figure a fair price on clothes • • • • • . . .

3*

64

77

TAXES: How to compute the taxes on articles

• • • • • • • • • • •

............

81

vi CHAPTER 7»

PAGE

FINANCING:

HOW TO BALANCE YOUR MONETARY

AFFAIRS EFFICIENTLY......................... 1* FAMILY MONEY;

2. CHECKING ACCOUNTS

Income

......................

• • . » • • • * • • • • • • • • • • •

87

88

How to save money on small

economics 5. DISCOUNTS;

1

84

How to save part of your

4« SAVINGS: ^

• • • • • •

How to conduct checking

accounts efficiently THRIFTY:

84

How to budget or plan

the spending of the family funds

3*

.

89 How to calculate a discount♦ • •

92

vil LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.

PAGE APPROXIMATE COVERING CAPACITY OF PAINTING MATERIAL...................................

II*

APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES OF INGREDIENTS FOR ONE GALLON OF PAINT

III* IV. V. VI. VII.

VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

4

........

TABLE OF FOOD V A L U E S ...............

20

RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES . . . . * . . . *

21

EQUIVALENT MEASURES AND W E I G H T S ........... *

23

FOOD EQUIVALENTS...........................

24

STANDARD SIZES IN CANS AND THEIR CAPACITIES ................ . . . . . . . . .

25

AMOUNTS REQUIRED TO SERVE .50 PEOPLE

. . . . .

28

CAPACITY OF COOKERS OF VARIOUS SIZES . . . . .

29

CANNING YIELD

31

...........

BRINE STRENGTH . . . • • • ........... . . .

32

DIMENSIONS FOR SLIP-COVERS AND BEDSPREADS

43

INSECTICIDE PROPORTIONS

. .

...........

S3

CALCULATION OF 10 PER CENT INTEREST ON $115 FOR ONE Y E A R ..........................

XV.

5

79

UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS SERIES E TABLE OF REDEMPTION V A L U E S

.

90

viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE

PAGE

A*

WINDOW MEASUREMENTS.........

36

B.

DESIGN TRANSMITTANCE...................

45

ix PREFACE TO TEACHERS Tremendous amounts of time and energy are being .............................

"

'

"

t

dissipated by students who are taught subject matter which' they will, literally, never use.

Of course, no one knows

exactly what knowledge the students will use in future years* This problem may be partially remedied by gradually eliminating certain non-functional learning situations from the curriculum, but, probably, it can be more thoroughly remedied by establishing an entirely new curriculum based on functional lifelike activities* This course of study is an attempt to eliminate any functionless learning and to emphasize the problems, pertaining to mathematics, that are confronted in daily living.

Most secondary schools require each pupil to enroll

in at least one mathematics course before graduating.

All

students following a homemaking course and enrolled in a mathematics class should find this outline able to meet most of their needs* A glance at the number of divorces each year shows that there is need for better home makers.

With this in

view, it cannot be denied that our future homemakers need to be trained.

If this project or any part of it can be

used to aid anyone in this vocation, they are extended a warn hand of encouragement to further this work*

X PREFACE TO STUDENTS

The purpose of this course is to give you the mathematics that is necessary for you to take your place in a home and assume your roll as a father or a mother. By following the suggestions and solving your problems in the manner shown, you will receive certain rewards.

Many

rewards are listed in each chapter but throughout the entire project you will be able to save money, save time, and save the materials you are using. the usefulness of the course.

An added reward is

Everything you learn in

this course will be used throughout your married life to help to enrich the happiness of your family.

CHAPTER 1.

HOME DECORATING

HOW TO BEAUTIFY YOUR HOME WITH CERTAIN MATHEMATICAL AIDS A# MOTIVATION:

Rewards for being able to figure the

amount and coat of materials for decorating* 1*

PROFESSIONAL PAINTING:

The proper proportion of

paint mixing can make the difference in a profess ional and a poor appearing job* 2.

MORE MONEY:

By ordering materials in correct

amounts and costs, you are essentually putting money in the bank. 3*

ADMIRATION OF FRIENDS:

Being able to calculate the

exact amount of material for home decorating will win the esteem of your friends. B. DIRECTIONS:

Suggestions on

the use of mathematics in

maintenance of the home. 1.

EXTERIOR PAINTING:

How to calculate the amount of

paint needed to cover your home, a.

Calculate the approximate surface area to be painted. (1)

This method will give a rough over-all estimate, but accuracy is not too important for relatively inexperienced painters whose covering powers differ.

(2)

Do not skimp on estimates, since excess paint can be put to good use in the future*

(3)

Measure the perimeter of your home*

(4)

Multiply the perimeter by the height of the outside (from the ground to the eves or cornices)*

Increase the accuracy of your estimate, if you are working on a strict budget, by using the following procedures (1)

Subtract the door and window areas from the total exterior surface area*

(2)

Add the area of trim,

(This is found by

multiplying the length in linear feet by the width, in feet*) (3)

Add the area needed for the window frames and doors (if painted)*

(Estimate the

area needed for one type of window and then multiply this by the number of windows of that type*) (4)

Add the area of the cornices*

(The area

of the cornices is found by multiplying the length in linear feet by the girth, in

c*

Determine the covering capacity of the paint to be used from Table I, or if well-known brands of ready**prepared paints are used, the covering capacity or spreading rate will be printed on the label*

d*

Mix the paint to the proportions given in Table II, in order to obtain the approximate quantities of ingredients for each gallon of paint *

e*

Calculate the number of gallons of paint required to cover the exterior of your home* (1)

Divide the area, in square feet, of the surface to be covered by the covering capacity of the paint to be used*

(2)

Calculate the number of gallons of paint that must be used for coats other than the first*

(3)

Find the total number of gallons of paint needed*

f*

Figure the amount of trim needed* (1)

If the trim is the same color as the bulk head being painted, order no more paint since it is already included in the over all estimate*

TABLE I APPROXIMATE COVERING CAPACITY OP PAINTING MATERIALS

Painting material

Metal, any coat

Wood, first coat

Wood, second coat

Plaster, Plaster, first second coat coat

White lead and oil

400-500

300-400 400-500200-300 300-500

Zinc white and oil

500-600

400-500 500-600 250-350 400-600

500-600

400-500 500-600 300-400 400-600

500-600

400-500 500-600 350-450 400-600

Good ready mixed paint exterior) Enamel Floor enamel

400-600 500-700 400-550 500-700

Interior flat paint

400-500 500-600 300-450 400-550

Interior gloss paint

250-350 300-450 200-300 300-400

Varnish

500-600

400-500 500-600 350-450 400-600

Shellac

600-700

Stain

300-500

400-600

300-500

Wall primer Wood paste filler

250-350

Glue size

300-500

Varnish size

300-500

Calcimine (kalsomine)

200-400

Cold-water paint

200-350

200-300

5 TABLE II APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES OP INGREDIENTS FOR ONE GALLON OP PAINT

White lead, pounds

Linseed oil gallons

Turpen tine, gallons

Drier, pints

Prime coat

10-12

iir-2

3/4-1*

0-1/8

Second coat

12-16

lf-2

1^-2

0-1/8

Finish coat

12-16

1^-2

o-t

0-1/8

Prime coat

10-12

1^-2

Second coat

13-16

l-l£

lf-2

1/8-$

Finish, flat

16-18

0

1^-5

0-1/8

Finish, gloss

16-17

1*-1*

o-i

0-1/8

Paint

Exterior

Interior 1/8-i

(2)

If the trim is a different color than the bulkhead, order no more paint, but mix the amount of trim desired (taken from the over-all amount of paint) with the desired color*

g*

Figure the cost of paint to be used by multiply ing the cost per gallon by the number of gallons required*

IHTERIOR PAIMTING:

How to figure the proper amount

of paint required to paint the inside of your home* a*

Find the surface area of each room that is to be painted* (1)

Find the perimeter of each room*

(2)

Obtain the area of the walls by multiplying the perimeter by the height of the room*

(3)

Obtain the area of the ceiling by multiply ing the length of the room by the width*

(4)

For more exact results, subtract the areas of the windows and doors from the total surface area of the room*

b*

Find the areas of irregularly shaped walls and ceilings by dividing the surfaces into rectan gles and triangles, finding the area of each, and taking a summation to obtain the entire area*

Figure the amount of painting area required for any interior trim, by measuring the number of linear feet of trim and taking that amount as the number of square feet needed.

(This is true

since it is customary to consider each linear foot of wood trim as one square foot•) Determine the covering capacity of the paint to be used from Table I.

(The covering capacity

may be printed on the paint can label.) Mix the paint to the proportions given in Table II, giving the approximate quantities of ingredients for each gallon of paint. Calculate the number of gallons of paint re quired to cover the inside of your home. (1)

Use the formula, gallons of paint »

(2)

area k® covered , covering capacity

Find the total number ofgallons of paint needed by summing the number of gallons for each coat.

Figure the cost of paint to be used by multiply ing the cost per gallon by the number of gallons to be used.

WALL PAPER:

How to determine the amount of wall

paper required to paper your home* a*

Calculate the number of rolls of wall paper in less important work*

(For closets, hidden

corners, and certain small rooms, matching isn’t too important.) (1)

Obtain the gross area of the walls and ceiling*

(2)

Deduct the area of the door and window openings*

(3)

Divide the new area by 36 (sq. ft* in a roll) to obtain the number of single rolls*

(4)

If the wall paper used on the ceiling Is not the same as that used on therwalls, then tlfe walls and ceiling must be figured separately*

b*

Figure the number of rolls of wall paper requir ed for more expensive work* (1)

Find the perimeter of the room in feet, and divide this by 1.5 to obtain the number of strips*

(2)

The number of strips that can be cut from the roll is found by dividing the length of the roll by the length of a strip (height of room)*

9 The length of a single roll la 24 feet, or 8 yards, and a double roll is 48 feet, or 16 yards* (4)

Find the number of rolls required for the walls by dividing the total number of strips by the number of strips that can be cut from one roll*

(5)

Find the number of rolls for the ceiling in the same manner*

(6)

Deduct only half the area of the openings for 20 sq* feet or larger, to allow for cutting and fitting around openings*

c*

Allow certain portions of paper for wasting* (1)

5 per cent, for paper with no figured pattern*

(2)

10 per cent, for paper with a small figured pattern*

(3)

13 per cent, for paper with a large figured pattern*

d*

Use double rolls, as the waste caused by cutting and matching is less than with single rolls*

e*

Determine the cost of paper by multiplying the cost per roll by the number of rolls required*

f*

Calculate the amount of paste required*

(One

gallon of paste will be sufficient for about:)

g*

(1)

3 double rolls of heavy-weight paper*

(2)

4 double rolls of medium-weight paper*

(3)

5 or 6 double rolls of light-weight paper*

Find the cost of paste by multiplying the number of gallons of paint by the price per gallon*

FLOOR COVERINGS:

How to figure the correct amounts

of linoleum and carpeting needed* a*

Find the floor area of a rectangular floor* (1)

Multiply length by the width*

(2)

Increase the building measurements to the next half or whole foot, if fractional, before computing*

b.

Calculate the area of an irregularly shaped floor. (1)

Multiply the largest length measurement by the largest width measurement*

(2)

Subtract the open areas.

(3)

Fractional floor measurements are increased to next half foot or whole foot before computing*

Find the amount of linoleum required for the floor* (1)

Since the eommon standard width is 6 feet, you must select a layout that will utilize this width with the least amount of cutting and joining possible*

(2)

If the length or the width of the floor is a multiple of 6 feet, use that multiple to lay out strips of standard 6 foot widths*

(3)

For plain or solid color linoleum, figure the area of the floor in square yards and add five per cent*

(There is very little

waste in laying solid color linoleum*) (4)

For stamped, printed, or inlaid linoleum the total yards purchased will be in excess of the actual floor area, due to irregular ities of shape and matching of patterns*

(5)

In making the layout to determine the number of square yards of linoleum needed, you should make use of the fact that the pattern repeats itself each eighteen inches of width or length*

12 d.

Determine the amount of asphalt tile needed to cover a certain size floor* (1)

The most commonly used asphalt tile is 3/16 inch thick and 9 inches on a side*

(2)

Compute the area of the floor to he covered and multiply by 1.78, giving the number of asphalt tiles required*

e*

Figure the cost of linoleum and paste* (1)

Multiply the square yards of linoleum to be ordered by the price of one square yard*

(2)

Divide the number of square yards of linoleum by eight, and multiply by the price of one gallon of paste*

f«

Find the cost of asphalt tile and paste* (1)

Asphalt tile can be purchased by the square foot of coverage or by the tile*

(2)

If purchased by the square foot, multiply the area of the floor by the price per square foot of asphalt tile*

(3)

If purchased by the unit tile, multiply the area by 1*78, and multiply this product by the price of one tile*

(4)

Divide the floor area by 65, and multiply the quotient by the cost of one gallon of paste*

g.

Determine the amount of carpeting needed for your home. (1)

Measure the size rug desired to fit your rooms.

(2)

If wall to wall carpeting is used, find the area of the room.

(3)

Obtain the number of square yards desired, by dividing the number of square feet needed by 9.

(4)

Flan to buy a rug pad since it saves up to 50$ wear on your rug.

h.

Determine the cost of carpeting. (1)

Multiply the number of square yards needed by the priee per yard.

(2)

Find the cost of the pad andadd this to the price of the carpeting toobtain the total cost.

PICTURE HA.HSTMG:

How to hang pictures at the same

height around the room. a.

Hand the first picture in your room at the desired height.

b.

Measure the distance from the floor to the top of the picture.

c.

Locate the approximate location of each picture to be hung.

14 d*

Place the remaining pictures the same height, measuring from the top of the picture, as the first picture that was hung*

(The bottom of

each picture may be at a different length from the floor, but the top of each picture should be at the same level.) e.

Hang similar pairs of pictures symmetrically* (1)

Locate the approximate position of the pictures*

(2)

Find the exact centerline that you wish for the line of symmetry*

(3)

The distance from the centerline to one of the pictures should be equal to the dis tance from the centerline to the other picture*

6.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER;

Where to get further

assistance* a*

Local home estimators for demonstrating purposes, and for giving current information*

b*

Homes that are being decorated make a fine guide*

c*

The home decorating section in your local library*

d.

Pamphlets on home decorating from your local stores*

e.

Pulver, H* E.:

Construction estimates and costs.

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., Now York, 1940. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGMENTS:

Learning experiences to help to

compute the materials and cost of home decorating. 1.

YOUR HOME:

Calculate the amount and cost of

material to redecorate your home. 2.

YOUR SCHOOL:

Figure the amount and cost of

material to decorate the school cottage or a section of the school. 3.

YOUR CLASSROOM:

Estimate the amount and cost of

material to redecorate your elassroom. D.

EVALUATION:

Methods which may be employed in checking

your computations of home decorating. 1.

TRUE-FALSE:

Place an X in the correct space for

true or false. T F a. ( )( ) In order to find the number of gallons of paint needed for a job, you should divide the area of the surface to be covered by the covering capacity of the paint to be used. b.

( )(.)

When estimating wall paper, for better type jobs, you should allow fifteen per cent over the calculated amount if the paper has no figured pattern.

BEST ANSWER:

Place the number of the best answer in

the parentheses* a*

( ) The number of asphalt tile you will have to buy to cover a floor 18 feet long and 12 feet wide is: (3)

b.

305.

(4)

(1) 385.

121. (5)

(2)

216.

405.

( > When calculating floor tile work, the amount of waste you should allow for every 25 square feet of floor area is: sq. ft. (4)

c.

(2)

2 sq. ft.

(3)

(1)

1

3 sq.ft.

4 sq. ft.

( ) The number of gallons of paste you should buy in order to lay 24 square yards of linoleum is: (4)

d.

(1)

1.

(2)

2.

(3)

3.

4.

( ) The best way to order linoleum is by: (1)

Square feet.

(3)

Square yards.

RATING SCALE:

(2) (4)

Gubic feet. The roll.

Place an X in each space for which

you qualify. a.

( )

Ability to find the areas of common figures.

b.

( )

Ability to read a ruler correctly.

c.

( )

Ability to estimate the cost of painting.

d.

{ )

Ability to estimate the cost of papering.

(

) Total.

17 CHAPTER 2*

COOKING

HOW TO APPORTION MEALS PROPERLY A.

MOTIVATION;

a i m iu a w w im w — ■—

— *n

i ■m an

Rewards that come from cooking more effi-

— ■ — m—

■■■ i— — * n * i — i —

a im —

—

—

w — r~— — r - m -------------------t ~■ — i— ■— r r —

——

— n

u

n

w

i

clehtly* 1*

SAVE FOOD;

When the proper amount of food is pre

pared there is little waste# 2*

HEALTHIER BODIES;

Finding the proper nutritional

values in food will give you more energy* 3*

HAPPIER MEALTIMES:

Well planned and properly app

ortioned meals will bring you praises* B*

DIRECTIONS:

Suggestions on the use of mathematics in

home cooking* 1*

RECIPES; a*

How to increase and decrease recipes*

Plan how much food will be needed for a par ticular occasion* (1)

The amount may be determined by the number of people to be served*

(2)

The amount may be limited by a limited amount of a certain ingredient*

b*

Find the ratio, amount of food needed amount of food given in recipe

c*

Procure the desired recipe by multiplying the ratio found In section 2Blb by each ingredient of the recipe*

NOURISHMENT:

How to find the proper calorie content

when cooking meals. a.

Find out how many calories are necessary for the members of your family to keep them in sound physical condition. (1)

Estimate the ideal weight for your height and build.

(Most weight charts are for the

average person.

Large-boned people may top

this average by 10 or 20 per cent, whereas, slender-boned people fall under it.) (2) Multiply your ideal weight by 15.

(Your

body needs 15 to 20 calories per pound a day.) ,(3)

In order to lose weight, reduce the answer above by one-third.

(The result is your

calorie quota for one day.) (4)

In order to gain weight, in most cases, add one-third.

(The result Is your calorie

quota for one day.) b.

Determine how many calories are best for each meal of the day. (1)

About 20$ of the day’s calories are needed for breakfast.

(2)

About 20$ of the day’s calories are needed for lunch.

(3)

About 60$ of the day's calories are needed for dinner*

c.

Compute the number of calories certain meals comprise by multiplying the amount of food by the number of calories (per unit amount of food)*

d*

Refer to Table III for the recommended dally allowance of calories for you and the members of your family.

MENU; a*

How to balance meals properly,

Select one food that is rich in protein, one that is rich in fat, and one that is rich in carbo hydrates (sugars and starches) for a well bal anced dally meal*

b*

Find the approximate amounts of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates for a sound meal. (1)

Supply about 60$ of the total energy your body needs to operate with carbohydrates*

(2)

Supply about 25$ to 30$ with fats.

(3)

Supply about 10$ to 15$ with proteins*

(4)

Use Table IV to find the proper amounts of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates for one day.

c.

Refer to Table IV for _t;he recommended daily allowance of vitamins*

d*

Find the food nutritional values in Table III*

20 TABLE III TABLE OP POOD VALUES

Foodstuff

Measure

Total calorie

Almonds, salted

10-12

100

12

78

10

Angel food cake

l£ x 2 xj^

100

12

1

87

Apple, baked

1 large

200

2

6

192

Apple pie

4jP at cir* 300

9

123

168

Apple, fresh

1 medium

80

2

4

74

Apricot s,canned

3 lg« half

100

5

Bacon, cooked

4-5 slices

100

13

87

Bananas

1 medium

100

5

6

89

Beans, baked

2/3 cup

200

42

36

122

Beef, hamburger

2& x 7/8"

100

55

45

Beef, liver raw

4 x 3 x

100

63

32

5

Bread, wheat

1 slice

40

6

2

32

Bread, white

1 slice

50

7

3

40

Butter

1 tbsp*

100

Buttermilk

1 cup

Cantaloupe

!§• melon

50

3

47

Carrots, fresh

3 tbsp*

15

3

12

Cheese, American 1 tbsp.

33

9

.88

Distribution of Calories Protein Pat Carbohy*

95

100 29

12

24

47

21 TABLE IV RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES

Pro tein gram

Cal cium gram

Thia min (BX) mg.A

70

0.8

1.8

2.7

Very active

2.3

3.3

Sedentary

1.5

2.2

1.5

2.2

Very active

1.8

2.7

Sedentary

1.2

1.8

1.0

0.4

0.6

30

Ribo flavin G or B2 mg.

Ascorblc acid C

Vitamin D LU.

Man (154 lbs.) Moderately active

75

Women (123 lbs.) Moderately active

60

0.8

70

Children up to 12 yrs. Under 1 year 1-3 years

40

1.0

0.4

0.6

35

4-6 years

50

1.0

0.8

1.2

50

7-9 years

60

1.0

1.0

1.6

60

10-12 years

70

1.0

1.2

1.8

75

Children over 12 years 13-15 years

80

1.3

1.4

2.0

80

16-20 years

75

1.0

1.2

1.8

80

400-800

e.

Check the nutritional value of the meal. (1)

Multiply the amount of each food by the number of nutritional units (per unit amount of the food).

(2)

If this quantity of food does not give enough nutritional value of that particular food, prepare another type of food rich in that nutritional unit as a supplement.

MENSURATION:

How to save food by measuring the

proper amount of foods. a.

Look up in Tables V, VI, and VII the measure and weight equivalents, food equivalents, and can size equivalents, respectively, for proper cooking amounts.

b.

Measure the proper amount of food required in a particular unit, when it is given In a different unit.

(You can only compare different foods If

they are in the same units.) (1)

For each unit of the required quantity, obtain the number of units of the different quantity,giving a numeral.

(2)

Multiply the number of units of the requir ed quantity by the numeral obtained in 2B4b.

c.

Make all measurements of dry materials level.

23

TABLE V EQUIVALENT MEASURES AMD WEIGHTS

3 teaspoons* * * • 1 tablespoon

4 cups. *

*. • • 1 quart

16 tablespoons . • 1 cup

2 pints •

•• • • 1 quart

4 tablespoons* • • £ cup

4 quarts*

•• • • 1 gallon

i§- cup* • • • • • •

1 gill

8 quarts*

** . • 1 peck

4 gill . * . . . *

1 pint

4 pecks •

•• • • 1 bushel

2 cups • • • • • •

1 pint

16 ounces

• • • • 1 pound

24 TABLE VI POOD EQUIVALENTS

Apples (dried)

1 lb.

5 eups

Apricots (fresh)

1 lb.

about 6 apricots

Bananas

1 lb.

about 3 bananas

Beans (dried)

1 lb.

about 2 cups

Butter

1 lb.

about 2 cups

Chocolate

1 lb.

16 squares or 5 tablespoons

Cocoa

1 lb.

4^ cups

Coffe e (ground)

1 lb.

5 cups

Dates

1 lb.

50 to 60 dates

Eggs

1 cup

4 to 6 eggs

PI our

1 lb.

about 4 cups

Primes

1 lb.

40 to 60 prunes

Raisins

1 lb.

about 2-3/4 cups

Sugar

1 lb.

about 2 cups

Tea

1 lb.

6^ eups

25 TABLE VII STANDARD SIZES IK CANS AND THEIR CAPACITIES

Can size

Weight •

Measure

No. £ cans

4 to 4]| oz.

§ cup

No. ■§ cans

8 oz.

1 cup

NO. 1 cans (small or short)9^ to 13 oz.

1^ cups

No. 1 cans (Tailor square) 1 lb.

2 cups

No. 2 cans

1 lb. 10 oz. to 2 lbs.

No. 2^f- cans

1 lb. 10 oz. to 2 lbs.3oz» 3|? cups

No. 3 cans No. 10 cans

, 2 lbs. 6 lbs. to 8 lbs.

2{t cups

4 cups 13 cups

d«

Measure a fraction of a cup of fat without waste* (1)

Subtract .the fraction of a cup of fat you desire from unity to obtain the desired fraction*

(2)

Pour this desired amount of w$.ter into a cup.

(3)

Then fill the cup with fat until the water reaches one full cup*

QUANTITY:

How to order the proper amount of food

for a large party* a.

Select the desired quantity of food by extend ing small recipes.

(This is not too accurate,

as all materials gain when measured in quantity, but you can obtain the approximate amount of food you will need*) (1)

Find out how many people your small recipe will serve*

(2)

Divide the number of people you wish to serve by the number of people the recipe will serve*

(3)

Multiply this answer by each ingredient of the recipe, to obtain the approximate amount of ingredients you will need*

27 b.

Multiply a recipe apportioned for six people by 8, in order to obtain the amount of food to feed fifty people.

(This apparently leaves two

people unprovided for, but, actually, the amount will be sufficient to feed fifty-four* c.

See Table VIII for the amounts of food required to serve 50 people*

d*

Extend large recipes rather than small recipes when serving a large group of people.

(You have

less waste when cooking for a large group.) e*

Take advantage of buying in large quantities. (Considerable savings can be obtained when you buy by the crate or bushel*)

f*

Omit one egg for every four called for, when estimating eggs for large cakes or puddings. (Example, if 6 times an ordinary (4 egg) cake recipe is being made, use 18 eggs*)

6*

POOD PRESERVING:

How to find the proper amounts of

food when canning* a.

Put up one hundred quarts of food for each member of the family, if possible*

b.

Choose the steam pressure cooker size that best meets your needs for canning. IX.)

(Refer to Table

28 TABLE VIII

AMOUNTS REQUIRED TO SERVE 50 PEOPLE

Soup

3 gallons

Chowder

4 gallons

Beef loaf

10 pounds

Sauce for beef loaf

3 to 4 quarts

Chicken pie

£ pound raw per person

Roast chicken

^ pound raw per person

Roast beef

24 pounds

Roast lamb

24 pounds

Chicken salad

11 quarts

Vegetable, potato salad

6 to 8 quarts

Fruit salad

8 quarts

Lettuce

6 large heads

Mashed potatoes

1 peck

Baked pork and beans

3 jt quarts

Canned vegetables

4 no. 10 cans

Rolls

2 per person

Butter

2-^ pounds

Bread

5 loaves

Ice Cream

6 servings per quart

Pie

7 portions per pie

29

TABLE IX CAPACITY OF COOKERS OF VARIOUS SIZES

Size of canner

Ho* 2 cans

No* 3 cans

Pint jars

Quart jar:

18 quarts

14

8

8

5

25 quarts

16

10

19

7

30 quarts

19

12

20

8

40 quarts

25

16

24

16 i

Any size smaller than 18 quart capacity is not practical for canning purposes*

Divide your canning roughly into three cate gories* (1)

One-third of each hundred quarts should be fruit.

(2)

One-third should be vegetables (particularly green and leafy vegetables)*

(3)

One-third tomatoes or tomato juice*

Order the proper amount of food to fill a desir ed number of bottles. (1)

fable X gives the amount of raw food for each quart of canned food.

(2)

To obtain the amount of raw food you must purchase, multiply the number of quarts you wish by the corresponding amount of raw food found in Table X.

Compute the amounts of salt and water to make brine • (1)

The amount of brine needed is approximate one-half the volume of the vegetable*

(2)

Decide what strength of brine solution you desire.

(3)

Obtain the amount of water and salt that is required from Table XI.

31 TABUS X CANNING YIELD

Food

Amount, raw

Amount canned

pounds

1 quart

Apricots

2-J- pounds

1 quart

Berries

1^ - l|f pounds

1 quart

Cherries

l£ -

1 quart

Crabapples

1 pound

1 quart

Peaches

2 ~

pounds

1 quart

Pears

2 - 2-sl pounds

1 quart

Plums

1& - 2 pounds

1 quart

Strawberries

3 - 3 ^ quarts

1 quart

Beets (whole)

2^ pounds

1 quart

Carrots (whole)

2% pounds

1 quart

Corn (cut from cob)

8 ears

1 quart

Greens

6 • 6^ pounds

1 quart

Lima beans (unshelled)

4 quarts

1 quart

Peas (unshelled)

4 - 4 ^ - pounds

1 quart

String beans

2 pounds

1 quart

Tomatoes

2 ^ - 3 pounds

1 quart

Tomato Juice

4 pounds

1 quart

Apples

pounds

32

TABLE XI BRIBE STRENGTH

Percentage of solution

Salt (pounds)

Water (pints)

5

*

9

10

1

9 8

15 20

2

8

33 7.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance* a*

Menus, for the purpose of sleeting the proper food values*

b*

The cooking shelf of your local library*

c*

The school cafeteria and chef*

d*

Allen, I:

Mrs* Allen on Cooking. Menus. Service*

Doubleday, Page and Company, New York,' .1946* C*

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects that will help in

cooking by the proper use of mathematics* 1*

FAMILY MEALS:

Figure the amount and cost of food

for a meal that you wish to prepare for your family* 2.

ROUTINE MEALS:

Figure the amount and cost of food

required to feed your family for a period of one week* 3*

SOCIAL PARTY:

Find the amount and cost of food for

a party that you wish to have* D*

EVALUATION:

Ways in which your mastery of cooking and

nutrition may be checked* 1*

TRUE-FALSE:

Place an X in the correct space for

true or false* T F a. ( )( ) You should obtain about 50# of your calories for one day at your breakfast* b.

( )( )

If there were 5 people in your family, you should can about 50 quarts of fruit

in order to be properly supplied. BEST ANSWER:

Place the number of the best answers

in parentheses. a.

( )

When figuring the energy needed for your body, the per cent of carbohydrates should be about: (4)

b.

( )

(1)

30#.

(2)

50#.

(3)

60#.

70#.

If your ideal weight is 110 pounds, the number of calories you should have for one day is approximately: (3)

RATING SCALE:

1650.

14)

(1);

1250.

(2) 1450.

1850.

Place an X in each space for which

you are qualified. a.

(

Ability to find proportions correctly.

b.

(

Ability to measure liquid measures accurate ly.

G.

(

Ability to measure dry measures accurately.

d.

(

Ability to find the correct calorie value of meals.

e.

(

(

Ability to figure well balanced meals. Total

35 CHAPTER 3.

NEEDLEWORKING

HOW TO SEW WITH THE AID OF MATHEMATICAL HINTS A*

MOTIVATION; Advantages of being able to do the mathematics of sewing* 1*

TRUER FITTINGSs

The ability to figure the correct

measurements that fit to your form can give you that needed sparkle* 2*

TAILORMADE APPEARANCE:

Incorrect measurements will

give your work that “homemade** appearance* 3*

MORE CLOTHING:

Calculating the correct amount of

yardage will save you material, enabling you to apply this savings to other clothing* B*

DIRECTIONS: Some pointers to help you sew more effi ciently by the proper use of mathematics*