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A course for the conservation of renewable natural resources

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A COURSE FOR THE CONSERVATION OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES

A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education ¥

The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Joseph W. Albon June 1950

UMI Number: EP46165

All rights re se rv e d INFORMATION TO ALL U SE R S T h e quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon th e quality of th e copy subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th at th e a u th o r did not s e n d a co m p lete m an u scrip t a n d th e re a re m issing p a g e s, th e s e will b e no ted . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e rem oved, a n o te will indicate th e deletion.

Dissertation Pvbfehing

UMI E P 4 6 1 6 5 P u b lish ed by P ro Q u e st LLC (2014). C opyright in th e D issertation held by th e Author. M icroform Edition © P ro Q u e st LLC. All rights re s e rv e d . This w ork is p ro tected a g a in s t unauthorized copying u n d e r Title 17, United S ta te s C o d e

P ro Q u e st LLC. 789 E a s t E isen h o w e r Parkw ay P.O . Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

E I •SI #33 9 Pr»^> This project report, written under the direction of the candidate's adviser and a p p roved by him, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in pa rtial fulfillm ent of the requirements fo r the degree of M a ster of Science in Education.

Date.

/3 - S O

^ "

...

A dAviser A

Dean

ii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE PART I.

THE GOOD EARTH

HOW TO SAVE YOUR SOIL 1.

WATER EROSION:

HOW TO KEEP WATER FROM WEARING

AWAY THE S O I L ..................................

2

1.

CULTIVATION:

2

2.

CONTOUR FURROWING:

3.

TERRACES:

4.

COVER CROPS:

How to prevent sheetwash . . . How to plant on slopes .

3

How to hold soil on hillsides . .

3

How to hold the soil during

the rainy s e a s o n .......... . .. ............ 5.

DITCHES:

6 . GULLIES:

How to control runoff

. . . . . .

STREAM BANKS: courses

. . . . .

PASTURES:

6

HOW TO KEEP THE SOIL FROM BEING

BLOWN A W A Y ...................................... 1.

6

How to reduce erosion along

highways .................................... WIND EROSION:

5

How to hold soil along water

.......................

8 . EXCAVATIONS:

2.

4

How to control channels worn away

by w a t e r .................................... 7.

4

9

How to keep animals from denuding

the soil-holding grasses ...................

10

«

iii CHAPTER 2.

3.

PAGE WINDBREAKS;

How to reduce the velocity

of the wind

. .......................

COVER CROPS; soils

3.

FERTILITY;

.

11

How to anchor dry., erodable

..................................

11

HOW TO INCREASE THE CROP YIELD

PER ACRE . . . .................................

15

1.

NUTRITION;

15

2.

FRIABILITY;

How to fertilize s o i l s ........ How to improve the texture of

s o i l s ......................................

16

3.

ACIDITY:

17

4.

ALKALINITY:

5.

COMPETITION:

How to sweeten s o i l s ............. How to leach s o i l s ........... How to d.estr#y noxious weeds .

PART II.

17 18

WATER AND LIFE

HOW TO DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN AN ADEQUATE WATER SUPPLY 4.

WATER SYSTEMS;

HOW TO PROVIDE DRINKING AND

IRRIGATION W A T E R ............................... 1.

WATER RIGHTS:

22

How to regulate the use of

water along s t r e a m s ....................... 2.

SPRINGS:

How to develop surface water . . .

3.

SUBTERRANEAN WATER:

4.

DISPERSION:

How to dig wells

How to replenish wells

22 23

...

23

. . . .

24

iv 5. DAMS:

How to catch and store excess

r u n o f f ...................

6 . PURIFICATION:

How to make water fit for

human consumption 5*

UTILIZATION:

25

.................

25

HOW TO PROVIDE FOR THE WISE USE

OF W A T E R .................

28

1.

POWER:

28

2.

IRRIGATION:

How to make water do w o r k ........ How to grow crops In arid and

semi-arid regions 3.

TRANSPORTATION:

......................... How to keep streams

n a v i g a b l e .................................. 4.

LEISURE TIME:

30

How to develop streams and

lakes for recreation

PART III.

29

...............

30

HOMES FOR MEN AND WILD LIFE

HOW TO PROTECT YOUR FORESTS

6.

LUMBER:

HOW TO PERPETUATE AN ADEQUATE TIMBER

S U P P L Y .........................

34

1.

SELECTION:

34

2.

REMOVAL:

3.

TRANSPORTATION:

How to choose trees for cutting How to fell trees

. . . . . . . .

How to convey logs to the

m i l l ........................................ 4.

MANUFACTURE:

35

35

How to get the most lumber

from logs and eliminate waste

...........

36

V

CHAPTER

PAGE

5; PRESERVATION:

How to prevent damage to

lumber from Insects

6 . REFORESTATION:

37

. , ..............

How to replenish cut-over

37

and burned a r e a s ....................... 7.

RECREATION:

HOW TO PRACTICE GOOD OUTDOOR

M A N N E R S .................................. 1.

WOOD:

How to obtain fuel for campfires

2.

CAMP FACILITIES:

40 . .

How to take care of public

p r o p e r t y ............................... 3.

WILDFLOWERS:

4.

MOTOR VEHICLES: roads

5.

.

SANITATION:

6 . FIREARMS: 8.

FORAGE: 1.

How to pick native plants

4l . .

...........................

How to handle a g u n ........

HEAD PER ACRE:

WATER:

FIRE: ENEMY

43 44

45

How to graze the number of . . . . . .

46

How to develop pure water for

animals on the r a n g e .......... 9.

42

How to give the range a chance

animals the forage will support 3.

42

How to keep your camp clean . .

to reseed i t s e l f .......... 2.

4l

How to drive on forest

HOW TO MAINTAIN PASTURE FOR LIVESTOCK .

ROTATION:

40

47

HOW TO PROTECT THE FOREST FROM ITS WORST 49

vi CHAPTER 1.

PAGE PREVENTION:

How to eliminate the cause

of fires

10.

2.

DETECTION:

3.

SUPPRESSION:

OTHER ENEMIES:

^9

How to locate f i r e s ...........

51

How to extinguish fires . . .

52

HOW TO KEEP THE FORESTS

.................................

HEALTHY . 1.

............................

INSECTS:

56

How to control borer and

56

defoliator infestations ................... 2.

DISEASES:

3.

FUMES:

How to control fungus attacks

.

How to protect the forests from

poisonous smelter and coke oven smoke . . .

PART IV.

57

57

THE BALANCE OF LIFE IN FOREST AND STREAM HOW TO CONTROL YOUR WILD LIFE

11.

HUNTING, FISHINGj AND TRAPPING:

HOW TO BE

GOOD S P O R T S M E N ................................ 1.

LAWS:

6l

How to legally take fish, game, . . . . .

6l

l i c e n s e s ..................................

62

3.

PRESERVING:

62

4.

TRAPS:

and fur-bearing animals ........ 2.

PERMITS:

How to obtain the proper

How to clean and keep game . .

How to bait and set t r a p s ........

63

vii CHAPTER 12.

PAGE

PROTECTION;

HOW TO ASSIST IN THE PRESERVATION

66

AND CONTROL OP WILD L I F E ............... 1.

PREDATORS:

How to destroy game-eating

animals and birds 2.

CROP DESTROYERS:

66

.......... How to decrease animals

and birds that ruin c r o p s ................. 3.

PISH:

How to safeguard aquatic life

4.

HELPFUL NON-GAME BIRDS:

REPLENISHMENT:

. . . .

68

HOW TO PERPETUATE THE SUPPLY OF

VALUABLE GAMEJ FISH, AND FUR ANIMALS 1.

67

How to protect the

insect-eating and scavenging birds 13.

...

67

GAME REFUGES:

........

70

How to provide a safe and

natural habitat for game to reproduce

70

t h e m s e l v e s .......... 2.

CLOSED SEASONS:

How to give game a chance

to increase their numbers naturally . . . . 3.

HATCHERIES AND GAME FARMS: fish and game

71

How to restock

.....................

J2

viii PREFACE TO STUDENTS

Nearly everyone is interested in animals, birds, flowers, and trees, but most of us give too little thought to how these things of nature affect our everyday lives. You probably take for granted the water that comes out of the faucet without considering the watershed that produces it.

You make use of lumber, paper, and thousands

of other products that trees give you without a thought as to whether more trees are growing where those trees were cut.

You like to hunt and fish, and have probably wondered

why the season and catch are so limited. This country has progressed from a few scattered settlements on the shores of a raw wilderness to the world's wealthiest and most powerful nation in three short centuries. This rapid rise is partly due to the energy, ingenuity, and enterprise of the American people, but mainly to the rich natural resources with which this land was blessed.

These

resources must be taken care of in the years to come if America is to continue to hold her position of world leader­ ship.

Only with real conservation of basic resources can

your land be permanently capable of supporting a permanent nation. This outline has been limited to the renewable resources because they can be replaced; while the non-renewable

ix resources, when once used, are gone forever. The subject of conservation is so broad that only a few of the more important problems have been discussed, but the aim of the outline is to arouse your interest to further study and inquiry so that when the welfare of the country is placed entirely in your hands, you will use these resources more wisely than have the past generations before you.

1

PART I.

THE GOOD EARTH

HOW TO SAVE YOUR SOIL

Nature has produced a layer of topsoil over the sur­ face of the earth which has taken many centuries to form. This topmost layer of soil, the most valuable, is not very thick.

In the United States, the average depth is between

six and seven inches. Wherever you live, city or country, you are completely dependent

on this thin film of soil for your food, clothing,

and shelter.Your standard of

living is directly related

the quality of the soil where your food grows.

to

Fertile soil

is rich in the nutrients that make healthy plants, and in turn good food for you and your livestock. Since the topsoil is so thin, it is easily destroyed or lost by erosion.

The next three chapters will tell you

how to combat erosion and save this vital resource, your soil.

2 CHAPTER 1.

WATER EROSION

HOW TO KEEP WATER PROM WEARING AWAY THE SOIL

A,

MOTIVATION:

Rewards of wise decisions regarding methods

of protecting your topsoil from being washed away. 1.

FLOOD CONTROL:

Your home is in danger of mud and

water damage when the soil is not anchored to the hillsides. 2.

INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY:

The removal of topsoil

decreases your crop yield. 3.

INCREASED LAND VALUES:

Farms with rich topsoil are

worth more than those damaged by erosion. 4.

DECREASED LABOR COSTS:

Repairing eroded land re­

quires the expenditure of much time, money, and hard work. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Some helpful hints on how to control water

erosion. 1.

CULTIVATION: a.

How to prevent sheetwash.

Avoid turning under weeds and stubble until after heavy rains.

b.

Leave slopes of more than 25 per cent unculti­ vated.

c.

Plow deeply and leave land rough.

d.

Plow across the slope.

e.

Harrow just before planting.

CONTOUR FURROWING: a.

How to plant on slopes.

Plant row crops, cover crops, orchards, and irri gated pastures on the contour.

b.

On other than slight slopes, employ in conjunc­ tion with strip farming or terracing.

c.

Determine the contour interval according to the slope.

d.

Locate the contour lines by surveying with an engineer's level.

e.

Furrow along contour line with lister plow or basin lister depending on end desired.

TERRACES: a.

How to hold soil on hillsides.

Decide on

the type of terrace that best fits

your conditions. (1)

Bench type, step-like with flattish surface between steep risers.

(2)

Graded channel, no change of inter-terrace slope.

Diverts runoff at non-erosive veloc

ities. (?) b.

Level type, designed to impound runoff.

If of the that will

graded type, select the least grade provide adequate discharge of runoff

and irrigation water. (1)

Grade should be less near upper end of

4 terrace. (2)

Grades of more than four inches per hundred feet of length are seldom necessary.

(5)

Grade should he determined by the intensity of the heaviest rainfall, and the absorptive quality of the soil.

c.

Space terraces so that runoff does

not have

chance to reach erosive velocity. d.

Construct terraces of a width that will carry water and facilitate tillage operations.

e.

Limit the length of terraces to 1,600 to 1,800 feet.

f.

Do not construct terraces on slopes of more than

10 to 12 per cent. 4.

COVER CROPS:

How to hold the soil during the rainy

season. a.

Manage as a part of regular farm operations.

b.

Seed as soon as possible after harvest.

c.

Seed on contour where practicable.

d.

Choose variety according to soil, moisture, and climatic conditions.

e.

Cut tops for forage where possible.

f.

Employ strips of cover crops with row crops and rotate.

5.

DITCHES:

How to control runoff.

5 a.

Where there is sufficient summer rainfall, con­ struct broad, shallow, sodded ditches.

b.

Do not sod ditches on level or gentle slopes because sufficient velocity of flow to prevent silting cannot be maintained.

c.

Line ditches in highly developed citrus and avocado regions of Southern California. (1)

Line with concrete, masonry, or bituminous mixture.

(2)

May be of small cross-section, but will stand high velocity runoff.

d.

Connect outlet of each terrace to main outlet ditch.

e.

Use underground pipe where ditches will inter­ fere with cultivation.

f.

Take advantage of natural drainageways (provide chutes to carry water to bottom of drainageway to prevent cutting into banks).

6.

GULLIES:

How to control channels worn away by

water. a.

In small gullies, slope banks and plant with sod-forming grasses.

b.

Construct check dams. (1)

Logs and brush.

(2)

Pipe and wire.

(3)

Masonry or concrete.

(4)

Rooted willow posts.

(5)

Locate so that top of dam is slightly below bottom of next one upstream.

(6 ) Keep center of dam lower than edges. (7)

Plant silted dams with soil-holding vegeta­ tion.

c.

Construct chutes and diversion ditches to con­ trol head erosion.

7.

STREAM BANKS:

How to hold soil along water courses.

a.

Treat each problem individually.

b.

Plant willows along banks.

(Protect from graz­

ing cattle with fences.) c.

Grade bank and cover with brush, wire netting, or auto frames to high water mark, and lay stone rip-rap below.

d.

Construct jetties to slow down stream velocities and cause silt deposition along banks.

e.

Drive timber piling along especially vulnerable banks.

8.

EXCAVATIONS:

How to reduce erosion along highways.

a.

Reduce roadside slopes and flatten out ditches.

b.

Construct interception ditches to direct runoff away from steep erodable slopes.

c.

Establish a protective plant cover.

(1)

Ice Plant used extensively in Southern Cal­ ifornia.

(2)

Provide fertilizer for sterile soil and irrigation during dry summers until estab­ lished.

d.

Locate cross drains properly. (1)

Use drop inlets and drop outlets to control erosion at head and mouth of culverts.

(2)

Place culverts above customary location to form pond to settle out silt.

e.

Construct gutters to collect roadway runoff.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

Bennett, Hugh Hammond:

Soil Conservation.

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1939. b.

Van Dersal, William R., and Graham, Edward H . : The Land Renewed: tion.

c.

The Story of Soil Conserva­

Oxford University Press, New York, 19^6.

Erosion Losses from a Three-Day California Storm. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1939•

d.

(Photographs.)

Lord, Russell:

To Hold This Soil.

Misc. Pub.

No. 321, U. S. Government Printing Office, Wash­ ington, D. C., 1938. maps.)

132 pp.

(Photographs and

e.

Rule, Glenn K., and Netterstrom, Ralph W . : Defense In the Pacific Southwest,

Soil

Farmers' Bui?:

letin No. 1848, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1940. f.

Soil Conservation in California.

Soil Conserva­

tion Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Berkeley, California, 1948. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

29 pp.* Mim.

Work to do that will help you

learn how to control water erosion. 1.

FIELD PRACTICES:

Visit a field and construct the

necessary devices to keep water from eroding the soil. 2.

MODELING:

Build sideboards on a large table and

fill with sandy loam.

Form hills, valleys, streams,

and highways to scale; and simulate all necessary soil conservation practices to stop water erosion on the piece of land represented. 5.

SKETCHING:

Draw a contour map of an imaginary piece

of land and Indicate on the map by symbol the good soil conservation practices to control water erosion. D.

EVALUATION:

True-false teat to measure your mastery of

good practices for controlling water erosion. X in the correct parentheses.)

(Place an

T F ( )( ) Only row crops should be planted on the con­ tour. ( )( ) If you construct a graded type terrace, you should select the least grade that will carry the runoff. ( )( ) You should terrace slopes up to 25 per cent.

10 CHAPTER 2.

WIND EROSION

HOW TO KEEP THE SOIL PROM BEING BLOWN AWAY

A.

MOTIVATION:

Damaging results that may occur from

Inadequate control of the erosive action of wind. 1.

TOTAL LOSS:

You may be forced to abandon your home

if "Dust Bowl" conditions prevail in your community. 2.

DECREASED AGRICULTURAL YIELD:

When the topsoil, the

productive layer of the earth's crust, is blown away, the land will no longer profitably grow crops. Remember that several inches of topsoil may be removed in a few hours during a severe dust storm. 3. DUST STORMS:

Dust-filled air creeps through

smallest crevices of your home and irritates

the your

eyes, nose, and throat, and makes breathing diffi­ cult.

It may even cause a disease called dust pneu­

monia. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Guiding principles and techniques for

protecting the land from wind erosion. 1.

PASTURES:

How to keep animals from denuding

soil-holding grasses.

(Detailed information

the con­

cerning management of forest rangeland to be found in Part III, Chapter 8 .) a.

Turn animals into pasture lands after forage has

11 a good start. b.

Fertilize and irrigate pastures where possible.

c.

Spread the animals over the grazing land in numbers the pasture will support.

2.

(1)

Salting.

(2)

Drinking water.

(5)

Fencing.

(*0

Herding.

WINDBREAKS: a.

How to reduce the velocity of the wind.

Choose plants that will grow under the prevail­ ing conditions.

b.

Plant several rows of trees with shrubs on either side.

c.

Plant at right angles to prevailing winds.

d.

Space windbreaks according to wind velocity, (Remember that land planted to windbreaks yields no crops.)

5.

COVER CROPS: a.

How to anchor dry, erodable soils.

Do not plow under natural vegetation on sub­ marginal land that will produce profitable crops only in years of exceptional rainfall.

(Leave

these lands to pasture.) b.

On level stretches of cultivated land, plant cover crops in strips at right angles to pre­ vailing winds.

c.

Plant drought resistant crops (e.g., replace corn with grain sorghum).

d.

Store water during rainy season by constructing level terraces to provide the necessary soil moisture to carry the crop through the dry summer.

e.

Stubble mulch after harvest by discing.

(Pro­

tect stubble from fire.) f.

If possible, plant to soil holding plants of economic value.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further in­

formation and assistance. a.

WISE LAND USE PAYS.

Castle 1939

19 min

sd

$25.69. b.

GRASSLAND.

Castle 1938

c.

Bennett, Hugh Hammond:

10 min

sd

$12.28.

Soil Conservation.

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1939. d.

Curtis, Mary I . :

Conservation in America.

Lyons and Carnahan, Los Angeles, 1947. e.

Graham, Edward H . : Use.

f.

Natural Principles of Land

Oxford University Press, New York, 1944.

Van Dersal, William R., and Graham, Edward H . : The Land Renewed.

Oxford University Press, New

York, 1946. g.

Sharpe, Stewart, C. F . :

What Is Soil Erosion?

13 U. S. Department of Agriculture, Misc. Pub. No. 286, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washing­ ton, D. C., 1938. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects to aid you in learning

how to reduce wind erosion. 1.

FIELD PRACTICES:

At present the school ground is

subject to severe dust storms.

Take necessary

action to control the wind erosion and eliminate the blowing dust and sand. 2.

MODELING:

Build sideboards on a large table and

fill with sandy loam.

Form hills, valleys, and

streams to scale and simulate all necessary prac­ tices to stop wind erosion on the piece of land represented. 5.

SKETCHING:

Draw a contour map of an imaginary

piece of land and indicate on the map by symbol the good soil conservation practices to control wind erosion. D.

EVALUATION:

Best answer test to measure your mastery of

good practices to be carried out for controlling wind erosion.

(Place the number of the best answer in the

parentheses.) 1.

( ) In order to anchor dry, erodable soils you should:

(l) Burn the stubble after harvest.

14 (2) Strip farm on the contour.

(3 ) Strip farm

at right angles to the prevailing winds. (4) Plow all available land when agricultural prices are high. 2. ( ) When planting a windbreak you should: the windbreak along the contour.

(l) Plant

(2) Plant the

windbreak at right angles to the prevailing winds.

(3) Plant a single row of trees.

(4) Space the windbreaks one mile apart.

15 CHAPTER 3.

FERTILITY

HOW TO INCREASE THE CROP YIELD PER ACRE

A.

MOTIVATION:

Advantages of increasing farm production

by improving soil fertility. 1.

GREATER PROFIT:

The cost of preparing the land,

planting, cultivating, land rent, taxes, and other overhead expenses are about the same for each acre whether the yield is high or low and with the addi­ tion of fertilizer the cost per acre may be raised, but the cost per unit of product isreduced. 2. LOW LABOR COSTS:

There is no factor in crop pro­

duction that is so important in increasing the efficiency of labor as the proper0use of the right fertilizer. 3.

QUALITY PRODUCTS:

Fertilizer improves the market

quality of practically all crops, and improves the feeding quality of grains, forages, and pastures. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Key points to guide you in selecting a good

soil fertilization program. 1.

NUTRITION: a.

How to fertilize soils.

Reduce soil erosion.

b.

Prepare the seed bed properly.

c.

Rotate crops.

(Include a legume in the rotation

16 program.) d.

Add organic matter. (1)

Stimulates the activity of soil bacteria and other organisms.

(2)

Increases the moisture-holding capacity of the soil.

e.

Save and reinforce manure. (1)

Add superphosphate

to prevent nitrogen loss

and to add phosphate. (2)

Haul directly to field if possible.

(3)

Provide covered manure pit to prevent loss of organic matter, nitrogen, and potash.

(4)

Save liquid portion.

(Half the value of

manure is contained in the liquid portion of manure.) f.

Buy fertilizer according to the chemical content, not by volume.

g.

Secure a soil analysis before adding any ferti­ lizer to determine what

2.

FRIABILITY: a.

nutrients are deficient,

How to improve the texture of soils.

Save crop wastes to be turned under. (1)

Plow under stubble and straw.

(2)

Chop branches and twigs from pruning and turn under.

b.

Use manures instead of commercial fertilizers.

17

3.

c.

Do not destroy weeds and stubble by burning.

d.

Keep heavy machinery off soil when wet.

e.

Cultivate when soil is ready.

f.

Pulverize soil into small aggregates.

g.

Add gypsum to loosen heavy soils.

ACIDITY: a. b.

How to sweeten soils.

Test the pH of the soil. Add lime. (1)

Determine amount according to degree of *»

acidity. (2)

The amount of lime to be added also depends on the crop to be planted.

c.

Use fertilizer in conjunction with lime.

(Acid

soils are usually deficient in plant foods.) 4.

ALKALINITY:

How to leach soils.

a.

Determine the pH of the soil.

b.

Determine if the alkali iswhite or black. (1)

Soil containing white

alkali can be im­

proved. (2)

Soil containing black

alkali must be left

fallow. c.

Construct drainage ditches.

d.

Flood land to dissolve and carry away the alkali.

e.

Plant crops that can grow in slightly alkaline soil.

18 5.

COMPETITION; a.

How to destroy noxious weeds.

Do not spread seed to clean fields. (1)

Buy only clean seed for planting.

(2)

Select manures and straw mulch materials that are weed-free.

(3)

Be sure farm machinery is clean before taking on a weed-free field.

b.

Cultivate fields before weeds go to seed. (1)

Some weeds are a desirable cover crop.

(2)

Land can be over-cultivated solely to keep the land clean.

(Over-cultivation reduces

the organic materials in the soil and leads to the development of plow soles which make the soil impervious to water.) c.

d.

Apply oil sprays. (1)

Eliminates excess cultivation.

(2)

Reduces cultivation costs.

(3)

Use only for broad-leaved weeds.

Keep constant watch for small patches of noxious weeds and eliminate before they become estab­ lished.

e.

Mow or graze pasture land before harmful annual weeds go to seed.

f.

Do not over-graze pastures because weeds will replace desirable forage plants.

19 6.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

Ask the farm adviser to visit your class to explain the kinds of fertilizers used for the various crops and the methods of their appli­ cation.

b.

Smalley, H. R . :

Fertilizers and Good Farming.

The National Fertilizer Association, Washington, D. C., No date. c.

Bennett, Hugh Hammond:

Soil Conservation.

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1959. d.

PLANT SPEAKS, SOIL TESTS TELL US WHY.

19^5 C.

10 min

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

sd

Am

Potash

color loan.

Projects for learning to improve

the soil fertility. 1.

FIELD PRACTICE:

In cooperation with a nearby farm­

er, take the necessary steps to improve the soil fertility of a small area of his land. untreated as 2.

WRITING:

Leave a part

a check plot to evaluate your work.

Write up the good farming practices used

by farmers In your area to improve the soil fertil­ ity. D.

EVALUATION;

Samples of a rating scale to measure your

mastery of methods of improving soil fertility.

(Place

20 an

X in the apace for

which you qualify.,)

1.

{)

You

have added

superphosphate to your manure.

2.

()

You

have saved

crop wastes for turning under.

3.

()

You

have tested the pH of the soil.

21

PART II.

WATER AND LIFE

HOW TO DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN AN ADEQUATE WATER SUPPLY

From the very beginning of man's existence on earth, his life and all his activities have been regulated by the supply of available water. Today, your life is even more complex, and an adequate water supply becomes of greater importance.

To live a good

life, you must have water in your home, water for irrigation of your soil; you need water for navigation, industry, hydro­ electric power, and for many recreational activities. Your very life is dependent upon water, and whether you will have water tomorrow to supply your needs depends upon how you conserve it today.

In the next two chapters

you will find many ways in which you may play your part in the conservation and wise use of your water supply.

22 CHAPTER 4.

WATER SYSTEMS

HOW TO PROVIDE DRINKING AND IRRIGATION WATER

A.

MOTIVATION:

Rewards that may come from the development

of a plentiful supply of pure water. 1.

HEALTH:

Almost any water can be purified so that

it can be used for drinking water or for agricul­ tural purposes. 2.

INCREASED AGRICULTURAL WEALTH:

Many thousands of

acres of wasteland need only sufficient water to be changed Into productive crop land. 5.

DIVERSITY OP CROPS:

Irrigation makes it possible

for the farmer to raise a variety of crops and thus makes his livelihood more secure as he no longer must depend on the success of a single crop. B.

Suggestions for the development of a good water supply. 1.

WATER RIGHTS:

How to regulate the use of water

along streams. a.

Determine your right to use water.

(Legally if

possible.) (1)

English law.

(Ownership of land carried

with it riparian rights.) (2)

California law.

(Water rights retained by

the Federal Government when California

became a state.) (?)

Colorado law.

(The state retained the wa­

ter rights when it joined the union.) (4)

Some people believe that the people in the state in which a river has its source have a right to all the water that flows within its boundaries.

(5 )

Other states say that the people who used the water first have a right to at least as much water as they originally used.

(6)

Still another group believes water should be divided according to need.

b.

Do not waste water whether

you have thelegal

right to the water or not. SPRINGS: a.

How to develop surface water.

Springs are fed by the slow percolation of sur­ face and subterranean waters; protect the cover on the watershed.

b.

If possible store runoff in tanks or behind dams for periods of heavy use.

c.

Pence to keep out animals.

d.

Keep free from pollution.

e.

Wall up with rocks or concrete

SUBTERRANEAN WATER: a.

toprevent

caving.

How to dig wells.

Have geologist survey area for water-bearing

24 formations. b.

If there is a good well nearby, try to drill In the same stratum.

c.

Sink some test wells.

(Take samples of core

every few feet and examine for water-bearing gravels.) d.

When water-bearing stratum is located, sink well.

e.

Place casing.

f.

Test-pump well. To remove sand.

(2)

To measure flow.

g.

Pack casing with gravel.

h.

Install pump.

i. 4.

(1)

Connect with

DISPERSION: a.

How

distribution and storage systems. to replenish wells.

Protect ground cover on watershed. (1)

Protect from fire.

(2)

Do not over-graze.

(2)

Do not cultivate steep slopes.

b.

Slow down runoff by constructing dams.

c.

Build percolation reservoirs.

d.

Construct canals to carry water to percolation reservoirs.

e.

Construct spreading beds.

f.

Do not drain

swampy areas as they

act as natural

25 spreading beds. 5.

DAMS:

How to catch and store excess runoff.

a.

Select stream with an adequate watershed.

b.

Select site. (1)

Narrow place in canyon.

(2)

Bedrock to anchor dam.

(5)

If possible, locate so that water can be delivered to user by gravity flow.

c.

Protect watershed to reduce silting.

d.

Develop as a recreational area.

e.

Build aqueducts or canals to distribute water to users.

f.

Release water during dry cycles to replenish water table in valley downstream.

6.

PURIFICATION:

How to make water fit for human con­

sumption. a.

Control silt.

b.

Eliminate industrial pollution. (1)

The idea that streams will clear themselves of any kind of pollution is false.

(2)

Modern methods of purifying streams must succeed in creating waters as free from materials injurious to fish and flsh-food organisms as they are free from substances detrimental to human health.

26

7.

c.

Purify sewage before emptying into streams.

d.

Soften hard water,

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

Visit the local water department, reservoir, purification plant, and study maps of the dis­ tribution system of the local water supply.

b.

MYSTERIES OF WATER. sd

c.

$40,

WATER.

Castle

1948

9 min

sd

(Soil Conser­

$12.28.

Brinser, Ayers, and Shepard, Ward: the Land.

e.

10 rain

rent $2.

vation Ser) d.

Knowledge Bldrs

Our Use of

Harper and Brothers, New York, 1939•

Pigman, Augustus:

A Story of Water.

D. Apple-

ton-Century Co., Inc., New York, 1938. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects to aid you in providing

an adequate supply of pure water. 1.

MODELING:

On the sand table show In miniature how

you would provide sufficient pure water for the area represented. 2.

WRITING:

Write a report showing all the possible

ways of providing water in your community. D.

EVALUATION:

A sample of a true-false test which may be

applied to your mastery of methods of developing an

27 adequate water supply.

(Place an X In the correct space

for true or false.) T F 1. ( )( ) You should not drain all the swamps. 2. ( )( ) If possible, you should determine your legal right to use water from a stream. 3. ( )( ) You should sink some test holes before drill­ ing your well.

28 CHAPTER 5.

UTILIZATION

HOW TO PROVIDE FOR THE WISE USE OF WATER

A.

MOTIVATION;

Rewards that may come from using water

wisely, 1.

INCREASED FOOD SUPPLY:

Thousands of acres of other­

wise valueless land may be made productive by the application of irrigation water. 2.

LEISURE TIME:

Rural electrification from hydroelec­

tric plants provides cheap electricity, giving the farmer more free time and eliminating much of the drudgery of farm life. 3.

RECREATION:

Rivers, lakes, and streams make ideal

places to spend your vacation. B.

DIRECTIONS: 1.

POWER: a.

Suggestions on how to use water wisely. How to make water do work.

Construct dams to store water for generating electricity. (1)

Water is not consumed, but may be used again downstream.

(2)

It is not economical to generate electrical energy if consumer is too distant.

(3)

Also helps to control floods.

(4)

Not economical unless dam is used for other

29 purposes than just the production of elec­ tricity. b.

Employ small streams to turn water wheels. (1)

Electricity, steam, and diesel power are rapidly replacing the water wheel, but the latter is still used to grind grain and to produce power for small industrial plants.

(2)

By running the water through flumes, the efficiency of the water wheel may be increased.

(3)

This source of power must be consumed at its source.

c.

d.

2.

Employ water power in mining operations. (1)

Hydraulic mining.

(2)

Separating heavy metals from gravel.

(3)

Floating dredges.

Wash away chemicals in industrial processes. (1)

Paper making.

(2)

Developing film.

IRRIGATION:

How to grow crops in arid and semi-arid

regions. a.

Measure moisture content of soil.

b.

Distribute water to fields in amounts determined by soil type, crop, moisture content of soil, and terrain.

30

c.

d.

3.

(1)

Through canals.

(2)

Through ditches.

(5)

Through pipes.

Set up a schedule of use. (1)

To get maximum use of water.

(2)

To get water when you need It.

Decide on method of application of water. (1)

Flooding.

(2)

Furrows.

(3)

Sprinklers.

e.

Provide a good drainage system.

f.

Select crops according to available water.

TRANSPORTATION:

How to keep streams navigable.

a.

Control river banks.

(Construct levies.)

b.

Dredge channels.

c.

Mark channels.

d.

Hold back flood waters for release during dry seasons.

4.

(1)

By protecting watershed.

(2)

By releasing water from dams.

e.

Construct locks.

f.

Keep channel free from obstructions.

g.

Construct and maintain dock facilities.

LEISURE TIME: recreation.

How to develop streams and lakes for

31 a.

Support the purchase of desirable recreational areas for public use.

b.

Construct camping facilities.

c.

Construct highways to scenic areas.

d.

Provide protection. (1)

From fire.

(2)

From pollution.

(3) e.

Protect wild life.

Control commercial ventures in area. (1)

Public ownership of

land.

(2)

Renewable leases to

private parties based

on satisfactory performance. 5.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

OUR WATER SUPPLY. si

b.

color

WATER SUPPLY.

d.

14 rain

1947

H

min

sd

$45,

Also color rent $5. Filmsets

1947

8 min

$12 .50 .

Elliott, Charles N . : Resources.

e.

Academy

WATERSHEDS AND POWER. si

1940

$40,. rent $2.

rent $2.50. c.

Greenwich HS

Conservation of American

Turner E. Smith & Co., Atlanta, 1940.

Fox, Charles E . :

Where Rivers Are Born.

sion of Forestry, California Department of Natural Resources, No date.

Divi­

32 f.

Pryor, William Clayton, and Pryor, Helen Sloman,: Water - Wealth or Waste,

Harcourt Brace & Co.,

Inc., New York, 1939* C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects to aid you in learning

to use water wisely. 1.

MODELING:

On the sand table, referred to In the

activity section of Chapter 1, show in miniature how a river system could be put to use before empty­ ing into the sea. 2.

Draw a map of a river system and show by symbol how it should be put to wise use.

D.

EVALUATION:

A sample of a true-false test to measure

your mastery of the wise use of water.

(Place an X in

the correct space for true or false.) T P 1. ( )( ) You should dam all streams with a sufficient volume of water to generate electricity. 2. ( )( ) You should mark the channel in navigable streams. 2. ( )( ) You should lease land in recreational areas for stores, gasoline stations, and other concessions.

33

PART III.

HOMES FOR MEN AND WILD LIFE

HOW TO PROTECT YOUR FORESTS

Two-thirds of the virgin forests which once covered all but the prairie and desert regions of our country have been either cut or destroyed by fire or other enemies. Today you are dependent upon the relatively small remaining forest areas to provide your lumber, to check the rapid runoff of rainfall and induce its entrance into under­ ground storage, to provide many beautiful and popular recre­ ational areas, and to offer food and shelter for both wild life and grazing animals. Your forest3 have many enemies; the most devastating is fire.

One small fire can cause the destruction of an

entire forest and its occupants.

Do you know how you can

play an active part in saving your forests? chapters will help you.

The next five

CHAPTER 6.

LUMBER

HOW TO PERPETUATE AN ADEQUATE TIMBER SUPPLY

A,

MOTIVATION:

Rewards that may come from good timber

management. 1.

PERMANENT INDUSTRY AND STABILIZED COMMUNITIES: Timber lands on a sustained yield basis never deplete the forest, and the people who are depend­ ent upon the forest for their livelihood are assured steady employment and permanent homes.

2.

HIGHER PROFITS:

It has been shown that timber oper­

ations carried out on a sustained yield basis are more profitable in the long run than those where all the timber is cut at one time. 3.

NATIONAL DEFENSE:

If we perpetuate our timber supply

we will not be dependent upon some foreign nation during time of war for lumber and other wood products B.

DIRECTIONS:

Key points regarding the techniques of

maintaining a plentiful supply of timber. 1.

SELECTION: a.

How to choose trees for cutting.

Make a careful survey to determine amounts to be cut annually.

b.

Mark in advance of cutting. (l)

On public land by forest officer.

(2) c.

On private land by employee of owner.

Select mature trees that are no longer growing at a profitable rate.

d.

Leave seed trees of all species to be cut.

e.

In younger stands, mark enough to thin so that remaining trees have a good chance of survival.

f.

Where possible, mark diseased and insectinfested trees.

g.

Do not mark trees in inaccessible places where it will be impossible to remove the logs.

REMOVAL: a.

How to fell trees.

Cut trees so that they will growth when falling.

not destroy young

(Notch side in the direc­

tion the tree is to fall.) b.

Do not fell trees so that they will damage seed trees.

c.

Top large trees before felling.

d.

Prepare a cushion of boughs

for largetrees

prevent splintering upon impact of fall. e.

Trim branches from trunk.

f.

Pile slash.

g.

Burn slash during wet season and under close supervision.

TRANSPORTATION: a.

How to convey logs to the mill.

Haul logs from woods.

to

(1)

Mules.

(2)

Tractors.

(3)

Donkey engines and cables.

(4)

Water chutes.

b.

Load on trucks.

c.

Load on railway flatcars.

d.

Pile along river until high water in spring.

e.

Unload logs.

f.

Sort logs.

MANUFACTURE:

How to get the most lumber from logs

and eliminate waste. a.

Employ only experienced sawyers.

b.

Cut according to sizes desired, quality of log, and use to be made of finished product.

c.

Air-dry

lumber before putting in kiln.

d.

Stack lumber carefully.

e.

Store in dry place.

f.

Make use of all waste. (1)

Use sawdust for fuel, cattle feed, plastics.

(2)

Make use of small blocks for handles, small pieces of furniture, and toys.

(3)

Stained and other pieces unusable for lum­ ber can be used for posts.

g.

Save clear pieces for veneers.

h.

Develop new uses for species thought to be

useless. 1.

Process non-lumber species for rayon, paper, etc.

PRESERVATION:

How to prevent damage to lumber from

Insects. a.

Keep wood dry.

(By good ventilation.)

b.

Impregnate with wood preservative such as creo­ sote or zinc chloride. (1)

Paint on with a brush.

(2)

Force into wood under pressure.

c.

Paint exposed wood.

d.

Use more resistant wood next to ground or con­ crete.

REFORESTATION:

How to replenish cut-over and burned

areas. a.

Select trees that have already grown well In that locality.

b.

Plant seedlings if possible. (1)

Grow young trees in nursery.

(2)

Eliminates some of the damage from rodents, birds, and drought.

c.

Plant bare-root.

d.

Plant during dormant season, and after the danger of frost.

e.

Space according to shade tolerance.

38 f.

Plant with a mattock in a small slit, and tamp soil firmly.

(Plant slightly deeper than it was

in nursery.) g.

Protect young seedlings from grazing animals, fire, and insects.

7.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

SCIENCE AND WOOD UTILIZATION. 6 min

b.

sd

Coronet

$22 .50, also color $45.

THERE«S MORE THAN TIMBER IN TREES. 33 min

sd

1945

color

Castle

1942

$175.28. A USDA film.

May be borrowed from the U. S. Forest Service. c.

Bruere, Martha Bensley:

Taming Our Forests.

Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1939. d.

Forestry Handbook for California.

California

Region, Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agri­ culture, in cooperation with the California State Chamber of Commerce, 1936. e.

Living and Forest Lands.

U. S. Department of

Agriculture, Misc. Pub. No. 388 , U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1940. f.

New Forest Frontiers.

U, S. Department of Agri­

culture, Forest Service, Misc. Pub. No. 414,

39 U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1941. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects to aid you in

perpetuating an adequate timber supply. 1.

WRITING:

Plan and write up how you, as a lumber

mill operator, would manage a 10,000 acre mixed conifer forest on a sustained yield basis. 2.

MODELING:

Show on the sand table how you would

carry out

lumber operations in the forest repre­

sented in miniature. D.

EVALUATION:

A sample of a rating scale to measure your

mastery of perpetuating the timber supply.

(Place an

X in each space for which you qualify. 1. ( ) Felled your trees so that they did not damage the seed trees. 2. ( ) Made a careful survey to determine the number of trees to be cut this year. 3.

( )Planted your young seedling trees bare root.

4.

( )Stacked your lumber carefully.

(

)Total.

CHAPTER 7.

RECREATION

HOW TO PRACTICE GOOD OUTDOOR MANNERS

A.

MOTIVATION:

Values you may expect If you are thoughtful

of others while a visitor in the forests. 1.

NEW FRIENDS:

Other campers are eager to be friendly

and helpful to people who treat the forest as if it were a part of their own home. 2.

EVERLASTING BEAUTY:

If

every visitor to the forest

leaves It in as good or

better condition than when

he arrived, the natural

splendor of your forests

will be maintained. 3.

SAFETY:

The forest laws were made to protect you.

Obey them. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Suggestions that will enable you to observe

good manners in the forests. 1.

WOOD: a.

How to obtain fuel for campifires.

Inquire before leaving for the camp area to see if fuel is available.

b.

If necessary to cut your own wood, chop only dead trees.

c.

If not In an improved campground you are required to have a campfire permit. at the nearest forest station.

Obtain it

d.

D o n ’t drag huge limbs into the campground; cut and trim the wood outside of the improved area.

e.

Bring your own tools to cut wood.

(Other

campers dislike constant borrowers.) f.

D o n ’t burn excess wood when ready to leave. (Stack it neatly by the fire pit for the next camper.)

CAMP FACILITIES:

How to take care of public prop-'

erty. a.

Leave the camping area cleaner than when you arrived.

b.

Do not deface trees and buildings.

c.

Place refuse in containers provided for that purpose.

d.

If water Is piped to the area, be sure to turn it off when not in use.

e.

Do not pollute the water supply.

f.

Camp and picnic in areas where facilities are provided.

WILDFLOWERS: a.

How to pick native plants.

Do not pick flowers along highways.

(Leave them

for others to enjoy.) b.

Secure special permits to pick holly and Christmas trees.

c.

Make a clean cut with a sharp saw or knife and

plunge in cold water if possible. MOTOR VEHICLES: a.

How to drive on forest roads.

Check your car before entering the forest to be sure it is safe.

b.

Carry extra gasoline, fan belt, and tire repair equipment.

c.

(Carry chains for snow or mud.)

Drive according to road conditions, weather, and visibility.

d.

Be courteous.

e.

Obey the traffic regulations.

(Emphasize the

following for mountain driving.) (1)

Sound your horn on blind curves.

(2)

Keep to the right.

(?)

If a one-way mountain road, the car coming down should back up the grade until the road is wide enough for both cars to pass.

SANITATION: a.

How to keep your camp clean.

Carry a container in your car for refuse while driving.

b.

Use garbage cans in improved areas.

c.

Bury garbage and non-combustible materials where there are no containers in camping area.

d.

Use camp restrooms when they are provided. (Help to keep them clean.)

e.

Keep camping area neat and orderly.

43 (1)

Wash tables with soap and water.

(2)

Burn paper and extinguish fire before leaving.

6.

FIREARMS:

How to handle guns.

a.

Do not carry guns in sanctuaries or game refuges.

b.

Never carry a loaded gun into the camp area. (Carry it empty with the chamber open.)

c.

Keep the muzzle of the gun pointed down.

d.

Never shoot toward inhabited areas.

e.

Be careful going through fences, brush, or over logs with a loaded gun. (1)

When going through a strand fence,

put the

muzzle of the gun through first. (2)

When going over a fence, lay the gun down on the other side with the muzzle pointing away and climb over.

(3)

When going through brush, cover the trigger housing with your hand

to prevent acciden­

tal discharge. f.

Be careful that your bullets do not ricochet.

g.

Do not destroy public or private property.

h.

(1)

By shooting at signs.

(2)

By breaking bottles.

(3)

By breaking insulators on utility poles.

Do not wantonly destroy bird and animal life

44 just for the fun of it. 7.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

Talk to a forest ranger about camping regula­ tions and recreational facilities in your area.

b.

Seek information on hunting and fishing from a member of the Federated Sportsmen or some similar organization.

c.

AIM FOR SAFETY.

Aetna

1946

17 min

sd

color

loan. d.

Elliott, Charles N . : Resources.

C.

Conservation of American

Turner E. Smith & Co., Atlanta, 1940.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects for learning good outdoor

manners. 1.

CAMPING:

Take a camping trip and conduct yourself

as a good camper should. 2.

WRITING:

Write a set of rules to be observed by the

camper or forest visitor. D.

EVALUATION:

True-false test to measure your mastery of

good outdoor manners.

(Place an X in the correct space

for true or false.) 1.

T F ( )( ) You should secure special permission to pick holly and Christmas trees.

45 CHAPTER 8.

FORAGE

HOW TO MAINTAIN PASTURE FOR LIVESTOCK

A.

MOTIVATION: 1.

INCREASED

Outcomes of good range practices. RETURNS:

You will get greater gains in

weight of cattle, heavier wool clips, and smaller death losses if your range is managed correctly. 2.

STABLE SOIL:

If your pasture is properly grazed,

soil erosion will he held at a minimum. 3.

DESIRABLE

FORAGE PLANTS:

If grazing is controlled,

the better range grasses will not be crowded out and the range taken over by grasses unsuitable for forage. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Suggestions to help you

in grazing your

range lands properly. 1.

ROTATION:

How to give the range a chance to re­

seed itself, a.

Survey the range. (1)

Density of plant cover.

(2)

Proportion of perennial

grasses, browse

plants, and weeds. (3)

Plant usability of the various species.

(4)

Estimate the number and the range will support.

type of animals

46 b.

Divide the range into sections.

c.

Open sections to grazing when they are mature, and have regained vigor after previous grazing.

d.

Permit sections to rest and re-seed themselves for a season or more until they recuperate.

2.

HEAD PER ACRE:

How to graze the number of animals

the forage will support. a.

Determine the kind of livestock that should be grazed.

(Sheep will eat species that cattle

w on’t touch.) b.

Graze in numbers depending upon quality and quantity of forage.

c.

Distribute stock over range. (1)

Place salt between watering places.

(2)

Provide pure water at intervals over the range.

(3) Fence if necessary. (4) Employ herders. d.

Put stock on range after grass is mature, and remove before range begins to suffer from overgrazing.

e.

In some areas where the soil is rich and the brush is encroaching on the range, burn during winter.

(This practice is not approved by the

Forest Service, but the livestock men favor

winter burning.) WATER:

How to develop pure water for animals on the

range. a.

Build dams across gullies to catch runoff. (1)

Helps control gullies.

(2)

Provides summer water in dry areas.

b.

Fence all water supplies to keep water pure.

c.

Space water troughs over range to spread animals.

d. e.

Develop springs. Dig well with floats to automatically turn on pump or windmill when water falls below a certain level.

f.

Pipe water over range from central water system.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get additional

assistance. a.

LIFEBLOOD OF THE LAND.

18 min b.

sd

d.

Our Use of

Harper & Brothers, New York, 1959*

Graham, Edward H . : Use.

19^7

color loan.

Brinser, Ayers, and Shepard, Ward: the Land.

c.

Forest Service

Natural Principles of Land

Oxford University Press, New York, 1 9 ^ .

Van Dersal, William R., and Graham, Edward H . : The Land Renewed. New York, 19^6.

Oxford University Press,

48 C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Work to do that will help you

learn how to manage grazing lands. 1.

MODELING:

On the sand table plan and put into

practice in miniature a well organized grazing program for the land represented. 2.

WRITING:

Write out your program for stocking a

piece of grazing land that you visited on a recent excursion. D.

EVALUATION:

Rating scale to measure your mastery of

good range management.

(Place the number of the best

answer in the parentheses.) 1. ( ) To distribute the stock over your range you should:

(l) Place salt licks near watering

places.

(2) USe rio 'salt.

(3) Place salt

approximately halfway between watering places. (4) Pence in water, supply reservoirs. 2. ( ) To aid natural re-seeding of the range you should:

(l) Burn the range each year,

(2)

move the stock before all the grass has been eaten.

(3) Plant seed of domestic grasses.

(4) Graze during winter only.

Re­

49 CHAPTER 9,

FIRE

HOW TO PROTECT THE FOREST FROM ITS WORST ENEMY

A.

MOTIVATION:

Advantages to be gained from reducing the

amount of damage caused by forest flre3. 1.

LUMBER SUPPLIES:

As much as $90,000,000 worth of

timber has been destroyed in one year in the United States.

This timber will not be replaced during

your lifetime.

As far as you are concerned, it

never existed. 2.

FISH AND GAME:

If you enjoy fishing or hunting,

remember that fires destroy fish as well as game, and that burned areas will not support animals for many years. 5.

BEAUTY:

Your carelessness in the forest can change

the most scenic spot to a desolate and charred wasteland, and repeated fires change the character of the soil so that it no longer will support forest growth. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Practical suggestions on how to control

forest fires. 1.

PREVENTION: a.

Put

How to eliminate the cause of fires,

into action a good public relations program

to educate the public concerning the ways

they can remove the causes of fires in the forest. (1)

Extinguish campfires with water, and bury with mineral soil.

(2)

Break your match after extinguishing it, and put it in your pocket.

(3)

Smoke only in posted areas.

(Crush out the

pipe ashes and cigar or cigarette butts and bury in mineral soil.) (4)

Burn trash during wet weather, and only after all safety precautions have been taken.

(5)

Eliminate all fire hazards around your camp or cabin.

Make highway and railroad right-of-ways as non­ combustible as possible. (1)

Equip all steam engines with spark arresters.

(2)

Equip automobiles with ash trays.

Carry a shovel and axe with you when driving in the forest. Obey the forest laws. (1)

Secure a campfire permit when necessary.

(2)

Do not enter closed areas.

(Places of high

fire hazard.) Patrol the forest constantly during the fire

51 season. f.

Check lumber operations and mines to see that all precautions are being taken.

g.

Build access roads so that any part of the forest can be reached quickly with fire fighting equipment.

h. 2.

Keep organized and trained crews in readiness.

DETECTION: a.

How to locate fires.

Provide constant patrol of the forest during fire season.

b.

c.

(1)

Mounted.

(2).

Automobile.

(3)

Airplane.

Establish lookout stations. (1)

On high peaks.

(2)

On steel towers.

Set up a communication system. (1)

Reflectors.

(2)

Telephone.

(3) Radio. d.

Provide maps of the forest. (1)

So that azmuth bearing of smoke can be reported.

(2)

Should show ground cover, terrain, and roads.

52 e.

See that ranchers, lumber and mine operators, and residents throughout the forest know how to report a fire.

(Emphasize the importance of

reporting it quickly.) f.

Seek the cooperation of pilots flying over the forests.

3.

SUPPRESSION: a.

How to extinguish fires.

Arrive at the fire as soon as possible. (1)

Sometimes the exact location of the fire is known, but the fire still may be difficult to find in the tall timber.

(2)

Make use of the parachute jumper in inac­ cessible areas where travelling by foot or horse may take days.

(3)

Arrive with enough men and equipment to extinguish the fire before it gets a good start.

b.

Alert the suppression crews during weather when fires are likely to occur.

c.

If fire is going to last more than a few hours, set up a fire camp. (1)

Provide good food and bedding.

(2)

Set up communications with fire

(3)

Keep accurate account of fire costs.

(4)

Provide for the maintenance and

line.

repair of

equipment d.

Make provisions for hiring of additional men and equipment. (1)

Hire young men in good physical condition, preferably with previous experience.

(2) e.

Be sure they have good shoes and clothing.

Use all mechanical equipment possible.

(l)

wnHdogers.

(2)

rower saws.

(3)

Pump trucks.

(4)

Airplanes.

(5)

Weather equipment.

f.

Establish a chain of command.

g.

Get a fire line, down to mineral the fire.

soil, around

(The width of the line depends on the

type of fire, terrain, wind, and the height of fuel.) h.

Remove snags near the fire line.

i.

Use water where possible.

J.

Patrol the line constantly.

k.

Do not leave the fire line until

the fire is out.

1.

Investigate the burn in order to

determine the

origin and the person or persons responsible for the fire. SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get additional

54 assistance. a.

Bruere, Martha Bensley:

Taming Our Forests.

Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1939. b.

Randall, Charles E., and Heisley, Marie Foote: Our Forests: to U s .

What They Are and What They Mean

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Misc.

Pub., D. S. Government Printing Office, 1944. c.

Forestry Handbook for California.

California

Region, Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with the California State Chamber of Commerce, 1936. d.

You and Forest Fires.

Advertising Council,

State Foresters and the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1948. e.

Paul Bunyan*s Quiz.

American Forest Products

Industries, Inc., Washington, D. C., No date. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects to aid you in reducing

the damage caused by forest fires. 1.

PRACTICE:

Set up a fire fighting unit in your class

and eliminate the fire hazards on the school ground, and then detect and suppress a simulated fire in the wooded section of the yard.

2.

WRITING:

Plan and write up your procedure of

reducing fire hazards and suppressing a fire in a nearby forest area. D.

EVALUATION:

Sample of a rating scale that may be

applied to your handling the control of forest fires. (Place an X in each space for which you qualify.) 1. ( ) Made highway and railroad right-of-ways as fireproof as possible. 2. ( ) Sought the cooperation of airlines in detecting fires. 3. ( ) Checked with lumber and mine operators to see that fire hazards have been removed. (

) Total.

56 CHAPTER 10.

OTHER ENEMIES

HOW TO KEEP THE FORESTS HEALTHY

A.

MOTIVATION;

Benefits that may result from controlling

Insects and disease from destroying the forests. 1.

INCREASED WEALTH:

If we control the damage caused

by insects and disease, we can annually save more timber than is destroyed by fire. 2.

PERPETUATION OF VALUABLE SPECIES:

We should learn

from the disappearance of the chestnut in the north­ eastern United States that unless we are vigilant and work hard at pest control, other species of valuable timber will no longer be found in our country. 3.

DECREASED LABOR:

Quick action on the part of insect

and disease control groups saves many times the money and labor that would be expended If the pest had a chance to establish itself. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Suggestions for the development of an

efficient pest control program for the forests. 1.

INSECTS:

How to control borer and defoliator

infestations. a.

Establish strict quarantine regulations for the importation of forest plants and lumber.

57 b.

Discover infestations as soon as possible. (Airplanes and helicopters are used extensively.)

c.

d.

Take advantage of new scientific discoveries. (1)

To discover life cycle of pest.

(2)

Test new insecticides.

(3)

Discover natural enemies.

Cut infected timber. (1)

Sell timber if possible.

(2)

Burn if not salable.

e.

Protect the insect eating birds of the forest.

f.

Control fire, as burned over areas are much more susceptible to insect attack.

2.

DISEASES:

How to control fungus attacks.

a.

Enforce quarantine laws.

b.

Control fire and insect infestations.

(Weakened

trees are much more susceptible to attack.) c.

Locate and map Infected areas.

d.

Discover life cycle of disease.

(Find out if

there is an alternate host plant.) e.

If no other control can be found, destroy Infected trees by burning.

f. 3.

Seek cooperation of private land owners.

FUMES:

How to protect the forest from poisonous

smelter and coke oven smoke. a.

Trap injurious fumes in smoke stack.

58 b.

Build tall stacks so that fumes will be dis­ persed in the upper air, and will not be of such concentration that will damage plants at ground level.

c.

Constantly seek new methods of manufacture so that the harmful fumes can be made into valuable by-products, and not lost up the stack.

d.

Do not release smoke on days when weather conditions are such that fumes hug the ground.

4.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

Invite the forest service officer in charge of insect control to visit your class and discuss the harmful insects in your area.

b.

Visit the museum and observe mounted specimens of harmful insects.

c.

d.

TREE OF LIFE.

Castle

1958 19 min

sd $25.69

may be borrowed from the

U.

S. Forest Service.

Bruere, Martha Bensley:

Taming Our Forests.

Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., C.

1959.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Laboratory performances that may

help you in learning how to keep the forest healthy.

59 1.

FIELD PRACTICE:

Survey the trees in a farmer’s wood

lot, and in cooperation with the farmer take the necessary action to improve the condition of the trees. 2.

WRITING:

Plan and write up an eradication program

for a forested park in your city. D.

EVALUATION:

True-false test to measure your mastery of

controlling diseases of the forest.

(Place an X in the

correct space for true or false.) T F 1. ( )( ) You should establish strict quarantine regula­ tions on the importation of plants or lumber into this country. 2. ( )( ) You should fell infected trees and leave them in the forest to rot. 5. ( )( ) You should trap injurious fumes in the smoke stacks of coke ovens.

60

PART IV.

THE BALANCE OP LIFE IN FOREST AND STREAM HOW TO CONTROL YOUR WILD LIFE

Wild turkeys, deer, pheasant, trout, and other species of wild life provided special delicacies for the early settlers of America.

Today venison steaks and broiled brook

trout are the reward of successful hunters who try their luck but a few weeks of the year.

The reason for this is

that the wild life population has been so reduced by over­ hunting that it must be protected by laws if it is not to disappear altogether. You can play an important part in assisting in the preservation and control of wild life by putting into practice the next two chapters.

61 CHAPTER 11.

HUNTING, FISHING, AND TRAPPING

HOW TO BE GOOD SPORTSMEN

A.

MOTIVATION;

Rewards that may come from treating wild

life as a perpetual crop. 1.

MORE GAME:

Good sportsmen get their limits, but

in doing so they obey the law and give the game a sporting chance. 2.

LESS WORK:

As game becomes more plentiful, it

becomes easier to get your limit. 5.

LESS EXPENSIVE SPORT:

When game is plentiful near

our homes, it becomes a poor man's sport; otherwise, only the rich can afford to travel great distances by automobile and pack train to fish or hunt. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Some pointers to help you in being a good

sportsman. 1.

LAWS:

How to legally take fish, game, and fur-

bearing animals. a.

Secure the game laws from the Division of Fish and Game of the state in which you are going to hunt.

(Some migratory birds and animals are

under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Fish and Wild Life Service.) b.

Use equipment permitted under the law.

62 c.

Take

only the legal limit.

d.

Take

game and trap In open areas.

e.

Take

game only In season.

f.

Take

game of age, sex, and species permitted

by law. g.

Cooperate with the game warden; he is your friend.

2.

PERMITS: a.

How to obtain the proper licenses.

Purchase your hunting and fishing licenses at a sporting goods store or directly from the state.

b.

c.

(Junior permits are issued for children.)

Secure special permits when required. (1)

Deer Tags for hunting deer.

(2)

Duck Stamps for duck hunting.

When fishing or hunting in a state other than the one in which you live, secure an out-ofstate license.

d.

Purchase a trapper*s permit for taking furbearing animals.

3,

e.

Carry your license with you.

f.

Do not permit anyone else to use your license.

PRESERVING:

How to clean and keep game.

a.

Clean as soon as possible.

b.

If a bird, pick feathers.

(When picking ducks

and geese, cover with hot paraffin, cool, and

peel off paraffin with feathers.) c.

If an animal, skin, and remove head and feet.

d.

Prepare excess game for storage. (1)

Smoke or dry fish.

(2)

Jerk deer, elk, or antelope.

(5)

Can fish, birds, and animals.

(4)

Freeze fish, birds, and animals.

TRAPS:

How to bait and set traps.

a.

Select the proper size and type trap.

b.

Bait trap with food or lure. (1)

Varies with different animals.

(2)

The same species may prefer different foods depending upon local conditions.

c.

Set traps where animal lives or hunts for food

d.

Camouflage trap.

e.

Remove human scent,

f.

Tie trap securely so that it won't be carried away by trapped animal.

g.

Respect the rights of other trappers.

h.

Skin animals.

i.

Stretch hides on boards or wire frames and dry

-SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

Have a representative of the Division of Fish and Game visit the class to discuss the

64 procurement of licenses and to interpret the game laws. b.

OPERATIONS WILDLIFE. 35 min

c.

sd

color

Va St Dept Ed

1949

$200.

Home Tanning of Leather and Small Fur Skins. Farmer's Bulletin No. 1334, Bureau of Biological Survey, Washington, D. C., No date.

C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Learning experiences that will

help you be a good sportsman. 1.

FIELD PRACTICE:

Take a camping trip into the

mountains and hunt, fish, and trap the wild life in season. 2.

WRITING:

Write a set of rules listing the good

practices to be observed while hunting, fishing, or trapping wild life. D.

EVALUATION:

A sample of a best answer test that may be

employed regarding sportsmanship in the forest.

(Place

the number of the correct answer in the parentheses.) 1. ( ) Hunting licenses are issued by: Forest Service. ment.

(l) The U. S.

(2) The State Forestry Depart­

(3). The State Division of Fish and Game.

(4) The State Division of Licenses. 2. ( ) The item that is wrong in this list is: special Deer Tags for hunting deer.

(l) Secure

(2) Purchase

65 a Trapper1s Permit for taking fur-bearing animals. ducks.

(3) Secure Duck Stamps for hunting (4) The same license will serve for both

hunting and fishing.

CHAPTER 12.

PROTECTION

HOW TO ASSIST IN THE PRESERVATION AND CONTROL OP WILD LIFE

A.

MOTIVATION:

Advantages of maintaining a proper balance

between plants and animals. 1.

REDUCTION OP SUB-MARGINAL LAND UNDER CULTIVATION: Many acres of cultivated land are unfit for agricul­ ture and would better be left in their natural state as a home for wild life.

2.

INCREASED NUMBERS OP PISH AND GAME:

If wild life is

protected during mating season, and sufficient food and cover are maintained, you can expect a natural replacement of the wild life taken by sportsmen. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Practical suggestions on how to protect and

control wild life. 1.

PREDATORS:

How to destroy game-eating animals and

birds. a.

In their natural surroundings, let nature reduce their numbers. (1)

When their numbers are too large, lack of food will decrease their population.

(2)

Their natural enemies will take a constant toll.

b.

Make and enforce laws making it illegal to

67 release unwanted domestic cats to forage for themselves. c. d.

Organize hunting parties to destroy predators. Hire professional hunters and trappers.

e. Give bounties for taking predators. 2.

CROP DESTROYERS;

How to decrease animals and birds

that ruin crops. a.

Open or extend the hunting season.

b.

Close the season on their natural enemies.

c.

Organize hunting parties. (1)

Crow hunts,

(2)

Jack Rabbit drives.

d.

Give bounties.

e.

Rotate crops.

f.

Pence out animals,

(Electric fencing works

well.) 5.

PISH;

How to safeguard aquatic life.

a.

Protect the watershed from fire.

b.

Restock the streams and lakes with compatible species.

c.

Maintain a sufficient volume of water.

d.

Release water from reservoirs during dry season.

e.

Provide fish ladders.

f.

Protect the water from pollution. (l)

Industrial wastes.

(2) g.

Sewage.

Regulate under-water blasting (geological surveys).

h.

Establish season according to condition and volume of water.

i.

Establish limits of fish to be taken according to rate of replenishment.

j.

Limit methods for catching fish,

k.

Control natural enemies. (1)

Snakes and turtles in streams.

(2)

Sharks and some varieties of birds in the ocean.

HELPFUL NON-GAME BIRDS:

How to protect the insect-

eating and scavenging birds. a.

Protect their nesting places.

b.

Make it illegal to kill these birds.

c.

Educate people as to the value of these birds and how to Identify them.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

HAUNTS FOR THE HUNTED.

U. S. Fish & Wildlife

19^1 . $200 . b.

Hints on Coyote and Wolf Trapping.

Bureau of

Biological Survey, Washington, D. C., No date. c.

Hints on Mountain Lion Trapping.

Bureau of

69 Biological Survey, Washington, D. C., No date, d.

Game Management and Forest Protection.

(Y. S.

1516), Bureau of Biological Survey, Washington, D. C., No date. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects that will aid you in

learning how to preserve and control wild life. 1.

FIELD PRACTICE:

Talk with a farmer and see if you

can work out a program of wild life protection for his farm, and put it into practice. 2.

WRITING:

Cooperate with the State Conservation

Council, and write up a set of rules for protecting the wild life In your community. D.

EVALUATION:

A sample of a true-false test that may be

used in connection with the preservation of wild life. 1.

T F ( )( ) You should dispose

of unwanted domestic cats

by abandoning them in the forest. 2.

( )( ) You should protect

the watershed from fire.

3*

( )( ) You should regulate under-water blasting.

70 CHAPTER 1 3 .

REPLENISHMENT

HOW TO PERPETUATE THE SUPPLY OP VALUABLE GAME, FISH, AND PUR ANIMALS

A.

MOTIVATION:

Benefits that accrue from Increasing the

numbers of native fish, birds, and animals. 1.

SPORT FOR OUR CHILDREN:

Some species of game are

so badly depleted that unless quick action is taken, they will be wiped out. 2.

ADDITIONAL POOD:

In rural and coastal areas, many

people depend on game fish and animals as a source of food. 3.

SUPPLEMENTARY INCOME:

Most of the fur-bearing

animals trapped today are caught by boys living on farms, and the yearly "take" amounts to several hundred thousand dollars. B.

DIRECTIONS:

Some pointers to help you in carrying out a

program of replenishing our wild life. 1.

GAME REFUGES:

How to provide a safe and natural

habitat for game to reproduce themselves. a.

Establish refuges only where there are abundant food and water.

b.

Select locations where the hunters and fishermen have depleted the native wild life.

71 c.

d.

Close areas densely populated with people. (1)

National parks and

monuments.

(2)

Areas with many cabin sites and camps.

Close areas of high fire hazard. (1)

To reduce the number of fishermen and hunters entering the area.

(2)

Fires Increase tremendously with the opening of fishing and hunting seasons.

e.

Establish sanctuaries in places where rare birds and animals live.

f.

In most cases, keep the

area as a game refuge

only until the game has

increased in numbers

equal to the food supply. g.

Establish refuges on farms.

(Fence rows and

wood lots for birds and animals to secure food and seek shelter.) 2.

CLOSED SEASONS:

How to give game a chance to increase

their numbers naturally. a.

Survey the game population annually. (1)

Determine the yearly increment.

(2)

Find out if food supply is adequate.

(5)

Determine if wild life is suffering from disease.

b.

If a particular species Is decreasing in popu­ lation, see if it can be raised in captivity.

72 c.

Seek cooperation of neighboring states and counties in cases involving migratory game.

d.

Reduce the length of hunting or fishing seasons.

e.

Reduce limits to such numbers that equal the natural replenishment.

f.

Close season on species when reduced limit and shorter season do not increase population.

3.

HATCHERIES AND GAME FARMS:

How to restock fish and

game. a.

Finance with money received from fines received from game law violators and license fees.

b.

Trap mature fish to obtain spawn.

c.

Release young fish into depleted lakes and streams. (1)

Release fish of legal size in streams that dry up in summer.

(2)

Smaller fish may be released in streams with sufficient water the entire year.

d.

e.

Raise game birds. (1)

Keep breeding birds to supply eggs.

(2)

Hatch in incubators.

Release game birds. (1)

Release in native habitat where there are sufficient food, water, and cover.

(2)

Release long enough before hunting season

73 for young birds to become established. (3)

Release where hunting is, or will be, open to all.

(4)

Get aid from sportsmen's groups to aid in restocking game.

4.

SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER:

Where to get further

assistance. a.

Visit the fish hatchery at Santa Paula, California.

b.

Take a field trip to a coastal stream and observe the planting of fish.

c.

OPERATIONS WILD LIFE. sd

d.

color

1940. e.

35 rain

$200.

Elliott, Charles N . : Resources.

Va St Dept Ed

Conservation of American

Turner E. Smith & Co., Atlanta,

Pp. 165-206.

Grinnell, Joseph, and Bryant, H. C., and Storer, T. I.:

The Game Birds of California.

Univer­

sity of California Press, Berkeley, 1918. C.

ACTIVITY ASSIGNMENTS:

Projects to aid you in learning

how to replenish wild life. 1.

FIELD PRACTICE:

In cooperation with a rancher,

carry out all the necessary practices to replenish the desirable wild life on his ranch.

2.

WRITING:

Write a guide listing the ways you would

manage the land and the wild life In order to increase the wild life population to the numbers a particular area of land would support. D«

EVALUATION:

Sample of a best answer test that may be

employed regarding your ability to replenish the wild life population.

(Place the number of the best answer

in the parentheses.) 1. ( ) You should survey the game population: year. years.

(2) Every two years.

(l) Each

(5) Every five

(4) Every ten years.

2. ( ) When releasing game birds, you should: (l) Release in native habitat. before hunting season. property.

(2) Release just

(j) Release on private

(4) Release all the birds in one spot.