A comparison between vocational offerings and job placement in five vocational schools for Negroes and five vocational schools for Whites in Oklahoma

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A comparison between vocational offerings and job placement in five vocational schools for Negroes and five vocational schools for Whites in Oklahoma

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36Table $ in d ic a te s t h a t 1046 q u e s tio n n a ire s were se n t o u t to voca­ t i o n a l g ra d u a te s o r d ro p -o u ts , and t h a t 47 of th e se were re tu rn e d because th e i n d i v i d u a l 's p re s e n t a d d re ss was not known.

There i s a high degree of

c e r t a i n t y on th e p a r t o f th e w r ite r t h a t 999 of th e 1 u46 were a c tu a lly r e ­ c eiv ed by th e p erso n s f o r whom they were intended. •

The re tu r n s , however,

were n o t e s p e c ia lly good, only 457 o f th e 999 in te rv ie w sh e e ts o r q u e stio n ­ n a ir e s being re tu rn e d to th e w r ite r , a p ercen tag e of 4 5 .7 4 .

The number

457, i t should be u n d ersto o d , in clu d ed the c a se s wherein the d e s ire d d a ta were secured by th e interviev# method as w ell a s the somewhat la r g e r number o f c a se s in which th e q u e s tio n n a ire s went by m ail and were so re tu rn e d . breakdown o f the re tu r n s by c i t i e s shows the fo llo w in g f a c ts Qu©s tio n n a ir e s re c e iv e d

Q u e stio n n a ire s re tu rn e d

A

« *

P ercentag e o f re tu rn s

Muskogee

164

59

35.97

Oklahoma C ity

320

121

37. SI

Okmulgee

154

50

32.47

T ulsa

242

131

54.13

Vfewoka

119

96

80.6?

The w r ite r has no way in which to account f o r th e c o n sid e ra b ly h ig h e r p ercentage of r e tu rn s from 'Tulsa and. hewoka.

There a re many p o s s ib le

e x p la n a tio n s , among which m ight be included the in flu e n c e s of p a re n ts , p r i n c i p a l s , and in te r e s te d te a c h e rs , but no c e r t a i n t y in regard to any one o f th e v a rio u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s # Aside from creaking down the d a ta of Table 5 in o rd e r to show th e percen tag e of re tu rn s by c i t i e s f o r both w hite and Negro schools combined, i t may be o f i n t e r e s t to c o n tr a s t th e percentage of r e tu r n s from th e w iiite

39 and Negro sch o o ls s e p a ra te ly .

That d i s t r ib u t i o n appears below: t'/hlte High Schools

que s tio n n a ir e s re c e iv e d

q u e s tio n n a ire s re tu rn e d

P ercentag e of r e tu r n s

77

35

45.44

Oklahoma C ity

188

54

28.73

Okmulgee

129

34

26.36

T u lsa

196

92

46.94

Wewoka

69

54

78.26

T o ta ls

659

269

40.82

Muskogee

Negro Hi^h Schools q u e s tio n n a ire s rec eiv e d

que s tio n n a ir e s re tu rn e d

Percentag e o f 1-0tu rn s

87

24

27.59

132

67

50.76

Okmulgee

25

16

64.00

T ulsa

46

39

84.78

Wewoka

50

42

84.00

T o ta ls

340

188

55.29

Muskogee Oklahoma C ity

I t w i l l be noted from th e d a ta presen ted f o r th e w hite and Negro sch o o ls s e p a ra te ly th a t th e re were 659 w hite stu d e n ts who receiv ed q u e stio n ­ n a ir e s but only 340 Negro s tu d e n ts .

As m ight oe expected, the e n ro llm e n ts

in th e w nite high sch o o ls were la r g e r than th e en ro llm en ts in the Negro high sch o o ls and l a r g e r p ro p o rtio n s of the white stu d e n ts remained f o r g ra d u a tio n .

The percentage of re tu rn s from the Negro g rad u ates and d ro p -o u ts,

40 however, was very much g re a te r than the p ercen tag e from th e w hite s tu d e n ts , o in ce th e same q u e s tio n s were asked each group of form er s tu d e n ts , and th e c o o p e ra tio n of o r in c ip a ls and v o c a tio n a l te a c h e rs in each s e t of schoo ls was e s s e n t i a l l y o f eq u al c o r d i a l i t y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to account f o r th e d if f e r e n c e in the p ercen tag e of r e tu rn s from the two d i f f e r e n t groups.

It

may be t h a t the Negro s tu d e n ts f e l t in g r e a te r need of a s s is ta n c e in th e m a tte r of o b ta in in g jo b s than a id th e w h ite s, and noped th a t in some way answ ering th e q u e s tio n n a ire m ight prove of e v en tu al b e n e f it to them.

The

wide v a r ia tio n in th e p ercen tag e of r e tu rn s from d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s uay be noted by the re a d e r, T ulsa and Wewoka being e s p e c ia lly high in th e number o f q u e s tio n n a ire s re tu rn e d . In f u r t h e r p re s e n ta tio n o f the d a ta o f the study f o r com parative p u rp o ses, th e re have been c o n stru c te d T ables 6 to 15, in c lu s iv e , th e in te n t being to show f o r each w hite and Negro high school s e p a ra te ly th e voca­ t io n a l c o u rses ta u g h t, the number o f g rad u a tes and d ro p -o u ts from each v o c a tio n a l cu rric u lu m , the number and percentage of g rad u ates and drop­ o u ts employed in the v o c a tio n o r in some e th e r v o c a tio n , and th e number and p ercen tag e unemployed.

The reco rd s fo r th e two y e a rs (,1947-1948 and

1948-1949) a re p resen te d f o r each high school in th e same ta b l e , as w ill be observed, and d a ta f o r white and Negro stu d e n ts in e ch p a i r of iiigh sch o o ls in th e same c i t y are given in ta b le s im m ediately fo llo w in g each o th e r .

In ste a d of th e u su a l p r a c tic e of d isc u ssin g each ta o le a f t e r i t

ap p ears in th e t e x t , th e w r ite r p re s e n ts in immediate ju x ta p o s itio n two ta b le s r e l a ti n g to the same c i t y and thou d is c u s s e s f o r com parative purposes the d a ta of the two ta b le s in q u e stio n .

The f i r s t two of th ese

ta b le s (T ables 6 and 7) ap p ear below ana d e a l w ith th e v o c a tio n a l o ffe rin g s and employment d a ta in Muskogee.

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47 The d a ta in Table d Tor th e 54 white g rad u a tes and urop—o u ts f o r th e y e a rs 1947*49 of Oklahoma C ity C en tra l High Hchool in d ic a te th a t 39 (o r 72.22 p e r c e n t) are employed on jo b s th a t a re th e d i r e c t r e s u l t s o f t h e i r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g ] 12 (o r 22,22 p e r c e n t; are employed on jo b s t h a t a re n o t r e la te d to t h e i r v o c a tio n a l t r a i n in g ; and th re e (o r 5*56 p e r c e n t) a re unemployed. O bservation of th e d a ta in Table 9 re v e a ls t h a t the Hegro g rad u a tes and d ro p -o u ts o f th e Oklahoma C ity Douglass High ic h o o l f o r the y e a rs 1947*49 d id n o t re c e iv e th e same degree o f employment from t h e i r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g as did the w hites#

Of th® 6? g rad u a tes and d ro p -o u ts re p o rtin g ,

33 (o r 49*25 p er c e n t) are employed on Jobs r e la tin g to t h e i r s p e c if ic v o c a tio n a l t r a i n in g ; 24 (o r 35*82 p e r c e n t; are employed on jobs o th e r th an th o se f o r which they took t h e i r s p e c ific v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g ; and te n (o r 14*93 p e r c e n t, a re unemployed* In o rd e r to s t r e s s the comparison in r e l a ti o n to employment f o r th e two sch o o ls in Oklahoma C ity , a summary of th e fin d in g s of T ables 8 and 9 fo llo w s:

iihployed in Hmpioyed in Unemployed v o c a tio n ________ o th e r v o catio n ________ T o ta l no. Ho#

For cent

ho#

Per c en t

Ko.

Her cen t

White

54

39

72.22

12

22.22

3

5.56

Negro

67

33

49.25

24

35.62

10

14.93

The comparison shows t h a t th e degree o f employment in the v o catio n f o r which tr a in in g had been ta k e n , fo r the Hegro g rad u a tes and d ro p -o u ts o f th e Oklahoma C ity Douglass High bchool, i s sm a ller than th a t f o r the

48 w h ite s in th e same c i t y , th e re s p e c tiv e p e rc en ta g es being 49*25 aiKi 72.22 p e r c e n t.

On the o th e r hand, th e p ercen tag e o f unemployment in d ic a te s

t h a t th e re i s about ttire e tim es no re unemployment l o r the negro g rad u a tes and. d ro p -o u ts than f o r th e w h ites.

I t i s a ls o shown t h a t a l a r g e r percen tag e

o f th e Degrees found employment in jo b s o th e r than th o se f o r which th ey took t h e i r v o c a tio n a l t r a i n in g .

The f a c t t h a t 35*82 per c e n t of th e Negroes had

to fin d employment in v o c a tio n s o th e r than th e ones f o r which they had been tr a in e d w hereas only 22.22 p er c en t o f tue w hites were in v o c a tio n s f o r which th e y were n o t tr a in e d , in d ic a te s t h a t th e Negro g ra d u a te s and drop­ o u ts s u f f e r a handicap in t h a t th ey have l e s s o p p o rtu n ity f o r e n te rin g th e f i e l d s o f t h e i r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g th an i s tru e f o r th e w h ite s. An exam ination of the column e n t i t l e d ‘Employed in v o c a tio n ” in T able 8 r e v e a ls t h a t th e re a re th re e co u rses f o r which 100 p er c e n t employ­ ment r e s u l te d .

In Table 9 th e re appear no co u rses which le d to lOu p e r c e n t

employment f o r th e g ra d u a te s and d ro p -o u ts.

Table 9, by way o f c o n tr a s t,

shows t h a t th e Negro stu d e n ts who were tra in e d in cosmetology had only very s l i g h t o p p o rtu n ity f o r employment whereas in T able 8 none o f th e co u rses th a t th e w hite stu d e n ts pursued re s u lte d in such a high degree of unemploy­ ment • T ables 10 and 11 record th e fin d in g s f o r th e two high schools lo c a te d in Okmulgee, Oklahoma.

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55 Table 12, d e p ic tin g the white g rad u ates and d ro p -o u ts of Tulsa C e n tra l High School-, s e ts f o r th a t o t a l of 92 responses f o r th e two y e a rs in clu d ed in th e in v e s tig a tio n .

Of th e se responses 73 o r 79.35 p e r cen t

a re from stu d e n ts rep o rte d as employed on jo b s in th e s p e c if ic v o c atio n l o r which they tr a in e d ; IS (o r 19*56 p e r c e n t) a re from stu d e n ts employed in jo b s o th e r than in the f i e l d of t h e i r s p e c if ic t r a i n i n g ; and only on© form er stu d e n t i s re p o rte d as unemployed. An exam ination of Table 13, which d e a ls w ith th e Negro g rad u ates and d ro p -o u ts from the Booker T. Washington High School in T ulsa, in d i­ c a te s a t o t a l o f 39 stu d en t responses fo r th e two y e a rs included in th e stu d y .

I t i s apparent th a t 26 (o r 66.67 p e r c e n t) o f th e form er Negro

s tu d e n ts a re employed on jo b s in d i r e c t l in e 'with th© s p e c if ic v o c atio n ''N

f o r which th ey tr a in e d ; 12 (o r 30.77 p e r c e n t) a re employed on o th e r types o f jo b s ; and only one form er stu d e n t i s unemployed. For purposes o f f a c i l i t a t i n g comparison between th e two schools a resume o f th e t o t a l s f o r each school i s given below. Employed in Employed in Unemployed v o c atio n _______ o th e r v o c a tio n _________ T o ta l no.

No.

White

92

73

79*35

Negro

39

26

66.67

Per c en t

ho.

Per cent

ho.

P er cen t

IS

19*56

1

1.09

12

30.77

1

2.56

I t may be noted th e w hites show n e a rly 13 p er cen t more employment in th© v o c a tio n tr a in e d f o r than do th e Negroes, 79*35 per c en t f o r the form er as compared to 66.67 p er c en t f o r the l a t t e r group.

In r e la tio n to th e gradu­

a te s and d ro p -o u ts who were employed but not in th e s p e c if ic v ocation f o r which th ey tr a in e d , th e d iffe r e n c e i s approxim ately 11.00 p er cen t in

56 fa v o r o f th e w h ite s, 30.77 p e r c e n t o f th e Negroes having to fin d a l t e r ­ n a tiv e o ccu p atio n s as compared to 19.56 p er cen t of the w rite s .

As to

unemployment, th e d a ta f o r both schools show a n e g lig ib le amount of unem­ ploym ent.

I t ap p ears t h a t th e re are o b ta in a b le jo b s in Tulsa f o r th o se

who a re v o c a tio n a lly tra in e d but th a t the widte g rad u ates ana d ro p -o u ts a re re c e iv in g employment more d i r e c t l y in l in e w ith t h e i r s p e c if ic voca­ t i o n a l tr a i n in g than i s tru e f o r th e Negroes.

This f a c t may be a tt r ib u t e d

to th e w ider v a r ie ty of o f fe rin g s in the white schools than in the Negro sc h o o ls.

In a d d itio n to the id e n t i c a l su b je c ts o ffe re d by the white and

Negro sc h o o ls, T ables 12 and 13 re v e a l th a t the whiLc schools o f f e r fiv e a d d itio n a l s u b je c ts not taught in the Negro sc h o o ls.

In the case o f th e

w hite sc h o o ls, th e re arc- a h ig h er number o f v o c a tio n a l s u b je c ts from which th e g ra d u a te s and d ro p -o u ts receiv ed 100,00 p e r cent employment than i s shewn f o r th e Negroes.

I t i s a ls o to be observed th a t th e course in

d i s t r i b u t i v e education f o r th e w rite s has re s u lte d in n e a rly 100.00 per c e n t employment f o r the g rad u ates and d ro p -o u ts whereas t h i s su o je c t does n o t appear in the v o c a tio n a l l i s t i n g s of the Negro school.

57

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T ables 14 and 15 d e p ic t the fin d in g s f o r th e stu d e n ts from th e w hite and Negro high schools in '4ewoka, Oklahoma. Table 14 d e a ls w ith th e white g rad u ates and drop—o u ts of th e dewoka High School and shows a t o t a l of 54 responses from form er stu d e n ts f o r th e two y e a rs included in the in v e s tig a tio n .

The d a ta re v e a l th a t 44 (o r 81.48

p e r c e n t) are employed in th e s p e c ific v o catio n f o r which they tr a in e d ; 9 (o r 16.6? per c e n t) a re employed in some o th e r vo catio n than the one f o r which th ey were tr a in e d ; and only one i s unemployed. By observing Table 15, th e read er can see th a t 42 responses were made by the Negro g rad u a tes and d ro p -o u ts o f the iewoka Douglass .High School f o r the tw o-year p eriod included in the study.

From th ese re tu r n s ,

i t i s e v id e n t t h a t 29 (o r 69.05 per c en t) o f th e Negro stu d e n ts are employed in th e same v ocation fo r which they tr a in e d ; 11 (o r 26.19 p er c en t) a re em­ ployed in some o th e r v o c a tio n ; and two (o r 4.76 p er cen t) a re unemployed. Again, summaries f o r T ables 14 and 15 are s e t f o r th bolow in o rd er t h a t the d if fe re n c e s of th e degree of employment in t h i s s e t o f schools may be em phasised. Employed in v o c atio n T o ta l ho.

No.

P er c e n t

Employed in obher vocation

Unemployed

No.

Per cen t

Ho.

P er cen t

White

54

44

61.46

9

16.67

1

1.65

Negro

42

29

69.05

11

26.19

2

4.76

Th© p a tte r n of d iffe re n c e s in the d a ta above i s s im ila r to t h a t found in th e e th e r fo u r s e ts of sch o o ls.

Tho grad u ates and a rc p -o u ts of

th e Wewoka High School f o r 'whites a rc shown to have received a h igher

60 p e rcen tag e (81*46) o f employment in th e s p e c ific v o c atio n f o r which they tr a in e d than i s tru e f o r the g raduates and d ro p -o u ts o f the Wev/oka Douglass High behool f o r Negroes*

Employment in th e v o catio n f o r vddch they were

tr a in e d was only 69.05 p er cen t f o r the Negroes.

Data as to th e g rad u ates

and d ro p -o u ts who were employed in a d i f f e r e n t v o catio n than th e one f o r which th ey had been tra in e d show t h a t the percentage of Negro g rad u a tes and d ro p -o u ts in t h i s categ o ry i s h ig h er th an t h a t fo r the w ld to s.

In th e

unemployed column, the fig u re s a re in s i g n if i c a n t , p o ssib ly because o f in ­ com plete r e tu r n s .

The p a tte rn of unemployment, however, fo r th e two groups

o f g rad u a tes and d ro p -o u ts i s s im ila r to t h a t found in the o th e r s e ts o f sc h o o ls, the percentage o f unemployment f o r the Negro grad u ates and drop­ o u ts being approxim ately tw ice th a t f o r the u n ite graduates and d ro p -o u ts. Although th e v o c atio n a l choices in both schools are lim ite d in number, i t i s shown th a t honie economics, which i s o ffe re d in both schoo ls, has le d to a high degree o f employment f o r the grad u ates and u ro p -o u ts. Commercial b u sin ess lik e w ise , in d ic a te s a high degree of employment, w hile c a rp e n try and woodworking re s u lte d in the low est degree of employment.

it

may be concluded t h a t both the Negro and white g i r l s , p rim a rily e n ro lle d in commercial work and home economics, a r _ rec eiv in g a h ig h er degree of employment from t h e i r v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g than do the Negro and white boys of the Jewoka schools f o r the y e a rs under c o n sid e ra tio n . A summary of th e deg rees of employment o r unemployment f o r th e g rad u ates and d ro p -o u ts o f the fiv e white schools appears in Taole l o . Table 17 im m ediately fo llo w s and c o n ta in s s im ila r d ata f o r the graduates and d ro p -o u ts of th e fiv e Negro schools.

61

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03 E-f

•xteople.

Try to i n s t i l l in to students the importance of g e ttin g along There a re no textbooks to give p u p ils in s tr u c tio n in th is

a re a and thus i t i s necessary fo r the in s tru c to rs to emphasize the im­ p o rtan ce o f t h i s a b i l i t y in the d a ily tra in in g program, 13*

Avoid the in tro d u c tio n of any v o catio n al courses f o r members

of e it h e r race th a t w ill lead to ”b lin d a lle y ” jo b s.

Suggestions f o r F u rth er StudyS everal s ig n if ic a n t problems which confronted the author during the p ro g ress of t h i s in v e s tig a tio n a re recommended f o r fu r th e r study. Guidance procedures in e ff e c t in the behoofs of Oklahoma.

I t was

p o in ted out th a t a la rg e percentage of the stu d en ts were having to fin d employment in occupations n o t re la te d to th e i r s p e c ific vocational tr a in ­ in g and a lso th a t a sm all percentage of the stu d en ts were of the opinion t h a t they would choose another v o catio n al su b ject i f they had to take t h e i r v o c atio n a l tr a in in g ag ain .

This f a c t seems to in d ic a te th a t the

guidance se rv ic e s they had received were not f u lly meeting th e i r needs. h study might be undertaken to determ ine what guidance se rv ice s are p re s e n tly provided f o r stu d e n ts of v o catio n al tra in in g in the J ta te of Oklahoma. Suggested means of Improving the teaching of re la te d m nrlish.

in

th e se c tio n o f Chapter 111 which d e a ls with the suggestions reported fo r

95 improving th e v o catio n al tra in in g receiv ed , the fa c to r o ften mentioned was tne need l o r more p r a c tic a l English.

A saudy of the presen t p ra c tic e s

in bids area would aid ad m in istrato rs and teach ers of th is re la te d subject in making an in te llig e n t d ecisio n as to what should be introuuced or d e le te d from the presen t in s tru c tio n given in th is su b je c t. s ta tu s of v o catio n al education fo r hegroes in the a t a te of Oklahoma.

V/hen attem pting to bring the v o catio n al o ffe rin g s f o r hegroes

up to the le v e l of acceptable standards of sound v o catio n al procedure, c o n sid e ra tio n should be given to the p resen t p ic tu re fo r youthful members of th a t ra c e .

A study of t h is n ature would, serve as a standard fo r

a d m in istra to rs charged with the fu n ctio n of adding to or dropping some o f, th e v o c a tio n a l o ffe rin g s found in the hegro schools. F a cto rs o f human re la tio n s h ip and so c ia l understanding.

Kany of

th e g raduates and drop-outs included in the study sta te d th a t students should receiv e tra in in g in g e ttin g along w ith people.

I t must be remem­

bered t h a t we are liv in g in a dem ocratic so ciety in which i t i s e s s e n tia l t h a t every worker, re g a rd le ss of the p ro ficien c y acquired in the exercise o f h is s k i l l , must le a rn to re sp e c t the rig h ts of h is fellow worker, i s recognized th a t t h i s a b i l i t y cannot be absorbed from textbooks, but must be acquired through the concom itant lea rn in g s which p a r a lle l the v o c atio n a l le a rn in g s .

Any evidence bearing on the question of how to

improve one’ s a b i l i t y to got along with h is fellow s in a democratic s o c ie ty would prove valuable to a l l secondary school stu d en ts, whether in v o catio n al departm ents or academic.

it

96

97 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and P e rio d ic a ls American Connell on Education, Youth and the F uture. The General Report of the American Youth Commission, Washington, D. C ., 1942. B e ll, H, M., Youth T e ll T heir S tory. American Council on Education, Washington, I). C ., 1935. B erger, Max, "A Y ardstick fo r Your Placement Program,11 23sl63«l65, December, 1944Brown, Leo C ,, “What the Young Worker Should Know about Unions,*' Occupa­ t io n s , 23:451-452, May, 1945. B ryant, I r a B ., "V ocational Education in Negro High Schools in Texas," The Jo u rn al of Negro Education, 28:9-15, W inter, 1949, Ho. 1, C a liv e r, Ambrose, The V ocational Education and Guidance of Negroes. U . S . O ffice of Education B u lle tin , 1937, No. 38, Government P rin tin g O ffic e , Washington, D. C ., lv3$* E ck e rt, Ruth, and M arshall, T, 0 , , When Youth Leave School. Regents' In q u iry in to the C haracter and Cost of Public .Education in the S ta te of New York, 1938. F r a z ie r , Edward F ra n k lin , Negro Youth a t the Crossways. American Council on Education, Washington, D. C ., 1940. Fuhram, Miram, "The Employment C e r tif ic a te as an Aid in Vocational Guidance," O ccupations. 25:317-320, March, 1947. Ginn, Susan J . , "S a lie n t Trends in Placement ana Follow-up," Occupations. 6:343-346, fe y , 1928. H ill, Mozell C ,, and R ichards, Eugene o ., "Demographic Trends of the Negro in Oklahoma," The Southeastern Jo u rn a l. 2:43, 47, W inter, 1946. Layton, H., "A Follow-up Study of Drop-Out Boys," Vocational Guidance Magazine. 202-207, February, 1932. Loescher, Frank S ., "The Placement Service of the American Friends S ervice Committee, A Technique in Race R e la tio n s," Occupations. 25:90-93, November 1946. Lothrop, Frank Waldo, E ffectiv en ess of Vocational Education in A griculture. S pecial Study, Federal Board fo r Vocational ixiucotion, B u lle tin No. 82 A g ric u ltu ra l S e rie s , No. 13, Washington, D. C., 1933.

98 Norton, Thomas Lowell, Education fo r Work. The Regents' In q u iry , McGrawH ill Book Co., I n c ., 1936. Oklahoma, C o n stitu tio n of the S tate of Oklahoma. Supreme Court of Oklahoma, Oklahoma C ity , Oklahoma, 1907. Oklahoma, The Twenty-second. B iennial Report of the S ta te Department of Education of Oklahoma. Oklahoma C ity, Oklahoma, Ju ly 1, 1946 to June 30, 1948. P a terso n , Donald G ., and k re ie d t, Philip H., "Evaluation of Employment A gencies,11 Occupations. 25:383-387, April, 1947. P r o f f i t t , Moris h ., "U, 3. Ju n io r Placement S ervice." School Life* 19:164. A p ril, 1934 ----------------Studeb&ker, John W., L ife Adjustment Education fo r Every Youth. U, 3* O ffice of E ducation, Washington, 0. C., 1947. S tuehrk, M arguerite, "How One School Helps 'Tween Age Youth," Occupations. 24:67-89, November, 1945. 'Washington, N athaniel Jason, H isto ric a l Development of the Negro in Oklahoma. D exter Publishing Co., Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1948, 71 pp.

Unpublished M aterials F a u st, Samuel Leroy, Qccucations Followed by Former All-Day r u o ils in V ocational A griculture in the Bridgeton High School, New Jerse y . unpublished M aster's t h e s is , Rutgers U niversity (in lib ra ry of Rutgers U n iv e rsity , New Brunswick, New Je rse y , 193^* F o s te r, Olive V irg in ia , O ccunational Study of Graduates of Gerstmeyer T echnical High school. 1925 to 1930 In c lu siv e , unpublished M aster's t h e s is , School of Education, Indiana U niversity (in lib r a r y of Ind ian a U n iv ersity , Bloomington, Indiana, 1939J. Gray, William H erbert, J r . , heeds of Negro high School Graduates., unpub­ lis h e d D o cto r's d is s e r ta tio n , U niversity of Pennsylvania (in l ib r a r y of the U niv ersity of Pennsylvania, P h ilad e lp h ia , P a ., 1942). H artshorn, H erbert Hadley, V ocational I n te r e s t P a tte rn s of Negro Profes­ sio n a l Men, unpublished D octor's d is s e r ta tio n , U niversity of Minnesota (in lib r a r y of the U niversity of Minnesota, M inneapolis, M innesota, 1948)•

99 H ill, P atton Joseph, V ocational Education in the hegro Senior High Schools o f West V irg in ia . unpublished M aster's th e s is , School of Education, Indiana U n iv ersity (in lib r a r y of Indiana U niversity, Bloomington, In d ian a , 1934). hoe, Howard Eay, Geographic a l and Occupational Survey of Graduates from the Seymour. Indiana High School as Compared to the P resent V ocational Choices of th e Hi&h School P u p ils. unpublished M aster's th e s is , School of education, Indiana U niversity (in lib r a r y of Indiana U n iv e rsity , Bloomington, Indiana, 1929), Pender, Archie Morton, A Vocational Survey of the G r a d u a t e s of the Hadison High School, Madison, Indiana, unpublished M aster's th e s is , School of Education, Indiana U niversity (in lib r a r y of Indiana U niversity , Bloomington, Indiana, 1929). r i c k e t t , Lemen JSasdale, A follow-Up otudy of Drop-Outs and Graduates from the Holton High School as a Basis fo r Curriculum Reccmmendations. unpublished M aster's th e s is , School of Education, Indiana U niversity, Bloomington, Indiana, 1929. R oberts, C harles S ., ftiegro Education in Oklahoma, unpublished M aster's th e s is , U n iv ersity of Colorado~Xin lib ra r y of U niversity of Colo­ rado, Boulder, Colorado, 1930), B tegem ollcr, C, w., A V ocational Study of the Graduates and Withdrawals o f Union High School, Dugger, Indiana, unpublished P la ster's th e s is , Indiana S tate T eacher's College (in lib r a r y of Indiana S tate T each er's C ollege, Terre Haute, Indiana, 1932).

100

APPENDIX

101 APr^DlX Appendix A q uestionnaire h&me Sw t

School Attended ..................... ..... ......................... .........Date _

_

_

H ighest Grade A ttained? ______________ _ Graduated? ____ flame o f P re se n t Employer

___________________

1*

Wh&t i s th e t i t l e of the job you now hold?

2,

What a re th e c h ie f d u tie s of the job you now hold?

3*

In your v o c atio n a l school tra in in g , f o r what s p e c ific occupation were

you try in g to prepare y o u rse lf? _______________________ __________________

4.

A fte r you l e f t high school, was your f i r s t job in the type of work

th a t you had been prepared fo r in the v o c atio n a l school? ______________ 5,

I f you have been employed in more than one job since leaving school,

l i s t each one and give th e le n g th of time employed in i t , No. of Job • ; :

:

2nd Job

*

Smoloyed hpw" long? : : :

3rd Job

s

i

;

:

^ th Job_____________

:________________________:_____ ________________

. »

............T itle " of Job s ” :

102 K&aie

_____________________

^ * bince leav in g the v o catio n al school, i f your f i r s t job or any o th er job you worked a t was not in the kind of work fo r which you took v o catio n al t r a i n in g , do you th in k th a t your school tra in in g helped you to g et employed?

7*

Do you regal’d your v o catio n al tra in in g in scnool as:

(Check one)

8.

a.

Having been of d e f in ite value to you? _________

b.

Having been of a f a i r degree of value only?

c.

Having been la rg e ly a waste of time? ______

I f you had your v o catio n al experiences to ao over again: a*

Would you t r y to prepare y o u rse lf fo r the same occupation you chose before? ________________ ____________________ _______________ ______

b.

(1) Would you t r y to prepare y o u rse lf fo r a d if f e r e n t occupation?

(2) I f y e s, what occupation would you want to be pr©pared for?

(3) Would such vocatio n al tr a in in g have made i t e a s ie r fo r you to g e t a job when you l e f t school and s ta rte d looking fo r work? _

9,

Do you have any suggestions fo r improving tiie v o catio n al tra in in g you

receiv ed while in school?

_______ ______________________ ______________

103 Appendix 8 L e tte r

Route y2, Box ^111 Wewoka, Oklahoma October 1949

Bear I am conducting a study which should point out the degree of employ a b i l i t y which r e s u lts from the vocatio n al o ffe rin g s of your school. In o rd er to do t h i s , 1 am s o lic itin g your aid by asking you to complete the enclosed questionnaire, 1 have chosen (10) ten schools in Oklahoma th a t have v o c a tio n a l departm ents ana, having made a v i s i t to these schools, have se le c te d you as one of the former students to be included in th e study. P lease give your most accurate response to each item of th e q u e stio n n a ire as the success of the study w ill depend on the acc u ra ten e ss of each in d iv id u a l response. When you s h a ll have completed the q u e stio n n aire, please p lace i t in the self* ad d ressed envelope which i s enclosed and place i t in th e m ail. May 1 thank you in advance fo r your cooperation in th is study. Yours tru ly ,