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A Companion to the Hellenistic World
 1405132787, 9781405132787

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A COMPANION TO THE HELLENISTIC WORLD Edited by

Andrew Erskine

`This extremely appealing collection pulls off that hardest of tricks: it is simultaneously authoritative and exciting, its findings new as well as true. The Hellenistic age was an age of marvels and this impeccably edited work is itself a Hellenistic marvel. Scholars, students and interested non-professionals will devour it with pleasure and go away nourished, as I did.' Professor Simon Hornblower, University College London

`Blackwell and Erskine have done a splendid job with the HellenisticCompanion and I'm extremely pleased to have a copy, both as a guide for my own contributions and for future reference. It is, I think, the best comprehensive book on the Hellenistic world available and a ``must have'' for everyone working in this field.' Professor Waldemar Heckel, University of Calgary

`The Companion to the Hellenistic World is very impressive indeed both in its breadth and its depth, and sets an exhilaratingly high standard for the new series.' Professor Justina Gregory, Smith College

BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO THE ANCIENT WORLD This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of periods of ancient history, genres of classical literature, and the most important themes in ancient culture. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers.

AN C I E N T HI S T O R Y

A Companion to Ancient Epic

Edited by John Miles Foley

Published

In Preparation

A Companion to the Ancient Near East

Edited by Daniel C. Snell

A Companion to Greek Tragedy

Edited by Justina Gregory A Companion to the Hellenistic World

Edited by Andrew Erskine

A Companion to Classical Mythology

Edited by Ken Dowden

In preparation

A Companion to Greek and Roman HistoriA Companion to the Archaic Greek World

Edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Hans van Wees

ography

Edited by John Marincola

A Companion to Greek Religion A Companion to the Classical Greek World

Edited by Konrad H. Kinzl A Companion to the Roman Republic

Edited by Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx

Edited by Daniel Ogden

A Companion to Greek Rhetoric

Edited by Ian Worthington

A Companion to Roman Rhetoric

A Companion to the Roman Empire

Edited by David Potter A Companion to the Roman Army

Edited by Paul Erdkamp A Companion to Byzantium

Edited by Elizabeth James

Edited by William J. Dominik and Jonathan Hall

A Companion to Classical Tradition

Edited by Craig Kallendorf

A Companion to Roman Religion

Edited by Jo Èrg Ru È pke

A Companion to Late Antiquity

Companion to Ancient Political

Edited by Philip Rousseau

Thought

Edited by Ryan Balot LI T E R A T U R E

AND

CU L T U R E

Published

Companion to Catullus

Edited by Marilyn Skinner

A Companion to Latin Literature

Companion to Hellenistic Literature

Edited by Stephen Harrison

Edited by James Clauss and Martijn Cuypers

A COMPANION TO THE HELLENISTIC WORLD Edited by

Andrew Erskine

#

2003, 2005 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

BLACKWELL PUBLISHING

350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanton Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Andrew Erskine to be identified as the Author of the Editorial Material in this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2003 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd First published in paperback 2005 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd 1

2005

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A companion to the Hellenistic world / edited by Andrew Erskine. p. cm. Ð (Blackwell companions to ancient history) ISBN 0-631-22537-4 (alk. paper) Ð ISBN 1-4051-3278-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Mediterranean RegionÐHistoryÐTo 476. 2. GreeceÐHistoryÐMacedonian Hegemony, 323±281 B. C. 3. GreeceÐHistoryÐ281±146 B. C. 4. Hellenism. I. Erskine, Andrew. II. Series. DE86.C65 2003 938 .07± dc21

2002015293

ISBN-13: 978-0-631-22537-9 (alk. paper) Ð ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-3278-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10 on 12 pt Galliard by SPI Publisher Srervices, Pondicherry, India. Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall The publisher's policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellpublishing.com

For Frank Walbank

Contents

List of Figures List of Contributors

x xii

Preface

xvii

Acknowledgements

xviii

Ancient Authors: Abbreviations and Glossary Reference Works: Abbreviations

1

Approaching the Hellenistic World

xix xxiv

1

Andrew Erskine

PART I NARRATIVES 2

17

After Alexander: the Emergence of the Hellenistic World, 323±281

19

David Braund

3

An Uneasy Balance: from the Death of Seleukos to the Battle of Raphia

35

Sheila L. Ager

4

The Arrival of Rome: from the Illyrian Wars to the Fall of Macedon

51

Peter Derow

5

Subjection and Resistance: to the Death of Mithradates

71

Brian McGing

6

A Roman East: Pompey's Settlement to the Death of Augustus Claude Eilers

90

viii

Contents

PART II PROTAGONISTS 7

The Ptolemies and Egypt

103 105

Dorothy J. Thompson

8

The Seleukids and Asia

121

Michel Austin

9

Macedon and the Mainland, 280±221

134

Joseph B. Scholten

10

The Attalids of Pergamon

159

Elizabeth Kosmetatou

PART III CHANGE AND CONTINUITY 11

Kings

175 177

John Ma

12

Cities

196

Richard Billows

13

The Past in a Hellenistic Present: Myth and Local Tradition

216

Tanja S. Scheer

14

Space and Geography

232

Klaus Geus

PART IV GREEKS AND OTHERS 15

Town and Country in Ptolemaic Egypt

247 249

Jane Rowlandson

16

Jews and Greeks

264

Erich S. Gruen

17

The Galatians: Representation and Reality

280

Stephen Mitchell

18

Beyond Greeks and Barbarians: Italy and Sicily in the Hellenistic Age

294

Emma Dench

PART V SOCIETY AND ECONOMY 19

Family Structures

311 313

Riet van Bremen

20

The Economy Gary Reger

331

Contents

21

ix

Reading the Landscape: Survey Archaeology and the Hellenistic Oikoumene

354

Susan E. Alcock, Jennifer E. Gates and Jane E. Rempel

22

Warfare

373

Patrick Baker

23

Piracy and the Slave-Trade

389

Vincent Gabrielsen

PART VI GODS AND MEN 24

405

Hellenistic Religion

407

David Potter

25

The Divinity of Hellenistic Rulers

431

Angelos Chaniotis

PART VII ARTS AND SCIENCES 26

447

Empires of Knowledge: Medicine and Health in the Hellenistic World

449

Rebecca Flemming

27

The Institutions of Hellenistic Philosophy

464

Phillip Mitsis

28

Literature and its Contexts

477

Richard Hunter

29

Hellenistic Art,

AD

1500±2000

494

Andrew Stewart

Bibliography

515

Chronology

567

Index

574

Figures

Figure

2.1

Map of the Hellenistic world

20

Figure

3.1

Gold

mnaieion of Ptolemy II

39

Figure

4.1

Map of Italy and the West

Figure

7.1

Map of Egypt

106

Figure

7.2

Balsalt Egyptian-style statue of Ptolemy I, 305±283 B C

114

Figure

9.1

Map of Greece and Asia Minor

136

Figure 10.1

`Long Base', Pergamon

162

Figure 11.1

Attalos I

178

Figure 11.2

Raphia stele

190

Figure 12.1

Plan of Priene

202

Figure 12.2

Reconstruction of Priene

203

Figure 12.3

Plan of Ephesos

204

Figure 12.4

The theatre at Ephesos

205

Figure 12.5

Plan of Pergamon

207

Figure 14.1

The Parallelogram of Ephoros

234

Figure 14.2

The world before Alexander

235

Figure 17.1

Map showing migrations of Celtic peoples

281

Figure 17.2

Dying Gaul

285

Figure 17.3

Æ lu Kale Galatian fort at Tabanliog

291

Figure 19.1

Inscription recording a treaty between Latmos and Pidasa

52

314

Figures

xi

Figure 21.1

Map of the Bosporan kingdom

357

Figure 21.2

Settlement distribution in the Bosporan kingdom

359

Figure 21.3

The Berenike±Qift and Berenike±Edfu roads, Egypt

364

Figure 21.4

Survey in progress at Samut

365

Figure 21.5

Ruins at Umm Garahish on the Berenike±Edfu road

366

Figure 21.6

Map of Crete

368

Figure 21.7

Pyrgos, Crete

370

Figure 28.1

Terme boxer

489

Figure 29.1

Laokoon, as restored by Giovanni Montorsoli

495

Figure 29.2

Athena panel from the Gigantomachy of the Great Altar of Pergamon

496

Figure 29.3

Laokoon, as restored by Filippo Magi

497

Figure 29.4

Reconstruction of mythological groups at Sperlonga

498

Figure 29.5

Dead Giant, Amazon, and Persian, and Dying Gaul

500

Figure 29.6

Tel Dor, Israel

509

Figure 29.7

Mosaic of a mask of a young dandy from Tel Dor

510

Figure 29.8

`Toro Farnese'

511

Contributors

is Associate Professor of

 bec, of History at Laval University, Que

Classical Studies at the University of

Canada since 1998. His research interest

Waterloo in Canada. Her research deals

focuses on the military institutions in the

chiefly with political history in the Hel-

Greek cities of the Hellenistic world. He

lenistic period, in particular the relations

is the author of one opuscula:

between the city-states and the great

Calymna 205±200 a.C.: esprit civique et

powers of the age, as well as those be-

deÂfense

tween the city-states themselves. She is

several articles on related topics. He is

the author of

Interstate Arbitrations in

currently working on a book entitled

(Berkeley,

Armies and Defence Organization in the

Sheila L. Ager

the

Greek

World,

337±90 B C

1997).

nationale

Cos

et

 bec, 1991) and (Que

Greek Cities of Western Asia Minor.

Susan E. Alcock

is Arthur F. Thurnau

Richard A. Billows is

Professor of Greek

of

and Roman History at Columbia Univer-

Classical Archaeology at the University

sity in the City of New York. Though he

of Michigan, and the recent recipient of

has published articles on various periods

a MacArthur Fellowship.

and aspects of Greek and Roman history

Professor

and

Associate

Professor

and material culture, his primary publicaMichel Austin

is Honorary Senior Lec-

tions to date have been concerned with

turer in Ancient History at the University

Hellenistic

of St Andrews in Scotland. His research

He is the author of

has been concerned with Greek social

Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic

and economic history and with the Hel-

State

lenistic period. He is the author of

Colonists: Aspects of Macedonian Imperi-

The

Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest

(Cambridge, 1981); a

revised and enlarged edition is in preparation.

alism

politico-social

institutions.

Antigonos the One-

(Berkeley, 1990) and of

Kings and

(Leiden, 1995).

David Braund

is Professor of Black Sea

and Mediterranean History in the Department of Classics and Ancient History

has been Professor of An-

at the University of Exeter. From 2002±

cient Greek History in the Department

2005 he is a Leverhulme Major Research

Patrick Baker

xiii

Contributors

Fellow, working on a book on the north

of

coast of the ancient Black Sea. His earlier

(Oxford, 2002).

books

include

Georgia

in

Antiquity

(Oxford, 1994).

Roman

Patrons

of

Greek

Cities

Andrew Erskine is Reader in Classics at the University of Edinburg. A specialist

Angelos Chaniotis is Professor of An-

in Hellenistic history, he is the author of

cient History at the University of Heidel-

Troy

berg. His research interests include the

Tradition and Imperial Power (Oxford,

history of institutions, society and reli-

2001),

gion

Thought

in

the

Hellenistic

and

Imperial

periods. He is co-editor of the Supplementum

Epigraphicum

Graecum

and

between

The and

Greece

and

Hellenistic

Stoa:

(London,

Action

and numerous

Rome:

articles on

Local

Political

1990),

the ancient

world.

the author of Historie und Historiker in den

griechischen

Inschriften

(Stuttgart,

1988) and Die Vertraege zwischen kretischen

Staedten

in

der

hellenistischen

Rebecca Flemming is lecturer in ancient history at King's College London. Her research

has

medicine

Zeit (Stuttgart, 1996).

separately

in

focused the

and

on

women

ancient

world,

together.

She

is

and both the

Emma Dench is Senior Lecturer in An-

author of Medicine and the Making of

cient History at Birkbeck College, Uni-

Roman

versity of London. Her current research

Authority from Celsus to Galen (Oxford,

interests are issues of identity and empire

2000).

Women:

Gender,

Nature,

and

in the Hellenistic and Roman worlds. She is the author of From Barbarians to

Vincent Gabrielsen is Professor of An-

New Men: Greek, Roman, and Modern

cient History at the Department of His-

Perceptions

tory,

of

Peoples

from

the

Central

University

of

Copenhagen.

His

research has focused on Classical Greek

Apennines (Oxford, 1995).

and Hellenistic history, in particular the Peter Derow teaches in Oxford, where he is Hody Fellow and Tutor in Ancient History of Wadham College and University Lecturer (C.U.F.) in ancient history. He has worked mostly on Hellenistic history and epigraphy and Roman republican

history,

and

he

has

long

had

social and economic aspects of naval warfare. His publications include Financing the Athenian Fleet: Public Taxation and Social Relations (Baltimore and London,

1994) and The Naval Aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes (Aarhus, 1997).

a

particular interest in Polybius and deal-

Jennifer E. Gates is a doctoral student in

ings between Rome and the Greeks. His

the Interdepartmental Program in Clas-

publications include articles and reviews

sical Art and Archaeology (IPCAA) at

in these areas, and he is the author (with

the University of Michigan.

Roger

S. Bagnall) of Greek Historical

Documents: the Hellenistic Period (1981;

a new edition is in preparation for Blackwell).

Privatdozent Dr Klaus Geus teaches Ancient History and Greek at the University of Bamberg, Germany. His research has focused on the social and scientific

Claude Eilers is Associate Professor of

history of the Hellenistic and Roman

Classics

period. He is the author of Prosopographie

at

McMaster

University,

On-

tario, Canada. He recently held a Hum-

der

boldt

of

(Leuven, 1994) and Eratosthenes of Kyr-

Cologne in Germany. He is the author

ene: Studien zur hellenistischen Kultur-

fellowship

at

the

University

literarisch

bezeugten

Karthager

xiv

und

Contributors

(Mu È nchen,

Wissenschaftsgeschichte

2002).

Western

Asia

Minor,

and

is

currently

working on honorific statues in the Hel-

Erich S. Gruen is Gladys Rehard Wood

lenistic period.

Professor of History and Classics at the

Brian McGing is a Fellow of Trinity

University of California, Berkeley. He has

College Dublin. His research interests

worked on the Roman Republic, rela-

concentrate mainly on Hellenistic Asia

tions between the Hellenistic world and

Minor,

Rome, and cultural connections among

Egypt. He has been heavily involved in

Greeks, Romans, and Jews from the Hel-

Trinity

lenistic period through the early Roman

Mediterranean and Near Eastern Studies

Empire. His most recent books are Heri-

research project, an investigation of cul-

tage and Hellenism: the Reinvention of

tural encounter in the lands of the east-

Tradition (Berkeley,

Jewish

Diaspora:

Jews

amidst

1998) and Greeks

and

Romans (Harvard, 2002).

ern

Greek at the University of Cambridge

and

College's

Greco-Roman

government-funded

Mediterranean.

His

publications

include The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI

Richard Hunter is Regius Professor of

Judaea

Eupator

1986)

King

and Greek

of

Pontus

Papyri

(Leiden,

from

Dublin

(Bonn, 1995).

and a Fellow of Trinity College. His prin-

Stephen Mitchell is Leverhulme Profes-

cipal

post-classical

sor of Hellenistic Culture at the Univer-

Greek literature, particularly Hellenistic

sity of Exeter. His research has focused

poetry, comedy, and the novel. He has

on the archaeology, epigraphy and his-

edited Apollonius of Rhodes and Theoc-

tory of Asia Minor from the Hellenistic

ritus, and his many books include Theoc-

to the Late Roman periods. He is the

ritus and the Archaeology of Greek Poetry

author

(Cambridge,

Gods

research

interest

1996).

is

His

most

recent

of

in

Anatolia:

Asia

Land,

Minor

Men,

(Oxford,

2

and

vols,

books are (with Marco Fantuzzi) Muse e

1993), Cremna in Pisidia: an Ancient

modelli: la poesia ellenistica da Alessandro

City in Peace

Magno ad Augusto (Bari, 2002) and The-

London, 1995) and Pisidian Antioch:

ocritus:

the Site and its Monuments (Wales and

Encomium

of

Ptolemy

Phila-

and in War (Wales

and

delphus (2002).

London, 1998).

Elizabeth Kosmetatou is Fellow of the

Phillip Mitsis is Alexander S. Onassis

Flemish Fund for Scientific Research at

Professor of Hellenic Culture and Civil-

the Catholic University of Leuven. Her

ization at New York University. He has

research has focused on Hellenistic his-

taught at Cornell, the University of Pitts-

tory, epigraphy, archaeology, and litera-

burgh, and Princeton. He has written on

ture, especially the construction of the

topics in ancient and early modern phil-

ancient

osophy,

political

spectacle.

She

is

the

author of numerous articles on Attalid political and ideological self-definition.

Greek

tragedy

and

modern

Greek poetry. David S. Potter is Professor of Greek

John Ma is Fellow and Tutor in Ancient

and Latin at the University of Michigan.

History, Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

He is the author of Literary Texts and the

His interests are the historical geography

Roman

of Asia Minor, Greek epigraphy and the

Prophecy and History in the Crisis of the

Hellenistic polis. He has written a mono-

Roman Empire (Oxford, 1990), Prophets

graph on Antiochos III and the cities of

and Emperors: Humans and Divine Au-

Historian

(London,

1999),

xv

Contributors

thority

from

Augustus

to

Theodosius

(Cambridge, Mass., 1994) and Losing Power: a History of the Roman World

(forthcoming),

180±395 Life,

Death

and

co-editor

Entertainment

in

AD

of the

Roman Empire (Ann Arbor, 1999), and

editor

of

the

forthcoming

Blackwell

Companion to the Roman Empire.

chischer Kultbilder in Religion und Politik (2000).

Joseph

Scholten is

Visiting

Associate

Professor of Classics at the University of Maryland. He specializes in Hellenistic political history, with a particular concentration on the construction of regional identities and institutions. He is author

Gary Reger is Professor of History at

of The Politics of Plunder: Aitolians and

Trinity College in Hartford, Connecti-

their Koinon in the Early Hellenistic Era,

cut. His research interests include the

ca. 279±17

economy and epigraphy of the Hellenis-

2000).

tic period, especially in Asia Minor. He is the author of Regionalism and Change in the Economy of Independent Delos (Berke-

ley, 1994), and is currently working on a book on Mylasa in Karia.

BC

(Berkeley and Los Angeles,

Andrew Stewart is Professor of Ancient Mediterranean Art and Archaeology at the University of California at Berkeley. He is the author of Attika: Studies in Athenian Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age

Jane E. Rempel is a doctoral student in

(London, 1979), Greek Sculpture: an Ex-

the Interdepartmental Program in Clas-

ploration (New Haven, 1990), Faces of

sical Art and Archaeology (IPCAA) at

Power: Alexander's Image and Hellenistic

the University of Michigan.

Politics (Berkeley, 1993), and Art, Desire,

Jane Rowlandson is a lecturer in Ancient History at King's College London. She is the author of Landowners and Tenants

in

Roman

Egypt

(Oxford,

1996), has edited a sourcebook, Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt

and the Body in Ancient Greece (Cam-

bridge, 1997). He is completing a book on Pergamene dedications on the Akropolis of Athens, and excavates the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman levels at the seaport of Dor in Israel.

(Cambridge, 1998), and has published

Dorothy J. Thompson, a Fellow of the

articles on the social history of Ptolemaic

British Academy, teaches ancient history

and Roman Egypt.

at Cambridge, where she is a Fellow of

Tanja S. Scheer was Gerda-Henkel research scholar (1994±96) in Rome. She is Privatdozentin of Ancient History in the Historic Department of the LudwigÈt in Munich and Maximilians-Universita since 2002 Heisenberg research fellow at

Èt Albert-Ludwigs-Universita

the

in

Freiburg. Her research interests are in Greek and Roman cultural history, history of ancient religion and gender history.

She

has

published

Mythische

Girton College and Isaac Newton Trust Lecturer in the Faculty of Classics. Her research is mainly on Egypt in the period following its conquest by Alexander of Macedon; many

she

shorter

has

written

studies

books

on

and

Ptolemaic

Egypt. Her most recent book Memphis under

was

the

Ptolemies (Princeton,

awarded

the

James

H.

1988)

Breasted

Prize by the American Historical Association.

griechischer

Riet van Bremen teaches Ancient His-

Èdten Heroenmythen in kleinasiatischen Sta

tory at University College London. She

(1993) and Die Gottheit und ihr Bild.

is the author of The Limits of Participa-

Untersuchungen

tion: Women and Civic Life in the Greek

Èter. Vorva

Zur

Bedeutung

zur

Funktion

grie-

xvi

Contributors

East in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (Amsterdam, 1996). She is cur-

rently preparing an edition of the dossier

of imperial letters to the Epicureans in Athens and is writing a study of the sanctuaries at Panamara and Lagina in Caria.

Preface

This Companion to the Hellenistic World was conceived during a sabbatical in Rome  close in Jubilee year 2000. The initial invitations were mailed from an internet cafe to the Pantheon; the first contributor was gained over a meal in Trastevere and not a little grappa. The resulting volume presents a wide-ranging picture of the Hellenistic world and gives a sense of the vitality of recent scholarship. Hellenistic history shades into Roman history, and the Companion seeks to integrate the two rather than merely nod acknowledgement to Rome with a final chapter. It is Frank Walbank who has done so much to explore this interplay and it is to him that this collection is dedicated. My task as editor has been made easier by the enthusiasm and efficiency of all the contributors and by the constant encouragement of Al Bertrand at Blackwell. The typescript was guided through its final stages by Angela Cohen and Louise Spencely. I am particularly grateful to Joan Wright for translating chapter 13 from its original German. Wolfgang Blu È mel, Andy Meadows and Christine Morris all kindly gave me assistance with illustrations. And Michelle I would like to thank for things too numerous to mention.

Andrew Erskine Galway, 5 November 2002

Acknowledgements

Quotations from vols. 4±6 of W. R. Paton's translation of Polybius are reprinted by permission of the publishers and the Trustees of the Loeb Classical Library, Loeb

1

Classical Library vols. 159±61, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1925, 1926, 1927. The Loeb Classical Library is a and Fellows of Harvard University.

registered trademark of the President

Ancient Authors: Abbreviations and Glossary

The spellings of Greek names in the list below are the conventional latinized ones and are for the most part those used in the main text, but where a transliterated spelling has been preferred in the main text that is indicated in brackets. Dates, often only approximate, are taken from OCD3 . Ach. Tat.

Achilles Tatius, Alexandrian novelist, 2nd c. A D

Aen. Tact.

Aeneas Tacticus, 4th c. B C ,

Aesch.

Siegecraft

Aeschylus, Athenian tragedian, first half 5th c. B C

PV

Prometheus Vinctus

Supp.

Supplices

Ampelius

Ampelius, 3rd±4th c. A D ,

Anth. Pal.

Anthologia Palatina

App.

Appian, Greek historian, 2nd c. A D (Civil

BC

Bella civilia

Hann.

Hannibalic War

Ill.

Illyrian Wars

Mith.

Mithridatic Wars

Syr.

Syrian Wars

Arist.

Liber memorialis

(Palatine

Anthology)

Wars)

Aristotle, Greek philosopher, 384±322 B C

Cael.

De caelo

Eth. Nic.

Nicomachean Ethics

Mete.

Meteorologica

Pol.

Politics

frag. Rose

V. Rose (ed.). Aristotelis

qui ferebantur librorum fragmenta.

1886 [Arist.]

Ath. Pol.

Oec.

Aristid.

Athenaion politeia

(Constitution

Oeconomica

Aelius Aristides, 2nd c. A D

Panath.

Panathenaic oration

Rom. Or.

To Rome

(Or. 26)

(Or. 1)

of the Athenians)

Leipzig,

xx

Ancient Authors: Abbreviations and Glossary

Arr.

Arrian, Greek historian, c.

Anab.

Anabasis

Ind.

Indica

Tact.

Tactica

AD

86±160

Artem.

Artemidorus Daldianus, 2nd c. A D ,

Athen.

Athenaeus, c. A D 200,

On Dreams

The Deipnosophists,

learned conversation at

dinner Avien.

Or.

Caes.

Avienus, Latin poet, 4th c. A D ,

Ora maritima

C. Iulius Caesar (100±44 B C )

BC

Bellum Civile

[Caes.] Celsus

Alex.

Med.

Cic.

Bellum Alexandrinum

A. Cornelius Celsus, 1st c. A D ,

De medicina

M. Tullius Cicero, Roman politician and writer, 106±43 B C

Att.

Epistulae ad Atticum

Deiot.

Pro rege Deiotaro

(On

(Letters

Divination)

Div.

De divinatione

Fam.

Epistulae ad familiares

Flac.

Pro Flacco

Leg.

De legibus

(On

Laws)

Off.

De officiis

(On

Duties)

Pis.

In Pisonem

Rep.

De republica

Sen.

De senectute

IIVerr.

In Verrem

Clem. Al.

Protr.

(On (On

to Atticus)

(Letters

to Friends)

the Republic) Old Age)

(Verrines), Actio secunda

Clement of Alexandria, bishop, late 2nd±early 3rd c. A D , Protrepticus

Cleomed.

Cleomedes, probably 4th c. A D , author of astronomical treatise

Columella

Columella, 1st c.

Curt.

Q. Curtius Rufus, 1st or 2nd c. A D ,

Dem.

an agricultural manual History of Alexander

Demosthenes, Athenian orator, 384±322 B C

Ol.

D.H.

A D , De re rustica,

Olynthiacs Ant. Rom.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Dionysios of Halikarnassos), 1st c. B C , Roman Antiquities

Dio

Cassius Dio, Greek historian of Rome, c.

Dio Chrys.

164± after 229

Dio Chrysostom, Greek orator and philosopher, mid-1st c.±early 2nd c.

Diod.

AD

AD

Diodorus Siculus (Diodoros of Sicily), author of a world history, 1st c.

D.L.

BC

Diogenes Laertius, probably early 3rd c. A D ,

Lives of the

Philosophers

Eur.

Andr.

Euseb.

Chron.

Eutrop. Frontin.

Euripides, Athenian tragedian, c. 480s±407/6 Eusebius of Caesarea, bishop and scholar, c. Eutropius, historian, 4th c. A D ,

Str.

Sex. Iulius Frontinus, 1st c. A D ,

B C , Andromache

AD

260±339,

Chronica

Breviarum ab urbe condita Strategemata

Ancient Authors: Abbreviations and Glossary

Gal.

xxi

Galen, Greek medical writer, 2nd c. A D , cited according to edition of Ku È hn or CMG series

AA

De anatomicis administrationibus (On Anatomical Procedures)

Comp. Med. Gen.

De compositione medicamentorum per genera

Comp. Med. Loc.

De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos

PHP

De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis (On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato)

Sem.

De semine (On the Seed)

Trem. Palp.

De tremore, palpitatione, convulsione et rigore

Ven. Sect. Er. Rom.

De venae sectione adversus Erasistrateos Romae degentes

[Gal.] Intro.

Introductio

Hdt.

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Herodotos of Halikarnassos), historian,

Hes. Theog.

Hesiod, Greek poet, Theogony, probably c. 700

5th c.

Hom. Il. Od.

Isoc. Phil. Jos.

BC

BC

Homer Iliad Odyssey

Isocrates (Isokrates), Athenian orator, 436±338 B C , Philippus Josephus (Josephos), Jewish historian, 1st c. A D

AJ

Antiquitates Judaicae

Ap.

Contra Apionem

BJ

Bellum Judaicum (The Jewish War)

Just.

Justin, Epitome, of the Historiae Philippicae of Pompeius Trogus

Lib.

Libanius, rhetorician, 4th c.

Livy

Livy, probably 59

Epit.

Epitome

Per.

Periochae

B C ±A D

17; history of Rome cited as `Livy'

Lucan

Lucan, Latin poet,

AD

Lucian Macr.

Lucian, 2nd c.

Macrobii

Lucr.

AD,

AD

39±65, De bello civili

Lucretius, Epicurean Latin poet, 1st c. B C , De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things)

Lycoph.

Lycophron (Lykophron), Hellenistic poet, Alexandra

Lyd. Mens.

John Lydus, 6th c.

Macc.

Maccabees

AD,

De mensibus

Macrob. Sat.

Macrobius, late empire, Saturnalia

Mart. Spect.

Martial, Latin poet, 1st c.

Men. Dysk. Sik.

AD,

Spectacula

Menander, Athenian playwright, late 4th±early 3rd c. B C Dyskolos Sikyonios (ed. R. Kassel 1965)

Ovid Met.

Ovid, Latin poet, 43

Paus.

Pausanias, Greek traveller, 2nd c. A D , Description of Greece

Philo

Philo, Jewish writer, early 1st c. A D

B C ±A D

Conf.Ling.

De confusione linguarum

In Flacc.

In Flaccum

17, Metamorphoses

xxii

Ancient Authors: Abbreviations and Glossary

Leg.

Legatio ad Gaium

Mos.

The Life of Moses

Spec.Leg.

Phot.

Bib.

Pind.

Pyth.

Plato

(Embassy

to Gaius)

De specialibus legibus

Photius (Photios), 9th c. A D ,

Bibliotheca

Pindar, Boiotian poet, late 6th±mid 5th c. B C , Plato, Athenian philosopher, c. 429±347

Rep.

Pythian Odes

BC

Republic

[Plato]

Ep.

Pliny

Epistulae

Pliny the Elder,

HN

AD

Naturalis historia

Plut.

23/4±79

(Natural

History)

Plutarch, Greek biographer and philosopher, mid-1st c. to 2nd c. B C

Aem.

Aemilius Paulus

Alc.

Alcibiades

Alex.

Alexander

Ant.

Antony

Arat.

Aratus

Caes.

Caesar

Cleom.

Cleomenes

Crass.

Crassus

Demetr.

Demetrius

Eum.

Eumenes

Flam.

Flamininus

Luc.

Lucullus

L ys.

L ysander

Mar.

Marius

Mor.

Moralia

Phil.

Philopoemen

Pomp.

Pompey

Pyrrh.

Pyrrhus

Sol.

Solon

Sull.

Sulla

Polyaen.

Polyaenus, 2nd c.

Polyb.

Polybius (Polybios), Greek historian, c. 200±c. 118

Ps.-Callisthenes

The Alexander Romance attributed to Kallisthenes, ed. W. Kroll

A D , Strategemata BC

(1926), trans. R. Stoneman (1991) RG

Res gestae Divi Augusti

Rufus

Onom.

Scribon. S.H.A. Sor.

Comp.

Tyr. Trig.

Gyn.

Rufus, physician, late 1st c. A D ,

Peri Onomasia

Nomenclature)

Compositiones

Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Tyranni

Triginta

Soranus, physician, late 1st±early 2nd c. A D ,

Strabo

Strabo, c. 64

Suda

Suda,

B C ±after A D

20,

Gynaecology

Geography

a lexicon compiled in 10th c. A D (ed. A. Adler, Stuttgart

1928±38) Suet.

(On

Scribonius Largus, physician, 1st c. A D ,

Suetonius, Latin biographer, c.

Aug.

Divus Augustus

Dom.

Domitian

AD

70±c. 130

Ancient Authors: Abbreviations and Glossary

Iul.

Divus Iulius

Tib.

Tiberius

Tac.

Ann.

Theocr.

Id.

Theophr.

Tacitus, Latin historian, c.

Theocritus, Greek poet, 3rd c. B C , 280s

Hist. pl.

Historia plantarum

Idylls

Thucydides, Athenian historian, 5th c. B C Prol.

Pompeius Trogus, Augustan historian, Prologi

Val. Max.

Valerius Maximus, Latin writer, 1st c. A D

Vell. Pat.

Velleius Paterculus, early imperial, Historiae

Vitr.

Vitruvius, late 1st c. B C ,

De arch.

Xen.

Anabasis

Cyr.

Cyropaedia

Hell.

Hellenica

Mem.

Romanae

De architectura

Xenophon, Athenian writer, c. 430±mid 4th c.

Anab.

Zonar.

Annals

BC

Characters

Trogus

56±after c. 118,

Theophrastus (Theophrastos), Greek philosopher, late 370s±early

Char.

Thuc.

AD

xxiii

BC

Memorabilia

Johannes Zonaras, Byzantine historian, 12th c. A D

Reference Works: Abbreviations

For fuller information on papyrological publications, see Oates et al. 2001. AHB

Ancient History Bulletin

AJA

American Journal of Archaeology

AJAH

American Journal of Ancient History

AJP

American Journal of Philology

AncSoc

Ancient Society

ANRW

Aufstieg und Niedergang der ro Èmischen Welt.

Berlin 1972±

(American Numismatic Society)

ANSMN

Museum Notes

APF

Archiv fu Èr Papyrusforschung

ASNP

Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Classe di Lettere e Filosofia

ATL

Meritt, B., Wade-Gery, H. and McGregor, M. The

Athenian Tribute Lists.

1939±53 Austin

Austin, M. M. The

Hellenistic world from Alexander to the Roman conquest: a

selection of ancient sources in translation. BCH

Ânique Bulletin de Correspondance Helle

BD

Bagnall, R. and Derow, P. The Translation.

Cambridge 1981

Hellenistic Period: Historical Sources in

Oxford 2004 (earlier edition, Chico, California 1981) published in

BE

Bulletin eÂpigraphique,

BGU

Aegyptische Urkunden aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Griechische

BICS

Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies

BMC

Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum

BSA

Annual of the British School at Athens

Urkunden.

Burstein

Berlin 1895±

Burstein, S. M. The Kleopatra VII.

1985

REG

Hellenistic Age from the battle of Ipsos to the death of

Translated Documents of Greece and Rome 3. Cambridge

xxv

Reference Works: Abbreviations

CAH

2

Cambridge Ancient History.

Chrest.Wilck

2nd edn. Cambridge 1961±

Mitteis, L. and Wilcken, U. GrundzuÈge papyruskunde.

Vol. 1:

Historischer Teil.

CIJ

Frey, J. B.

CIL

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.

CJ

Classical Journal

CMG

Corpus Medicorum Graecorum.

CP

Classical Philology

CPCActs

Acts of the Copenhagen Polis Center

Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaicarum.

Rome 1936±52

1863±

1909±

Tcherikover, V. and Fuks, A. Corpus

CPJ

und Chrestomathie der

Leipzig 1912

Papyrorum Judaicarum.

Cambridge,

Mass. 1957±64 CQ

Classical Quarterly

CRAI

Âmie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres Comptes rendus de l'Acade

Davies

EGF

Davies, M.

Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta.

DdA

Dialoghi di Archeologia

DHA

Dialogues d'Histoire Ancienne

EA

Epigraphica Anatolica

FGrH

Jacoby, F.

GGM

Mu Èller, C.

GRBS

Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies

HSCP

Harvard Studies in Classical Philology

HTR

Harvard Theological Review

I.Cret.

Guarducci, M.

I.Didyma

Rehm, A.

I.Ephesos

Wankel, H., Merkelbach, R. et al. Die

È ttingen 1988 Go

Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Geographici Graeci Minores.

Inscriptiones Creticae.

Didyma

II:

1923±

Paris 1855±61

Rome 1935±50

Die Inschriften.

Berlin 1958 Inscriften von Ephesos.

1979±81

(IK 11±17) I.Erythrai

Engelmann, H. and Merkelbach, R. Die Klazomenai.

I.Iasos

Blu È mel, W.

I.Ilion

Frisch, P.

Die Inschriften von Ilion.

I.Lamp.

Frisch, P.

Die Inschriften von Lampsakos.

I.Laodikeia

Corsten, T.

I.Louvre

Inschriften von Erythrai und

1972±73 (IK 1)

Die Inschriften von Iasos.

1985 (IK 28)

1975 (IK 3) 1978 (IK 6)

Die Inschriften von Laodikeia am L ykos.

Bernand, E.

Vol. 1. 1997 (IK 49)

Âgypte et de Nubie au Muse Âe du Louvre. Inscriptions grecques d'E

Paris 1992 I.Magn.

Kern, O.

I.Mylasa

Blu È mel, W.

I.Perg.

Die Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander.

Ènkel, M. Fra

Die Inschriften von Mylasa.

1987±88 (IK

Die Inschriften von Pergamon.

Berlin 1900 34±5)

Berlin 1890 (Vol. 1), 1895

(Vol. 2) I.Perinthos

Sayar, M. H.

Perinthos-Herakleia: Marmara Ereglisi und Umgebung;

Geschichte, Testimonien, griechische und lateinische Inschriften.

Vienna

1998 I.Priene

Hiller von Gaertingen, F. Die

Inschriften von Priene.

Berlin 1906

xxvi

Reference Works: Abbreviations

Krauss, J.

I.Sestos

Die Inschriften von Sestos und des thrakischen Chersones.

1980

(IK 19) I.Stratonikeia

S