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Забыли английский? Начнем сначала!
 9785992507577

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УДК 372.8 ББК 81.2 Англ 9 К 64 К 64

Коноваленко Ж. Ф. Забыли английский? Начнем сначала!: Учебное посо

бие — СПб.: КАРО, 2012. — 368 с. ISBN 978 5 9925 0757 7. Пособие предназначено для широкого круга читателей, но особен

но полезно будет для тех, кто уже начинал изучать английский язык. В основу уроков положены базовые грамматические и разговорные темы, изучаемые на начальном этапе. На каждое правило приводятся многочисленные упражнения, ключи к которым даны в приложении. После каждых 3–4 уроков следует тест, позволяющий проконтролиро

вать усвоение материала. К книге прилагается компакт диск. Пособие можно использовать как для самостоятельных занятий, так и для занятий с преподавателем. УДК 372.8 ББК 81.2 Англ 9

Коноваленко Жанна Федоровна

ЗАБЫЛИ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ? НАЧНЕМ СНАЧАЛА! Учебное пособие Ответственный редактор К.Ю. Михно Корректор Л.В. Сафонова, Е.Г. Тигонен Технический редактор И.Ю. Гороховский Дизайн обложки Е.В. Усова Издательство «КАРО», ЛР № 065644 195027, Санкт Петербург, Свердловская наб., д. 60, (812) 570 54 97 WWW.KARO.SPB.RU Гигиенический сертификат № 78.01.07.953.П.326 от 10.02.2012 Подписано в печать 13.04.2012. Формат 84 х 108 1/32 . Бумага газетная. Печать офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 23. Тираж 2500 экз. Заказ № 04.05 Отпечатано в типографии «КАРО»

ISBN 978 5 9925 0757 7

© Коноваленко Ж.Ф., 2005 © КАРО, 2005 Все права защищены

ОТ СОСТАВИТЕЛЯ Данное пособие предназначено для тех, кто изучал английский язык, но считает, что ничего или почти ничего не помнит. Оно может использоваться для са мостоятельной работы, для репетиторства, а также для групповых занятий. Предлагаемый в начале тест поможет оценить свои знания на первом уровне и определить, какие темы вы забыли – порядок слов в повествовательном или воп росительном предложении, времена, залоги или согла сование времен. Тем, кто основательно забыл английский язык, со ветуем начать с самого начала – вспомнить правила чтения, а также отличие артикуляционной системы английского языка от артикуляционной системы рус ского языка. Пособие состоит из 16 уроков (Lessons), 6 тестов, ан глорусского словаря и ключей к упражнениям и тес там. В основу уроков положены грамматические темы в том порядке, в каком они обычно изучаются в россий ских учебных заведениях. Повторяемость и вариабельность лексикограмма тического задания в упражнениях имеет целью довес ти умения до автоматизма. Каждый урок предваряется изречением или пого воркой, которая может повысить стимул к изучению английского языка и к тому же может быть использо вана в устной речи. В начале урока кратко вводятся грамматические темы, затем даются упражнения на их закрепление. После упражнений идут три текста с вопросами. 3

Заключительная часть каждого урока состоит из трех кратких разделов: • краткая беседа (Short Conversation), • учись с улыбкой (Laugh and Learn), • пословицы, поговорки, изречения (Proverbs, Sayings, Quotations). Последние разделы включают элементы речевого этикета, случаи ситуационного применения языковых единиц в устной речи, а также поговорки и крылатые выражения, обогащающие и украшающие речь. Желаю удачи!

ВВОДНЫЙ ТЕСТ Предлагаемый тест поможет вам определить уровень вашего владения английским языком. Если вы сделаете 0–4 ошибки, ваша оценка «5»; 5–8 ошибок, ваша оценка «4»; 9–19 ошибок, ваша оценка «3»; 19 и более ошибок, ваша оценка «2». Выберите правильный вариант 1. Mr. Brown left London … Manchester. a) to b) – c) for 2. Have you seen Nick today? – I … him yesterday. a) saw b) have seen c) had seen 3. I … for my pen for half an hour. a) am looking b) look c) have been looking 4. Don’t be angry … him! a) on b) with c) for 5

5. Would you like a cup of coffee? a) Yes, please. b) Yes, thank you. c) Yes, of course. 6. When you … to Manchester? a) have … gone b) went c) did … go 7. When I came in, he … the newspaper. a) was reading b) read c) has been reading 8. He was tired and fell asleep … the film. a) for b) while c) during 9. I … Tony since childhood. a) have been knowing b) have known c) know 10. Must I phone him now? – No, you … . You can do it tomorrow. a) can’t b) mustn’t c) needn’t 11. Mother asked when I … back. a) would come b) will come c) came 12. I’d like to have a … car. a) more reliable b) reliabler c) more reliably 13. We’ll have to hurry. We haven’t got … time. a) many b) much c) a few 6

14. The room looked nice. It … . a) had cleaned b) was cleaned c) had been cleaned 15. Have a nice holiday. Take care … youself. a) after b) of c) about 16. I … never remember her address. a) can b) can’t c) am 17. They stayed at … hotel in the town. a) the most cheap b) the more cheap c) the cheapest 18. Mozart was born … 1756. a) at b) from c) in 19. It depends … many factors. a) on b) from c) out of 20. It’s a nice day, … it? a) doesn’t b) isn’t c) wasn’t 21. What will you do if you … the train? a) missed b) will miss c) miss 22. Are you writing a letter … your friend? a) – b) for c) to 7

23. Everest is … mountain in the world. a) the highest b) the most high c) the most highest 24. I prefer this pen … the other one. a) to b) – c) for 25. The task is difficult. He can … do it. a) hard b) more hard c) hardly 26. If he doesn’t study … he won’t pass the exam. a) hardly b) hard с) more hard 27. Could you fill … the form? a) in b) on c) to 28. I don’t want … to know about it. a) nobody b) anyone c) someone 29. I … to get up early tomorrow. I’m going away and my train leaves at 7. a) must b) can c) have 30. They only invited a few people … their party. a) to b) for c) on 31. Where is Nina? Let … come as soon as possible. a) she b) her to c) her 8

32. Did you go to Holland … holiday? a) on b) for с) to 33. I hope the bus will come soon. I … for 20 minutes. a) am waiting b) have been waiting c) have waited 34. He says he … a holiday for six years. a) hasn’t had b) haven’t had c) has not 35. This is a useful thing. You can’t do … it. a) with b) for c) without 36. There was a round table … the middle of the room. a) at b) in c) on 37. … Thames flows through London. a) a b) – c) the 38. What … the news? a) are b) is c) – 39. Can you remind me to phone … Ann tomorrow? a) – b) to c) for 40. The police officer asked where we … a) went b) are going c) were going 9

Английский алфавит A a [ei]

N n [en]

B b [b]

О о [əu]

Сс

P p [p]

[s]

D d [d]

Q q [kj]

Е е []

R r []

Ff

Ss

[es]

G g []

Tt

[t]

H h [ei]

U u [j]

Ii

[ai]

V v [v]

Jj

[ei]

W w ['d blj]

[ef]

K k [kei]

X x [eks]

Ll

Y y [wai]

[el]

M m [em]

Zz

10

[zed]

Правила чтения Чтение гласных букв и некоторых сочетаний букв [ei] Kate, late A

[əu] no, note О

[] lamp, man

[ɔ] not, lot

[] Pete, me E

[j] tube, cube U

[e] pen, men

[] but, cup

[ai] pine, mine

[ai] my, why [i] baby, city [j] yes, yellow

I

Y [i] pin, kid

e в конце слова не читается i, y [aiə] перед re – fire, wire oo [] перед всеми согласными, кроме k и r и в конце слова – soon, too Исключение: good oo [u] перед k – book [buk] [iə] перед гласной – here er Исключение: there, where [ ] – her [εə] перед гласной – Маrу, wary ar [ ] – car, far [ ] после w, wh – war, wharf ir [ ] – girl [juə] перед гласной – during, cure ur [ ] – fur, turn [ ] – fork, North or [ ] после w перед согласной – work 11

[ei] – day, May [ɔi] – boy, toy [] – please, tease ea [e] – peasant, weapon au [ ] – author, autumn ou [au] – out, without [au] в ударном слоге и в некоторых однослож ow ных словах – now, cow [əu] в конце двусложных слов – yellow, borrow air [εə] – fair, hair al [ l] – also, chalk eer [iə] – deer, beer ew [j] – new, dew our[auə] – hour, flour ai oi

Чтение согласных букв и некоторых сочетаний букв c ck g ch sh th ng wh qu

[s] перед e, i, у – cent, city, icy [k] во всех остальных случаях – cat, cotton [k] – black, clock [ ] – gin, general [g] – game, give [] – chess, chime [k] – mechanic, chemistry [ʃ] – she, ship [ð] – this, they [θ] – three, thank [ŋ] – sing, morning [h] перед o – who, whose [w] во всех остальных случаях – why, white [kw] – quick, quite

LESSON 1 Now or never. (Теперь или никогда.) • МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ (PRONOUNS) • МНОЖЕСТВЕННОЕ ЧИСЛО СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ (PLURAL) • ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ПАДЕЖ (POSSESSIVE CASE) • ГЛАГОЛ “TO BE” • КОЛИЧЕСТВЕННЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ (CARDINALS)

Местоимения Pronouns

Указательные местоимения Demonstrative Pronouns Ед. ч. this (этот, эта, это) that (тот, та, то)

Мн. ч. these (эти) those (те)

_________________ 1 И.п. – именительный падеж 2 Об.п. – объектный падеж (соответствует родительному, датель ному, винительному, творительному и предложному падежам в русском языке) 13

Множественное число существительных Plural 1.Окончания существительных во множественном числе произносятся: [s] – после глухих согласных; [z] – после звонких согласных и гласных; [iz] – после x, ss и шипящих student – students [s] table – tables [z] day – days [z] box – boxes [iz] dress – dresses [iz] match – matches [iz] 2.У некоторых существительных, оканчивающихся на f(e), при образовании множественного числа f переходит в v, затем добавляется окончание es leaf (лист) – leaves (листья) wolf (волк) – wolves (волки) knife (нож) – knives (ножи) wife (жена) – wives (жёны) но: chief (начальник) – chiefs (начальники) roof (крыша) – roofs (крыши) safe (сейф) – safes (сейфы) handkerchief (носовой платок) – handkerchiefs (носовые платки)

Исключения: man (человек, мужчина) – men (люди, мужчины) money (деньги) – no plural form 14

woman (женщина) news (новости) child (ребёнок) foot (нога; фут) tooth (зуб) goose (гусь) mouse (мышь) ox (бык) sheep (овца)

– women (женщины) – no plural form – children (дети) – feet (ноги; футы) – teeth (зубы) – geese (гуси) – mice (мыши) – oxen (быки) – sheep (овцы)

Притяжательный падеж Possessive Case The boy’s book (книга мальчика) The child’s toy (игрушка ребенка) The man’s pen (ручка мужчины)

The boys’ books (книги мальчиков) The children’s toys (игрушки детей) The men’s pens (ручки мужчин)

Глагол “to be” Present Indefinite I am You are He is She is It is We are You are They are

I am not You are not He is not She is not It is not We are not You are not They are not 15

Am I ...? Are you ...? Is he ...? Is she ...? Is it ...? Are we ...? Are you ...? Are they ...?

Количественные числительные Cardinals 1 – one 2 – two 3 – three 4 – four 5 – five 6 – six 7 – seven 8 – eight 9 – nine 10 – ten

11 – eleven 12 – twelve 13 – thirteen 14 – fourteen 15 – fifteen 16 – sixteen 17 – seventeen 18 – eighteen 19 – nineteen 20 – twenty

30 – thirty 40 – forty 50 – fifty 60 – sixty 70 – seventy 80 – eighty 90 – ninety 100 – hundred 1000 – thousand

1. Прочтите и переведите предложения, обращая внима> ние на глагол “to be” I am a student. You are a student. He is a student. She is a student. We are students. You are students. They are students.

I am not a student. Am I a student? You are not a student. Are you a student? He is not a student. Is he a student? She is not a student. Is she a student? We are not students. Are we students? You are not students. Are you students? They are not students. Are they students?

2. Переведите предложения, обратите внимание на глагол “to be” в предложении

1. I am an engineer. 2. My brother is a businessman. 3. What are you? – I am a seaman. 4. She is not a teacher. She is a doctor. 5. What is he? – He is an accountant. 6. Our friends are not students. They are managers. 7. Her mother is a doctor. 8. What is your friend? – He is a shop assistant. 9. Are you a doctor? – No, I am not. I am a nurse. 10. Is he a manager? – No, he is not. He is an economist. 11. Is Ann a student? – No, she is not. She is 16

a secretary. 12. Are your sisters pupils? – No, they are not. They are students. 3. Сделайте предложения вопросительными и отрицатель> ными

1. My brother is a journalist. 2. Nick is a pupil. 3. They are students. 4. Kate’s mother is a teacher. 5. I am an accountant. 6. Tom and Bob are lawyers. 7. Your sisters are schoolgirls. 8. His father is a driver. 9. Her daughter is a nurse. 10. Their brother is a seaman. 11. Mr. Brown’s son is an economist. 12. Our friends are businessmen. 13. My mother is a housewife. 14. His friend’s father is a doctor. 15. My father’s friend is a manager. 4. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя глагол “to be”

1. Мой друг не бизнесмен, он водитель. 2. Твой брат студент? – Нет, он врач. 3. Кто вы? – Я студент. 4. Этот человек менеджер? – Нет, он юрист. 5. Ваша мама домохозяйка? – Нет, она бухгалтер. 6. Его брат не учитель, он моряк. 7. Кто эти люди? – Они студенты. 8. Кто этот человек? – Он водитель. 9. Эта девушка учительница? – Нет, она секретарь. 10. Его отец юрист? – Нет, он бухгалтер. 11. Подруга вашей сестры медсестра? – Нет, она врач. 12. Друг вашего брата инженер? – Нет, он бухгалтер. 5. Прочтите и переведите текст

My name is Nick. I am 19 years old. I am Russian. I live in St. Petersburg. I am a student at the University, where I study law. I want to be a lawyer. Most of my lectures are in the morning. So I get up early. 17

I like watching TV, listening to music, going to the club with my friends. My family is rather small. We are four: my mother, my father, my sister and me. My mother is 42 years old. Her name is Olga. She is a nice woman. She is a housewife. My father is 45 years old. His name is Andrew. He is a businessman. My sister is 5 years younger than me, she is 14 years old. Her name is Natasha. She is a pupil. 6. Прочтите и переведите текст

My friend’s name is Kate. Her surname is Smirnova. She studies at the University, at the English Faculty. She is a first year student. She is good at foreign languages. Her interests are theatre, cinema, music. Kate gets up at 7 o’clock, does her bed, washes her face and hands, cleans her teeth, dresses and has breakfast. After breakfast she goes to the University by metro and by tram. It takes her about an hour to get there. Her lectures begin at 9 and are over at 3. She has lunch in the canteen. After lectures she goes with her friends to the reading hall and to the computer lab to do the lessons. In the evening she helps her mother about the house, does washing up after dinner, watches TV, reads books and magazines. At 12 p.m. she goes to bed. 7. Ответьте на вопросы

1. What’s your first name? 2. What’s your surname? 3. What are you? 4. How old are you? 5. Are you a student? 6. What foreign language do you study? 7. When do you get up? 18

8. What do you do after you get up? 9. How long does it take you to get to the University? 10. When do your lectures begin? 11. When are your lectures over? 12. Where do you have lunch? 13. What do your do after lectures? 14. What do you do when you come home? 15. What time do you go to bed?

SHORT CONVERSATION 1 – – – – –

Hello! – Hi! – Glad to see you! – Glad to see you too. – How are you? – How are you getting on? How are things? How is life? – Fine. Thank you. And – how are you? (And you?) – Just fine. – Pretty well. Not bad. Not very well. Soso. As usual. – Keep in touch. – – Goodbye! Byebye! Bye! See you later!

Привет! Привет! (Здоро´во!) Рад тебя (вас) видеть. Я тоже. Как поживаешь/пожи ваете? Как дела? Как жизнь? Спасибо, хорошо. А как вы? Прекрасно. Хорошо. Неплохо. He очень хорошо. Так себе. Как обычно. He теряйся. (Будем на связи.) – До свидания. Пока! До встречи!

_________________ 1 Short conversation – краткая беседа 19

LAUGH AND LEARN 1 – What do you do – Билл, что вы делаете at university, Bill? в университете? – We wait for the bell. – Мы ждём звонка.

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS 2 Better late than never. Knowledge is power.

– Лучше поздно, чем никогда. – Знание – сила.

_________________ 1 Laugh and learn – учись с улыбкой 2 Proverbs, sayings, quotations – пословицы, поговорки, выска зывания

LESSON 2 Practice is the best master. (Повторенье – мать ученья.) • АРТИКЛЬ (ARTICLE) • ПОРЯДКОВЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ (ORDINALS) • ДАТЫ (DATES) • ДНИ НЕДЕЛИ, МЕСЯЦЫ, ВРЕМЕНА ГОДА (DAYS OF THE WEEK, MONTHS, SEASONS) • ПОГОДА (WEATHER) • ОБОРОТ “THERE IS/ARE”

Артикль The Article Запомните некоторые случаи употребления артик лей. Обратите внимание на то, что некоторые слова употребляются без артикля.

21

1. Переведите предложения, обратите внимание на упот> ребление артиклей

1. This is a pen. The pen is green. 2. These are men. They are businessmen. 3. These are the Petrovs. They are at home. 4. His brother is at school now. 5. The museum is on the right. 6. Take a seat, please. 7. The Metro Station is on the left. 8. Your sister is such a clever girl! 9. Bye! Have a nice trip! 10. London is the capital of Great Britain. 11. France is in Europe. 12. The Neva river is in St. Petersburg. 13. I get up at 7 o’clock in the morning. 14. I am fond of music. 2. Вставьте артикли, где нужно

1. Africa is ... very large continent. 2. This is ... my brother’s book. 3. She has ... dog and ... cat. 4. I have ... small family. 5. My mother is ... teacher. 6. I have ... tea in ... morning. 7. Put ... book on ... table. 8. Are you ... student? 9. The table is in ... middle of ... room. 10. Give me ... book, please. 11. My sister is at ... home now. 12. This dress is made of ... cotton. 13. May is ... fifth month of the year. 14. This is ... interesting book.

Порядковые числительные Ordinals Количественные

Порядковые

one two three four five six seven

the first the second the third the fourth the fifth the sixth the seventh 22

eight nine ten

the eighth the ninth the tenth

eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen

the eleventh the twelfth the thirteenth the fourteenth the fifteenth the sixteenth the seventeenth the eighteenth the nineteenth

twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety

the the the the the the the the

twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth

twenty one twenty two a hundred a hundred and one a thousand a million

the the the the the the

twentyfirst twentysecond hundredth hundredandfirst thousandth millionth

Даты Dates сегодня завтра вчера послезавтра позавчера сегодня утром сегодня вечером

– today – tomorrow – yesterday – the day after tomorrow – the day before yesterday – this morning – tonight, this evening 23

завтра вечером нa этой/следующей/ /прошлой неделе Какое сегодня число?

– tomorrow night – this/next/last week

– What date is it today?/ What’s the date today? Сегодня первое января. – Тoday is the first of January. тысяча девятьсот – nineteen (hundred and) девяносто девятый год ninety nine в 2001 году – in the (of) year two thousand and one Я родился в 1975 году. – I was born in nineteen seventy five. Мой день рождения – My birthday is on March 3 марта. 3d (Brit)/3d March (US). в 412 году до н.э. – in 412 B.C. в 160 году н.э. – in 160 A.D.

Дни недели Days of the Week Sunday – воскресенье Monday – понедельник Tuesday – вторник Wednesday – среда Thursday – четверг Friday – пятница Saturday – суббота

On Sunday – в воскресенье On Monday – в понедельник On Tuesday – во вторник On Wednesday – в среду On Thursday – в четверг On Friday – в пятницу On Saturday – в субботу

3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на назва> ния дней недели

1. Sunday is the first day of the week. 2. Saturday is the seventh day of the week. 3. Monday comes after Sunday. 4. Wednesday is between Tuesday and Thursday. 5. Fri 24

day comes before Saturday. 6. What day comes after Tuesday? 7. What day comes before Monday? 4. Выучите стихотворение

Solomon Grundy Solomon Grundy was born on Monday, finished school on Tuesday, got married on Wednesday, fell ill on Thursday, got worse on Friday, died oh Saturday, was buried on Sunday. That was the end of Solomon Grundy. Соломон Гранди Соломон Гранди родился в понедельник, закончил школу во вторник, женился в среду, заболел в четверг, почувствовал себя хуже в пятницу, умер в субботу, был похоронен в воскресенье. Таков был конец Соломона Гранди.

Времена года Seasons winter – зима spring – весна summer – лето autumn – осень

in winter – зимой in spring – весной in summer – летом in autumn – осенью 25

Погода Wеathеr hot – жаркий warm – теплый cool – прохладный cold – холодный sunny – солнечный rainy – дождливый wet – сырой

nice – хороший, приятный not bad – неплохой bad – плохой dull – пасмурный nasty – скверный, противный awful – ужасный windy – ветреный

5. Составьте предложения

It is hot today warm this morning cool this evening cold this month sunny in spring windy in summer rainy in autumn wet in winter cloudy

The weather is nice today lovely not bad bad dull nasty awful

Месяцы Months January – январь February – февраль March – март April – апрель May – май June – июнь July – июль August – август September – сентябрь October – октябрь November – ноябрь December – декабрь

In January – в январе In February – в феврале In March – в марте In April – в апреле In May – в мае In June – в июне In July – в июле In August – в августе In September – в сентябре In October – в октябре In November – в ноябре In December – в декабре 26

6. Переведите предложения

1. A year has twelve months. 2. The first month of the year is January. 3. The twelfth month of the year is December. 4. December, January and February are the winter months. 5. March, April and May are the spring months. 6. June, July and August are the summer months. 7. September, October and November are the autumn months.

Оборот “There is/are” (2)

3

1

1

2

3

There is a pen on the table. – На столе (есть) ручка. (2)

3

1

1

2

3

There are two pens on the table. – На столе (есть) две ручки. Is there a pen on the table? – На столе есть ручка? Yes, there is./No, there isn’t. – Да./Нет. Are there two pens on the table? – Yes, there are./No, there aren’t. Есть ли на столе две ручки? – Да./Нет. There isn’t а pen on the table. = There is no pen on the table. – На столе нет ручки. There aren’t any pens on the table. = There are no pens on the table. – На столе нет ручек. 7. Сделайте предложения вопросительными

1. There are 60 seconds in a minute. 2. There are 60 minutes in an hоur. 3. There are 24 hours in a day. 4. There are 7 days in a week. 5. There are 4 weeks in a month. 6. There are 30 or 31 days in a month. 7. There are 28 or 29 days in February. 8. There are 12 months in a year. 9. There are 365 days in an ordinary year. 10. There are 366 days in a leapyear. 11. There are 4 seasons in a year. 12. There are 3 months in a season. 27

8. Выберите правильную форму глагола “to be”

1. There (is/are) 3 months in a season. 2. In front of our institute there (is/are) a lawn. 3. There (is/are) the emblem of our country on the Moon. 4. There (is/are) the best hotels, shops, restaurants and theatres in the West End. 5. There (is/are) 86 rivers, brooks, channels and canals in St. Petersburg. 6. There (is/are) the Chekhov’s museum in the town of Taganrog. 7. There (is/are) the Metro Station near here. 8. There (is/are) the Alexander Column in the centre of Palace Square. 9. There (is/are) a lot of rainy days in Britain in summer. 10. There (is/are) some stamps in your collection. 11. There (is/are) many flowers in the fields and gardens in summer. 12. There (is/are) a lot of political parties in our country now. 9. Ответьте на вопросы

1. How many seconds are there in a minute? 2. How many minutes are there in an hour? 3. How many hours are there in a day? 4. How many days are there in a week? 5. How many weeks are there in a month? 6. Yow many days are there in a month? 7. How many days are there in February? 8. How many months are there in a year? 9. How many days are there in an ordinary year? 10. How many days are there in a leapyear? 11. How many seasons are there in a year? 12. How many months are there in a season? 10. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Our Calendar Our calendar shows the day of the week, the date of the month, the month of the year and the number of the year, too. Today the calendar shows the date... The red letter days of our calendar are: New Year’s Day, Christ 28

mas, the Fatherland’s Defenders’ Day, the Women’s Day, May the 1st, Victory Day, the Easter, the Independence Day, the Constitution Day. The New Year’s Day is the first of January, and we celebrate this holiday on the thirtyfirst of December – on the eve of the New Year. The seventh of January is Christmas. The twentythird of February is the Father land’s Defenders’ Day. The eighth of March is the Women’ Day. The ninth of May is the Victory Day. The twelfth of June is the Independence Day. The twelfth of December is the Constitution Day. In addition, there is a number of special and profes sional days, for example, the twelfth of April is the Cosmonautics Day, the first of September is the Day of Knowledge and others. 1. Is there a calendar pad1 on your table? 2. What redletter days of our calendar do you know? 3. When do we celebrate the New Year’s Day? 4. What date is Christmas? 5. What day is the twentythird of February? 6. When is the Women’s Day? 7. When do we celebrate the Victory Day? 8. What date is the Russia’s Independence Day? 9. When is the Constitution Day? 10. What special or professional days do you know? 11. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Seasons There are four seasons in a year. They are: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring months are March, April and May. Summer months are June, July and August. Autumn months are September, October and _________________ 1 calendar pad – настольный календарь 29

November. Winter months are December, January and February. It is cool or warm in spring. There are a lot of spring flowers. It is warm or hot in summer. The days are long and the nights are short. There are a lot of flowers and fruit. It is cool and rainy in autumn. There are a lot of autumn flowers, fruit, vegetables and mushrooms. It is cold in winter. There is a lot of snow. The days are short and the nights are long. 1. How many seasons are there in a year? 2. What are they? 3. What are spring months? 4. What’s the weather like in spring? 5. Are there any flowers in spring? 6. What’s the weather like in summer? 7. Are the days/nights long or short? 8. Are there any flowers/fruit in summer? 9. What’s the weather like in autumn? 10. Are there a lot of flowers/fruit/vegetables/mush rooms? 11. What’s the weather like in winter? 12. Are the days/nights short/long? 12. Прочтите и переведите текст

My Flat My family and I live in a big ninestoreyed block of flats in Morskaya Street. It is rather far from the centre. Our flat is on the 5th floor. It is very comfortable. There are 3 rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, a toilet and a balcony in it. There are all modern conveniences in it – central heating, electricity, gas, cold and hot water, a telephone and a chute. 30

The sittingroom is large. There is a table and 4 chairs in the middle of it. There is a sofa on the right and a bookcase near it. There is a little table with a TV set on it in the lefthand corner. There is an armchair near it. There is a green carpet on the floor. The livingroom is very cosy. The room next to the sittingroom is mine. There is a writingtable and a chair near the window. There is a sofa and a recordplayer on a small table in the corner and a computer to the right of it. There are 5 shelves with books on the left of the door. We like our flat. 13. Ответьте на вопросы

1. Is your flat in the centre? 2. What building is your flat in? 3. What floor is your flat on? 4. How many rooms are there in your flat? 5. What modern conveniences are there in your flat? 6. Is there a balcony in your flat? 7. Is your sittingroom large? 8. What is there in the middle of the sittingroоm? 9. Is there a sofa in it? 10. Where is a TV set? 11. Is there a carpet on the floor? 12. Where is your room? 13. Is there any table in your room? 14. Where is a recordplayer? 15. Is there a computer in your room? 16. Is there a sofa or a bed in your room? 17. How many bookshelves are in it? 18. Is your flat comfortable? 14. Переведите предложения на английский язык

1. В минуте 60 секунд. 2. В часе 60 минут. 3. В сутках 24 часа. 4. В неделе 7 дней. 5. В месяце 30 или 31 день. 6. В месяце 4 недели. 7. В году 12 месяцев. 8. В году 4 времени года. 9. Весенние месяцы – март, апрель, май. 10. Летние месяцы – июнь, июль, август. 11. Осенние месяцы – сентябрь, октябрь, ноябрь. 12. Зимние ме сяцы – дeкaбpь, январь, февраль. 13. Весной погода 31

хорошая, много весенних цветов. 14. Летом тепло или жарко, дни длинные, а ночи короткие. 15. Летом мно го цветов и фруктов. 16. Осенью прохладно, много цве тов, фруктов, овощей, грибов. 17. Зимой холодно, мно го снега. 18. Зимой дни короткие, а ночи длинные.

SHORT CONVERSATION – Good morning! – Morning! What lovely weather we’re having. – Yes, but it looks like rain1 today, doesn’t it? – Oh, I think it’ll clear up2.

– Доброе утро! – Доброе утро! Какая пре красная погода. – Да, но похоже, что сегод ня пойдет дождь, не прав да ли? – Думаю, что (погода) про яснится.

LAUGH AND LEARN The Weather in Scotland

Погода в Шотландии

A visitor: Your country is very fine, but there are often storms and it always rains . A Scotsman: No, sir, the weather in Scotland is not so bad, it doesn’t always rain, it snows sometimes.

Гость: Ваша страна очень красивая, но в ней часто бывают бури, и всё время идёт дождь. Шотландец: Нет, сэр, по года в Шотландии не так уж плоха, дождь идёт не всё время, иногда идёт снег.

_________________ 1 it looks like rain – похоже, что будет дождь 2 it’ll clear up – прояснится 32

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS There is no place like – В гостях хорошо, а дома home. лучше. East or West, home is best.~ В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше. There is no smoke without – Нет дыма без огня. fire.

LESSON 3 All things are difficult before they are easy. (Поначалу все трудно.) • ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ (IMPERATIVE MOOD) • СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ И НАРЕЧИЙ (DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS) • ВРЕМЯ (TIME) • НАСТОЯЩЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ ПРОСТОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE)

Повелительное наклонение The Imperative Mood

1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая вни> мание на глаголы в повелительном наклонении

1. Take a seat, please. 2. Put down the words! 3. Don’t write now! 4. Look at the blackboard! 5. Don’t be late for the les son! 6. Don’t forget to come at 5! 7. Ring me up tomorrow, please! 8. Help me with this work, please! 9. Bring me a cup of tea, please! 10. Don’t worry over it! 11. Have a good time! 12. Take a tram! 13. Don’t use the dictionary! 14. Let us go home. 15. First think, then speak. 16. Don’t trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. 34

2. Поставьте глаголы в отрицательную форму

1. Open the door! 2. Send me a telegram, please. 3. Ring him up tomorrow! 4. Go for a walk! 5. Take a bus. 6. Get up early tomorrow. 7. Think about it. 8. Tell me about it. 9. Look for a pen, please. 10. Turn off the TV, please. 11. Show me the letter. 12. Use the dictionary! 13. Turn on the light, please. 14. Put the book on the table. 15. Ask him about it. 16. Agree to it.

Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs Степени сравнения односложных прилагательных, прилагательных, оканчивающихся на >y, а также не которых других двусложных прилагательных образу ются путем прибавления суффиксов >er (для сравни тельной степени) и >est (для превосходной степени). Если прилагательное оканчивается на согласную, пе ред которой стоит одна гласная, то при образовании сте пеней сравнения конечная согласная удваивается. Если прилагательное оканчивается на >y с предше ствующей согласной, то при образовании степеней сравнения y переходит в i.

35

Сравнительная степень большинства двусложных, а также трёх и четырехсложных прилагательных об разуется при помощи слова more, а превосходная – при помощи слова most. difficult трудный beautiful красивый

more difficult более трудный more beautiful более красивый

(the) most difficult самый трудный (the) most beautiful самый красивый

Степени сравнения некоторых прилагательных и наречий образуются от других корней.

3. Образуйте степени сравнения

early, interesting, long, far, cool, quick, fast, bad, clear, warm, wet, awful. 36

4. Найдите прилагательные и наречия в сравнительной и превосходной степени; переведите предложения

1. My house is farther from the centre than yours. 2. Where is the nearest bus stop? 3. Му elder sister is a teacher. 4. What is the largest room in your flat? 5. The sitting room is larger than the bedroom. 6. Today is the hottest day of the summer. 7. This pen is worse than mine. 8. This is the shortest way to the station. 9. Moscow is larger than St. Petersburg. 10. June 22nd is the longest day of the year. 11. I have less time than he. 12. Better late than never. 13. Tom is the youngest in their family. 14. Buckingham Palace is one of the most famous palaces in London. 15. Soros is one of the richest men in the world. 5. Переведите предложения, используя прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени

1. Ваш брат старше вас? 2. Моя сумка тяжелее вашей. 3. Эрмитаж (the Hermitage) – один из самых извест ных музеев в мире. 4. Сегодня холоднее, чем вчера. 5. Билл Гейтс (Bill Gates) – один из самых богатых людей в мире. 6. Какой самый интересный рассказ в этой книге? 7. У меня больше времени, чем у вас. 8. «Астория» (Astoria) – одна из самых комфорта бельных гостиниц в Петербурге. 9. 22 декабря – самый короткий день в году. 10. Эта гостиница гораздо спокойнее других. 11. Для меня математика – самый трудный предмет. 12. У Кати волосы длиннее, чем у меня. 13. Это самая шумная комната во всей квартире. 14. Пушкин – самый известный поэт в России. 15. Какой самый короткий месяц в году? 37

Время Time 15 minutes, – 15 минут, четверть часа a quarter of an hour 30 minutes, half an hour – 30 минут, полчаса An hour and a half – Полтора часа What time is it?/ – Который час? What’s the time? What time is it by – Который час по вашим your watch? часам? It’s 8 (o’clock) a.m. – 8 часов утра. It’s 8 p.m. – 8 часов вечера. It’s a quarter past seven. – Четверть восьмого. It’s a quarter to seven. – Без четверти семь. clock – часы (настольные, настенные, башенные) watch – часы (наручные, карманные) hand – стрелка face – циферблат My watch is right. – Мои часы идут правильно. I put it right every – Я ставлю их каждое morning. утро. My watch is 5 minutes – Мои часы отстают slow. на 5 минут. My watch is 5 minutes fast.– Мои часы спешат на 5 минут.

6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выра> жения, связанные с определением времени

1. We are a little late this morning. It’s five minutes to nine by my watch. 2. We’re not late. It’s a quarter to nine by my watch. 3. Isn’t your watch slow? 4. I know my watch 38

is right. I put it right every morning when we have the eight o’clock news. 5. My watch is five minutes fast. Is your watch right? – I think so. 6. Morning is the time between sunrise and twelve o’clock. 7. Afternoon is the time between noon and six o’clock. 8. Evening is the time between six o’clock p.m. and midnight. 9. The sun is overhead at twelve o’clock. 10. Don’t be late! Your alarm clock is slow. 11. Big Ben is the clock on the Houses of Parliament in London. 12. A watch is small, it is in the pocket or on the wrist. 13. A clock is big, it is on the wall, on the table or over the fireplace. 14. Some clocks are very big, for example, Big Ben or the Kremlin clock. 7. Переведите предложения, используя выражения, свя> занные с определением времени

1. Я думаю, ваши часы немного отстают. Мои идут правильно. 2. Я каждое утро проверяю (ставлю правильно) свой будильник. 3. Который час на ваших часах? – Двадцать минут четвертого. 4. Не опоздайте! Ваш будильник отстает на семь минут. 5. Ваши часы спешат? По моим только половина седьмого. 6. Он сегодня опаздывает. Я думаю, у него отстают часы. 7. Биг Бен – это часы на здании парламента в Лондо не. 8. Большие часы находятся на стене, на столе или на камине. 9. Некоторые часы очень большие, например, Биг Бен или Кремлевские часы. 10. Маленькие часы (находятся) в кармане или на руке. 39

11. Сейчас четверть девятого, а ты еще в постели. Вста вай! 12. Утро – это время между восходом солнца и полу днем. 13. День – это время между полуднем и шестью ча сами. 14. Вечер – это время между шестью часами и полно чью.

Настоящее неопределенное/простое время The Present Indefinite/Simple Tense

Present Indefinite/Simple употребляется для выра жения: 1) действия, постоянно выполняющегося подлежа щим; 40

2) действия, происходящего в данный момент (вместо Present Continuous) с глаголами, не употребляющи мися в Present Continuous; 3) будущего действия в придаточных предложениях условия и времени; 4) будущего действия с глаголами to leave, to start, to arrive, to go, to come и др. Present Indefinite/Simple переводится на русский язык настоящим временем: I write – я пишу. 8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на глаго> лы в Present Indefinite

A. 1. In the evening he comes into the room, turns on the light and reads newspapers. 2. In the bathroom I take the cake of soap and wash my hands, arms, face and neck. 3. I dry my face and hands on the towel. 4. The short hand of the clock points to the hours, the long hand points to the minutes. 5. We tell the time by a clock or watch. 6. My brother cleans his teeth with a toothpaste, I prefer tooth powder. 7. When we leave the flat, we turn off the light. 8. When does the train arrive? – It arrives at 9 sharp. 9. Do you go to university? – Yes, I do. I’m a 1st year student. 10. Does your father go to the office by bus? – No, he doesn’t. He drives a car. 11. My sister likes music, but she doesn’t play any musical instrument. 12. A good beginning makes a good ending. 13. It often rains in autumn. 14. The Earth turns round in 24 hours. 15. The Earth goes round the Sun. 16. 366 days make a leapyear. B. 1. It takes me an hour to get to the office. 2. It takes him half an hour to get to the university. 3. It takes her ten minutes to get to the supermarket. 4. It takes us an hour and a half to get to our country house. 5. It takes them 41

about forty minutes to get to the station. 6. How long does it take you to get to your office? 7. How long does it take him to get to the Russian Museum? 8. How long does it take her to get to the nearest Metro Station? 9. How long does it take them to get to the university? 10. How long does it take your friend to get to your place? 9. Сделайте предложения вопросительными

1. I get up at 7 o’clock. 2. This old man lives alone. 3. My father works for a bank. 4. The postman brings us news papers in the morning. 5. It takes me about an hour to get to the airport. 6. The train starts at 11.10 a.m. 7. 365 days make an ordinary year. 8. The calendar shows the day of the week and the date of the month. 9. It often snows in winter. 10. It takes the Earth 365 days to go round the Sun. 11. Monday comes after Sunday. 12. Sunday comes before Monday. 13. The academic year begins on the 1st of September. 14. I think so. 10. Поставьте глаголы в Present Indefinite

1. Му sister (to learn) English at the institute. 2. Ex President of the US Bill Clinton (to play) the saxophone. 3. The weather in Britain (to be) very changeable. 4. I (not/ to take) a shower in the morning. 5. Paul McCartney (to live) in Britain. 6. I (miss) my miss, my miss (to miss) me. 7. Twelve months (to make) a year. 8. London (to be) one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world. 9. I (not/to like) to be late. 10. We (to wear) warm clothes in winter. 11. Some people with a good deal of money (to collect) paintings. 12. It (to take) me 10 minu tes to walk to the Metro Station. 13. On the 14th of February British people (to celebrate) St.Valentine’s day. 14. The short hand of the clock (to point) to hours. 15. It often (to snow) in winter. 42

11. Переведите предложения, используя Present Indefinite

1. Мой друг свободно говорит поанглийски. 2. Луна вращается вокруг Земли. 3. 60 минут составляют час. 4. Вы знаете день рождения своего друга? 5. Моя сестра работает 5 дней в неделю. 6. Многие люди не любят писать письма. 7. В Англии футбольный сезон начинается в августе. 8. Вы часто звоните родителям? 9. Я чищу зубы утром и вечером. 10. Он помнит адреса всех своих друзей. 11. Я не люблю опаздывать. 12. Суббота идет после пятницы. 13. Большая стрелка часов показывает минуты. 14. Осенью часто идет дождь. 12. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Tom’s Family There are seven members in Tom’s family. They are of different ages. Tom’s mother is fortyone years old. She is a teacher. Tom’s father is four years older than Tom’s mother. He is fortyfive years old. He is a driver. Tom has two sisters – Betty and Kitty. They both are younger than Tom. Betty is two years younger and Kitty is five years younger than Tom. Betty is sixteen and Kitty is thirteen. They are pupils. Tom has a grandmother and a grandfather. They are on pension. Tom’s Granny is sixtysix years old. Tom’s Grandpa is five years older than Tom’s Granny. He is seventyone. He is the oldest member of their family and Kitty is the youngest. Tom’s grandparents have two sons and one daughter. One of their sons is Tom’s father and another is Tom’s 43

uncle. Their daughter is Tom’s aunt. She is Tom’s father’s sister. Tom’s aunt and uncle are all married. Their children are Tom’s cousins. Tom is his aunt’s and uncle’s nephew and Betty and Kitty are their nieces. Tom’s grandfather and grandmother are Tom’s mother’s parentsinlaw (father inlaw and motherinlaw). Tom’s mother is their daughterinlaw. 1. Is Tom’s family large or small? 2. How many are they? 3. How old is Tom’s mother? 4. What does she do? 5. Is Tom’s father older than his mother? 6. How old is he? 7. What does he do? 8. Are Tom’s sisters elder or younger than he? 9. How old are they? 10. Who is the oldest member of the family? 11. How old is Tom’s Grandpa? 12. How old is Tom’s Granny? 13. Who is the youngest member of the family? 14. How old is Tom? 15. Which relative is Tom’s uncle/aunt? 16. How many uncles/aunts does Tom have? 13. Расскажите о своей семье 14. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Time We tell the time by a clock or watch. A clock is big. It is generally on the wall, or it stands on the table or over the 44

fireplace. A watch is small. We put it in our pocket or wear it on the wrist. The short hand points to the hours, the long hand points to the minutes. Some have three hands – a long hand, a short hand, and a very short hand to point to the seconds. Some clocks are very big, for example, Big Ben, the clock on the Houses of Parliament in London. The minute hand of Big Ben is fourteen feet long, and the hour hand is nine feet long. The English hear Big Ben on the radio at nine p.m. At that hour its sound goes all over the world. Twelve o’clock at night is “midnight”, we use the letters a.m. For example, 12.20 a.m. A.M. is a short form of the Latin words “ante meridiem”, which means “before noon”. Twelve o’clock in the daytime is “noon” or “midday”. We use the letters p.m., for example, 9.10 p.m. P.M. is a short form of the Latin words “post meridiem”, which means “after noon”. 1. What is the difference between a clock and a watch? 2. How many hands are there on the face of a clock or a watch? What are they? 3. What does the short hand point to? 4. What does the long hand point to? 5. Do you have an alarmclock? 6. What very big clocks do you know? 7. Where is Big Ben? 8. When do you hear its sound? 9. What is the meaning of a.m.? 10. What is the meaning of p.m.? 45

15. Прочтите и переведите текст, поставьте вопросы к тексту

In the Bathroom John wakes at 7 o’clock in the morning, and gets up at a quarter past seven. He usually doesn’t do morning exercises. He goes to the bathroom. He enters the bathroom and closes the door behind him. He turns on the light and goes up to the washbasin. He doesn’t have a bath or a shower in the morning. Above the washbasin there is a glass shelf. There is a soap dish on it. In the soap dish there is a cake of soap. John takes the cake of soap, turns on the tap. The water begins to run. He soaps his hands and arms and washes them. Then he washes his face and neck. He turns off the tap and takes his towel. He dries his face, neck, arms, and hands on the towel. Then he takes his toothbrush from the shelf above the washbasin and cleans his teeth with toothpaste. He puts the toothbrush on the shelf back. He turns off the light and leaves the bathroom. Then he goes downstairs for breakfast. 16. Ответьте на вопросы

1. When do you get up? 2. Do you do morning exercises? 3. Do you have a shower or a bath in the morning? 4. Do you close the door behind you when you enter the bathroom? 5. Do you turn on the light? 6. Is there a shelf above the washbasin in your bathroom? 7. What is there on the shelf? 8. When does water begin to run? 9. Do you soap your face, neck, arms, and hands? 10. When do you 46

turn off the water? 11. What do you dry your face, neck, arms, and hands on? 12. Where do you take your tooth brush from? 13. Do you clean your teeth with toothpaste or toothpowder? 14. Where do you put your toothbrush after cleaning the teeth? 15. When do you turn off the light in the bathroom? 16. When do you have breakfast? 17. Переведите предложения, используя материалы урока 3 (Lesson 3)

1. Наша семья не очень большая, нас 5 человек. 2. Пожалуйста, позвоните мне завтра в 10 часов утра. 3. Какая из этих книг более интересная? 4. Вы знаете этого молодого человека? – Да, это Анд рей, он студент третьего курса. 5. Сегодня теплее, чем вчера. 6. Какой самый короткий путь к Московскому вок залу? 7. За сколько времени вы добираетесь на работу? 8. Который час? – По моим часам без десяти девять. – Ваши часы идут правильно? – Думаю, что да. 9. Когда я захожу в ванную комнату, я зажигаю свет, а когда выхожу, то выключаю. 10. В сутках 24 часа. 11. Когда день рождения вашего друга? 12. Вы чистите зубы зубной пастой или зубным порош ком? 13. Я не помню это правило, повторите его, пожалуй ста. 14. Что означают буквы a.m. и p.m.? 15. Земля вращается вокруг Солнца, а Луна вокруг Зем ли. 47

SHORT CONVERSATION – How can you stand this – Как вы переносите такой climate of yours? климат? – It can’t be helped. The – Ничего не поделаешь. weather is really nasty Осенью погода здесь дей here in autumn. ствительно отвратитель ная. – But they say it’s rather – Но говорят, что и весной awful here in spring, погода здесь тоже ужас too. ная. – Oh no, I wouldn’t say – О нет, я бы этого не сказал. that. It’s usually sunny Весной здесь солнечно и and warm in spring and тепло, и дожди идут не it doesn’t rain very often. очень часто.

LAUGH AND LEARN Professor: Wake up that fellow next to you. Student: You do it, professor, you put him to sleep.

Профессор: Разбудите того парня, что рядом с вами. Студент: Будите его сами, профессор, это вы его усы пили.

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Make hay while the sun shines. Better late than never. Honesty is the best policy.

~ Куй железо, пока горячо. – Лучше поздно, чем никог да. – Честность – лучшая поли тика.

LESSON 4 A man is never too old to learn. (Учиться никогда не поздно.) • ПРЕДЛОГИ/СОЮЗЫ (PREPOSITIONS/CONJUNCTIONS) • НАСТОЯЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) • РАЗДЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ (DISJUNCTIVE QUESTIONS)

Предлоги/союзы Prepositions/Conjunctions IN – (где?) – в, на, за, через: In the morning/in the afternoon/in the evening – утром, днем, вечером In spring/in summer/in autumn/in winter – весной, летом, осенью, зимой In January – в январе In 1998 – в 1998 году In the sky – в небе In the sun – на солнце In the street – на улице In the rain – в дождь In fine weather – в хорошую погоду In bed/in hospital/in prison – в постели/в больнице/в тюрьме (но: at a hospital – в больнице) In town – в городе In the country – за городом In the middle – в середине In front of – перед, впереди 49

In the north/in the south/in the east/in the west – на севере/на юге/на востоке/на западе In time – вовремя, своевременно In the end (= finally) – в конце концов, в конечном счете In a car/in a taxi – на машине/в такси In my opinion – по моему мнению In 2 days – через 2 дня To pay in cash – платить наличными To arrive in/at – прибывать, приезжать в... (in – в стра ну, в город; at – в учреждение, в гостиницу) То fall in love with – влюбиться в... То fill in (the form) – заполнить (бланк) To be interested in – интересоваться чемлибо ON (где?) – на, в, о(б): On the table – на столе On a page – на странице On the right/on the left – справа/слева On the ground floor – на первом этаже On the way (home) – по дороге (домой) On the river Thames – на реке Темзе On a farm – на ферме On a bus/on a train/on a plane/on a ship – в автобусе/в поезде/в самолете/на пароходе On holiday – на каникулах, в отпуске On business/on a trip/on a tour – в командировке/в по ездке/в путешествии On TV/on the radio – по телевидению/по радио On a diet – на диете On foot – пешком On purpose – намеренно, нарочно On the whole – в целом Information on the train services – информация о поез дах To depend on – зависеть от 50

To congratulate on – поздравить с To turn/switch on – включить (to turn/switch off – выключить) AT (где?) – в, на, за, у: At the table – за столом At the moment – в данный момент At 10 o’clock – в 10 часов At the same time – в то же время At the weekend – в выходные дни At first – сначала At the first sight – с первого взгляда At the age of – в возрасте... At the end of – в конце (чеголибо) At the window – у/около окна At the lesson – на уроке At the top/at the bottom – наверху/внизу At home/at school/at work/at university/at college – дома/в школе/на работе/в университете/в колледже At a hospital – в больнице At/on the corner of the street – на углу улицы At a party/at a concert/at the theatre – на вечеринке (в гостях)/на концерте/в театре At the station/at the airport/at the bus stop – на вокза ле/в аэропорту/на автобусной остановке At my house/at my place – у меня дома At the doctor’s – у врача To arrive at/in – прибывать, приезжать (at – в отель, учреждение; in – в страну, город) То look at – смотреть на... (to look for – искать, to look after – заботиться, ухаживать) To be good at – иметь способности к... FOR – для, ради, за, изза, в, на, в течение: A letter for you – письмо для вас 51

For fun – шутки ради, для развлечения For this reason – по этой причине То work for a bank – работать в банке То arrange the lecture for 2 o’clock – назначить лек цию на 2 часа For a few days – в течение нескольких дней (during – во время: Не fell asleep during the film. Он уснул во время фильма) To care for = to like – нравиться, интересоваться To wait for – ждать (коголибо) To thank for – благодарить за... To leave for – уходить (кудалибо), уезжать в... To look for – искать (to look at – смотреть на..., to look after – заботиться, ухаживать) TO (куда?) – в, на, до, к: То school/to bed/to hospital/to prison – в школу/в по стель/в больницу/в тюрьму I’ve been to (Italy) – я был в (Италии) То my surprise – к моему удивлению То happen to – случаться/случиться с..., происходить с... То prefer to – предпочитать чемулибо То agree to – соглашаться с чемлибо (to agree with... – соглашаться с кемлибо) INTO (куда?) – в, на: Into the house – в дом Into the post office – на почту OF (кого? чего?) – из: The table is made of wood – стол сделан из дерева The history of Russia – история России To take care of (= to look after) – заботиться о... 52

FROM – из, от, с: From London – из Лондона A letter from my sister – письмо от моей сестры From ten to (until/till) twelve o’clock – с 10 до 12 часов OUT OF – из, от: Out of the room – из комнаты Out of fear – от страха We are out of money – у нас кончились деньги (мы без денег) BY – около, у, к, по: By train/by plane/by air/by sea/by bus/by car – поездом/ самолетом/по воздуху/морем/автобусом/на машине By 3 o’clock – к 3 часам By the river – у реки By phone – по телефону The book by the famous writer – книга известного пи сателя By chance – случайно By the way – между прочим WITH – с (тв. п.): With my friend – с моим другом With cold water – холодной водой To agree with – соглашаться с кемлибо (to agree to – соглашаться с чемлибо) WITHOUT – без: Without a coat – без пальто To go/do without – обходиться без... ABOUT – о(б), около, приблизительно, по: About this problem – об этой проблеме About an hour – около часа Не walked about the room – он ходил по комнате 53

ABOVE – над, выше: Above the table – над столом It is above me – это выше моего понимания UNDER – под: Under the table – под столом BEHIND – за, позади: Behind the post office – за почтой NEAR – возле, около, у: Nеаr the window – около окна NEXT TO – рядом с...: Next to the hotel – рядом с гостиницей THROUGH – через, изза, благодаря: Through the gates – через ворота Through illness – изза болезни THROUGHOUT – по, в течение: Throughout the country – по всей стране Throughout the 20th century – в течение всего ХХ века BEFORE – перед, до; перед тем как: Before breakfast – перед завтраком Before he comes – перед тем, как он придет AFTER – после; после того как: After dinner – после обеда After you come – после того, как ты придешь TILL/UNTIL – до, до тех пор: From 2 till 3 o’clock – с 2 до 3 часов Till he comes – пока он (не) придет 54

BETWEEN – между: Between you and me – между нами Between the devil and the deep sea – между двух огней AMONG – среди: Among the students – между студентами 1. Вставьте предлоги, где необходимо

А. 1. The delegation is arriving ... our country tomorrow. 2. Your mother is waiting ... you downstairs. 3. He works from 9 a.m. ... 5 p.m. 4. There are 2 pictures ... the wall. 5. Put the book ... your bag. 6. What will you do ... this book? 7. My dress is ... the wardrobe. 8. I wash up ... din ner. 9. I want to tell you something ... I forget. 10. I am going ... the cinema ... my friend. 11. Does your friend live ... this street? 12. I’ll see you ... Tuesday. 13. I know the way. Go ... me. 14. His sister works ... hospital. She is a doctor. 15. It takes me ... half an hour to go there. 16. Please, fill ... the declaration. B. 1. The blouse is made ... cotton. 2. My sister goes ... the country ... summer. 3. His aunt looks ... the children. 4. Where is your son? – He is ... school. 5. I’ll finish this work ... 5 o’clock. 6. My birthday is ... the 3d of June. 7. I go to ... bed ... 12 o’clock. 8. Don’t take the book ... the shelf! 9. Will you come ... my place ... next week? 10. The businessmen will arrive ... a few days. 11. I quite agree ... you. 12. We are going ... a walk. It is not raining. 13. I like travelling ... train. 14. Don’t tell anybody ... it. 15. Are you looking ... you bag? Here it is. 16. Bob says he has been ... Canada three times. 55

C. 1. Are you going to London ... business or ... holiday? 2. Did you come here ... car or ... foot? 3. It depends ... the timetable. 4. Mary leaves ... home ... work very early. 5. Take care ... yourself! 6. I thanked my friend ... his help. 7. She invited many people ... her birthday party. 8. I met your brother ... chance. 9. They did not come ... their car, they came ... a taxi. 10. Turn ... the TV, please! I am working. 11. He is not in ... the moment. 12. I don’t like to wash ... cold water. 13. My mother usually goes ... work ... bus. 14. I don’t understand it. It’s ... me. 15. I’m sorry. I didn’t do it ... purpose. 16. Liz is losing weight. She is ... a diet.

Настоящее длительное время The Present Continuous Tense to be + ing form

56

1) 2) 3) 4)

Present Continuous употребляется для выражения: длительного действия, совершающегося в момент речи; длительного действия, совершающегося в настоя щий период времени; будущего действия в придаточных предложениях условия и времени; заранее намеченного действия.

Present Continuous переводится на русский язык настоящим временем: I am writing – я пишу. ЗАПОМНИТЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ, которые не употребляют ся во временах группы Continuous: to be, to have (в зна чении «иметь»), to think (в значении «считать», «по лагать»), to know, to want, to need, to like, to love, to hate, to see, to hear, to feel, to understand, to remember, to belong. 2. Мотивируйте употребление Present Continuous и пере> ведите предложения

1. The weather is fine. The sun is shining. 2. Please, be quiet! Father is working. 3. Let’s go out. lt is not raining any more. 4. Where is your mother? – She is in the kitchen. She is cooking the dinner. 5. What is your sister doing? – She is washing up. 6. Аrе you reading this book? – Yes, I am. I am enjoying it. 7. You are working hard today. – Yes, I am preparing for the exam. 8. They are arriving tomorrow. 9. Kitty writes that she is having a good time. 10. Take an umbrella. It is going to rain. 11. It is cloudy today. I am wearing a raincoat. 12. Listen! Somebody is singing in the next room. 13. Are you looking for a pen? Here it is. 14. Tom is busy. He is 57

repairing his car. 15. The family are sitting at the table. Susan is pouring coffee into the cups. 16. I am tired. I am going to bed early today. 3. Сделайте предложения вопросительными и отрицательными

1. The sun is coming out. 2. He is enjoying the film. 3. Your sister is preparing for the exam all day long. 4. Your brother is waiting for you downstairs. 5. George is going to leave soon. 6. It is golden autumn now. The leaves are changing their colour. 7. My friend is working hard today. 8. Nora is in London now. She is studying English. 9. Look! The children are playing football. 10. Mary is leaving college this year. 11. We are having a party tomorrow. 12. Michael is studying law at uni versity. 13. I am writing a letter. I am just finishing it. 14. Helen is making breakfast ready. She is cutting slices of bread. 15. They are talking all the lesson. 4. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous

1. Don’t take an umbrella. It (not/to rain). 2. Where is Ann? – She (to have) tea. 3. What you (to do) tomorrow? – I don’t know yet. 4. It is late, I (to go) to bed. 5. Ted (to work) now? – No, he (to watch) TV. 6. My sister (to leave) for Bristol tomorrow. 7. The weather is fine today. The sun (to shine) brightly. 8. He (to speak) on the phone at the moment. 9. Angela wants to work in France. She (to study) French now. 10. Listen! Somebody (to play) the piano. 11. What you (to do) under the table? – I (to look) for my pen. 12. Look! The cat (to drink) milk. 13. You (to listen) to the radio or can I turn it off? 14. I can’t go with you, I (to prepare) for the exam. 15. I must go now. It (to get) late. 16. You are so serious. What you (to think) of? 58

5. Поставьте глаголы в Present Indefinite или Present Continuous

A. 1. I (not/to drink) coffee in the morning. 2. My mother (not/to cook) dinner now, she (to write) a letter. 3. They always (to go) to the seaside in summer. 4. You (to understand) this sentence? – I (to think) so. 5. It (to snow) a lot in St. Petersburg. 6. The telephone (to ring). Take up the receiver. 7. What you (to do)? – I’m a student. 8. The children (to play) in the yard? – No, they (to watch) TV. 9. My cousin (to go) to school. She (to be) in the 10th form. 10. It (to rain) yet? – Yes, it is. Here is your umbrella. 11. Is your boss in? – Yes, he (to receive) the delegation. 12. When the train (arrive)? – At 10.20 a.m. 13. You (to take) a bath or a shower in the evening? 14. What you (to do) here? – I (to wait) for my friend. 15. Tomorrow we (to meet) foreign businessmen. B. 1. Helen (to want) to speak English fluently. She (to study) hard. 2. I (to be) tired. I (to go) to bed. 3. This house (to belong) to the Browns. 4. They often (to have) dinner in a restaurant. 5. I (to be) hungry. I (to want) something to eat. 6. Who is that man? Why he (to look) at us? 7. It (to take) me 10 minutes to get to the Metro Station. 8. Tom (to address) the envelope now. He (to go) to drop the letter into the letterbox. 9. I (not/to write) letters, but I (to like) to receive them. 10. Peter’s brother (to be) an accountant. He (to work) for a bank. 11. Jack (to be) between jobs now. He (to look) for a job. 12. It (to be) summer now. I (not/to wear) warm clothes. 13. In winter we (to wear) warm coats. 14. The sun (to come) up in the east and (to go) down in the west. 15. 12 months (to make) a year. 59

6. Переведите предложения, используя Present Indefinite и Present Continuous

A. 1. Вы сегодня много работаете. Вы готовитесь к эк замену? 2. Пойдем домой, уже темнеет. 3. Вы читаете эту книгу? Она вам нравится? 4. Что сейчас делает ваш брат? – Он ремонтирует ма шину. 5. Поторопитесь! Мы ждем вас внизу. 6. Джордж изучает английский язык в универси тете. 7. Я наливаю кофе, а сахар положите сами. 8. Послушайте! Ктото разговаривает в соседней ком нате. 9. Она в кухне. Она готовит обед. 10. Что ты делаешь? – Я мою посуду. 11. Возьми зонт, идет дождь. 12. Они собираются пообедать в кафе. 13. Посмотрите! Кошка пьет молоко. 14. Подождите его. Он как раз заканчивает работу. 15. Почему этот молодой человек так смотрит на нас? 16. Я хочу заплатить наличными. В. 1. Я редко пишу письма, а получать их люблю. 2. Вы уезжаете на лето из города? 3. По вечерам мой брат делает уроки. Он в 10 классе. 4. Что сейчас делает ваш начальник? – Он разгова ривает с иностранными бизнесменами. 5. За сколько времени вы добираетесь до универси тета? 6. Зимой темнеет рано. 7. Где ваша сестра? – Она готовится к экзамену в со седней комнате. 60

8. У Джорджа новая машина. Он водит ее очень хо рошо. 9. 3автра я иду на день рождения своего друга. 10. Почему вы разговариваете во время лекции? 11. Я не думаю, что она сейчас дома. 12. О чем ты думаешь? У тебя проблемы? 13. Видишь того человека? Это гн Смит. 14. Вы ищете ручку? Вот, пожалуйста. 15. Одну минуту. Я заполняю декларацию. 16. Моя сестра благодарит вас за помощь.

Разделительные вопросы Disjunctive Questions

7. Поставьте разделительные вопросы

1. Your mother is at home now. 2. You are working hard today. 3. There are twentyfour hours in a day. 4. Nick 61

often writes letters to his parents. 5. They are waiting for the guide. 6. She doesn’t play any musical instru ment. 7. Kitty washes up after dinner. 8. Your husband doesn’t go shopping after work. 9. It isn’t raining. 10. It often snows here in winter. 11. All the family are already sitting at the table. 12. The teacher wants to tell you something. 13. You aren’t going to the theatre tomorrow. 14. The Earth turns round the Sun in 24 hours. 15. Your brother goes to the office by bus. 8. Прочтите и переведите текст, поставьте вопросы к тек> сту

I’d like to show you some pictures. Look at this picture! This is Tom. He is writing a letter. Just now he is finishing it and is signing his name. Next he is going to put the letter into the envelope and address it. At this picture Tom is at the post office. He is going to post the letter. Just now he is standing at the stamp counter. He is going to buy a stamp. Next he is going to put the stamp on the envelope and drop the envelope into the letterbox. At this picture Sam and John are standing under the apple tree. The apples are hanging over the boys’ heads. Sam is taking the apple. John is helping him to reach it. The boys are going to give apples to their friends. Now look at this picture. Nelly is standing at the bookcase. She is taking out a book. She is going to read it for the exam. At this picture Betty is making breakfast ready. There is a loaf of bread on the tray in front of her. She is cutting slices of bread. Next she is going to spread butter on them. Here Kate is carrying the pot of coffee into the dining room. The family are already sitting at the table. Kate is going to pour coffee into the cups. 62

This is the picture of the concert. The woman is singing, the man is playing the piano. The people are sitting and listening. They are enjoying the concert. 9. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Golden Autumn Autumn Begins in September In autumn the days become shorter and the nights become longer. It gets cooler. At the beginning of autumn it is warm, at the end it is cool. During the early autumn the weather is fine. On most days the sky is blue and the sun shines. But the wind is rather cold. It seldom rains. The leaves change their colour; they turn yellow, brown and red. In the sunshine the golden leaves are lovely to look at. The late September is usually called Indian summer1. Many people are off to the parks and forests. They like to gather mushrooms. There are а lot of autumn flowers – asters, dahlias, chrysanthemums and others. People are wearing cardigans, pullovers and windjackets to be warm enough. A thick carpet of dry leaves lies under the trees. From time to time the wind blows through the wood and hundreds of dry leaves fly about. People like to watch the leaves flying. 1. When does autumn begin? 2. Do the days become shorter or longer in autumn? 3. What period of time do we call Indian summer? 4. Why do we call early autumn golden? 5. What is the weather like in the early autumn? 6. Does it often rain? _________________ 1 Indian summer – бабье лето 63

7. Are there many sunny days in September? 8. What colour are the leaves? 9. Do you like to walk on the thick carpet of dry leaves? 10. Do you like to go to the forest to gather mushrooms? 11. What clothes do people wear in September? 12. Dо you like autumn flowers? 13. What do you like to do in autumn? 14. What is your favourite season? Why? 10. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

The English Climate The climate of Britain is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. It is not hot in summer and it is not very cold in winter. It often rains. It rains in all the seasons of the year. On the average, Britain has 204 rainy days a year, with the maximum in Scotland and the minimum in the estuary of the river Thames. The cold air which comes to Britain from the continent already becomes warm when it moves across the North Sea and brings many clouds to Britain. In the south of Britain it seldom snows and the snow doesn’t cover the ground for a long time. We all know about the famous London fogs which usually fall in winter and in autumn. The British weather is so changeable that it is difficult for the people to make plans for holidays. The weather is never the same two days running. That is why the Englishmen so often talk about the weather and listen to weather forecast. The weather is favourite topic of conversation in the UK. The Englishmen never leave the house without an umbrella. Even on a sunny day they are not sure that it is not going to rain in an hour or two. The Englishmen joke that they have no climate but only weather. The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. 64

Sometimes it rains so heavily that they say “It’s raining cats and dogs”1. А. 1. What is the climate like in Britain? 2. Why is the climate of Britain mild? 3. Is it very hot in summer? 4. Is it very cold in winter? 5. Does it often rain in Britain? 6. Does it often snow in winter? 7. What do you know about London fogs? 8. Is the British weather stable or changeable? 9. Why are the Englishmen always interested in weather forecast? 10. How do the Englishmen joke about their climate? B. 1. What is the climate like in your town? 2. Does it often rain? 3. In what season does it usually rain? 4. Is it hot in summer? 5. Is it cold in winter? Does it often snow? 6. Is spring/autumn a beautiful season in your town? 7. Is the weather usually stable or changeable in your town? 8. Are you interested in weather forecast? 9. Do you like to go for a walk on rainy days? 10. What is your favourite season? Why? 11. Переведите предложения, используя Present Indefinite и Present Continuous

A. 1. Смотри! Падают листья, уже осень. 2. Помоему, собирается дождь. Возьми зонт. _________________ 1 It’s raining cats and dogs – Дождь льёт как из ведра 65

3. Моя сестра часто ходит в Эрмитаж. Она любит жи вопись. 4. Ты готовишь обед? – Да, я уже заканчиваю. 5. Ваши часы идут правильно? – Думаю, что да. 6. Погода в Лондоне очень изменчива. 7. Я добираюсь до университета за 45 минут. 8. Иностранная делегация прибывает завтра. 9. Вы ездите на работу автобусом? – Нет, на своей машине. 10. Конец сентября люди называют бабьим летом. 11. Вы любите современную музыку, не так ли? 12. Англичане редко выходят из дома без зонта. 13. Он не едет в Москву в командировку, не так ли? 14. Я прихожу на работу без четверти девять. Я не люблю опаздывать. 15. Рабочий день моего дяди начинается очень рано. 16. У нас кончились деньги. В. 1. Сегодня хорошая погода, не так ли? Пойдем погу ляем. 2. Летом и осенью много цветов. 3. Напротив моего дома – станция метро. 4. Супермаркет находится рядом с кинотеатром. 5. Кто это играет на пианино? – Это моя мама. 6. Вы играете на какомнибудь музыкальном инст рументе? 7. Ваш брат очень хорошо водит машину. Он води тель? – Нет, он бизнесмен. 8. Вы интересуетесь компьютерами, не так ли? 9. У сына гна Грина большие способности к матема тике. Он лучший ученик в классе. 10. Чем занимается ваш друг? – Он студент. Он на вто ром курсе экономического факультета. 11. Я очень устал и хочу рано лечь спать. 66

12. Ты сегодня много работаешь. У тебя завтра экза мен? 13. Что вы думаете об этом человеке? 14. Вы не слушаете меня. О чем вы думаете? 15. Ваш двоюродный брат свободно говорит поанглий ски, не правда ли? 16. Он всегда приходит вовремя.

SHORT CONVERSATION – Could you tell (show) me which is the shortest way to the airport? – Take the metro and go as far as Moskovskaya station. – Thank you very much. – You are welcome.

– Будьте любезны, ска жите, как мне быстрее добраться до аэропорта? – Садитесь в метро и до езжайте до станции «Московская». – Большое спасибо. – Пожалуйста.

LAUGH AND LEARN – What is your son going to be when he’s passed his final exam? – An old man.

– Кем будет ваш сын, когда сдаст последний экзамен? – Стариком.

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS An early start makes easy – Раньше начнешь, скорее stages. закончишь. Like cures like. – Клин клином вышибают.

TEST 1 (LESSONS 1–4) 1. Выберите правильный вариант

1. Whose pen is it? – It’s not ... . a) my b) my one c) mine 2. There ... some flowers on the table. a) is b) be c) are 3. Is it your classroom? – Yes, it’s ... . a) ours b) our c) your 4. How many students ... in your group? a) there are b) are there c) is there 5. My ... name is Rex. a) dog b) dog’s c) dogs 6. Is it your book? – No, it’s my ... . a) friend b) friends c) friend’s 7. There ... a frige in the living room. a) isn’t b) is c) is no 8. Our flat is on the ... floor. a) secondary b) second c) two 9. Is it Tom’s car? – No, his ... . a) mother b) mother’s c) mothers 10. My sister has lunch at ... o’clock. a) ones b) one c) first 2. Выберите правильный вариант

1. This suit is ... than yours. a) most modern b) more modern c) moderner 2. John’s car is ... than mine. a) bigger b) more big c) more bigger 68

3. Kate is the ... girl in our group. a) more serious b) seriousest c) most serious 4. This task is the ... of all. a) most easy b) easiest c) easier 5. I know Tom ... than his friend. a) better b) best c) more better 6. This hotel is the ... in the town. a) most worst b) worst c) worse 7. I’m tired. Let’s walk a bit ... . a) slowlier b) more slowlier c) more slowly 8. My grandfather is the ... in the family. a) elder b) eldest c) older 9. What is the ... way to the station? a) most quickest b) most quick c) quickest 10. To my mind fantastic stories are ... than detective ones. a) more b) the more c) the most interesting interesting interesting 3. Выберите правильный вариант

1. There is an armchair ... front of the fire. a) on b) at c) in 2. The train arrives ... 10 o’clock. a) for b) at c) in 3. I am leaving ... two hours. a) in b) for c) during 4. My mother doesn’t go to the office ... Sunday. a) in b) at c) on 5. What are you doing? – I am looking ... my umbrella. a) after b) for c) at 6. The British delegation is arriving ... Moscow tomorrow. a) to b) at c) in 69

7. The underground station is not far from here. You can go there ... foot. a) on b) by c) with 8. The post office is next ... the cinema. a) with b) on c) to 9. Mr. Brown is ... business now. a) in b) on c) at 10. Do you know what is ... TV today? a) in b) on c) at

4. Выберите правильный вариант

l. The film ... at 8 o’clock. a) is starting b) starts c) start 2. It (not) ... any more. Let’s go out. a) does not rain b) is not raining c) does not raining 3. Му brother ... at 7 o’clock every morning. a) get up b) is getting up c) gets up 4. Where are the children? – They ... in the garden. a) are playing b) play c) plays 5. My uncle ... for a bank. a) work b) is working c) works 6. I ... about my exams. a) think b) am thinking c) is thinking 7. We ... to the cinema tomorrow. a) go b) goes c) are going 8. Mary ... coffee very often. a) drink b) drinks c) is drinking 9. My father ... newspapers every day. a) reads b) is reading c) read 10. I am in a hurry. My friends ... for me. a) wait b) are waiting c) are wait 70

5. Определите, какое слово выпадает из смыслового ряда

1. forest (1) 2. lake (1) 3. valley (1) 4. cloud (1) 5. flower (1) 6. road (1) 7. sister (1) 8. chair (1) 9. building (1) 10. crocodile (1)

woods (2) sea (2) mountain (2) park (2) bush (2) street (2) worker (2) cupboard (2) car (2) bear (2)

river (3) ocean (3) bird (3) rain (3) house (3) stream (3) clock (3) table (3) bus (3) donkey (3)

tree (4) stone (4) cliff (4) smoke (4) plant (4) path (4) student (4) cabbage (4) train (4) zoo (4)

LESSON 5 What we do willingly is easy. (To, что мы делаем охотно, делается легко.) • ПРОСТОЕ ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE) • ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ В ВОПРОСИТЕЛЬНОМ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ (WORD ORDER IN THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE) • ОБОРОТЫ ТИПА “SO DO I/NEITHER DO I” (SO DO I/NEITHER DO I PHRASES)

Простое прошедшее время The Past Indefinite Tense

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Past Indefinite служит для выражения действия, за вершавшегося или совершающегося в прошлом. Оно переводится на русский язык глаголом в прошедшем времени либо совершенного, либо несовершенного вида. Past Indefinite переводится на русский язык про шедшим временем глагола либо совершенного, либо несовершенного вида: I translated – я перевел/я переводил. 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на глаго> лы в Past Indefinite

1. Yesterday I woke up at 7 o’clock. 2. The weather was nasty and we decided to stay at home. 3. When I returned to my room I switched on the light and the TV. 4. Nick looked at the alarmclock and jumped out of bed. 5. I took a bus and got to the office in time. 6. They did not invite me to their party. 7. Did it rain here last Sunday? 8. I met your sister on my way home and gave a book for you. 9. Did you go to bed late yesterday? 10. Mozart started composing at the age of five. 11. I saw Jane in town a few days ago. 12. Sarah bought a new car, didn’t she? 13. It was cold and we put on warm clothes. 14. You didn’t go out last night, did you? 15. It took Fred only half an hour to get to the station. 16. I ate a sandwich and drank a cup of tea for breakfast. 2. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous, Present Indefinite или Past Indefinite

A. 1. My brother (to take) a shower every morning. 2. Yester day I (to be) very busy and (not/to talk) to them. 3. Nora (to be) a theatregoer. She (to go) to the theatre every week. 4. You (to go) to the theatre on Sunday? 5. What you (to do) now? – I (to cook) dinner. 6. I (to meet) your friend two hours ago. 7. You (to go) shopping yesterday? 73

8. When you (to come) home yesterday? 9. It (to rain) now? 10. It often (to rain) in autumn in St. Petersburg. 11. When I (to come) to the office yesterday he (to be) in. 12. You (to stay) at home last night? 13. I (to think) she (to watch) TV now. 14. How you usually (to spend) evenings? 15. I (to listen) to a very interesting lecture a few days ago. 16. He (to ring) me up on Tuesday. B. 1. Scotland (to have) its own capital city, Edinburgh. 2. Bill Gates (to start) “Microsoft” with a friend in 1975. 3. I (to go) to speak to them tomorrow. 4. Karamzin (to be) the author of “The History of the Russian State”. 5. I (to work) hard today. I (to have) a lot to do. 6. Alfred Nobel (to be) a son of bankrupt, but (to become) a millionaire. 7. Excuse me, I (to be) very busy now. I (to finish) the translation. 8. George Soros (to be) one of the most famous people in the world. 9. The periodical press of the USA (to appear) more than 250 years ago. 10. Most of pictures in magazines (to depend) on their content. 11. The BBC (to broadcast) television and radio program mes in different languages. 12. Every Tuesday evening the British Queen (to meet) the Prime Minister. They (to talk) about world news. 13. Just a minute! Mr. Grey (to speak) on the phone. 14. Two men (to work) fulltime to look after 300 clocks in Buckingham Palace. 15. Brunei (to be) one of the smallest but richest countries in the world. Its wealth (to come) from oil and gas. 16. Sir Law rence Olivier (to create) many unforgettable characters. 3. Переведите предложения, используя Present Indefinite, Present Continuous или Past Indefinite

A. 1. Вчера я поздно вернулся домой. 2. Мой брат ездит на работу на своей машине. 3. Ты идешь завтра в институт? 74

4. Два дня назад я слушал интересную лекцию. 5. В воскресенье я проснулся поздно, вскочил с по стели и пошел будить своего брата. 6. Выключи телевизор, отец готовится к лекции. 7. Она всегда помогает маме готовить обед. 8. Мой брат обычно приходит домой в 4 часа, а вчера он пришел в 6 часов. 9. Где Катя? – Я думаю, она смотрит телевизор. 10. Я звонил ему в среду, но его не было. 11. Вчера шел дождь, и я надел плащ. 12. В Лондоне часто идет дождь? 13. В субботу мы ходили на день рождения и очень хо рошо провели время. 14. Ты всегда слушаешь прогноз погоды, да? 15. Вчера я добрался до работы за 20 минут. 16. Джон решил пригласить всех своих друзей. В. 1. Английская королева читает газету «Таймc». 2. По утрам англичане пьют чай с холодным моло ком. 3. Боб приехал в Лондон 2 месяца назад, он хочет стать журналистом. 4. Я не знаю, почему он уехал. 5. По дороге домой я встретил своего друга. 6. Что ты собираешься делать? – Я собираюсь в ма газин за покупками. 7. Вы ходили к Мери на день рождения в воскресе нье? 8. Моцарт написал более 600 музыкальных произве дений. 9. В свободное время Билл Гейтс любит играть в гольф и бридж. 10. Ян Флеминг начал писать книги о Джеймсе Бонде в 1952 году. 11. Джеймс Бонд выкуривал 60 сигарет в день. 75

12. Одну минуту! Я слушаю прогноз погоды. Я соби раюсь завтра за город. 13. Альфред Нобель с юности интересовался литера турой и философией. 14. «Битлз» открыли новую эру в музыке. 15. Японские дети ходят в школу 6 дней в неделю. 16. Ты куданибудь ходил вчера вечером? – Нет, я был дома.

Порядок слов в вопросительном предложении Word Order in the Interrogative Sentence

U || | || | V| | || || W| Общий вопрос (General Question)

U| | || | || | V| | || | || | W| Специальный вопрос (Special Question) Исключение:вопрос к подлежащему (в нем сохраня ется порядок слов повествовательного предложения) Jane drinks coffee in the morning. Does Jane drink coffee in the morning? What does Jane drink in the morning? When does Jane drink coffee? Who drinks coffee in the morning?

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Вопросительные слова what? who? whose? which? when? where? why? how? how much? how long?

– что? какой? – кто? – чей? – который? – когда? – где? куда? – почему? – как? – сколько? – как долго?

4. Выучите стихотворение

I keep six honest serving men, They taught me all I knew, Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. I send them over land and sea, I send them east and west; And after they have worked for me, I give them all the rest. I let them rest from nine till five, For I am busy then, As well as breakfast, lunch and tea, For they are hungry men. But different folks hold different views; I know a person small – She keeps ten million serving men, Who get no rest at all! She sends ’em abroad on her own affairs From the second she opens her eyes – One million Hows, two million Wheres, And seven millions Whys. (R. Kipling) 77

Есть у меня шестерка слуг, Проворных, удалых, И все, что вижу я вокруг, – Все знаю я от них. Они по знаку моему Являются в нужде, Зовут их Как и Почему, Кто, Что, Когда и Где. Я по морям и по лесам Гоняю верных слуг. Потом работаю я сам, А им даю досуг. Я по утрам, когда встаю, Всегда берусь за труд, А им свободу я даю – Пускай едят и пьют. Но у меня есть милый друг, Особа юных лет. Ей служат сотни верных слуг – И всем покоя нет. Она гоняет как собак В ненастье, дождь и тьму Пять тысяч Где, семь тысяч Как, Сто тысяч Почему! (Перевод С. Я. Маршака) 5. Поставьте вопросы к предложениям

А. 1. My friend speaks English very well. (4) 2. They went to the country yesterday. (4) 3. I am writing a letter now. (3) 4. My brother is a student at university. (3) 5. It often snows in my native town. (2) 6. It took me an hour and a half to get to my place. (2) 7. Tom is reading for his exam now. (3) 8. He is taking an exam tomorrow. (3) 9. Ann brought beautiful 78

flowers for her mother. (5) 10. It didn’t rain yesterday. (2) 11. Liz wants to work in Spain. (4) 12. We listened to the professor with great attention. (4) 13. I’m thinking about our holidays. (3) 14. Fred invited me to his birthday party. (4) 15. The doctor told her to stay in bed. (3) B. 1. My friend and I went to the Hermitage last week. (4) 2. I wrote the project two days ago. (4) 3. It stopped raining. (1) 4. My sister likes this film very much. (3) 5. They are discussing this question now. (3) 6. We congratulated George on his birthday. (4) 7. The businessmen arrived in the hotel early in the morning. (4) 8. The BBC stations are noncommercial. (2) 9. The Duchess of Abercorn, Lady Alexandra Abercorn is the greatgreatgreatgranddaugh ter of Pushkin and of Nicholas I. (3) 10. Charles Dickens is one of the greatest English novelists. (2) 11. I talked to your brother at the party last night. (5) 12. Sally asked me to help her. (4) 13. Nelly is going shopping after work. (4) 14. The boy cut his finger with a knife. (4) 15. Paul Newman made over fortyfive films. (3)

Обороты “So do I/Neither do I” So do I/Neither do I Phrases

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6. Отреагируйте, используя обороты типа “so do I”, “neither do I”

1. I went to bed late yesterday. 2. He is thinking about it. 3. I often meet this man. 4. My parents live in this street. 5. My friend is going to enter the university. 6. I didn’t take an umbrella yesterday. 7. My brother studies German. 8. I spoke to David a few days ago. 9. I think he is right. 10. I’m not afraid of the dogs. 11. We are waiting for Mr. Corn. 12. I asked them to help us. 13. I’m not sure of it. 14. I don’t think he is ill. 15. I’m going to the station to meet my friends. 7. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

What Peter Did Yesterday In the morning Peter woke up at about seven. He jumped out of bed and went to wake up his brother Billy. Billy was still asleep, so Peter splashed cold water on 80

him. Then he jumped out of bed and chased Peter round the room. Father woke and heard them and called to them: “Stop that noise, both of you!” So Peter and Billy stopped the noise and Peter went to the bathroom for his bath. Soon Mother got up and went downstairs. Then Peter went back to his bedroom. There he put his clothes on, combed his hair and brushed it, took a clean handkerchief and went downstairs. Mother, Father and Billy were all sitting at the table, so Peter said “Good morning!” to them and they began breakfast. They had porridge with sugar and cream first. After porridge they had bacon, eggs, toast and tea with milk. Peter helped Mother to clear breakfast away. Then Peter got ready for the institute and Billy – for school. Peter went by bus and Billy went on foot. Peter came back home about four. He washed and changed. Then he helped Mother about the house. Father returned home soon after six. Everybody was glad to see him again and to talk to him. They had dinner and after that Peter did his homework. In the evening he didn’t go to the theatre or to the pictures, he stayed at home and watched TV. 1. When did Peter wake up yesterday? 2. What did Peter do when he woke up? 3. Why did Peter splash cold water on Billy? 4. Why did Father tell Peter and Billy to stop the noise? 5. When did Mother get up? 6. What did Peter do before breakfast? 7. What did the family start breakfast with? 8. What did they eat after porridge? 9. Who cleared breakfast away? 10. Did Peter go to the institute on foot or by bus? 81

11. When did he come back home? 12. What did he do before Father returned? 13. What did he do after dinner? 14. Did he go out? 8. Ответьте на вопросы

1. When did you wake up yesterday? 2. Did you get up as soon as you woke up? 3. Did your Mother/Father/sister/ brother get up before or after you? 4. Did you take a shower or a bath in the morning? 5. Did you comb your hair or brush it? 6. Did you put your clothes on before or after breakfast? 7. Did you have porridge for breakfast? 8. What did you have for breakfast? 9. Did you go to the institute/office on foot, by bus or in a car? 10. When did you return home? 11. Did you have dinner with your family or alone? 12. Who cleared dinner away? 13. Did you go out or stay at home? 14. When did you go to bed? 9. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Bill Gates Bill Gates, one of the richest men in the world, who developed “Microsoft”, was born in 1955 in Seattle, USA. From his parents he got a good business sense and a quick mind. His father is a lawyer and his late mother was a teacher and then a company director. At school Bill showed that he was very intelligent. His favourite subjects were maths and science. At 13 he got interested in computers. Bill Gates and his friend Paul Allen spent all their time writing programmes and learning about computers instead of doing their homework. After finishing school in 1973, Bill went to Harvard, America’s most famous university. Most of the time he worked on the computers in the university laboratory. Even 82

then he knew that he would revolutionize the world of computing, so he left Harvard before finishing his studies. The two friends started “Microsoft” in 1975, and very soon it became a business success. Then Bill Gates developed MSDOS, the standard operating system for all PCs, such wellknown programmes as Windows, Excel and Internet Explorer. Bill Gates is married and has two children. Bill hasn’t got much free time, but when he has a chance he likes playing golf and bridge. He is also fond of reading about science. For such a rich person, his life is simple, and he spends very little on himself. When it comes to helping others, though, Gates is very generous. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has already given $300 million to charity. 1. When and where was Bill Gates born? 2. What does his father do? 3. What did his mother do? 4. What were his favourite subjects at school? 5. Was Bill Gates a hardworking pupil? 6. What university did he enter? 7. Did he graduate from the university? 8. Why didn’t he finish his studies? 9. When did he and his friend Paul Allen start “Microsoft”? 10. What computing programmes did Bill Gates develop? 11. What does he like to do when he has free time? 12. Does he help people? How? 10. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

One thousand years ago, in the desert of the Chako Canyon, New Mexico, USA, the Anasazi people built nine multistorey buildings called Great Houses. 83

They used stone for the walls and wood for the floors, doors and roofs. They transported more than 200,000 trees from forests almost 80 kilometres away. How did they move the trees? We don’t know. In some buildings there are huge circular rooms, the biggest one is underground and it is about 26 metres wide. Why did the Anasazi build circular rooms? We don’t know. Perhaps they used them for religious ceremonies or for storing crops. We know the Anasazi people abandoned the Great Houses. Why did they leave? Hunger? War? We really don’t know. 1. When and where did the Anasazi people build Great Houses? 2. What did they use for the walls? 3. What material did they use for the floors, doors and roofs? 4. Where did they transport trees from? 5. How many trees did they transport? 6. Do modern people know how they moved the trees? 7. Where is the biggest circular room? 8. How large is it? 9. What did the Anasazi people use huge circular rooms for? 10. Why did they abandon the Great Houses? 11. Переведите предложения, используя Past Indefinite

1. Мой друг поступил в университет в прошлом году. 2. Я добрался до твоего дома всего за 15 минут. 3. Он взял письмо и опустил его в почтовый ящик. 4. Я вчера не ходил в библиотеку, а ты? – Я тоже. 5. Том решил провести каникулы на свежем воз духе. 84

6. Лето было жаркое, все время светило солнце, и не было дождя. 7. Джон поехал 8часовым поездом. 8. Было холодно, и мы надели теплую одежду. 9. Я посмотрел на часы и вскочил с постели. 10. Ты поздравил Гарри с днем рождения? – Да. А ты? – Я тоже. 11. В воскресенье я был дома. А вы? – Я тоже. 12. Прошлой зимой часто шел снег. 13. Майк перевел статью. А ты? – Я тоже. 14. Когда я открыл дверь, я увидел своего двоюродно го брата. 15. Мама поставила чашки на стол и налила в них чай. 12. Переведите предложения, используя Present Indefinite и Past Indefinite

1. Лондону 2000 лет. 2. Шекспир (Shakespeare) родился и умер в один и то т же день – 23 апреля. 3. Томас Mуp (Thomas Moore) воспевал свою родину – Шотландию. 4. В 1843 году Альфред Нобель (Alfred Nobel) со сво ими родителями переехал в Россию. 5. Оскар Уайлд (Oscar Wilde) написал только один роман – «Портрет Дориана Грея» (“The Picture of Dorian Gray”). 6. Билл Гейтс заинтересовался компьютером, когда ему было 13 лет. 7. Бернард Шоу (Bernard Shaw) продолжал писать до конца своих дней. 8. Роберт Бернс (Robert Burns) начал писать стихи в 16 лет. 9. Вальтер Скотт (Walter Scott) за 18 лет написал 20 романов. 85

10. Отец Джонатана Свифта (Jonathan Swift) умер за несколько месяцев до рождения сына. 11. В Канаде длинные холодные зимы. 12. Моцарт (Mozart) жил в XVIII веке. 13. Знаменитая актриса Грета Гарбо (Greta Garbo) ни когда не говорила о своей личной жизни. 14. В праздники английская королева приглашает много людей на обед.

SHORT CONVERSATION – May I have a cup – Чашку кофе, пожалуйста. of coffee? (Можно чашку кофе?) – Certainly. Here you are. – Конечно. Вот, пожалуйста. – Thank you. – Спасибо.

————— – Would you like a cup of coffee? – Yes, please./ I’d love one. (No, thank you.)

– He хотите ли чашку кофе? – Да, спасибо./ С удовольствием. (Нет, спасибо.)

LAUGH AND LEARN A Ready Answer Early one morning a poor Irishman went to the woods to shoot a rabbit for his breakfast. The wood belonged to a rich landlord. Just when the Irishman was coming out of the wood he came face to face with the landlord who was taking an early morning walk. The Irishman walked right up to him and said: “Good morning, sir, you are out early this morning”. 86

“Yes”, was the answer. “I came out to see if I could get an appetite for my breakfast.” Then the landlord looked hard at the poor man, “But what are you doing here so early in the morning?”. “Well, sir”, answered the poor man, “I came out to see if I could get a breakfast for my appetite”. Готовый ответ Както ранним утром бедный ирландец пошел в лес охотиться на кролика для своего завтрака. Лес при надлежал богатому землевладельцу. В тот самый мо мент, когда ирландец выходил из леса, он встретился лицом к лицу с землевладельцем, который совершал утреннюю прогулку. Ирландец подошел к нему и ска зал: «Доброе утро, сэр, вы сегодня рано». «Да, – был ответ. – Я вышел, чтобы нагулять аппе тит к завтраку». Потом землевладелец тяжелым взглядом посмотрел на бедняка. «А что ты тут дела ешь так рано утром?» «Я, сэр, – отвечал бедняк, – вышел посмотреть, не смогу ли я добыть завтрак для своего аппетита».

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Necessity is the mother ~ Голь на выдумки хитра. of invention. Still waters run deep. ~ В тихом омуте черти во дятся. Charity begins at home. – Милосердие начинается дома.

LESSON 6 The more you study, the more you know; the more you know, the more you forget. (Чем больше вы учитесь, тем боль" ше вы знаете; чем больше вы знаете, тем больше забываете. /Век живи, век учись и дураком помрешь.) • ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE) • СУФФИКСЫ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ (SUFFIXES OF NOUNS) • ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫЕ ТИПА “BLUEEYED” (BLUEEYED TYPE ADJECTIVES)

Прошедшее длительное время The Past Continuous Tense

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Past Continuous употребляется для выражения: 1) длительного действия, совершавшегося в опреде ленный момент; 2) длительного действия, происходящего в определен ный отрезок времени в прошлом. Past Continuous переводится на русский язык про шедшим временем глагола несовершенного вида: I was writing – я писал. 1. Объясните употребление Past Indefinite и Past Continuous; переведите предложения

1. My friend was ringing me up when his mother came. 2. On my way home I saw your sister. She was standing on the bus stop. 3. Не looked at the watch. The second hand was moving quickly. 4. I was speaking on the phone when the door bell rang. 5. My cousin called me when I was turning on the TV. 6. Nick was leaving home when he saw a stranger. 7. Mr. Brown was going downstairs for breakfast when he saw his wife speaking to her sister. 8. I was writing an essay all day long. 9. What were you doing yesterday from 10 till 12? 10. I was waiting for you at 5 o’clock. Why didn’t you come? 11. Kitty was reading for the exam from early morning till late at night on Sunday. 12. It wasn’t raining when we went out. 13. Му brother wrote that he was having a good time. 14. It was going to rain and I took an umbrella. 15. John said he was leaving for London soon. 2. Поставьте глаголы в Past Continuous Tense и переведите предложения

1. What Tom (to do) when you saw him? 2. I (to speak) on the phone when my friend came. 3. Ted (to watch) TV all evening instead of preparing for the exam. 4. When we left the office it (to rain). 5. I (to wait) for you for an hour yesterday. 6. Jack wrote that he (to look) for another job. 89

7. I did not understand why the teacher (to look) at me. 8. After the party Nelly (to wash) up very long. 9. Nick was late for dinner. When he came all the family (to sit) at the table. 10. I (to cut) slices of bread when I heard a telephone ring. 11. When I (to pour) coffee into the cups I burnt my finger. 12. My sister (to listen) to the weather forecast at 8 a.m. yesterday. 13. When I (to return) to my room, I remembered my promise. 14. Fred hurt his leg when he (to work) in the garden. 15. When my friend was at the seaside he (to swim) all the days. 16. А cat crossed his way when he (to go) home). 3. Поставьте глагол в Present Indefinite, Present Continuous, Past Indefinite или Past Continuous и переведите предло> жения

1. When Ken arrived we (to have) dinner. 2. I saw the film, but I (not to enjoy) it. 3. Му mother (not to drink) coffee very often. 4. Kate (to phone) me last night. 5. I (not to work) at the moment. 6. When it (to start) raining? 7. Your brother (smoke)? – No, he (to give) it up. 8. It’s a very old bicycle. When you (to buy) it? 9. What time the train (to arrive)? 10. What you (to think) about my plan? 11. I saw an accident when I (to go) home. 12. It (to get) dark when I left their house. 13. At 6 o’clock yesterday I (to have) dinner with my friends. 14. The police (to stop) me on my way to the office yesterday. 15. Listen to these people. What language they (to speak)? 16. The river Neva (to flow) into the Baltic Sea. 4. Переведите предложения, используя Рast Indefinite и Past Continuous

1. Я искал свою тетрадь целый час. 2. Когда я шел на работу, я встретил твоего брата. 3. Том ехал слишком быстро, поэтому его останови ла полиция. 90

4. Когда я приехал, меня встретил Ник. 5. Нина написала, что она прекрасно проводит время. 6. Я выглянул в окно, шел сильный дождь. 7. Я повредил руку, когда работал в саду. 8. Когда мы вышли из театра, шел дождь. 9. Менеджер разговаривал по телефону, когда вошел секретарь. 10. Когда я мыла посуду, я услышала телефонный зво нок. 11. Вчера весь вечер я писал письма. 12. Когда вошел преподаватель, все студенты громко разговаривали. 13. Я очень устал и собирался рано лечь спать, когда раздался телефонный звонок. 14. Когда Сэм пришел завтракать, он увидел, что вся семья сидит за столом. 15. Я встретил почтальона, когда подходил к дому. 16. Темнело, нам было пора возвращаться домой. 5. Переведите предложения, используя Present Indefinite, Present Continuous, Past Indefinite и Past Continuous

1. Здесь летом часто идут дожди. 2. Он ничего не сделал, чтобы помочь брату. 3. Я живу у своих друзей, пока не найду квартиру. 4. Поторопись, все тебя ждут. 5. Они пригласили меня в гости, но я решил не хо дить. 6. Я искал свои ключи почти два часа. 7. Что делает сейчас муж Анны? – Он ремонтирует машину. 8. О чем ты думаешь? – О своей работе. 9. Когда я вошел, они громко обсуждали чтото. 10. Я вспомнил свое обещание только тогда, когда вер нулся домой. 11. Джимми сдал экзамен, так как много занимался. 91

12. Когда вы видели его последний раз? 13. Я послал письмо в фирму два дня назад. 14. Кошка перебежала мне дорогу, когда я шел на ра боту. 15. Дождь прекратился, и мы пошли на прогулку. 16. С кем разговаривает ваш брат? – Со своим учите лем.

Наиболее употребительные суффиксы существительных Suffixes of nouns >ment – payment

>ty/>ity/>ability/>ibility – society, availability >tion/>ssion – demonstration, impression >th – depth >ness – darkness >ture/>sure – picture >cs – mechanics >age – message >dom – freedom >al – proposal >ship – friendship >ist – scientist >ance – importance >er/>or – teacher, doctor >ism – socialism >ian – academician 6. Образуйте существительные с помощью следующих суф> фиксов:

>tion delegate declare direct examine operate translate collect

>ment employ develop agree move improve announce govern

>ence/>ance silent significant appear depend enter patient different 92

>er/>or read write direct found operate announce drive

>ship leader dictator citizen

>dom king wise bore

>ness kind weak bitter

>ty/>ity/>ibility safe special possible

>th true wide grow

>al arrive deny remove

>hood child neighbour mother

>age pass marry short

>ture/>sure mix please press sign depart

>ism positive modern American material commune

>ist physics modern art piano science

>ian library history music politics magic

Прилагательные типа “blue>eyed” Blueeyed Type Adjectives blue>eyed – голубоглазый black>bearded – чернобородый long>legged – длинноногий pale>faced – бледнолицый dark>haired – темноволосый red>cheeked – краснощекий long>sighted – дальнозоркий good>natured – добродушный kind>hearted – добросердечный absent>minded – рассеянный 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слож> ные прилагательные

1. My sister wears nice dresses. She is a welldressed girl. 2. I can read the timetable from here. I am longsighted. 93

3. When I came out I saw a blackbearded man in front of the office. 4. Mr. Smith’s secretary is a pretty blueeyed young woman. 5. That greyhaired woman is my teacher. 6. A lot of men like fairhaired women. 7. There was a long war between palefaced and redfaced people in America. 8. Bodygards are usually broadshouldered men. 9. I am shortsighted, but I don’t like to wear glasses. 10. A longeared dog came up to the man and barked. 11. My grandparents are kindhearted people. 12. One of the famous detectives Father Brown was a short goodnatured man. 8. Переведите предложения, используя прилагательные типа “blue>eyed”

1. Длиннохвостые обезьяны пользуются хвостом как рукой. 2. Этот круглолицый человек – наш преподаватель музыки. 3. Когда я вижу широкоплечего человека, я думаю, что он работает телохранителем. 4. Мой друг носит очки, у него близорукость. 5. Я думаю, что этот бледный человек серьезно болен. 6. Сын гна Грина – длинноногий мальчик, он зани мается бегом. 7. С добродушным человеком приятно разговаривать. 8. Сейчас трудно поверить, что десять лет назад гн Браун был краснощеким молодым человеком. 9. Кармен – черноглазая красавица. 10. Кошка с зелеными глазами лежала на диване. 11. Мой дядя – добросердечный человек, он помогает многим людям. 12. Не все футболисты длинноногие, у некоторых из них ноги короткие.

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ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to depend on... – зависеть от... It depends on you. – Это зависит от вас. It doesn’t depend on me. – Это от меня не зависит. Who does it depend on? – От кого это зависит? What does it depend on? – От чего это зависит? (It) depends. – Смотря по обстоятель ствам./Как получится./ Поразному. 9. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Raymond Murphy and His Bestselling Grammar Author of the famous “Essential Grammar in Use” and “English Grammar in Use”, Raymond Murphy visited Moscow in October 2001. He was meeting many students and teachers, visiting schools, universities and bookshops. Everywhere he was greeted with enormous enthusiasm as no other Englishteaching materials are as popular and as universally used in this country as his two grammars. During his visit Ray Murphy gave a press conference to educational media journalists. Below are some extracts from it. Q. Mr. Murphy, what is the secret of such popularity of your grammar books in the world? A. I guess the reason why people like to use these books is that they are for students rather than for teachers or academics: they are accessible to everybody because there are few technical terms in them and they are practical rather than theoretical. Q. Students from what countries are most successful in mastering English? A. Different language areas are difficult depending on students’ mother tongue and previous experience. The 95

fastest learners are naturally the students whose native language is most closely related to English – Germanic languages such as German, Dutch, or Swedish. Q. What advice would you give to people learning a foreign language on their own? A. Practise and speak as much as possible. Q. What do you think of teaching foreign languages through the Internet? A. It’s too early to say yet: there are not many Internet teaching materials. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

What is Raymond Murphy famous for? When did he visit Russia? Who was he meeting in Moscow? Why was Mr. Murphy greeted with enormous enthusiasm? What does Raymond Murphy say about the secret of popularity of his books in the world? Students from what countries are most successful in mastering English? What advice does Raymond Murphy give to people learning a foreign language on their own? What is Murphy’s opinion about teaching foreign languages through the Internet?

10. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

A Rainy Day Episode It was raining hard, but when I went to get an umbrella I found that out of the five umbrellas we had at home there was only one I could use. I decided to take all the five umbrellas to an umbrellamaker. So I took them, left them at the umbrellamaker’s, saying that I would call for the umbrellas on my way home in the evening. When I went to dine in the afternoon, it was still raining very hard. I went to the 96

nearby restaurant, sat down at a table and had been1 there only a few minutes when a young woman came in and sat down at the same table with me. I was the first to finish and when I got up, I absentmindedly took her umbrella and started for the door. She called out to me and reminded me that I had taken2 her umbrella. I returned it to her with many apologies. In the evening I called for my umbrellas, bought a newspaper and got on a tram. The young woman was in the tram too. She looked at me and said, “You’ve had3 a successful day, haven’t you?” 1. What was the weather like when the author was going out? 2. How many umbrellas were there at his home? 3. Why did the man take all umbrellas with him? 4. What was the weather like when he went to dine? 5. Where did he go to dine? 6. Who sat down at the same table with the man? 7. Why did the man take the young woman’s umbrella? 8. Whom did the man meet in the tram when he was going home? 9. What did the young woman say when she saw that the man had many umbrellas with him? 10.Do you think the man explained the situation? ЗАПОМНИТЕ: I nearly died. – Я чуть не умер. I nearly fell. – Я чуть не упал. I nearly let out a secret. – Я чуть не проговорился. I nearly let the cat out – Я чуть не выболтал of the bag. секрет. _________________ 1 had been – был 2 I had taken – я взял 3 you’ve had – у вас был 97

11. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

About a Mouse Who Became a Cat, a Dog and a Tiger One day a crow flying over a forest dropped a mouse which it was holding in its beak. The mouse fell at the feet of a man who was a magician. When the man saw the little animal he took pity on it, took the mouse home and gave it food. The little mouse lived happily in the man’s house for many days. One day the mouse came out of the house and met a cat. The mouse ran back into the house and hid itself in the corner, trembling with fear. The man asked why the mouse was trembling. “Oh, my master”, cried the mouse, “not far from our house I met a cat and I nearly died.” “Well, I think I’ll make it so that you will never be afraid of cats. Now go to bed. In the morning you will be a cat and not a mouse.” The man did just as he had promised. “You need no longer be afraid of cats. You are a cat yourself now”, said the man. Feeling happy and safe, the catmade mouse ran out of the house. Suddenly she saw a cat again. The poor cat forgot that she was not a mouse any more and ran into the house again. The cat was ashamed to tell her master that she was frightened of a cat and said, “The dog ran after me and I had just time to run into the house and save myself.” The man promised to turn her into a dog. In the morning the cat became a dog. Barking loudly she ran out of the house. When the dog came up to a tree, she saw a cat again. The cat thought that the dog was going to jump at her and she mewed loudly. When the dog heard the mewing, he began to tremble and ran back into the house again. 98

The dog was very much ashamed to tell his master the truth. “I met a tiger and hardly saved myself from his sharp fangs.” The magician turned the dog into a tiger. When the dog saw that he was a tiger, he thought, “I’m the king of the beasts, I’ll go to the forest and look how the animals tremble with fright when they see me.” And the tiger went out into the forest. Suddenly he saw the cat again. The cat got so frightened that her hair stood up and her eyes shone like two big stars in the dark sky. And when the tiger who had a heart of a mouse saw it, he ran home as fast as he could, hid himself in the darkest corner and lay there with his teeth clattering from fright. The man was very much surprised, “Why are you trembling?” He asked. “Is there an animal in our forest stronger than you, a tiger?” “Oh, yes, there is”, answered the tiger, “it’s ... a cat.” The man understood everything and said, “A tiger who has a heart of a mouse, is weaker than a cat. Let him who has a heart of a mouse, be a mouse forever”, saying this, he turned the tiger back into a mouse. 1. How did a mouse get into the man’s house? 2. What was a man? 3. Why did the man turn a mouse into a cat? 4. What did the catmade mouse do when she saw a cat? 5. Why did the man turn the cat into a dog? 6. How did the dog explain the reason of his running back into the house? 7. The man turned the dog into a tiger, didn’t he? 8. Why did the tiger decide to go to the forest? 9. What was the tiger, who had a heart of a mouse, afraid of? 10. What did the magician say when he understood everything? 99

12. Объясните употребление времён; переведите предложе> ния на русский язык

1. If you promise to do something, try to keep your word. 2. At the conference scientists and teachers discussed educational problems. 3. In most countries cars drive on the right side of the road. In England they drive on the left side. 4. If you want to master English, study hard. Everything depends on you only. 5. He looked at the sky and saw geese which were flying to warm countries. 6. When a little girl saw a tiger in the cage she got frightened very much. 7. Before I forget, give me the letter which we received yesterday. 8. A lot of things depend on ourselves only. 9. Valentine’s Day is a new holiday in Russia, but it is becoming more and more popular. 10. King Henry VIII was a handsome redhaired man. 11. I nearly let your secret out when we were talking about our friends. 12. If the wind is blowing on Christ mas Day, you are in for a good year. 13. Pablo Picasso was constantly looking for new forms. 14. If you see a person without a smile, then give him yours and greet him. 15. Does it ever stop raining around here? 16. John Travolta became one of the biggest stars of Hollywood when he was about twenty. 13. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя изученную лексику

1. Когда преподаватель входит в класс, студенты встают и приветствуют его. 2. Прототипом Шерлока Холмса (Sherlock Holmes) был известный врач и профессор университета док тор Белл. 3. Кто тот широкоплечий человек у окна? 100

4. Когда ты обычно приходишь с работы? – Когда как. 5. Многие англичане регулярно слушают прогноз по годы. 6. От кого это зависит? – Это зависит только от вас. 7. Преподаватель прочитал отрывок текста и попро сил нас пересказать его. 8. Ты знаешь прогноз погоды на завтра? 9. В прошлом году в это время я жил в отеле «Олим пия». 10. Девочка сжалилась над котенком и взяла его до мой. 11. Было 20 градусов ниже нуля, поэтому дети оста лись дома. 12. Мальчик испугался большой собаки и чуть не за кричал. 13. Я обещал позвонить гну Грину в 3 часа. 14. К сожалению, это решение от нас не зависит. 15. Вы бы хотели быть волшебником? 16. Пока я не забыл, пригласите Дэвида на день рож дения.

SHORT CONVERSATION – Are you taken, driver? – No, sir. Step in, please!

– Занято, водитель? – Нет, садитесь, пожалуй ста! – Where shall I take you? – Куда вас отвезти? – I must get to the station – Мне нужно быть на in half an hour. вокзале через полчаса. – No problem! We’ll make it. – Нет проблем! Успеем.

101

LAUGH AND LEARN A foreign diplomat came in upon Lincoln1 while he was blacking his shoes. “What, Mr. President, you black your own shoes?” “Yes,” Lincoln answered, “whose do you black2?”

Иностранный дипломат вошел к Линкольну, ког да тот чистил свою обувь. «Как, господин Президент, вы чистите свою (собствен ную) обувь?» «Да, – ответил Линкольн, – а чью обувь чистите вы?»

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Curiosity killed the cat.

A leopard cannot change his spots. No news is good news.

– Любопытство сгубило кошку (~ Много будешь знать, быстро соста ришься). ~ Гopбaтого могила ис правит. – Отсутствие новостей – хорошая новость.

_________________ 1 Lincoln [linkən] – Авраам Линкольн, выдающийся американский государственный деятель, президент США 2 tо black the shoes – чистить ботинки

LESSON 7 Where there is a will, there is a way. (Там, где есть желание, есть и способ его выполнить./ ~ Кто хочет, тот и может.) • БУДУЩЕЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОЕ/ПРОСТОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE FUTURE INDEFINITE/SIMPLE TENSE) • ПРИДАТОЧНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ ВРЕМЕНИ И УСЛОВИЯ (ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME AND CONDITION) • НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ SOME, ANY, NO (INDEFINITE PRONOUNS SOME, ANY, NO) • СУФФИКСЫ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ (SUFFIXES OF ADJECTIVES)

Будущее неопределенное/простое время The Future Indefinite/Simple Tense

103

Future Indefinite/Simple употребляется для выра жения действия, которое совершится или будет совер шаться в будущем. Future Indefinite/Simple переводится на русский язык будущим временем глагола либо совершенного, либо несовершенного вида: I will write — я буду писать/я напишу. 1. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на Future Indefinite

1. I think he will take part in the conference. 2. Don’t worry! I’ll be in time. 3. Jane won’t come to the party tomorrow, she is ill. 4. When will you take entrance exams? 5. Will you wait for me? I won’t be very long. 6. People will never forget the tragedy of Hiroshima. 7. Where shall we go this evening? 8. Shall I close the window? It’s cold here. 9. James will start work at ten tomorrow. 10. Mother will be very angry with you, if you don’t study hard. 11. The weather forecast says it will snow tomorrow. 12. I won’t tell anybody about it, I promise. 13. I’m sure Nick will get this job, he has a lot of experience. 14. What time shall I call you? 15. Where will you be this time next year? 2. Откройте скобки, используя Future Indefinite, где это необходимо

1. I (to get up) at 6 o’clock tomorrow. My work (to start) earlier than usual. 2. Some scientists think that people (to live) on other planets. 3. Where you (to go) after work? 4. The conference (to start) at eleven tomorrow. 5. What time you (to ring up) me tomorrow? 6. Do you think I (to pass) the exam? 7. I don’t think Nancy (to come) to the party. 8. There is no need to take an umbrella. It (not/to rain). 9. You never (to believe) in it! 10. I’m not sure I (to go) to the party. 11. I (to show) you how to use this camera. 104

12. Don’t worry! I (to repair) your bicycle. 13. I hope, mother (to like) my present. 14. Nobody knows what (to happen) next. 15. I (to shut) the door? It’s noisy. 3. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя Present Indefinite и Future Indefinite

1. Завтра я закончу работу раньше, чем обычно. 2. Фред говорит, что будет нам часто писать. 3. Я думаю, что ему понравится эта идея. 4. Не беспокойтесь, Том позвонит вам завтра утром. 5. Нора придет вовремя, она никогда не опаздывает. 6. В следующем году моя сестра будет поступать в университет. 7. Приходите завтра. Директор примет вас. 8. Я увижу Джона во вторник и поговорю с ним. 9. Не опаздывайте! Я буду ждать вас. 10. В какое время вы будете в аэропорту? – Я постара юсь приехать как можно раньше. 11. Мы пойдем навестить его в воскресенье. 12. Я никому не скажу об этом, не беспокойтесь. 13. Надеюсь, завтрашний день принесет вам хорошие новости. 14. Текст переводить со словарем? 15. Подождите здесь, пожалуйста, директор скоро придет.

Придаточные предложения времени и условия Adverbial Clauses of Time and Condition If the weather is fine we’ll go for a walk.

Если будет хорошая погода, мы пойдем на прогулку.

When he comes I’ll tell him about it.

Когда он придет, я скажу ему об этом. 105

4. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на придаточные предложения усло> вия и времени

1. If I find out the date of his arrival, I’ll meet him at the airport. 2. I’ll ring you up when I know the details. 3. If I see him, I’ll tell him about your invitation. 4. What will happen if he comes home late? 5. Send us a telegram as soon as you arrive. 6. If you decide to buy a car, consult a specialist. 7. Where will you stay when you come to London? 8. Mother won’t go to bed till the children come back. 9. He’ll come to say goodbye before he leaves for Paris. 10. I’ll clean the dishes after we have dinner. 11. If the party is boring we’ll leave it. 12. Give Paul my telephone number. If he knows my telephone number, he’ll ring me up. 13. If you tell him about it, he’ll be surprised. 14. When he comes, I’ll show him the sights of our city. 15. If you invite her to the theatre, she’ll be pleased. 5. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод придаточных предложе> ний

1. I don’t know if he’ll have time to help you. 2. We’ll be late unless we hurry. 3. I’m not sure if they will invite me to the conference. 4. I think he’ll call on you tomorrow. 5. I’ll never touch it again, if you like. 6. I’ll take this book from the library if I don’t find it at home. 7. Mother asks me when I’ll come back. 8. I’m sure you’ll pass your exam. 9. Bob says he’ll do everything in time. 10. If I’m tired after work I’ll not go out. 11. My sister writes she’ll come in June. 12. If there are many people at the party we’ll leave. 13. After the professor finishes the lecture the students will ask him questions. 14. I don’t know if somebody will meet me at the station. 15. Nick will not pass the exams unless he works harder. 106

6. Поставьте глаголы в нужное время и переведите пред> ложения на русский язык

1. If I (to have) money I’ll buy a car. 2. When he (to start) to work he won’t have any free time. 3. I don’t know whether he (to come) today. 4. Granny asks when we (to come) to see her. 5. If he (to do) it himself I’ll be surprised. 6. The teacher says the examination (not/to be) difficult. 7. If you (to see) me at the party don’t be surprised. 8. If I (to take) an umbrella it won’t rain. 9. Nina asks us when we (to leave) for London. 10. When you (to see) our dog, don’t be afraid, it doesn’t bite. 11. If you (to see) this performance you’ll enjoy it. 12. I’m sure you (to enjoy) this performance. 13. What will happen if I (to be) late? 14. I wonder if it (to rain) at weekend. 15. He wants to know whether I (to see) Joe tomorrow. 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя Present Indefinite или Future Indefinite

1. Я не знаю, когда он позвонит. 2. Если вы не поспешите, вы опоздаете. 3. Если я не возьму зонт, пойдет дождь. 4. Бабушка спрашивает, когда мы придем навестить ее. 5. Если вы увидите Нору, скажите ей, что я жду ее звонка. 6. Спросите у него, когда он пойдет в библиотеку. 7. Что случится, если он не придет? 8. Джон пишет, что в мае он будет сдавать экзаме ны. 9. Я больше никогда не пойду туда. 10. Пошли нам телеграмму, как только приедешь. 11. Когда вы приедете к нам, я покажу вам наш го род. 12. Если я буду плохо чувствовать себя, я никуда не пойду. 107

13.Я дам вам словарь, после того как переведу статью. 14.Если вы увидите собаку, не убегайте, собаки этого не любят. 15.Вы не знаете, когда начнется конференция?

Неопределенные местоимения some, any, no Indefinite Pronouns some, any, no

8. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных место> имений

1. I’d like to ask you some questions. 2. Dick did not make any mistakes in his test paper. 3. Would you like some mi neral water? 4. He has no time to help me today. 5. Nothing special happened yesterday. 6. Somebody left the light on all night. 7. Nobody told me about it. 8. There is no doubt about it. 9. Did anybody call yesterday? 10. I think nobody knows that he is ill. 11. Will you go anywhere in summer? 12. Is there anything in the box? 13. I’m sorry, but it de pends on no one. 14. Is there any news? 15. He read the book and gave it to nobody else. 108

9. Вставьте местоимения some, any, no, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, something, anything; переведите пред> ложения на русский язык

1. Did you buy ... envelopes? 2. Are there ... illustrations in this book? 3. I saw ... at the window. 4. Where do I find ... who will give me ... information on this subject? 5. Will you please buy ... bread for me? 6. Неrе are ... letters for you. 7. Do you know ... in this room? 8. I want to buy ... flowers. 9. Give me ... to eat. I’m hungry. 10. If there is ... else you want, please let me know. 11. He has not ... friends in Moscow. 12. Did ... come here yesterday? 13. Is there ... in the room? 14. Please, give me ... more information. 15. If you find ... money on the floor, it is mine. I dropped ... yesterday. 10. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные

1. Я никого не видел в саду. 2. Никто ничего не знает о нем. 3. Я думаю, что дома никого нет. 4. Ни одна газета ничего не пишет об этом. 5. Почему вы не принесли ей чтонибудь почитать? 6. Вы куданибудь поедете летом? – Думаю, что нет. 7. Ктото оставил дверь открытой. 8. Никто не знает его адреса. 9. Не хотите ли кофе? – Спасибо, с удовольствием. 10. У меня нет времени идти в кино, у меня завтра эк замен. 11. У вас есть билеты на завтра? 12. Ктонибудь приходил навестить вас вчера? 13. К сожалению, у него нет машины. 14. Если у вас будет свободное время, прочтите эту ста тью. 15. Вы говорили с кемнибудь об этом? 109

Суффиксы прилагательных Suffixes of Adjectives >able/>ible >al >ant/>ent >ary/>ory >en >ful >ic >ive >less >ish >ous >y

– probable, possible – central – resistant, insistent – monetary, explanatory – wooden – fruitful – basic – active – useless – Danish – famous – windy

11. Образуйте прилагательные, используя данные суффиксы

ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to make money – зарабатывать деньги to make a mistake – сделать ошибку to make tea – заварить чай 110

to make coffee – сварить кофе to make a fire – разжечь костер

Не went to America – Он уехал в Америку to make money. зарабатывать деньги. You made a mistake in – Вы сделали ошибку в этом this word. слове. Shall I make tea? – Приготовить (заварить) чай? Will you make coffee – Сделайте (сварите) мне for me, please? кофе, пожалуйста. Не made a decision – Наконецто он принял at last. решение. Children made a fire in – Дети развели костер в лесу. the forest. 12. Прочтите и переведите текст

Today is Saturday. I usually spend Saturday evenings at home and help my parents about the house. Next Saturday I will be out. It will be the 3rd of September, my friend’s birthday. He will be nineteen on that day. I will be nineteen only next February. John, my friend, will have many guests. Almost all of them will be from our university. We will make a merry birthday party. John hopes it will be sunny so that we can have our tea in the garden. Tomorrow will be Sunday. I seldom stay at home on Sunday. I usually go to the Hermitage or to the Russian Museum with my friends. But next Sunday my friends and I will go on an excursion. We will go either by bus or by train to Pushkin and spend the whole Sunday there. We will visit the Catherine Palace and go for a walk in the park. I hope the weather will be fine for the weekend. I am sure we will have a good time. 111

13. Ответьте на вопросы

1. Will you be at home next Sunday? 2. Where will you spend next weekend? 3. Will your friends and you go on a weekend excursion? 4. How old will you be next year? When? 5. Will you have a birthday party? 6. Will you have many guests at your birthday party? ЗАПОМНИТЕ: There will be no more – (Больше) не будет войн. wars. I need say no more. – Мне нечего больше сказать. I saw him no more. – Я больше его не видел. I want no more. – Я больше не хочу. There’s no more. – Больше нет. 14. Прочтите и переведите текст

Life in the 21 st Century We live in a new era – in the 21st century. Of course, it’s exciting and we are trying to predict what our life will be in the future. It will certainly become better. Robots will do all the dangerous and dirty work for us and our daily life will become easier. Robots will sweep the floor, dust the furniture, wash the dishes and even cook. We’ll have more time to do creative jobs. We’ll call our friends on a video phone. Scientists or computers will find solutions to our most urgent problems. People will stop dying from cancer and AIDS and will live to be 150 years old. There will be no more famine on our planet and no more hungry children. Our cities will become cleaner, greener and safer. We’ll drive electric cars and live in houses with lots of 112

plants. Atmosphere pollution will be stopped and our planet will be saved. There will be no more wars, no more criminals and no more terrorists. We’ll have more free time and longer holidays. We’ll travel in space. Let’s be optimistic about the future, we are becoming wiser. 15. Ответьте на вопросы

1. Are you optimistic about the future? 2. Do you believe that robots will do all the dangerous and dirty work for us? 3. What will robots do for us? 4. Do you think children will go to school in the future? 5. What’s the difference between a telephone and a videophone? 6. Do you think people will write by hand in the future? 7. Why do you think people become healthier? 8. Why will our planet become cleaner? 9. Do you think there will be wars, criminals and terrorists in the future? ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to match – подходить, соответствовать I want a bag to match – Мне нужна сумка, подхо my dress. дящая к моему платью. Does this hat match – Эта шляпа подходит my coat? к моему пальто? 16. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

High Hopes One day a young country girl was going to town with a bucket of milk on her head. She said to herself: “When I come to the market, I’ll sell the milk at a high price and buy twenty eggs with the money. Out of these eggs I’ll get twenty chickens. As soon as the chickens are 113

large enough, I’ll sell them and buy a new dress for myself. I’ll buy a yellow dress to match my hair. On May Day, if the weather is fine, if it doesn’t rain I’ll put on the yellow dress and go to town. Everybody will look at me and say: 'What a beautiful girl!' But I’ll pass by without looking at them. I’ll only shake my head like that.” Without thinking she shook her head and down came the milk, the eggs, the chickens and the yellow dress. 1. Where is a young country girl going? 2. What does she carry? 3. What is she going to do with the milk? 4. What does she want to buy for herself? 5. Why does she want to buy a yellow dress? 6. Where is she going to get the money for a dress? 7. Where is she going to wear a yellow dress? 8. Why does the milk come down? 17. Повторите изученный материал, прочтите и переведи> те предложения на русский язык

1. If you study Murphy’s “English Grammar in Use”, you’ll enjoy it. 2. There are many ways of making coffee. 3. We are sure that our life will be better in the future. 4. Does your sister know that you will stay at the hotel? 5. If robots help us about the house, we’ll have more time for creative jobs. 6. If you visit Moscow, you’ll be surprised by colourful buildings. 7. If we travel in space, our life will be more exciting. 8. I’ll switch off the TV and be ready in a few minutes. 9. You’ll find a lot of teaching material in the Internet. 10. We hope there will be no criminals in the future. 11. When I see your friend, I’ll apologize for my words to him. 12. He was sure he would be able to make a lot of money. 13. To my mind, when he knows about this invention, he’ll get interested 114

eyes. 15. If you are late because of the traffic jams, it won’t be an excuse. 18. Поставьте глаголы в нужное время

1. When this famous scientist (to arrive) in St. Petersburg, he will give a press conference to journalists. 2. Do you think Paul will like the present I (to buy) him? 3. If students with different mother tongues (to begin) to study English, the best learners will be the students whose native language is most closely related to English–Germanic languages such as German, Dutch, or Swedish. 4. If you (to want) to know English grammar, learn Murphy’s grammar. 5. He said he (to answer) all the questions and (to need) say any more. 6. Bob always (to say) he won’t be late, but he always is. 7. The bus was very full. There (to be) too many people on it. 8. It’s raining. Let’s wait until it (to stop). 9. If nobody watches the TV, I (to switch) it off. 10. I hope to see you before you (to leave) tomorrow. 11. I don’t think Sheila is happy with her job. I think she (to leave) soon. 12. If somebody asks an American man to choose between losing his house and losing his car, he (to keep) easily his car. 13. If you (to ask) him some practical advice, he’ll recommend you to practise and speak as much as possible. 14. If you (to want) to speak English fluently, make more effort to learn the language rather than about the language. 15. My parents are kindhearted people. They will be pleased if you (to stay) with them. 19. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя нужное время

1. Мы все надеемся, что в будущем наша жизнь бу дет лучше. 2. Я разговаривал с ним на прошлой неделе и больше его не видел. 115

3. Дело в том, что это будет зависеть только от него самого. 4. Если вы хотите свободно говорить поанглийски, старайтесь говорить как можно чаще. 5. Джон говорит, что купит дом, когда заработает по больше денег. 6. У меня много работы, я буду работать до полуночи. 7. Я сейчас вымою руки и приготовлю кофе. 8. Если у него будет надежда поехать в Англию, он будет изучать язык с большим энтузиазмом. 9. Как только я приду домой, я включу телевизор и буду смотреть футбольный матч. 10. Вы чтонибудь знаете о роботах, которые помога ют человеку по дому? 11. Вы легко найдете материал по этой теме в Интер нете, если захотите. 12. Когда гости придут, я принесу торт. 13. Как вы думаете, этот галстук подходит к этому костюму? 14. Анна говорит, что Тони взял у нее словарь и не вер нул, поэтому она не перевела текст. 15. Мы примем решение, после того как поговорим с ними.

SHORT CONVERSATION – How do I look in this coat? – Как я выгляжу в этом пальто? – Very nice, indeed. It suits – Прекрасно. Оно очень you perfectly well. And идет вам. И материал this material is of high высокого качества. Он quality. It will wear for будет носиться целую ages. вечность. – Thank you. I’ll take it. – Спасибо. Я беру его. 116

LAUGH AND LEARN – Why did they hang – Почему они повесили эту that picture? картину? – Perhaps they couldn’t – Может быть потому, что find the artist. они не смогли найти автора.

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS When the cat is away, the mice will play.

– Когда кота нет дома, мыши гуляют (Нет кота в дому – мыши ходят по столу). This cat won’t jump. ~ Этот номер не пройдет. As sure as eggs is eggs. ~ Как дважды два – четыре.

LESSON 8 You can make a horse to the water, but you can not make it drink. (Вы можете привести лощадь к воде, но не можете заставить ее пить./Насильно мил не будешь.) • БУДУЩЕЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) • КОНСТРУКЦИЯ “USED TO (DO)” • СОЮЗЫ BOTH ... AND, EITHER ... OR, NEITHER ... NOR (CONJUNCTIONS BOTH ... AND, EITHER ... OR, NEITHER ... NOR) • СУФФИКСЫ ГЛАГОЛОВ (SUFFIXES OF VERBS)

Будущее длительное время The Future Continuous Tense

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Future Continuous употребляется для выражения длительного действия, которое будет совершаться в определенный момент времени или в определенном отрезке времени, а также для выражения недлитель ного действия, которое намечено заранее. Future Continuous переводится на русский язык бу дущим временем глагола несовершенного вида: I will be writing – я буду писать. 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык; объясните употребление Future Continuous

1. I’m going on holiday. This time next week I’ll be swimming in the sea. 2. If the weather forecast is right, it will be raining all the day tomorrow. 3. I’ll be reading for the exam for two days. 4. Will you be writing a test paper at eleven tomorrow? 5. If you come earlier, they will be having lunch. 6. Nancy will be doing shopping the whole day. She is going to have a party. 7. I’ll be wai ting for you from seven till eight tomorrow. 8. I’ll be going past the postoffice and send your letter. 9. Will you be watching the football match at eight o’clock? 10. What will you be doing at six o’clock? 11. They will be writing a composition from nine till twelve o’clock. 12. I’ll be reading your book from early morning till night. 2. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя Future Continuous

1. Приходите завтра в десять часов. Мы будем обсуж дать ваш вопрос. 2. Я буду ехать мимо вашего дома в семь часов. Если хотите, я вас подвезу. 3. Когда он будет заканчивать работу, я ему помогу. 4. Профессор будет читать лекцию завтра с девяти до одиннадцати часов. 5. Во вторник в десять часов директор будет разгова" ривать с Москвой. Приходите до или после десяти. 119

6. Что твой брат будет делать завтра? – С утра до по лудня он будет ремонтировать машину. 7. В субботу я весь день буду работать в саду. 8. Я весь вечер буду писать письма. 9. Что ты будешь делать в семь часов? – Буду смот реть телевизор. 10. Я буду переводить эту статью до поздней ночи.

Конструкция “used to (do)” USED TO (DO) – употребляется для обозначения дей ствия, неоднократно повторяющегося в прошлом: She used to go to the cinema, Раньше она часто ходи but she doesn’t go now. ла в кино, а сейчас нет. 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на оборот “used to”

1. When I was younger I used to watch TV a lot. 2. There used to be a lot of people in this park. There are few now. 3. Му cousin works hard. He never used to do it before. 4. Fred’s father didn’t use to smoke when he was young, but he sometimes smokes now. 5. Did you use to eat a lot of fruit in your childhood? 6. I used to play chess a lot, but I don’t play very well now. 7. Do you often go to the cinema? – Not now, but I used to. 8. This building is a shop now. It used to be a cinema. 9. I used to think Andrew was lazy, now I realize that I was wrong. 10. I never used to like icecream before. 11. Did Lucy use to travel a lot? 12. Jim and Robert never used to be friends before, but they are friends now. 4. Переведите предложения на английский язык, употреб> ляя оборот “used to (do)”

1. Раньше я не любил мороженое, а сейчас люблю. 2. Мой отец в молодости хорошо играл в футбол. 120

3. В этом здании раньше был кинотеатр, а сейчас в нем магазин. 4. Анна и Катя раньше были друзьями, а теперь они не дружат. 5. Раньше я пил много кофе, а теперь предпочитаю чай. 6. Том много занимался и хорошо сдавал экзамены, когда был студентом. 7. Ты много смотрел телевизор, когда учился в школе. 8. Мой дядя никогда не ходил на лыжах, он любил ходить в бассейн. 9. Он много курил раньше, а теперь бросил. 10. Мы раньше жили в маленьком городе, а теперь переехали в большой.

Союзы (Conjunctions) both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor both ... and either ... or neither ... nor

– и ... и; как ... так и; – или ... или; либо ... либо; – ни ... ни

5. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на двойные союзы

1. The manager is either at the office or at the laboratory. 2. We expect the trip to be both pleasant and exciting. 3. I’m not afraid to catch a cold, so I’ll put on neither a warm jacket nor a cap. 4. The delegation will arrive either tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. 5. Will you give me both the newspaper and the magazine? 6. It was going to rain, but he neither put a raincoat on nor took an umbrella. 7. It is clear now that he is both unexperienced and lazy. 8. We waited for him, but he came neither at seven nor at eight. 9. If I’m not mistaken, she lives either in this or in that house. 10. I both write to them and receive 121

letters from them. 11. You’ll get to the university either by bus or by trolleybus. 12. When I was ill both my friends and my relatives came to see me. 13. It will neither rain nor snow tomorrow. 14. As far as I know he is neither young nor old. 6. Переведите предложения, используя союзы both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor

1. Он не пришел ни в восемь, ни в девять часов. На верное, чтото случилось. 2. Он надел и куртку, и шапку, так как боялся про студиться. 3. Он часто ездит и в Америку, и в европейские стра ны. 4. Возьми зонт или надень плащ. Скоро пойдет дождь. 5. Поговорите или с директором, или с его секрета рем. 6. Я ничего не знаю о ней. Она не пишет и не звонит мне. 7. Я знаю, что этот человек и талантлив, и знаме нит. 8. Не беспокойтесь, они приедут либо в среду, либо в четверг. 9. Я так устал, что не хочу ни есть, ни пить. 10. Я хотел поговорить с ним, но его не было ни на лек ции, ни на семинаре. 11. Он очень ленив. Помоему, он не учится и не рабо тает. 12. Брат приедет сегодня или завтра и поможет мне отремонтировать машину. 13. Когда я пришел, никого не было ни в доме, ни в саду. 14. Я поеду на вокзал или автобусом, или на такси в зависимости от того, сколько у меня будет вре мени. 122

Суффиксы глаголов Suffixes of Verbs ate/ute – fy/ify – ize – en –

demonstrate, execute simplify crystallize sharpen

7. Образуйте глаголы с помощью данных суффиксов

ate fy/ify indication class contribution intense dictation pure illustration false communication quality

ize real modern sympathy critic character

en wide broad black length short

8. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Place Names In America The first people who arrived in America didn’t use to think of new names for the towns they built, but often gave the new place the name of the place they had come from. Along the east coast of the United States we find such English names as Plymouth, Cambridge, London, Boston. English names often appear with the word new as a prefix: New England, New York, New Britain. When the first English inhabitants left their homes on the east coast and moved to the west, they gave the new places the same names of those they had left behind. As a result, there are twentytwo towns in the United States which are called London, eighteen towns named Bristol, many named Chester, Windsor or New Windsor. This, of course, created a lot of difficulties for the postal service. There are towns named Philadel 123

phia in four states, besides Philadelphia that is the largest city in the state of Pennsylvania. This explains the American tradition of writing both the name of the state and the name of the city when addressing letters. If the sender does not do this, he can never be sure that his letter will go to the right address. 1.Why didn’t the first people who arrived in America use to think of new names for the towns they built? 2.What names did they give to the new towns? 3.What names of the English cities and towns are there along the east coast of the United States? 4.Which American cities and towns have the prefix new? 5.Why are there many towns and cities with the same names in the United States? 6.How many towns in the United States of America are called London? Bristol? Philadelphia? 7.Why do the Americans write both the name of the state and the name of the city on the envelopes?

ЗАПОМНИТЕ: sense – чувство; ощущение; здравый смысл sense of humour – чувство юмора common sense – здравый смысл sense of duty – чувство долга sense of proportion – чувство меры He is a man of common – Он разумный sense. (здравомыслящий) человек. Не has a sense of – У него есть чувство duty/humour. долга/юмора. Не has a sense of – У него есть чувство меры. proportion. It makes no sense. – В этом нет смысла. 124

9. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Scottish Character and Humour The Scottish people have a reputation according to which they are the stingiest people on earth. This is not true, of course, as anyone who visited Scotland will tell you. The Scottish people are very clever and simple, and they also have a natural sense of humour. One Friday a farmer’s wife went to town where she used to sell her butter and eggs. “What are you giving for a dozen of eggs today?” she asked the grocer. “Sixpence”, was the short reply. “Sixpence a dozen! That is a very small price indeed!” “Yes, but we grocers had a conference yesterday, and we decided that we could not give more than sixpence for the eggs.” The farmer’s wife shook her head very sadly but accepted the price and went away. Next Friday the farmer’s wife came to town as usual. When the grocer looked at the eggs he said, “Your eggs are very small this week.” “Well”, she said, “My hens had a conference yesterday, and they decided that sixpence is such a small price that they must not try so hard to lay large eggs for it.” 1. What reputation do the Scottish people have? 2. What kind of people are the Scots as a matter of fact? 3. Where did a farmer’s wife go one Friday? 4. Why did she go to town? 5. What price did the grocer give for the eggs? 6. Was the farmer’s wife satisfied with the price? 7. How did the grocer explain the small price? 8. Why did the farmer’s wife accept the price though she was not satisfied with it? 9. What lesson did the farmer’s wife give to the grocer? 125

ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to be in love with... – быть влюблённым в... to fall in love with... – влюбиться в... He is (fell) in love with – Он влюблён (влюбился) Jill. в Джил. 10. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

Why Was She Angry ? A young man was in love with a beautiful girl. One day she said to him, “It is my birthday tomorrow”. “Oh”, said the young man, “I’ll send you fresh roses, one rose for each year of your life.” The same evening he went to a florist’s where he used to buy flowers. As he knew that the girl was twentytwo years old, he paid for twentytwo roses and asked the florist to send them to the girl next day. The florist knew the young man very well. When the young man left the shop, he thought, “This young man is a very good customer. I think that my price was too high. I’ll send him ten more roses.” He did so. The next morning thirtytwo roses were sent to the girl. When the young man came to see her she neither wanted to speak to him nor to see him. And he never knew why she was so angry with him. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How old was a girl who a young man was in love with? Why did the young man decide to send her fresh roses? How many roses did he want to send? Did the florist know the young man? Why did the florist send the girl more roses than the young man had asked? 6. How many roses did the florist send? 7. What happened when the young man came to the girl next day? 126

8. Do you think the girl was right when she did not want to speak to the young man? 11. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык. Вспомните изученный материал

1. Jack told a funny story, but nobody laughed: they had no sense of humour. 2. About eleven million people in the USA can neither read nor write. 3. Don’t forget to write both the name of the town and the name of the state if you address a letter to the United States. 4. This man is very stingy: he never gives anybody presents. 5. I waited for his reply, but he only shook his head. 6. If you go to Scotland the Scots will tell you the funniest jokes about themselves. 7. English names for the new towns in the United States appeared either with the word new or without it. 8. This time tomorrow I’ll be driving to the country. 9. We thought and decided to accept their invitation. 10. According to the weather forecast autumn will be warm. 11. I’ll try hard to speak to him, but I’m not sure he will listen to me. 12. He thinks neither of us nor about himself. 13. If you don’t help him he will be angry with you. 14. English inhabitants in the United States lived both in the East and in the West. 15. You can rely on him, he has a sense of duty. 12. Переведите предложения на английский язык

1. Мой брат влюблен в голубоглазую девушку. 2. Он разумный человек и не рассердится на нас, если мы не придем. 3. У этого человека есть чувство юмора, он расска зывает о себе смешные истории. 4. Он обычно ходил за покупками в один и тот же ма газин. 5. Хорошо, когда человек имеет чувство меры. 127

6. Я не понимаю, почему он рассердился на меня. 7. Когда человек влюблен, ему хочется всем дарить цветы. 8. Все знают, что жители Одессы обладают чувством юмора. 9. Когда мы жили в маленьком городе, я обычно хо дил за покупками раз в неделю. 10. Молодой человек так никогда и не узнал, почему девушка рассердилась на него. 11. Пока я не забыл: позвони Анне и попроси ее зайти к нам. 12. Если ты будешь очень стараться, ты все сделаешь сам. 13. Я не уверен, что он получит мое письмо, потому что я забыл написать на конверте название штата. 14. Питер – здравомыслящий человек, он сможет при нять правильное решение. 15. Не имеет смысла писать ему письма: он скоро при едет.

SHORT CONVERSATION – What’s the news? – – Nothing special. – Nora’s coming to see us tonight. – Oh, why didn’t you tell – me that before? I must shave at once. – But it isn’t for certain – she’ll come. She only said she would probably come.

Какие новости? Ничего особенного. Нора собирается зайти к нам сегодня вечером. Что же ты не сказал об этом раньше? Мне надо (срочно) побриться. Но это неточно, что она придет. Она только сказа ла, что, возможно, придет.

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LAUGH AND LEARN A woman with a dog got on the bus. It was a big dog – about as big as a young horse – and its feet were very dirty. The woman said, “Oh, conductor, if I pay for my dog, can he have a seat like the other passen gers?” The conductor looked at the dog and then he said, “Certainly, madam. He’ll have a seat like all the other passengers, but, like the other passengers, he must not put his feet on it”.

В автобус вошла женщина с собакой. Собака была большая – почти как моло дая лошадь, и ее лапы были очень грязные. Жен щина сказала: «Кондук тор, если я заплачу за свою собаку, может ли она сесть, как другие пассажиры?» Кондуктор посмотрел на собаку и сказал: «Конеч но, мадам, она может сесть, как другие пассажиры, но, как и другие пассажиры, она не должна ставить ноги на сиденье».

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS God helps those who help ~ Ha Бога надейся, а сам не themselves. плошай. Better a small fish than ~ Ha безрыбье и рак рыба. an empty dish. Tastes differ. ~ О вкусах не спорят.

TEST 2 (LESSONS 5–8) 1. Поставьте вопросы, начинающиеся с глаголов do/does/ did

1. My sister speaks English well. 2. You watched an interesting film last night. 3. Не works hard at his English. 4. Nellie used to watch TV a lot last year 5. It started raining two hours ago. 6. You want to invite John to your party. 7. He usually drives very carefully. 8. I saw Ann on Tuesday. 9. I met your sister on my way home. 10. He left his native town 3 years ago. 2. Поставьте вопросы к предложениям

1. My friend will study English. Who...? 2. Ann goes to the office by bus. How...? 3. He sent a letter to his friend. What...? 4. My mother likes classical music. What kind of music...? 5. There is a letter for you on the table. Where...? 6. He is leaving for London tomorrow. When...? 7. You phoned Ruth yesterday. Whom...? 8. I will be at home tonight. Where...? 9. They are going on business next week. Who...? 130

10. He was late for the lecture. What..? 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа

1. I’ll go to the Black Sea. – ... a) Neither will I. b) So I will. c) So will I. 2. I don’t like when it is cold. – ... a) So I don’t. b) Neither do I. c) Neither I do. 3. Не accepted the invitation. And you? – ... a) So do I. b) Neither do I. c) So did I. 4. She won’t be late. And Bill? – ... a) So will he. b) So would he. c) Neither will he. 5. I’m reading for the exam. And you? – ... a) So I am. b) So do I. c) So am I. 6. She passed the exam. And you? – ... a) So did I. b) So I did. c) So do I. 7. I take the books from the library. And you? – ... a) So I do. b) So do I. c) So I did. 8. I didn’t see him yesterday. – ... a) So I didn’t. b) Neither I do. c) Neither did I. 9. I prefer juice to tea. – ... a) So do I. b) So I do. c) So will I. 10. They are leaving for London on Tuesday. – ... a) So do we. b) So we are. c) So are we. 131

4. Заполните пропуски словами some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, someone, something, anything, somewhere, nothing, nowhere

1. Is there ... in the room? 2. I heard ... following me. 3. Do you hear ... noise? 4. Look! There is ... on the table. 5. He is lazy. He never does ... work. 6. The examination was difficult. Almost ... passed it. 7. There are ... letters for you. Here you are. 8. You can take ... bus. They all go to the centre. 9. Let’s go out ... . 10. ... news is good news. 11. ... is here to see you. 12. What are you looking under the table for? Have you lost ...? 5. Поставьте глаголы в Present Indefinite или Future Indefinite

1. If I (to see) him I’ll tell him about your request. 2. If it (to stop) raining, we’ll go out. 3. Ask him when he (to come) back. 4. If I (to find) out the details, I’ll phone you. 5. I don’t know if he (to come) tomorrow. 6. If Peter (to sell) his old car, he will buy a new one. 7. I’m not sure if I (to have) time to buy flowers. 8. Let’s ask her where she (to go) next summer. 9. If you (to take) more exercises, you will feel better. 10. You won’t pass the exam if you (not to study) hard. 6. Вставьте пропущенные слова

Thomas Mo ore Thomas Moore is ... (1) of the wellknown Romantic poets, an Irish poet who sang his native land in the same way ... (2) Robert Burns ... (3) Scotland. 132

Thomas Moore came ... (4) a welltodo Irish family. He was born in Dublin, Ireland in 1779. He studied at Dublin University ... (5) then studied law in London. His first verses ... (6) published in 1801. Later he published ... (7) romantic stories in verse written under the influence ... (8) Byron. Thomas Moore was a patriot of his ... (9) land and in his poetry he often wrote about the struggle of the Irish ... (10) for their national independence. He was George Byron’s friend and after Byron’s death he wrote with much knowledge and sympathy the first biography of this great English ... (11). The wellknown Irish poet Thomas Moore was interested ... (12) literature of different peoples and some of his works are ... (13) on the national folk songs of many countries. He collected the melodies and wrote words for them. In the Russian section of his work there were two songs on Russian melodies. One of them, “Those evening bells”, was ... (14) into Russian by I. Kozlov and became ... (15) popular. a) his b) were с) translated d) native e) sang f) with

g) very h) poet i) and j) one k) in l) as

m) people n) man o) from p) of q) based r) little

LESSON 9 He who never hoped can never despair. (Нe отчаивается тот, у кого никогда не было надежд.) • МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ (MODAL VERBS AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS) • MANY, MUCH, FEW, LITTLE, A FEW, A LITTLE • СУФФИКСЫ НАРЕЧИЙ (SUFFIXES OF ADVERBS)

Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents

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1. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык; обратите внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквива> ленты

1. I am afraid Mr. Black can’t see you today. 2. Take an umbrella, it may rain soon. 3. Believe in yourself – if you don’t, how can you expect others to? 4. Must I translate the letter now? – No, you needn’t. You can do it to" morrow. 5. Many people think that smoking should be banned. 6. It was late and we had to take a taxi. 7. When he returns he will be able to do everything himself. 8. A fool may ask more questions than a wise man can answer. 9. They were to go to the birthday party, but Nick fell ill and they had to stay at home. 10. Tom says he will be allowed to take some books from the reading room. 11. Don’t be angry with him. You shouldn’t pay attention tо his words. 12. You should help your friend, he has some problems. 13. Could I speak to Mr. Smith, please? 14. According to business etiquette businessmen are to shake hands at the end of the talks. 15. He is neither at the office nor at the laboratory. He must be in the conference room. 2. Вставьте модальные глаголы can/could, may/ might, must, should

1. ... I have a cup of coffee, please? 2. When my grand father was young he ... play chess very well. 3. ... I take my sister to the party? 4. Everybody ... master English if he works hard. 5. ... I translate the text in a written form? – No, you ... not. 6. Life is a coin. You ... spend it in any way you wish, but you ... only spend it once. 7. There are a lot of mistakes in your exercise. You ... be more attentive. 8. An elephant ... do a lot of things with its trunk. 9. Everybody who owns a television set in the UK 136

... pay 110 pounds a year for a license. 10. According to the old English constitution the police ... carry swords, but not guns. 11. In Italy you ... not get divorced. 12. As far as I know foreign businessmen ... arrive in two days. 13. In Israel women ... join the Army. 14. The human heart feels things which the eyes ... not and things the mind ... not understand. 15. You ... be careful when crossing the street. 3. Переведите предложения, используя модальные глаго> лы и их эквиваленты

1. Вы должны много заниматься, чтобы сдать экза мены. 2. Возможно, он забыл документы дома. 3. Он сможет все сделать сам, если захочет. 4. Дети должны рано ложиться спать. 5. Вам помочь? – Да, пожалуйста. Я не могу перевес ти этот текст. 6. Не может быть, чтобы он забыл ваш адрес, он был у вас несколько раз. 7. Вам придется поспешить, если вы хотите прийти вовремя. 8. Не могли бы вы отправить это письмо сегодня? 9. Вам следует быть более внимательным на заняти ях. 10. Нужно ли мне звонить сегодня? – Нет, вы можете сделать это завтра или послезавтра. 11. Не беспокойтесь, он, наверное, приедет завтра. 12. Возможно, я увижу его завтра. Что ему передать? 13. Он никогда не опаздывает. Может быть, он забо лел? 14. Студентам не разрешают входить в аудиторию пос ле звонка. 15. Вы бледны. Вам следует обратиться к врачу. 137

many, much, few, little, a few, a little Исчисляемые существительные

many (много)

few (мало)

a few (несколько)

Неисчисляемые существительные

much (много)

little (мало)

a little (немного)

4. Прочтите и переведите предложения; обратите внима> ние на перевод слов, обозначающих количество

1. There are a few most commonly spoken languages – English, Chinese and Spanish. 2. He is not very sociable. He has very few friends. 3. Lucy doesn’t go out much. She prefers to stay at home in the evening. 4. He speaks little English, so it is difficult to communicate with him. 5. There are few old buildings in this district. 6. She is lucky, she has few problems with her children. 7. You’ll have to hurry if you want to be in time. You don’t have much time. 8. Many people know Pele´ as a famous footballer, but few know that he also writes music and speaks a few languages – Spanish, Italian, English, and French. 9. When he goes shopping he spends much money. 10. Would you like some wine? – Yes, please, a little. 11. I’m between jobs now. I have much time and little to do. 12. He says he’ll be back in a few minutes. 13. There are many Englishlanguage dictionaries, the largest one is the 20volume Oxford English Dictionary. 14. There is little traffic now, so we can get there in time. 5. Переведите предложения, используя слова, обознача> ющие количество

1. У него мало денег, он не может купить такую ма шину. 2. Я видел его на улице несколько дней назад, но он не заметил меня. 138

3. Не хотите ли сока? – Спасибо, с удовольствием. Немного. 4. У некоторых людей дома мало книг. Они предпо читают брать книги в библиотеке. 5. Я временно не работаю, у меня много свободного времени, я могу помочь вам с ремонтом. 6. У него много друзей в разных городах, он очень об щительный. 7. Он говорит, что сможет приехать через несколько месяцев. 8. Можно я заеду за вами немного раньше? 9. К сожалению, вам придется немного подождать. 10. Я знаю многих людей, которые мало читают. 11. Я думаю, что смогу быстро перевести этот текст, в нем мало незнакомых слов. 12. На лекции было много студентов, некоторые пы тались задать лектору вопросы. 13. Я бы хотел сказать вам несколько слов об этом. 14. Извините, у меня мало времени, мне нужно спе шить.

Суффиксы наречий Suffixes of Adverbs ly – badly ward(s) – backward(s) 6. Образуйте наречия, используя данные суффиксы

ly easy quick slow part real

ward(s) home in north on sea 139

ЗАПОМНИТЕ: means – способ, средство means of living – средства существования by means of – посредством by all means – конечно, пожалуйста; во что бы то ни стало, в любом случае by no means – ни в коем случае man of means – состоятельный человек Не can see a man’s – Он может по рукам челове means of living on his ка определить, на какие hands. средства он живет (его сред ства к существованию). They solved the – Они решили проблему с по problem by means of мощью интервью. interview. Can you do it for me? – Вы можете сделать это для – By all means. меня? – Конечно (пожалуй ста). Shall I speak to him? – Мне поговорить с ним? – By no means. – Ни в коем случае. His uncle is a man of – Его дядя – состоятельный means. человек. to mean – значить, означать, иметь в виду It means that he won’t – Это значит, что он не при come. дет. What do you mean? – Что вы имеете в виду? 7. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Did Sherlock Holmes Exist ? One evening about the turn of the 19th century several guests sat around a dinner table discussing famous mur ders and unsolved crimes. One of the guests, Dr. Joseph 140

Bell, a famous Edinburgh surgeon and university professor, surprised the others with his unusual deductive abilities. “The trouble with most people”, he said, “is that they see, but do not observe. Any really good detective ought to be able to tell, before a stranger has sat down, his occupation, habits, and past history through rapid observation and deduction. Glance at a man and you find his nationality written on his face, his means of living on his hands, and the rest of the story in his gait, manners, tattoo marks, and clothes.” One of the guests remarked jokingly, “Why, Dr. Bell might almost be Sherlock Holmes”. “My dear sir, I am Sherlock Holmes.” Dr. Bell was not joking. He was, indeed, the original Sherlock Holmes, the prototype for the famous Conan Doyle’s creation. As you might know, Arthur Conan Doyle studied to be a doctor at the University of Edinburgh. While at University, Doyle was greatly influenced by Joseph Bell, one of his professors. A product of five generations of surgeons, Dr. Bell was famous for his keen powers of observation and deduction. He could diagnose a patient’s disease just by observing him... Dr. Bell’s lectures always filled the hall. The students admired him and thought him a magician. Bell never failed to surprise them... Dr. Bell’s detecting genius was known to the police. As an amateur detective, without official status, Dr. Bell worked hand in hand with Sir Henry Littlejohn, Edin burgh police surgeon and helped to solve many compli cated crimes. When Arthur Conan Doyle decided to write his first detective story he remembered Dr. Bell and his unusual powers of observation and deduction... 141

Dr. Bell liked A. Conan Doyle’s detective stories that populated his ideas. 1. What was Dr. Doyle’s occupation? 2. When did Dr. Bell live? 3. What was Dr. Bell famous for? 4. How did Arthur Conan Doyle know Dr. Bell? 5. How could Dr. Bell diagnose a patient’s disease? 6. Why did many students attend Dr. Bell’s lectures? 7. Did Edinburgh police use Dr. Bell’s unusual powers? 8. Did Dr. Bell know A. Conan Doyle’s stories? 8. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Pel e´ Edson Arantes do Nascimento came into the world on the night of October 23, 1940. His family called him Dico. They lived in a small house in Coracoes, Brazil. “Dico has soccer player’s legs”, his father said. “He’s going to be a doctor, not a soccer player”, Dico’s mother, Celeste, said. Dondinbo, Dico’s father, was a soccer player, but he didn’t make much money and the family often had money problems. Little Dico played a lot of soccer, but he didn’t want to be a soccer player. He wanted to work at the airport. He often went there to look at the planes. But Dico’s first job wasn’t in a soccer stadium or an airport. At the age of 8 he had to clean shoes because things were difficult for the family at that time. Later that year, Dico started school. He wasn’t a good student. He only went to school because he wanted a job at the airport. But one day, a plane crashed not far from the school. Dico and his friends went to the hospital and looked in one of the windows. The pilot from the plane was dead. Dico never talked about working with planes again. 142

The important thing for Dico now was soccer. Evenings and weekends, he played with his friends. Very soon he became the best player. His friends started to call him “Pele´”. “Where does the name come from?” people often ask. Pele´ doesn’t know. Pele´ was 11 years old, when Valdemar de Brito, a famous man in Brazilian soccer, noticed him. Four years later de Brito brought Pele´ to Sao Paulo and declared to the directors of the famous club Santоs, “This boy will be the greatest soccer player in the world.” Very soon Pele´ became a legend... He became a world star at the age of 17 and in 1,363 games he scored 1,264 goals. Pele´ is not only a famous footballer. He knows Spanish, Italian, English, and French. He writes music and he works for the Brazilian government. “Time” magazine named Pele´ as a hero of the 20th century. 1. Are you a soccer fan? 2. Do you go to the stadium or do you watch football games on television? 3. When and where was Pele´ born? 4. What did his father do? 5. What did his parents say about Dico’s future occu pation? 6. Where did Dico want to work when he was a little boy? 7. Why did he change his mind about his future job? 8. What did Valdemar de Brito, a famous man in Brazilian soccer, declare to the directors of the club “Santos”, when he brought Pele´ there? 9. How many goals did Pele´ score? 10.Is Pele´ an educated man? 12.What languages does he know? 143

13.Does he like music? 14.What does Pele´ do now? ЗАПОМНИТЕ: hand – рука; стрелка (часов) to give a hand – оказать помощь on the one hand... – с одной стороны... on the other hand – с другой стороны The minute hand is – Минутная стрелка длиннее longer than the hour one. часовой. He gave me a hand – Он оказал мне помощь, when I had problems. когда у меня были проблемы. On the one hand you – С одной стороны, вы должны must do it quickly, on сделать это быстро, с другой the other hand it should стороны, это нужно сделать be done carefully. аккуратно. 9. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Big Ben Every day when people in the UK switch on their radio to listen to BBC radio news they can hear one of the most famous sounds in London – the ringing of Big Ben. The clock tower next to the Houses of Parliament with its famous bell has become a symbol of London. One can get a good view of the tower from Westminster Bridge. The clock tower is 313 ft high and 41 ft square. The present clock was made by Mr. Dent. It first came into service in 1859, and, except for a few stoppages, it has run continu ously ever since. When the great bell was cast in 1858, the question of the name was discussed in Parliament. Somebody proposed to call it Big Ben. There was much laughter among the members because the Chief Commissioner of 144

the Works at that time was Sir Benjamin Hall, a very tall stout man, whose nickname was “Big Ben”. From that time the bell has been known as Big Ben. The clock has four dials each 22 ft in diameter. The bell weighs 12 tons. The minute hands are 14 ft long, the hour hands are 9 ft, and the figures are 2 ft long. People are allowed to get inside the tower if they wish to see the work of Big Ben. There is no lift in the tower and there are three hundred and forty steps up to Big Ben. 1. What is the symbol of London? 2. How high is the clock tower? 3. When did Big Ben first come into service? 4. Where was the name of a new great bell discussed? 5. Why was the new great bell called Big Ben? 6. What is the weight of the bell? 7. How many dials does the clock have? 8. How long are the minute hands? The hour hands? The figures? 9. Are people allowed to get inside the tower? 10.How can people get to Big Ben? 10. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Вспомните изученный материал

1. Many well known people had to do different jobs before they became famous. 2. He used to attend all the lectures of this professor. 3. The leader ought to be able to deal with people. 4. Not many people may know that Bill Gates gives much money for charity. 5. As you might know, Big Ben first came into service in 1859. 6. British Minister may speak only in the House of which he is a member. 7. We should hope that in the 21st century we’ll have more time to do creative jobs. 8. On the one hand he was a man of means, on the other hand he was rather 145

stingy. 9. Can the question be so important that you are calling so early? 10. A US senator must be not younger than thirty years old, nine years a citizen and inhabitant of the state which elects him. 11. Do you think you will be able to do the work in time? 12. What journalists write for their readers should serve the humanistic ideals. 13. Each new English Prime Minister may make changes in the size of his cabinet and create new ministries or make other changes. 14. In 1958 Elvis Presley had to join the army. 15. The first English inhabitants in the United States missed their Motherland, so they gave the new places the same names as they left behind. 11. Переведите предложения на английский язык. Вспомните изученный материал

1. Вам ктото звонил, когда вас не было. – Может быть, это мой брат. 2. Я не знаю, на какие средства он живет. 3. Англичане, возможно, часто говорят о погоде по тому, что у них погода очень переменчива. 4. «Может быть, он придет к концу лекции», – шут ливо заметил ктото из студентов. 5. Насколько мне известно, он человек и состоятель ный, и разумный. 6. Студентам разрешают брать книги в библиотеке на две недели. 7. Он каждый день покупает цветы. Наверное, он влюбился в какуюнибудь девушку. 8. Мы должны были встретиться в метро, но я опоз дал. 9. Наверное, она не помнит сказку о рыбаке и рыбке. 10. Мы можем посидеть в этом кафе, но там не разре шают курить. 11. Они подарили мне картину. Наверное, они знают, что я интересуюсь живописью. 146

12. Любой студент должен уметь ответить на этот воп рос. 13. Не думаю, что ему подойдет эта работа. Ему при дется слишком рано вставать, чтобы ездить туда. 14. Наверное, у него большие наблюдательные способ ности, если он сразу может поставить пациенту правильный диагноз.

SHORT CONVERSATION – Pardon me, madam, I have – Извините, мадам, мне to get off at the next stop. нужно выходить на сле дующей остановке. – You needn’t push. You – He нужно толкаться. nearly knoсked me over. Я чуть не упала. – I beg your pardon. The bus – Простите. Я потерял threw me off my balance. равновесие изза резко го движения автобуса. – But you’re still standing – Но вы и сейчас стоите on my foot. на моей ноге. – Oh, I’m so sorry. Excuse me. – О, извините, пожалуй ста. LAUGH AND LEARN The French taxicab drove Sir Arthur Conan Doyle from the station to the hotel and, when the driver received his fare, he said, “Merci, Mr. Conan Doyle”. “Why, how do you know my name?” asked Sir Arthur. “Well, sir, I saw in the papers that you were coming from the south of France to Paris. Your general appearance told me that you were English; your hair was clearly last cut by a barber of the south of France. I put these indications together and guessed at once that it was you.” 147

“That is very remarkable. You have no other evidence to go upon?” “Well”, said the man, “There was also the fact that your name was on your luggage”. Французский таксист привез сэра Артура Конан Дойля с вокзала в отель и, получив плату, сказал: «Благодарю, гн Конан Дойль». «Откуда вы знаете мое имя?» – спросил сэр Артур. «Я прочитал в газетах, сэр, что вы едете с юга Франции в Париж. Ваша вне шность подсказала мне, что вы англичанин, ваши во лосы подстрижены парикмахером с юга Франции. Я сопоставил эти данные и сразу догадался, что это вы.» «Это замечательно. Других доказательств у вас не было?» «Да, – сказал таксист, – был еще один факт – на вашем багаже написано ваше имя.»

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Sooner or later we have – Рано или поздно нам to pay for all what we do. приходится расплачи ваться за свои дела. Last but not least. – Последний по счету, но не последний по важности. The die is cast. – Жребий брошен.

LESSON 10 Your life is what you make of it. (Ваша жизнь такая, какой вы сами ее делаете.) • НАСТОЯЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) • ЭМФАТИЧЕСКАЯ КОНСТРУКЦИЯ (EMPHATIC CONSTRUCTION) IT IS ... THAT (WHO; SINCE) ... • ПРЕФИКСЫ С ОТРИЦАТЕЛЬНЫМ ЗНАЧЕНИЕМ (NEGATIVE PREFIXES)

Настоящее совершенное время The Present Perfect Tense have/has + 3я форма глагола

149

1)

2)

3)

4) 5)

Present Perfect употребляется: для выражения действия, совершившегося к дан ному моменту (переводится на русский язык про шедшим временем); для выражения действия, которое совершилось в незаконченный период времени (на русский язык переводится прошедшим временем); для выражения совершившегося действия при на личии в предложении наречий ever, never, just, already, yet, recently, lately (на русский язык пере водится прошедшим временем); вместо Present Perfect Continuous (на русский язык переводится настоящим временем); в придаточных предложениях условия и времени вместо Future Perfect (на русcкий язык переводит ся будущим временем).

Present Perfect обычно переводится на русский язык прошедшим временем глагола совершенного вида: I have written – я написал.

1. Прочтите и переведите предложения, обратите внима> ние на перевод глаголов в Present Perfect

1. Have you ever thought how many words you produce, hear or read every day? 2. I’ve just said that we have little time. 3. This year he’s made a lot of money and bought an expensive car. 4. Have you ever noticed that people who cannot read or write usually have good memory? 5. I 150

haven’t heard from him since he left St. Petersburg. 6. I have already finished the work and I’m going home. 7. This week I have sent him two letters, but I haven’t received any letters from him. 8. I’m sorry, the manager hasn’t come yet, but I hope he will come soon. 9. He says that he has never had opportunity to show his abilities. 10. They have started with nothing recently and soon they made a fortune. 11. This singer has become very popular lately. 12. We’ll start at 2 o’clock if it has stopped raining by then. 13. Do you think they have met lately? 14. I don’t think he has already translated the article, his English is poor. 2. Откройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Present Perfect или в Past Indefinite, переведите предложения

1. Last year he (to write) me very often, but this year I (to receive) only one letter from him. 2. When you (to see) him last time? – I (to see) him this week. 3. He (to go) to London two years ago. This year he (to be) to the Crimea. 4. Mr. Grey (to be) very busy today, so I couldn’t speak to him. 5. You (to pass) the driving test yet? – Yes. I (to pass) it last week. 6. I (to congratulate) her on her birthday yesterday. 7. A friend of mine (to offer) me a lift in his car, but I decided to walk. 8. She (not/to speak) to them yet, she is going to do it tomorrow. 9. We are waiting for him, he (not/to come) yet. 10. He already (to see) her; she promises to keep the word. 11. I think he (not/to realize) yet what it means. 12. Why you (not/to come) to the lecture yesterday? – I (to be) ill. 13. I just (to remember) that he (to ask) me to ring him up. 14. She never (to complain) of her memory. 3. Переведите предложения, используя нужное время

1. Он только что пригласил меня на день рождения. 2. Когда я был студентом, я часто ходил в кино. Те перь я смотрю все фильмы по телевизору. 151

3. Ты сегодня читал газеты? Там есть интересная ста тья о проблемах молодежи. 4. Я никогда не видел человека с такими необычны ми способностями. 5. Помоему, мы встречались в прошлом году на кон ференции. 6. Не могу ли я поговорить с гном Беловым? – К со жалению, он еще не пришел. 7. Я знаю его десять лет. Мы учились в одной школе. 8. Робин Гуд был очень популярен среди простых лю дей. 9. Он сделал все дела и решил вознаградить себя ча шечкой кофе. 10. Когда вы сказали ей об этом? – Я сказал ей об этом только что. 11. Я еще не завтракал. Давайте зайдем в кафе. 12. Они только что приступили к обсуждению этого вопроса. Я не могу прерывать их. 13. Как хорошо, что ты пришел! Мы только что вспо минали тебя. 14. Она купила голубое платье, которое подходит к ее глазам.

Эмфатическая конструкция (Emphatic Construction) it is ... that (who; since) ... It is my brother who wants to help them.

Именно (это) мой брат хочет им помочь.

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на эмфатическую конструкцию

1. It was yesterday that I spoke to him. 2. It was a few minutes ago that it stopped raining. 3. It is two hours since I came. 4. It is here that they want to build a house. 5. It was not until May that we received a letter from him. 152

6. It is three months since he left St. Petersburg. 7. It was last year that we met. 8. It is this film that I enjoyed. 9. It was the Russian scientist Ladygin who invented the electric lamp. 10. It was in 1937 that D. Carnegie’s book “How to Win Friends and Influence People” was first published. 5. Переведите предложения, используя эмфатическую конструкцию it is ... that (who; since) ...

1. Именно эту идею я имел в виду. 2. Именно в этот парк мои родители ходят гулять в выходные дни. 3. Почти на 5000 языков говорят люди в современ ном мире. 4. Вы обещали приехать к нам еще в прошлом году. 5. Около 1/4 населения в Англии имеют фамилию Смит. 6. Он хочет поговорить с директором именно се годня. 7. Именно СанктПетербург является культурной столицей России. 8. Я бы хотел побывать именно в Париже. 9. Именно на этом месте стояла его машина вчера. 10. Именно это я имел в виду, когда отвечал на ваш вопрос. 11. Я стоял как раз у входа в метро, почему ты не ви дел меня?

Префиксы с отрицательным значением Negative Prefixes un> – uncomfortable – неудобный in> – indirect – непрямой, косвенный il> (перед l) – illegal – незаконный 153

ir> (перед r) – irregular – неправильный, беспо рядочный im> (перед m, p) – impossible – невозможный dis> – disapprove – не одобрять non> – nonconductor – непроводник, диэлект рик 6. Образуйте слова с данными префиксами

un equal expected happy important known official pleasant

to do to dress to load to lock to pack to tie

in ability adequate capable comparable complete experienced

il/ir/im dis non logical mobile like to appear essential resolute patient obey to arm ferrous responsible probable trust to connect honest to cover order to organize ЗАПОМНИТЕ: full>time job – работа на полной ставке full>time student – студент дневного отделения part>time job – почасовая работа, работа на неполный рабочий день odd job – случайная работа piece>work – сдельная работа Some people have two – Некоторые люди работают на full>time jobs at the двух ставках одновременно. same time. 154

My friend has a part> – Мой друг работает непол ный рабочий день, так как time job because he is a он студент дневного отделе full>time student. ния. Sometimes piece>work – Иногда сдельная работа бо is more profitable than лее выгодна, чем работа на a full>time job. полной ставке. 7. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

What Are Americans Like ? With more than 275 million people, the US is the third largest nation in population after China and India. About 90% of the people now living in the US were born there. Still, the US has one of the most varied population. It is about 82% white, 13% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, and 1% native American. There is great diversity in the ethnic makeup 1 of America. Nevertheless, many writers have generalized about typical American values, attitudes, and beliefs. To start with nothing, to work hard, and then to make a fortune2 – this is the American dream. People in the USA want more than anything else to be successful. And when they’ve made their money, they like to show it off 3 by driving expensive cars and buying beautiful furniture for their homes. One bad result of this is that people never stop working. Some even hold two fulltime jobs at the same time. This means that there is not much time for the good things in life, such as hours spent with one’s family. Few families play games together, go for walks together, or _________________ 1 ethnic makeup – этнический состав 2 to make a fortune – разбогатеть, нажить состояние 3 to show off – хвастать(ся), красоваться 155

even sit down every evening around the family table for a homecooked meal. The good result, though, is the confidence that many Americans have in themselves. They feel that they can do anything, and get whatever they want if they try hard enough. It may take a lot of hard work to do well in America, but it’s certainly exciting. 1. What is the population of America? 2.What countries are larger in population than America? 3.Is it possible to generalize typical American values and attitudes? 4.What do Americans want more than anything else? 5.Do Americans always work hard? 6.Why do few American families go for walks and have dinner in the evening together? 7.What typical confidence do most Americans usually have? 8.Do you have any friends in America? What kind of people are they?

way motorway highway road pavement path

ЗАПОМНИТЕ: – путь, дорога; метод, способ – автомагистраль, автострада (Brit) – шоссе, автострада (US) – путь, дорога, шоссе – тротуар – тропа, тропинка, дорожка

Which way? This way please. It’s a long way from here. This is the way I do it. There is a good highway between these towns.

– Куда? – Сюда, пожалуйста. – Это далеко отсюда. – Вот как я это делаю. – Между этими городами (есть) хорошая автострада. 156

The pavement is narrow – На этой улице узкие тро in this street. туары. He is on the road now. – Он сейчас в дороге. This path leads to the – Эта тропинка ведет к бере bank of the river. гу реки. 8. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

The English Channel The English Channel is one of the world’s most extraordinary waterways. For centuries the Channel has been Britain’s defence against invaders. It has also been the way to the continent, a highway crowded with ships. Sailors know it as perhaps the most dangerous sea channel in Europe. Half of all the world’s ship collisions take place between the western end of the Channel and the Baltic. Several armies have crossed the Channel, but none have crossed for over nine centuries, although some have tried more recently. Over the years, people have crossed it by balloon, canoe, rowingboat, parachute, waterskis, and swim ming! The British seem to enjoy1 using unconventional methods of conquering the Channel, using everything from a car to a bed. The Channel stretches 350 miles, from the Atlantic Ocean to the North Sea, separating England’s south coast from France’s north coast. At its widest point it mea sures 120 miles; at its narrowest, only 21 miles. On a clear day, you can see the white cliffs of Dover from the French coast. 1. Where does the English Channel stretch? 2. What countries does the Channel separate? _________________ 1 The British seem to enjoy – Похоже, что британцам нравится 157

3. How many miles does the Channel measure at its widest point? At its narrowest point? 4.For what purposes was the Channel used in the past? 5.Why is the English Channel the most dangerous sea channel in Europe? 6.How have people crossed the Channel? 3AПОMHИTE: forget (forgot, – забывать forgotten) leave (left, left) – оставлять, уходить, уезжать I forgot his phone – Я забыл номер его телефона. number. Before I forget. – Пока я не забыл. Forget>me>not – Незабудка I left my dictionary at – Я оставил (забыл) дома home. словарь. Не left Moscow for – Он уехал из Москвы в London. Лондон. 9. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Robin Hood Of all popular heroes of the English people, none has ever achieved an equal name and fame with Robin Hood. For more than six hundred years, peasantry have known songs and ballads of this famous outlaw. People have forgotten kings and princes, but not Robin Hood and his band of bold followers in merry Sherwood Forest. We have no clear evidence of Robin Hood’s life history: all is in the mist of legend and ancient history. There are some people studying the old ballads and stories who say that Robin Hood was an actual leader in Sherwood Forest, a king of a greenwood, a true and living 158

figure, and there are others who say that the doings of a famous band of outlaws have gathered about his name, and that no real Robin Hood existed. But it is quite certain that within a hundred years or so after the time of the famous outlaw’s life his name was well known. English literature is full of allusions to Robin Hood and his merry men in Sherwood Forest. Robin Hood was a Saxon who stood out against the Norman lords. He never plundered the poor men. He attacked and plundered the sheriff, barons, knights, abbots and priors – the men who stood for the Norman rule and its cruelty. Sherwood Forest, haunt of Robin Hood and his merry men, is a great attraction to visitors. Among the famous Sherwood trees there is the Major Oak, which is more than 1,000 years old. The Greendale Oak is even older – about 1,500 years old. There is also Robin Hood’s Larder, the tree where he stored his food. 1. Have you ever heard about Robin Hood? 2. Is Robin Hood a real person? 3. When and where did he live? 4. What did Robin Hood stand out against? 5. Whom did Robin Hood and his merry men plunder? 6. Whom did they help? 7. Why do people remember Robin Hood though they forgot many kings and princes? 8. Why is Sherwood Forest a great attraction to visitors? 9. What are the trees in Sherwood Forest famous for? 10.How old is the oldest oak? 10. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык

1. He wants to make his money so he has to work hard. He has two fulltime jobs. 2. This author is both talеnted 159

and experienced, beyond all doubts. 3. A friend of mine offered me a lift in his car, but I decided to walk. 4. It is a long journey by train; it’s much more quickly by road. 5. He could buy a car like this after he played the part of a beggar in the new film. 6. I’ve known him since childhood, he is an honest and goodnatured man. 7. He’s bought a new car recently and now he wants to show it off. 8. If he works for your company, you’ll never be disappointed. 9. Where is Peter? – He has just left the office. He’s on his way home. 10. Have you bought the tickets? – Yes, I have. Here you are. 11. We hope that in the 21st century atmosphere pollution will be stopped. 12. People always try to predict their future. 13. Before I forget, Mr. Turner asked you to call him as soon as you came. 14. What an interesting article! Who has written it? 11. Поставьте глагол в нужное время

1. When he (to be) to take an exam? – He (to be) to take it yesterday, but he was not ready. 2. How long you (to know) him? – I (to know) him since last year. 3. I just (to talk) to him. He says he (not/to be able) to come tomorrow. 4. What you (to do) when mother asked you to go shopping? 5. A very amusing accident (to occur) when we were coming back. 6. I just (to read) a book about famous outlaws. I can give it to you. 7. The London buses first (to come) into the streets in 1829. 8. When you (to come) to Moscow? – I (to live) in Moscow for five years. 9. He (to make) great progress since he began to study English. 10. He (to be) poor last year. Recently he (to make) a fortune, and he does well now. 11. Could I speak to the manager if I (to come) tomorrow? 12. Do you believe that our daily life (to become) easier this century? 13. Don’t get upset! You (to get) over it soon. 14. Is the director in? – Yes, he (to be) here since twelve o’clock. 160

12. Переведите предложения на английский язык. Вспомните изученный материал

1. Когда вы смотрели этот фильм? – Я смотрел его на прошлой неделе. 2. Робин Гуд был саксом, он воевал против норманд ских лордов. Он никогда не грабил бедных. 3. Пока я не забыл, пришло письмо от вашего брата. Вот оно. 4. Ничего не поделаешь. Придется вам прийти еще раз. 5. Я только что его видел. Он выходил из универси тета. 6. Вы когданибудь получали письма из Америки? 7. Он говорит, что может узнать этого человека по походке. 8. Мы сегодня много работали. Давайте сходим для разнообразия в кино. 9. Как вы, вероятно, знаете, в молодости он изучал медицину. 10. Он очень сердит. Может быть, чтонибудь случи лось? 11. Инспектор закрыл книгу, и вдруг ему пришла в голову мысль о том, как раскрыть преступление. 12. Вы работаете на полную ставку или у вас непол ный рабочий день? 13. Говорят, что кошки могут предсказывать погоду. 14. Смогу ли я поговорить с директором, как только он придет?

161

SHORT CONVERSATION – You mustn’t drive so fast! – Не нужно ехать так бы стро! – But I’m driving rather – Но я еду довольно мед slowly. ленно. – No, you aren’t. Please – Да нет же. Пожалуйста, slow down a bit. немного медленнее. – You needn’t worry. I’m – Не беспокойся, я еду driving very carefully. очень аккуратно. А до And the road is smooth рога гладкая и прямая. and straight. – Look out! There are some – Осторожно! На тротуаре children on the pavement ребята, и мы не можем and you can’t know what даже предположить, что they’re going to do next. они сделают в следую щий момент. LAUGH AND LEARN The much preoccupied professor walked into the barber’s shop1 and sat in a chair next to a woman who was having her hair bobbed2. “A haircut, please”, ordered the professor. “Certainly”, said the barber. “But if you really want a haircut would you mind3 taking off your hat first?” The professor hurriedly removed his hat. “I’m sorry”, he apologized as he looked around. “I didn’t know there was a lady present.” Озабоченный профессор вошел в парикмахерскую и сел на стул рядом с женщиной, которой делали стрижку. _________________ 1 barber’s shop – парикмахерская 2 to bob – коротко стричь(ся) 3 would you mind – вы не возражаете 162

«Стрижку, пожалуйста», – потребовал профессор. «Конечно, – сказал парикмахер. – Но если вы дей ствительно хотите стрижку, то не снимете ли вы сна чала шляпу?» Профессор поспешно снял шляпу. «Простите, – извинился он, оглядевшись, – я не за метил, что здесь дама».

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Criticisms are like homing – Критика подобна домаш pigeons. They always ним голубям. Они всегда return home. возвращаются домой. A moment may ruin a life. – Один миг может разру шить жизнь. There are two tragedies in – В жизни бывает две тра life. One is not to get your гедии. Одна – когда нам heart’s desire. The other не удается достичь цели. is to get it. Вторая – когда нам удает ся ее достичь.

TEST 3 (LESSONS 9–10) 1.

Выберите правильный вариант

1. Mr. Garret (is living/lives) in France, but he (is working/works) in England. 2. I (know/have known) them for many years. 3. Let’s hurry! He (is leaving/leaves) in a few minutes. 4. My brother (works/is working) for the BBC. 5. Tom and Ted (have been/are) friends since they were at university together. 6. I usually (go/have gone) to the country at weekends. 7. Don’t go out! It (rains/is raining) heavily. 8. Listen! Somebody (plays/is playing) the piano in the next room. 9. They (stay/are staying) at home tomorrow. 10. I (am not thinking/don’t think) he (is going/goes) with us. 11. What you (do ... think/are ... thinking) about? – I (think/am thinking) about buying a car. 12. My brother (cleans/is cleaning) his car now. 2.

Выберите правильный вариант

1. The customs officer (has made/made) John open his suitcase. 2. My brother (has fallen/fell) ill and we (have called/ called) the doctor yesterday. 3. His friend just (has moved/moved) to a new flat. 4. You (have ... seen/did ... watch) the news on TV last night? 5. I (rang/have rung) you up many times on Monday. 6. The train (arrived/has arrived) ten minutes ago. 7. I just (saw/have seen) Liz. She (went/was going) to the cafe´. 164

8. What are you looking for? – I (lost/have lost) my pen. 9. I already (passed/have passed) all my exams. 10. What (did ... do/have ... done) last Sunday? 11. Life (changed/has changed) a lot for the last decades. 12. My parents (have lived/lived) in this street many years ago. 3.

Выберите правильный вариант

1. We tried hard, but we ... persuade him to come with us. a) shouldn’t b) mustn’t c) couldn’t 2. You have worked hard all day. You ... be tired. a) should b) must c) can’t 3. We ... be there at five o’clock, but Peter ... stay after work. a) must b) had to c) were to a) was to b) had to c) could 4. ... I translate the letter? – No, you ..., I have already translated it. a) can b) may c) must a) mustn’t b) can’t c) needn’t 5. You ... keep this secret. You ... tell anybody about it. a) must b) may с) can a) needn’t b) mustn’t c) can’t 6. I’m sorry, I ... come to your party tomorrow, I’m busy. a) mustn’t b) shouldn’t c) can’t 7. I’m on holiday now, I ... get up early. a) can’t b) don’t have to c) may not 8. Students ... talk during the lectures. a) are not able to b) are not allowed to c) don’t have to 9. I ... see you today, but I ... to see you tomorrow. a) mustn’t b) may not c) can’t a) will be allowed b) will be able c) will have 10. The teacher said that we ... use the dictionaries. a) may b) might c) could 165

4. Поставьте в пропуски both ... and, either ... or, или neither ... nor

1. ... I ... my friend can go to the party. We are busy. 2. Liz was ... tired ... hungry, so she decided to stay at home. 3. You can get off ... at this stop ... at the next one. The supermarket is between them. 4. ... his mother ... his father are from London. 5. Where is John? – He is ... at work ... at home. 6. ... Tom ... I were late for the lecture. 7. I can ... see ... phone him. I think he is not in town. 8. We can leave ... tomorrow ... after tomorrow. 9. ... Nellie ... her friend passed the exam. 10. You can get there ... by tram ... by minibus. 11. ... you apologize ... I’ll never speak to you again. 12. We can go ... to the cinema ... to the theatre. The tickets are sold out. 5. Поставьте в пропуски many, much, little, a little, few, a few

1. The weather has been dry recently. There has been ... rain. 2. How ... did it cost to repair your car? 3. Have you ever been to London? – Yes, I have been there ... times. 4. There were too ... people in the museum. 5. Let’s have some coffee. We have got ... time. 6. We must be quick, we have ... time. 7. He won’t lose his way, he speaks ... English. 8. He is not very communicative, he has ... friends. 9. Only ... buildings were repaired in this street. 10. He is a manager. He uses the phone very ... . 11. They promised to come back in ... days. 12. Would you like some sugar? – Yes, please, ... .

LESSON 11 If you want to be happy for life, love what you do. (Если вы хотите быть счастливыми всю жизнь, любите свое дело.) • ПРОШЕДШЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE) • СТРАНЫ, НАЦИОНАЛЬНОСТИ (COUNTRIES, NATIONALITIES) • МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ (PRONOUNS) EACH, EVERY

Прошедшее совершенное время The Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect употребляется для выражения: 1)действия, совершившегося до определенного момен та в прошлом; 167

2) действия, совершившегося до другого действия в прошлом; 3)действия, начавшегося до другого действия в про шлом. Past Perfect переводится на русский язык прошед шим временем: I had written – я написал. 1. Прочтите и переведите предложения с глаголами в Past Perfect

1. I thought he had written to you about it. 2. He had finished his work by six o’clock. 3. When I came I saw that my friends had left. 4. She said she had had to take a taxi not to be late for classes. 5. Before my friends and I went on a tour, we had bought a lot of souvenirs. 6. By 1700s England had established thirteen colonies in the eastern part of what is now the United States. 7. He said that when he had come there had been nowhere to sit. 8. Did you ask him where he had gone on Sunday? 9. I wanted to go to the cinema with them but I hadn’t finished my work by six o’clock. 10. Most Europeans knew about the New World after Columbus had made his voyage. 11. I was going to help my friend to repair his car, but he had repaired it himself. 12. He said that he had enjoyed the journey very much. 13. The neighbours told that the elderly man had never attracted their attention. 14. She was very sorry that she hadn’t seen our guests. 15. They said that they had had to call for a doctor. 2. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя Past Perfect

1. Она сказала, что две недели назад они переехали на новую квартиру. 2. Я был уверен, что он сказал правду. 3. Разве вы не знали, что он поступил в университет? 168

4. Я думал, что вы получили ответ на свое письмо. 5. Соседи сказали, что он заболел и им пришлось выз вать врача. 6. Я надеялся, что он уже отремонтировал машину. 7. Он сообщил, что эта новость привлекла внимание всех. 8. Вы сказали директору, что гн Смит уже пришел? 9. Он очень сожалел, что не поехал с нами. 10. Его друг знал, что он поменял квартиру. 11. Преподаватель рассердился, потому что студенты не выполнили домашнее задание. 12. Я думал, что он согласился с вами. 13. Мы узнали об этом только после того, как прочи тали статью. 14. Почему ты не сказал мне раньше, что они пригла сили нас на день рождения?

Страны, национальности Countries, Nationalities

169

3. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык

1. It is very difficult to study Japanese. 2. Kilt is a part of the traditional costume of a Scotsman. 3. Have you ever spent a holiday in Denmark? 4. In the first century of our era the Romans colonized the British Isles. 5. Norman French was the language of the people who conquered England in the year of 1066. 6. Frenchmen call it “La Manche”, but to the English it is the English Channel, one of the world’s most extraordinary waterways. 7. What language do people speak in China? 8. The number of Englishspeaking people is nowаdays secondary only to Chinese. 9. We are receiving a French delegation next week. 10. The language of Danish invaders influenced English in the 8–10th centuries. 11. From the British Isles the English language spread all over the world. 12. France is famous for its wine. 13. I exchanged the badges with the Dutch collectors. 14. The Scots are proud of their beautiful landscapes. 15. The Japanese work hard even at school to get a good job in future. 170

4. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя лексику, данную в таблице

1. Он поляк, ему было нетрудно выучить русский язык. 2. Мы обычно считаем, что немцы пунктуальны и ак куратны. 3. Один из героев фильма имеет прозвище «Датча нин». 4. Я мечтаю съездить в Швейцарию, мне кажется, что это одна из самых красивых и цивилизован ных стран. 5. В Канаде два государственных языка – англий ский и французский. 6. Ирландский язык очень отличается от английско го. 7. В нашей делегации было два норвежца. Мы гово рили с ними поанглийски. 8. Многие международные слова имеют латинское происхождение. 9. На факультете восточных языков студенты изуча ют и восточные, и европейские языки. 10. У шотландцев очень необычный национальный костюм. 11. Мой друг хочет выучить японский язык и поехать работать в Японию. 12. Американская культура оказывает большое вли яние на культуру других народов.

Местоимения (Pronouns) each, every EACH – каждый (в отдельности) 1. each + исчисл. сущ. в ед. ч. – each book, each word 2. each + of + местоим. – each of us, each of them 3. each other – друг друга 171

EVERY – каждый, всякий (все) – every book, every word, every opportunity 5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на местоимения each, every

1. There are new houses on each side of the street. 2. You have every opportunity to pass the driving test. 3. Each time I meet him I can’t recognize him. 4. Each student in our group has an EnglishRussian dictionary. 5. He translated every sentence very carefully. 6. Each football team has eleven players. 7. I gave him many addresses and he wrote to everyone. 8. There were a few pencils on the table. Each one was of different colour. 9. The children play in the yard. They throw the ball to each other. 10. She likes theatre very much and goes to every new perfor mance. 11. There were many students in the classroom and the teacher gave a task to each of them. 12. They work at the same office and see each other very often. 6. Переведите предложения, используя местоимения each или every

1. Каждый раз, когда я встречаю его, я вспоминаю о своем обещании. 2. Я живу недалеко от него и вижу его почти каж дый день. 3. Продавец должен быть вежлив с каждым покупа телем. 4. У него есть все возможности хорошо учиться, но он слишком ленив. 5. Вы должны найти в словаре каждое слово и запи сать его. 6. Каждый из нас может принять участие в этой кон ференции. 7. Сейчас почти у каждого студента есть мобильный телефон. 172

8. В нашем доме в каждой квартире есть балкон. 9. Каждый студент получил подарок и приглашение на вечер. 10. Он долго переводил текст, потому что ему при шлось искать в словаре почти каждое слово. 11. Каждый человек хочет быть счастливым, но не каждому это удается. 12. Я езжу к своим родственникам на юг каждый год. 13. Каждый англичанин будет рад показать вам до стопримечательности своего города. 14. Мы стучали в каждую дверь, но никого нигде не было. 15. Пусть каждый занимается своим делом. ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to engage – 1. занимать, заказывать заранее 2. заниматься чемлибо 3. быть помолвленным 4. быть вовлеченным в военные действия The manager can’t receive you, he is engaged in talks. – Is John married? – No, he is engaged. They were engaged in the battle.

– Менеджер не может сейчас принять вас, он занят на переговорах. – Джон женат? – Нет, он помолвлен. – Они принимали участие в боевых действиях.

7. Прочтите и переведите текст

How I Became a Collector In fact I haven’t got the patience to engage myself in any regular and continuous activities. At least I thought so until... 173

Well, I’ll tell you from the very beginning. Two years ago my friends and I went on a tour of old Russian towns. We took along with us a great deal of souvenirs for our friends from those towns. As to me, I had bought about forty badges and postcards with the views of our city. We enjoyed our journey very much. We saw many interesting things and tried to remember every place we visited. Our friends from those towns warmly received us and gave us all sorts of things in memory of our stay there. By the end of our tour I have found myself a possessor of quite a number of different badges and each of them could tell me a lot about the places I visited. On returning home I went to see my friend who had been ill and couldn’t join us in our travel. Telling him the story of our journey I showed the badges and explained them. When my friend saw the badges which I brought his eyes sparkled. He took each of them and scrutinized it for a long time. We spent the whole evening talking about the badges. My friend advised me to go on collecting them. And I followed his advice. Last year I added to my collection about a hundred badges which I exchanged with the British, French, German and Polish collectors. My elder sister presented several Italian and Swedish badges to me after her tour. Thus I became a regular collector. Collecting badges has become my hobby. 8. Ответьте на вопросы

1. Do you think that our life is more interesting if we have any hobby? 2. Do many of your friends have hobbies? 3. Do you know anything about hobbies of famous people? 4. Have you heard of any unusual collections? 5. Do you like travelling? 6. Do you collect badges, coins, stamps or postcards of different places? 174

7. Have you ever collected anything? 8. What things can be collected? 9. Are you fond of making things? 10. Do you like computer games? 11. Do you think that learning new information can be a hobby? 12. Have you chosen a hobby? What is it? ЗАПОМНИТЕ: because – потому что, так как because of – изза, вследствие Не can’t go with you – Он не может пойти с вами, because he is ill. потому что он болен. We couldn’t go out – Мы не могли выйти изза because of the bad плохой погоды. weather. to attract attention – привлекать внимание to pay attention – обращать внимание I’d like to attract your – Мне бы хотелось привлечь attention to some facts. ваше внимание к некото рым фактам. I paid attention to the – Я обратил внимание на но new picture. вую картину. to get rid (of) – избавиться (от) I’ll try to get rid of this – Я постараюсь избавиться habit. от этой привычки. 9. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

New World The New World consisted of what are now the conti nents of North and South America. Most Europeans knew about it after Columbus had made his great voyage. Within a few years the more powerful nations of Europe were establishing colonies in the new land. By the 1700s England had established thirteen colonies in the eastern part of what is now the United States. Most 175

of the colonies were English or from other parts of the British Isles, such as Scotland, Ireland and Wales. There were also, however, many Germans in Pennsylvania, Swedes in Delaware and Dutch in New York. Some of the early British colonists had come to the New World in hopes of enriching themselves, others came because Britain forced them to leave – they were troublemakers or people who could not pay their debts. Some came because of the opportunity, which did not exist for them in Europe, to own land or practise a trade. But there were other reasons, and those other reasons had great influence on the shaping of the political system of the United States. 1. What was the territory of the New World? 2. When did most Europeans know about the New World? 3. By what time had England established thirteen colonies in the New World? 4. What places were most of the colonists from? 5. From what other countries did the colonists come to the territory which is now the United States? 6. Why did the colonists leave their native places and come to the New World? 10. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

People and Things In Kostroma neighbours noticed that for nearly a week they had not seen an elderly gentleman, who lived alone in a twobedroom apartment. They called the Emergency Situation Service, and the rescue experts broke the door down. One can imagine their surprise when they saw that the door could not be opened, because of the trash that filled the apartment from floor to ceiling. The owner was standing near the door in the only space that had been 176

left1 unfilled, squeezed from all sides, and there was no where to lie down or even sit. Apparently the elderly man, who had never attracted the neighbours’ attention in any way, had for many years been collecting trash from outside and stored it in the apartment. Finally the man trapped himself inside his apartment, unable to open the door blocked by the garbage. He had spent perhaps a week standing, hardly able to move, surrounded by his possessions that he couldn’t get rid of himself. He was weak from thirst and hunger and had to be taken2 to hospital. 1. What town did an elderly man live in? 2. What apartment did he have? 3. Did he live with a family or alone? 4. Why did the neighbours call the Emergency Situa tion Service? 5. Why did the rescue experts have to break the door down? 6. Why wasn’t it possible to open the door? 7. What was the owner of the apartment doing when the rescue experts opened the door? 8. What was the hobby of the elderly man? 9. How long had he been collecting trash? What for? 10.Why did the rescue experts have to take him to hospital? 11. Прочтите и переведите предложения на русский язык; вспомните изученный материал

1. Our neighbour was ill and couldn’t open the door, so we had to call the Emergency Situation Service. 2. He is a troublemaker and always attracts everybody’s attention. 3. In fact many people haven’t got the patience to read _________________ 1 space that had been left – место (пространство), которое остава лось 2 (he) had to be taken – (его) пришлось отправить 177

“War and Peace” attentively. 4. He missed the train. Apparently he didn’t know that the schedule had changed. 5. My friend scrutinized every badge in my collection and asked where I had got it. 6. Most of the first American colonists came from the British Isles – English, Scots, Irish, Welsh. 7. My friend lives in Holland, but he isn’t Dutch, he is German. 8. He said that his grandfather had enriched himself by practising a trade. 9. There were a lot of people in the bus, I was hardly able to move to the exit. 10. The man behind the door was so weak from thirst and hunger that he couldn’t open the door. 11. My friend collects books, he’s filled his room with the books from floor to ceiling. 12. The rescue experts had to break the door down to save the man from fire. 13. He can’t get rid of the habit of smoking every minute. 14. St. Petersburg with its architectural monuments makes great impression on the foreign guests. 12. Прочтите и переведите предложения на английский язык; вспомните изученный материал

1. Привычка – вторая натура, поэтому избавиться от плохой привычки непросто. 2. Почему вы не сказали ему, что вы мне все объяс нили? 3. Некоторые люди ехали из Европы в Америку по тому, что надеялись там разбогатеть. 4. Каждый человек имеет и хорошие, и плохие при вычки. 5. Я последовал совету своего друга и стал каждый день учить по десять новых слов. 6. Он сказал, что они прежде не встречались. 7. Я не знал, что доктор Белл был прототипом Шер лока Холмса. 8. Он не пришел на лекцию. Это означало, что чтото случилось. 178

9. Она сказала, что пыталась учить английский язык с помощью интернета. 10. У меня были четкие доказательства того, что кто то побывал в моей квартире. 11. Он сказал, что у его дяди не было ни образования, ни опыта, но он сумел разбогатеть, так как много работал. 12. Я не могу сказать, что они влюблены друг в друга, просто они хорошие друзья. 13. Многие люди говорят, что Дейл Карнеги оказал на них большое влияние. 14. Если вам ктонибудь скажет, что шотландцы – са мые жадные люди, не верьте. Шотландцы – умные и коммуникабельные люди, обладающие природ ным чувством юмора. 15. Какая я рассеянная! Я опять забыла дома книгу, которую я должна вернуть в библиотеку. SHORT CONVERSATION – May I give you some small – Позвольте мне пода souvenirs? Here is an рить вам сувениры. Это album of our city, some фотоальбом о нашем badges and a wooden doll in городе, значки и дере national costume. It’s cal вянная кукла в нацио led a “Matryoshka”. нальной одежде – Мат рёшка. – We never expected such – Мы никогда не ожида generosity. Thank you very ли такой сердечности. much indeed. Большое спасибо. LAUGH AND LEARN A man had had bad luck fishing and on his way home he entered the fish market and said to the dealer1: _________________ 1 dealer – зд.: продавец 179

“Just stand over there and throw me five of the biggest of those trout!” “Throw ’em 1 ? What for?” asked the dealer in amazement. “So I can tell the family I caught ’em. I may be a poor fisherman, but I’m not a liar”. Человек неудачно сходил на рыбалку, по дороге до мой он зашел на рыбный рынок и сказал продавцу: «Стой там и оттуда брось мне пять самых больших фо релей!» «Бросить? Зачем?» – спросил изумленный прода вец. «Чтобы я мог сказать семье, что я поймал их. Мо жет быть, я плохой рыбак, но не лжец».

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS To kill two birds with one stone. That cat won’t jump. Never say “never”.

_________________ 1 Throw ’em = throw them

~ Убить двух зайцев одним выстрелом. ~ Этот номер не пройдет. – Никогда не говорите «ни когда».

LESSON 12 The harder the struggle, the sweeter the victory. (Чем труднее борьба, тем при" ятнее победа. ~ Тяжело в учении – легко в бою.) • БУДУЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) • ВРЕМЕНА (ПОВТОРЕНИЕ) (TENSES – REVISION) • МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ (PRONOUN) THAT/THOSE (OF)

Будущее совершенное время The Future Perfect Tense

181

Future Perfect употребляется для выражения буду щего действия, которое совершится до определенного момента в будущем. Future Perfect переводится на русский язык буду щим временем глагола совершенного вида: I will have written – я напишу. 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на Future Perfect

1. If it is necessary I’ll have translated the article by Tuesday. 2. The train will have left by the time we get to the station. 3. If you read Dale Carnegie’s book “How to Win Friends and Influence People”, you’ll know a lot of interesting things about many famous people. 4. If you have good memory, you won’t have to write down your friends’ phone numbers. 5. I’ll come and see you off if you like. 6. Tom’s parents hope that he’ll have good manners after college. 7. This time tomorrow we’ll be going on a train. 8. I’ll try to remember every detail he will tell me. 9. When you come to my place tomorrow, I’ll have cooked dinner. 10. I’ll write down all the new words and learn them, I promise. 11. She says she’ll have to change a job. 12. My brother says he’ll exercise his memory regularly. 13. I’ll have passed all the exams by the end of the month. 14. A child will be healthy and strong if he exercises his arms and legs by going in for sports. 2. Поставьте глаголы в Future Indefinite, Future Continuous или Future Perfect

1. What you (to do) tomorrow? 2. He (to repair) his car if you come in the morning. 3. I (to finish) my work by six o’clock and we (to go) to the cinema. 4. If you like the film I (to see) it too. 5. Tomorrow I (to be) in that book 182

shop and (to buy) the book for you. 6. After I pass my exams I (to be) free. 7. I (to remember) every word he (to say). 8. Don’t worry, I (to see) your sister off to the station. 9. He (to come) soon and you (to be able/to say) him everything you like. 10. If we come to the station at 10.30 we (to have) time for a cup of tea. 3. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя нужное время

1. Я смогу помочь тебе только после того, как закон чу эту работу. 2. Мы уже обсудим ваш вопрос к тому времени, ког да вы придете. 3. Если у него будет возможность, он поможет вам от ремонтировать машину. 4. Завтра мне придется поехать за билетами. 5. Почему вы думаете, что он не придет завтра? 6. Если вы купите билеты в театр, позвоните мне, по жалуйста. 7. После того, как я сдам экзамен, я смогу приехать к вам. 8. Все будет готово к тому времени, когда они при едут. 9. Ваша память улучшится, если вы регулярно буде те ее тренировать. 10. Если вы не расслышите имя, попросите повторить его. 11. Я подойду к ним после того, как они пообедают. 12. Если я буду плохо себя чувствовать, я не пойду в институт. 13. Я позвоню вам после того, как упакую вещи. 14. Я уверен, если мы встретимся, мы станем друзья ми. 15. Он не сможет дать вам совет, пока вы не расскаже те ему все. 183

Местоимения (Pronouns) that (of), those (of) That (of)/those (of) – употребляются во избежание по вторения предшествующего существительного. The price of the dictionary Цена словаря выше is higher than that of the pen. цены ручки. 4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на местоимения that (of), those (of)

1. The cheese I bought yesterday is better than that I’ve bought today. 2. There are a few houses in our district similar to those in your town. 3. His deductive method is like that of Sherlock Holmes. 4. The taste of a banana is different than that of an apple. 5. The number of the books I’ve taken from the library today is more than that I took last week. 6. People who cannot read or write usually have better memory than those who can. 7. The train which arrives at 7.30 is more comfortable than that which arrives at 8.15. 8. This dress is more expensive than that you bought. ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to be interested in – интересоваться чемлибо I am interested in music. – Я интересуюсь музыкой. What are you interested – Чем вы интересуетесь? in? аppearance – появление; внешность The appearance of that – Появление этой статьи article was unexpected. было неожиданным. I know him by – Я знаю его по внешности appearance. (только в лицо). 184

аs well as – так же, как и; а также Не collects stamps as – Он собирает марки, well as his brother. (так же) как и его брат. Her memory is good as – У нее хорошая память, well as her appearance. как и (ее) внешность. 5. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Jim Farley never saw the inside of a high school; but before he was fortysix years of age, four colleges had honored him with degrees and he had become chairman of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General of the United States. I once interviewed Jim Farley and asked him the secret of his success. He said, “Hard work”, and I said, “Don’t be funny.” He then asked me what I thought was the reason for his success. I replied, “I understand you can call ten thousand people by their first names.” “No. You are wrong”, he said. “I can tell fifty thousand people by their first names...” Jim Farley discovered early in life that the average person is more interested in his or her own name than in all the other names on earth put together... Franklin Roosevelt knew that one of the simplest, most obvious and most important ways of gaining good will is by remembering names and making people feel important – yet how many of us do it?.. Napoleon the Third, Emperor of France and nephew of the great Napoleon, boasted that in spite of all his royal duties he could remember the name of every person he met. His technique? Simple. If he didn’t hear the name distinctly, he said, “So sorry. I didn’t get the name clearly.” Then, if it was an unusual name, he would say, “How is it spelled?” 185

During the conversation, he took the trouble to repeat the name several times, and tried to associate it in his mind with the person’s features, expression and general appearance. If the person was someone of importance, Napoleon went to even further pains 1. As soon as His Royal Highness2 was alone, he wrote the name down on a sheet of paper, looked at it, concentrated on it, fixed it securely in his mind, and then tore up the paper. In this way, he gained an eye impression of the name as well as ear impression. (From: Dale Carnegie. “How to Win Friends and Influence People”)

1. What is the text about? 2. Have you ever heard the names of Jim Farley, Frank lin Roosevelt, Napoleon the Third, Dale Carnegie? 3. What are these people famous for? What were their titles and positions? 4. What was Jim Farley’s education? 5. What is Jim Farley’s secret of success? 6. How many people did Jim Farley remember by their first names? 7. What for did Franklin Roosevelt remember people’s names? 8. Napoleon the Third remembered a lot of names, didn’t he? 9. What was Napoleon the Third’s technique of remembering names? 10.Do you think it is important to remember people’s names? Why? 11.Do you try to remember the names of people you meet? 12.Will you use Napoleon the Third’s technique of remembering names? _________________ 1 pains – зд.: старания, усилия 2 His Royal Highness – Его Королевское Высочество 186

6. Прочтите и переведите текст

Memory If you do not use your arms or your legs for some time, they become weak; when you start using them again, they slowly become strong again. Everybody knows this, and nobody would think of questioning this fact. Yet there are many people who do not seem to know 1 that the memory works in the same way. When someone says that he has a good memory, he really means that he keeps his memory in practice by exercising it regularly, either consciously or unconsciously. When someone else says that his memory is poor, he really means that he does not give it enough opportunity to become strong. The position is exactly the same as that of two people, one of whom exercises his arms and legs by playing tennis, while the other sits in a chair or a motor car all day. If a friend complains that his arms are weak, we know that it is his own fault. But if he tells us that he has a poor memory, many of us think his parents are to blame2, or that he is just unlucky, and few of us realize that it is his own fault... Not all of us can become extremely strong or extremely clever, but all of us can, if we have ordinary bodies and brains, improve our strength and our memory by the same means – practice. Have you ever noticed that people who cannot read or write usually have better memory than those who can? Why is this? Of course, because those who cannot read or write have to remember things: they cannot write them down in a little notebook. They have to remember dates, times, and prices, names, songs and stories; so they are exercising their memory all the time. So if you want a good memory, learn... to practise remembering.

_________________ 1 do not seem to know – повидимому, не знают 2 his parents are to blame – виноваты его родители 187

7. Ответьте на вопросы

1. Is your memory good or poor? 2. Why do you think that your memory is good/poor? 3. Can you remember phone numbers, names or historical dates? 4. How many phone numbers do you remember? 5. How many times do you have to read the text or the poem to remember it? 6. Have you ever met a person with unusual memory? 7. What could he/she remember? 8. Why do people who cannot read or write have good memory? 9. Have you ever exercised your memory? How did you do it? 10. Would you like to improve your memory? 11. How are you going to do it? ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to separate [sepəreit] – отделять, разделять separate [seprit] – отдельный The English Channel – ЛаМанш отделяет separates Great Britain Великобританию от from the сontinent. континента. This is a separate room for – Это отдельная комната guests. для гостей. 8. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Scotland A lot of people think that Scotland is a part of England, but this is not true. Scotland is, in fact, a part of Great Britain. It is governed from London but in many ways it is a separate nation. It has its own capital city, Edinburgh, its own laws and its own stamps. It even has 188

its own language, Gaelic, spoken now by only a few people on the islands. There are only about five million Scots, and most of them live in the southern part of the country called the “Lowlands”, where the major cities are situated. But most holiday visitors to Scotland go to the Highlands because of the high mountains and deep valleys, clean rivers and cold “lochs”1. The Highlands are home to many birds and animals, like the golden eagle and the wildcat, which are found nowhere else in Britain. It is a sparcely populated and empty land. Only two per cent of the British population live there and the popula tion is getting smaller all the time. There is very little work, so most of the young people who are born there have to move south to find a job. Perhaps the Highlands of Scotland will become the last wilderness of Europe. Scotland is famous for its own culture. From a Scottish glossary: Kilt2 is a part of the traditional costume of a Scotsman. This short skirt is worn by men in the Highlands. It was the dress of the oldtime Highlanders and was very suitable for going through wet, moorland country. The kilt worn by each clan was made up of a special checked pattern. This colourful cloth is called tartan 3. Each Scottish Highland clan has its own special tartan. Bagpipe4 is a Scottish national musical instrument... It led Scottish soldiers into battle. (From: Blueprint Two. “By Brian Abbs and Ingrid Freebairn”)

1. How can you explain that Scotland is a separate nation from England? _________________ 1 loch (шотл.) – озеро 2 kilt – кильт (юбка шотландского стрелка) 3 tartan – клетчатая шотландская материя, шотландка 4 bagpipe – волынка 189

2. What is Scotland famous for? 3. How many Scots are there in England? 4. Do many people speak Gaelic? 5. What is the capital of Scotland? 6. Where do most Scots live? 7. Why do most holiday visitors to Scotland go to the Highlands? 8. Why do young people move away from the Highlands? 9. Why are the Highlands called the last of the great wilderness of Europe? 9. Поставьте глаголы в нужное время

1. Не says he never (to be) to Paris. 2. As soon as I (to arrive), I’ll ring you up. 3. Не said he (to do) it uncon sciously and (to be) ready to apologize. 4. Sometimes it (to be) difficult to remember a name, particularly if it is hard to pronounce. 5. My memory (to be) better if I exer cise it regularly. 6. Holiday visitors (to go) to the High lands in spite of the nasty weather. 7. His name is rather difficult to remember, so nobody ever (to make) an effort to call him by his right name. 8. If you (to write) down the new words on sheets of paper, you’ll gain an eye impression of them and remember them. 9. She (to look) for a job now. 10. When a man says he (to have) a poor memory, it (to mean) that he doesn’t exercise it. 11. I think I (to recognize) him when I (to see) him. 12. I never (to notice) that she is shortsighted. 13. When you (to see) him? – I (to see) him today. 14. When I (to come) yesterday, he (to work) on the computer. 10. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя нужное время

1. Если ты хочешь стать сильным, регулярно трени руйся. 190

2. Вы не знаете, чем он интересуется? 3. Шотландцы имеют свой собственный язык, свои законы, свою столицу. 4. Ей приходится разговаривать со многими людьми, она запоминает много имен и бессознательно тре нирует память. 5. Волынка – это национальный шотландский музы кальный инструмент. 6. Любой человек может улучшить память с помо щью тренировки. 7. Когда ты ходил в библиотеку? – Я был там сегодня. 8. Моей сестре не нравится работа. Ей придется ис кать другую работу. 9. Он расскажет вам секрет своего успеха, если вы по просите его. 10. Один из способов запомнить слова – это записать их на бумаге, то есть создать их зрительный об раз. 11. Когда вы будете беседовать с ним, он расскажет вам о своих интересах. 12. Что вы ему скажете, когда увидите его? 13. Если ты будешь жаловаться на свою память, ник то тебе не поверит. 14. Вы отремонтируете машину к завтрашнему дню?

SHORT CONVERSATION – Don’t be cross, Kate. – Не хмурься, Катя. Это Can’t you take a joke? ведь шутка. – Frankly speaking, I don’t – Честно говоря, мне не like your way of joking. нравятся твои шутки. – Sorry, Kate. I didn’t – Извини, Катя. Я не want to hurt you. I just хотел обидеть тебя. meant a little laugh, you Просто хотел немного know. посмеяться. 191

– That’s all right. But – Ладно. Но я думаю, что ты I think you are со своими шутками захо carrying your jokes a дишь слишком далеко. little too far. LAUGH AND LEARN A man had a parrot that could only say the words: “There is no doubt about it”. One day its master went to the market to sell it. “Who’ll buy my parrot?” he cried. “Twenty pounds for my parrot!” Another man heard this. He turned to the parrot and said, “Are you worth twenty pounds?” “There is no doubt about it”, was the parrot’s answer. The man bought the bird and carried it home. Some time later he was sorry for what he did. “What a fool I was to throw so much money away”, said he. “There is no doubt about it!” cried the bird. And this time the parrot was right. У человека был попугай, который мог говорить только одну фразу: «В этом нет никакого сомнения». Однажды хозяин попугая пошел на рынок продавать его. «Кто купит моего попугая? – восклицал он. – Двадцать фунтов за попугая!» Другой человек услы шал это. Он повернулся к попугаю и спросил: «Ты (дей ствительно) стоишь двадцать фунтов?» «В этом нет ни какого сомнения», – был ответ попугая. Человек купил попугая и принес его домой. Некоторое время спустя он пожалел о своем поступ ке. «Какой я был дурак, когда выбросил такую боль шую сумму денег», – сказал он. «В этом нет никакого сомнения!» – воскликнула птица. И на сей раз попугай был прав. 192

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Everything is good in its season. You can never say any thing but what you are. I shall be as secret as the grave.

– Все хорошо в свое время. – Что бы вы ни говорили, вы выскажете только одно: кто вы есть. – Я буду нем как могила.

LESSON 13 Everything comes to him who waits. (Все приходит к тому, кто уме" ет ждать.) • НАСТОЯЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ДЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ВРЕМЯ (THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) • ВРЕМЕНА (ПОВТОРЕНИЕ) (TENSES – REVISION)

Настоящее совершенное длительное время The Present Perfect Continuous Tense have/has been + ing form

Present Perfect Continuous употребляется для вы ражения: 1) действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжа ется в настоящее время (на русский язык перево дится настоящим временем); 194

2) действия, которое началось в прошлом и закончи лось непосредственно перед моментом речи. Сигналами для употребления Present Perfect Con tinuous обычно являются предлоги since и for. Present Perfect Continuous переводится на русский язык настоящим временем: I have been writing – я пишу. 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на упот> ребление Present Perfect Continuous

1. We have been waiting for you since eight o’clock. 2. How long have you been writing your course paper? 3. They have been discussing this problem for two hours. 4. I’m tired, I have been working in the garden for several hours. 5. Where is your husband? – He’s been repairing the car since early morning. 6. Is your sister a teacher? – Yes, she has been teaching English for three years. 7. My friend has been looking for a job since March. 8. His memory is excellent. He has been exercising it for two years. 9. What have you been doing here the whole day? 10. I’ve been reading a lot lately. I’m interested in history. 11. It’s raining now. It has been raining since Monday. 12. You’ve been choosing the present for an hour. Let’s buy flowers. 13. They have been talking for three hours. They haven’t seen each other for a long time. 14. Be quiet! Father is working. He’s been working since morning. 2. Поставьте глаголы в Present Indefinite, Present Con> tinuous, Present Perfect или Present Perfect Continuous

1. I (to know) him for five years. We went to the same school. 2. How long you (to wait) for him? 3. Somebody (to wait) for you in the next room. 4. It often (to rain) here in autumn. 5. I (to wear) this coat for two years. I want to buy a new one. 6. Let’s have a snack. I (to drive) the whole day. 7. Why don’t you understand this rule? I (to explain) 195

it for an hour. 8. I’ve got a new camera. I (to buy) it this week. 9. You often (to go) to the theatre? 10. It (to rain)? – No, it (to stop). 11. What your son (to do) now? – He (to play) computer games. 12. Where (to be) Nick? – I (not/ to see) him since Sunday. 13. His parents (to live) in St. Petersburg all their life. 14. They (to build) their house for two years. 3. Переведите предложения, используя нужное время

1. Он всегда делает много ошибок в контрольных ра ботах. 2. Что ты сейчас делаешь? – Я выписываю новые слова. 3. Вы давно ждете его? – Нет, мы только что пришли. 4. Где Анна? – Она разговаривает по телефону уже целый час. 5. Дождь идет со вчерашнего дня. Не забудь взять зонт. 6. Вы когданибудь были в Англии? – Я ездил туда в этом году. 7. Они давно беседуют? – Нет, они только что начали. 8. Последнее время он много занимается. Наверное, он готовится к экзаменам. 9. Мой брат много курит, но собирается бросить ку рить. 10. Я недавно бросил курить и чувствую себя намного лучше. 11. Я хожу по магазину уже целый час, никак не могу выбрать подарок для своего друга. 12. Не можешь ли ты дать мне учебник по англий скому языку? – Я только что сдал его в библио теку. 13. Я целый день работал и сейчас хотел бы переку сить. 14. Смотри, солнце светит, но довольно прохладно. 196

ЗАПОМНИТЕ: to arrive in – прибывать, приезжать в страну, город to arrive at – прибывать, приезжать в отель, аэропорт to arrive at a conclusion – приходить к заключению The American President – Американский президент arrived in St. Petersburg прибыл в СанктПетер оn May, 30, 2003. бург 30 мая 2003 года. We arrived at the airport – Мы прибыли в аэропорт an hour in advance of за час до вылета самолета. the take>off time. I think he’ll come to such – Я думаю, что он сам при a conclusion himself. дет к такому заключению. 4. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

221b Baker Street In 1990 the Sherlock Holmes Museum was opened at 221b Baker Street. 221b Baker Street is the world’s most famous address. In the Sherlock Holmes Museum you step back a hundred years in time. It is unique. There is no modern virtual reality, but it is all virtually real. There are no horrors, no mummies or hidden corpses, no wax figures... Even so, the atmosphere of the quiet house is electric. You have a feeling as if the great detective had just left the room for a moment with Dr. Watson, and Mrs. Hudson is somewhere in the backrooms, and you’ll see her entering1 the room with a tray of tea cups. Everything in the museum reminds us of the stories we know so well. It is filled with things which Holmes and Watson would have had – Holmes’ violin, his deerstalker2 _________________ 1 her entering – как она входит 2 deerstalker – войлочная шляпа 197

and pipe, the Persian slipper in which he kept his tobacco, unanswered letters pinned to the wall with a knife, his magnifying glass... Dr. Watson’s diary contains hand written notes and extracts from “The Hound of the Baskervilles”. The Sherlock Holmes Museum is unlike other museums. Very little is locked up in glass cases. You can sit in Holmes’ armchair by the fireplace, you can examine his things and put on his deerstalker. But please your own pipe to smoke! People have been writing to this address for the last 100 years. Many correspondents ask if Mr. Holmes can help them with some problems, such as finding a missing relative or a pet. Greeting cards arrive at Christmas and on Holmes’ birthday (January, 6th). Dr. Watson is not forgotten either. 1. What is the address of the Sherlock Holmes Museum? 2. When was this Museum opened? 3. Are there any real things of Sherlock Holmes’ time? 4. Why does a visitor have a feeling as if Sherlock Holmes and Mrs. Hudson are nearby? 5. Why is the Sherlock Holmes Museum unlike other museums? 6. What things can a visitor see in the Museum? 7. Why do people write to the Museum? 8. What do the correspondents ask Mr. Holmes about? 9. When is Mr. Holmes’ birthday? 10.Have you ever visited the Sherlock Holmes Museum? 11.Would you like to visit it? 5. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

London London, the capital of Great Britain, is situated on the both banks of the river Thames. It is the largest city 198

in Great Britain and one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is about 7 million people. London was founded in the first century A.D. by the Romans. It began on two small patches of dry land in the middle of a marsh on the north bank of the Thames. That was long before the Romans came. In Roman times it was named Londinium and was already a thriving centre of trade. London dominates the life of Britain. It is a big port and the most important commercial, manufacturing and cultural centre. There is little heavy industry in London, but there is a wide range of light industry in Greater London1. The City is the heart of London, its financial and business centre. There arе some ancient buildings in it, among them is St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London. The City extends over an area of about 2.6 square kilometers. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there. About half a million people work in the City but less than 6,000 live there. The West End can be called the centre of London. Here are the historical places such as Buckingham Palace, Trafalgar Square with the Nelson’s Column in the centre, the National Gallery, the British Museum, as well as the famous parks. Hyde Park with its Speakers’ Corner is also here. The name “West End” is associated with wealth and luxury. It is the area of the largest department stores, cinemas, clubs, hotels, theatres, museums, concert halls. It is in the West End that the University of London is located. The East End with the port of London is the great industrial area. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks there. Many working class families live there. Formerly the East End had unattractive appearance. Now _________________ 1 Greater London – Лондон с пригородами 199

it is changing because of the introduction of new industries and very expensive housing. 1. Where is London situated? 2. How old is London? 3. Who was London founded by? 4. What was London’s name in Roman times? 5. What is the City famous for? 6. How many people work in the City? 7. Do many people live in the City? 8. What is the West End famous for? 9. There are many historical places in the West End, aren’t there? 10.What is the East End characterized by? 11.Are there any historical places and architectural monuments in the East End? 6. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

The Sovereign The British Queen is the official Head of State and, for many people, a symbol of the unity of the nation. The hereditary principle operates and the Crown is passed on to the sovereign’s eldest son (or daughter if there are no sons). The Queen has a central role in state affairs, not only through her ceremonial functions, such as opening the Parliament, but also because she meets the Prime Minister every week and receives copies of all Cabinet papers. However, she is impartial or “above politics”, and any advice she may offer the Prime Minister is kept secret. Not only the Queen but all her family are a symbol that people can identify with. When people feel that the Queen has problems with children, or her sister, they see her as a “real person” with the same worries and anxieties as themselves. 200

The Royal Family’s money comes from two sources: government funds and their own personal wealth, which is considerable. The Queen is certainly one of the richest women in the world, most of the money comes from family investments rather than the state. Her state salary pays for her servants and transport. Many members of the Royal Family undertake official duties in Britain and abroad. Their various responsibili ties reflect tradition, their own personal interests. For example, among her many titles the Princess Royal (Princess Anne) is Chancellor of the University of London. 1. What is the British Queen for the English people? 2. How is the Crown passed? 3. What are the functions of the Queen? 4. Is the Queen a member of any political party? 5. What is the attitude of the English people to the Queen? 6. Is the Queen a rich woman? 7. Where does the Royal Family get the money from? 8. Do the members of the Royal Family undertake any official duties? 7. Вспомните изученный материал и переведите предло> жения на русский язык

1. Great Britain has no written constitution, so we can say that the British constitution exists basically through gentleman’s agreements. 2. How long has he been writing his novel? 3. Traffic in London differs from that of the continent. 4. There has been the Independent Labour Party in Great Britain since 1893. 5. I had bought the tickets to the theatre before my friend came. 6. The important function of the Queen is to represent the State. 7. William Shakespeare travelled up to London on foot without much money in his pocket. 8. I’ll be looking forward to seeing you soon. 9. The Conservative Party goes back to the Tories or Royalists. 10. The Queen has to shake hands with 201

thousands of people every year. 11. Have you ever done this sort of things before? – Yes, I have been doing it for a year. 12. Will you have finished the interview by 2 o’clock? 13. It was “Pygmalion” that brought Shaw worldwide fame. 14. He said he had worked as a chief engineer. 8. Поставьте глаголы в нужное время

1. A hundred years ago people (to know) how to entertain themselves much better than they (to do) now. 2. I was sure that I (to meet) him before. 3. He (to sleep) when I came back yesterday. 4. You ever (to notice) that he never goes to parties? 5. He gave up his job; now he (to look) for another job, he (to be) between jobs. 6. The Queen is only a formal ruler, she (not/to govern) actually. 7. After I (to write) all the letters, I’ll be able to relax. 8. They (to repair) their house for already seven months. 9. Stories about Robin Hood and the band of his followers (to begin) to appear in the 14th century. 10. Every Tuesday the Prime Minister (to go) to Buckingham Palace for a talk with the Queen. 11. He said he (to travel) in Europe a great deal and (to visit) wonderful places. Now he (to want) to tell about it. 12. I (not/to hear) the name clearly and (to ask) him to say it again. 13. You (to be able) to come tomorrow at ten o’clock? – I (to try). 14. He said he (to have) dinner before we came. 9. Переведите предложения, используя нужное время

1. Мой брат учится играть на гитаре с прошлого года. 2. Когда вы видели гна Брауна последний раз? 3. Языковеды изучают языки сотни лет, но они обыч но изучают письменную форму языков. 4. Вы когданибудь задумывались над тем, сколько слов мы употребляем в речи? 5. Посмотри, идет снег. Он идет уже два дня. 202

6. Я вчера видел вашего учителя. Он шел к станции метро. 7. Он должен был прийти в шесть часов, но не смог. Ему пришлось остаться на работе. 8. Не звоните ему после одиннадцати, он будет спать. 9. Я думаю, что закончу работу к семи часам и мы сможем пойти в кино. 10. He могли бы вы сказать мне, когда начинается кон ференция? 11. Когда я собирался уходить, раздался телефонный звонок. 12. Он очень удивился, когда узнал об этом. 13. Насколько мне известно, самый богатый человек в Англии – Пол Маккартни. 14. Ты смотришь телевизор с трех часов. Когда ты со бираешься делать уроки?

SHORT CONVERSATION – Good morning, everybody! – Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Please, be seated and make yourself comfortable. – Thank you. – Well, how are things? Did you enjoy yesterday’s outing? – Thank you. The outing was wonderful. We had a very good time. The weather was just excellent.

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– Доброе утро! – Доброе утро, дамы и господа! Пожалуйста, присаживайтесь и чув ствуйте себя свободно. – Спасибо. – Как дела? Вам понра вилась вчерашняя прогулка? – Спасибо, прогулка была замечательная. Мы хорошо провели время. Погода была просто чудесная.

LAUGH AND LEARN “You know”, said the lady whose motorcar had run down a man, “you must have been walking very carelessly. I am a very careful driver. I have been driving a car for seven years”. “Lady, you’ve got nothing on me. I’ve been walking for fiftyfour years.” Женщина, которая сбила машиной пешехода, гово рит ему: «Наверное, вы были невнимательны, перехо дя дорогу. Я очень аккуратно вожу машину. Я уже семь лет за рулем». «Вовсе нет. Я ведь уже 54 года хожу пешком». PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS One swallow does not make a spring. Nature, time and patience are three great physicians. Rats desert a sinking ship.

– Одна ласточка не делает весны. – Природа, время и терпе ние – три великих врача. – Крысы бегут с тонущего корабля.

TEST 4 (Lessons 11–13) 1. Поставьте в пропуски местоимения each или every

1. There is a train to Moscow ... hour. 2. ... time I see him he is smiling. 3. I tried to phone you many times, but ... time there was no reply. 4. ... room in the cottage was different. 5. There are eleven players in ... football team. 6. Аnn likes travelling, she wants to visit ... country in the world. 7. ... of us hopes to pass this difficult examination. 8. There were a few flowers in the vase, ... was a different colour. 9. We had a great time at the performance, we enjoyed ... minute of it. 10. ... Saturday morning Robert goes to the swimming pool. 2.

Поставьте глаголы в Future Indefinite, Future Con> tinuous, Future Perfect или Present Indefinite

1. I hope you often (to visit) me if you (to live) in the next street. 2. By two o’clock they (to finish) their lunch and (will be able) to deal with your problem. 3. Не is sure he (to be) at the station in time. 4. If you come at four o’clock I (to prepare) for the party. 5. I think I (to finish) this work by Wednesday. 6. I promise I (to keep) my word. 7. How long it (to take) you to get to Madrid? 8. This time tomorrow we (to play) volleyball. 9. She says she (to speak) English fluently in a few months. 205

10. They (to discuss) your idea after the manager signs the documents. 11. I don’t know if he (to take) part in the conference. 12. First the secretary (look) through the mail, then she (to send) the letters to the foreign companies. 3.

Поставьте глаголы в Past Indefinite, Past Continuous или Past Perfect

1. When father (to come) from his work children already (to do) the homework. 2. Leon said he never (to see) that man before. 3. Only when she (to go) to the university she (to remember) that she (to forget) to take the dictionary. 4. I (to leave) the room when I (to see) this man. 5. When you (to phone) I just (to come) home. 6. The telegram (to come) some minutes after he (to leave). 7. My friend (to study) French before he (to enter) the university. 8. Nora (to be) very tired as she (to work) hard all day long. 9. I (to finish) translation by Tuesday evening. 10. She was angry with Andrew as he not (to tell) her about the accident. 11. When I saw Mark he (to sit) next to Tom and (to write) something. 12. He said he (to do) his best to be on time. 4.

Поставьте глаголы в нужное время

1. Don’t worry, I (to take) care of your children. 2. I realized that I (to be) wrong the day before and (to apologize) to them. 3. The more electricity we use the higher our bill (to be). 206

4. I couldn’t guess what he (to think) of the situation. 5. Tony said it not (to depend) on him. 6. I was not sure that he (to be) capable of passing the examinations. 7. They said they (not/to arrange) to meet, they met by chance. 8. She said she (to be) to London three times. 9. Do you know what time the train (to arrive) in Manchester? 10. How long it (to take) to get to London by air? 11. He usually (to go) to the office by bus, but today he (to have) to take a taxi. 12. You (to read) his article in the newspaper today?

LESSON 14 Self"conquest is the greatest of victories. (Победа над собой – вели" чайшая из побед.) • СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН (SEQUENCE OF TENSES) • КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ (INDIRECT SPEECH)

Sequence of Tenses Согласование времен Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в одной из форм прошедшего времени (обыч но в Past Indefinite), то глаголсказуемое придаточного предложения (преимущественно дополнительного) не может употребляться в форме настоящего или будуще го времени. В этом случае глаголсказуемое придаточного пред ложения употребляется в одной из форм прошедшего времени или будущеговпрошедшем. He said (that) he worked for a bank. Не said (that) he had worked for a bank. He said (that) he would work for a bank.

– Он сказал, что работает в банке. – Он сказал, что работал в банке. – Он сказал, что будет работать в банке.

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1. Переведите предложения на русский язык

1. Не said that he had heard about that article. 2. I was afraid that I would lose my way. 3. Why didn’t you tell me that they were going to London? 4. She asked me if I knew Ann’s address. 5. The teacher said that the students had made a lot of mistakes in the testpaper. 6. The boy’s mother believed that her son would be a great singer. 7. I knew that Nick was good at English and asked him to help me. 8. Very important people told that they preferred listeners to good talkers. 9. Why did you think that he would change his mind? 10. He understood that he was wrong, but he could not say it to anybody. 11. Nobody knew if he would come to the party. 12. The secretary said that Mr. Smith had left. 13. I asked my brother when he would come back. 14. We did not know how long it would take us to get to the station. 15. I did not understand how they had managed to do it. 2. Поставьте глаголы в нужное время

1. We did not know that you (to want) to go with us. 2. I was afraid that he (to miss) the train. 3. He did not want to say where he (to work). 4. Did you ask him what he (to be going) to do? 5. He said that there (to be) no doubt about that. 6. They were not sure that the conference (to begin) at 10 sharp. 7. Why did you decide that they (not/to want) to speak to you? 8. I knew it (to take) me long to finish the work and refused to go to the party. 9. My friend asked me why I (to refuse) to take part in the competition. 10. Did he explain why he (not/to come) to the lecture? 11. When I invited him to my birthday party, he said that he (have) to stay at the office very long. 12. He asked me if I (to be able) to help him with his translation. 13. Unfortunately, 209

I did not remember if I (to send) the fax or not. 14. The post officer explained him that he (to be) late. 15. We heard that he (to be) ill and decided to come and see him. 3. Переведите предложения, соблюдая правила согласо> вания времен

1. Я не знал, что они давно уехали из этого города. 2. Администратор сказал, что мест в гостинице нет. 3. Почему вы подумали, что он не придет? 4. Когда мы узнали, что он поступил в университет, мы очень обрадовались. 5. Вы спросили, когда он собирается навестить Джо на? 6. Я не был уверен, что найду дорогу к их дому. 7. Вы узнали, когда начинаются экзамены? 8. Мы были уверены, что он сможет сделать все сам. 9. Профессор сказал, что он не удовлетворен резуль татами экзамена. 10. Он сказал, что ничего не слышал о новом фильме. 11. Я не думал, что мне понадобится так много време ни на написание реферата. 12. Вы знали, что он может опоздать? Почему вы ни чего нам не сказали? 13. Ваш брат сказал, что вы собираетесь покупать ма шину. 14. Я был уверен, что все об этом знают. 15. Как вы узнали, что поезд опаздывает на два часа?

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Косвенная речь Indirect Speech При преобразовании прямой речи в косвенную со блюдаются правила согласования времен. Главное предло жение

Придаточное дополнительное предложение

Past Indefinite Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect Future Indefinite Future Continuous Future Perfect Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect Past Indefinite Future Indefinite Imperative Mood (Повелительное наклонение) this these here now today yesterday tomorrow last year last ... next year

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U| |V HE УПОТРЕБ || ЛЯЕТСЯ W → Past Indefinite → Past Continuous → Past Perfect → Past Perfect → FutureinthePast → Infinitive → (Инфинитив) → that → those → there → then → that day → the day before → the next day → the year before → the ... before → the next year, the following year

Изменения, производимые при преобразовании прямой речи в косвенную 1.Повествовательное предложение ввести союзом that (который можно опустить). 2.Вопросительное слово, если оно есть в вопросе, со хранить. 3.Если вопросительного слова нет, ввести союз if или whether в начале вопроса. 4.Изменить подлежащее (если нужно). 5.Произвести сдвиг времен, соблюдая порядок слов повествовательного предложения. 6.Изменить указательные местоимения (если нужно). 7.Изменить обстоятельства времени (если нужно). Не said, “I will come back soon”. He said (that) he would come back soon. He said to me, “I will come back soon”. He told me (that) he would come back soon. 4. Преобразуйте прямую речь в косвенную

А. 1. Не said, “I sent them a letter yesterday”. 2. My friend said, “I am reading an interesting book now”. 3. The secretary said, “The delegation will arrive next week”. 4. George said, “I can do it myself”. 5. Nanсy said to her friend, “I want to speak to the manager”. 6. They said to us, “We want to invite you to the theatre”. 7. Bill’s sister said, “I have to get up at 6 o’clock because I live far from my office”. 8. I said to my friend, “I will wait for you tomorrow”. 9. The teacher said to the students, “You are to learn the words by heart”. 10. He said to me, “I’ll tell you all the details when I come back”. 11. He said sincerely, “I have never seen this man”. 12. My grandmother said, 212

“I read this novel when I was young”. 13. Father said, “I’m sure that our team will win the game”. 14. My sister said to me, “I hope you will pass the exam and we will go to our grandparents”. 15. She said, “I went to the party yesterday and we had a good time”. B. 1. Mother asked me, “When will you come back home?” 2. He asked his friend, “How long does it take you to get to the office?” 3. The policeman asked, “Who is the owner of this car?” 4. He asked her, “Why can’t you answer my question at once?” 5. The teacher asked the student, “Why have you come so late?” 6. I asked my friend, “How many times have you seen this film?” 7. He asked me, “Where does your mother work?” 8. The professor asked the student, “What do you know about great physiсists of the 19th century?” 9. I asked the passerby, “How can I get to the nearest postoffice?” 10. My friend asked me, “What will you do if you win a lot of money in lottery?” 11. Tom asked, “Who will go to the cinema with me?” 12. The shop assistant asked me, “What can I do for you?” 13. He asked me, “When do you think it will rain?” 14. I asked my groupmates, “Whose dictionary is it?” 15. Tony asked me, “Why do you think she will be late?” C. 1. They asked their friends, “Have you received the invitation?” 2. My friend asked me, “Do you want to see the new film?” 3. She said to me, “Can you help me with my luggage, John?” 4. I asked the secretary, “Can I speak to Mr. Brown?” 5. He asked his friend, “Did it take you long to write the course paper?” 6. I asked my sister, “Do you think he will come soon?” 7. They asked us, “Are you waiting for Sue?” 8. Mother asked, “Did you tell him that you wouldn’t be able to come, Betty?” 9. Nick’s friends asked, “Are you going back today?” 213

10. I asked, “Have you ever been to London, Nina?” 11. He wondered, “Does she always come back so late?” 12. Tom asked me, “Do you have to get up so early every day?” 13. I asked him, “Do you smoke?” 14. She asked the shop assistant, “May I try this dress on?” 15. I asked Ann, “Are you going to buy a car?” D. 1. The teacher said to the students, “Open the books and read the text”. 2. He said to her, “Come back as soon as possible, please”. 3. Mother said to Mary, “Don’t forget to buy stamps and post the letter”. 4. The neighbour said to me, “Open the window, please”. 5. I said to him, “Please, don’t be angry with me”. 6. The manager said to the secretary, “Bring me the mail we have received today”. 7. Peter said, “I am very sorry I couldn’t keеp my promise”. 8. He said to his friends, “Don’t wait for me, please, I have to stay in the office”. 9. I said to the secretary, “Write to them that we cannot receive their offer”. 10. My sister said to me, “Take an umbrella. It is going to rain”. 11. I said, “Ring me up, please, when you find a job”. 12. The professor said to the student, “Wake up that fellow next to you”. 13. Dale Carnegie says, “Don’t criticize, condemn or complain”. 14. The man said, “Don’t be afraid of my dog”. 15. She said to the visitor, “Wait a little, please, Mr. Johnson will come soon”. 5. Преобразуйте косвенную речь в прямую

1. Peter said a few students had not passed the exam. 2. I asked my friend where he was going to spend the holidays. 3. The teacher told the students not to be late for the classes. 4. He asked me if I had heard anything about it. 5. She asked the shop assistant how much the dress was. 6. I asked Ann if she would come and see me 214

after lectures. 7. The director told the secretary to send the telegram. 8. She asked the man whether he could wait for the director. 9. They said they had sent an offer to that company. 10. She asked her friend why he did not want to go to the party. 11. She asked me to help her with her car. 12. I asked them how long it took them to get to the Russian Museum on foot. 13. The professor told him to come at ten o’clock. 14. Betsy said that she had been working with that firm for two years. 15. He asked me what I would tell him when I saw him. 6. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

...The psychologist Jess Lair writes, “Praise is like sunlight to the warm human spirit: we cannot flower and grow without it. And yet, while most of us are only too ready to apply to others cold wind of criticism, we are somehow reluctant to give our fellow the warm sunshine of praise”. Many years ago a boy of ten was working in a factory in Naples. He longed to be a singer, but his first teacher discouraged him. “You can’t sing”, he said. “You haven’t any voice at all. It sounds like the wind in the shutters.” But his mother, a poor peasant woman, put her arms about him and praised him and told him she knew he could sing, she could already see an improvement, and she’d go barefoot in order to save money to pay for his music lessons. That peasant mother’s praise and encou ragement changed that boy’s life. His name was Enrico Caruso, and he became the greatest and most famous opera singer of his age. 1. What does Jess Lair compare praise with? 2. Have you ever heard Caruso’s voice? 3. What did Enrico’s first musical teacher tell him about his voice? 215

4. What was Caruso’s mother? 5. How did Enrico’s mother encourage her son? 6. Do you agree that praise has a positive influence on the people and criticism a negative one? 7. Do you try to encourage people? 7. Прочтите и переведите текст

The Best Antelope An English Tale The antelopes gathered in the wood to have a meeting to decide who was the best among them. They all began to talk at once and it was some time before the Eland, the largest of the South African antelopes, could speak. “We are here”, he said, “to decide a very important thing – who is the best of the antelopes. Those who want to speak may speak and then we shall vote. Of course, I don’t think anybody will speak, because it is quite clear that the best antelope is the biggest, and I am the biggest, I am the best.” There was a great noise and another antelope jumped up. “It doesn’t matter at all how big a person is. I think the best antelope is the antelope who has good horns and as I have the best horns I am the best.” “I don’t think horns matter very much”, said the next antelope, “though it’s better to have them. But the best antelope is the antelope who is graceful and gentle.” “You are all wrong”, said the Koodoo antelope, a large South African antelope. “You don’t know anything about it. Nobody has such a fine name as I have – Koodoo. So it’s clear that I am the best antelope.” Then everybody began to speak at once and nobody could hear a word of what anybody else said. At last they were silent and the Eland stood up again. “I think it’s time to vote.” 216

So each antelope found a good place in the sand, and wrote on it with his foot the name of the antelope he thought best. Then the Eland and the Koodoo counted the votes. They counted the votes for a long time, because there were very many antelopes at the meeting. When they finished their work they both began to laugh until tears rolled down their cheeks. “Ladies and gentlemen”, said the Eland, “I am sorry to say that the question is still unsettled. Everyone voted for himself, and nobody has more than one vote. So, ladies and gentlemen, each of you is the best antelope.” 8. Перескажите сказку, используя косвенную речь 9. Переведите предложения по модели

It doesn’t matter (at all) when he comes. He имеет (никакого) значения, когда он приходит. А. 1. It doesn’t matter at all what he said. 2. It doesn’t matter how far the postoffice is. 3. It doesn’t matter when you’ll call on me. 4. It doesn’t matter how long it will take me to get there. 5. It doesn’t matter what kind of person he is. 6. It doesn’t matter where they live. 7. It doesn’t matter at all who told you about it. 8. It doesn’t matter if he knows this news or not. 9. It doesn’t matter if he can do it himself or not. 10. It doesn’t matter where we’ll go. 11. It doesn’t matter if she likes such films or not. 12. It doesn’t matter what we’ll have for breakfast. 13. It doesn’t matter at all if you like it or not. 14. It doesn’t matter why he didn’t come. B. 1. He имеет значения, что вы думаете о нем. 2. То, что мне придется много работать, не имеет значения. 217

3. Нравится нам это или нет, не имеет никакого зна чения. 4. Не имеет никакого значения, скажете вы ему об этом или нет. 5. Когда он позвонит мне, не имеет никакого значе ния. 6. Куда мы пойдем сегодня вечером, не имеет значе ния. 7. Кто ему сказал об этом, не имеет значения. 8. Не имеет значения, почему он решил поехать туда. 9. Где вы работаете, не имеет значения. 10. Не имеет значения, почему вы так поступили. 11. Не имеет значения, сколько времени вы потрати ли на дорогу до дачи. 12. Когда вы пойдете туда, не имеет значения. 13. Знает он об этом или нет, не имеет никакого зна чения. 14. Как он решил эту проблему, не имеет значения. 10. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

Keep to the Left A street in an English town. A policeman stops a car. In the car there is a visitor from another country. The policeman: Stop! The visitor (in car): What’s wrong? The policeman: Why are you driving on the right side of the street? The visitor: Do you want me to drive on the wrong side? The policeman: You are driving on the wrong side. The visitor: But you said that I was driving on the right side. The policeman: That’s right. You’re on the right, and that’s wrong. 218

The visitor: A strange country! If right is wrong, I’m right when I’m on the wrong side! So why did you stop me? The policeman: My dear sir, you must keep to the left. The right side is left. The visitor: It’s like a lookingglass! I’ll try to keep it in my mind. Well, I want to go to Bellwood. Will you be so kind and tell me the way? The policeman: Certainly. At the end of this street, turn left. The visitor: Now let me think. Turn left! In England left is right, and right is wrong. Am I right? The policeman: You’ll be right if you turn left. But if you turn right, you’ll be wrong. The visitor: Thank you. It’s as clear as daylight. 1. Why can’t the visitor understand the policeman? 2. Why was the visitor wrong driving on the right side of the street? 3. On what side of the street do the cars drive in Europe? In Russia? In Great Britain? In the USA? 4. Do you drive a car? 5. What side of the street do you keep when you drive a car? 6. Are you an experienced driver? 11. Перескажите текст “Keep to the Left”, используя кос> венную речь 12. Преобразуйте прямую речь в косвенную

1. Не said, “We are here to decide a very important thing”. 2. The policeman said to the driver, “Stop! Why are you driving on the right side?” 3. She said to her friend, “It doesn’t matter who came first”. 4. The musical teacher said to the boy, “You’ll never be a singer”. 5. Father said to his son, “Don’t complain. You are to 219

work harder”. 6. I said, “I don’t think colour matters very much, John”. 7. He asked me, “Can you drive a сar?” 8. I asked her, “When does the train leave, Mary?” 9. Mother said, “Hurry up, children! We are going to miss the train”. 10. My frend said, “It is difficult to drive a car in England because they keep to the left”. 11. Jess Lair says, “We cannot flower without praise”. 12. I said to my friend, “I don’t think it’ll take you long to get to the airport if you take a minibus, Nick”. 13. The Albanian proverb says, “Don’t put gold buttons on a torn coat”. 14. He asked me, “Do you think we can book tickets in advance?” 15. The student said, “Alfred Nobel was very good at languages”. 13. Переведите предложения

1. Он спросил, как я сдал экзамен. 2. Мы решили, что закажем билеты заранее. 3. Том сказал, что я быстро доберусь до вокзала, если возьму такси. 4. Я не понимал, почему он не сдал экзамен. 5. Девушка попросила закрыть окно, так как в ком нате было прохладно. 6. Я не знал, что скажу ему завтра, если увижу его. 7. Он пытался объяснить мне, почему ему не нравит ся эта статья, но я не понял его. 8. Не имеет никакого значения, какой билет вы возьмете. 9. Учитель сказал, что верит, что мальчик станет зна менитым художником. 10. Я не ожидал, что она пригласит меня на день рож дения. 11. Я прочитал, что Зигмунд Фрейд (Sigmund Freud) умел очень хорошо слушать собеседника. 12. Он не подумал, что это имеет большое значение. 220

13. Я спросил Нину, почему она собирается менять ра боту. 14. Вы не знали, что он собирается поступать в этот университет? 15. Профессор спросил студента, почему он не посещал лекции.

SHORT CONVERSATION Showing the Way – Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to the post of fice? – Certainly. There’s one not far from here. Walk on along this street and take the second turning on your left. You’ll see the post office – a tall redbrick building ac ross the street. – Now I know my way. Thank you very much. – Not at all.

– Извините, вы не могли бы показать дорогу к по чте? – Конечно. Это недалеко от сюда. Идите по этой ули це, на втором перекрестке поверните налево. Вы увидите почту – высокое красное кирпичное зда ние на противоположной стороне улицы. – Теперь я знаю дорогу. Большое спасибо. – Не за что.

LAUGH AND LEARN Professor: You don’t sleep in my class. Student: If you don’t talk so loud I can.

Профессор: Вы не може те спать на моих заняти ях. Студент: Если вы не буде те говорить так громко, я смогу. 221

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Neither give cherries – He мечите бисер перед сви to pigs nor advice to a ньями и не давайте совета fool. глупцу. If you wish to learn the – Если вы хотите познать выс highest truths, begin шую истину, начните с само with the alphabet. го простого – с алфавита.

LESSON 15 Keep knocking, and the door will be opened to you. The Gospel (~ Стучите, и отворят вам. Евангелие) • СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ (PASSIVE VOICE) • МНОГОФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНОЕ СЛОВО “ONE” (MULTIFUNCTIONAL “ONE”)

Страдательный залог The Passive Voice Если подлежащее обозначает лицо или предмет, подвергающийся действию со стороны другого лица или предмета, то глаголсказуемое употребляется в форме страдательного залога (Passive Voice). Глагол to be в нужном времени + 3я форма смыслового глагола

1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая вни> мание на страдательный залог

1. The radio was invented by Popov in 1895. 2. Where is the letter? – It is being typed now. 3. Were you told 223

that the letter had been posted two days ago? 4. The plan has been discussed since morning. 5. Are you going to his birthday party? – I haven’t been invited. 6. I’ll be very glad if your article is published in the magazine. 7. The child was frightened by a loud noise in the street. 8. The famous professor’s lecture was very interesting. It was listened to with great attention. 9. He said he would be warned about everything beforehand. 10. When I came all the students had already been examined. 11. It seemed to her that she was followed by somebody. 12. A lot of houses will have been built in our town by the next year. 13. The information was fed into the computer and the result was quite unexpected. 14. The secretary said the documents would have been signed by the manager by two o’clock. 15. Many English traditions are observed in the British Parliament. 2. Переведите предложения, используя страдательный за> лог

1. С.Петербург был основан Петром I в 1703 году. 2. Вы не знаете, когда был построен этот мост? 3. Мне сказали, что мой вопрос будет обсуждаться на следующей неделе. 4. Он сказал, что если его пригласят на конферен цию, он с удовольствием примет в ней участие. 5. Секретарь говорит, что контракт еще не подпи сан. 6. Об этом фильме много говорят. 7. Этот роман сильно критикуют в газетах. 8. Он думал, что его не спросят об этом. 9. Перед праздником в нашем городе повсюду прода ют много цветов. 10. Вам не придется ждать, вас примут сразу. 11. Эту статью нельзя перевести в такой короткий срок. 224

12. У меня хорошая новость: мне достали билет в те атр оперы и балета. 13. Он сказал, что здание кинотеатра уже отремонти ровали. 14. В этом году для нашей библиотеки купили много новых учебников. 15. Вы думаете, что ему сообщили все детали нашей беседы?

Многофункциональное слово “one” Multifunctional “one” ONE: 1. Формальное подлежащее. (One must do one’s duty. – Нужно выполнять свои обязанности.) 2. Заместитель существительного, упомянутого выше. (Take my pen. – Thank you. I have one. – Возьмите мою ручку. – Спасибо. У меня есть (ручка).) 3. Количественное числительное. (There is only one letter on the table. – На столе только одно письмо.) 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные функции слова one

1. These apples are sweeter than the ones I bought yesterday. 2. The expression one wears on one’s face is far more important than the clothes one wears on one’s back. 3. Here are some pens. Which one would you like? 4. One never knows what his answer may be. 5. I see only one magazine. Where are the others? 6. These cases are too small, we need some bigger ones. 7. One must always observe the traffic regulations. 8. I liked his story very much, but I disliked the one he told us yesterday. 9. One sees other people’s faults sooner 225

than one’s own. 10. Have you translated only one passage so far? 11. In such circumstances one sometimes doesn’t know what one should do. 12. Give me one of these dictionaries, please. – Which one? 13. Now one can speak on the phone any time. 14. He has two brothers. One of them lives in Moscow, another one in the Far East. 4. Переведите предложения, используя слово one

1. Я думаю, один из этих джентльменов – гн Браун. 2. Покажите мне, пожалуйста, шляпу. – Какую (шляпу) вы бы хотели? 3. Нужно учесть все детали этого вопроса. 4. Когда не знаешь грамматики, делаешь много оши бок. 5. Эта сумка красивее, чем та, которую я купила в универмаге. 6. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, несколько конвертов. – Каких? 7. Нужно сдерживать свое обещание. 8. Видишь тех девушек? Одна из них – моя сестра. 9. Мне задали несколько вопросов, один из них был очень трудный. 10. Эту книгу можно найти в любом магазине. 11. В году двенадцать месяцев, январь – первый (месяц). 12. Никогда не знаешь, что он вам скажет. 13. Вы видели этот фильм? – Какой? 14. Один из этих учебников мой, а чей второй? 15. Нужно быть осторожным при переходе улицы. 5. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Traditions of the British Parliament Speaking about old English customs and habits one can’t but mention in the first place those that are kept 226

in Parliament. They have a long history and some of them look rather funny nowadays. The Lord Chancellor, the chairman of the House of Lords, still sits on the large sack of wool covered with red cloth. Many, many years ago, when wool was the main product of England, it naturally was the symbol of the country’s power. Today the woolsack is a mere tradition. Many traditions are found in the House of Commons, too. When its new chairman, the Speaker, is elected, he is dragged to his chair putting up a show of resistance. This custom dates from the times when it was dangerous to be the Speaker. Now take the voting procedure in the House of Commons. After the discussion of a bill the Speaker asks if it has the approval of the House. In case the approval is not unanimous some of the members shout “Aye”1, which is derived from the old French word meaning “Yes”, and others shout “No”. Then the Speaker “calls for division”. Or in other words, puts the bill to the vote. This is called “division”, since the voting is done by dividing: the members leave their seats and pass into the corridors through different doors, to show which way they are voting. The votes are counted as the members go through. Here is another Parliament tradition. In the House of Commons there are benches and not separate seats as in most European Parliaments. The first strange thing about these benches is that they don’t provide seat for all 630 members of the House, but only for the twothirds of their members. So, in case all the MP’s2 appear at the session there won’t be enough room for sitting. The second strange thing is that the rows of benches face each other while the Speaker’s chair is in the centre of the House, between these rows of benches. _________________ 1 Aye [ai] – да 2 MP’s – Members of Parliament

227

The front benches on the Speaker’s right are for the members of the Government, the front benches on his left are for the leaders of the Opposition. The back benches are occupied by the ordinary members who are called “backbenchers”. These traditions of Parliament as well as many other England’s customs and habits do not change. 1. Do the English people keep their traditions carefully? Why? 2. Why does the Lord Chancellor sit on the sack of wool? What is the origin of this tradition? 3. Why is the Speaker dragged to his chair? What is this tradition derived from? 4. What word do the members of the House of Commons shout when they are asked if they approve a bill? 5. Why is the voting for a bill called “division”? 6. How many members are there in the House of Commons? 7. How many seats are there in the House of Commons? 8. Why do you think there are less seats than members of the House of Commons? 9. Where do the members of the Government sit? 10.Where are the seats for the Opposition? 11.Where are the seats for the ordinary members of the House of Commons? 6. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo The methods of the best educational establishments of all ages and all nations have been fed into the computer net of America. And first place among them is occupied by the Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo, which was founded in 1811. 228

It was a little place close to the sovereign, a sort of recreated working model of an Ancient Greek republic. A subtle combination of freethinking and strictness. Here the teachers called the pupils “Mister”, and for the first time in Russia, did not have the right to administer corporal punishment. David de Boudry – the younger brother of the jacobin Jean Paul Marat – taught here. The other professors – Kunitsyn, Kaydanov, Kartsev – were all under thirty, but they were already considered to be “the foremost people of the age in the field of education”. They prepared the young men of the Lyceum for “the important sectors of public service”. It was stated in the constitution. So alongside physics, mathematics, logic, literature, and languages, the Lyceum pupils were also taught political and moral sciences. And in order that a domestic atmosphere should not affect the minds and emotions of the future “rulers of Russia’s destiny”, the pupils were not permitted to leave the confines of the Lyceum for a period of ten years. On 19 October 1811, in the presence of Alexander I, the 28yearold assistant professor Kunitsyn made his brilliant speech, beginning with the words: “I appeal to you, future pillars of the Fatherland”. Thirty pairs of enthusiastic young eyes looked at him as if at the Lord Himself. Among them stood a darkcomplexioned boy in a blue uniform by the name of Pushkin. Three years later, at a public examination, this same boy, choking with emotion, read his poem “Memories of Tsarskoe Selo”. 1. How do we know that the Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo is the best educational establishment of all ages and nations? 2. When was the Lyceum founded? 3. What kind of educational establishment was the Lyceum? 229

4. What kind of teachers were the training staff? 5. What subjects were the Lyceum pupils taught? 6. Why were the pupils not permitted to leave the confines of the Lyceum? 7. How long weren’t the pupils permitted to leave the Lyceum? 8. What can you say about the discipline in the Lyceum? 9. When and where did Pushkin read his famous poem “Memories of Tsarskoe Selo”? 7. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

English Eccentricities The English as a nation have been described as crazy throughout their history. Julius Caesar had to think twice before invading when he saw how the local inhabitants went around in winter naked apart from some facepaint. England is different from the rest of Europe in many ways. Here are some examples. English taps in bathrooms and kitchens are different from the ones used in Europe. In England they have two taps – a hot and cold tap on each side of the basin, instead of one tap with which you can mix the water. English people are used to very cold water. They don’t need mixer taps. In most countries, cars drive on the right side of the road. In England and a few former colonies they drive on the lefthand side of the road. In the past most countries drove on the left because when passing someone it is easier to shake hands or draw a sword against an enemy. England was the only place Napoleon didn’t invade, everywhere else he forced people to drive on the right. The British police do not carry guns. They are the only police force in the world not to be armed. All British 230

policemen and policewomen are trained in judo, karate and other martial arts. They don’t need guns as their arms and legs are deadly weapons and they wear bullet proof vests. The BBC channels of British TV do no show any adverts – only programmes. 1. Why was Julius Caesar surprised when invading England? 2. In what way are English taps in bathrooms and kitchens different from the ones in Europe? 3. Why are there separate taps for cold and hot water in English bathrooms and kitchens? 4. In what countries cars drive on the left? 5. Why did most countries drive on the left in the past? 6. Why do the English police not carry guns? 7. Do all British TV channels show adverts? Which ones don’t? 8. Поставьте глаголы в нужное время действительного или страдательного залога

1. Each British TV programme (to make) by different companies like McDonald’s or Pepsi. 2. A century ago some linguists predicted that one day England, America, Australia and Canada (to speak) different languages. 3. A British lady, the Duchess Alexandra Abercorn, is the greatgreatgreatgranddaughter of Pushkin and of Nicholas I. She (to establish) a special Pushkin prize which (to award) to children for the best composition about Pushkin. 4. May Day (to celebrate) in Britain in the different way we do. 5. About fifty words (to add) to the English vocabulary every year. 6. These lines (to take) from the famous writer’s novel. 7. In Shakespeare’s time only a few million people (to speak) English. 8. The famous Tower of London (to build) in the 11th century 231

by the order of William the Conqueror. 9. Pushkin’s verses (to love) by everybody in Russia. 10. The BBC (to sell) its programmes to other countries and (to make) a big profit. 11. This book often (to refer) to by many scientists. 12. The members of the House of Commons (to elect) every five years. 13. The ambitious pupil of the Lyceum Gorchakov (to study) languages and (to bend) on a diplomatic career. 14. The new engineer (to introduce) to the staff by the manager. 15. About 5,000 languages and dialects (to speak) in the world today. 9. Переведите предложения на английский язык, исполь> зуя изученный материал

1. Цифры, на которые только что ссылались, были опубликованы в газете на прошлой неделе. 2. Его долго ждали, но он не пришел. 3. Я думаю, что этот будильник сделан из пласт массы. 4. Два письма уже переведены, а это еще нет. 5. Англичане заботливо хранят свои традиции. 6. На этого ученого часто ссылаются в курсовых ра ботах. 7. Бой часов Биг Бена можно слышать в любой части Лондона. 8. Как вы думаете, кем написаны эти строки? 9. На английском языке говорят во многих странах мира. 10. После этих слов на нее посмотрели с удивлением. 11. Этим словарем редко пользуются, он слишком большой. 12. Не беспокойтесь, за вашими детьми присмотрят. 13. Ему сказали, что его пригласят, как только при дет директор. 14. На земном шаре используется 75 различных ал фавитов. 232

15. Этот учебник выпущен в этом году, его можно взять в нашей библиотеке.

SHORT CONVERSATION – Are you comfortable? – Quite, thank you. – We’re having our friendship party next week. You’ll come to our party, won’t you? – With pleasure. Thank you.

– Вам удобно? – Вполне, спасибо. – Мы приглашаем к себе в гости друзей на следую щей неделе. Приходите к нам, хорошо? – Спасибо. С удовольствием.

LAUGH AND LEARN Professor: A fool can ask more questions than a wise man can answer. Student: No wonder so many of us fail in our exams.

Профессор: Дурак задает так много вопросов, что умный человек не может на все ответить. Студент: Неудивительно, что многие из нас провали ваются на экзаменах.

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS If you want to be on top, – Если хочешь иметь хоро don’t let education stop. ший статус, постоянно учись. Language is the dress of – Язык – это одежда мысли. the thought.

LESSON 16 Only one thing I know, and that is that I know nothing. Socrates (Я знаю только то, что я ни" чего не знаю. Сократ)

ПОВТОРЕНИЕ Revision 1. Прочтите и переведите текст; ответьте на вопросы

The English Language In the past two thousand years very many people came to England and changed the English language. Perhaps most of the language comes from the AngloSaxons who came to England in the 5th to the 7th centuries. But there are also Roman words from the time when England was part of the Roman Empire: the ending “chester” on the name of the English town such as Colchester comes from the Latin word “castra” and shows that there was a Roman town there. The Vikings brought many words with them, such as “they” and “their”; the Normans governed England for many years and brought French words with them. Then the English brought many words from different countries. But what is English now? It is no longer spoken just in England, there are many different kinds of English in different parts of the world. There are two main variants of Standard English: the American and the British. American English is spoken in the USA and in Canada. British English is spoken in Britain, the West Indies, Australia and Africa. However, many other parts of the world also use English. In India English is an official language still and there is a special kind of Indian English. In several African countries, such as Nigeria 234

and Ghana, English is spoken in schools and colleges. In many sciences English is the language of communication. There are about 300 million people who speak English as a first language, and there are another 300 million who use it as a second language. So English is now an inter national language and is useful to people who never go to England. 1. What is the origin of the English language? 2. When did the AngloSaxons come to England? 3. Why are there many French words in the English lan guage? 4. What are two variants of the English Language? 5. In what countries do people speak the British English? 6. In what countries is the American English spoken? 7. What kind of English is spoken in India? 8. How many people speak English as a first language? 9. How many people speak English as a second language? 10. In what fields of human activities is English used as an international language? 2. Поставьте предлоги, где необходимо

1. A man can’t manage ... fresh water ... more than a few days. 2. There are very many customs and superstitions associated ... weddings. 3. Probably the best thing ... the dogs is their loyalty. 4. My husband is ... business trip ... London. 5. The British like order ... everything. 6. The first permanent bridge ... the Thames was built ... the very beginning ... the 13th century. 7. ... great many people Spain means bullfights and toreadors. 8. The UK’s oldest recorded bride was a 100yearold Winifred Clark, who married ... her 80yearold boyfriend Albert Smith in 1971. 9. ... 1969 Freddie Mercury was introduced ... group called Ibex and began singing with them. 10. ... a doubt Henry Ford was a technological genius. 11. ... some students the best way to stay ... top ... things during exams 235

is not to worry too much. 12. Some people believe that an educated person must have general knowledge ... a lot ... things. 13. A lot ... wedding traditions go back to folklore and preCristian times and used to predict marrying couples ... bad luck and spirits. 14. Cricket is an English national summer game which is played ... open air ... bat and ball ... two teams ... eleven players each. 3. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

Even before the Romans came to England there was a town where London now is. For this was the first place where you could cross the river Thames, exсept in a boat. The Romans also found this useful and built many buildings there and roads leading to the other Roman towns in England. They called it Londinium. Since then it has grown and grown; when Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603, it already had a population of 200,000, by 1975 it was about 7 million. One difference from the other cities is that London has two centres: the City of London, the centre of busi ness, and Westminster, the centre of government. The City of London is in fact a small district and only about 5,000 people live there but it is the centre of British business. Westminster not only has the Houses of Parlia ment but also different government departments which run the country. Other districts which are famous are the West End and the East End. The West End is the part that tourists usually see because it has many famous shops, such as Selfridges and Simpsons and many museums such as the National Gallery and the Tate Gallery; most of the big London theatres and cinemas are also in the West End. The East End has always been poor and unattractive but the home of a true Londoner, the Cockney. The East End used to have the docks and some industries but now many of the industries have moved out of London. 236

London is now a mixture of peoples who came from many countries but are now just Londoners. 1. What was there where London now is before the Romans came to England? 2. What is the Roman name of London? 3. What did the Romans build in England? 4. How is London different from other cities? 5. What is the business centre of London? 6. What is Westminster famous for? 7. In what part of London do Londoners speak Cockney? 8. What is the population of London now? 4. Поставьте глаголы в нужное время и залог

1. Some scientists say that domestic dogs (to appear) directly from wolves. 2. The Winter Palace in St. Petersburg (to build) for Empress Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, however she never lived there. 3. The Vikings (to adopt) the French language and culture and (to become) known as Normans.4. The custom of shaking hands began in the Middle Ages when knights (to take) off their steel gloves before fighting as a sign of friend ship. 5. In 1928 the first dog (to train) as a guide for blind people. 6. I asked the shop assistant which hat (to suit) me best. 7. We love dogs because they (to be) faithful and friendly, they (to be) always happy to see us and they never (to criticize) us. 8. An English translation of the Bible (to publish) in 1611, in the reign of James I of England. 9. All the money raised on funny British celebrations of Red Nose Day (to go) to people who need it. 10. Elbows never (to put) on the table when one (to eat). 11. The person you (to get) that information from is my colleague. 12. Glamis Castle (to use) by William Shakespeare as a setting for the play “Macbeth”. 13. A Dutch film company (to make) a film 237

to explain to aliens what humans are like. 14. An Indian man Hira Ratan Mande, 65, claims he (not/to eat) solid food since 1995; he says he (to get) all the energy he (to need) from the sun. 5. Прочтите и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы

The Tower of London and Its Ravens The famous Tower of London, first built by William the Conqueror, is often referred to as a place where horrible murders took place. In the past it was a fortress, a palace and a prison, and from the 13th century until 1834 it also housed the Royal Menagerie, the predecessor of the London Zoo. But ravens are also associated with the Tower where they are considered special guests. It is probable that there have always been ravens at the Tower, and there is a legend that the tower will fall if it loses its ravens. Therefore the birds are carefully guarded. Six are kept “on the establishment” 1 and cared for by Yeoman Warder2. Each bird receives a weekly allowance of 10 p. worth of horseflesh, and they have their own quarters in a cage by the Lantern Tower. You must not forget that ravens can attain a good age, one of the Tower birds, James Crow, was a resident for 44 years. 1. When and by whom was the Tower built? 2. What was the Tower in the past? 3. Why are ravens associated with the Tower? 4. Why are ravens carefully guarded? 5. Who cares for the birds? 6. What allowance do the ravens receive? 7. Where do the birds live? _________________ 1 on the establishment – на государственном обеспечении 2 Yeoman Warder [jəumən wdə] – лейбгвардеец королевской стражи 238

8. Which raven was the oldest resident of the Tower? 6. Переделайте следующие предложения, используя стра> дательный залог

1. It is clear how far aerosol sprays have damaged the ozone layer. 2. These days tourists visit the most remote places on earth. 3. She arranged an interesting excursion for us. 4. Every day people leave things in buses, planes, and trains. 5. Moscow University played an important role in the development of higher education in Russia. 6. Children usually read adventure stories. 7. I think they will repair your bag in no time. 8. They asked us to come in a few days. 9. We haven’t seen her anywhere this week. 10. There was a terrible storm yesterday. It broke some trees. 11. The secretary introduced me to the director. 12. He said the company paid him well for his job. 13. She is very sad. I think they told her the whole truth. 14. As far as I know they do nothing to improve the matter. 15. I was surprised that they didn’t offer me a cup of tea. 7. Переделайте прямую речь в косвенную

1. He said, “I’m an accountant, as for the manager, he will come soon”. 2. Michael said, “My brother, who is in Canada, is an architect”. 3. She said to me, “The person who told you that story didn’t know what he was talking about”. 4. Alex said, “We were late. We missed the beginning of the performance”. 5. The clerk said, “This job will suit the students who want to work during the holidays”. 6. The girl said, “Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London”. 7. Tom explained, “I was lost so I had to ask someone the way”. 8. The guide said, “If the picture is seen from this place, it looks rather good”. 9. Mother said to her child, “Don’t be so curious”. 239

10. Poly said to me, “Address the envelope and I’ll post it”. 11. The manager asked me, “Do you want to buy this car?” 12. The son asked his father, “Where is the key of the car?” 13. The salesperson asked, “Did you say you wanted a suit?” 14. The woman said, “I was walking late in the evening when I saw a strange object in the sky”. 15. The doctor asked, “How long have you been taking this medicine?” 16. My colleague asked me, “Haven’t you seen our new secretary?” 8. Переделайте следующие предложения в прямую речь

1. I asked the students not to make noise. 2. My friends wrote that they would come to Moscow and stay at the hotel. 3. She said she would be delighted if we came to see her. 4. The passerby said that if I hurry to the bus stop I would be able to catch the bus. 5. She was asked why she hadn’t come in time. 6. The old lady asked me if I could help her with her luggage. 7. He was told he wasn’t experienced enough for the job. 8. She said she had found out that there were two more trains that day. 9. Tony said he had to drive very fast to be in time for the session. 10. Sarah asked me where I had been last summer. 11. He said that he had been waiting for the boss for two hours already. 12. I promised that I would have finished my essay by eleven o’clock the next day. 9. Переведите на английский язык

1. Лондонский Тауэр, как и Петропавловская кре пость1, был построен как укрепление. 2. Вы знаете, что в английском языке много латинс ких слов? 3. Почему вы так опоздали? Я жду вас уже сорок ми нут. _________________ Петропавловская крепость – PeterandPaul Fortress

1

240

4. Когда приедут наши гости, предложите им пойти в Русский музей и Эрмитаж. 5. Если вы поторопитесь, вы успеете на поезд. 6. Он ничем не смог им помочь, хотя очень старался. 7. Два раза в неделю после работы ей приходится хо дить на занятия по английскому языку. 8. Лондон отличается от других городов тем, что име ет два центра. 9. Вы не должны забывать, что он давно не был в этом городе и многого не помнит. 10. Посмотрите! Продавец обслуживает этого клиен та уже целый час. 11. Я пообещал ей, что принесу статью завтра. 12. До того, как он начал собирать монеты, он соби рал марки. 13. Он спросил, ходил ли я на футбольный матч. 14. Я никогда не знал, что у него такой хороший голос. SHORT CONVERSATION Mike: I say, Helen, have you invited Barbara on Saturday? Helen: No, not yet, I’ll have to drop her a line. Mike: But isn’t she on the phone? Helen: Yes, she is, but there must be something wrong with her phone. I have already rung her up several times and nobody answers. They can’t all be away, can they? Mike: No, I suppose not. Shall I try once more? Helen: If you like. 241

Майк: Хелен, ты пригла сила Барбару на суббо ту? Хелен: Еще нет, я напи шу ей. Майк: Разве у нее нет те лефона? Хелен: Есть, но, должно быть, он не работает. Я уже несколько раз ей зво нила, никто не отвечает. Они ведь не могли нику да уйти? Майк: Я думаю, нет. По звонить еще раз? Хелен: Как хочешь.

LAUGH AND LEARN Boasting

Хвастовство

An Arctic Explorer: It was so cold where we were that the candle froze and we couldn’t blow it out. Another Arctic Explorer: That’s nothing. Where we were, the words came out of our mouth in pieces of ice and we had to fry them to see what we were talking about.

Исследователь Арктики: Было так холодно, что свеча замерзла и мы не могли ее задуть. Другой исследователь Арктики: Это еще ниче го. Там, где мы были, слова замерзали во рту и мы должны были их под жаривать, чтобы понять, о чем мы говорим.

PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS All cats are grey in the dark. A man is known by the company he keeps. Every dog has its day.

~ Ночью все кошки серы. ~ Скажи мне, кто твой друг, и я скажу, кто ты. ~ Будет и на нашей улице праздник.

TEST 5 (Lessons 14–16) 1. Задайте вопросы

1. The letter was written by my sister. Who ... by? 2. They invited me to the birthday party. Where ...? 3. Тhе secretary introduced him to the manager. Who ... to? 4. Her friends asked her about her country. What ... about? 5. We bought the tickets in advance. When ...? 6. She was ill and they didn’t tell her unpleasant news. Why ...? 7. Her husband is washing his car now. What ...? 8. They have been discussing our problem for an hour and a half. How long ...? 9. I think the letter will be received tomorrow. When ...? 10. They offered him an interesting job. What ...? 2. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обратите внимание на функцию слова one

1. One shop is round the corner, another one is next to the post office. 2. The children were running out of the classroom one by one. 3. One must always keep one’s word. 4. These apples are sweeter than the ones I bought yesterday. 5. Two companies offered him a job, but he didn’t decide yet which one to prefer. 6. The student was aked only one additional question. 7. One day we decided 243

to go to the forest. 8. Show me that shirt please. – Which one? 9. One of us had to stay there. 10. One should be careful when crossing the street. 3. Выберите правильный вариант

1. The house is old. It (built/was built) in the last century. 2. The flight (delayed/was delayed) because of bad weather. 3. It (seemed/was seemed) to me that I (was following/was followed) by somebody. 4. This problem (can’t be solved/can’t solve) by anybody, it is very strange. 5. He (didn’t know/was not knowing) when the radio (had been invented/had invented). 6. A lot of money (was paid/were paid) for this car. 7. He (wasn’t taken part/didn’t take part) in the conference, because he (wasn’t invited/didn’t invite). 8. The rooms in the hotel (clean/are cleaned) every day. 9. Everybody (is known/knows) who (discovered/was discovered) America. 10. The letter already (has been translated/has translated). 4. Вставьте слова but, already, immediately, this week, still, yesterday, yet

Fit for Humans, But Not for Pigs (1) ... there’s going to be a festival of British Food and Farming in Hyde Park in London. The festival hasn’t begun (2) ... and farmers are (3) ... bringing their animals. But a pig farmer has (4) ... run into a serious problem. (5) ... he arrived with his pigs from the Welsh Hills – hundreds of miles away. The pigs were very thirsty when they arrived in Hyde Park and the farmer (6) ... gave them some London water. (7) ... he got a big surprise because the pigs refused to drink the water. London water is fit for humans but not for pigs! 244

5. Вставьте слова am, can, can’t, couldn’t, have, had to, haven’t been able to, may, must, must be, must have

Remember Me ? There was a knock at the door. I opened it and saw a stranger. “Hullo, Fred”, he cried. “... (1) come in?” “How do you know my name?” I asked. “We met ten years ago on a ferryboat and you gave me your card.” “You (2) ... mistaken”, I said. “No, I (3) ... not”, the stranger said. He produced my card: Fred Amas. I (4) ... given it to him ten years ago, but I (5) ... remember it! “I (6) ... remember you”, I said. “We exchanged cards years ago”, the stranger said, “you said, ‘You (7) ... come and stay with us for as long as you like any time you’re in England’. I’m sorry I (8) ... wait so many years before coming to visit you. I’ve been so busy. I (9) ..., but here I am at last! Better late than never! I’ve just arrived on the ferry. My wife and children are in the car and we wonder if we (10) ... stay with you for a month.”

Ключи к тестам Ключ к вводному тесту 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. a 8. c 9. b 10. c

11. a 12. a 13. b 14. c 15. b 16. a 17. c 18. c 19. a 20. b

21. c 22. c 23. a 24. a 25. c 26. b 27. a 28. b 29. c 30. a

Test 1 (Lessons 1–4) 1. 1. c 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. b 2. 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. a 3. 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. b

6. c 7. a 8. b 9. b 10. b 6. b 7. c 8. b 9. c 10. a 6. c 7. a 8. c 9. b 10. b 246

31. c 32. a 33. b 34. a 35. c 36. b 37. c 38. b 39. a 40. c

4. 1. b 2. b 3. c 4. a 5. c

6. b 7. c 8. b 9. a 10. b

1. 3 2. 4 3. 3 4. 2 5. 3

6. 3 7. 3 8. 4 9. 1 10. 4

5.

Test 2 (Lessons 5–8) 1. 1. Does your sister speak English well? 2. Did you watch an interesting film last night? 3. Does he work hard at his English? 4. Did Nellie use to watch TV a lot last year? 5. Did it start raining two hours ago? 6. Do you want to invite John to your party? 7. Does he usually drive carefully? 8. Did you see Ann on Tuesday? 9. Did you meet my sister on your way home? 10. Did he leave his native town 3 years ago? 2. 1. Who will study English? 2. How does Ann go to the office? 3. What did he send to his friend? 4. What kind of music does your mother like? 5. Where is a letter for me? 6. When is he leaving for London? 7. Whom did you phone yesterday? 8. Where will you be tonight? 9. Who is going on business next week? 10. What was he late for? 247

3. 1. c 2. b 3. c 4. c 5. c

6. a 7. b 8. c 9. a 10. c

4. 1. anything 2. somebody 3. any 4. something

5. any 6. nobody 7. some 8. any

9. somewhere 10. no 11. somebody 12. anything

5. 1. see 2. stops 3. will come 4. find out 5. will come

6. sells 7. will have 8. will go 9. take 10. don’t study

6. 1. one (j) 2. as (l) 3. sang (e) 4. from (o) 5. and (i)

6. were (b) 7. his (a) 8. of (p) 9. native (d) 10. people (m)

Test 3 (Lessons 9–10) 1. 1. lives; works 5. have been 2. have known 6. go 3. is leaving 7. is raining 4. works 8. is playing 2. 1. made 2. fell ill; called 3. has ... moved 4. did ... watch

11. poet (h) 12. in (k) 13. based (q) 14. translated (c) 15. very (g)

9. are staying 10. don’t think; is going 11. are ... thinking; am thinking 12. is cleaning

5. rang 9. have ... passed 6. arrived 10. did ... do 7. have ... seen; 11. has changed was going 12. lived 8. have lost 248

3. 1. c 2. b 3. c; b 4. c; c 5. a; b 4. 1. neither ... nor 2. both ... and 3. either ... or 4. both ... and 5. 1. little 2. much 3. many 4. many

6. c 7. b 8. b 9. c; b 10. might/could 5. either ... or 6. both ... and 7. neither ... nor 8. either ... or 5. much 6. little 7. a little 8. few

Test 4 (Lessons 11–13) 1. 1. every 2. every 3. each 4. each 5. each 2. 1. will ... visit; 5. will have live finished 2. will have 6. will keep finished 3. will be 7. will ... take 4. will be 8. will be preparing playing 3. 1. came; had ... done 2. had ... seen

9. both ... and 10. either ... or 11. either ... or 12. neither ... nor 9. a few 10. much 11. a few 12. a little

6. every 7. each 8. each 9. every 10. every 9. will speak 10. will discuss 11. will take 12. will look/looks; will send/sends

3. was going; remembered; had forgotten 249

4. was leaving; saw 5. phoned; had ... come 6. came; had left 7. had studied; entered 8. was; had worked

9. had finished 10. hadn’t told 11. was sitting; writing 12. had done

4. 1. will take 2. had been; had apologized 3. is 4. thought 5. didn’t depend 6. was

7. hadn’t arranged 8. had been 9. arrives 10. does ... take 11. goes; has had 12. have ... read

Test 5 (Lessons 14–16) 1. 1. Who was the letter written by? 2. Where did they invite you? 3. Who did the secretary introduce him to? 4. What did her friends ask her about? 5. When did you buy the tickets? 6. Why didn’t they tell her unpleasant news? 7. What is her husband doing now?/ What is her husband washing? 8. How long have they been discussing our problem? 9. When will the letter be received?/ When do you think the letter be received? 10. What did they offer him? 2. 1. Один магазин за углом, другой – рядом с почтой. 2. Ребята выбегали из класса друг за другом. 3. Всегда нужно сдерживать (свое) слово. 4. Эти яблоки более сладкие, чем те, которые я купила вчера. 5. Ему предложили работу две фирмы, но он еще не ре шил, какую предпочесть. 250

6. Студенту задали только один дополнительный воп рос. 7. Однажды мы решили пойти в лес. 8. Пожалуйста, покажите мне ту рубашку. – Какую (ру башку)? 9. Один из нас должен там остаться. 10.Нужно быть осторожным, когда переходишь улицу. 3. 1. was built 2. was delayed 3. seemed; was followed 4. can’t be solved 5. didn’t know; has ... been invented 4. 1. This week 2. yet 3. still 4. already 5. 1. May 2. must be 3. am 4. must have 5. couldn’t

6. was paid 7. didn’t take part; wasn’t invited 8. are cleaned 9. knows; discovered 10. has ... been translated

5. Yesterday 6. immediately 7. but

6. can’t 7. must/can 8. have had to 9. haven’t been able to come 10. can/may

Ключи к упражнениям Lesson 1 3. 1. Is my brother a journalist? – My brother is not (isn’t) a journalist. 2. Is Nick a pupil? – Nick is not (isn’t) a pupil. 3. Are they students? – They aren’t students. 4. Is Kate’s mother a teacher? – Kate’s mother isn’t a teacher. 5. Am I an accountant? – I am not an accountant. 6. Are Tom and Bob lawyers? – Tom and Bob aren’t lawyers. 7. Are your sisters schoolgirls? – Your sisters aren’t schoolgirls. 8. Is his father a driver? – His father isn’t a driver. 9. Is her daughter a nurse? – Her daughter isn’t a nurse. 10. Is their brother a seaman? – Their brother isn’t a seaman. 11. Is Mr. Brown’s son an economist? – Mr. Brown’s son isn’t an economist. 12. Are our friends businessmen? – Our friends aren’t businessmen. 13. Is my mother a housewife? – My mother isn’t a housewife. 14. Is my friend’s father a doctor? – My friend’s father isn’t a doctor. 15. Is my father’s friend a manager? – My father’s friend isn’t a manager. 4. 1. My friend isn’t a businessman, he is a driver. 2. Is your brother a student? – No, he is not. He is a doctor. 3. What are you? – I am a student. 4. Is this man a manager? – No, he is not. He is a lawyer. 252

5. Is your mother a housewife? – No, she is not. She is an accountant. 6. His brother isn’t a teacher, he is a seaman. 7. What are these people? – They are students. 8. What is this man? – He is a driver. 9. Is this girl a teacher? – No, she is not. She is a secretary. 10. Is his father a lawyer? – No, he is not. He is an accountant. 11. Is your sister’s friend a nurse? – No, she is not. She is a doctor. 12. Is your brother’s friend an engineer? – No, he is not. He is an accountant. Lesson 2 1. 1. Это ручка. Ручка зелeная. 2. Это мужчины. Они бизнесмены. 3. Это Петровы. Они дома. 4. Еe брат сейчас в школе. 5. Музей (находится) справа. 6. Садитесь, пожалуйста. 7. Станция метро (находится) слева. 8. Ваша сестра – такая умная девочка! 9. Пока (до свидания)! Желаю хорошего путешествия! 10. Лондон – столица Великобритании. 11. Франция находится в Европе. 12. Река Нева (находится) в СанктПетербурге. 13. Я встаю в 7 утра. 14. Я люблю музыку.

2. 1. a 2. – 3. a; a 4. a

8. a 9. the; the 10. the 11. – 253

5. a 6. –; the 7. the; the

12. – 13. the 14. an

8. 1. are 2. is 3. is 4. are

5. are 6. is 7. is 8. is

9. are 10. are 11. are 12. are

14. 1. There are 60 seconds in a minute. 9. March, April and May are spring months. 13. The weather is fine in spring, there are many spring flowers. 14. It is warm or hot in summer, the days are long and the nights are short. 15. There are many flowers and fruit in summer.

Lesson 3 1. 1. Садитесь, пожалуйста. 2. Запиши(те) слова! 3. Сейчас не пишите! 4. Посмотри(те) на доску! 5. Не опаздывай(те) на урок! 6. Не забудь(те) прийти в 5 часов! 7. Пожалуйста, позвони(те) мне завтра! 8. Пожалуйста, помоги(те) мне в этой работе! 9. Пожалуйста, принеси(те) мне чашку чая! 10. Не беспокойтесь об этом! 11. Желаю хорошо провести время! 12. Поезжайте трамваем (садитесь в трамвай)! 13. Не пользуйтесь словарем! 14. (Давайте) пойдем домой. 15. Сначала подумай, потом говори. 16. Не трогай лиха, пока спит тихо. 254

2. 1. Don’t open the door! 2. Don’t send me a telegram, please. 3. Don’t ring him up tomorrow! 4. Don’t go for a walk! 5. Don’t take a bus. 3. early – earlier – earliest interesting – more interesting – most interesting long – longer – longest far – farther/further – farthest/furthest cool – cooler – coolest quick – quicker – quickest bad – worse – worst clear – clearer – clearest warm – warmer – warmest wet – wetter – wettest 4. 1. Мой дом дальше от центра, чем ваш. 2. Где ближайшая остановка автобуса? 8. Это самая короткая дорога к вокзалу. 11. У меня меньше времени, чем у него. 12. Лучше поздно, чем никогда. 14. Букингемский дворец – одно из самых известных мест в Лондоне. 15. Сорос – один из самых богатых людей в мире. 5. 1. Is your brother elder than you? 2. My bag is heavier than yours. 3. The Hermitage is one of the most famous museums in the world. 4. It is colder today than yesterday. 5. Bill Gates is one of the richest men in the world. 6. Which is the most interesting story in the book? 255

8. “Astoria” is one of the most comfortable hotels in St. Petersburg. 10. This hotel is much quieter than others. 11. Mathematics is the most difficult subject for me. 12. Kate’s hair is longer than mine. 13. This is the noisiest room in the flat. 14. Pushkin is the most wellknown poet in Russia. 15. What is the shortest month of the year? 6. 1. Мы сегодня немного опаздываем. По моим часам (сейчас) без пяти девять. 3. Ваши часы не отстают? 4. Я знаю, что мои часы идут правильно. Я проверяю их (ставлю их правильно) каждое утро, когда мы слушаем восьмичасовые новости. 5. Мои часы спешат на 5 минут. Ваши часы идут правильно? – Думаю, что да. 6. Утро – это время между восходом солнца и 12 часами дня. 8. Вечер – это время между шестью часами вечера и полуночью. 9. Солнце стоит над головой в 12 часов. 10. Не опоздай! Твой будильник отстает. 12. Watch – это маленькие часы, они (находятся) в кармане или на запястье. 13. Clock – это большие часы, они находятся на стене, (стоят) на столе или над камином. 7. 1. I think your watch is a little slow. Mine is right. 2. I put my alarmclock right every morning. 3. What’s the time (what time is it) by your watch? – Twenty minutes past three. 4. Don’t be late! Your alarmclock is 7 minutes slow. 5. Is your watch fast? It’s only half past six by my watch. 256

8. A. 2. В ванной комнате я беру кусок мыла и мою руки, лицо и шею. 4. Маленькая стрелка часов показывает часы, длинная стрелка показывает минуты. 7. Когда мы выходим из квартиры, мы выключаем свет. 9. Ты учишься в университете? – Да, я студент первого курса. 10. Ваш отец ездит на работу автобусом? – Нет. Он ездит в машине. 12. Хорошее начало – половина дела. 14. Земля совершает оборот за 24 часа. B. 1. Я добираюсь до работы за час. 6. За сколько времени вы добираетесь до работы? 9. 1. Do I get up at 7 o’clock? 2. Does this old man live alone? 3. Does my father work for a bank? 4. Does the postman bring us newspapers in the morning? 5. Does it take me about an hour to get to the airport? 6. Does the train start at 11.10 a.m.? 7. Do 365 days make an ordinary year? 8. Does the calendar show the day of the week and the date of the month? 9. Does it often snow in winter? 10. Does it take the Earth 365 days to go round the Sun? 14. Do I (you) think so? 10. 1. learns 6. miss, misses 2. plays 7. make 3. is 8. is 4. don’t take 9. don’t 5. lives 10. wear 257

11. collect 12. takes 13. celebrate 14. points 15. snows

11. 1. My friend speaks English fluently. 2. The Moon turns round the Earth. 3. 60 minutes make an hour. 4. Do you know your friend’s birthday? 5. My sister works 5 days a week. 6. Many people don’t like to write letters. 7. The football season begins in August in Great Britain. 8. Do you often ring up/phone/call your parents? 11. I don’t like to be late. 17. 1. Our family is not very large, we are 5. 2. Call me at 10 o’clock tomorrow, please. 3. Which of these books is more interesting? 7. How long does it take you to get to your office? 14. What do the letters a.m. and p.m. mean? Lesson 4 1. A. 1. in 2. for 3. to 4. on

5. into 6. with 7. in 8. after

9. before 10. to; with 11. in 12. on

13. with 14. in 15. about 16. in

B. 1. of 2. to, in 3. after 4. at

5. at 6. on 7. –, at 8. from

9. to, – 10. in 11. with 12. for

13. by 14. of 15. for 16. to

C. 1. on, for 2. by, on 3. on 4. –, for

5. of 6. for 7. to 8. by

9. in, in 10. off 11. at 12. with

13. to, by 14. beyond 15. on 16. on

258

2. 5. Что делает ваша сестра? – Она моет посуду. 10. Возьми зонт. Собирается дождь. 13. Ты ищешь ручку? Вот она. 16. Я устал. Я собираюсь рано лечь спать сегодня. 4. 1. is not raining 2. is having 3. are ... doing 4. am going 5. is ... working; is watching 6. is leaving 7. is shining 8. is speaking

9. is studing 10. is playing 11. are ... doing; am looking 12. is drinking 13. are ... listening 14. am preparing 15. is getting 16. are ... thinking

5. A. 1. don’t drink 2. is not cooking, is writing 3. go 4. Do ... understand; think 5. snows 6. is ringing 7. do ... do 8. are ... playing; are watching

9. goes; is 10. is ... raining 11. is receiving 12. does ... arrive? 13. Do ... take 14. are ... doing; am waiting 15. are meeting

B. 1. wants; studies 2. am; am going 3. belongs 4. have 5. am, want 6. is ... looking 7. takes 8. is addressing; is going

9. don’t write, like 10. is, works 11. is; is looking 12. is, don’t wear 13. wear 14. comes up, goes 15. make

259

6. A. 1. You are working hard today. Are you preparing for the exam? 2. Let’s go home. It is getting dark. 3. Are you reading this book? Are you enjoying it? 4. What is your brother doing now? – He is repairing the car. 5. Hurry up! We are waiting for you downstairs. 6. George studies/is studying English at university. 7. I am pouring coffee, put the sugar yourselves. 8. Listen! Somebody is speaking in the next room. 9. She is in the kitchen. She is cooking dinner. 10. What are you doing? – I am washing up. 11. Take an umbrella, it is raining. 12. They are going to have dinner in the cafe´. 13. Look! The cat is drinking milk. 14. Wait for him. He is just finishing the work. 15. Why is this young man looking at us in such a way? 16. I want to pay cash. B. 1. I seldom write letters, but I like to receive them. 2. Do you leave the town in summer? 3. My brother does lessons in the evening. He is in the 10th form. 4. What is your boss doing now? – He is speaking with the foreign businessmen. 5. How long does it take you to get to the university? 6. It gets dark early in winter. 7. Where is your sister? – She is preparing for the exam in the next room. 8. George has a new car. He drives very well. 9. I am going to my friend’s birthday party tomorrow. 10. Why are you talking during the lecture? 11. I don’t think she is at home now. 12. What are you thinking of? Do you have/Have you got any problems? 260

13. Do you see that man? It’s Mr. Smith. 14. Are you looking for a pen? Here it is. 15. Just a minute. I am filling in the declaration. 16. My sister thanks you for your help. 11. A. 1. Look! The leaves are falling, it’s autumn already. 2. I think it is going to rain. Take an umbrella. 5. Is your watch right? – I think so. 6. The weather is very changeable in London. 9. Do you take a bus to get to your office? – No, I don’t. I drive my car. 10.People call the end of September Indian summer. 11.You like modern music, don’t you? 13.He doesn’t go on business to Moscow, does he? 14.I come to the office/to work at a quarter to 9. I don’t like to be late. 15.My uncle’s working day begins very early. 16.We’ve run out of money. B. 3. The Metro Station is opposite my house. 4. The supermarket is next to the cinema. 6. Do you play any musical instrument? 8. You are interested in computers, aren’t you? 9. Mr. Green’s son is very good at mathematics. He is the best pupil in the class. 10.What does your friend do? – He is a student. He is in the 2nd year of the economical faculty/department. 13.What do you think of this man? 14.You aren’t listening to me. What are you thinking of? 15.Your cousin speaks English fluently, doesn’t he? 16.He always comes in time.

261

Lesson 5 1. 1. Вчера я проснулся в 7 часов. 2. Погода была скверная, и мы решили остаться дома. 3. Когда я вернулся в свою комнату, я зажег свет и включил телевизор. 4. Ник посмотрел на будильник и вскочил с постели. 5. Я сел в автобус и добрался до работы вовремя. 6. Они не пригласили меня на свою вечеринку (к себе в гости). 7. Здесь шел дождь в прошлое воскресенье? 2. A. 1. takes 2. was, didn’t talk 3. is, goes 4. Did ... go ... 5. are ... doing, am cooking 6. met 7. Did ... go 8. did ... come

9. Is ... raining 10. rains 11. came, was 12. Did ... stay 13. think, is watching 14. do ... spend 15. listened 16. rang

1. has 2. started 3. am going 4. is 5. am working, have 6. was, became 7. am, am finishing 8. is

9. appeared 10. depend 11. broadcasts 12. meets, talk 13. is speaking 14. work 15. is, comes 16. created

B.

3. A. 1. I came back late yesterday. 2. My brother drives to the office by car. 3. Are you going to the Institute tomorrow? 262

4. I listened to the interesting lecture 2 days ago. 5. On Sunday I woke up late, jumped out of bed and went to wake up my brother. 6. Switch off the TV, father is preparing for the lecture. 7. She always helps mother to cook dinner. 8. My brother usually comes home at 4 o’clock, but he came at 6 yesterday. 9. Where is Kate? – I think she is watching TV. 10. I phoned him on Wednesday, but he was out. 11.It rained yesterday, and I put on my raincoat. 12.Does it often rain in London? 13.We went to the birthday party and had a nice time on Saturday. 14.You always listen to the weather forecast, don’t you? 15.It took me 20 minutes to get to my office yesterday. 16.John decided to invite all his friends. B. 1. The British Queen reads “The Times” newspaper. 2. The English have tea with cold milk in the morning. 3. Bob came to London 2 months ago, he wants to become a journalist. 4. I don’t know why he left. 5. I met my friend on the way home. 6. What are you going to do? – I’m going shopping. 7. Did you go to Mary’s birthday party on Sunday? 8. Mozart wrote over 600 musical pieces. 9. In his free time Bill Gates likes to play golf and bridge. 10.Ian Fleming started to write books about James Bond in 1952. 11.James Bond smoked 60 cigarettes a day. 12.Just a minute! I am listening to the weather forecast. I am going to the country tomorrow. 13.Alfred Nobel was interested in literature and philosophy when he was young. 14.“The Beatles” opened a new era in music. 15.Japanese children go to school 6 days a week. 263

16.Did you go out last night? – No, I didn’t. I stayed at home. 5. A. 1. Does your/my friend speak English very well? How does your/my friend speak English? What foreign language does your/my friend speak? Who speaks English very well? 2. Did they go to the country yesterday? Where did they go yesterday? When did they go to the country? Who went to the country yesterday? 3. Am I writing a letter now?/Are you writing ...? What am I writing?/What are you writing? Who is writing a letter? 6. Did it take me/you an hour and a half to get to my/ your place? How long did it take me/you to get to my/your place? 10.Did it rain yesterday? It didn’t rain yesterday, did it? 12.Did we/you listen to the professor with great attention? Who did we/you listen to with great attention? How did we/you listen to the professor? Who listened to the professor with great attention? 15.Did the doctor tell her to stay in bed? What did the doctor tell her? Who told her to stay in bed? B. 3. Did it stop raining? 6. Did we/you congratulate George on his birthday? Whom did we/you congratulate on his birthday? What did we/you congratulate George on/with? Who congratulated George on his birthday? 11.Did I/you talk to your/my brother at the party last night? 264

When did I/you talk to your/my brother? Where did I/you talk to your/my brother? Whose brother did you talk to at the party last night? Who talked to my/your brother yesterday? 15.Did Paul Newman make over fortyfive films? How many films did Paul Newman make? Who made over fortyfive films? 5. 1. So did I. 2. So am I. 3. So do I. 4. So do I. 5. So am I.

6. Neither did I. 7. So do I. 8. So did I. 9. So do I. 10. Neither am I.

11. So am I./So are we. 12. So did I. 13. Neither am I. 14. Neither do I. 15. So am I.

11. 1. My friend entered the University last year. 2. It took me only 15 minutes to get to your place. 3. He took the letter and dropped it into the letterbox. 4. I didn’t go to the library yesterday, and you? – Neither did I. 5. Tom decided to spend holidays in the open air. 6. Summer was hot, the sun shone all the time, and it didn’t rain. 7. John took the 8 o’clock train. 8. It was cold and we put on warm clothes. 9. I looked at the clook/watch and jumped out of bed. 10.Did you congratulate Harry on his birthday? – Yes, I did, and you? – So did I. 11.I stayed at home on Sunday. And you? – So did I. 12.It often snowed last winter. 13.Michael translated the article. And you? – So did I. 14.When I opened the door I saw my cousin. 15.Mother put the cups on the table and poured tea into them.

265

12. 2. Shakespeare was born and died on the same day – April, 23. 5. Oscar Wilde wrote only one novel/the only novel “The Picture of Dorian Gray”. 6. Bill Gates got interested in computers when he was 13. Lesson 6 1. 1. Мой друг звонил мне, когда пришла его мама. 2. По дороге домой я видел твою сестру. Она стояла на автобусной остановке. 3. Он посмотрел на часы. Секундная стрелка быстро двигалась. 4. Я разговаривал по телефону, когда раздался звонок в дверь. 5. Когда я включал телевизор, мне позвонил мой двоюродный брат. 6. Ник выходил из дома, когда увидел незнакомца. 7. Гн Браун спускался к завтраку, когда увидел, что его жена разговаривает со своей сестрой. 8. Я весь день писал реферат. 9. Что ты делал вчера с 10 до 12? 10. Я ждал тебя в 5 часов. 11. Китти готовилась к экзамену с раннего утра до позднего вечера в воскресенье. 12. Дождя не было, когда мы вышли. 13. Мой брат писал, что он хорошо проводит время. 14. Собирался дождь, и я взял с собой зонт. 15. Джон сказал, что скоро уезжает в Лондон.

2. 1. was ... doing 2. was speaking 3. was watching

9. was/were sitting 10. was cutting 11. was pouring 266

4. was raining 5. was waiting 6. was looking 7. was looking 8. was washing

12. was 13. was 14. was 15. was 16. was

listening returning working swimming going

1. were having 2. didn’t enjoy 3. doesn’t drink 4. phoned 5. am not working 6. did ... start 7. Does ... smoke/gave 8. did .... buy

9. does ... arrive 10. do ... think 11. was going 12. was getting 13. was having 14. stopped 15. are ... speaking 16. flows

3.

4. 1. I was looking for my exercisebook for an hour. 2. When I was going to the office I met your brother. 3. Tom was driving too fast, so the police stopped him. 4. When I arrived Nick met me. 5. Nina wrote that she was having a good time. 6. I looked out of the window, it was raining heavily. 7. I hurt my arm when I was working in the garden. 8. When we left the theatre it was raining. 9. The manager was speaking on the phone when the secretary came in. 10. When I was washing up I heard the telephone. 11. I was writing letters all evening yesterday. 12. When the teacher came in all the students were speaking loudly. 13. I was very tired and was going to bed early when the telephone rang. 14. When Sam came down to breakfast he saw that all family were sitting at table. 15. I met the postman when I was coming up to my house. 16. It was getting dark, it was time for us to go back home. 267

5. 1. It often rains here in summer. 2. He did nothing to help his brother. 3. I am staying with my friends till I find a flat. 4. Hurry up, everybody is waiting for you. 5. They invited me to the party, but I decided not to go there. 6. I was looking for my key for almost two hours. 7. What is Ann’s husband doing now? – He is repairing the car. 8. What are you thinking of? – I am thinking of my job. 9. When I came in they were discussing something loudly. 10. I recollected my promise only when I came back home. 11. Jimmy passed the exam as he had studied hard. 12. When did you see him last? 13. I sent the letter to the firm two days ago. 14. The cat crossed my way when I was going to the office. 15. It stopped raining and we went for a walk. 16. Who is your brother speaking to? – He is speaking to his teacher. 7. 1. Моя сестра носит красивые платья. Она хорошо одетая девушка. 2. Я могу отсюда прочитать расписание. У меня даль нозоркость (Я дальнозоркий). 3. Когда я вышел, я увидел чернобородого человека перед офисом. 5. Эта седовласая (седая) женщина – моя учительни ца. 6. Многим мужчинам нравятся светловолосые жен щины. 7. Между бледнолицыми и краснокожими в Америке шла долгая война. 8. Охранники обычно широкоплечие мужчины. 9. У меня близорукость, но я не люблю носить очки. 10. Длинноухая собака подошла к человеку и залаяла. 268

12. Один из известных детективов – отец Браун – был добродушным человеком маленького роста. 8. 1. Longtailed monkeys use there tails like hands. 2. This roundfaced man is our music teacher. 3. When I see a broadshouldered man I think that he is a bodyguard. 4. My friend wears glasses, he is shortsighted. 5. I think this palefaced man is seriously ill. 6. Mr. Green’s son is a longlegged boy, he goes in for running. 7. It’s a pleasure to speak to a goodnatured man. 8. It is difficult to believe now that ten years ago Mr. Brown was a redcheeked young man. 9. Carmen is a blackeyed beauty. 10. A greeneyed cat was lying on the sofa. 11. My uncle is a kindhearted man, he helps many people. 12. Not all football players are longlegged, some of them are shortlegged. Lesson 7 1. 1. Я думаю, он примет участие в конференции. 2. Не беспокойся, я приду вовремя. 3. Джейн завтра не пойдет на вечеринку, она больна. 4. Когда ты сдаешь вступительные экзамены? 5. Вы меня подождете?/Подождите меня, пожалуйста. Я сейчас буду готов. 6. Люди никогда не забудут трагедию Хиросимы. 7. Куда мы пойдем сегодня вечером? 8. Закрыть окно? Здесь холодно. 9. Джеймс начнет работать завтра в 10 часов. 10. Мама очень рассердится на тебя, если ты не будешь много заниматься. 11. Прогноз погоды сообщает, что завтра будет идти снег. 269

12. Я обещаю, что никому об этом не скажу. 13. Я уверен, что Ник получит эту работу, у него большой опыт. 14. В какое время вам позвонить? 15. Где вы будете в это время в следующем году? 2. 1. will get up; will start 2. live 3. will ... go 4. starts 5. will ... ring up 6. will pass/shall pass 7. will come 8. will not rain

9. will ... believe 10. will/shall go 11. will/shall show 12. will/shall repair 13. will like 14. will happen 15. shall ... shut

3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Tomorrow I’ll finish work earlier than usual. Fred says he will often write to us. I think he will like this idea. Don’t worry! Tom will phone you tomorrow morning. Nora will come in time, she is never late. My sister will enter the university next year. Come tomorrow, please. Director will receive you. I’ll see John and speak to him on Tuesday. Don’t be late! I’ll wait for you. What time will you be at the airport? – I’ll try to arrive as soon as possible. We will go and see him on Sunday. Don’t worry, I’ll tell nobody about it. I hope tomorrow will bring us good news. Shall I translate the text with the dictionary? Wait here, please. Will you wait here? The director will come soon.

4. 1. Если я узнаю дату его прибытия, я встречу его в аэропорту. 270

2. Я позвоню вам, когда узнаю детали. 3. Если я его увижу, я скажу ему о вашем приглаше нии. 4. Что случится, если он поздно придет домой? 5. Пошли нам телеграмму, как только приедешь. 6. Если (вы) решите покупать машину, проконсуль тируйтесь со специалистом. 7. Где вы остановитесь, когда приедете в Лондон? 8. Мама не ляжет спать, пока дети не вернутся. 9. Он придет попрощаться, перед тем как уедет в Па риж. 10. Я помою посуду после того, как мы пообедаем. 11. Если вечер/вечеринка будет скучным/скучной, мы уйдем. 12. Дай Павлу мой телефон. Если он будет знать мой телефон, он мне позвонит. 13. Если вы скажете ему об этом, он удивится. 14. Когда он приедет, я покажу ему достопримечатель ности нашего города. 15. Если вы пригласите ее в театр, ей будет приятно. 5. 1. 2. 4. 5. 10. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Я не знаю, будет ли у него время, чтобы помочь вам. Если мы не поторопимся, мы опоздаем. Я думаю, он зайдет к вам завтра. Я больше никогда не коснусь этого/не прикоснусь к этому. Если я буду усталым после работы, я никуда не пой ду. Если на вечеринке будет много народу, мы уйдeм. После того как профессор закончит лекцию, студен ты зададут вопросы. Я не знаю, встретит ли меня ктонибудь на вокза ле. Ник не сдаст экзамен, если не будет работать боль ше/усерднее.

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6. 1. have 2. starts 3. will come 4. will come/shall come 5. does 6. is not/will ... be not 7. see 8. take

9. are leaving 10. see 11. see 12. will enjoy 13. am 14. will rain 15. will see

7. 1. I don’t know when he will phone. 2. If you don’t hurry, you’ll be late. 3. If I don’t take an umbrella, it will rain. 4. Granny asks when we will come to see her. 5. If you see Nora, tell her that I am waiting for her call. 6. Ask him when he will go to the library. 7. What will happen if he doesn’t come? 8. John writes he will take examinations in May. 9. I will never go there. 10. Send us a telegram as soon as you arrive. 11. When you come to our place, I will show you round our town. 12. If I am not well, I won’t go out. 13. I’ll give you the dictionary after I’ve translated the article. 14. If you see a dog, don’t run away, dogs don’t like it. 15. Do you know when the conference begins? 8. 1. Я бы хотел задать вам несколько вопросов. 2. Дик не сделал (никаких) ошибок в контрольной работе. 3. Не хотите ли минеральной воды? 4. У него нет времени, чтобы помочь мне сегодня. 5. Вчера ничего особенного не произошло. 6. Ктото оставил свет включенным на всю ночь. 7. Никто не сказал мне об этом. 272

8. В этом нет никакого сомнения. 9. Вчера ктонибудь звонил? 10. Я думаю, никто не знает, что он болен. 11. Вы куданибудь поедете летом? 12. В коробке чтото есть? 13. К (моему) сожалению, это ни от кого не зависит. 14. Есть ли какиенибудь новости? 15. Он прочитал книгу и больше никому не дал ее. 9. 1. any 2. any 3. somebody 4. anybody; some 5. some 6. some 7. anybody 8. some

9. something 10. something 11. any 12. anybody 13. anybody 14. some 15. any; some

10. 1. I saw nobody in the garden. 2. Nobody knows anything about him. 3. I think there is nobody at home. 4. No newspaper writes anything about it. 5. Why didn’t you bring her anything to read? 6. Are you going anywhere in summer? – I don’t think so. 7. Somebody left the door open. 8. Nobody knows his address. 9. Would you like some coffee? – Yes, please. With pleasure. 10. I have no time to go to the cinema, I have an examination tomorrow. 11. Do you have tickets for tomorrow? 12. Did anybody/anyone come to see you yesterday? 13. Unfortunately, he has no car/hasn’t a car. 14. If you have free time, read this article. 15. Did you speak to anybody about it? 273

18. 1. arrives 2. bought 3. begin 4. want 5. had answered/would answer 6. says 7. were 8. stops

9. will switch 10. leave 11. will leave 12. will keep 13. ask 14. want 15. stay

19. 1. All of us hope that our life will be better in future. 2. I spoke to him last week and didn’t see him again. 3. The matter is that it will depend on himself only. 4. If you want to speak English fluently, try to speak as often as possible. 5. John says he will buy a house when he earns more money. 6. I have a lot of work to do, I will work till midnight. 7. I’ll wash my hands now and make coffee. 8. If he has hope to go to England, he will study English with great enthusiasm. 9. As soon as I come home, I’ll switch on the TV and watch the football match. 10. Do you know anything about robots which help people about the house? 11. If you wish you will easily find the material on this subject in Internet. 12. When the guests come I’ll bring the cake. 13. Do you think this tie matches my suit? 14. Ann says Tony took her dictionary but he didn’t give it back, so she didn’t translate the text. 15. We will make a decision after we speak to them.

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Lesson 8 1. 1. Я еду в отпуск. На следующей неделе в это время я буду плавать в море. 2. Если прогноз погоды правильный, завтра весь день будет идти дождь. 3. Я буду готовиться к экзаменам два дня. 4. Завтра в 11 часов ты будешь писать контрольную работу? 5. Если вы придете раньше, они будут обедать. 6. Нэнси будет заниматься покупками целый день. У нее будет вечеринка./У нее будут гости. 7. Я буду ждать тебя завтра с 7 до 8. 8. Я буду проходить мимо почты и отправлю твое письмо. 9. Ты будешь смотреть футбольный матч в 8 часов? 10. Что ты будешь делать в 6 часов? 11. Они будут писать сочинение с 9 до 12. 12. Я буду читать твою книгу с раннего утра до вечера. 2. 1. Come at 10 o’clock tomorrow, please. We will be discussing your question. 2. I will be driving past your house at 7 o’clock. I’ll pick you up if you like. 3. When he will be finishing work, I will help him. 4. The professor will be reading/delivering the lecture from 9 till 11 o’clock. 5. On Tuesday at 10 o’clock the director will be speaking with Moscow. Come before or after 10 o’clock. 6. What will your brother be doing tomorrow?/What will your brother do tomorrow? – He will be repairing his car from morning till afternoon. 7. I will be working in the garden all Saturday. 8. I will be writing letters all evening. 9. What will you be doing at 7 o’clock? – I will be watching TV. 10. I will be translating this article till late at night. 275

3. 1. Когда я был моложе, я много времени проводил у телевизора. 2. В этом парке раньше было много народа, а сейчас мало. 3. Мой двоюродный брат много работает. Раньше он никогда так много не работал. 4. Отец Фреда не курил, когда был молодым, а сейчас он иногда курит. 5. Ты в детстве ел много фруктов? 6. Я раньше часто играл в шахматы, а сейчас я не очень хорошо играю (в шахматы). 7. Вы часто ходите в кино? – Сейчас нет, а раньше хо дил часто. 8. Сейчас в этом здании магазин, а раньше здесь был кинотеатр. 9. Раньше я считал Андрея ленивым, сейчас я пони маю, что был не прав. 10. Раньше я не любил мороженое. 11. Люси много путешествовала? 12. Джим и Роберт раньше не были друзьями, а сейчас они дружат. 4. 1. I didn’t use to like icecream, but now I like it. 2. My father used to play football well when he was young. 3. This building used to be a cinema, now it is a shop. 4. Ann and Kate used to be friends, but now they are not friends. 5. I used to drink a lot of coffee, but now I prefer tea. 6. Tom used to study hard and pass exams well when he was a student. 7. You used to watch TV a lot when you went to school. 8. My uncle didn’t use to go skiing, he used to go to the swimmingpool. 9. He used to smoke a lot, but now he gave it up. 10. We used to live in a small town, but now we moved to the big town. 276

5. 1. Менеджер или в офисе, или в лаборатории. 2. Мы надеемся, что путешествие будет и приятным, и интересным. 3. Я не боюсь простудиться, поэтому я не надену ни куртку, ни шапку. 4. Делегация прибудет или завтра, или послезавтра. 5. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, и газету, и журнал. 6. Собирался дождь, но он не надел плащ и не взял зонт. 7. Теперь ясно, что он и неопытный, и ленивый. 8. Мы ждали его, но он не пришел ни в семь, ни в во семь часов. 9. Если я не ошибаюсь, она живет либо в этом, либо в том доме. 10. Я и пишу им, и получаю от них письма. 11. Вы доедете до университета или автобусом, или троллейбусом. 12. Когда я болел, и мои друзья, и мои родственники навещали меня. 13. Завтра не будет ни дождя, ни снега. 14. Насколько мне известно, он и не молод, и не стар. 6. 1. He came neither at eight, nor at nine o’clock. Something must have happened. 2. He put on both a jacket and a cap as he was afraid to catch a cold. 3. He often goes both to America and European countries. 4. Take an umbrella or put on the raincoat. It will rain soon. 5. Speak either to the director or his secretary. 6. I know nothing about her. She neither writes nor phones me. 7. I know this man is both talented and famous. 8. Don’t worry, they will arrive either on Wednesday or on Thirsday. 9. I am so tired, I am neither hungry, nor thirsty. 277

10. I wanted to speak to him, but he attended neither the lecture nor the seminar. 11. He is very lazy. I think (to my mind) he neither studies nor works. 12. My brother will come either today or tomorrow and he will help me to repair my car. 13. When I came, there was nobody either in the house or in the garden. 14. I will take either a bus or a taxi depending on the time I will have. 11. 1. Джек рассказал смешную историю, но никто не зас меялся: у них не было чувства юмора. 2. Около одиннадцати миллионов людей в Соединён ных Штатах не умеют читать и писать. 3. Не забудьте написать и название города, и название штата, если вы посылаете письмо в Соединенные Штаты. 4. Этот человек очень жадный: он никогда никому не делает подарков. 5. Я ждал его ответа, но он только покачал головой. 6. Если вы поедете в Шотландию, шотландцы расска жут вам о себе забавные шутки. 7. Английские названия новых городов в Соединен ных Штатах появились либо с приставкой “new” («новый»), либо без нее. 8. Завтра в это время я буду ехать за город. 9. Мы подумали и решили принять их приглашение. 10. По прогнозу погоды осень будет теплой. 11. Я очень постараюсь поговорить с ним, но я не уве рен, что он будет слушать меня. 12. Он не думает ни о нас, ни о себе. 13. Если вы не поможете ему, он рассердится на вас. 14. Британские поселенцы в США жили и на востоке, и на западе. 15. Вы можете на него положиться, у него есть чувство ответственности. 278

12. 1. My brother fell in love with the blueeyed girl. 2. He is a man of common sense and he won’t be angry with us if we don’t come. 3. This man has a sense of humour, he tells funny stories about himself. 4. He used to go shopping to one market. 5. It’s nice when a man has a sense of proportion. 6. I didn’t understand why he had got angry with me. 7. When a man is in love with somebody he wants to give flowers to everybody. 8. Everybody knows that people in Odessa have a sense of humour. 9. When we lived in a small town, I used to go shopping once a week. 10. The young man never knew why the girl got angry with him. 11. Before I forget: phone Ann and ask her to come to our place. 12. If you do your best you will do everything yourself. 13. I am not sure that he will receive my letter because I forgot to write the name of the state on the envelope. 14. Peter is a man of common sense, he can make the right decision. 15. It’s useless to write him letters, he will arrive soon. Lesson 9 1. 1. К сожалению, гн Блэк не сможет принять вас сегодня. 2. Возьми зонт, скоро может пойти дождь. 3. Верьте в себя; если вы не будете в себя верить, как вы можете ожидать, что другие поверят в вас? 4. Мне нужно (я должен) сейчас перевести (это) пись мо? – Нет, не нужно. Вы можете сделать это завтра. 5. Многие люди считают, что курение должно быть запрещено. 6. Было поздно, и нам пришлось взять такси. 279

7. Когда он вернется, он сможет сделать все сам. 8. Дурак может задать больше вопросов, чем умный – ответить. 9. Они должны были пойти на день рождения, но Ник заболел, и им пришлось остаться дома. 10. Том говорит, что сможет (ему разрешат) взять не сколько книг из читального зала. 11. Не сердись на него. Тебе не следует обращать вни мание на его слова. 12. Тебе следует помочь своему другу, у него пробле мы. 13. Могу я поговорить с гном Смитом? 14. В соответствии с деловым этикетом в конце перего воров бизнесмены должны пожать друг другу руки. 15. Его нет ни в офисе (учреждении), ни в лаборатории. Наверное, он в конференцзале. 2. 1. Could 2. could 3. May 4. can 5. must; need

6. can; may 7. should 8. can 9. must 10. might

11. can 12. can 13. must 14. can, can 15. must/should

3. 1. You must study hard to pass exams. 2. He may have left the documents at home. 3. He will be able to do everything himself if he wants. 4. Children must go to bed early. 5. Can I help you? – Yes, please. I can’t translate this text. 6. He can’t have forgotten your address, he came to your place several times. 7. You’ll have to hurry if you want to come in time. 8. Could you post this letter today? 9. You should be more attentive at the lessons. 10. Should I phone you today? – No, you needn’t, you can do it tomorrow or the day after tomorrow. 280

11. Don’t worry, he will arrive tomorrow. 12. I may see him tomorrow. What shall I tell him? 13. He is never late. Can he be ill? 14. Students are not allowed to come into the classroom after the bell. 15.You are pale. You should consult a doctor. 4. 1. Существует/есть несколько наиболее распростра ненных языков – английский, китайский и испан ский./Есть несколько языков, на которых говорит большое число людей – ... 2. Он не очень общительный. У него очень мало дру зей. 3. Люси не часто ходит кудалибо. Она предпочитает по вечерам сидеть дома. 4. Он мало говорит поанглийски, поэтому с ним труд но общаться. 5. В этом районе мало старых зданий. 6. Ей везет, у нее мало проблем с детьми. 7. Вам придется поспешить, если вы хотите прийти вовремя. У вас мало времени. 8. Многие люди знают Пеле как известного футболи ста, но немногие знают, что он также пишет музы ку и говорит на нескольких языках – испанском, итальянском, английском и французском. 9. Когда он ходит по магазинам, он тратит кучу де нег. 10. Не хотите ли/хотите вина? – Спасибо. Немного, пожалуйста. 11.Я сейчас временно не работаю. У меня много време ни и мало дел. 12.Он говорит, что вернется через несколько минут. 13.Существует много словарей английского языка, са мый большой (словарь) – 20томный Оксфордский словарь (английского языка). 14.Сейчас движение небольшое, поэтому мы можем доехать туда вовремя. 281

5. 1. He has little money, he can’t buy such a car. 2. I saw him in the street a few days ago, but he didn’t notice me. 3. Would you like some juice? – Yes, with pleasure, a little. 4. Some people have few books at home. They prefer to take books from the library. 5. I am between jobs, I have a lot of free time, I can help you with your repair works. 6. He has a lot of friends in different towns, he is very sociable. 7. He says he will be able to come in a few months. 8. Can I pick you up a little earlier? 9. I am sorry, (but) you’ll have to wait a little. 10. I know many people who read little. 11.I think I’ll be able to translate this text quickly, there are few new words in it. 12.There were many students at the lecture, some of them tried to ask questions. 13.I’d like to tell you a few words about it. 14.I am sorry, I have little time, I must hurry. 10. 1. Многим известным людям приходилось выполнять разную работу до того, как они стали знамениты ми. 2. Он обычно посещал все лекции этого профессора. 3. Руководитель должен уметь общаться с людьми. 4. Возможно, немногие люди знают, что Билл Гейтс отдает много денег на благотворительность. 5. Как вы, возможно, знаете, Биг Бен начал действо вать в 1859 году. 6. Британский министр может выступать только в той палате, членом которой он является. 7. Нам нужно надеяться, что в XXI веке у нас будет больше времени на творческую работу. 282

8. С одной стороны, он был состоятельным человеком, с другой (стороны) он был довольно скуп. 9. Неужели у вас настолько важное дело, что вы зво ните так рано? 10. Сенатору в США должно быть не менее 30 лет, он должен быть гражданином США в течение девяти лет и проживать в штате, от которого он избирает ся. 11.Как вы думаете, вы сможете закончить работу вов ремя? 12.То, что журналисты пишут для своих читателей, должно служить гуманистическим идеалам. 13.Каждый новый премьерминистр Англии может изменить количество членов кабинета, создать но вые министерства или предпринять другие измене ния. 14.В 1958 году Элвису Пресли пришлось пойти (на службу) в армию. 15.Возможно, первые английские поселенцы в Соеди ненных Штатах скучали по своей родине, поэтому новым местам (проживания) они давали названия тех мест, из которых они уехали. 11. 1. Somebody called you when you were out. – It might be my brother. 2. I don’t know what his means of living are. 3. The English people may often speak of weather because their weather is very changeable. 4. “He may come by the end of the lecture”, some of the students joked. 5. As far as I know, he is both a man of means and of common sense. 6. Students are allowed to borrow books from the library for two weeks. 7. He buys flowers every day. He must be in love with a girl. 283

8. We were to meet in the metro/underground, but I was late. 9. She must’ve fotgotten the fairytale about a fisherman and a fish. 10. We can (may) sit in this cafe´, but smoking is not allowed there. 11.They gave me a picture as a present. They must have known that I am interested in painting. 12. Any student should be able to answer this question. 13. I don’t think this job will suit him. He will have to get up too early to get there. 14. He must have great deductive abilities if he can diagnose a patient’s disease at once. Lesson 10 1. 1. Вы когданибудь задумывались над тем, сколько слов мы ежедневно произносим, слышим или про читываем? 2. Я только что сказал, что у нас мало времени. 3. В этом году он заработал много денег и купил доро гую машину. 4. Вы когданибудь замечали, что у людей, которые не могут читать и писать, обычно хорошая память? 5. Я (ничего) не слышал о нем, с тех пор как он уехал из С.Петербурга. 6. Я уже закончил работу и иду домой. 7. На этой неделе я отправил ему два письма, но я не получил никаких писем от него. 8. Извините, менеджер еще не пришел, но я надеюсь, что он скоро придет. 9. Он говорит, что у него никогда не было возможнос ти проявить свои способности. 10. Они недавно начали на пустом месте и вскоре раз богатели. 11.В последнее время этот певец стал очень популяр ным. 284

12.Мы отправимся в 2 часа, если к тому времени пре кратится дождь. 13.Вы думаете, они недавно встречались? 14.Не думаю, что он уже перевел статью, он плохо зна ет английский. 2. 1. wrote; have received 8. hasn’t spoken 2. did ... see; have seen 9. hasn’t come 3. went; has been 10. has ... seen 4. has been 11. hasn’t realized 5. have ... passed; passed 12. didn’t ... come; was 6. congratulated 13. have ... remembered; asked 7. offered 14. has ... complained 3. 1. He has just invited me to his birthday party. 2. When I was a student I used to go to the cinema. Now I watch all films on TV. 3. Have you read newspapers today? There is an interesting article on the youth problems there. 4. I have never seen a man with such unusual abilities. 5. I think we met at the conference last year. 6. Can I speak to Mr. Belov, please? – I’m sorry, he hasn’t come yet. 7. I have known him for ten years. We went to the same school. 8. Robin Hood was very popular among the common people. 9. He did everything and decided to have a cup of coffee. 10. When did you tell her about it? – I have just told her about it. 11. I haven’t had lunch yet. Let’s go to the cafe´. 12. They have just started to discuss this matter. I can’t interrupt them. 13. How nice that you’ve come. We have just remembered you. 14. She bought a blue dress which matched her eyes. 285

4. 1. Я говорил с ним только вчера. 2. Дождь прекратился только несколько минут назад. 3. Прошло 2 часа с тех пор, как я пришел. 4. Они хотят построить дом именно здесь. 5. До мая мы не получали от него писем. 6. Прошло 3 месяца с тех пор, как он уехал из С.Петер бурга. 7. Мы встретились только в прошлом году. 8. Мне очень понравился именно этот фильм. 9. Электрическую лампочку изобрел русский ученый Ладыгин. 10. Книга Д. Карнеги «Как приобретать друзей и ока зывать влияние на людей» была впервые издана еще в 1937 году. 5. 1. It is this idea that I meant. 2. It is this park where my parents go for a walk at weekends. 3. It is about 5,000 languages that people speak in the modern world. 4. It was last year that you promised us to come to our place. 5. It is about 1/4 of people in Great Britain who have the surname of Smith. 6. It is today that he wants to speak to the director. 7. It is St. Petersburg that is the cultural capital of Russia. 8. It is Paris that I would like to visit. 9. It was here that his car stood yesterday. 10. It was just at the entrance of the Underground that I stood. Why didn’t you see me? 10. 1. Он хочет разбогатеть/заработать, поэтому ему при ходится много работать. Он работает на две ставки. 2. Этот автор несомненно и талантлив, и опытен. 286

3. Один из моих друзей предложил подвезти меня на своей машине, но я решил пройтись пешком. 4. На поезде туда ехать долго, гораздо быстрее – на машине. 5. Он смог купить такую машину, после того как сыг рал роль нищего в новом фильме. 7. Он недавно купил новую машину и теперь хочет похвастаться ею. 8. Если он будет работать в вашей фирме, вы не пожа леете. 10. Вы купили билеты? – Да. Вот они. 12. Люди всегда пытаются узнать свое будущее. 13. Пока я не забыл, гн Тернер просил вас позвонить ему, как только вы придете. 11. 1. is, was 2. have ... known; have known 3. have ... talked; is not able 4. were ... doing 5. occurred 6. have ... read 7. came

8. did ... come; have lived/ have been living 9. has made 10. was; has made 11. come 12. will become 13. will get 14. has been

12. 1. When did you see this film? – I watched it last week. 2. Robin Hood was a Saxon, he fought against Norman lords. He never robbed the poor. 3. Before I forget, your brother’s letter has come. Here it is./Here you are. 4. Nothing can be done. You’ll have to come once more. 5. I have just seen him. He was leaving the university. 6. Have you ever received letters from America? 7. He says he can recognize this man by his gait. 8. We have worked hard today. Let’s go to the cinema for a change. 287

9. As you may know, he studied medicine when he was young. 10. He is very angry. Can anything have happened? 11.The inspector closed the book and the idea how to solve the crime came to him. 12.Do you have a fulltime or a parttime job? 13.They say cats can predict weather. 14.Could I speak to the director as soon as he comes? Lesson 11 1. 1. Я думал, что он написал вам об этом. 2. Он закончил работу к 6 часам. 3. Когда я пришел, я увидел, что мои друзья уехали. 4. Она сказала, что ей пришлось взять такси, чтобы не опоздать на занятия. 5. Перед тем как отправиться в поездку, мы с друзья ми купили много сувениров. 6. К 1700м годам Англия основала тринадцать коло ний в восточной части (материка), где теперь нахо дятся Соединенные Штаты. 7. Он сказал, что когда он пришел, сесть было негде. 8. Ты спросил у него, куда он ходил в воскресенье? 9. Я хотел пойти с ними в кино, но к шести часам я не закончил работу. 10. Большинство европейцев узнали о Новом Свете пос ле того, как Колумб совершил свое путешествие. 11.Я собирался помочь другу ремонтировать машину, но он уже отремонтировал ее сам. 12.Он сказал, что ему очень понравилась поездка. 13.Соседи сказали, что этот пожилой человек никогда не привлекал к себе внимание. 14.Она очень сожалела, что не повидалась с нашими гостями. 15.Они сказали, что пришлось вызвать врача. 2. 1. She said they had moved to another flat two weeks before. 288

2. I was sure that he had said the truth. 3. Didn’t you know that he had entered the university? 4. I thought you had received the answer to your letter. 5. Neighbours said he had fallen ill and they had to call for a doctor. 6. I hoped he had repaired the car already. 7. He said the news had attracted everybody’s attention. 8. Did you tell the director that Mr. Smith had already come? 9. He was very sorry that he hadn’t gone with us. 10. His friend knew he had moved. 11.The teacher was angry because the students hadn’t done their home work. 12.I thought he had agreed with you. 13.We got to know about that only after we had read the article. 14.Why didn’t you tell me earlier that they had invited us to the birthday party? 3. 5. Языком людей, которые покорили Англию в 1066 году, был нормандский диалект французского языка. 6. Французы называют его ЛаМанш, а для англичан это Английский канал, одно из самых необычных водоемов в мире. 8. Английский язык по числу говорящих на нем за нимает второе место, уступая только китайскому языку. 15. Японцы много работают даже в школе, чтобы по лучить хорошую работу в будущем. 4. 1. He is Pole, it was not difficult for him to study Russian. 2. We usually think that the Germans are punctual and accurate. 289

3. One of the film characters has a nickname “a Dane”. 4. I am looking forward to going to Switzerland... 5. There are two national languages in Canada – English and French. 6. The Irish language is quite different from English. 7. There were two Norwegians in our delegation. We spoke English with them. 8. Many international words are of Latin origin. 9. Students of Oriental faculty (department) study both Oriental and European languages. 10. Scotsmen (Scots) have very unusual national costume. 11.My friend wants to learn the Japanese language and go to work to Japan. 12.American culture influences greatly the culture of other nations. 5. 2. У вас есть все возможности сдать тест по вождению. 7. Я дал ему много адресов, и он всем написал. 8. На столе было несколько карандашей. Все они были разного цвета. 12. Они работают в одном и том же учреждении и ви дятся очень часто. 6. 1. Every time I meet him I remember my promise. 2. I live not far from him and see him almost every day. 3. A shop assistant should be polite to every customer. 4. He has every opportunity to study well, but he is too lazy. 5. You must find each word in the dictionary and put it down. 6. Each of us may/can take part in this conference. 7. Almost every student has a mobile telephone now. 8. There is a balcony in every apartment of our house. 9. Each student received a present and an invitation to the party. 290

10. He had been translating the text for a long time because he had to look up almost every word in the dictionary. 11.Every person wants to be happy, but not everybody manages to be. 12.I go to my relatives to the south every year. 13.Every Englishman will be glad to show you the sights of his town. 14.We knocked every door, but there wasn’t anybody anywhere. 15.Let each person do his job. 11. 1. Наш сосед был болен и не мог открыть дверь, по этому нам пришлось позвонить в службу чрезвы чайных ситуаций. 2. Он нарушитель спокойствия и всегда привлекает к себе всеобщее внимание. 4. Он опоздал на поезд. Очевидно, он не знал, что рас писание изменилось. 5. Мой друг внимательно рассматривал каждый зна чок моей коллекции и спрашивал, где я его достал. 9. В автобусе было много людей. Я едва смог пробрать ся к выходу. 10. Человек за дверью настолько ослабел от жажды и голода, что не мог открыть дверь. 12.Спасателям пришлось взломать дверь, чтобы спас ти человека от пожара. 13.Он не может избавиться от привычки закуривать каждую минуту/поминутно курить. 12. 1. Habit is the second nature, so it’s not easy to get rid of a bad habit. 2. Why didn’t you tell him that you had explained everything to me? 3. Some people left Europe for America because they had hoped to make fortune there. 291

4. Every person has both good and bad habits. 5. I followed my friend’s advice and began to learn ten new words every day. 6. He said that they hadn’t met before. 7. I didn’t know Dr. Bell had been Sherlock Holmes’ prototype. 8. He didn’t come to the lecture. Something must have happened. 9. She said she tried to study English by Internet. 10. I had clear evidence that somebody had been to my flat. 11.He said his uncle had had neither education nor experience, but he had managed to make a fortune as he had been working hard. 12.I can’t say that they are in love with each other, they are just good friends. 13.Many people say that Dale Carnegie influenced them greatly. 14.If somebody tells you that the Scotsmen are the most stingy people, don’t believe it. The Scotsmen are clever and sociable people with natural sense of humour. 15.I’m so absentminded! I have again fogotten at home the book which I must return to the library.

Lesson 12 1. 1. Если нужно, я переведу статью ко вторнику. 2. К тому времени, как мы доберемся до вокзала, по езд уйдет. 9. Когда ты придешь ко мне завтра, я уже приготов лю обед. 13. К концу месяца я сдам все экзамены. 2. 1. will ... do 2. will repair 3. will have finished; will go

4. will see 5. will be ... and buy 6. will be 292

7. will remember; will say 8. will see

9. will come; will be able to say 10. will have

3. 1. I’ll be able to help you after I have finished this work. 2. We will have discussed your matter by the time you come. 3. He will help you to repair the car if he has an opportunity. 4. Tomorrow I will have to go for the tickets. 5. Why do you think he will not come tomorrow? 7. After I have passed the exam I will be able to come to your place. 8. Everything will be ready by the time they have come. 9. Your memory will improve if you exercise it regularly. 10. If you don’t hear the name, ask to repeat it. 11.I will come up to them after they have had dinner. 12.If I feel bad, I won’t go to the institute. 13.I will phone you after I have packed things. 14.I’m sure we’ll make friends if we meet. 15.He won’t he able to give you advice until you tell him everything. 4. 1. Сыр, который я купил вчера, лучше, чем тот, кото рый я купил сегодня. 2. В нашем районе несколько таких же домов, как (дома) в вашем городе. 3. Его дедуктивный метод такой же, как метод Шер лока Холмса. 4. Вкус банана отличается от вкуса яблока. 9. 1. has ... been 2. arrive 3. had done; was 4. is

5. will be 6. go 7. has ... made 8. write 293

9. is looking 10.has; means 11.will recognize; see

12. have ... noticed 13. did ... see; have seen 14. came; was working

10. 1. If you want to become strong, do regular exercises. 2. Do you know what he is interested in? 3. The Scotsmen have their own national language, their laws, their capital. 4. She has to speak to many people, she remembers a lot of names both unconsciously and consciously. 5. Bagpipes is a national Scottish musical instrument. 6. Any person can improve his/her memory by exercising it. 7. When did you go to the library? – I’ve been there today. 8. My sister doesn’t like her job. She will have to look for another one. 9. He will tell you the secret of his success if you ask him. 10. One of the ways to remember the words is to put them down on a sheet of paper. 11.When you talk to him he will tell you about his interests. 12.What will you tell him when you see him? 13.If you complain of your memory nobody will believe you. 14.Will you have repaired the car by tomorrow?

Lesson 13 1. 1. Мы ждем вас с восьми часов. 2. Сколько времени ты уже пишешь курсовую рабо ту? 3. Они обсуждают эту проблему два часа. 4. Я устал, я работаю/работал в саду несколько часов. 294

5. Где ваш муж? – Он ремонтирует машину с раннего утра. 6. Ваша сестра – учитель? – Да, она преподаeт англий ский три года. 7. Мой друг ищет работу с марта. 8. У него превосходная память. Он тренирует еe два года. 9. Что вы делаете тут целый день? 10. В последнее время я много читаю. Я интересуюсь историей. 11.Сейчас идет дождь. Он идет с понедельника. 12.Ты ищешь подарок уже целый час. Давай купим цветы. 13.Они говорят три часа. Они долго друг друга не виде ли. 14.Тихо! Отец работает. Он работает с утра. 2. 1. have known 2. have ... been waiting 3. is waiting 4. does ... rain 5. have been wearing 6. have driven 7. have been explaining/ have explained

8. have bought 9. do ... go 10. is ... raining; has stopped 11. is ... doing; is playing 12. is; have not seen 13. have lived 14. have been building

3. 1. He always makes a lot of mistakes in the test papers. 2. What are you doing now? – I am writing out new words. 3. Have you been waiting for him long? – No, we haven’t. We have just come. 4. Where is Ann? – She has been speaking on the phone for an hour. 5. It has been raining since yesterday. Don’t forget to take an umbrella. 295

6. Have you ever been to Great Britain? – I went there this year. 7. Have they been talking long? – No, they have just started. 8. He has been studying hard lately. He must be preparing for the exams. 9. My brother smokes a lot, but he is going to give up smoking. 10. I have given up smoking recently and I am much better now. 11.I have been shopрing for an hour but I can’t choose the present for my friend. 12.Can you lend me the English textbook? – I have just returned it to the library. 13.I have been working the whole day and I’d like to have a snack now. 14.Look! The sun is shining, but it is rather cool. 7. 1. В Великобритании нет конституции в письменном виде, поэтому можно сказать (мы можем сказать), что Британская конституция основывается глав ным образом на джентльменских соглашениях. 3. Уличное движение в Лондоне отличается от движе ния на континенте. 6. Важная обязанность королевы – представлять го сударство. 7. Вильям Шекспир отправился в Лондон пешком, имея в кармане мало денег. 8. Надеюсь, мы скоро увидимся с вами./Буду ждать скорой встречи с вами. 11. Вы занимались этим прежде? – Да, я занимался этим в течение года. 13. Именно «Пигмалион» принес Шоу всемирную славу. 8. 1. knew/do 2. had met

3. was sleeping 4. have ... noticed 296

5. is looking; is 10. goes 6. does not govern 11. had travelled; visited; wants 7. write 12. did not hear; asked 8. have been repairing 13. are ... able; will try 9. began 14. had had 9. 1. My brother has been studying to play a guitar since last year. 2. When did you see Mr. Brown last? 3. Linguists have been studying languages hundreds of years, but they usually study the written form of languages. 4. Have you ever thought how many words we use in our speech? 5. Look! It is snowing. It has been snowing for two days. 6. I saw your teacher yesterday. He was walking to the Underground Station. 7. He was to come at six o’clock, but he couldn’t. He had to stay in the office. 8. Don’t call him after eleven o’clock, he will be sleeping. 9. I think I’ll have finished work by seven o’clock and we can go to the cinema. 10. Could you tell me when the conference starts (begins)? 11. When I was going to leave, the call came through. 12.He was very surprised when he got to know about it. 13.As far as I know the richest man in Great Britain is Paul McCartney.

Lesson 14 1. 1. Он сказал, что слышал об этой статье. 2. Я боялся, что заблужусь. 3. Почему вы не сказали мне, что они собираются в Лондон? 297

4. Она спросила у меня, не знаю ли я адрес Анны. 5. Учитель сказал, что студенты сделали много оши бок в контрольной работе. 6. Мама мальчика верила, что ее сын будет великим певцом. 7. Я знал, что у Ника хорошо идут дела с английским языком, и попросил его помочь мне. 8. Люди, занимающие хорошее положение в обще стве, говорили, что они предпочитают слушателей хорошим собеседникам. 9. Почему вы подумали, что он переменит решение? 10. Он понимал, что не прав, но никому не мог сказать об этом. 11. Никто не знал, придет ли он на вечеринку (в гос ти). 12. Секретарь сказал, что гн Смит уехал. 13. Я спросил у брата, когда он вернется. 14. Мы не знали, за сколько времени мы доберемся до вокзала. 15. Я не понимал, как им удалось сделать это. 2. 1. wanted 2. would miss 3. worked 4. was going 5. was 6. would begin 7. didn’t want 8. would take

9. had refused 10. hadn’t come 11. would have 12. was able 13. had sent 14. was late 15. was

3. 1. I didn’t know that they had left the town long ago. 2. The receptionist said that there were no vacancies in the hotel. 3. Why did you think he wouldn’t come? 4. When we found out that he had entered the university we were very glad. 298

5. Did you ask him when he was going to come and see John? 6. I was not sure that I would find the way to their house. 7. Did you find out when the exams begin? 8. We were sure that he would be able to do everything himself. 9. Professor said he was not satisfied with the results of the examination. 10. He said he hadn’t heard anything about the new film. 11. I didn’t think it would take me so long to write the essay. 12. Did you know he could be late? Why didn’t you say anything to us? 13. Your brother said you were going to buy a car. 14. I was sure everybody knew about it. 15. How did you know the train was two hours late? 4. A. 1. He said he had sent them a letter the day before. 2. My friend said he was reading an interesting book. 3. The secretary said the delegation would arrive the next week. 4. George said he could do it himself. 5. Nancy told her friend (that) she wanted to speak to the manager. 6. They told us (that) they wanted to invite us to the theatre. 7. Bill’s sister said she had to get up at 6 o’clock because she lived far from her office. 8. I told my friend (that) I would wait for him the next day. 9. The teacher said to the students (that) they were to learn the words./The teacher told the students to learn the words. 10. He said to me he would tell me all the details when he came back. 299

11. He said sincerely (that) he had never seen that man. 12. My grandmother said (that) she had read that novel when she had been young. 13. Father said he was sure that their team would win the game. 14. My sister told me (that) she hoped I would pass the exam and we would go to our grandparents. 15. She said (that) she had gone to the party the day before and they had had a good time. B. 1. Mother asked me when I would come back home. 2. He asked his friend how long it took him to get to the office. 3. The policeman asked who was the owner of that car. 4. He asked her why she couldn’t answer his question at once. 5. The teacher asked the students why they had come so late. 6. I asked my friend how many times he had seen that film. 7. He asked me where my mother worked. 8. The professor asked the students what they knew about great physicists of the 19th century. 9. I asked the passerby how I could get to the nearest postoffice. 10. My friend asked me what I would do if I won a lot of money in lottery. 11. Tom asked who would go to the cinema with him. 12. The shop assistant asked me what he could do for me. 13. He asked me when in my opinion it would rain. 14. I asked my groupmates whose dictionary it was. 15. Tony asked me why I thought she would be late. C. 1. They asked their friends if they had received the invitation. 2. My friend asked me if I wanted to see the new film. 3. She asked me if I could help her with her luggage. 300

4. I asked the secretary if I could speak to Mr. Brown. 5. He asked his friend if it had taken him long to write the course paper. 6. I asked my sister if she thought he would come soon. 7. They asked us if we were waiting for Sue. 8. Mother asked Betty if she had told him that she wouldn’t be able to come. 9. Nick’s friends asked him if Nick was going back that day. 10. I asked Nina if she had ever been to London. 11. He wondered if she always came back so late. 12. Tom asked me if I had to get up so early every day. 13. I asked him if he smoked. 14. She asked the shop assistant if she might try that dress on. 15. I asked Ann if she was going to buy a car. D. 1. The teacher told the students to open the books and read the text. 2. He asked her to come back as soon as possible. 3. Mother told Mary not to forget to buy the stamps and post the letter. 4. The neighbour asked me to open the window. 5. I asked him not to be angry with me. 6. The manager told the secretary to bring him the mail they had received that day. 7. Peter said that he was very sorry he couldn’t have kept his promise. 8. He asked his friends not to wait for him because he had to stay in the office. 9. I told the secretary to write to them that we couldn’t receive their offer. 10. My sister told me to take an umbrella because it was going to rain. 11. I asked (him) to ring me up when he found a job. 12. The professor told the student to wake up the fellow next to him. 301

13. Dale Carnegie recommends not to criticize, condemn or complain. 14. The man asked not to be afraid of his dog. 15. She asked the visitor to wait a little and added that Mr. Johnson would come soon. 5. 1. Peter said, “A few students didn’t pass the exam”. 2. I asked my friend, “Where are you going to spend the holidays?” 3. The teacher said to the students, “Don’t be late for the classes”. 4. He asked me, “Have you heard anything about it?” 5. She asked the shop assistant, “How much is the dress?” 6. I asked Ann, “Will you come and see me after lectures?” 7. The director said to the secretary, “Send the telegram”. 8. She asked the man, “Can you wait for the director?” 9. They said, “We have sent an offer to that company”. 10. She asked her friend, “Why don’t you want to go to the party?” 11. She asked me, “Can you help me with my car?” 12. I asked them, “How long did it take you to get to the Russian Museum on foot?” 13. The professor said to him, “Come at 10 o’clock”. 14. Betsy said, “I have been working with this firm for two years”. 15. He asked me, “What will you tell him when you see him?” 9. A. 2. Далеко ли почта, не имеет значения. 3. Когда вы ко мне зайдете, не имеет значения. 4. Сколько времени уйдет на дорогу (туда), не имеет никакого значения. 302

7. Кто сказал тебе об этом, не имеет вообще никакого значения. 14. Не имеет значения, почему он не пришел. B. 1. It doesn’t matter what you think about him. 2. It doesn’t matter at all that I will have to work hard. 4. It doesn’t matter at all if you will tell him about it or not. 8. It doesn’t matter why he decided to go there. 9. It doesn’t matter where you work. 11. It doesn’t matter how long it took you to get to the summer cottage. 14. It doesn’t matter how he solved this problem. 12. 1. He said that they were there to decide a very important thing. 2. The policeman told the driver to stop and asked him why he was driving on the right side. 3. She told her friend it didn’t matter who had come first. 4. The musical teacher told the boy that he would never be a singer. 5. Father told his son not to complain and added that he was to work harder. 6. I said to John I didn’t think colour mattered very much. 7. He asked me if I could drive a car. 8. I asked Mary when the train left. 9. Mother told the children to hurry up because they were going to miss the train. 10. My friend said that it was difficult to drive a car in England because they kept to the left. 11. Yess Lair says that we cannot flower without praise. 12. I told my friend Nick I didn’t think it would take him long to get to the airport if he took a minibus. 303

13.The Albanian proverb advises not to put gold buttons on a torn coat. 14.He asked me if I thought they could book tickets in advance. 15.The student said Alfred Nobel had been very good at languages. 13. 1. He asked me how I had passed the exam. 2. We decided that we would book the tickets in advance. 3. Tom said it wouldn’t take him long to get to the station if he took a taxi. 4. I didn’t understand why he hadn’t passed the exam. 5. The girl asked to close the window as it was cool in the room. 6. I didn’t know what I would tell him the next day if I saw him. 7. He tried to explain to me why he didn’t like the article, but didn’t understand him. 8. It doesn’t matter what ticket you will get. 9. The teacher said he believed the boy would be a famous painter. 10. I didn’t expect she would invite me to the birthday party. 11. I read (that) Sigmund Freud could listen to the partner very attentively. 12. He didn’t think it was of great importance. 13. I asked Nina why she was going to change the job. 14. Did you know he was going to enter this university? 15. The professor asked the student why he hadn’t attended lectures.

Lesson 15 1. 1. Радио было изобретено Поповым в 1895 году. 2. Где письмо? – Его сейчас печатают. 304

3. Вам сказали, что письмо отправлено два дня назад? 4. План обсуждается (обсуждают) с утра. 5. Ты идёшь на день рожденья? – Нет, меня не при гласили. 6. Я буду очень рад, если ваша статья будет опубли кована в журнале. 7. Сильный шум на улице испугал ребенка. 8. Лекция знаменитого профессора была очень инте ресной. Еe слушали с большим вниманием. 9. Он сказал, что его предупредят обо всем заранее. 10. Когда я пришел, все студенты уже ответили/сдали экзамен. 11. Ей казалось, что за ней ктото идет. 12. К следующему году в нашем городе будет построе но много (новых) домов. 13. Информация была заложена в компьютер, резуль тат был достаточно неожиданным. 14. Секретарь сказал, что менеджер подпишет доку менты к двум часам. 15. В британском парламенте соблюдаются многие ан глийские традиции. 2. 1. St. Petersburg was founded in 1703 by Peter I. 2. Do you know when this bridge was built? 3. I was told that my question would be discussed the next week. 4. He said if he was invited to the conference he would take part in it with pleasure. 5. The secretary says the contract hasn’t been signed yet. 6. This film is much spoken about. 7. This novel is badly criticized in the newspaper. 8. He thought he wouldn’t be asked about it. 9. A lot of flowers are sold before holidays in our town. 10. You won’t wait long, you’ll be received at once. 11. This article can’t be translated so quickly. 12. I have good news: I’ve been given a ticket to the opera and ballet theatre. 305

13. He said that the cinema had been repaired already. 14. Many new text books have been bought for our library this year. 15. Do you think he has been told all the details of our conversation? 3. 1. Эти яблоки более сладкие, чем те, которые я купил вчера. 2. Выражение лица гораздо более важно, чем одеж да, которую человек носит. 3. Вот несколько ручек. Какую (ручку) вы хотите? 4. Никогда не знаешь, что он может ответить/ каким может быть его ответ. 5. Я вижу только один журнал. А где другие? 6. Эти ящики слишком малы, нам нужны большие (ящики). 7. Нужно всегда соблюдать правила уличного движе ния. 8. Эта история (рассказ) мне очень понравилась, а ис тория (рассказ), которую он рассказал нам вчера, мне не понравилась. 9. Промахи других людей видны больше, чем свои соб ственные. 10. Вы перевели только один отрывок? 11. При таких обстоятельствах иногда не знаешь, что делать. 12. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, один из тех словарей. – Ка кой именно? 13. Теперь можно разговаривать по телефону в любое время. 14. У него два брата. Один из них живет в Москве, дру гой – на Дальнем Востоке. 4. 1. I think one of these gentlemen is Mr. Brown. 2. Show me the hat, please. – Which one would you like? 306

3. One should take into account all the details of this matter. 4. When one doesn’t know grammar, one makes a lot of mistakes. 5. This bag is nicer than the one I bought in the department store. 6. Give me some envelopes, please./Can I have some envelopes, please? – Which ones? 7. One must keep one’s promise. 8. Do you see those girls? One of them is my sister. 9. I was asked some questions, one of them was very difficult. 10. One can find this book in any bookshop. 11. There are twelve months in a year, January is the first one. 12. One can never know what he will tell you. 13. Have you seen this film? – Which one? 14. One of these text books is mine, and whose is the second one? 15. One should/must be careful when crossing the street. 8. 1. is made 2. would speak 3. established; is awarded 4. is celebrated 5. are added 6. are taken 7. spoke 8. was built

9. are loved 10. sells; makes 11. is ... referred 12. are elected 13. studied; was bent 14. was introduced 15. are spoken

9. 1. Figures which have just been referred to, were published in the newspaper last week. 2. He was being waited for a long time, but he didn’t come. 3. I think this alarmclock is made of plastics. 307

4. Two letters have been translated and this one hasn’t been translated yet. 5. English people keep their traditions carefully. 6. This scientist is often referred to in course papers. 7. Big Ben chimes can be heard in every part of London. 8. Who do you think these lines are written by? 9. English (language) is spoken in many countries of the world. 10. After these words she was looked at with surprise. 11. This dictionary is seldom used, it is too big. 12. Don’t worry, your children will be looked after. 13. He was told that he would be invited as soon as the director came. 14. Seventy five different alphabets are used in the world. 15. This text book has been published this year, it can be borrowed from our library. Lesson 16 2. 1. without; for 2. with 3. of 4. on; in 5. in 6. across; at; of 7. for

8. – 9. in; to 10. without 11. for; at; of 12. of; of 13. of; – 14. in; with; by; of

4. 1. appeared 2. was built 3. adopted; became 4. took; 5. was trained 6. suited 7. are; are; criticize

8. was published 9. goes 10. are ... put; is eating 11. got 12. was used 13. made 14. hasn’t been eating; gets; needs 308

7. 1. He said he was an accountant and added that the manager would come soon. 2. Michael said that his brother who was in Canada was an architect. 3. She said to me that the person who had told me that story hadn’t known what he had been talking about. 4. Alex said that they had been late and had missed the beginning of the performance. 5. The clerk said that job would suit the students who wanted to work during the holidays. 6. The girl said that trains which left from that station took an hour to get to London. 7. Tom explained that he had been lost so he had to ask someone the way. 8. The guide said if the picture was seen from that place it looked rather good. 9. Mother told her child not to be so curious. 10. Poly told me to address the envelope and said that she would post it. 11. The manager asked me if I wanted to buy that car. 12. The son asked his father where the key of the car was. 13. The sales person asked if I wanted a suit. 14. The woman said she had been walking late in the evening when she had seen a strange object in the sky. 15. The doctor asked how long I had been taking that medicine. 16. My colleague asked me if I had seen their new secretary. 8. 1. I said to the students, “Don’t make noise”. 2. My friends wrote, “We will come to Moscow and stay at the hotel”. 3. She said, “I will be delighted if you come to see me”. 4. The passerby said to me, “If you hurry to the bus stop you will be able to catch the bus”. 5. She was asked, “Why didn’t you come in time?” 309

6. The old lady asked me, “Can you help me with my luggage?” 7. He was told, “You are not experienced enough for the job”. 8. She said, “I found out that there are two more trains this day”. 9. Tony said, “I have to drive very fast to be in time for the session”. 10. Sarah asked me, “Where were you last summer?” 11.He said, “I have been waiting for the boss for two hours”. 12.I said, “I will have finished my essay by eleven o’clock tomorrow”. 9. 1. London Tower, like PeterandPaul Fortress was built as a fortification. 2. Do you know that there are many Latin words in English? 3. Why are you so late? I have been waiting for you for forty minutes already. 4. When our guests come, offer them to go to the Russian Museum and the Hermitage. 5. If you hurry you can catch the train. 6. He couldn’t help them in any way though he tried hard. 7. She has to attend English classes twice a week after work. 8. London is different from other cities, it has two centres. 9. You shouldn’t forget that he hasn’t been to the town long and he doesn’t remember a lot of things. 10.Look! The shop assistant has been serving this customer for an hour. 11.I promised her to bring the article tomorrow. 12.He had collected stamps before he began collecting coins. 13.He asked me if I had gone to the football match. 14.I have never known he has such a good voice.

АНГЛО>РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ А abandon [əbndən] v бросать, прекращать, отказываться abbot [bət] n аббат able [eibl] a способный to be able to – уметь, мочь, быть в состоянии about [əbaut] prep о(б), по adv примерно, около, приблизительно above [bv] prep над, выше adv наверху absent [bsənt] a отсутствующий absentminded [bsənt maindid] a рассеянный absentmindedly adv рассеянно, по рассеянности academic [kədemik] n ученый a академический, учебный accessible [əksesəbl] a доступный accident [ksidənt] n несчастный случай, катастрофа, авария according to [əkɔdiŋ tə] в соответствии с accountant [əkauntənt] n бухгалтер achieve [ətʃ v] v достигать, добиваться across [əkrɔs] prep через, сквозь activity [əktiviti] n деятельность actual [ktjuəl] a фактически существующий, действующий, подлинный address [ədres] n адрес v адресовать, направлять, обращаться к кому либо administer [ədministə] v управлять, вести дела admire [ədmaiə] v восхищаться, выражать восторг advice [ədvais] n совет, консультация affair [əfεə] n дело affect [əfekt] v воздействовать, влиять 311

afraid [əfreid] a испуганный to be afraid of – бояться Africa [frikə] n Африка after [ ftə] prep после, за, через cj после того как afternoon [ ftən n] n время после полудня, послеобеденное время again [əgein] adv снова, опять against [əgeinst] prep против age [eid] n возраст ago [əgəu] adv тому назад agree [əgr ] v соглашаться (with – с кемлибо, to – с чемлибо) AIDS [eidz] (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) – СПИД (синдром приобретенного иммунодефицита) airport [εəpt] n аэропорт alarmclock [əl mklɔk] n будильник album [lbəm] n альбом all [l] a весь, все all day – весь день, at all – совсем alongside [əlɔŋsaid] adv рядом, бок о бок allow [əlau] v разрешать allusion [əl ən] n аллюзия, намек alone [ələun] a один, одинокий along [əlɔŋ] prep по, вдоль alphabet [lfəbit] n алфавит already [lredi] adv уже also [ɔlsəu] adv тоже, также, к тому же although [lðəu] cj хотя, несмотря на то что always [lwəz] adv всегда amazement [əmeizmənt] n изумление, удивление ambitious [mbiʃəs] a честолюбивый, стремящийся к among [əmŋ] prep среди, посреди amusing [əmj ziŋ] a забавный, занимательный ancient [einʃənt] a древний 312

angry [ŋri] а сердитый to be angry with – сердиться на когото animal [niməl] n животное announce [ənauns] v объявлять, заявлять, извещать another [ənðə] a другой, еще один antelope [ntiləup] n антилопа anxiety [ŋzaiəti] n беспокойство, опасение, страстное желание answer [ nsə] n ответ v отвечать apart [əp t] adv в стороне, отдельно, врозь, порознь apartment [əp tmənt] n квартира, комната apology [əpɔlədi] n извинение to make/to offer an apology – принести извинения, извиниться apparently [əprəntli] adv явно, очевидно, по видимому appeal [əp l] v апеллировать, обращаться appear [əpiə] v появляться, казаться appearance [əpiərəns] n внешность, появление appetite [pitait] n аппетит apply [əplai] v применять, обращаться (с просьбой) approval [əpr vəl] n одобрение approve [əpr v] v одобрять, утверждать architectural [ kitektʃərəl] a архитектурный arctic [ ktik] a арктический, полярный, северный area [εəriə] n область, участок arm [ m] n рука, ручка v вооружать armchair [ mtʃεə] n кресло army [ mi] n армия around [əraund] adv вокруг prep вокруг arrange [ərein] v устраивать, составлять arrive [əraiv] v (in/at) прибывать, прибыть art [ t] n искусство 313

article [ tikl] n статья, артикль artificial [ tifiʃəl] a искусственный, неестественный artist [ tist] n художник, артист(ка) as far as – до, так далеко ashamed [eʃəimd] а; to be ashamed of – стыдиться Asia [eiʃə] n Азия ask [ sk] v спрашивать, спросить assistant [əsistənt] n ассистент, помощник associate [əsəuʃieit] v ассоциировать (the) Atlantic Ocean [tlntik əuʃn] – Атлантический океан aster [stə] n астра atmosphere [tməsfiə] n атмосфера attack [ətk] v атаковать, нападать attend [ətend] v посещать, присутствовать attention [ətenʃən] n внимание attentive [ətentiv] a внимательный attentively [ətentivli] adv внимательно attitude [titj d] n отношение attract [ətrkt] v привлекать attraction [ətrkʃən] n привлекательность aunt [ nt] n тетя Australia [streiliə] n Австралия author [θə] n автор, писатель autumn [təm] n осень average [vəri] a средний award [əwd] v награждать, присуждать B back [bk] n спина, задняя часть a задний, обратный adv обратно, назад backbencher [bkbentʃə] n рядовой член парламента, «заднескамеечник» backroom [bkr m] n секретный отдел, секретная лаборатория 314

bacon [beikən] n бекон bad [bd] a плохой, скверный, тяжелый badge [b] n значок, бляха, нашивка bagpipes [bgpaips] n волынка balance [bləns] n равновесие, баланс, остаток balcony [blkəni] n балкон ball [bl] n мяч ballad [bləd] n баллада ballon [bəl n] n воздушный шар (the) Baltic Sea ['bltik 's ] – Балтийское море ban [bn] v запрещать banana [bən nə] n банан band [bnd] n группа, оркестр, диапазон bank [bŋk] n 1. берег; 2. банк bankrupt [bnkrpt] n банкрот barber [b bə] n парикмахер barber's shop n парикмахерская barefoot [bεəfut] a босой adv босиком bark [b k] v лаять baron [brən] n барон, магнат basin [beisn] n раковина bat [bt] n 1. бита; 2. летучая мышь bath [b θ] n – ванна to take/have a bath – принимать ванну bathroom [b θr m] n ванная комната BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) – БиБиСи (Британская вещательная корпорация) battle [btl] n битва, бой B.C. (Before Christ) – до Рождества Христова beak [b k] n клюв beard [biəd] n борода beast [b st] n зверь beautiful [bj tiful] a красивый, прекрасный because [bikz] cj потому что because of – изза 315

become [bikm] (became, become) v становиться bed [bed] n кровать to go to bed – ложиться спать begin [bigin] (began, begun) v начинать behind [bihaind] prep за, позади belief [bil f] n вера, убеждение believe [bil v] v верить, поверить bell [bel] n колокол, колокольчик, звонок belong [bilɔŋ] v принадлежать bench [bentʃ] n скамья bend [bend] (bent, bent) v изгибаться, гнуть besides [bisaidz] adv кроме, кроме того between [bitw n] prep между beyond [bijɔnd] prep выше, сверх bicycle [baisikl] n велосипед birthday [bðdei] n день рождения bite [bait] (bit, bitten) v кусаться Big Ben – Большой Бен (часы на здании английского парламента) bill [bil] n 1. законопроект; 2. счет bird [bd] n птица bit [bit] n кусок a bit of – немного bitter [bitə] a горький, резкий, сильный black [blk] a черный v краcить черной краской, чистить (обувь) ваксой blackboard [blkbd] n классная доска blame [bleim] n вина block [blɔk] v загораживать, препятствовать blow [bləu] (blew, blown) v дуть, подуть boast [bəust] v гордиться, хвастаться bob [bɔb] v коротко стричь(ся) body [bɔdi] n тело, туловище bold [bəuld] a смелый, храбрый bookcase [bukkeis] n книжный шкаф bookshop [bukʃɔp] n книжный магазин 316

boring [briŋ] a скучный born: to be born – родиться, рождаться both [bəuθ] a оба both … and – и … и, как …, так и box [bɔks] n ящик, коробка brain [brein] n мозг break [breik] (broke, broken) v разбивать, ломать, нарушать breakfast [breikfast] n завтрак to have breakfast – завтракать bridge [bri] n мост brilliant [briljənt] a блестящий, яркий, великолепный bring [briŋ] (brought, brought) v приносить, приводить broadcast [brɔdkast] (broadcast) v передавать по радио, телевидению, транслировать brush [brʃ] n щетка, кисть v чистить щеткой bucket [bkit] n ведро Buckingham Palace [bkiŋəm plis] – Букингемский дворец (лондонская резиденция королей) build [bild] (built, built) v строить building [bildiŋ] n строительство, строение, здание bulletproof west [bulitpr f west] – пуленепробиваемый жилет burn [bn] (burned или burnt) v жечь, поджигать bus [bs] n автобус business [biznis] n дело, бизнес, предприятие, фирма businessman [biznismən] n бизнесмен busy [bizi] a занятой, оживленный, шумный buy [bai] (bought, bought) v покупать, приобретать C Cabinet [kebinət] n кабинет министров, правительство 317

cage [kei] n клетка cake [keik] n пирожное, торт, брусок cake of soap – кусок мыла calendar [kləndə] n календарь calf [k f] n теленок call [kl] v называть, вызывать call in – заходить call out – окликнуть camera [kmərə] n фотоаппарат candle [kndl] n свеча canoe [kən ] n каноэ, челнок canteen [kənt n] n столовая capital [kpitl] n 1. столица; 2. капитал car [k ] n машина, автомобиль card [k d] n карточка cardigan [k digən] n жакет (вязаный) career [kəriə] n карьера careful [kεəful] a осторожный, тщательный carefully adv осторожно, тщательно carelessly [kεəlisli] adv невнимательно, небрежно carpet [k pit] n ковер carry [kri] v нести, везти case [keis] n случай, дело, футляр cast [k st] (cast, cast) v бросать cat [kt] n кошка catch [k] (caught, caught) v ловить, поймать (the) Caucasus [kkəsəs] n Кавказ ceiling [s liŋ] n потолок central heating [sentrl h tiŋ] – центральное отопление centrе [sentə] n центр century [senuri] n век, столетие ceremonial [serimɔnjəl] a ормальный, официальный ceremony [seriməni] n церемония, обряд certain [stən] a определенный, некоторый certainly [stənli] adv конечно, непременно, несомненно 318

chair [tʃεə] n стул chairman [tʃεəmən] n председатель chance [tʃ ns] n случай, случайность, судьба, удача, счастье Chancellor [tʃ nsələ] n канцлер, почетный ректор, ректор change [tʃein] n перемена, изменение v менять, изменять(ся) for a change – для разнообразия to change one's mind – передумать channel [tʃenl] n пролив, канал the English Channel – ЛаМанш character [kriktə] n личность, персонаж characterize [kriktəraiz] v характеризовать chatter [tʃtə] v болтать, щебетать chase [tʃeiz] v преследовать, гнаться checked [tʃekt] a клетчатый, в клетку (о ткани) cheek [tʃ k] n щека charity [riti] n милосердие, благотворительность cheese [ z] n сыр cherry [eri] n вишня chess [es] n шахматы chicken [ikin] n цыпленок, птенец chief [ f] n глава, руководитель, лидер а главный, основной child [aild] n ребенок childhood [aildhud] n детство children [ildren] n (pl от child) дети Chinese [ain z] a китайский choose [ z] (chose, chosen) v выбирать Christmas [krisməs] n Рождество chrysanthemum [krisnθəməm] n хризантема chute [ʃ t] n мусоропровод cinema [sinəmə] n кинотеатр circular [skjulə] a круглый, круговой circumstance [skəmstəns] n обстоятельство 319

citizen [sitizən] n граждан|ин, ~ка, горожан|ин, ~ка city [siti] n город the City – Сити claim [kleim] v заявлять, утверждать class [kl s] n урок, занятие, класс, группа clean [kl n] v мыть, чистить clear [kliə] a ясный, понятный clear away – убирать clearly [kliəli] adv явно, очевидно, понятно clever [klevə] a умный cliff [klif] n утес clock[klɔk] n часы close [kləuz] v покрывать, заканчиваться, закрывать [kləus] a близкий, тесный cloth [klɔθ] n ткань, скатерть clothes [kləuðz] n одежда club [klb] n клуб coast [kəust] n побережье, берег coat [kəut] n пальто cold [kəuld] a холодный collect [kəlekt] v собирать, коллекционировать collector [kəlektə] n коллекционер college [kɔli] n колледж, институт collision [kəliən] n столкновение colonist [kɔlənist] n колонист, поселенец colonize [kɔlənaiz] v колонизировать, заселять colony [kɔləni] n колония, поселение colour [klə] n цвет colourful [kləful] a цветной, красочный, яркий Columbus [kəlmbəs] – Колумб comb [kəum] n расческа v расчесывать combination [kəmbineiʃən] n сочетание, комбинация come [km] (came, came) v приходить, приезжать comfortable [kmfətəbl] a удобный, комфортабельный 320

commercial [kəmʃəl] a коммерческий committee [kəmiti] n комитет, комиссия commonly [kɔmənli] adv обычно commune [kəmj n] n коммуна communicate [kəmj nikeit] v общаться company [kmpəni] n компания, фирма, общество competition [kɔmpitiʃən] n соревнование, конкурс, конкуренция complain [kəmplein] v жаловаться complicated [kɔmplikeitid] a сложный composition [kɔmpəziʃn] n сочинение compute [kəmpj t] v вычислять, подсчитывать concentrate [kɔnsəntreit] v концентрировать(ся), сосредоточивать(ся) condemn [kəndem] v осуждать, порицать conductor [kəndktə] n дирижер, проводник, контролер confidence [kɔnfidəns] n доверие, уверенность, конфиденциальное сообщение confines [kɔnfainz] n границы, пределы congratulate (on) [kəngrtjuleit] v поздравлять conquer [kɔnkə] v завоевывать, покорять, побеждать consciously [kɔnʃəsli] adv сознательно Conservative Party [kənsvətiv p ti] – консервативная партия consider [kənsidə] v считать(ся), рассматривать, учитывать consist [kənsist] (of) v состоять (из) constantly [kɔnstəntli] adv постоянно consult [kənslt] v консультироваться, советоваться content [kɔntənt] n содержание contain [kəntein] v содержаться, содержать в себе continent [kɔntinənt] n континент continuous [kəntinjuəs] a постоянный, длительный, продолжительный continuously adv постоянно 321

convenience [kənv njəns] n удобство coversation [kɔnvəseiʃən] n беседа, разговор cook [kuk] n повар v готовить (пищу) copy [kɔpi] n экземпляр v копировать, воспроизводить cordiality [kɔdiliti] n сердечность, радушие corner [knə] n угол corporal [kpərəl] а телесный correspondent [kɔrispɔndənt] n корреспондент costume [kstj m] n одежда, платье, костюм cosy [kəuzi] a уютный, удобный cotton [kɔtn] n хлопок count [kaunt] v считать, принимать во внимание, подсчитывать counter [kauntə] n прилавок, стойка country [kntri] n страна, родина, отечество in the country – за городом course [ks]: of course – конечно course paper [ks peipə] – курсовая работа cousin [kzn] n двоюродный брат, кузен, двоюродная сестра, кузина crash [krʃ] v разрушать, вызывать аварию crazy [kreizi] a сумасшедший, безумный cream [kr m] n сливки create [krieit] v создавать, творить creation [krieiʃən] n создание, творение creаtive [krieitiv] a творческий, созидательный crime [kraim] n преступление (the) Crimea [kraimiə] – Крым criminal [kriminl] n преступник a преступный, криминальный, уголовный Christian [kristjən] a христианский criticism [kritisizm] n критика criticize [kritisaiz] v критиковать crop [krɔp] n урожай, жатва 322

cross [krɔs] v пересекать a хмурый crow [krəu] n ворона crowded [kraudid] a переполненный crown [kraun] n корона cruelty [kruəlti] n жестокость, безжалостность culture [kltʃə] n культура cup [kp] n чашка cure [kjuə] v вылечить, исцелить curiosity [kjuəriɔsiti] n любопытство custom [kstəm] n обычай, привычка customer [kstəmə] n клиент, заказчик, покупатель cut (cut) [kt] v резать, стричь D dahlia [deiljə] n георгин daily [deili] a ежедневный dangerous [deinərəs] a опасный dark [d k] a темный darkcomplexioned [d k kəmplekʃnd] a смуглый darkness [d knis] n темнота date [deit] n дата, число (месяца) date (from) v вести´ начало от, восходить daughter [dtə] n дочь daughterinlaw [dtəinl] n невестка, сноха daylight [deilɑit] n дневной свет daytime [deitɑim] n дневное время in the daytime – днем deadly [dedli] a разг. ужасный, чрезвычайный deal [d l]: a great deal – много dealer [d lə] n продавец, торговец, дилер dear [die] a дорогой, милый, уважаемый debt [det] n долг decide [disɑid] v решать declare [diklεə] v объявлять, заявлять deductive [didktiv] a дедуктивный 323

deerstalker [diə stkə] n охотничья войлочная шляпа  defence [difens] n оборона, защита degree [digr ] n степень, градус, ступень delegate [deligeit] v делегировать, поручать, передавать полномочия democratic [deməkrtik] a демократический, демократичный deny [dinai] v отрицать, отказываться depart [dip t] v уходить, уезжать department [dip tmənt] n отдел, отделение, департамент depend [dipend] (on) v зависеть (от) depth [depθ] n глубина derive [diraiv] v происходить describe [diskrɑib] v описывать desert [dezət] n пустыня, необитаемое, пустынное место desert [dizt] v покидать, оставлять desire [dizaiə] n желание destiny [destini] n судьба, удел detail [d teit] n деталь, подробность detect [ditekt] v открывать, обнаруживать detective [ditektiv] n детектив, сыщик, агент сыскной полиции develop [diveləp] v развивать, разрабатывать diagnose [daiəgnəuz] v ставить диагноз dial [daiəl] n циферблат, круговая шкала v набирать номер (по телефону), настраивать (приемник, телевизор) dialect [daiəlekt] n диалект, наречие diary [daiəri] n дневник, записная книжка dictionary [dikʃənri] n словарь die [dai] v умереть, скончаться diet [daiət] n диета different [difrənt] a другой, непохожий, отличный (от) difficult [difikəlt] a трудный, тяжелый dine [dain] v обедать 324

dinner [dinə] n обед diplomatic [dipləmtik] a дипломатический director [direktə] n директор, руководитель, режиссер dirty [dti] a грязный disappointed [disəpɔintid] a разочарованный, огорченный discipline [disiplin] n дисциплина, порядок; дисциплина (отрасль знания) discourage [diskri] v обескураживать, расхолаживать, отговаривать discover [diskvə] v узнавать, обнаруживать, раскрывать discuss [disks] v обсуждать, дискутировать disease [diz z] n болезнь dish [diʃ] n блюдо, тарелка, посуда dislike [dislɑik] v не любить, испытывать неприязнь distinctly [distinktli] adv ясно, отчетливо, определенно district [distrikt] n район, округ diversity [daivsiti] n разнообразие, многообразие division [diviən] n деление, разделение, часть divorce [divs] n развод, расторжение брака v разводиться, расторгать брак dock [dɔk] n док dog [dɔg] n собака domestic [dəumestik] a домашний dominate [dɔmineit] v господствовать, доминировать door [d] n дверь doubt [daut] n сомнение v сомневаться downstairs [daunstεəz] adv вниз, внизу dozen [dzn] n дюжина drag [drg] v тащить(ся), тянуть dream [dr m] n сон, сновидение, мечта v видеть сны, мечтать 325

dress [dres] n платье, одежда drink [driŋk] (drank, drunk) v пить driver [draivə] n водитель, шофер drop [drɔp] v капать, ронять, бросать drop (in) – заходить, заглядывать dry [drai] a сухой during [djuəriŋ] prep в течение, во время dust [dst] v вытирать пыль Dutch [dtʃ] n голландец duty [dj ti] n долг, обязанность E each [ tʃ] pron каждый, всякий eagle [ gl] n орел ear [iə] n ухо, слух early [li] adv рано earth [θ] n земля easily [ zili] adv легко, свободно east [ st] n восток easy [ zi] a легкий eat (ate, eaten) v есть, принимать пищу eccentricity [eksəntrisiti] n странность, эксцентричность, оригинальность economist [ikɔnəmist] n экономист Edinburgh [edinbərə] n Эдинбург educated [edjukeitid] a образованный education [edjukeiʃn] n образование educational a образовательный, учебный effort [efət] n усилие, попытка egg [eg] n яйцо eland [ lənd] n антилопа канна (вид антилопы) elderly [eldəli] a пожилой elect [ilekt] v выбирать, избирать electric [ilektrik] a электрический electricity [iləktrisiti] n электричество elephant [elifənt] n слон else [els] adv еще 326

emergency [imənsi] n крайняя необходимость, непредвиденный случай, чрезвычайные обстоятельства emotion [iməuʃən] n эмоция, возбуждение emperor [empərə] n император empire [empaiə] n империя employ [implɔi] v нанимать, предоставлять работу empty [empti] a пустой encourage [inkri] v ободрять, поощрять, поддерживать encouragement [inkrimənt] n одобрение end [end] n конец, окончание v заканчивать ending [endiŋ] n окончание energy [enəi] n энергия engage [ingei] v занимать, заниматься чемлибо, быть помолвленным, быть вовлеченным в военные действия engineer [eniniə] n инженер (the) English Channel [iŋliʃ tʃenl] – ЛаМанш enjoy [inɔi] v получать удовольствие, наслаждаться enormous [inməs] a громадный, огромный enough [inf] adv достаточно, довольно enrich [inritʃ] v обогащать, украшать enter [entə] v входить, поступать (в) entertain [entətein] v развлекать enthusiasm [inθj zizm] n энтузиазм enthusiastic [inθj zistik] a восторженный, полный энтузиазма, энергичный envelope [envələup] n конверт era [iərə] n эпоха, эра essay [esei] n эссе, очерк, набросок establish [istbliʃ] v устанавливать, основывать, учреждать establishment [istbliʃmənt] n учреждение, установление, основание 327

estuary [estjuəri] n дельта, устье реки ethnic [eθnik] a нравственный, этический, этичный etiquette [etiket] n этикет, профессиональная этика Europe [juərəp] n Европа European [juərəpi(:)ən] n европеец а европейский even [ vn] adv даже every [evri] a каждый everybody [evribɔdi] pron все, всякий everything [evriθiŋ] pron все everywhere [evriwεə] pron всюду, везде evidence [evidəns] n доказательство exam [igzm] (сокр. oт examination) n экзамен to take an exam – сдавать экзамен to pass an exam – сдать экзамен examine [igzmin] v экзаменовать, осматривать example [igz mpl] n пример excellent [eksələnt] a превосходный, отличный except [iksept] prep исключая, кроме exchange [ikstʃein] v обменивать, менять exciting [iksaitiŋ] a восхитительный, захватывающий excursion [ikskʃən] n экскурсия, поездка excuse [ikskj z] v извинять, прощать exercise [eksəsaiz] v упражнение exist [igzist] v существовать, жить exit [eksit] n выход expect [ikspekt] v ожидать, рассчитывать expensive [ikspensiv] a дорогой, дорогостоящий experience [ikspiəriəns] n опыт (жизненный) experiment [iksperimənt] n эксперимент, опыт explain [iksplein] v – объяснять, толковать explorer [iksplrə] n исследователь expression [ikspreʃn] n выражение extend [ikstend] v простирать(ся), расширять(ся), тянуть(ся) 328

extract [ekstrkt] n экстракт, выдержка (из) extract [ikstrkt] v извлекать, вытаскивать extraordinary [ikstrdnri] a необычный, экстраординарный, выдающийся extremely [iksttr mli] adv чрезвычайно, крайнe; разг.: очень eye [ɑi] n глаз, зрение, взгляд F face [feis] n лицо, физиономия v стоять лицом (к), быть обращённым (к) factory [fktəri] n завод, фабрика fail [feil] v потерпеть неудачу, провалиться на экзамене fall [fl] (fell, fallen) v падать, понижаться fame [feim] n слава, известность famine [fmin] n голод famous [feiməs] a знаменитый, известный to be famous for – быть знаменитым чемлибо fang [fŋ] n клык far [f ] a далекий, дальний, отдаленный adv – далеко farmer [f mə] n фермер farther [f ðə] (от far) a более отдаленный, дальнейший adv – дальше, далее fast [f st] a быстрый, крепкий adv – быстро, крепко father [f ðə] n отец fatherinlaw n свекор, тесть Fatherland n отечество, отчизна fault [flt] n промах, ошибка, дефект favourite [feivərit] a любимый feed [f d] (fed) v кормить(ся), загружать, вводить feel [f l] (felt, felt) v чувствовать feeling [f liŋ] n чувство, ощущение fellow [feləu] n парень, приятель, товарищ 329

few [fj ] a немногие, немного, мало a few – несколько figure [figə] n фигура, личность, иллюстрация, рисунок, цифра fill [fil] v наполнять fill (in) – заполнять financial [fainnʃəl] а финансовый film n фильм, кино, фотопленка find [fɑind] (found, found) v находить, признавать, обнаруживать find (out) – выяснять, узнавать fine [fɑin] a прекрасный, тонкий finger [fiŋgə] n палец finish v заканчивать(ся) fire [faiə] n огонь, пламя, камин firm [fm] n фирма fireplace [faiəpleis] n камин fish [fiʃ] n рыба fisherman [fiʃəmən] n рыбак, рыболов fix [fiks] v укреплять, устанавливать flat [flt] n квартира a плоский, ровный floor [fl] n пол, этаж florist [flɔrist] n торговец цветами, цветовод flow [fləu] (flew, flown) v течь, литься flower [flauə] n цветок fluently [flu(:)əntli] adv плавно, бегло fly (flew, flown) v летать follow [fɔləu] v следовать (за), идти (за) follower [fɔləuə] n последователь, сторонник fond: to be fond of – любить food [f d] n пища, еда, корм fool [f l] n глупец, дурак; a глупый to play the fool – валять дурака foot [fut] (pl feet) n нога, ступня on foot – пешком 330

footballer [futblə] n футболист force [fs] n сила v заставлять, принуждать forecast [fk st] n предсказание, прогноз v предвидеть, предсказывать foreign [frin] a иностранный, зарубежный foremost [fməust] a выдающийся, известный, передовой forest [fɔrist] n лес forever [fərevə] adv навсегда forget [fərget] (forgot, forgotten) v забывать forgetmenot [fərgetminɔt] n незабудка form [fm] n форма, бланк formal a официальный, формальный fortune [fən] n удача, счастье, счастливый случай found [fɑund] v основывать, учреждать foundation [fɑundeiʃn] n фонд, основание, фундамент France [fr ns] n Франция free [fr ] a свободный, независимый, бесплатный freedom [fr dəm] n свобода freethinking [fr θiŋkiŋ] n свободомыслие, вольнодумство fresh [freʃ] a свежий, новый friendship [frendʃip] n дружба friendship party – дружеская вечеринка fright [frait] n испуг to have/get a fright – испугаться frighten [fraitn] v пугать full a полный, целый fulltime job – работа на полной ставке fulltime student – студент дневного отделения fun [fn] n веселье, забава for fun – шутки ради, для забавы function [fŋkʃn] n функция v функционировать, действовать fund [fnd] n фонд funny [fni] a – смешной, забавный 331

furniture [fnitʃə] n мебель future [fj tʃə] n будущее (время) a будущий G Gaelic [geilik] a гэльский gain [gein] v приобретать, добывать, извлекать пользу gait [geit] n походка, поступь game [geim] n игра, матч garbage [g bi] n мусор, отбросы gas [gs] n газ, бензин (US) gather [gðə] v собирать(ся) general [enərəl] a общий generalize [enərəlaiz] v обобщать generally [enərəli] adv вообще generation [enəreiʃən] n поколение generous [enərəs] a щедрый gentle [entl] a нежный, мягкий gentleman n джентльмен get [get] (got; got, gotten) v добираться, приходить, становиться to get (up) – вставать to get rid (of) – избавиться (от) to get (on) – войти (в транспорт) to get (off) – выйти (из транспорта) give [giv] (gave, given) v давать to give (up) – бросить, прекратить glass [gl s] n стекло, стакан glasses – очки glossary [glɔsəri] n словарь go (went, gone) v идти, ходить, ехать to go back – возвращаться to go to bed – ложиться спать goal [gəul] n цель, задача golden [gəuldən] a золотой, золотистый 332

golf n гольф good [gud] a хороший, приятный goose [g s] (pl geese) n гусь govern [gvən] v управлять, руководить government [gvnmənt] n правительство graceful [greisful] a грациозный, изящный, элегантный graduate [grdjueit] (from) v окончить вуз grammar [grmə] n грамматика granddaughter [grndtə] n внучка grandfather [grndf ðə] n дедушка grandmother [grndmðə] n бабушка granny [grni] n бабушка grave [greiv] n могила great [greit] a великий, знаменитый, большой Great Britain – Великобритания green [gr n] a зеленый greet [gr t] v приветствовать, здороваться grocer [grəusə] n бакалейщик ground [grɑund] n земля, почва grow (grew, grown) v расти, выращивать, увеличиваться guess [ges] v угадывать, предполагать guest [gest] n гость Gulf Stream [glfstr m] Гольфстрим gun [gn] n оружие, пушка, пистолет H habit [hbit] n привычка hair [hεə] n волосы haircut [hεəkt] n стрижка half [h f] n половина hall [hl] n прихожая, коридор, зал hand [hnd] n рука (кисть руки); стрелка (часов) handkerchief [hnkətʃif] n носовой платок 333

handsome [hnsəm] a красивый hang [hŋg] (hung, hanged) v вешать, висеть happen [hpən] v случаться, присходить happily [hpili] adv счастливо, к счастью, успешно, удачно happy [hpi] a счастливый hard [h d] a трудный, твердый, жесткий; усердный, упорный to work hard – много и усердно работать hardly [h dli] adv едва, как только hat [ht] n шляпа haunt [hnt] n часто посещаемое место, убежище v обитать, появляться hay [hei] n сено head [hed] n голова healthy [helθi] a здоровый hear (heard, heard) [hiə] v слышать heart [h t] n сердце by heart – наизусть heavily [hevili] adv тяжело, сильно, крепко help [help] v помогать here [hiə] adv здесь, сюда here you are – вот, пожалуйста Hermitage [hmiti] n Эрмитаж hero [hiərəu] n герой hide (hid, hidden) v прятать(ся), скрывать(ся) high [hai] a высокий, главный (the) Highlands [hailəndz] – Высокогорье (Шотландия) His Royal Highness [hizrɔiəlhainis] – Его Королевское Высочество highway [haiwei] (US) n шоссе, автострада Hispanic a уст.: гишпанский historical [histɔrikəl] a исторический history [histəri] n история hobby [hɔbi] n хобби, любимое занятие 334

hold [həuld] (held) v держать, удерживать, владеть holiday [hɔlidei] n отпуск, каникулы, праздник Holland n Голландия home [həum] n дом, родной дом at home – дома homework n домашняя работа, домашнее задание honesty [ɔnesti] n честность, правдивость honour [ɔnə] n честь, слава hope [həup] n надежда v надеяться horse [hs] n лошадь, конь hospital [hɔspitl] n больница, госпиталь hot [hɔt] a горячий, жаркий hour [auə] n час house [haus] n дом, жилище, здание House of Commons [hausəvkɔmns] палата общин House of Lords [hausəvldz] палата лордов housing [hauziŋ] n жилище housewife [hauswɑiʃ] n домохозяйка how adv как however [hauevə] adv однако huge [hj ] a громадный human [hjumən] n человек a человеческий humanistic [hj mənistik] a гуманистический humour [hj mə] n юмор hunger [hŋgə] n голод hungry [hŋri] a голодный hurriedly [hridli] adv торопливо, поспешно hurt [ht] v болеть, ушибить, повредить husband [hzbənd] n муж Hyde Park [hɑidp k] Гайдпарк I icecream [ɑiskr m] n мороженое idea [ɑidiə] n идея, мысль, понятие 335

if [if] cj если ill [il] a больной importance [imptəns] n важность, значительность impression n впечатление improve [impr v] v улучшать improvement [impr vmənt] n улучшение indeed [ind d] adv в самом деле, действительно indication [indikeiʃn] n указание, знак, симптом industrial [indstriəl] a промышленный, индустриальный industry [indəstri] n промышленность, индустрия influence [influəns] n влияние, воздействие v влиять, оказывать влияние inhabitant [inhbitənt] n житель, обитатель inside [insaid] n внутренняя сторона a внутренний adv внутри, внутрь instead [insted] (of) adv вместо, взамен institute [institjut] n институт instrument [instrumənt] n орудие, инструмент, аппарат interest [intrəst] n интерес, заинтересованность v интересовать(ся) to be interested (in) – интересоваться to get interested (in) – заинтересоваться interview [intəvj ] n интервью, собеседование v интервьюировать, проводить собеседование introduce [intrədjus] v представлять introduction [intrədkʃən] n знакомство, представление, введение invade [inveid] v вторгаться invader [inveidə] n захватчик invent [invent] v изобретать invention [invenʃən] n изобретение investment [investmənt] n инвестирование, инвестиция 336

invitation [inviteiʃn] n приглашение invite [invɑit] v приглашать Irish [aiəriʃ] ирландский Irishman [airiʃmən] n ирландец island [ailənd] n остров isle [ail] n остров Israel [izreil] n Израиль Italian [itliən] a итальянский Italy [itəli] n Италия J jacobin [akəubin] n якобинец job [ɔb] n работа join [ɔin] v соединять(ся), объединять(ся), вступать joke [əuk] n шутка v шутить journalist [nəlist] n журналист journey [ni] n путешествие, поездка judo [ dəu] n дзюдо Julius Caesar [ ljəs s zə] – Юлий Цезарь jump [mp] v прыгать just [st] adv как раз, точно K karate [kər ti] n каратэ keen [k n] a острый, страстный, увлеченный to be keen to (do) – очень хотеть keep [k p] (kept, kept) v содержать, хранить, сохранять kill v убивать kilometrе [kiləum tə] n километр kilt [kilt] n кильт, юбка шотландского горца или солдата шотландского полка kind [kaind] a добрый, сердечный, любящий king [kiŋ] n король, монарх knife [naif] (pl knives) n нож 337

knight [nait] n рыцарь, витязь knock [nɔk] v стучать(ся), ударять(ся), бить(ся) know [nəu] (knew, known) v знать Kremlin [kremlin] n Кремль L laboratory [ləbɔrətəri] n лаборатория lady [leidi] n дама, леди land [lnd] n земля, страна landlord [lndld] n домовладелец, хозяин landscape [lndskeip] n пейзаж, ландшафт language [lŋgwi] n язык larder [l də] n кладовка last [l st] a прошлый, последний late [leit] a поздний, бывший tо be late (for) – опаздывать laugh [l f] n смех v смеяться law [l] n закон, юриспруденция layer [ljə] n адвокат, юрист lay [lei] (laid) v класть, положить lead [l d] v вести, руководить leader [l də] n лидер, руководитель leaf (pl leaves) n лист leapyear – високосный год learn [ln] (learnt, learned) v учиться learner [lnə] n ученик, студент least: at least – по крайней мере leave [l v] (left, left) v оставлять, покидать, уходить, уезжать lecture [ləktʃə] n лекция left [left] a левый leg [leg] n нога (от бедра до ступни) legend [leənd] n легенда leopard [lepəd] n леопард let (let, let) v позволять, разрешать let (out) – выпускать 338

letter n письмо; буква liar [laiə] n лгун, лжец library [laibrəri] n библиотека lie [lɑi] (lay, lain) v лежать life [laif] n жизнь light [lait] n свет, дневной свет, освещение like [laik] v любить, нравиться a подобный, похожий adv подобно linguist [liŋgwist] n лингвист, языковед listen [lisn] (to) v слушать listener [lisnə] n слушатель literature [litəritʃə] n литература little [litl] a маленький adv мало live [liv] v жить livingroom [liviŋr m] n гостиная local [ləukl] a местный loch [lɔk] n (шотл.) озеро lock n замок v запирать lonely [ləunli] adv одинокий, безлюдный long [lɔŋ] a длинный look [luk] (at) v смотреть (на) look after – ухаживать, заботиться look for – искать look forward – ждать с нетерпением look through – просматривать lookingglass [lukiŋgl s] n зеркало lord n лорд the Lord – Господь Lord God – Господь Бог lose [l z] (lost, lost) v терять lot n жребий to cast lots – бросать жребий a lot of – много, множество 339

lottery [lɔtəri] лотерея loud [laud] a громкий loudly [laudli] adv громко love [lv] n любовь v любить to be in love with – влюбиться (в) (the) Lowlands n низменность luck [lk] n судьба, случай good luck – удача bad luck – неудача, несчастье luggage [lgi] n багаж lunch [lntʃ] n обед luxury [lkʃəri] n роскошь lyceum [laisiəm] n лицей M magazine [mgəz n] n журнал magic [mik] a волшебный, магический magician [miʃən] n волшебник, чародей magnify [mgnifai] v увеличивать main [mein] a главный, основной major [meiə] a главный, важный make [meik] (made, made) v делать, совершать, создавать maker [meikə] n изготовитель, создатель makeup [meikp] n косметика, макияж man (pl men) n человек, мужчина manage [mni] v руководить, управлять; суметь, справиться manager [mniə] n менеджер, управляющий, директор mannеr [mnə] n способ, метод, манера manufacture [mnj fktʃə] v производить, изготавливать manufacturer [mnj fktʃərə] n производитель, изготовитель 340

mark [m k] n оценка, пометка, знак market [m kit] n рынок marry [mri] v жениться, выходить замуж marsh [m ʃ] n болото, топь martial arts [m ʃl  ts] – искусство рукопашного боя master [m stə] n хозяин, владелец, господин v овладевать match [mtʃ] v подходить, соответствовать, сочетаться math [mθ] n (US) математика mathematics [mθəmtiks] n математика matter n дело, вопрос v иметь значение as a matter of fact – собственно говоря meal [m l] n еда, принятие пищи mean [m n] (meant, meant) v подразумевать, иметь в виду means [m nz] n средство, способ by means of – посредством by all means – любой ценой by no means – ни в коем случае measure [meə] n мера v измерять mechanics [mikniks] n механика media [m diə] (pl oт medium) n средства массовой информации meet [m t] (met, met) v знакомить(ся), встречать(ся); выполнять обязательства meeting [m tiŋ] n собрание, заседание, митинг member n член memoirs [memw z] n мемуары memory [memri] n память mention [menʃn] v упоминать mere [miə] a простой, явный merry [meri] a веселый, радостный method [meθəd] n метод, способ, прием 341

metro [metrəu] n метрополитен, метро mew [mj ] v мяукать middle [midl] n середина midnight [midnait] n полночь mile [mail] n миля (англ. миля = 1609 м, мор. миля = 1853 м) milk [milk] n молоко millionaire [miljənεə] n миллионер mind [maind] n разум, ум, умственные способности v помнить, остерегаться, возражать minute [minit] n минута miss [mis] n девушка v промахнуться, пропустить, скучать mist [mist] n (легкий) туман, дымка, мгла mistake [misteik] n ошибка mistaken [misteikn] v ошибаться mix [miks] v смешивать(ся), сочетать(ся) mixer [miksə] n миксер, смеситель modern [mdən] a современный money [mni] n деньги month [mnθ] n месяц monument [mɔnjumənt] n памятник, монумент moorland [muəlnd] n местность, поросшая вереском moral [mɔrl] a моральный, нравственный, духовный mother [mðə] n мать motherinlaw [mðəinl] теща, свекровь motorway [mɔtəwei] n (Br) автомагистраль, автострада mountain [mauntin] n гора motor car [məutək ] n автомобиль mouse [mɑus] (pl mice) n мышь move [m v] v двигаться, передвигаться multistorey [mltistri] а многоэтажный much [mtʃ] a много mummy [mmi] n мумия murder [mdə] n убийство 342

museum [mj ziəm] n музей mushroom [mʃrum] n гриб music [mjuzik] n музыка musical [mjuzikl] a музыкальный N naked [neikid] a голый, нагой, обнаженный name [neim] n имя v назыать Naples [neiplz] n Неаполь narrow [nrəu] a узкий nasty [n sti] a противный, скверный nation [neiʃən] n нация, народ national [nʃənl] a национальный nationality [nʃənliti] n гражданство, народность native [neitiv] a родной, прирожденный naturally [ntʃrəli] adv конечно, естественно near [niə] adv около, близко, поблизости nearby [niəbai] a близкий, соседний nearly [niəli] adv приблизительно, около, почти necessary [nesəsəri] a необходимый, нужный necessity [nisesiti] n необходимость, неизбежность neck [nek] n шея neighbour [neibə] n сосед (the) Nelson's Column – памятник (Колонна) Нельсону nephew [nevju(:)] n племянник never [nevə] adv никогда nevertheless [nevəðəles] adv однако cj тем не менее news [nj z] n новость, новости, известие newspaper [nj speipə] n газета next [nekst] a следующий, соседний, ближайший nice [nɑis] a приятный, хороший, милый, славный nickname [nikneim] n уменьшительное имя, прозвище 343

night [nait] n ночь noise [nɔiz] n шум noisy [nɔizi] a шумный noon [n n] n полдень notebook [nəutbuk] n записная книжка north, n [nθ] n север notice [nəutis] v замечать, отмечать, обращать внимание novel [nɔvəl] n роман now [nɑu] adv сейчас, теперь nowadays [nauədeiz] adv в наше время, в наши дни, теперь nowhere [nəuwεə] adv нигде number [nmbə] n число, количество a number (of) – ряд, некоторое количество need [n d] n нужда, надобность v нуждаться, иметь потребность negative [negətiv] a отрицательный, негативный novelist [nɔvəlist] n романист numerous [nj mərəs] a многочисленный nurse [ns] n няня, сиделка, медицинская сестра О oak [əuk] n дуб observation [ɔbzə(:)veiʃən] n наблюдение, наблюдательность observe [əbzv] v наблюдать, соблюдать observer [əbzvə] n наблюдатель obvious [ɔbviəs] a очевидный, явный occupation [ɔkj peiʃən] n занятие; оккупация occupy [ɔkjupai] v занимать, захватывать, оккупировать occur [ək] v случаться, происходить odd job [ɔddɔb] случайная работа offer [ɔfə] n предложение v предлагать often [ɔfn] adv часто 344

office [ɔfis] n офис, кабинет, ведомство, министерство, управление, должность official [əfiʃ(ə)l] n должностное лицо, чиновник, служащий а официальный, служебный oil [ɔil] n масло, нефть old [əuld] n старый once [wns] adv однажды, когдато, как только at once – сразу, немедленно, тотчас же open [əup(ə)n] v открывать(ся), раскрывать(ся) opera [ɔp(ə)rə] n опера operate [ɔpəreit] v действовать, работать opinion [əpinjən] n мнение, взгляд opportunity [ɔpətj niti] n удобный случай, благоприятная возможность order: in order to – для того чтобы ordinary [dnri] a обычный, обыкновенный, ординарный origin [ɔriin] n происхождение, источник, начало other [ðə] a другой, еще один, дополнительный outside [autsɑid] n наружная сторона, внешний мир outlaw [autl] n человек вне закона, изгнанник over [əuvə] prep над, через, за пределами overhead [əuvəhed] adv наверху, над головой own [əun] a собственный owner [əunə] n владелец, собственник, хозяин ox [ɔks] n бык, вол, буйвол P page [pei] n страница pain [pein] n боль, страдание pl усилия pair [pεə] n пара palacе [plis] n дворец paper [peipə] n бумага, газета, статья, письменная работа 345

parent [pεərənt] n родитель parentsinlaw [pεərəntsinl] родители мужа/жены, тесть и теща, свекор и свекровь park [p k] n парк v парковать(ся), припарковывать (машину) parliament [p ləmənt] n парламент parrot [prət] n попугай part [p t] n часть, доля, участие, роль to take part – принимать участие parttime job – почасовая рабата, работа на неполный рабочий день particularly [pətikj ləli] adv особенно, в частности party [p ti] n команда, группа, партия, прием гостей, вечеринка pass [p s] v проходить, проезжать to pass the exam – сдать экзамен passage [psi] n проход, проезд passenger [psənə] n пассажир passerby [pɑsəbɑi] n прохожий, проезжий path [pθ] n тропа, тропинка, дорожка patience [peiʃəns] n терпение, терпеливость patient [peiʃənt] n пациент, больной а терпеливый pattern [ptən] n образец, пример, модель, шаблон pavement [peivmənt] n тротуар pay [pei] (paid, paid) v платить peace [p s] n мир peasant [pezənt] n крестьянин pen [pen] n ручка pencil [pensl] n карандаш Pennsylvania [pensilveinjə] n Пенсильвания people [p pl] n люди, народ, нация performance [pəfməns] n представление, исполнение perhaps [pəhps] adv возможно, может быть permit [pəmit] v разрешать, позволять person [psn] n человек, личность, особа 346

pet n любимец, баловень, любимое животное phone [fəun] n телефон v звонить по иелефону physician [fiziʃən] n врач, доктор, целитель physics [fiziks] n физика physisist [fizisist] n физик piece [p s] n кусок, часть piece work – сдельная работа pig [pig] n свинья pigeon [piin] n голубь pillar [pilə] n столб, столп, колонна pin [pin] n булавка, значок, шпилька pipe [paip] n трубка, труба pity [piti] n сожаление, жалость place [pleis] n место to take place – происходить play [plei] v играть player [pleiə] n игрок plunder [plndə] v грабить plane [plein] n самолет plant [pl nt] n растение plant n завод, фабрика please [pl z] v нравиться, доставлять удовольствие please – пожалуйста yes, please – да, пожалуйста pocket [pɔkit] n карман poem [pəuim] n стихотворение point n точка, пункт v указывать police [pəl s] n полиция police force – полиция policeman [pəl smən] n полицейский political [pəlitikəl] а политический politics [pɔlitiks] n политика pollution [pəl ʃən] n загрязнение poor [puə] а бедный, скудный 347

popular [pɔpjulə] а популярный popularity [pɔpjulriti] n популярность populate [pɔpjuleit] v населять, заселять porridge, n [pɔri] n (овсяная) каша position [pəziʃn] n положение, должность, точка зрения positive [pɔzitiv] a положительный, позитивный possess [pəzes] v обладать, владеть possession [pəzeʃən] n владение, обладание possible [pɔsibl] a возможный post [pəust] v отправлять по почте postal [pəustəl] a почтовый postcard [pəustk d] n почтовая открытка postman [pəustmən] n почтальон postmaster [pəustm stə] n начальник почтового отделения postoffice [pəustɔfis] n почта, почтовое отделение pot [pɔt] n горшок, котелок, кружка pot of coffee/coffee pot – кофейник pound [paund] n фунт (англ. фунт = 453,6 г); фунт стерлингов pour [p] v лить(ся) power [pauə] n могущество, мощь practical [prktikl] a практический practice [prktis] n практика practise [prktis] v применять, осуществлять praise [preiz] v хвалить, восхвалять predict [predikt] v предсказывать, пророчить prefer [prif] v предпочитать prefix [pr fiks] n префикс, приставка preoccupied [priɔkjupɑid] a поглощенный мыслями, озабоченный prepare [pripεə] v готовить(ся) presence [prezns] n присутствие present [preznt] n подарок a настоящий, присутствующий to be present – присутствовать 348

press [pres] n пресса, печать pressconference [preskɔnfərəns] n прессконференция previous [pr vjəs] a предыдущий, предшествующий price [prɑis] n цена prime minister [prɑimministə] n премьерминистр princess [prinses] n принцесса prior [praiə] n священник prize [prɑiz] n награда, приз, премия probably [prɔbəbli] adv вероятно procedure [prəs ə] n процедура, процесс product [prɔdkt] n изделие, продукт production [prədkʃn] n производство, продукция profit [prɔfit] n прибыль, доход profitable [prɔfitəbl] a прибыльный, выгодный programme [prəugrəm] n программа progress [prəugrəs] n прогресс, развитие promise [prɔmis] n обещание v обещать pronounce [prənauns] v произносить propose [prəpəuz] v предлагать, выдвигать prototype [prəutətaip] n прототип provide v обеспечивать psychologist [saikɔləist] n психолог public service [pblik svis] – государственная служба publish [pbliʃ] v издавать, публиковать pullover [puləuvə] n пуловер, свитер punishment [pniʃmənt] n наказание pupil [pjupl] n ученик purpose [ppəs] n цель push [puʃ] v vтолкать put (put, put) v класть, ставить Q quarter [kwtə] n четверть, квартал (года, города) Queen [kw n] n королева question [kwestʃən] n вопрос 349

quick [kwik] a быстрый quick mind – cообразительность quiet [kwaiət] a спокойный, тихий quite [kwait] adv совсем, вполне quotation [kwəuteiʃn] n цитата, изречение, высказывание R rabbit [rbit] n кролик rain [rein] n дождь v идти (о дожде) raincoat [reikəut] n плащ rainy [reini] a дождливый range [rein] n ряд, ассортимент, диапазон rat [rt] n крыса rather [r ðə] adv довольно, скорее read [r d] (read, read) v читать reader [r də] n читатель reading hall n читальный зал ready [redi] a готовый reality [riliti] n реальность, действительность realize [riəlaiz] vосознавать, понимать really [riəli] adv действительно, в самом деле reason [r zn] n 1) разум; 2) причина receive [ris v] v получать, принимать receiver [ris və] n получатель recently [r sntli] adv недавно, на днях recognize [rekəgnaiz] v узнавать, признавать recommend [rekəmend] v рекомендовать, советовать record player [rekədpleiə] n проигрыватель recreate [rikrieit] v востанавливать, воссоздавать refuse [rifj z] v отказывать(ся), отвергать regular [regjulə] a регулярный, систематический, правильный regularly, adv [regjuləli] – регулярно, систематически relative [relətiv] n родственник 350

religious [riliəs] a религиозный reluctant [rilktənt] a неохотный, вынужденный remark [rim k] v замечать, отмечать remarkable [rim kəbl] a замечательный, удивительный remember [rimembə] v помнить, вспомнить remind [rimaind] v напоминать remove [rim v] v убирать, уносить repair [ripεə] v ремонтировать, чинить repeat [rip t] v повторять reply [riplɑi] n ответ v отвечать represent [reprizent] v представлять republic [ripblik] n республика reputation [repjuteiʃn] n репутация rescue expert [reskj ekspət] n спасатель resistance [rizistəns] n сопротивление rest [rest] n 1) отдых; 2) остаток, остальные restaurant [restərɔŋ] n ресторан result [rizlt] n результат, следствие return [ritn] v возвращать(ся) revolutionize [revəl ʃnaiz] v революционизировать, производить коренную ломку rich [ritʃ] a богатый right [rait] a правильный, правый on the right – справа ring [riŋ] up (rang, rung) v звонить river [rivə] n река road [rəud] n путь, дорога, шоссе role [rəul] n роль roll down v катиться, вращать(ся) room [r m] n комната rose [rəuz] n роза round [rɑund] adv вокруг, кругом row [rəu] n ряд rowingboat [rəuiŋbəut] n гребная шлюпка 351

royal [rɔiəl] a королевский ruin [ruin] v разрушать, разорять rule [r l] n пра´вило run (ran, run) v бежать, работатъ Russia [rʃə] n Россия Russian [rʃən] n русский а русский Russian Musеum – Русский музей S sack [sk] n мешок sadly [sdli] adv печально, грустно, лениво safe [seif] a безопасный, невредимый sailor [seilə] n моряк salary [sləri] n зарплата, оклад same [seim] a такой же, одинаковый adv – тот самый sand [snd] n песок sandwich [sndwi] n сэндвич, бутерброд satisfy [stisfai] v удовлетворять, соответствовать, отвечать (требованиям) save [seiv] v спасать Saxon [sksən] n сакс, англичанин, британец saying [seiiŋ] n поговорка schedule [ʃedj l] n расписание, график school [skul] n школа science [saiəns] n наука scientist [saiəntist] n ученый Scotland [skɔtlənd] n Шотландия Scottish [skɔtiʃ] a шотландский scrutinize [skr tinaiz] v внимательно рассматривать seaman [s mən] v моряк, матрос seaside [s sɑid] n взморье, приморье season [s zn] n время года, сезон seat [s t] n сиденье Take a seat! – Садитесь! 352

second [sekənd] n секунда second num второй secret [s krit] n секрет, тайна secretary [sekrətri] n секретарь securely [sikj əli] adv надежно, прочно see [s ] (saw, seen) v видеть, смотреть seem [s m] v казаться sell [sel] (sold, sold) v продавать send [send] (sent, sent) v посылать, отправлять sender [sendə] n отправитель sense of humour [senəvhjumə] чувство юмора separate [sepəreit] v отделять(ся), разделять(ся) separate [seprit] a отдельный serious [siəriəs] a серьезный servant [svənt] n служащий, слуга service [svis] n служба, обслуживание, сервис session [seʃən] n заседание, сессия several [sevərəl] a несколько shake [ʃeik] (shook, shaken) v трясти(сь), встряхивать to shake hands – пожать друг другу руки Shakespeare [ʃeikspiə] – Шекспир shape [ʃeip] n форма v придавать форму, формировать sharp [ʃ p] a острый, резкий shave [ʃeiv] (shaved; shaved, shaven) v бриться sheep [ʃ p] (pl sheep) n овца shelf [ʃelf] n полка sheriff [ʃerif] n шериф shine [ʃɑin] (shone, shone) v светить, блестеть ship [ʃip] n корабль, судно shoe [ʃ ] n туфля shoot [ʃ t] (shot, shot) v стрелять, снимать (фотографировать) shop [ʃɔp] n магазин shop assistant [ʃɔpəsistənt] продавец 353

shopping [ʃɔpiŋ] n покупка to do shopping – делать покупки to go shopping – ходить за покупками short [ʃt] a короткий shortsighted [ʃtsaitid] a близорукий shoulder [ʃəuldə] n плечо shout [ʃaut] v кричать show [ʃəu] (showed, shown) v показывать show off – хвастаться shower [ʃauə] n душ, ливень to take/have a shower – принимать душ shutter [ʃtə] n ставень, задвижка shutters – жалюзи side [sɑid] n сторона sight [sait] n зрение, взгляд, вид at the first sight – с первого взгляда sign [sain] n знак, признак, символ v подписывать significant [signifikənt] a значительный, важный silent [sailənt] a безмолвный, молчаливый silk [silk] n шелк simple [simpl] a простой, элементарный since [sins] adv с тех пор cj adv с тех пор как sincerely [sinsiəli] adv искренне sing [siŋ] (sang, sung) v петь singer [siŋə] n певец sink [siŋk] (sank, sunk) v тонуть, топить situate [sitjueit] v располагать sixpence [sikspəns] n монета в шесть пенсов skirt [skt] n юбка skis [sk z] n лыжи slice [slɑis] v ломоть, ломтик slow [sləu] a медленный slowly [sləuli] adv медленно slipper [slipə] n комнатная туфля 354

small [sml] a маленький, небольшой smile [smɑil] v улыбаться smoke [sməuk] v курить snow [snəu] n снег v идти (о снеге) so adv так, таким образом, итак, тоже, также soap [səup] n мыло soccer [sɔkə] n футбол sociable [səuʃəbl] a общительный sofa [səufə] n диван soldier [səulə] n солдат solution [səl ʃn] n решение solve [sɔlv] v решать somehow [smhau] adv какнибудь, както song [sɔŋ] n песня soon [s n] adv скоро, вскоре sound [sɑund] n звук v звучать, издавать звук source [ss] n источник, первоисточник south [sauθ] n юг souvenir [s vəniə] n сувенир souvereign [sɔvrin] n монарх, повелитель space [speis] n пространство, космос Spanish [spniʃ] a испанский, испанский язык sit (sat) v сидеть speak [sp k] (spoke, spoken) v говорит, разговаривать speaker [sp kə] n оратор, выступающий Speaker's corner – уголок оратора special [speʃiəl] a специальный, особый specialist [speʃlist] n специалист speech [sp tʃ] n речь spell [spel] (spelt, spelled) v писать или произносить по буквам spend [spend] (spent, spent) v тратить, расходовать, проводить (время) spirit [spirit] n дух, душа 355

spite: in spite of – несмотря на splash [splʃ] v разбрызгивать, плескать(ся) sport [spt] n спорт spot [spɔt] n пятно spread [spred] (spread, spread) v распространять(ся), простираться staff [st f] n штат служащих, персонал stage [stei] n стадия, фаза, ступень star [st ] n звезда start [st t] n начало v начинать state [steit] n состояние, государство, штат v записать, установить station [steiʃn] n станция, вокзал stay [stei] v оставаться, гостить step [step] n шаг v шагать step in – входить still [stit] a тихий, бесшумный adv – ещё, всё же, тем не менее stingy [stini] a скупой stone [stəun] n камень stop [stɔp] v останавливать(ся) stoppage [stpi] n остановка, задержка store [st] v снабжать, запасать storey [stɔri] n этаж, ярус story [stɔri] n рассказ, история stout [staut] a крепкий, плотный St. Paul's Cathedral – Собор Святого Павла St. Petersburg [səntp təzbəg] – СанктПетербург strange [strein] a странный, чужой, незнакомый stranger [streinə] n незнакомец, посторонний, чужестранец strength [streŋθ] n сила, прочность stretch [stretʃ] v простираться, растягивать(ся) strict [strikt] a строгий, точный 356

strictness [striktnis] n строгость, точность, требовательность strong [strɔŋ] a сильный struggle [strgl] n борьба study [stdi] v изучать, заниматься, учиться subject [sbəkt] n предмет, тема subtle [stl] a тонкий, утонченный, нежный success [səkses] n успех successful [səksesful] a успешный, удачный such [stʃ] a такой suddenly [sdnli] adv внезапно, вдруг sugar [ʃugə] n сахар suitable [sj təbl] a подходящий, соответствующий sun [sn] n солнце sunlight [snlait] n солнечный свет sunny [sni] a солнечный sunrise [snraiz] n восход солнца supermarket [sj pəm kit] n супермаркет sure [ʃuə] a уверенный, верный, твердый adv конечно to be sure – быть уверенным surgeon [sən] n хирург surname [sneim] n фамилия surprise [səpraiz] n удивление, неожиданность, сюрприз v удивлять, поражать surround [səraund] v окружать swallow [swɔləu] n ласточка sweep [sw p] (swept, swept) v подметать, чистить sweet [sw t] a приятный, милый, любимый, сладкий swim [swim] (swam, swum) v плавать switch [switʃ] v переключать to switch on – включать to switch off – выключать sword [sd] n меч, шпага, рапира symbol [simbəl] n символ, эмблема system [sistim] n система 357

T take [teik] (took, taken) v брать, взять to take off – снимать, раздеваться to take care of – заботиться, ухаживать talented [tlətid] a талантливый talk [tk] v разговаривать tall [tl] a высокий tap [tp] n кран tartan [t tən] n клетчатая шерстяная материя, шотландка taste [teist] n вкус v иметь вкус, пробовать на вкус tattoo [tət ] n татуировка v татуировать taxicab [tksikb] n такси tea [t ] n чай teach [t tʃ] (taught, taught) v преподавать, обучать teacher [t tʃə] n учитель, преподаватель team [t m] n команда tear [tiə] n слеза tear [tiə] (tore, torn) v рвать, разрывать technical [teknikl] a технический technique [tikn k] n техника, метод, способ telephone [telifəun] n телефон tell [tel] (told, told) v говорить, сказать, рассказать temperature [temprətʃə] n температура term [tm] n 1) термин; 2) срок; 3) триместр territory [teritəri] n территория (the) Thames [temz] n Темза theatre [θiətə] n театр theatregoer [θiətəgəuə] n театрал theatrical [θitrikəl] a театральный then [ðen] adv тогда, потом, затем there [ðεə] adv там, туда thing n вещь, предмет think (thought, thought) v думать 358

thirst [θst] n жажда though [ðəu] cj хотя, несмотря на adv однако, тем не менее thought [θt] n мысль thousand [θauzənd] n тысяча thrive (throve, thriven) v процветать, преуспевать through [θr ] prep через, сквозь, в течение, по throughout [θru(:)aut] prep через, по, в течение adv повсюду, на всем протяжении throw [θrəu] (threw, thrown) v бросать tiger [taigə] n тигр till/until prep до adv до тех пор, пока не time [taim] n время, раз tired [taiəd] a усталый to be tired – уставать title [taitl] n заглавие, название, звание toast [təust] n тост tobacco [təbkəu] n табак together [təgeðə] adv вместе toilet [tɔilit] n туалет tomorrow [təmɔrəu] adv завтра tonight [tənait] adv сегодня вечером tongue [tŋ] n язык mother tongue [mðətŋ] родной язык too [t ] adv слишком, также, тоже tooth [t θ] n (pl teeth) зуб toothbrush [t θbrʃ] n зубная щетка toothpaste [t θpeist] n зубная паста toothpowder [t θpəudə] n зубной порошок top n вершина, верхушка touch [ttʃ] v трогать, волновать tour [tuə] n путешествие, поездка towel [tauəl] n полотенце tower [tauə] n башня, вышка town [taun] n город 359

trade [treid] n занятие, ремесло, торговля tradition [trədiʃn] n традиция traditional [trədiʃnəl] a традиционный Trafalgar Square [trəflgəskwεə] – Трафальгарская площадь tragedy [trədi] n трагедия train [trein] n поезд training staff [treiniŋstf] преподавательский состав tram [trm] n трамвай transport [trnspt] n транспорт transport [trnspt] v перевозить trash [trʃ] n мусор, отбросы travel [trvl] v путешествовать tremble [trembl] v дрожать, трястись trip [trip] n путешествие, поездка trouble [trbl] n беспокойство, тревога, горе, беда v беспокоиться, тревожиться troublemaker [trblmeikə] n нарушитель спокойствия, смутьян tree [tr ] n дерево true [tr ] a правдивый, истинный trunk [trŋk] n ствол; хобот truth [tr θ] n правда, истина try [trai] v пытаться, стараться to try on – примерять turn [tn] v поворачивать(ся) to turn on – включать to turn off – выключать turning – поворот TV set – телевизор typical [tipikl] a типичный U Ukraine [ju(:)krein] – Украина umbrella [brelə] n зонт unanimous [j nniməs] a единодушный 360

uncle [ŋkl] n дядя unconsciously [nknʃəsli] adv подсознательно unconventional [nkənvenʃənl] a нетрадиционный underground [ndəgrɑund] n метрополитен а подземный understand [ndəstnd] (understood, understood) v понимать unexpected [nikspektid] a неожиданный unexperienced [nikspiəriənst] a неопытный unforgettable [nfəgetəbl] a незабываемый unfortunately [nftʃnitli] adv к несчастью, неудачно (the) United States [j nɑitidsteits] Соединенные Штаты unity [j niti] n единство university [j nivsiti] n университет unlucky [nlki] a несчастливый, невезучий unsolved [nsɔlvd] a нерешенный untrue [ntr ] a неправильный, несоответствующий, неверный unusual [nj uəl] a необычный upset [pset] (upset, upset) v огорчать, расстраивать (the) Urals [juərəlz] – Урал urgent [ənt] a срочный, крайне необходимый use [j s] n польза, использование use [j z] v использовать, употреблять usually [j uəli] adv обычно V value [vl ] n ценность v оценивать verse [vs] n стих very [veri] adv очень victory [viktəri] n победа view [vj ] n взгляд, мнение, поле зрения violin [vaiəlin] n скрипка virtual [vtjuəl] a фактический, действительный, виртуальный 361

visit [vizit] n посещение, визит v посещать visitor [vizitə] n посетитель vocabulary [vəkbjuləri] n словарь, словарный запас voice [vɔis] n голос volume [vɔljum] n том, объем, громкость vote [vəut] n голосование v голосовать voyage [vɔi] n морское путешествие W wait (for) v ждать wake [weik] (woke/waked, woken) v просыпаться, (раз)будить walk [wk] n прогулка, поход v ходить, идти пешком, гулять wall [wl] n стена want [wɔnt] v хотеть, нуждаться war [w] n война warm [wm] a теплый wash [wɔʃ] v мыть, стирать to wash up – мыть посуду washbasin [wɔʃbeisn] n умывальная раковина watch [wɔtʃ] n часы (наручные) v смотреть, наблюдать water [wtə] n вода way [wei] n путь, дорога, способ by the way – между прочим weak [w k] a слабый wealth [welθ] n богатство, обилие weapon [wepən] n оружие wear [wεə] (wore, worn) v носить одежду, быть одетым week [w k] n неделя weekend [w kənd] n выходные дни well adv хорошо as well – также as well as – а также, так же как и 362

Well done! – Отлично! Молодец! wellknown [welnəun] a известный, общеизвестный, популярный west [west] n запад West End pron Уэст Энд (западная, аристократическая часть Лондона) what [wɔt] a что? какой? whatever [wɔtevə] a какой бы ни, любой when adv когда whether [weðə] cj ли which [witʃ] pron который, какой, кто white [wait] a белый who [h ] pron кто, который whole [həul] a целый, полный, весь whose [h z] pron чей why [wai] adv почему wide [waid] a широкий wife [waif] n жена wildcat [waildkt] n дикая кошка wilderness [wildənis] n дикая местность will [wil] n воля, сила воли, желание William the Conqueror [wiljəm ðə kɔŋkərə] – Вильгельм Завоеватель wind [wind] n ветер wind jacket [windkit] ветровка window [windəu] n окно wine [wain] n вино wise [waiz] a мудрый, благоразумный wish [wiʃ] n желание, пожелание v желать, высказывать пожелания with [wið] prep с without [wiðaut] prep без wolf [wulf] (pl wolves) n волк woman [wumən] (pl women [wimin]) n женщина wonder [wndə] n удивление, изумление v удивляться, интересоваться no wonder – не удивительно 363

wonderful [wndəful] a замечательный, удивительный wood [wud] n лес, роща woodsack n набитая шерстью подушка, на которой сидит председатель (лордканцлер) в палате лордов word [wd] n слово work [wk] n работа, труд v работать world [wld] n мир, вселенная worry [wri] v беспокоить(ся), волновать(ся) write [rɑit] (wrote, written) v писать writingtable [rɑitiŋteibl] n письменный стол wrist [rist] n запястье wrong [rɔŋ] a неправильный, ошибочный Y yard [j d] n двор, ярд year [jiə] n год yellow [jeləu] a желтый yesterday [jestədi] adv вчера young [jŋ] a молодой, юный

ЛИТЕРАТУРА 1. Алексеева Л. С. Сборник цитат и изречений на ан глийском языке. М.: Международные отношения, 1964. 2. Амосова Н. Н., Апресян Ю. Д., Гальперин И. Р. Большой англорусский словарь. Т. 1–2. Изд. 3е. М.: Русский язык, 1979. 3. Голицынский Ю. Б. Грамматика. Сборник упраж нений. Изд. 3е. СПб.: КАРО, 2000. 4. Ганшина М. А., Василевская Н. М. Практическая грамматика английского языка. М.: Высшая шко ла, 1964. 5. Гачечиладзе А. Д., Пассек К. Ф. Английский юмор. М.: Политиздат, 1964. 6. Игнатова Т. Н. Английский язык. Интенсивный курс. М.: Высшая школа, 1992. 7. Карачарова Н. М., Масленникова А. А., Осипо" ва Э. Ф., Салье Т. Е., Третьякова Т. П., Шароградс" кая А. А., Горская И. И. Английский язык. Учеб ник для гуманитарных факультетов. СПб.: Лань, 1997. 8. Митина И. Е. Английские пословицы и поговор ки и их русские аналоги. СПб.: КАРО, 2002. 9. Мюллер В. К. Англорусский словарь. М.: Русский язык, 1989. 10. Пароятникова А. Д., Полевая М. Ю. Англий ский язык. Учебник для гуманитарных факуль тетов университетов. М.: Высшая школа, 1990.

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*** 1. Dale Carnegie. How to Win Friends and Influence People. Revised Edition. Pocket Books. New York, 1981. 2. Collins. Russian–English, English–Russian Dictiona ry. First edition. Glassgow. Harper Collins manufac turing, 1994. 3. Malcolm Goodale. The Language of Meetings. Language Teaching Publications, 1987. 4. Moscow News. 5. Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use. Second Edition. Cambridge. University press, 1995. 6. Review. St. Petersburg. Pulkovo aviation Enterprese inflight Magazine, 1997. 7. Speak Out. Журнал для изучающих английский язык. М.: ГлоссаПресс, 2000–2003.

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ (CONTENTS) От составителя .......................................................... 3 Вводный тест ............................................................ 5 Английский алфавит ............................................... 10 Правила чтения ...................................................... 11 Урок 1 .................................................................... 13 Местоимения; множественное число существительных; притяжательный падеж; глагол “to be”; количественные числительные

Урок 2 .................................................................... 21 Артикль; порядковые числительные; даты; дни недели, месяцы, времена года; погода; оборот “There is/are”

Урок 3 .................................................................... 34 Повелительное наклонение; степени сравнения прила гательных и наречий; время; настоящее неопределен ное/ простое время (Present Indefinite/Simple)

Урок 4 .................................................................... 49 Предлоги/союзы; настоящее длительное время; разде лительные вопросы

Тест 1 (уроки 1–4) .................................................... 68 Урок 5 .................................................................... 72 Простое прошедшее время (Past Simple); порядок слов в вопросительном предложении; обороты типа “So do I/ Neither do I”

Урок 6 .................................................................... 88 Прошедшее длительное время (Past Continuous); суффик сы существительных; прилагательные типа “blueeyed”

Урок 7 .................................................................. 103 Будущее неопределенное/простое время (Future Indefinite/Simple); придаточные предложения времени и условия; неопределенные местоимения “some, any, no”; суффиксы прилагательных

Урок 8 .................................................................. 118 Будущее длительное время (Future Continuous); конст рукция “used to (do)”; союзы “both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor”; суффиксы глаголов

367

Тест 2 (уроки 5–8) .................................................. 130 Урок 9 .................................................................. 134 Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты; many, much, few, little, a few, a little; суффиксы наречий

Урок 10 ................................................................ 149 Настоящее совершенное время (Present Perfect); эмфа тическая конструкция “it is ... that (who; since) ...”; пре фиксы с отрицательным значением

Тест 3 (уроки 9–10) ................................................ 164 Урок 11 ................................................................ 167 Прошедшее совершенное время (Past Perfect); страны, национальность; местоимения “each, every”

Урок 12 ................................................................ 181 Будущее совершенное время (Future Perfect); времена (повторение) ; местоимение “that/those (of)”

Урок 13 ................................................................ 194 Настоящее совершенное длительное время (Present Perfect Continuous); времена (повторение)

Тест 4 (уроки 11–13) .............................................. 205 Урок 14 ................................................................ 208 Согласование времен; косвенная речь

Урок 15 ................................................................ 223 Страдательный залог; многофункциональное слово “one”

Урок 16 ................................................................ 234 Повторение

Тест 5 (уроки 14–16) .............................................. Ключи к тестам ..................................................... Ключи к упражнениям .......................................... Англорусский словарь .......................................... Литература ...........................................................

243 246 252 311 365