Пособие адресовано тем, кто хочет восстановить знания английского языка после некоторого перерыва в практике, чтобы прод
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Russian Pages 272  Year 2007
372.8 81.2Àíãë-9 Ê64
Êîíîâàëåíêî Æ. Ô.
Çàáûëè àíãëèéñêèé? Ïðîäîëæàåì âñïîìèíàòü: Ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå. ÑÏá.: ÊÀÐÎ, 2007. 272 ñ. ISBN 978-5-89815-956-6 Ïîñîáèå àäðåñîâàíî òåì, êòî õî÷åò âîññòàíîâèòü çíàíèÿ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ïîñëå íåêîòîðîãî ïåðåðûâà â ïðàêòèêå, ÷òîáû ïðîäîëæèòü åãî èçó÷åíèå â ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîå îáëàñòè. Êíèãà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîäîëæåíèåì èçäàííîãî ðàíåå ïîñîáèÿ «Çàáûëè àíãëèéñêèé? Íà÷íåì ñíà÷àëà!» Ïîñîáèå ñîñòîèò èç 15 áëîêîâ, êàæäûé èç êîòîðûõ ñîäåðæèò ãðàììàòè÷åñêèé ìàòåðèàë è äâà òåêñòà, ïðåäíàçíà÷åííûå äëÿ ÷òåíèÿ, ïåðåâîäà è îáñóæäåíèÿ, à òàêæå óïðàæíåíèÿ äëÿ çàêðåïëåíèÿ ïðîéäåííîãî ðàíåå. Àóäèîçàïèñü âêëþ÷àåò â ñåáÿ òåêñòû è äèàëîãè, ÷òî ïîìîãàåò ïðàâèëüíî óñâîèòü àíãëèéñêèå èíòîíàöèè è ïðîèçíîøåíèå. Êðîìå òîãî, çàïèñàíû âàðèàíòû ïåðåâîäà íà àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ óïðàæíåíèé èç âòîðîé ÷àñòè êàæäîãî áëîêà. ÓÄÊ 372.8 ÁÁÊ 81.2Àíãë-9
© Êîíîâàëåíêî Æ. Ô., 2007 © ÊÀÐÎ, 2007 Âñå ïðàâà çàùèùåíû
Ïîñîáèå ïðåäíàçíà÷åíî äëÿ òåõ, êòî õî÷åò âîññòàíîâèòü çíàíèÿ ïî àíãëèéñêîìó ÿçûêó ïîñëå íåêîòîðîãî ïåðåðûâà â ïðàêòèêå, ÷òîáû ïðîäîëæèòü åãî èçó÷åíèå â ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîé îáëàñòè. Ýòà êíèãà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîäîëæåíèåì ðàíåå èçäàííîãî ïîñîáèÿ «Çàáûëè àíãëèéñêèé? Íà÷íåì ñíà÷àëà!», ïîýòîìó â íåé ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ ïîâòîðèòü òå ðàçäåëû ãðàììàòèêè, êîòîðûå ïî òðàäèöèîííîé î÷åðåäíîñòè ïðèâîäÿòñÿ â ó÷åáíèêàõ ãðàììàòèêè, èçäàííûõ â íàøåé ñòðàíå, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ðàçäåëû «Íåëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà» è «Ñîñëàãàòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå». Îòäàâàÿ äîëæíîå ó÷åáíèêàì, èçäàííûì â Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè, è ñ÷èòàÿ èõ íåçàìåíèìûìè íà âûñøèõ ýòàïàõ îáó÷åíèÿ, ìû, òåì íå ìåíåå, ïîëàãàåì, ÷òî îáó÷åíèå íà íà÷àëüíûõ ýòàïàõ äîëæíî ïîääåðæèâàòüñÿ ïîñîáèÿìè, ñîñòàâëåííûìè íîñèòåëÿìè ðîäíîãî ÿçûêà. Ïîñîáèå ñîñòîèò èç 15 áëîêîâ (Units), êàæäûé èç êîòîðûõ äåëèòñÿ íà 2 ÷àñòè (Sections). Â ïåðâîé ÷àñòè (Section A) â ñõåìàòè÷íîé ôîðìå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ïðàâèëà ïî îäíîé èç òåì è äàþòñÿ óïðàæíåíèÿ íà çàêðåïëåíèå ýòîé òåìû. Âòîðàÿ ÷àñòü (Section B) ïðåäñòàâëåíà äâóìÿ òåêñòàìè äëÿ ÷òåíèÿ, ïåðåâîäà è îáñóæäåíèÿ, ïðèâåäåííûìè â òîì âèäå, â êîòîðîì îíè âçÿòû èç îðèãèíàëîâ, à òàêæå óïðàæíåíèÿìè äëÿ çàêðåïëåíèÿ âñåãî ðàíåå ïðîéäåííîãî ëåêñè÷åñêîãî è ãðàììàòè÷åñêîãî ìàòåðèàëà. Ïîñëå âòîðîé ÷àñòè ïðåäëàãàþòñÿ íåêîòîðûå ýëåìåíòû ðå÷åâîãî ýòèêåòà (Short Conversation), âêëþ÷àþùèå ðàçãîâîðíûå âûðàæåíèÿ, äèàëîã, ïîñëîâèöû è ïîãîâîðêè. Íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî ýòî ïîñîáèå îêàæåòñÿ ïîëåçíûì äëÿ âàñ.
ÂÂÎÄÍÛÉ ÒÅÑÒ Ïðåäëàãàåìûé òåñò ïîìîæåò âàì îïðåäåëèòü óðîâåíü âàøåãî âëàäåíèÿ àíãëèéñêèì ÿçûêîì. Åñëè âû ñäåëàåòå 04 îøèáêè, âàøà îöåíêà «5». 58 îøèáîê, âàøà îöåíêà «4». 912 îøèáîê, âàøà îöåíêà «3». 19 è áîëåå îøèáîê, âàøà îöåíêà «2». Âûáåðèòå ïðàâèëüíûé âàðèàíò
1. Mr. Brown left London ... Manchester. a) to b) c) for 2. Have you seen Nick today? I ... him yesterday. a) saw b) have seen c) had seen 3. I for my pen half an hour. a) am looking b) look c) have been looking 4. Dont be angry him! a) on b) with c) for 5. Would you like a cup of coffee? a) Yes, please. 4
b) Yes, thank you. c) Yes, of course. 6. When you to Manchester? a) have gone b) went c) did go 7. When I came in, he the newspaper. a) was reading b) read c) has been reading 8. He was tired and fell asleep the film. a) for b) while c) during 9. I Tony since childhood. a) have been knowing b) have known c) know 10. Must I phone him now? No, you . You can do it tomorrow. a) cant b) mustnt c) neednt 11. Mother asked when I back. a) would come b) will come c) came 12. Id like to have a car. a) more reliable b) reliabler c) more reliably 13. Well have to hurry. We havent got time. a) many b) much c) a few 14. The room looked nice. It a) had cleaned b) was cleaned c) had been cleaned 5
15. Have a nice holiday. Take care youself. a) after b) of c) about 16. I never remember her address. a) can b) cant c) am 17. They stayed at hotel in the town. a) the most cheap b) the more cheap c) the cheapest 18. Mozart was born 1756. a) at b) from c) in 19. It depends many factors. a) on b) from c) out of 20. Its a nice day, it? a) doesnt b) isnt c) wasnt 21. What will you do if you the train? a) missed b) will miss c) miss 22. Are you writing a letter your friend? a) b) for c) to 23. Everest is mountain in the world. a) the highest b) the most high c) the most highest 24. I prefer this pen the other one. a) to b) c) for 6
25. The task is difficult. He can do it. a) hard b) more hard c) hardly 26. If he doesnt study he wont pass the exam. a) hardly b) hard c) more hard 27. Could you fill the form? a) in b) on c) to 28. I dont want to know about it. a) nobody b) anyone c) someone 29. I to get up early tomorrow. Im going away and my train leaves at 7. a) must b) can c) have 30. They only invited a few people their party. a) to b) for c) on 31. Where is Nina? Let come as soon as possible. a) she b) her to c) her 32. Did you go to Holland holiday? a) on b) for c) to 33. I hope the bus will come soon. I for 20 minutes. a) am waiting b) have been waiting c) have waited 34. He says he a holiday for six years. a) hasnt had 7
b) havent had c) has not 35. This is a useful thing. You cant do it. a) with b) for c) without 36. There was a round table the middle of the room. a) at b) in c) on 37. Thames flows through London. a) a b) c) the 38. What the news? a) are b) is c) 39. Can you remind me to phone Ann tomorrow? a) b) to c) for 40. The police officer asked where we a) went b) are going c) were going
U N I T 1 Best men are moulded by faults.
Text A. The Monarchy Text B. A Job for Life Short Conversation
Participle I Tense Present Perfect
translating having translated
being translated having been translated
Participle II Active Voice Past
Functions 1. Attribute 2. Adverbial Modifier 9
3. Part of the Predicate 4. Adverbial Clause Examples The girl translating the letter is our secretary. Äåâóøêà, ïåðåâîäÿùàÿ ïèñüìî, íàø ñåêðåòàðü. Translating the letter he used the dictionary. Ïåðåâîäÿ ïèñüìî, îí ïîëüçîâàëñÿ ñëîâàðåì. The letter is being translated now. Ïèñüìî ñåé÷àñ ïåðåâîäÿò. Having been translated the letter was posted to the firm. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê ïèñüìî áûëî ïåðåâåäåíî, åãî îòïðàâèëè â ôèðìó. 1. äååïðè÷àñòèå when translating } 2. «ïðè» + ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå while } = 3. îáñòîÿòåëüñòâåííîå ïðèäàòî÷íîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
Example When translating the letter he used a dictionary. 1. Ïåðåâîäÿ ïèñüìî, îí ïîëüçîâàëñÿ ñëîâàðåì. 2. Ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïèñüìà îí ïîëüçîâàëñÿ ñëîâàðåì. 3. Êîãäà îí ïåðåâîäèë ïèñüìî, îí ïîëüçîâàëñÿ ñëîâàðåì.
Translate the sentences into Russian. Define the forms and functions of the Participle. 1. Being the head of the state the British Queen plays an important role in the work of the government. 2. While working independently from one another the companies are in regular contact. 3. The college runs a 3-tier training program. 4. Harrow public school has outstanding facilities including the best golf courses, a swimming pool, 10
the latest computers and the best school theatre in the UK. 5. Realizing that the whole situation was rather complicated they asked their friends to help them. 6. Trying to solve the problem he had to change his mind about the project. 7. When dealing with people let us remember we are not dealing with creatures of logic, we are dealing with creatures of emotion. 8. When trying to decide how to handle the situation better, he realized that the whole mess was his fault. 9. The method recommended by his scientific adviser was very effective. 10. Having been sorted out the goods were placed in a warehouse. 11. Having lost the key he couldnt enter the room. 12. Knowing English well, my brother was able to pass the exam successfully. 13. Having travelled about the world for nearly three months, he returned to Russia. 14. The professor told us about the experiment now being carried out in his laboratory. 15. The translated text was given to the teacher.
Open the brackets using the proper form of the Participle. 1. The boy (to play) in the garden is my sisters son. 2. While (to prepare) for the examination he made notes. 3. You can get the book (to recommend) by our teacher from the library. 4. He asked her to go on with her story (to promise) not to interrupt her. 5. (To see) her he raised his hat.
6. (To lose) the key I couldnt enter the house. 7. (To sign) the letter the manager gave it to the secretary (to ask) her to send it off at once. 8. While (to cross) the bridge, we saw our teacher who was talking with an old man. 9. (To represent) by governors of the dependent territories, the Queen is the head of the Commonwealth. 10. The leaves (to lie) on the ground reminded us of autumn. 11. (To have) plenty of time we decided to walk to the station. 12. (To finish) the experiment they left the laboratory. 13. The letter (to translate) now should be posted immediately. 14. (To be) the oldest institution of the government, monarchy goes back to the ninth century.
Translate the sentences into English using the Participle. 1. Òàê êàê îí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðóêîâîäèòåëåì ôèðìû, åìó ïðèõîäèòñÿ ÷àñòî åçäèòü â êîìàíäèðîâêè. 2. Óâèäåâ áåñïîðÿäîê íà ñòîëå, ÿ ïîíÿë, ÷òî áóäåò òðóäíî íàéòè íóæíûé äîêóìåíò. 3. Ïðè ðàçðàáîòêå íîâîé ìîäåëè êîíñòðóêòîðû ó÷ëè âñå ïîæåëàíèÿ êëèåíòîâ. 4. Ïðî÷èòàâ ïèñüìî, îí ñðàçó íàïèñàë îòâåò è îòîñëàë åãî. 5. Òàê êàê ìû íå çíàëè ðàñïèñàíèÿ ïîåçäîâ, òî ðåøèëè ïîåõàòü íà âîêçàë çàðàíåå. 6. Çàêîí÷èâ ýêñïåðèìåíò, ó÷åíûé ïðèñòóïèë ê ñîñòàâëåíèþ îò÷åòà. 7. ßâëÿÿñü ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿìè êîðîëåâñêîé âëàñòè, ãåíåðàë-ãóáåðíàòîðû íàçíà÷àþòñÿ êîðîëåâîé ïî ðåêîìåíäàöèè ìèíèñòðîâ. 12
8. Êîðîíàöèÿ ìîíàðõà, ïðîèñõîäÿùàÿ â Âåñòìèíñòåðñêîì Àááàòñòâå, ïðèâëåêàåò âíèìàíèå âñåé îáùåñòâåííîñòè â Áðèòàíèè. 9. Ïðèíöåññà Àííà, êîòîðàÿ î÷åíü ëþáèò êîííûé ñïîðò, ïðèíèìàëà ó÷àñòèå â Îëèìïèéñêèõ èãðàõ. 10. Êîãäà ÿ øåë äîìîé, ÿ âñòðåòèë îäíîãî èç ñâîèõ äðóçåé. 11. Îí ïîäáåæàë êî ìíå, òÿæåëî äûøà. 12. Òàê êàê îí áûë íåâíèìàòåëåí, îí ñäåëàë ìíîãî îøèáîê â êîíòðîëüíîé ðàáîòå. 13. Êîãäà îíè áûëè â Ìîñêâå, îíè ïîñåòèëè Òðåòüÿêîâñêóþ ãàëåðåþ. 14. Êíèãè, âçÿòûå â áèáëèîòåêå, äîëæíû áûòü âîçâðàùåíû ÷åðåç äâå íåäåëè.
SECTION B REMEMBER power, n 1. âëàñòü; âîçìîæíîñòü, ñïîñîáíîñòü 2. ìîùü, ìîãóùåñòâî, ìîùíîñòü 3. ïîëíîìî÷èå 4. äåðæàâà the power of attorney äîâåðåííîñòü to be in power íàõîäèòüñÿ ó âëàñòè to do all in ones power ñäåëàòü âñ¸, ÷òî â (íàøèõ) ñèëàõ
Examples The President of the United States can be in power no more than two full terms of office. The power of this machine is not very high. The power of the President is limited by the Congress. Great powers are united to fight against terrorism. 13
Succeed, v 1. óäàâàòüñÿ, ïðåóñïåâàòü, èìåòü óñïåõ; 2. ñëåäîâàòü (çà), ñìåíÿòü; 3. íàñëåäîâàòü, áûòü íàñëåäíèêîì Examples His relatives succed in business. He succeeded in passing examinations. The generation that succeeds us differs from us. In Great Britain when a daughter succeeds, she becomes Queen Regnant. Sons of the British Sovereign succeed to the throne. Read and translate text A.
The Monarchy is the oldest institution of government, going back to at least the 9th century four centuries before the Parliament and three centuries before the law court. Queen Elizabeth II is herself directly descended from King Egbert, who united England under his rule in 829. The only interruption in the history of the monarchy was the republic, which lasted from 1649 to 1660. Today the Queen is not only Britains head of State but also an important symbol of national unity. Although the seat of the monarchy is in Britain, the Queen is also the head of a number of Commonwealth states. These include Australia, Barbados, Canada, Jamaica, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. In each such state the Queen is represented by a GovernorGeneral, appointed by her on the advice of the ministers of the country concerned and completely independent of the British Government. Other member states are republics or have their own monarchs. In the British dåpendent territories the Queen is usuàlly represented by a governor who is responsible to the British Government for the administration of the country concerned. 14
The title of the Crown is derived partly from statute and partly from common law rules of descent. Despite interruption in the direct line of succession, the hereditary principle upon which it was founded has always been preserved. Sons of the sovereign have precedence over daughters in succeeding to the throne. When a daughter succeeds, she becomes Queen Regnant, and has the same powers as a king. The consort of a king takes her husbands rank and style, becoming Queen. The constitution does not give any special rank or privileges to the husband of Queen Regnant, although in practice he plays an important role in the life of the nation, as does the Duke of Edinburgh. The Sovereign succeeds to the throne as soon as his or her predecessor dies: there is no interregnum. The successor is at once proclaimed at an Accession Council, to which all members of the Privy Council are summoned. The Sovereigns coronation follows the accession after a convenient interval. The ceremony takes place at Westminster Abbey in London in the presence of representatives of the Houses of Parliament and of all the great public organizations in Britain. The Prime Ministers and leading members of the other Commonweàlth nations and representatives of other countries also attend.
The Monarchs role in government The Queen personifies the State. In law, she is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commanderin-chief of all armed forces of the Crown and the supreme governor of the established Church of England. As a result of a long process of evolution during which the monarchys absolute power has been progressively reduced, the Queen acts on the advice of her ministers. Britain is governed by Her Majestys Government in the name of the Queen. 15
One of the Queens most important functions is appointing the Prime Minister. In international affairs the Queen as the head of State has the power to declare war and make peace, to recognize foreign states and governments, to conclude treaties and to cede territory. The Queen continues to play an important role in the working of government. She holds Privy Council meetings, gives audiences to her ministers and officials in Britain and overseas, receives accounts of Cabinet decisions and signs state papers. She must be consulted on every aspect of national life, and must show complete impartiality. Exercise 4 Answer the questions.
1. How old is British Monarchy? 2. Which British institution is older the Monarchy or the Parliament? 3. What is King Egbert famous for? 4. What is the Queen for Great Britain? 5. Where is the seat of the monarchy? 6. What states are the members of Commonwealth? 7. Who is the head in the British dependent territories? 8. Which children of the sovereign have precedence over others in succeeding to the throne? 19. Does the husband of the Queen Regnant have any special rank or privileges? 10. Where does the ceremony of coronation take place? 11. What is the role of the Monarch in government? Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text.
1. Everybody was serious because the problem discussed was significant. 16
2. After a long discussion the companies concluded the agreement. 3. According to the British tradition the eldest son of the monarch is the heir to the throne. 4. Some employees of the firm are provided with the perks. 5. Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne after King George VI. 6. The branches of this organization are located in many areas. 7. Do you happen to know how long the conference will continue? 8. He is the chief of one of the departments and so he often goes on business trips. 9. Many questions were involved on the agenda. 10. He is interested in the history of customs and traditions of different nations, so he is going to enter the historical faculty. 11. Recommendation of the specialist is necessary for him to settle the problem. 12. When he took that job, he couldnt imagine that he would have so many responsibilities.
Read and translate text B. A JOB FOR LIFE Elizabeth II calls the Windsor family a firm. She thinks of it as a business rather than a family. And the main business of the Royal family is being royal. And they are paid for it. The Queen is one of the richest women in the world and yet she gets about 8 million pounds a year to be Queen. But many people agree that she does her job well and she deserves her salary. Buckingham Palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post offices, a hospital, a bar, two sports clubs, a disco, a cinema, and a swimming pool. There are 600 rooms and three miles of red carpet. Two men work full-time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work in the Palace. 17
There are hundreds of traditional ceremonies which the Queen has to keep. Each year, in September or October, there is the State Opening of Parliament. The Queen, wearing her crown, arrives at the Houses of Parliament by carriage. There she reads the Queens Speech, which discusses the governments work for the next year. Another traditional ceremony takes place on the Thursday before Easter Sunday. The Queen gives out purses of money to older people who have done good work. This is called Maundy Money and the tradition is almost seven hundred years old. Every Tuesday evening the Queen meets the Prime Minister. They talk about world news. Every summer the Queen gives three or more royal garden parties at Buckingham Palace. When the Queen invites a lot of people for dinner, it takes three days to prepare the table and three days to do the washing-up. During the first and second courses the Queen speaks to the person on her left and then she speaks to the person on her right for the rest of the meal. The Queen and other members of the Royal family often travel abroad as guests of other countries. Elizabeth II became the Queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1952, but unlike other monarchs before her, she wanted the ceremony to be on television. The church and the government didnt welcome the idea, but Elizabeth won. Elizabeth II has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew and Edward. Many members of the Royal family undertake official duties in Britain and abroad. Their various responsibilities reflect tradition, their own personal interest and Britains former imperial status. Horses are very popular in the Royal family, they all like riding and also own race horses. Horse racing is one of Queen Mothers greatest interests. Princess Anne takes riding very seriously. She took part in many shows and was chosen to ride in the Olympic Games in 1976. 18
Match each of the words to its definition. 11. business
a) being responsible b) transmission of statements, 12. purse beliefs, customs c) come to destination or end 13. duty of journey d) queen who rules in her own 14. succeed right e) fixed periodical payment, 15. arrive made by employer f) belonging to family of, in 16. government service or under patronage of a king or a queen 17. royal g) serious occupation, work h) Monarchs head-covering of 18. salary gold and jewels i) small pouch of leather for 19. regnant carrying money j) action and conduct due to 10. responsibility superior, deference, respect k) body or successive bodies of 11. crown persons governing a state l) come next after and take 12. tradition the place of
Answer the questions.
1. When did Elizabeth II become the Queen? 2. Why did Elizabeth want the ceremony of her coronation to be on television? 3. How many children are there in the Royal family? 4. Do the members of the Royal family have official duties? 5. What are the Queens duties? 6. Why does the Queen call her family a firm? 7. What is the royal business?
8. Why is Buckingham Palace like a small town? 9. How many rooms are there in it? 10. How many people work in it? 11. Does the Queen keep any British traditions? 12. How often does the Queen meet the Prime Minister?
Read the sentences, define the forms and functions of the Participles and translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Talking with the Prime Minister the Queen learns the news and solves some state problems. 2. When dealing with people let us remember that they are very emotional. 3. Upon returning to the laboratory he decided to continue the experiment. 4. In the morning I remembered a letter informing me that my rent would be increased. 5. Being the head of the Commonwealth the British Monarch appoints the Governor-Generals of the Commonwealth states. 6. Benjamin Franklin, tactless in his youth, became so diplomatic, so adroit at handling people, that he was made American Ambassador to France. 7. People engaged in trade with foreign countries have to use various means of communication. 8. Not understanding my partner, I asked him to describe his idea again. 9. The closing paragraph of a letter contains a statement of the writers intentions, hopes and expectations about future actions. 10. Having studied the catalogues very closely, the manager chose the firm to order office equipment from. 11. Having been completed, the experiment turned out to be a success. 12. When driving to the office, he had an accident. 13. Being 20 minutes late for the performance, he was not allowed to take his seat. 20
14. Having looked for my umbrella, I recollectred that I had left it on the train. 15. Discussing the matter, he mentioned by the way that a man couldnt eat the cake and have it*.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî ñäåëàåò âñå, ÷òî â åãî ñèëàõ, ÷òîáû ïðèåõàòü íà êîíôåðåíöèþ. 2. Íîâîå ïîêîëåíèå èìååò öåííîñòè, êîòîðûå î÷åíü îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò öåííîñòåé èõ ðîäèòåëåé. 3. Îí ïîëüçóåòñÿ ìàøèíîé ñâîåãî áðàòà ïî äîâåðåííîñòè. 4. Ñîçäàíèå óíèâåðñèòåòîâ âî âñåõ ÷àñòÿõ Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè ïðåðîãàòèâà ìîíàðõà. 5. Âîçìîæíî, âíèìàíèå áðèòàíöåâ ê êîðîëåâñêîé ñåìüå îòâëåêàåò èõ îò ñîöèàëüíûõ ïðîáëåì. 6. Àíãëèéñêàÿ êîðîëåâà èìååò ïðàâî îáúÿâëÿòü àìíèñòèþ âñåì ïðàâîíàðóøèòåëÿì. 7. Ïî êîíñòèòóöèè ñóïðóã öàðñòâóþùåé êîðîëåâû íå èìååò íèêàêèõ òèòóëîâ è ïðèâèëåãèé. 8. Âëàñòü áðèòàíñêèõ ìîíàðõîâ ïåðåäàåòñÿ ïî íàñëåäñòâó ïðåæäå âñåãî ñûíîâüÿì. 9. Êîãäà óìèðàåò áðèòàíñêèé ìîíàðõ, ìåæäóöàðñòâèå íå íàñòóïàåò, Ñîâåò ïî ïðåñòîëîíàñëåäèþ ñðàçó îáúÿâëÿåò èìÿ íîâîãî ìîíàðõà. 10. Êîíñåðâàòèâíàÿ ïàðòèÿ ñíà÷àëà èìåëà íàçâàíèå Òîðè, îíà áûëà ñîçäàíà ïðè êîðîëå Êàðëå II. 11. Ñûíîâüÿ áðèòàíñêèõ ìîíàðõîâ èìåþò ïðåèìóùåñòâî ïåðåä åãî äî÷åðüìè ïðè ïðåñòîëîíàñëåäèè. 12. Ñóïðóã öàðñòâóþùåé êîðîëåâû âûïîëíÿåò ðÿä âàæíûõ ôóíêöèé â ãîñóäàðñòâå. *You cannot eat the cake and have it. Íåëüçÿ ñîâìåñòèòü íåñîâìåñòèìîå.
TEST Choose the suitable word.
The Queen (1 ) thousands of people every year. (2 ) hands with each of them, she has to find (3 ) interesting to say. If you meet the Queen you should call her Your Majesty. When she wants to end a conversation, she (4 ) a half step backwards, (5 ) broadly, then moves on. The Queen likes horse (6 ), Scottish country (7 ), crossword puzzles, bright red (8 ), the Beatles film (9 ), (10 ), deep-pink carnations. 11. a) meeting 12. a) shaking 13. a) anything 14. a) take 15. a) smiling 16. a) being raced 17. a) dancing
b) having met b) shakes b) something b) takes b) smile b) having raced b) having danced 18. a) lawns b) dressing 19. a) Gone with b) Titanic the Wind 10. a) longb) long stemmed
c) meets c) shake c) little c) taking c) smiled c) racing c) being danced c) dresses c) Yellow Submarine c) short
SHORT CONVERSATION APOLOGIES
Excuse me, please. Not at all. Excuse my (being late/ Its all right. interrupting you). Thats all right. I beg your pardon. Pardon (me). Sorry. Im sorry. Im so sorry. 22
RUNNING ACROSS AN OLD FRIEND (Dialogue)
Nick: I beg your pardon. I do hope I havent hurt you. The young man: Not at all. My fault really, I was walking far too quickly. Im so sorry. Nick: Its all right. But havent we met before? The young man: Im afraid I cant place you. Nick: Last summer at Brighton. The young man: But of course, youre Nick. How stupid of me. I beg your pardon. I should have remembered.
Nick: It doesnt matter. One meets so many people at Brighton. And how are you? The young man: Not too bad. And you? Nick: Oh, Im fine. But look here, what about a cup of coffee in that bar? I was just going to have one.
The young man: Im afraid I cant just now. Im so sorry, but I really must be going. Nick: Thats all right, some other time perhaps? The young man: Yes, certainly. Do you often go to that bar? Nick: I usually have elevenses there. The young man: All right, Ill drop in one of these days. Nick: Good bye, then. The young man: Bye. PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS We know what we are, but we know not what we may be. (W. Shakespeare) Dont judge any man until you have walked two moons in his moccasins (Indian proverb). ×òîáû óçíàòü ÷åëîâåêà, íóæíî ñúåñòü ñ íèì ïóä ñîëè.
U N I T 2
A horse! A horse! My kingdom for the horse! W. Shakespeare
Grammar: Absolute Participial Construction* Text A. People, People Text B. A Horse Built the Civilization Short Conversation
The Absolute Participial Construction Signals:
1. çàïÿòàÿ 2. ïðè÷àñòèå 3. ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå èëè ìåñòîèìåíèå ïåðåä ïðè÷àñòèåì
E x a m p l e s 1. (äî çàïÿòîé) The weather being fine, they went for a walk. Òàê êàê ïîãîäà áûëà õîðîøàÿ, îíè ïîøëè ãóëÿòü.
* Absolute Participial Construction íåçàâèñèìûé ïðè÷àñòíûé îáîðîò
2. (ïîñëå çàïÿòîé) The plant produced a large number of cars, all of them being of high quality. Çàâîä âûïóñòèë áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî ìàøèí, ïðè ýòîì âñå îíè (ìàøèíû) âûñîêîêà÷åñòâåííûå.
Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Absolute Participial Construction. 1. Prince Henry went to Eton school, its pupils wearing Etons school uniform black tailcoat and waistcoat, stiff collar and pinstriped trousers. 2. Education is now being run like a business, most parents budgets taking a severe beating. 3. Inflation increasing, the high tuition fees do not any more justify the services offered at schools. 4. Dogs were popular in Ancient Greece, Rome and Egypt, Pharaohs dogs being mummified and buried together with their masters in pyramids. 5. Queen Elizabeth is the head of a number of Commonwealth states, the governors representing her in their territories. 6. The secretary having lost the key, we couldnt get the documents. 7. There are 25 million cars in Britain, over 3,000 people dying every year in road accidents. 8. The error being corrected, nobody got into trouble. 9. A daughter succeeding and becoming Queen Regnant, her husband has no special rank. 10. The deepest principle in human nature being the craving to be appreciated, the manager should take it into account when he evaluates his subordinates work. 11. The Sovereigns coronation takes place at Westminster Abbey, the representatives of both Houses of Parliament being present. 12. Before Jim Farley was forty-six years of age, four colleges had honored him with degree, he never seeing the inside of a high school. 25
Exercise 2 Change the sentences using the Absolute Participial Construction. 1. After the sun had risen we continued our way. 2. The treaty between Russia and China is drawn up in the Russian and Chinese languages and both texts are equally valid. 3. Many people from the Continent think that life is a game and the English think that cricket is a game. 4. After the goods had been unloaded the workers left the plant. 5. Horses were associated with power, privileges and wealth but oxen and donkeys served for working people. 6. On the Continent the people tell the truth or lie and in England people hardly lie or dream of telling the truth. 7. Horses were useful for people in war, and oxen and donkeys were worse in the battle. 8. My friend lost the library book and wasnt able to return it to the library. 9. The student collected a lot of material for the report and the professor was satisfied. 10. As my sister had bought the tickets to the theatre in advance, we saw a very interesting performance. 11. The vessel couldnt enter the dock because its length was 120 metres. 12. As there was a severe storm at sea, we didnt go to the beach.
Exercise 3 Translate the sentences into English using the Absolute Participial Construction. 1. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê áûë äàí ñèãíàë, ïîåçä òðîíóëñÿ. 2. Òàê êàê ïðîôåññîð áûë áîëåí, ëåêöèÿ áûëà îòëîæåíà. 26
3. Òàê êàê íà÷àëüíèê íåîæèäàííî óåõàë â êîìàíäèðîâêó, ñåêðåòàðþ ïðèøëîñü ðåøàòü âñå âîïðîñû ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî. 4. Ó÷åíûé ñîáðàë ìíîãî ìàòåðèàëà ïî ñâîåé òåìå, è åãî ñîîáùåíèå ïðîèçâåëî áîëüøîå âïå÷àòëåíèå íà ïðèñóòñòâóþùèõ. 5. Íà êîíòèíåíòå ëþäè çà ñòîëîì öåíÿò õîðîøóþ åäó, à àíãëè÷àíå öåíÿò õîðîøèå ìàíåðû. 6. Òàê êàê äåíü ðîæäåíèÿ êîðîëåâû áîëüøîå ñîáûòèå â æèçíè ñòðàíû, àíãëè÷àíå îòìå÷àþò åãî êàê áîëüøîé ïðàçäíèê. 7. Â Åâðîïå ìàøèíû åçäÿò ïî ïðàâîé ñòîðîíå äîðîãè, à â Àíãëèè ïî ëåâîé. 8. Òàê êàê áóäèëüíèê íå ïðîçâåíåë, ñòóäåíò îïîçäàë íà ëåêöèþ. 9. Îò÷åò áûë ñîñòàâëåí ñâîåâðåìåííî, è ñåêðåòàðü ñðàçó ñäàë åãî íà÷àëüíèêó. 10. Òàê êàê ìîíàðõèÿ ñàìûé ñòàðûé èíñòèòóò â Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè, àíãëè÷àíå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê íåé ñ áîëüøèì óâàæåíèåì. 11. Êîãäà ïðîøåë äîæäü, ìû ðåøèëè îòïðàâèòüñÿ íà ïðîãóëêó. 12. Òàê êàê ÷åëîâå÷åñêàÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòü çàñîðÿåò ïðèðîäó, ëþäè äîëæíû ïðèíèìàòü ìåðû äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû.
Read and translate text A.
PEOPLE, PEOPLE In Britain everything is the other way round*. On Sundays on the Continent even the poorest person puts on his best suit, trying to look respectable, and at the same time the life of the country becomes gay and cheerful. In Britain even the richest peer or motor-manufacturer dresses in some peculiar rags, * the other way round çä.: âñå ïî-ñâîåìó, íàîáîðîò.
does not shave, and the country becomes dull and dreary. On the Continent there is one topic which should be avoided the weather; in Britain, if you do not repeat the phrase Lovely day, isnt it? at least two hundred times a day, you are considered a bit dull. On the Continent Sunday papers appear on Monday; in Britain a country of exotic oddities they appear on Sunday. On the Continent people use a fork as though a fork were a shovel; in England they turn it upside down and push everything including peas on top of it. On a continental bus approaching a request-stop the conductor rings the bell if he wants his bus to go on without stopping; in Britain you ring the bell if you want the bus to stop. On the Continent stray cats are judged individually on their merit some are loved, some are only respected; in Britain they are universally worshipped as in Ancient Egypt. On the Continent people have good food; in Britain people have good table manners. On the Continent public orators try to learn to speak fluently and smoothly; in Britain they take a special course in Oxonian stuttering. On the Continent learned persons love to quote Aristotle, Horace, Montaigne and show off their knowledge; in Britain only uneducated people show off their knowledge, nobody quotes Latin and Greek authors in the course of a conversation, unless he has never read them. On the Continent every nation whether little or great has openly declared at one time or another that it is superior to all other nations; the English fight heroic wars to combat these dangerous ideas without ever mentioning which is really the most superior race in the world. Continental people are sensitive and touchy; the English take everything with an exquisite sense of humor they are only offended if you tell them that they have no sense of humor. On the Continent the population consists of a small percentage of criminals, a small percentage of honest 28
people, the rest being a vague transition between the two; in Britain you find a small percentage of criminals and the rest are honest people. On the other hand, people on the Continent either tell you the truth or lie; in Britain they hardly ever lie, but they would not dream of telling you the truth. Many continentals think life is a game; the English think cricket is a game.
Exercise 4 Answer the questions. 1. How do people dress on Sundays on the Continent and in Britain? 2. What topic is avoided on the Continent but is very popular in Britain? 3. When do Sunday papers appear on the Continent and in Britain? 4. How do people use a fork on the Continent and how is it used in Britain? 5. How is the bell on a bus used on the Continent and in Britain? 6. What is the attitude to stray cats on the Continent and in Britain? 7. What is the difference between the words stray and homeless? 8. What is appreciated at table on the Continent and what in Britain? 9. What is the difference between the orators on the Continent and British orators? 10. Where do people like to show off their knowledge on the Continent or in Britain? 11. How can the English be offended? 12. What kind of people live on the Continent and what kind of people live in Britain? 13. What is the difference in telling the truth and lie on the Continent and in Britain? 14. What is a game for most continentals and what is it for the British? 29
15. How can you explain the differences between the continentals and the British?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. If you do business with another country, you
should be aware of its culture. 2. Every Tuesday evening the Queen meets the Prime Minister and they have a talk about world news. 3. Some people feed animals living in the streets. 4. The teacher asked the students to put down a few sentences about the latest exhibition. 5. He told the story about his friends problems, the story being very emotional and moving. 6. The magazine has been released this week, there is a material you can be interested in. 7. Being late he came in and stammered out an excuse. 8. Her opinion can be relied on, she has a refined taste in art. 9. Understanding that he was ignorant in the subject of the discussion, he tried to keep silence. 10. Each Queen wearing her crown, arrives at the Houses of Parliament by carriage.
REMEMBER term, n 1. ñðîê, îïðåäåëåííûé ïåðèîä âðåìåíè 2. òåðìèí, pl à) âûðàæåíèÿ b) óñëîâèÿ term of office ñðîê ïîëíîìî÷èé in terms of ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ, íà ÿçûêå
to be on good terms with ïîääåðæèâàòü
õîðîøèå îòíîøåíèÿ (ñ) to make terms with ïðèéòè ê ñîãëàøåíèþ to bring somebody to terms çàñòàâèòü êîãî-òî ïðèíÿòü óñëîâèÿ easy terms ëüãîòíûå óñëîâèÿ
E x a m p l e s The term of office of the government is four years. Terms of this transaction are beneficial. This project is very interesting in terms of money. After the long discussion we made terms with our partners. He bought the car on easy terms.
Read and translate text B. HORSES BUILT CIVILIZATION Human history without horses would have been quite different. If we think about the main events in history, we will see that almost everywhere alongside with the footprints of people we will find hoof prints of horses. Scientists believe that horses first appeared in North America. But it was not the horse we know today. It was a fox-sized animal only about a foot high at the shoulder. But these small creatures kept changing and growing and about a million years ago, pony-sized horses galloped across ancient plains around the world. Man established a relationship with horses about 50,000 years ago. At first people hunted horses, which wasnt very easy, then they learned to herd these animals and kept them mainly for meat, possibly also for milk, but it is likely that horses were also used to carry things when people had to move
from one place to another. The horse was becoming a worker a source of help to man not just a meal on hooves. Mîst scientists think that the first horses were used to pull carts, not for riding. They say that at those times horses were too small (Bronze Age horses were about the size of large ponies) to carry an adult human. Other scientists believe that riding came first, Bronze Age people being small too. And size doesnt really count even a pony can carry an adult. Still it took people many years to learn how to ride. They had nobody around to teach them, besides they had to invent reins and saddles. People finally mounted horses. And they could travel long distances, explore unknown lands and conquer them. People quickly realized how useful a horse could be in war. A horse was such an effective weapon that empires from Egypt to Mexico crumbled before the mounted enemies. Mounted people winning many victories, horses became associated with power and privilege, pride and wealth. Oxen and donkeys were for working people, horses being the privilege of the rich. People who conquered new territories had to keep control over them. Here again horses proved to be very useful. It is horses that may have had the biggest impact on human history. The Persians, who in the 5th century BC built the largest empire, used mounted couriers to send instructions to colonies. The couriers were instructed not to let snow, rain, heat, nor darkness keep them from doing their duty. The US Post Office borrowed this motto. Certainly, horses were no match for modern engines. But even now we use the term horsepower coined by the English engineer James Watt to measure how much work is done by an engine. This term shows just how much respect horses have earned.
Match each of the words to its definition. 1. peer
2. oddity 3. upside down 4. merit 5. offend 6. exquisite 7. peculiar 8. vague 9. shovel 10. quote 11. stray 12. dreary
a) homeless b) cite or appeal to author, look in confirmation of some view c) dismal, gloomy d) acute, keen e) spade-like implement f) strangeness; peculiar trait g) equal in any respect h) wound feelings of; cause resentment or disgust i) indistinct, not clearly expressed j) quality of deserving well or being entitled to reward or gratitude; goodness k) with the upper part under; inverted l) particular, special
Answer the questions.
1. Where did a horse first appear? 2. What did a first horse look like? 3. When did people establish the relationship with a horse? 4. For what purposes were horses used first? 5. What size was a Bronze Age horse? 6. Do scientists think riding or pulling carts came first? 7. What opportunities were opened for people when they learned to mount a horse? 8. Why was a horse effective in war? 9. What were a horses associated with?
10. How did the Persians send instructions to colonies? 11. What was the motto of the US Post Office? 12. Why do you think the term horsepower is used to measure how much work is done by an engine?
Read the sentences, define the forms and functions of the Participle and translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The British National Theatre itself has three theatres, the largest of the three being the Olivier Theatre, named after the actor Lawrence Olivier. 2. The talks having been finished, we went sightseeing. 3. The shops closing at 8 pm in Oxford Street, you can make a purchase after office hours. 4. Selfridges being a very expensive department store, most Londoners prefer to go to cheaper shops. 5. The time of meeting being convenient, everybody agreed to it. 6. Being informed about it, we managed to avoid the trouble. 7. The assignment being very difficult, all members of the group were thinking it over. 8. Calming me my friend said that many people got wize after the event. 9. Having been translated, the article was published in the journal. 10. The weather being nasty, we decided to stay at home. 11. He started repairing his car himself though he was not a specialist in it. 12. We decided to have a break in the negotiations, everybody being unable to find the way out. 34
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Òàê êàê ó íèõ áûëè õîðîøèå îòíîøåíèÿ, îíè ñìîãëè áûñòðî óëàäèòü âñå ïðîáëåìû. 2. Â ñëåäóþùåì ñåìåñòðå îí îáåùàåò çàíèìàòüñÿ ëó÷øå. 3. Â Àíãëèè è íà êîíòèíåíòå ëþäè ïîëüçóþòñÿ âèëêîé ïî-ðàçíîìó. 4. Áðèòàíöû îáû÷íî ñòàðàþòñÿ èñïîëüçîâàòü â ðå÷è íåéòðàëüíûå âûðàæåíèÿ, èçáåãàÿ êàê ïðÿìîé ïðàâäû, òàê è ëæè. 5. Òåðìèí «ëîøàäèíàÿ ñèëà» óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïðè îöåíêå ìîùíîñòè äâèãàòåëÿ. 6. Íåêîòîðûå ëþäè ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî íàøà æèçíü èãðà. 7. Îáðàçîâàííûå àíãëè÷àíå ñòàðàþòñÿ íå ïîêàçûâàòü ñâîè ãëóáîêèå çíàíèÿ. 8. Ñðîê ïîëíîìî÷èé íàøåãî ãóáåðíàòîðà èñòåêàåò ÷åðåç ãîä. 9. Ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ñïåöèàëèñòà âñ¸ îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ î÷åíü ïðîñòî. 10. Ëîøàäü óìíîå, áëàãîðîäíîå æèâîòíîå, êîòîðîå îêàçàëî áîëüøîå âîçäåéñòâèå íà ðàçâèòèå ÷åëîâå÷åñòâà. 11. ßâëÿÿñü ãëàâîé ãîñóäàðñòâà, êîðîëåâà èìååò ïðàâî îòñòðàíèòü îò ðàáîòû ñëóæàùèõ ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ñëóæáû. 12. Çàêîí÷èâ äåëîâóþ áåñåäó, ìû ðåøèëè ïîéòè îñìàòðèâàòü äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòè.
T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the juitable words. One boy in London made his living as a clerk in a store. He had to (1 ) at five oclock, sweep out the store, and slave for fourteen hours a day. It was sheer drudgery and he (2 ) it. After two years he could (3 ) it no longer, so he got up one morning and without waiting for (4 ), tramped fifteen miles to talk to his mother, who was working as a housekeeper.
He was frantic. He pleaded with her. He wept. He swore he (5 ) kill himself if he had to remain in the shop any longer. Then he wrote a long pathetic letter to (6 ) old schoolmaster, declaring that he was heartbroken, that he no longer wanted to live. His old schoolmaster offered him a little praise and assured him that he really was very (7 ) and fit for finer things and offered him a job as a teacher. That praise changed the future of that boy and (8 ) a lasting impression on the history of the (9 ) literature. For that boy went on to write innumerable bestselling (10 ) and made over a million dollars with his pen. You probably heard of him. His name is Herbert George Wells. 1. a) sit down b) get up c) get down 2. a) despised b) liked c) admired 3. a) live b) speak c) stand 4. a) breakfast b) dinner c) supper 5. a) will b) shall c) would 6. a) their b) his c) our 7. a) intelligent b) usual c) average 8. a) did b) influenced c) made 9. a) American b) English c) German 10. a) songs b) pictures c) books S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N DENIAL
I dont think you are right. Im afraid not. Im sorry, but you are wrong. Im sorry, but no. Im sorry to say no. Certainly not. Of course not. It goes contrary to our plans. Its next to impossible. Its not desirable. 36
MORNING QUARREL (Dialogue)
Helen: I say, Mike, do hurry up! Youve been in that bathroom for hours! Mike: Certainly not! Ive just come in. Helen: I like that! I heard you come in at least half an hour ago. You never think of others. Mike: You are wrong, I always do. Helen: Oh, Mike, do come out! Im in such a hurry this morning. Have you put the kettle on? Mike: Im afraid not. Helen: Oh, bother! .. Ah, here you are at last. Have you cleaned the bath? Mike: Im afraid not, you asked me to hurry, didnt you? Helen: I like that! You had plenty of time to do it. Mike: I had not. Helen: Oh, go on with you*! PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Thats a horse of another colour. Ýòî ñîâñåì äðóãîå. The only man who makes no mistakes, is the man who never does anything (Theodore Roosevelt). Íå îøèáàåòñÿ òîò, êòî íè÷åãî íå äåëàåò.
* Go on with you! Äà õâàòèò æå!
U N I T 3
It is the first step that costs .
Grammar: Participle, Participial Ñonstructions (Revision)
Text À. The Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum Text B. Hotel Computers that Know just What Guests will Want Short Conversation
Translate the sentences into Russian. Define the function of the Participle. 1. It is strange for foreigners to see in Britain peers and motor-manufacturers dressed in peculiar rags. 2. While being bent to diplomatic career, Lyceum pupil Gorchakov studied languages. 3. When entering Iranian market Baltika company took into consideration the fact that Irans population is 98 percent Muslim, and this religion prohibits alcohol. * It is the first step that costs. Ëèõà áåäà íà÷àëî.
4. When living in Britain, you are to repeat the phrase Lovely day, isnt it? many times. 5. Every summer the Queen gives three royal garden parties at Buckingham Palace, a lot of people being invited there. 6. While reading his poem at Tsarskoe Selo on the 11 October young Pushkin choked with emotion. 7. Many of the Lyceum pupils being fond of poetry, a vast number of hand-written journals circulated in the Lyceum. 8. Stress interview is a new testing method for potential employees. 9. An example of stress is a bus leaving the station earlier than you arrived. 10. When arriving she worried how to get to a good hotel. 11. Having passed the examination, the students went to the cafe.2 12. Having been sent a few days ago, the catalogue is to be received today or tomorrow. 13. The book recommended by the professor can be bought in the nearest book shop. 14. Many famous people lived in Tsarskoe Selo, all of them visiting the Lyceum.
Exercise 2 Change the sentences using the Participle or Participial Constructions. 1. The methods of all the best educational establishments of all ages and nations have been fed into the computer net of America and the first place among them is occupied by the Lyceum at Tsarskoe Selo. 2. When a regular customer checks into the Mandarin Hotel all his desires are satisfied by the hotel room. 3. If you undertake intensive sports for several months, you not only become involved in that sport, 39
but also in other activities such as study, politics and voluntary work. 4. As the Mandarin Hotels rooms are able to personalize the music in the clients room, the regular customer is greeted by his favourite kind of music. 5. When we run for a bus or finish the work assignment, cells in the body or in the brain are put under stress. 6. When you undertake intensive efforts to achieve your goal, you will get positive result. 7. When the experiment was finished, the unexpected results surprised everybody. 8. Cooking dinner, she watched TV. 9. While crossing the bridge we saw a strange car. 10. The secretary sent all the letters which were signed by the director. 11. Having put the marks into the register the teacher left school. 12. As the secretary was very absent-minded, she made a few mistakes in the letter.
Translate the sentences into English using the Participle or Participial Constructions. 1. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî ëþäè, ðàáîòàþùèå â íî÷íóþ ñìåíó, ÷àùå äðóãèõ ñòðàäàþò îò ãîëîâíîé áîëè è äåïðåññèè. 2. Ïðè âõîäå â íîìåð ãîñòèíèöû «Ìàíäàðèí» ïîñòîÿííûé êëèåíò ñëûøèò ñâîþ ëþáèìóþ ìóçûêó. 3. Êîãäà íà÷àëüíèê äàåò îáåùàíèÿ, îí äîëæåí èõ âûïîëíèòü. 4. Åñëè äàåøü ñëîâî, ïîñòàðàéñÿ âî ÷òî áû òî íè ñòàëî ñäåðæàòü åãî. 5. Ïîäïèñûâàÿ ýòîò êîíòðàêò, ìû îòêðûâàåì äîðîãó äëÿ íàøåãî ïîñòîÿííîãî ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà. 6. ß íå ìîã ñîñðåäîòî÷èòüñÿ íà ïîäãîòîâêå ê ýêçàìåíó, òàê êàê äóìàë î ôèëüìå. 40
7. Ëèöåèñòû, óâëåêàâøèåñÿ ëèòåðàòóðîé, èçäàâàëè ðóêîïèñíûé æóðíàë. 8. Çàâîåâàâ Áðèòàíñêèå îñòðîâà, ðèìëÿíå íà÷àëè ñòðîèòü òàì äîðîãè è ãîðîäà. 9. Âûó÷èâ ïðàâèëà, îí ëåãêî ðåøèë âñå çàäà÷è. 10. Òàê êàê âñå äåëà áûëè ñäåëàíû, ìû ðåøèëè ïîéòè â êàôå. 11. Ïèñüìî, ïîëó÷åííîå îò íàøèõ ïàðòíåðîâ, óäèâèëî íàñ. 12. ×åëîâåêà, ïðèíåñøåãî õîðîøèå íîâîñòè, âñòðå÷àþò ñ ðàäîñòüþ. 13. Âñå êîíòðîëüíûå ðàáîòû áûëè ïðîâåðåíû, è ïðåïîäàâàòåëü îñòàëñÿ äîâîëåí ðåçóëüòàòàìè. 14. Òàê êàê â ýòîì îòåëå õîðîøåå îáñëóæèâàíèå, îí âñåãäà îñòàíàâëèâàåòñÿ â íåì, êîãäà ïðèåçæàåò â êîìàíäèðîâêè.
SECTION Â REMEMBER establishment 1. îñíîâàíèå 2. ó÷ðåæäåíèå, çàâåäåíèå, âåäîìñòâî 3. õîçÿéñòâî, ñåìüÿ, äîì 4. øòàò (ñëóæàùèõ) 5. èñòåáëèøìåíò, ñîâîêóïíîñòü óñòîåâ ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî è ñîöèàëüíîãî ñòðîÿ; àïïàðàò ñîõðàíåíèÿ âëàñòè the establishment ãîñóäàðñòâåííàÿ öåðêîâü
Examples Establishment of business relations with the foreigners is very important for our company. The Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum is the best educational establishment of all ages and nations. 41
She spoke about her house as about a serious establishment. Many people believe that British establisnment is old and stable.
Read and translate text A. THE TSARSKOE SELO LYCEUM The methods of the best educational establishments of all ages and nations have been fed into the computer net of America. And the first place among them is occupied by the Lyceum at Tsarskoe Selo, which was founded in October, 1811. It was a little state close to the sovereign, a sort of recreated working model of an Ancient Greek republic, a subtle combination of free-thinking and strictness. Here the teachers called the pupils Mr. and, for the first time in Russia, did not have the right to administer corporal punishment. David de Boudry the younger brother of the terrible Jacobin Jean-Paul Marat taught here, the other professors being all under thirty. They were already considered to be the foremost people of the age in the field of education. They prepared the young men of the Lyceum for the important sectors of public service. This was stated in the constitution. So alongside with physics, mathematics, logic, literature, and languages, the Lyceum pupils were also taught political and moral sciences. And in order that a domestic atmosphere should not affect the minds and emotions of the future rulers of Russias destiny, the pupils were not permitted to leave the confines of the Lyceum for a period of ten years. On the 19th of October, 1811 in the presence of Alexander I, the 20-year-old assistant professor Kunitsyn made his brilliant speech, beginning with words: I appeal to you, future pillars of the Fatherland. Thirty pairs of enthusiastic young eyes looked
at him as if at the Lord God himself. Among them stood a dark-complexioned boy in a blue uniform by the name of Pushkin. Three years later, at a public examination, this same boy, choking with emotion, read his poem Memoirs of Tsarskoe Selo. After the examination, the Minister for Education, Count Razumovsky, peering through his lorgnette, congratulated the boys father on his obvious success, noting however, that he would nevertheless like to educate his son in prose. At this the elderly Derzhavin immediately cried: Leave him to be a poet! At one time Karamzin, the author of The History of the Russian State, lived on Sadovaya Street in Tsarskoe Selo. The disgraced hussar officer Chaadayev also visited the little town near St. Petersburg, and Zhukovsky and Vyasemsky often came there. The poet Batyushkov came to the Lyceum especially to see with his own eyes the young talent for whom everyone had prophesied great fame. Meanwhile, it was not only Pushkin who was tortured by the devil of poetry. A vast number of handwritten journals circulated in the Lyceum. Literary gatherings took place in the apartment of Chirikov, the tutor and art teacher; the brilliant storyteller of Tosenka, Delvig shone at these meetings. They loved to make music at the home of Tepper, the singing teacher. They also fought, fell in love, let their hair down. Kuechelbecker, otherwise known as Kuechlya, wanted to be a provincial teacher after graduating from the Lyceum. Strange as it may seem, Pushkin was one of the few who attended classes in military sciences. The industrious Volkhovsky, who was given the nickname Suvorochka, because of his outward and inward resemblance to the military leader Suvorov, developed his will-power. The ambitious Gorchakov studied languages and was bent on a diplomatic career. Fedor Matyushkin was mad about ships.
Baron Delvig was engrossed in Horace. And in a tiny bedroom cell No. 14 Alexander Pushkin, nicknamed the Frenchman with Voltaire under the pillow, dreamed of glory of the hussars and of the charms of the young Bakunina. This group of graduates inscribed in history with the names of illustrious men of letters, high-ranking rebels and statesmen, was known as the Ironsides. Each of the pupils received as a memento a ring made from the melted-down cast-iron bell which had woken them in the mornings for all those years. On their graduation day they sang the hymn Six years to the words of Anton Delvig. Two centuries later a British lady, Duchess of Abercorn, lady Alexandra Abercorn, the great-greatgreat-granddaughter of Pushkin and Nicholas I, regularly comes to Pushkin celebrations in the Lyceum. She owns a luxurious castle in Northern Ireland and has established a special Pushkin prize, which is awarded to children for the best composition about Pushkin. Exercise 4 Answer the questions. 1. How was the best educational establishment of all ages and nations found out? 2. What kind of people did the Lyceum prepare? 3. How did the Lyceum resemble the Ancient Greek republic? 4. Was it usual in Russia of that time to call the pupils Mr.? 5. Was corporal punishment used in the Russian schools of that time? 6. What kind of people were the teachers of the Lyceum pupils? 7. Why were the Lyceum pupils not permitted to leave the confines of the Lyceum during the period of education? 44
8. What did the Lyceum pupils dream of? 9. What was Pushkins dream? 10. What was Pushkins nickname? 11. How did the Lyceum pupils spend their free time? 12. What was that group of graduates called? Why? 13. Who of Pushkins descendants regularly comes from Britain to the Lyceum for Pushkin celebrations? 14. What prize did the Duchess of Abercorn establish?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. English language is a mixture of many lan-
guages of peoples that invaded Britain. 2. This girl sings very well, everybody predicts glory to her. 3. How many educational institutions are there in your town? 4. A successful manager uses various managerial techniques in his work. 5. British Queen Elizabeth II is known to be one of the richest women in the world. 6. Have you been allowed to miss the seminar? 7. Their class mistress arranged the exhibition of the best essays. 8. The monarch is represented by a Governor-General in a number of Commonwealth states. 9. Today the Queen is not only the Britains head of state, but also an important symbol of national unity. 10. Their company was set up two years ago. 11. Graduates of this University work in many fields of our economy. 12. My group-mate was awarded the prize for the best project about our city. 45
Read and translate text B. HOTEL COMPUTERS THAT KNOW JUST WHAT GUESTS WILL WANT
When regular customers like Dr. Wiener check into the Mandarin Manhattan, they get more than a smile from the concierge and a mint on their pillow. Dr. Wieners hotel room knows how warm he likes it 68 degrees. It welcomes him with a personal message on his television. It even loads his most frequently dialed numbers onto the phone. The hotel room doing everything, the bellhop does not have to do a thing. At the Mandarin and other high-end hotels, new computer systems connecting individual rooms to network servers can now keep track of guests preferences and change the room conditions automatically. These smart systems can learn whether a guest likes the lights dimmed, the curtains closed or the room warm. They being able to personalize the music in the room, a regular customer is greeted with his favourite kind of music when entering the room. And sensors in refrigerators alert maids when the mini-bar is low on drinks. Much of this technology being not new, it is still rare in private homes because the equipment is expensive, especially the controllers that connect the devices. But by incorporating such technology into the guests rooms, luxury hotels provide a glimpse of what networked homes may look like over the next decade. As the price of this technology declines, some homes could start to look like these smart rooms. Already more than 35 percent of American households have broadband lines, and developers are integrating home servers and high-speed cables into high-end new homes. 46
Appliances linked to home networks could be programmed to adjust to a homeowners likes and dislikes. Companies like Crestron already sell controllers that automate and centralize control of electronics and appliances. To manage all these devices with a hand-held controller or remotely by computer, hotels are installing an assortment of adapters, antennas and sensors in their entertainment consoles, curtains and thermostats. At the Mandarin Hotel a guest can turn down an air conditioner using a remote-control device that communicates with an infrared reader in the machine. But a clerk might just as easily adjust the airconditioner if it is connected to the hotels network. The networks are also starting to connect hotels within a chain, making it easy for the staffing of Singapore or Seattle to see the customer profile of a guest from Spain. Nick Price, chief technology officer for the Mandarin Hotel Group, which spent $112 million to upgrade its hotel in Hong Kong, said, The technology backbone is no longer an afterthought. Technology is up there with the rooms, food and beverages. Exercise 6 Answer the questions.
1. Have you ever heard about such hotels? 2. Where is the Mandarin Hotel situated? 3. What conveniences does the Mandarin Hotel provide to the regular customers? 4. Can all the hotels use this computer system? 5. Is the technology used in the high-end hotels new? 6. Can this technology be used in the private homes? 7. Do many American households have broadband lines? 47
8. Can a customer adjust the service system himself? 9. Would you like to stay at such hotel as the Mandarin or would you prefer to have such service at home?
Match each of the words to its definition
1. prophesy 2. inscribe 3. foremost 4. award 5. torture 6. graduate 7. appliance 8. feed 9. bellhop 10. choke 11. remote 12. upgrade
a) bellboy b) most advanced in position c) thing applied as means to an end d) write words, etc. in/on smth e) suffocate; stop breathing f) grant g) promote; raise to higher scale h) foretell future events i) far apart; far away j) supply with material to work k) subject to torture; distort; pervert l) one who holds an academic degree
Read the sentences, define the forms and functions of the Participle and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. We respected our boss, he blaming himself and only himself if there was a failure in our companys work. 2. Being close to the Russian tsar, the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum prepared young men for the important sectors of public service. 3. Passing along the corridor I noticed our lecturer speaking to the group of students. 4. Some facts mentioned in the project being very important, we had to take them into consideration. 48
5. While collecting the material for my thesis I found out that my theme is almost not developed. 6. The error being corrected, nobody got into trouble. 7. Being asked about the luggage at the customs I said that I had nothing to declare. 8. While trying to decide how to handle the situation better, he realized that the whole mess was his fault and he would have to correct everything himself. 9. The dress being very nice, she couldnt resist the temptation and bought it. 10. Being interrupted, the professor made a pause before continuing the lecture. 11. Appliences being programmed, the hotel clerk can easily connect the hotel room with the hotel network. 12. All the details having been settled, we decided to reserve the accommodation in advance. 13. This technology being not new, we can use it in our work because it is reliable. 14. The information about educational systems of all ages and nations having been fed into the American computer net, the result was that the best educational establishment of the world was the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum where Pushkin studied. 15. The examination passed was not difficult for her as she had revised for it really thoroughly.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Òàê êàê åãî ïðèãëàñèëè íà îôèöèàëüíóþ öåðåìîíèþ, åìó ïðèøëîñü íàäåòü ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé êîñòþì. 2. Îí ðàññêàçàë íàì, êàê âñ¸ ïðîèçîøëî, ïðè ýòîì îí î÷åíü íåðâíè÷àë. 3. Àíãëè÷àíå, êàê ïðàâèëî, èìåþò ÷óâñòâî ñîáñòâåííîãî äîñòîèíñòâà, ïðè ýòîì îíè ïðîñòû è äîáðîæåëàòåëüíû â îáùåíèè. 49
4. Ìíîãèå æèâîòíûå ïîìîãàëè ÷åëîâåêó ñîçäàâàòü öèâèëèçàöèþ, è, íåñìîòðÿ íà ðàçâèòèå íîâûõ òåõíîëîãèé, îíè è ñåé÷àñ îñòàþòñÿ äðóçüÿìè ÷åëîâåêà. 5. Åãî ñ÷èòàëè ñòðàííûì ÷åëîâåêîì, òàê êàê îí âñåãäà íîñèë ñ ñîáîé çîíò. 6. ß óäèâèëñÿ, êîãäà óçíàë, ÷òî Ïóøêèí ëþáèë ïîñåùàòü çàíÿòèÿ ïî âîåííîìó èñêóññòâó. 7. Çàäûõàÿñü îò âîëíåíèÿ, îíà ðàññêàçûâàëà î òîì, ÷òî îíà âèäåëà ñâîèìè ñîáñòâåííûìè ãëàçàìè. 8. Ëèöåèñòàì íå ðàçðåøàëè ïîêèäàòü ëèöåé â òå÷åíèå âñåãî êóðñà îáó÷åíèÿ. 9. Â íîìåðàõ íåêîòîðûõ îòåëåé çàëîæåíà èíôîðìàöèÿ îá èõ ïîñòîÿííûõ êëèåíòàõ. 10. Âñå ñîòðóäíèêè îòíîñèëèñü ê ïîðó÷åíèÿì íà÷àëüíèêà îòäåëà ñ îòâåòñòâåííîñòüþ, òàê êàê îí êî âñåì îáðàùàëñÿ ïî èìåíè. 11. Òàê êàê ñòîèìîñòü íîâûõ òåõíîëîãèé, èñïîëüçóåìûõ â äîðîãèõ îòåëÿõ, ñíèæàåòñÿ, òî ýòè òåõíîëîãèè íà÷èíàþò ïðèìåíÿòüñÿ è â ÷àñòíûõ äîìàõ. 12. 19 îêòÿáðÿ 1811 ãîäà ìîëîäîé äîöåíò Êóíèöûí â ïðèñóòñòâèè öàðÿ Àëåêñàíäðà I îáðàòèëñÿ ê ëèöåèñòàì ñ ïëàìåííîé ðå÷üþ. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. We should be aware of the magic (1 ) in a name and realize that this single item is wholly and completely owned by the person with whom we are (2 ). The name sets the individual apart; it makes him or her (3 ) among all others. Sometimes it is difficult to remember a name, particularly if it is hard (4 ). Rather than even try to learn it, many people (5 ) it or call the person by an easy nickname. Sid Levy called on a customer for some time whose name was Nicodemus Papadoulos. Most people just called him Nick. Levy told us: I made a special effort to say his name over several times to myself (6 ) I made my call. When I (7 ) him by his full name: Good afternoon, 50
Mr.Nicodemus Papadoulos, he (8 ). For what seemed like several minutes there was no reply from him at all. Finally, he said with tears (9 ) down his cheeks, Mr. Levy, in all the fifteen years I have been in this country, nobody has ever made the effort to call me (10 ) my right name. 1. a) containing b) contain c) contained 2. a) dealt b) dealing c) deal 3. a) unique b) same c) like 4. a) pronouncing b) to pronounce c) pronounce 5. a) to ignore b) ignoring c) ignore 6. a) after b) before c) during 7. a) greeted b) greeting c) greet 8. a) shocked b) was shocked c) shocks 9. a) rolled b) roll c) rolling 10. a) with b) by c) in S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N
AGREEING AND DISAGREEING
I think youre right. I think we can accept your position on that. I agree. I agree with you on the whole, but I agree in principle, but I completely agree. I agree entirely with you/to these terms. I think we are in agreement on that. Im of exactly the same opinion. Im in total agreement. Disagreement Its difficult to agree with your point about I agree up to a point, but To a certain extent I agree with you, but I have some sympathy with your position, but I dont completely agree with you. 51
I cant accept your point of view. I cant say that I share your view. I disagree. I totally disagree with you. I dont agree at all. I disagree entirely. You are completely mistaken. What you are saying is just not feasible. Under no circumstances could I agree to that.
THE BEST WAY TO SPEND THE BONUS
Mr. Green: Mrs. Green: Mr. Green: Mrs. Green: Mr. Green: Mrs. Green: Mr. Green: Mrs. Green:
Lets go for a walk, its such a lovely evening. What do you say? All right, lets, but not just yet. Ive some work to do. In half an hour perhaps, if its all right with you. Very well, but dont be long. All right, Ill be as quick as possible. You know, Ive been thinking Lets have the flat repaired. What do you say? Im all for it, but can we afford the expense? Im afraid not just yet, but perhaps in a month or two. Im to get that bonus soon, you know, and I dont see a better way of using it than having the place repaired. I couldnt agree more.
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
Men of few words are the best men. (W. Shakespeare) All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds (Voltaire). ×òî íè äåëàåòñÿ, âñ¸ ê ëó÷øåìó.
U N I T 4 Never say die*.
Text A. How to Prepare for Examinations Text B. Crunch Time Short Conversation
SECTION A Forms
having been translated
Functions 1. Subject (ïîäëåæàùåå) 2. Part of the Predicate (÷àñòü ñêàçóåìîãî) 3. Object (äîïîëíåíèå) 4. Attribute (îïðåäåëåíèå) 5. Adverbial Modifier (îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî) *Never say die. Íå îò÷àèâàéñÿ./ Íå âåøàé íîñà.
Differences between the Gerund and Participle I: 1. The Gerund can be the subject or object of the sentence. 2. The Gerund can be used with prepositions. 3. The Gerund can be preceded by a noun or pronoun. Examples Reading is my favourite occupation. ×òåíèå ìîå ëþáèìîå çàíÿòèå. My favourite occupation is reading. Ìîå ëþáèìîå çàíÿòèå ÷òåíèå. I like walking in the park. ß ëþáëþ ãóëÿòü â ïàðêå. There are different ways of learning the new words. Åñòü ðàçíûå ñïîñîáû çàó÷èâàíèÿ íîâûõ ñëîâ. She studies English by reading English books. Îíà èçó÷àåò àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê, ÷èòàÿ àíãëèéñêèå êíèãè. Some verbs used with the Gerund admit anticipate appreciate avoid cannot help consider deny dislike enjoy give up
avoid keep on mind object to persist in postpone prevent suggest
Verbs begin, continue, start, remember, forget, stop can be used with either a Gerund or an Infinitive.
Translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the Gerund. 1. She thought of going to Spain on holidays. 2. In the past choosing the time of marriage was a serious affair. 3. Traffic is one of the major causes of global warming and climate change. 4. John D. Rockefeller got his feeling of importance by giving money to erect a modern hospital in Peking, China, to care for millions of poor people whom he had never seen and would never see. 5. Upon returning to the airport the pilot asked to see his mechanic who had serviced his airplane. 6. There is only one way to get anybody to do anything, and that is by making the other person want to do it. 7. Instead of condemning people lets try to understand them. 8. Showing a genuine interest in others not only wins friends for you, but may develop in the customers a loyalty to your company. 9. Everybody in the world is seeking happiness and there is one sure way to find it. That is by controlling our thoughts. 10. Sons of the British monarch have precedence over daughters in succeeding to the throne. 11. There is no sense of going there today. 12. Do you have any reason for saying such things?
Complete the following sentences using one of the verbs from the list in the proper form. avoid, postpone, enjoy, suggest, help, dislike, prevent, admit, remember, mind, give up, persist in 1. I dont your going at all but youd better see if your father has any objections. 55
2. If you cant smoking, at least you could cut down a bit. 3. Do you reading an item in the newspaper about teenage criminals recently? 4. Now that Im living on my own, I really having someone to chat to. 5. Ive going to the dentists for as long as I could but now I have no choice. 6. Apparently someone has hearing strange noises from a warehouse and the police have decided to search the building. 7. The scheme will demolishing some of the Victorian buildings in the town centre. 8. Have you borrowing money from the bank as a way of financing your holiday? 9. The shoes seemed such a bargain that I couldnt buying them. 10. He seemed to my being here for some reason. Its making me feel most uncomfortable. 11. Wasnt there anything you could do to him from going? 12. We running into heavy traffic around London so we had plenty of time for the journey.
Exercise 3 Change the sentences using the Gerund. 1. The manager insisted that the secretary should send the message immediately. 2. There is the probability that he will be appointed the chief accountant of our office. 3. Do you mind if I use your dictionary? 4. There is no hope that we will sign the contract soon. 5. He will excuse me if I am a little late. 6. We were informed that the representatives of the British firm would arrive on Wednesday. 7. Do you object if we start the discussion? 8. There is no chance that he will finish this work on time. 56
9. I am afraid that I will forget to come to the meeting. 10. I have heard that your husband went to Italy on business. 11. Professor insisted that the students should present the course paper in April. 12. I remember that I was told about it last week. 13. He mentioned that he had read about it in the paper. 14. You can use different ways to solve this problem.
Translate the sentences into English using the Gerund or Participle. 1. Ïîëó÷èâ îòâåò ôèðìû, ìû ïåðåäàëè âñå äîêóìåíòû íàøåìó áóõãàëòåðó. 2. ß íå ïîìíþ, ÷òîáû ÿ ðàíüøå âèäåë ýòîãî ÷åëîâåêà. 3. Îí âîçðàæàåò ïðîòèâ òîãî, ÷òî åìó ïðèõîäèòñÿ ïðèõîäèòü â îôèñ êàæäûé äåíü. 4. Îí áûë ðàçî÷àðîâàí òåì, ÷òî íå ñìîã ïîáûâàòü â Ëîíäîíå. 5. Ãäå íàõîäèòñÿ îáóâíàÿ ìàñòåðñêàÿ? Ìíå íóæíî îòðåìîíòèðîâàòü òóôëè. 6. Îíà ëþáèò, êîãäà åå ïðèãëàøàþò â ãîñòè. 7. Íàì ñêàçàëè, ÷òî îí íàçíà÷åí íà÷àëüíèêîì îòäåëà. 8. Äåêàíàò âîçðàæàåò ïðîòèâ òîãî, ÷òîáû ñòóäåíòû ñäàâàëè ýêçàìåíû äîñðî÷íî. 9. ß ïîìíþ, ÷òî âû óæå ñïðàøèâàëè ìåíÿ îá ýòîì. 10. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê ÿ ñäàë êóðñîâóþ ðàáîòó, ÿ ðåøèë ðàçâëå÷üñÿ è ïîøåë â êèíî. 11. Ìîÿ ñåñòðà ðàññåðäèëàñü íà ìåíÿ çà òî, ÷òî ÿ ïîòåðÿë åå ñëîâàðü. 12. Îí ïðîäîëæàë ãîâîðèòü, íå îáðàùàÿ âíèìàíèÿ íà çàìå÷àíèÿ ïðîôåññîðà. 57
13. Îí èçâèíèëñÿ çà òî, ÷òî îïîçäàë íà çàñåäàíèå. 14. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê îí âçÿë ýêçàìåíàöèîííûé áèëåò, îí ñåë è ñòàë îáäóìûâàòü îòâåò.
Read and translate text A. HOW TO PREPARE FOR EXAMINATIONS
Before you start your revision Set youself up for success. Make a timetable. It really is very important. Put your exam dates on your calendar as soon as the schedule is out so that you know what you are aiming for. You need to think which your strong subjects are and which you find the most difficult so that you can spend more time on them. But dont neglect the others. When you have made your timetable, stick it on your wall next to your bed/mirror/toothbrush wherever you are sure to see it. Find out about the exam: make sure you know the exam format is it multiple choice, short essays, problems to solve, case studies? Check with your lecturer or teacher, and try to get hold of past question papers if you can. The type of exam will affect the way you revise. For example, you may need to memorise formulas or lots of facts and figures for some exams, while you may have to focus on explaining concepts and relating them to a variety of situations for others. You also need to know how long the exam is going to be. Find out how many questions you have to answer in the time allowed and if there is any reading time at the start of the exam. Create a comfortable study environment. Try to find a place you can call your own for your serious 58
revision. Make sure there is enough space for you to spread out your notes. And make sure you have a comfortable chair to sit on but not too comfortable or you might just fall asleep. It is not always a good idea to lie on your bed to revise beds are for sleeping, not studying. Wherever you choose to study, try to keep away from distractions. By all means listen to music if you find that it helps you, but TV is not a good idea. During your revision Adopt a revision pattern: when you start to revise make sure you are in the right frame of mind. Find the right time of day for yourself some people prefer early morning sessions, and some choose late night sessions. Make sure you have enough to eat and drink your brain needs a lot of energy, so keep the snacks handy. You should try to take regular breaks. This will help you internalize what you have studied so far, and give you a chance to mull things over for a while before you move on to the next topic. Give yourself plenty of rewards set goals, and rewards for when you reach them. Focus on what you do know, rather than what you dont: sitting through all those classes must have taught you something. Start your revision sessions by sitting down quietly somewhere. Take a blank piece of paper and write the subject at the top. Then write down everything you can think of about that subject. Try to see things as a whole: it is very tempting to learn as many facts as you can, but it is often ineffective, especially if they are unrelated facts. Instead, you should study topics and try to find a way to make them meaningful to you. Get to know your learning style: we all have different ways of learning, so it is a good idea to find out what suits you best. Some of you may prefer a visual style. Some of you may find you are more
comfortable with an auditory style of learning, so why not to read your notes out loud to yourself? Improve your memory: it is very likely that you are going to have to memorise some information at some stage, so you need to develop some strategies for this. One good thing is to use mnemonics. These are sayings or sentences using the first letters of the words you want to remember. Try to make up some really funny or unusual sentences, and see how easily you remember those formulas. There are plenty of other memory aids around, so find yourself a good guide. Think of possible exam questions: try to anticipate the kind of questions you may be asked and then prepare some model answers. Use your lecture notes and your textbook to help you focus on key areas. A word of warning though make sure you read the questions in the exam very carefully and answer them correctly. And finally Be positive and prepare well. The best way to reduce exam nerves is to be confident that you have revised well and know your subject. Remember, your lecturers and teachers are not trying to catch you in the exam: they want to give you a chance to show how much you know about the subject and how you can apply it to a variety of situations.
Exercise 5 Answer the questions. 1. Do you think it is necessary to make a timetable for yourself when you are preparing for examinations? 2. Do you make notes in your calendar? 3. Do you spend much or little time on your strong subjects? 4. Do you always know the type and format of the examination?
5. Do you create a comfortable study environment? 6. What is a comfortable study environment for you? 7. Do you lie when you are preparing for the examination? 8. Do you listen to music when you are preparing for the examination? 9. Do you prefer morning or night time for preparing? 10. Do you read your notes aloud? 11. Do you use any mnemonics techniques? 12. Why is it important to be positive before the examination? 13. What is the best way of reducing exam nerves?
Exercise 6 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the texts. 1. There are many hotels in this town, but only a few are equipped with the latest conveniences. 2. When Bill Gates was young his objective was to computerize everything both in the office and at home. 3. To operate this device is not difficult, you can even use the hand-held controller for it. 4. Do you happen to know where the schedule of the trains is? 5. I was surprised that the equipment of their laboratory was so obsolete. 6. The professor insists on our presentation of the course paper by the end of the month. 7. He missed a lot of lectures and seminars, thats why he failed at the examination. 8. Everybody was interested in the subject of the discussion. 9. Try to read the contract closely, make sure that everything suits us before signing it. 10. Do you think the boss will permit me to go on business trip in a week? 61
11. I dont see the possibility for him to be good at the examinations. 12. If you are going to the negotiations with the company, try to find out as much as possible about it.
Read and translate text B. CRUNCH TIME* These notes give a guide on how to revise and what to look out for when answering test questions. To do well in any examination, you not only need to revise effectively but also understand the importance of good exam technique. Over the many years that I have been marking examinations, I have seen students make the same mistakes in papers of every subject, usually the result of exam nerves or working too quickly. So for many students preparing for their exams, the following advice should help to do their best on the day. 1. Practice makes perfect, so use past exam papers as a regular part of your revision. Practice your answers to specific questions; get to know how each paper is laid out; and look closely at how questions are structured. 2. Make sure you have the equipment, that it works and that you know how to use it. Especially your calculator. Pack spare pens and pencils and calculator batteries, and a soft-lead pencil with you easier to erase if you make a mistake when drawing a graph or diagram. 3. Read the question. Many candidates answer the question not seeing the question on the paper. Take time to read each question properly so that you really understand what is needed before you start your answer. * Crunch time êðèòè÷åñêèé ìîìåíò; çä.: ïðåäýêçàìåíàöèîííàÿ ïîðà.
4. Understand question command words that tell you what to do. Make sure you understand terms such as explain, define, predict, suggest and so on to answer the question correctly. 5. Learn any statements and definitions relevant to the subject these are often required in exam answers and must be correct. 6. In practical science examinations, dont confuse observations (what you can see, feel, smell and so on) with conclusions (what you can deduce from the evidence). 7. Many biological terms are difficult to spell or they look very similar. Misspelling or misuse is an easy way to lose marks. 8. Good time management is crucial. Dont spend time on questions you dont understand or cant answer straight away come back to them later. 9. Make sure your answer reflects the number of marks on offer dont waste time writing long answers for a question worth only one or two marks. 10. Presentation counts. Clear handwriting, neat presentation and clearly labeled diagrams all these help gain marks. Opt for short rather than long, complicated sentences these are easier and quicker to write and easier to mark. 11. Whenever a calculation is required, always show how you arrived at the answer. You can gain valuable marks for the right method, even if the answer is wrong. 12. Finally, learn to relax! Try to keep as calm as possible during the exam session. Think positively, arrive in plenty of time and breathe deeply to help keep nerves at bay. Remember, if you have done well in your studies and worked hard in your revision, then you should be fine. The writer is the chief examiner for the University of Cambridge International Examinations (CIE). 63
Exercise 7 Answer the questions. 1. Who is the author of this guide? 2. Do you think the exam technique is important? 3. Why do the students from around the world make the same mistakes in papers of every subject? 4. Why should a student have spare pens, pencils and calculator batteries? 5. Why should a student read the question attentively before he/she starts his/her answer? 6. Why is it necessary to read the question command words attentively? 7. Do you write long answers? Why? 8. What is recommended for written answers? 9. Can you relax at the examination? Why is it important?
Exercise 8 Match each of the words to its definition. 1. anticipate 2. gain 3. mull over 4. meaningful 5. to keep smth at bay 6. frame (of mind) 7. technique 8. apply 9. closely 10. revise 11. do well 12. reward
a) b) c) d) e) f) g)
take time and think over examine; go over again repay, recompense put to practical use carefully; attentively be fine to keep smth in good form h) temporary state (of mind) i) look forward to; expect j) improve or advance in some respect k) significant l) manner of execution 64
Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. When I go fishing I dont take what I am fond of very much, I take worms or grasshoppers which fish likes. 2. We are going to buy new equipment for updating manufacturing process. 3. Keeping away from distractions, you will be able to review all the material for the examination. 4. I am far from suggesting that he should behave like everybody in such situation. 5. After thinking the matter over I concluded that I should have spoken to the boss. 6. When relaxing before the examination, you can have some juice or listen to music. 7. I look forward to travelling to Great Britain. 8. Going through the customs didnt take me much time. 9. It is important in making drawings for advertising and publishing purposes to be precise and very exact. 10. There is a certain degree of satisfaction in having the courage to admit ones errors. 11. They started using the unknown technique, everybody understanding its hopelessness. 12. He ended the letter with inviting me to lunch. 13. Driving carelessly can cause an accident. 14. Setting up yourself for success is necessary before the beginning of every venture. 15. He apologized for making us wait for half an hour.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Ïîâòîðèâ âåñü ìàòåðèàë, îí ïîøåë ñäàâàòü ýêçàìåí. 2. Íàäåþñü, ÿ íå çàñòàâèë èõ äîëãî æäàòü, à? 3. ß áû ïðåäïî÷åë ïîéòè â ãîñòè, âìåñòî òîãî ÷òîáû ñìîòðåòü òåëåâèçîð. 65
4. Ïîäãîòîâèòüñÿ ê ýêçàìåíó ïî èíîñòðàííîìó ÿçûêó çà îäèí äåíü íåâîçìîæíî. 5. Ìíîãèå ëþäè ñåé÷àñ íå óìåþò ñëóøàòü äðóãèõ, îíè ïðåäïî÷èòàþò ãîâîðèòü î ñåáå. 6. Ïîçâîíè ìíå ïîñëå òîãî, êàê âàì îáúÿâÿò îöåíêè, è ìû ðåøèì, ÷òî äåëàòü äàëüøå. 7. Êîãäà ìû ïðèøëè â êîíôåðåíö-çàë, çàñåäàíèå çàêîí÷èëîñü, è âñå ðàñõîäèëèñü ïî ñâîèì îòäåëàì. 8. Ïîñëå åãî âûñòóïëåíèÿ ìû âñå áûëè îçàäà÷åíû. 9. Åñëè âû õîòèòå ïðîñëûòü õîðîøèì ñîáåñåäíèêîì, íàó÷èòåñü ñëóøàòü äðóãèõ è íå ïåðåáèâàéòå èõ, äàæå åñëè âû ñ íèìè íå ñîãëàñíû. 10. Íè÷òî íå óáåæäàåò ëþäåé ëó÷øå ïðèìåðà. 11. Îíè çàêàäû÷íûå äðóçüÿ, îíè âñ¸ äåëàþò âìåñòå, äàæå ê ýêçàìåíàì îíè ãîòîâÿòñÿ âìåñòå. 12. ß ìîãó ñêàçàòü âàì ñâî¸ ìíåíèå òîëüêî ïîñëå òîãî, êàê ïðî÷èòàþ åãî êíèãó äî êîíöà. TEST
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. We all learn in (1 ) ways. Some people are are visual (2 ) they (3 ) reading, looking at pictures or (4 ) TV. Some people are auditory learners they prefer (5 ) to teachers, cassettes, etc. And some (6 ) are kinaesthetic learners they prefer (7 ) around the room, touching things, etc. Most people are a (8 ) of all three types of learner. We learn by watching, listening and moving around. About 5 percent of the students in a class are (9 ) mainly visual learners, 5 percent are mainly auditory and 10 percent are (10 ) kinaesthetic. 1. a) same 2. a) speakers 3. a) hate 4. a) watching 5. a) listening 6. a) inhabitants
b) identical b) learners b) dont like b) playing b) reading b) spectators 66
c) different c) listeners c) prefer c) looking c) drawing c) people
7. a) moving 8. a) difference 9. a) of course 10. a) mainly
b) sitting b) combination b) still b) sometimes
c) looking c) versatility c) probably c) few
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N SYMPATHY Sorry. Oh, Im (so) sorry. Sorry to hear it. Its a pity. What a shame. Never mind. Pull yourself together. No use getting cold feet. Bad luck/Good luck. Better luck next time.
IN TROUBLE (Dialogue)
Father: Come in. Son: Excuse me, Dad, could you spare a few min-
utes? Father: Of course. Come in and make yourself comfortable, what can I do for you? Son: Im afraid Im in trouble. Father: Sorry to hear that, whatve you been up to? Son: Ive failed in maths. Father: Bad luck. What happened? As far as I know youre rather good at maths. Son: Thats just it. You see, I was so sure of myself I didnt bother to revise anything. Then I had a bad headache that day, and then I couldnt do the beginning of the paper. Im afraid I got in a panic. 67
What a shame! Well, never mind, better luck next time. THANKS
Thanks. Many thanks. Not at all. Thanks a lot. Dont mention it. Thank you. Its a pleasure. Thank you very much. Youre welcome. Thank you so much. Any time. Thank you ever so much. Thank you a thousand times. Very much obliged. I have no words to express my deep gratitude. How kind of you! I appreciate it. Dialogue
Hello, Andrew, Im sorry I am late, but I had to do some shopping for Mummy. Andrew: Thats all right. I quite understand. Jane: I hope I havent kept you waiting too long. Andrew: Not at all. Besides Ive been quite busy answering all sorts of questions. Jane: What do you mean? Andrew: Well, lets get going and Ill tell you all about it. Jane:
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
Practice is the best of all instructions. (Syrus Publium) Let bygones be bygones. Êòî ñòàðîå ïîìÿíåò, òîìó ãëàç âîí. 68
U N I T 5 Important principles may and must be flexible.
Grammar: -Ing Forms (Revision)
Text A. Cross-Cultural Business Communication Text B. Russian-Foreign Relations Short Conversation
SECTION A Exercise 1
Translate the sentences into Russian. Define the forms of Participle or Gerund. 1. We were just discussing the matter when you arrived. 2. Finding suitable premises was more difficult than we anticipated. 3. Im afraid I must object to your smoking in here. 4. Crossing the park this morning, I saw a squirrel. 5. The job involved his travelling considerable distances. 6. The man reading the newspaper didnt see us waving. 69
7. I know its none of my business but I continue wondering where he gets all his money. 8. In the schools of Ancient Greece and Rome testing usually consisted in saying poetry aloud or giving speeches. 9. For testing some kinds of learning objective test is not very satisfactory. 10. Mounted the horse people quickly realized how useful the horse could be in war. 11. Mounted people won many victories, so the horses became associated with power and wealth. 12. Having passed the exams the student went on holidays. 13. Do you mind my using your telephone? 14. Finding out the date of the exam the student thought he had plenty of time.
Open the brackets using one of the -ing forms, put the prepositions where necessary. 1. (To deal) with foreigners businesspeople should study traditions and customs of their foreign partners. 2. He said he couldnt afford (to buy) such a car. 3. I dont want them (to wait) for me long. 4. The answer (to receive) from the firm surprised us greatly. 5. The student (to study) hard, the professor was satisfied with his answer. 6. I couldnt help (to burst) into laughter when I saw her with the funny cap on. 7. I am proud (to take) part in the conference. 8. The article (to publish) in the latest magazine was written by a young scientist. 9. She enjoys (to drink) coffee when she prepares for the examinations. 10. The information (to mention) in the article can be used in our project. 70
11. (To see) me, he came up and we shook hands with each other. 12. (To speak) on the phone with the partner, he was going for a lunch. 13. There is no excuse for (to say) such things. 14. I couldnt prevent him from (to go) there.
Translate the sentences into English using -ing forms. 1. Ïåðåä ýêçàìåíîì íåîáõîäèìî ïîâòîðèòü ìàòåðèàë. 2. Âû íå âîçðàæàåòå, åñëè ÿ âàì çàâòðà ïîçâîíþ? 3. Ïðè èçó÷åíèè èíîñòðàííûõ ÿçûêîâ íóæíî çàïîìèíàòü ìíîãî ñëîâ. 4. Ñòóäåíòû íå ëþáÿò ñäàâàòü ýêçàìåíû, à ïðåïîäàâàòåëè íå ëþáÿò èõ ïðèíèìàòü. 5. Åñëè âû õîòèòå, ÷òîáû àâòîáóñ, ïðèáëèæàþùèéñÿ ê îñòàíîâêå ïî òðåáîâàíèþ, îñòàíîâèëñÿ, íàæìèòå íà êíîïêó. 6. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê îí ïðîâåë ìåñÿö â Ìîñêâå, îí âûíóæäåí áûë âåðíóòüñÿ â Ïåòåðáóðã. 7. Îí èìååò ïëîõóþ ïðèâû÷êó êóðèòü âî âðåìÿ ïîäãîòîâêè ê ýêçàìåíàì. 8. Äàâàéòå âñòðåòèìñÿ ïîñëå òîãî, êàê ÿ ïðîñìîòðþ êîíñïåêòû, êîòîðûå ìíå äàë ìîé äðóã. 9. Ïðîôåññîð íàñòàèâàë íà òîì, ÷òîáû ñòóäåíòû ïèñàëè êîíñïåêòû. 10. Äèðåêòîð íå âîçðàæàë, ÷òîáû çàïðîñ íà ôèðìó ïîñëàëè íåìåäëåííî. 11. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê ñåêðåòàðü îòïðàâèë ïèñüìî, ïîäïèñàííîå äèðåêòîðîì, îí íà÷àë ïåðåâîäèòü êîíòðàêò. 12. Ó ìåíÿ íåò íàäåæäû óâèäåòü åãî ïîñëå ýêçàìåíà, òàê êàê îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî ñðàçó óåçæàåò. 13. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê ìû âñòðåòèì äåëåãàòîâ íà âîêçàëå, ìû îòâåçåì èõ â ãîñòèíèöó. 71
14. Òàê êàê îí áûë ïðåäóïðåæäåí î âîçìîæíûõ ñëîæíîñòÿõ â ïåðåãîâîðàõ, îí òùàòåëüíî èçó÷èë âñå äîêóìåíòû.
SECTION B Read and translate text A. CROSS-CULTURAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Foreign businesspeople dealing with Russian culture can be if not shocked, then at least surprised. The barriers often consist of little details, misunderstandings, barely perceptible irritations. Yet business success can be just a matter of learning a few points of cultural etiquette. If a Russian business partner says that something is impossible, it is still negotiable. This is at least one of the things foreign businessmen should know in order to achieve success in Russia, said Irina Pshenichnikova, professor at the International Management Department of the St. Petersburg State University. Speaking at this months Cross-Cultural Business Communication conference, Pshenichnikova said that when working in Russia foreigners should be tolerant and in answer to questions Why? be prepared to hear zhizn takaya (Such is life). The conference gathered both foreign and Russian top managers, who came to share their experiences with the specific business collaboration between people of different cultures.
Nils Kalle, German consultant, who lived in Russia for nine years, said the difficulties in communication between German and Russian business partners may arise exactly because of cultural differences, which may create misunderstanding. 72
The German mentality is based on such principles as exactly, on time. and 100 percent, Kalle said. While in Russia, German businessmen come across such notions as maybe, approximately and somehow, he said. Germans desperately care about exact structure, transparency and every tiny detail. Russians are not afraid of big deals and do them well. But they dont worry so much about being a bit late, and can ignore details. Those cultural differences can be exactly the ones to sometimes scare away Germans. One of the German clients who was to make a deal with Russian colleagues refused to do so only because the chief of the Russian office did not introduce him to some of the assistants present at the negotiations.
The United States
American James Beatty, who has lived in Russia for ten years, said Russian and American working people mainly differ in their view of vacation time, team work, tax and customs. In the United States an annual vacation comes to two weeks, and for Americans who open a business in Russia, its strange to hear that Russian employees expect not less than four weeks annual leave. In a Russian office people feel almost like in their family, where they celebrate their birthdays and share money with those in trouble. Meanwhile, Americans tend to be more individualistic and in the office care mainly about their work. Besides, when my clients start a business in Russia I instantly advise them to never apply logic to customs and tax, Beatty said. There is an amusing difference between American and Russian workaholics. American ones come to work as early as possible, getting irritated that there is not yet anyone in the office at 6 am, while Russian ones tend to stay at work late, willing to have everyone working until midnight.
Henry Everaars, the former consul of the Netherlands in St. Petersburg, said that dealing with Dutch is very easy. We are simple, flexible. We try to put ourselves in the place of our potential clients, and can adjust to a system that works in this or that country, Everaars said. Exercise 3 Answer the questions.
1. Why should businessmen know the cultural etiquette of their foreign partners? 2. What should foreign businessmen take into consideration if they want to achieve success? 3. Why can difficulties in communication arise between German and Russian partners? 4. What principles is German mentality based on? 5. What principles is Russian mentality based on? 6. How do Russians make big deals? 7. Why did one of the German clients refuse to deal with the Russian company? 8. What do Russian and American working people differ in? 9. How do Russian people feel in the office? And the Americans? 10. What are Americans advised to do if they are going to start a business in Russia? 11. What is the difference between American and Russian workaholics? 12. Why is dealing with Dutch easy? Exercise 4 Substitute the emphasized words wirh the synonyms from the text.
1. If he wants to be a manager he should change the manner of handling people. 74
2. Customers are interested in cheap goods of high quality. 3. She was frightened to death when the thunder broke out. 4. She was such a sight that everybody stood astonished. 5. The personnel manager of this company is very flexible, patient and intelligent. 6. Intercultural communication is very important for every country in the modern world. 7. He was very angry with her sister when she said she wouldnt go to the party with him. 8. The work of our group was evaluated positively by the commission. 9. Do you know if he went on business or on holiday? 10. At fairs and exhibitions businessmen try to establish business relations with as many companies as possible.
REMEMBER to take into account ïðèíèìàòü â ðàñ÷åò to take into consideration ïðèíèìàòü âî âíèìàíèå
Read and translate text B RUSSIAN-FOREIGN RELATIONS Sweden
If one needs to deal with Swedes, he must be prepared to value teamwork and accept long summer vacations. In July and August the streets of Stockholm become almost deserted. Swedes are very polite and tolerant; they have excellent listening skills and are great at reaching a consensus that appeals to all. One of the biggest virtues valued in Sweden is modesty. 75
They do everything possible not to show that their financial situation is better than that of others. However, for Swedes, whose historical situation has fostered a climate of safety and stability, its psychologically hard to open a business in Russia, a country they connect with certain unpredictability. Other people who worked with Swedes think that security also makes the Swedes a bit too relaxed. Russians are surprised that in Sweden employees normally leave the office exactly at 5 pm, the official end of the working day, and dont stay longer even if the work hasnt been completed. In Russia people usually work longer hours. The Beer Factor When in Rome, do what the Romans would like to see you do that seems to be the export policy of Russias largest brewery Baltika, Dmitry Kistev, export director of Baltika, said at the conference. The three major factors that Baltika, which exports to 36 countries, takes into account in foreign markets, are the cultural and religious peculiarities of a country, Russias image in that country and the state of Russias international relations with that country. When entering the Iranian market, Baltika took into consideration the fact that Irans population is 98 percent Muslim, a religion that prohibits alcohol. In fact, the brewery came up with Baltika 0, a nonalcoholic beer. To win the Israeli market, Baltika applied for a kosher certificate. In Western countries, such as Britain, Germany, and the US, where interest in Russia is currently high, Baltika markets its product with an accent on the Russian origin of the beer. In China, where a certain part of the population favor Europeanization, Baltika accordingly presented itself as a European beer. When researching perceptions about Russia in other countries the company is often shocked by results. 76
Unfortunately, some countries still view Russia as quite backward, Kistev said.
Any nations culture is reminiscent of an iceberg in which only 10 percent of a mans behavior is visible externally, while the other 90 percent, the foundation ideas and values, are hidden in the peoples subconsciousness. In South Korea people prefer to give and receive bad news as late as possible, while for instance Russians and Americans prefer to know them as early as possible. The Korean approach was conditioned by their culture of not wishing to ruin the harmony of their surroundings with negative information.
The success of a business or a product may not carry over to another country unless it takes into account the local mentality. When the American company Procter and Gamble first entered the Japanese market in 1973, it chose an American marketing approach: aggressive advertising, an accent on low price and big economical package. However, Japanese, who traditionally prefer to avoid aggression and think that low price indicates bad quality, did not buy the companys product. In the end Procter and Gamble had to rethink its marketing strategy completely. Among other factors, national mentalities are defined by a feeling of time, a feeling of space, an attitude towards power, uncertainty, and individuality.
Exercise 5 Answer the questions. 1. Is teamwork or individual work valued in Sweden? 2. Why do the streets of Stockholm become deserted in summer? 3. What kind of people are the Swedes?
4. What is one of the most characteristic features of the Swedes? 5. What is the export policy of Russias largest brewery company Baltika? 6. To how many countries does Baltika export beer? 7. What three main factors does Baltika take into account when exporting beer? 8. What factors did Baltika take into account when entering the Iranian market? 9. What did Baltika do to win the Israeli market? 10. What policy does Baltika pursue in China? 11. Why is it possible to compare any nations culture to an iceberg? 12. What news do people in South Korea prefer to give first? 13. What is Korean approach to the negative information conditioned by? 14. Is local mentality important for the success of a foreign business? 15. How did the American firm Procter and Gamble enter the Japanese market? 16. Why did Procter and Gamble change its marketing policy in Japan? 17. What are other factors which define the national mentality?
Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. When entering foreign markets, they took into consideration the peculiarities of the local culture. 2. Speaking at the conference the reporter from the research centre promised to complete the project in time. 3. Some businessmen say that dealing with Dutch is very easy. 4. When preparing for the job interview be ready to hear any unexpected question. 78
5. He doesnt worry about being a bit late for the discussion. 6. Business success can be just a matter of learning a few points of cultural etiquette. 7. Before leaving home be sure that you have packed all the necessary things. 8. For many people studying foreign languages is pleasure. 9. At what age should children start training to be figure skaters? 10. Setting yourself for success is very important for everybody. 11. When learning some people prefer reading, looking at pictures or watching TV. 12. The discussion was very long, all the participants being tired. 13. Many people trying to win others to their way of thinking do too much talking themselves. 14. The contract signed, the businessmen went on an excursion.
Match each of the words to its definition.
1. annual 2. negotiable 3. complete 4. virtue 5. foster 6. amusing 7. deal (with) 8. adjust 9. share 10. at least 11. in order to 12. excellent 13. currently 14. perception
a) be favourable to; cherish b) at all events; in the smallest degree c) arrange, put in order d) at the present moment e) possess jointly with others f) recurring yearly g) intuiting recognition h) being possible for negotiating i) very good j) associate (with) k) moral excellence, goodness l) entertaining; diverting from serious business m) for the purpose of n) finish; make whole or perfect 79
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Ìû ñîáèðàåìñÿ ïðîâåñòè äèñêóññèþ ïî ïðîáëåìàì, òðåáóþùèì òâîð÷åñêîãî ðåøåíèÿ. 2. ß íå ìîãó íå ñîãëàñèòüñÿ ñ âàìè, íóæíî ïðîâåñòè çàñåäàíèå ïî ýòîìó âîïðîñó êàê ìîæíî ñêîðåå. 3. Ìû ñîâåòóåì âàì ïðèãëàñèòü íà âðåìåííóþ ðàáîòó â âàøó ôèðìó êðóïíûõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ ïî ìåíåäæìåíòó, îíè ïîìîãóò âàì íàéòè âûõîä èç ñîçäàâøåãîñÿ ïîëîæåíèÿ. 4. Òâîð÷åñêèå ëþäè íà ïóòè ê óñïåõó ðóêîâîäñòâóþòñÿ ðàçíûìè ìîòèâàìè. 5. Ïîä êîíòàêòîì ñ ëþäüìè ïîäðàçóìåâàåòñÿ ïîíèìàíèå ñåáÿ è äðóãèõ, ñîâìåñòèìîñòü ñ ëþäüìè, ñïîñîáíîñòü îðãàíèçîâûâàòü ãðóïïû, óáåæäàòü äðóãèõ è ñëóøàòü èõ. 6. Îòêðûòèå Ìåíäåëåì îñíîâíûõ ïðèíöèïîâ ãåíåòèêè èãíîðèðîâàëîñü â òå÷åíèå 35 ëåò. 7. Ýíòóçèàçì è çàèíòåðåñîâàííîñòü ÿâëÿþòñÿ ìîùíîé ìîòèâàöèåé äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ öåëè. 8. ×åì çíà÷èòåëüíåå òåìà ëåêöèè, òåì ïðîùå äîëæíî áûòü åå èçëîæåíèå. 9. Ïîêà íèêîìó íå óäàëîñü ñîçäàòü èñêóññòâåííóþ ñàìîâîññòàíàâëèâàþùóþñÿ ñèñòåìó. 10. Êàæäûé áèçíåñìåí äîëæåí îáëàäàòü óìåíèåì ïëàíèðîâàíèÿ, ïîäâåäåíèÿ èòîãîâ è ðåøåíèÿ ïîâñåäíåâíûõ ïðîáëåì. 11. Íàì ÷àñòî ïðèõîäèòñÿ ðåøàòü, êàêèìè ïðîáëåìàìè çàíèìàòüñÿ â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü, à êàêèìè ïîòîì, ïðè ýòîì âàæíî âûáðàòü ïðàâèëüíûå ïðèîðèòåòû. 12. Âàêàíòíûìè äîëæíîñòÿìè çàíèìàåòñÿ îòäåë ïî ïåðñîíàëó, ïðè ýòîì ñîèñêàòåëåé ïðîñÿò ïîäàòü ðÿä äîêóìåíòîâ è ïðèéòè íà ñîáåñåäîâàíèå. 80
T E S T Fill in the gaps with the suitable words.
How to Survive a Boring Meeting
Here are some of the tried and tested ways of keeping your sanity and (1 ) falling sleep (2 ) the boring meeting. Write a love poem. Write a shopping (3 ) for the next month. Catch upon all (4 ) correspondence remember to look up occasionally. Xerox the next 50 pages of the novel you are (5 ). Fantasize about (6 ) the absent members are doing. (7 ) caricatures of the members you hate. Note one of the favourite phrases of the Chairperson or any other speaker and count (8 ) many times he/she uses it. Send a note to someone who came (9 ) saying, Pity you werent here to defend yourself. Pick a fashionable (10 ) like transparent and count how many times it comes up. 1. a) helping b) avoiding c) supporting 2. a) for b) within c) during 3. a) list b) page c) agenda 4. a) his b) her c) your 5. a) reading b) listening c) singing 6. a) whose b) what c) which 7. a) write b) read c) draw 8. a) how b) what c) when 9. a) early b) late c) on time 10. a) book b) article c) word
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N ÑÎMMUNICATION Keep in touch! To get in touch with 81
To let someone know. To drop a line. To ring someone up. To give someone a ring. To be on the phone. To get through. The phone is out of order. The line goes dead. INVITING FRIENDS (Dialogue)
Denis: I say, Nora, have you invited Kate for SaturNora: Denis: Nora: Denis: Nora: Denis: Nora:
day? No, not yet, Ill have to drop her a line. But isnt she on the phone? Yes, she is, but there must be something wrong with her phone. Ive already tried to ring her up several times and nobody answers. They cant all be away, can they? No, I suppose not. Shall I try once more? If you like. Whats her number? 1234567. PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
If you would wish another to keep your secret, first keep it yourself. Walter Scott
If a man does not choose to work, neither shall he eat.
U N I T 6
Admonish your friends privately, but praise them openly.
Grammar: Infinitive (Forms and Functions) Text A. Stress is Good for You Text B. Mans Best Friend Short Conversation
The Infinitive Forms Tense
to be translating
to have translated
to have been translating
Passive to be translated to have been translated
In the Complex Object Constructions the Infinitive is used without the particle to after the modal verbs 83
after the verbs to let, to make, to help after to see, to hear, to feel Functions 1. Subject (ïîäëåæàùåå) 2. Part of Predicate (÷àñòü ñêàçóåìîãî) 3. Object (äîïîëíåíèå) 4. Attribute (îïðåäåëåíèå) 5. Adverbial Modifier (îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî) Åxamples To swim is pleasant. Ïëàâàòü ïðèÿòíî. Your duty is to clean the room. Âàøà îáÿçàííîñòü óáðàòü êîìíàòó. He teaches us to speak English. Îí ó÷èò íàñ ãîâîðèòü ïî-àíãëèéñêè. The article to be translated is very interesting. Ñòàòüÿ, êîòîðóþ íóæíî ïåðåâåñòè, î÷åíü èíòåðåñíàÿ. To translate this article you have to use the dictionary. ×òîáû ïåðåâåñòè ýòó ñòàòüþ, âàì ïðèäåòñÿ âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ ñëîâàðåì. REMEMBER to begin with íà÷íåì ñ òîãî, ÷òî to cut it short êîðî÷å ãîâîðÿ to tell the truth ïî ïðàâäå ãîâîðÿ to say a lie (= to lie) cîëãàòü to meet requirements/demands óäîâëåòâîðÿòü òðåáîâàíèÿ/ïîòðåáíîñòè
Exercise 1 Translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the Infinitive.
1. There is only one way to get anybody to do anything, and that is by making the other person want to do it. 84
2. Parents choose for their children one of the best public schools in the UK because those schools aim is to produce young men who will be leaders in their chosen profession. 3. It seems there are few things that cannot be sent to a cellphone games, pictures, videos, music. 4. Some police dogs have been trained to find drugs or explosives. 5. To know all is to forgive all. 6. You are always the first to arrive. 7. Sigmund Freud said that everything we do springs from two notions: the sex urge and the desire to be great. 8. A few centuries ago in Britain young people could not just fall in love and decide to get married, first they needed to obtain their parents consent. 9. To be a good manager you have to like people and be good at communication. 10. It takes character and self-control to understand and forgive. 11. In the UK public schools there is an opportunity to study elite subjects such as Latin or Greek and start learning modern languages. 12. When in Rome do what the Romans would like to see you do. 13. I should come and see him off as I live not so far away.
Open the brackets using the Infinitive. 1. One must always (to observe) the traffic regulations. 2. (To tell) the truth I didnt like his article. 3. The letter (to translate) is very urgent. 4. She cant (to do) it, it is very unlike her. 5. I called every morning (to see) if there was any news. 6. (To do) business with foreigners businessmen have (to be aware) of their culture. 85
7. I happened (to leave) the office early that day. 8. The plant (to construct) in this region will be of great importance for the development of the local industries. 9. (To discuss) the problem of transportation was the main goal of the meeting. 10. The first question (to discuss) is whether the offer of the German company should be accepted. 11. The representatives of the foreign company arrived (to sign) the contract. 12. (To meet) the increased demand for industrial goods a number of new shops were opened. 13. He must (to wait) for you downstairs now. 14. They must (to know) each other for many years.
Exercise 3 Change the sentences using the Infinitive. 1. There are some matters which will be discussed at the meeting. 2. I was happy when I managed to get the necessary material. 3. Here is an assignment which should be fulfilled urgently. 4. He was the first who heard the news about the meeting. 5. We were sorry that we couldnt book the tickets in advance. 6. The secretary brought the documents which should be signed by the manager. 7. I have a lot of work which I have to do today. 8. He was sorry when he heard about his friends failure. 9. I was astonished when I saw her wearing such a strange dress. 10. The manager didnt expect that his subordinates could find such a simple way out. 11. She promised that she would keep her word. 12. I didnt want that you should come so early. 86
13. I was glad when I learnt that he had coped with his problems. 14. Explaining that rule is necessary for everybody.
Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive or -ing forms. 1. Öåëüþ êîíôåðåíöèè áûëî ðàçâèòèå äåëîâîãî ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà ñ ðàçíûìè ñòðàíàìè. 2. Îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî ñìîæåò îòâåòèòü íà ìîè âîïðîñû ïîñëå ïåðåãîâîðîâ. 3. Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû ñîòðóäíè÷àòü ñ êîìïàíèÿìè èç äðóãîé ñòðàíû, íóæíî îçíàêîìèòüñÿ ñ åå êóëüòóðîé, îáû÷àÿìè, äåëîâûì ýòèêåòîì. 4. Åãî ñïðîñèëè, ïî÷åìó îí âñåãäà ïðèõîäèò â ãîñòè ïîñëåäíèì. 5. Âîò ôàêñ, êîòîðûé íóæíî ïîñëàòü êàê ìîæíî ñêîðåå. 6. Çíàòü ÿçûê ïàðòíåðà î÷åíü âàæíî äëÿ äåëîâîãî ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà. 7. Àìåðèêàíñêèå òðóäîãîëèêè ïåðâûìè ïðèõîäÿò íà ðàáîòó, à ðóññêèå òðóäîãîëèêè ïîñëåäíèìè óõîäÿò ñ ðàáîòû. 8. ×òîáû õîðîøî ñäàòü ýêçàìåí, íóæíî íå òîëüêî õîðîøî ïîäãîòîâèòüñÿ ê íåìó, íî è áûòü â õîðîøåé ôèçè÷åñêîé ôîðìå. 9. Ýòó çàäà÷ó íóæíî áûëî ðåøèòü íà ïðîøëîé íåäåëå. 10. Ïî÷åìó âû íå õîòèòå ïðåäñòàâèòü ýòîãî ñîòðóäíèêà ñâîèì ïàðòíåðàì? 11. ×òîáû óäîâëåòâîðèòü ñïðîñ ïîêóïàòåëåé, ïðèøëîñü óâåëè÷èòü ïðîèçâîäñòâî òîâàðîâ. 12. Îí äîëæåí áûë ïðèåõàòü â÷åðà, íî èç-çà ïåðåãîâîðîâ ïîåçäêó ïðèøëîñü îòëîæèòü. 13. Ñêàçàòü ïî ïðàâäå, ìíå íå õîòåëîñü èäòè íà ýòó âñòðå÷ó. 14. Ñåêðåòàðþ ïðèõîäèòñÿ ïèñàòü òàêèå îò÷åòû êàæäóþ íåäåëþ. 87
15. Êîðî÷å ãîâîðÿ, âñå äîëæíû ñîáðàòüñÿ çàâòðà çäåñü ðîâíî â 9 ÷àñîâ óòðà. SECTION B
Read and translate text A. STRESS IS GOOD FOR YOU
For decades doctors have warned us to cut down on our stress. Now experts on ageing say seeking out stress may actually help you stay young, beautiful and healthy. Recently two research papers presented at an antiageing conference claim that stress therapy is the new direction. They are urging patients to seek out more stress to help them live longer. One expert, Dr. Marios Kyriazis, medical director of the British Longevity Society and a private antiageing doctor, told the London Conference that his patients look and feel younger after he has set them a series of stressful tasks. Kyriazis prescribes mild doses of frantic activity for patients such as redecorating their front room over a weekend or packing in a hurry to reach the airport on time. The experts claim the right type of stress can bolster our natural defences to protect us from diseases such as Alzheimers, arthritis and heart disease. They believe mild-to-moderate stress can increase the production of the proteins, that help to repair the bodys cells, including brain cells, enabling them to work at peak capacity. When we have to run for a bus or finish a work assignment, cells in the body or the brain are put under stress and start to break down. The cells own repair mechanism then kicks in, producing proteins that repair the damage, strengthen the cells and remove harmful chemicals that can gradually cause disease. 88
How stress helps
The bodys response is greater than is needed to repair the damage and actually makes the cells stronger than they were before. As the body ages most noticeably from the age of about 35 this self-repair mechanism starts to slow down, said Kyriazis. The best way to keep the process working efficiently is to exercise it, in the same way you would exercise your muscles to keep them strong. That means you have to seek out stress in order for the body to keep responding to it. But only the right type and amount of stress is beneficial.
Answer the questions. 1. What did you know about stress before reading this article? 2. What do the experts in ageing say about stress now? 3. What was the idea of the anti-ageing conference? 4. What is the experience of Dr. Kyriazis? 5. What does Dr. Kyriazis prescribe for his patients? 6. Can any type of stress help people be healthy? 7. What is the mechanism of the mild-to-moderate stress? 8. At what age does the self-repair mechanism of the body start to slow down? 9. What is the best way to keep the self-repairing process working efficiently?
Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. Do you know where we can look for any information on this subject? 89
2. When we are ill we call for a G.P. 3. To have good memory we are to develop it regularly by remembering names, dates, phone numbers and other information. 4. This curriculum was developed by specialists in the field of education. 5. This program was launched last year and we hope it will be a success. 6. He is thought to be a workaholic because he stays at work until late at night. 7. Our task having been completed, we left the office. 8. The production had to be decreased because of the problems with the raw materials. 9. A great quantity of a goods was delivered to the customer in three lots. 10. The burglar broke into the room when Mr. Smith was watching TV.
Read and translate text B.
MANS BEST FRIEND Throughout centuries man and dog lived side by side. Dogs were popular in Ancient Greece, Rome and Egypt. Pharaohs dogs were mummified and buried together with their masters in pyramids. In fact mandog companionship had begun long before that. Some scientists say that domestic dogs appeared about 12,000 years ago and that that they were derived directly from wolves. It is rather difficult to believe that a tiny Yorkshire terrier and a poodle are close relatives of a wolf, isnt it? But all these 12,000 years people have experimented with dogs, trying to develop the characteristics they wanted, and that resulted in the huge variety of breeds we have today. People quickly understood that dogs could be used to guard herds and hunt. To this day many breeds are used for these purposes. 90
Welsh corgi, Queen Elizabeths favourite dog, Alsatian and collie are excellent shepherds and even today they help to guard herds of cattle or flocks of sheep (not the Queens cîrgis). Hunting is a popular sport in many countries and a good hunt is impossible without a well-trained greyhound, setter, pointer, retriever or dachshund. A lot of people nowadays buy rotåveilers or doberman pinchers to feel safe in the streets and at home. Besides these traditional occupations dogs can work in many other fields. Newfoundlands are excellent swimmers and are good at rescue work at sea. Huge St. Bernards are trained to find people lost in the mountains under the snow. A St. Bernard named Barry saved forty people during his twelve years of work. In 1928 the first dog was trained as a guide for blind people. Nowadays a lot of dogs especially the intelligent Labrador and the good-natured golden retriever act as guides for deaf people. These dogs must be able to cope with heavy traffic, crowded streets and noise. Everybody knows about police dogs. English constables in the 15th century took dogs with them, patrolling the city, but mainly to keep them company. Nowadays in London alone there are about 300 police dogs. Some of them have been trained to find drugs or explosives. Customs officers say that dogs can detect drugs even in sealed containers. In short, dogs help people in many ways, but probably the best thing about them is their loyalty. There is a story about Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, who lived in the 13th century. He had a wolfhound Gelert that he was very fond of. Once the Prince went hunting and left Gelert to guard the cradle of his son. When the Prince returned his dog met him with his mouth covered with blood. In terror the Prince killed his dog. Then he heard the babys cry. His son was alive and safe and beside him there was a body of a 91
wolf that Gelert had killed. The Prince buried his faithful dog the grave is still there. The legend says that the Prince never smiled again. Exercise 6 Answer the questions.
1. Why do people love dogs? 2. In what ancient countries were dogs popular? 3. In what country were dogs mummified and buried together with their masters? 4. When did domestic dogs appear? 5. What animal was the dogs ancestor? 6. What dogs are used as shepherds? 7. What dogs are used in hunting? 8. What are Newfoundlands trained for? 9. What are St. Bernards trained for? 10. What are police dogs trained for? 11. What does the story of Prince of Wales and his dog say? Exercise 7 Match each of the words to its definition.
1. cell 2. result (in) 3. urge 4. throughout 5. response 6. ancient 7. warn 8. faithful 9. assignment 10. bury 11. intelligent 12. beneficial
a) task, commission b) from end to end c) advantageous d)unit of structure of living matter e) loyal, trustworthy f) hide in earth, cover up g)having or showing a high degree of understanding h) answer i) arise as consequence j) belonging to times long past k)give timely notice to person, etc. l) drive forcibly, impel 92
Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. He was a wonderful person: he could make faults seem easy to correct. 2. President Roozevelt knew that the real road to a persons heart was to talk about the things he or she treasures most. 3. He was told to meet the delegates at the airport and take them to the hotel. 4. Sincere appreciation was one of the secrets of the first John D. Rockefellers success in handling people. 5. Some students find it difficult to speak in public. 6. Listening is both important in ones home life and in the world of business. 7. I dont remember when he was not the last to come. 8. Here is the matter to be solved as soon as possible. 9. Being unaware of the situation one can face unpredictable circumstances. 10. When asked about the bonus the boss said that it went without saying. 11. I am going to tell you a thing which can make you change your mind. 12. My friend was trained to be a musician. 13. The only way of getting the best of an argument is to avoid it. 14. The book to be read can be bought in any bookshop.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Ïðè íàïèñàíèè äåëîâîãî ïèñüìà íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå íå ïîëüçóéòåñü ñòàðûìè èíñòðóêöèÿìè, ïîòîìó ÷òî ñòèëü äåëîâîãî ïèñüìà ïîñòîÿííî ìåíÿåòñÿ. 93
2. ×åëîâåêà íåëüçÿ óáåäèòü, çàñòàâèâ åãî ìîë÷àòü. 3. Ïîñëå îáñóæäåíèÿ ïëàíà ïeðeãîâîðîâ äåëîâûå ïàðòíåðû ïðèñòóïèëè ê ðåøåíèþ ñpî÷íûõ âîïðîñîâ. 4. Âàæíî ïîìíèòü, ÷òî â ïðîöåññå ïåðåãîâîðîâ ìîãóò ñîçäàòüñÿ íåïðåäâèäåííûå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà. 5. ×òîáû áûòü ñ÷àñòëèâûì è óñïåøíûì â ëþáîé îáëàñòè äåÿòåëüíîñòè, íóæíî áûòü èñêðåííèì, óðàâíîâåøåííûì è ïîíèìàòü ñàìèõ ñåáÿ è äðóãèõ. 6. Áûâøèé ìèíèñòð îáîðîíû ÑØÀ ×àðëüç Âèëüñîí ñêàçàë, ÷òî ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ýòî òî, ÷òî «âû äåëàåòå, êîãäà íå çíàåòå, ÷òî âû äåëàåòå». 7. Çíà÷èòåëüíûå ìàòåðèàëüíûå çàòðàòû íå âñåãäà íåîáõîäèìû äëÿ óñòàíîâëåíèÿ äåëîâûõ îòíîøåíèé. 8. Äëÿ óñïåøíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè îðãàíèçàöèè íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû ìåæäó ðóêîâîäèòåëÿìè è ïîä÷èíåííûìè, ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, è ìåæäó ñîòðóäíèêàìè, ñ äðóãîé, ñóùåñòâîâàëè äðóæåñòâåííûå ìåæëè÷íîñòíûå êîíòàêòû. 9. Åñëè íåò âîçðàæåíèé, ïîçâîëüòå ìíå îòêðûòü çàñåäàíèå. 10. Ñóùåñòâóþò íàó÷íûå îòêðûòèÿ, êîòîðûå ñòàëè ñèìâîëîì ÕÕ âåêà. 11. Ó÷åíûé Ãàíñ Ñåëüå ñ÷èòàåò, ÷òî «ãîðàçäî áîëüøå ëþäåé ìîãóò ïðîòèâîñòîÿòü íåóäà÷å, íåæåëè óñïåõó». 12. Àáñòðàãèðîâàíèå ýòî óìåíèå ïðåíåáðåãàòü íåñóùåñòâåííûì â öåëÿõ âûäåëåíèÿ ñóùåñòâåííîãî. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. Monuments to Animals
In some countries there are monuments to animals. People have built them (1 ) their gratitude to the animals. Near St. Petersburg there is a monument to the Pavlov dog. It was the dog that helped the famous physiologist Ivan Pavlov (2 ) great discoveries. 94
Another monument to a dog (3 ) in Paris. Its the monument to the dog called Barri. Barri (4 ) forty men. When Barri was saving the forty-first man, the man killed Barri, (5 ) that it was a wolf. There is an aluminium statue (6 ) a horse in Hungary. People made it to express their gratitude (7 ) many horses that helped them and perished during the Second World War. It (8 ) on the statue: To the true friends-in-arms. People didnt forget about a donkey (9 ). The donkey was the main means of transport of the Italian army (10 ) the First World War. In Rome there is a statue of a donkey (11 ) a cannon muzzle on his back. There are the statues of a donkey in a small town in Switzerland and in Texas. There are many monuments to various animals in different countries. 1. a) to be expressed b) to express c) to have expressed 2. a) to make b) having made c) making 3. a) stand b) stood c) stands 4. a) had saved b) saved c) was saved 5. a) to think b) thought c) thinking 6. a) to b) for c) with 7. a) to b) with c) for 8. a) write b) written c) is written 9. a) either b) neither c) also 10. a) while b) for c) during 11. a) carry b) carrying c) are carrying
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N ADDRESSING PEOPLE, GREETING PEOPLE, INTRODUCING PEOPLE
Mr. Milton. Mrs. Jones.
Miss Collins. Sir. Madam (maam). Hi! Hello/hallo! Good morning/good afternoon/good evening! How do you do? (I) havent seen you for ages! Glad (nice) to see you! How nice to see you again! How are you? You havent met my sister yet, have you? No, I havent had the pleasure. Mary, this is Sam Williams. Meet my friend, please. Let/allow me to introduce you to my wife. May I introduce Mr. Wood? Glad (nice) to meet you. Glad (nice) to meet you too.
THE GUESTS ARRIVE (Dialogue)
Hello, Sam, nice of you to come. Take off your coat, will you, and lets go in. You havent met my mother yet, have you? Sam: No, I havent had the pleasure. Mike: Mum, this is Sam Williams, a friend from the College. Sam: How do you do, Mrs. Jones? Mrs. Jones: How do you do? Glad to meet you. Mr. Jones: Good evening, Sam. How are you? Sam: Good evening, Mr. Jones. Im fine, thank you. And how are you? Mr. Jones: Not too bad, my girl not too bad. Let me introduce you to my friends. 96
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
The circumstances of others seem good to us, while ours seem good to others (Publilius Syrus). Thats where the shoe pinches! Âîò ãäå ñîáàêà çàðûòà!
U N I T 7
Money is a good servant, but a bad master.
Grammar: The Complex Object Construction Text A. Job Satisfaction or Money Text B. Helping the New Boss Adapt Short Conversation
SECTION A The Complex Object 1) I want him to come. Id like him to come.
ß õî÷ó, ÷òîáû îí ïðèøåë. Ìíå áû õîòåëîñü, ÷òîáû îí ïðèøåë. ß íàäåþñü, ÷òî îí ïðèäåò.
I expect him to come. 2) I saw him enter. (= I saw him entering.) I heard him enter. (= I heard him entering.) I noticed him enter. (= I noticed him entering.)
ß âèäåë, ÷òî îí âõîäèë. (= ß âèäåë, êàê îí âõîäèë.) ß ñëûøàë, ÷òî îí âîøåë. (= ß ñëûøàë, êàê îí âîøåë.) ß çàìåòèë, ÷òî îí âîøåë. (= ß çàìåòèë, êàê îí âîøåë.)
Read the sentences, define the Infinitive Constructions, translate the sentences into Russian. 1. I heard some doctors prescribe stress to some people. 2. I expect him to have some common sense. 3. We know St. Bernard dogs to have been trained to find people lost in the mountains under the snow. 4. Wed like more customers to be loyal to our company. 5. Peter the Great wanted Russia to be as powerful as other European countries. 6. After an accident Bob Hoover, the famous test pilot, said to his mechanic, I want you to serve my airplane tomorrow. 7. Dont expect him to praise your job. 8. Id like you to know how I appreciate your sincerity. 9. Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to close it? 10. I saw somebody get into the car and drive away. 11. If you tell people they are wrong, do you make them do what you want them to do or agree with you? 12. You expected me to criticize the article, but I wouldnt. 13. He felt somebody touch him on the shoulder. 14. Ive never heard her speaking English.
Change the sentences using the Complex Object. 1. She expected that somebody would tell her the truth. 2. I saw that he was leaving the office. 3. He felt that somebody was looking at him. 4. We know that police dogs are trained to find drugs and explosives. 99
5. We heard that our partners were discussing some problems loudly in the next room. 6. Have you ever heard that he studies ancient languages? 7. He said he hated it when I said such things. 8. Nobody heard that he came in. 9. I was asked if I saw that a man was walking near the house. 10. He looked out of the window and saw that a lot of people were walking along the road. 11. Nobody expected that the problem would be solved at once. 12. I heard that the professor reprimanded them. 13. He expected that he would be promoted. 14. Have you heard that the secretary told him that the manager would be back in two hours?
Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive or the Complex Object Construction. 1. Ìû ïîëàãàåì, ÷òî îí, êàê âñåãäà, îïàçäûâàåò. 2. ß íå ñëûøàë, êàê îí âîøåë è íà÷àë ðàáîòàòü. 3. Åñëè âû õîòèòå, ÷òîáû âàøè ñîòðóäíèêè óñïåøíî îáùàëèñü ñ èíîñòðàííûìè êîëëåãàìè, ïðîâåäèòå ñ íèìè çàíÿòèÿ ïî äåëîâîìó ýòèêåòó. 4. Îí õî÷åò, ÷òîáû åãî ñòàòüÿ áûëà îïóáëèêîâàíà êàê ìîæíî ñêîðåå. 5. Âû õîòèòå, ÷òîáû âàñ ïðèãëàñèëè íà êîíôåðåíöèþ? 6. Íà÷àëüíèê îòäåëà ñêàçàë, ÷òî îí õî÷åò, ÷òîáû ìû ïðèøëè íà ñîáðàíèå ðoâíî â òðè. 7. ß áû õîòåë, ÷òîáû òû ïðèãëàñèë âñåõ ñâîèõ äðóçåé íà äåíü ðîæäåíèÿ. 8. Îäåíüñÿ òåïëåå, ÿ íå õî÷ó, ÷òîáû òû ïðîñòóäèëñÿ. 9. Âû ñëûøàëè, êàê îí âûñòóïàë íà êîíôåðåíöèè? 100
10. Íèêòî íå ñëûøàë, êàê ìàøèíà ïîäúåõàëà ê äîìó. 11. Ïðîôåññîð íå çàìåòèë, êàê ñòóäåíò âûøåë èç àóäèòîðèè. 12. ß âèäåë, ÷òî âàøè äðóçüÿ æäóò âàñ â îòåëå. 13. Âû õîòèòå, ÷òîáû ÿ âàñ ïîäâåç? 14. Îí íå ëþáèò, êîãäà åãî ïåðåáèâàþò.
SECTION B REMEMBER fulfil
ü ý þ
carry out âûïîëíÿòü execute
Read and translate text A. JOB SATISFACTION OR MONEY?
What motivates todays graduate? Idealism finds easy roots in a young mind. Waiting for ideas that have yet to be heard, that book that has yet to be written, that invention that is going to make life simpler, that miracle cure that is going to banish disease. Just as soon as I finish college And then, of course, theres money to be made, countries to be visited, the latest gadgets to be bought. Just as soon as I finish college But in the real world does creative satisfaction the exhilaration of working in a field you have been trained for, and what you are good at come with a hefty pay packet? Or are compromises called for? And if so, does todays graduate opt for job satisfaction over money or vice versa? In a couple of months Sunny Hinduja will fulfil his dream. He will graduate as a computer engineer. 101
As a kid, he always wanted to become an engineer. His parents wanted him to be an engineer too. But somewhere along the way, he was introduced to the world of modelling, and he discovered that he was good at it. What is it that he enjoys about it? Getting famous, he says without a seconds thought. Not to be confused with minting money. Creative satisfaction is more important to me than making money. Money comes and goes. This doesnt mean he has abandoned his childhood ambition. It is important in this day and age to be welleducated, says Sunny. Companies dont like hiring fresh graduates with no experience when they can easily hire someone from other countries with 10 years of experience on half the salary, says Sunnys classmate. Deena Kamel is a third year American University student studying mass communications with a concentration on journalism. I wouldnt look for just job satisfaction, she says. I would like my job also to be fulfilling. I will look for a job that incorporates some of my other interests such as my love for English literature. A job profile that allows me to write book reviews and interview writers would suit me just fine. I want my job to be one that allows me to learn something different every day; this will allow me to mature and develop. Having a good work environment is also important, she thinks. So what about money? That is not a priority right now, she says. It might change when I am in a situation where I will have to support myself. But she agrees that priorities differ among students. The consumer culture young people are exposed to early in life could be responsible for their materialistic outlook. Because of the lifestyle students always look for a better pay package when they look for a job. Some 102
young engineers joined event management companies. It is ridiculous, but their pay is doubled to what the engineers working on their speciality get.
Exercise 4 Answer the questions.
1. What do graduates expect after finishing college? 2. Why dont some graguates work in the field they have been trained? 3. Why dont companies like to hire fresh graduates? 4. Why do companies prefer to hire working people from other countries? 5. What has been Sunnys dream since childhood? 6. Why did Sunny start to work in the world of modelling? 7. What does Deena study? 8. Is money a priority for Deena? 9. Did your parents encourage you to take up programmes that will help you earn good money? 10. What is more important for you job satisfaction or money?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. After the meeting I was asked about my point of view on the matter discussed. 2. For a long time doctors warned us to reduce
our stress, now some of them changed their opinion and they recommend us to seek stress situations. 3. The situation was quite funny when Tom came to the party with his dog. 4. They said they would be delighted to accept our assistance. 103
5. I cant say I an giving up my dream, Ill keep it with me. 6. If he said he would give you a lift, he will certainly perform his promise, he is a very reliable person. 7. If you have no car, dont worry, you can rent it in a special agency. 8. Some graduates have the only purpose to make money, others want to have creative satisfaction from their profession. 9. Values differ both among the students and the graduates. 10. Firms prefer to recruite experienced specialists.
REMEMBER goal purpose ü aim öåëü ý objective target þ
Read and translate text B. HELPING THE NEW BOSS ADAPT Anxiety and stress at a new workplace is something everyone is familiar with. Yet, while companies are often willing to help rank and file workers adapt, the same care rarely extends to new top managers. And yet the price of the latters mistake can be much weightier. The majority of Russian companies simply do not have a special program to help new management adapt. At best, some firms offer general programs that are suitable for all workers. Financial group UralSib runs an orientation program for new employees, during which they can 104
learn about the companys strategy, corporate culture, about the rules of life within the firm. Before arriving at the corporation, each manager not only has a chat with his superiors, but also meets with managers from other divisions. In this way even at the preliminary stage, there is a chance to establish dialogue with future colleagues, get an idea about the companys specifics and perhaps get a feel for possible common ground. In any company there can be a number of weak points that just do not become apparent until the manager starts in the new position. If you dont help this person at the first stage, dont show them all the sharp angles, the manager may bump into concrete problems, says Igor Shekhterman, partner at RosExpert. With people at the top management level the responsibility is very high. Often the managers need to establish relations not only with their subordinates, but also with shareholders. The main goal for managers is to build relations at all levels correctly, find out what works and how. Learn the firms structure and business processes. Not all members of the management team may greet newcomers particularly well. To make the adaptation process as painless as possible, there need to be mechanisms to initiate effective communication among all team members. The head of the management team needs to assess the targets of the new manager, the new persons role in the group and the level of accountability. The higher the position of the incoming manager, the more individualized the adaptation program should be. Some companies employ a training specialist to deal with the situation. Such a person often has to work out the strong points of the new worker and the strong points of the company, trying to match them up as much as possible.
The next step can include training, coaching, intracompany distinguishing of responsibilities. The main thing is to show the newcomer which of his qualities and what business knowledge can be an immediate help to the company, and which may prove trouble in the new environment. Even an experienced manager often requires the help of the company when starting in the new position. Speaking of his experience at Microsoft Camil Kostoyev, marketing director at Avaya in Russia and the CIS says that the newcomer often faces the vast number of in-company slang expressions and abbreviations. The second year on the job I recommended newcomers to start noting words down and making up their own kind of dictionary. At Microsoft people are told how to arrange meetings correctly. No one can afford to waste time on empty chatter, and it is often the case that all meeting spots are booked a week in advance. The newcomers are told that they have to get used to preparing carefully for meetings. Nowhere is it written how to behave, but the task of the company is to explain to the new person all the details quickly and informally. One less obvious way for people to bond can be pressurized situation. Some companies carry out extreme training sessions together with the newcomers. The entire management team acts out an emergency situation during which everyone has to work together.
Exercise 6 Answer the questions. 1. Can new workplace cause anxiety and stress? Why? 2. What should a person do before coming to a new wokplace? 106
3. Why should all members of the company help the newcomers and make the process of adaptation as painless as possible? 4. What is the main goal of the new manager? 5. Do you know any companies which use special programs to deal with difficult situations? 6. Why do the newcomers of some companies have to write down slang words and abbreviations? 7. Do you know any companies where employees are taught to arrange meetings?
Match each of the words to its definition.
1. exhilaration 2. suit 3. subordinate 4. ridiculous 5. mind 6. anxiety 7. mature 8. hefty
9. responsibility 10. outlook 11. miracle 12. confuse
a) deserving to be laughed at b) view, prospect; what one sees on looking out c) uneasiness, concern; desire d) throw into disorder; mix up in the mind e) being responsible; charge for f) person under control or orders g) event due to supernatural powers h) intellectual powers i) accommodate; make fitting or appropriate j) gladness k) heavy; sturdy l) fully developed; adult
Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals.
1. They didnt want employees of the other department to take part in the forum. 107
2. He asked to be helped in establishing business relations with the British company. 3. I wonder who was the first to put forward that problem. 4. It is important to understand what they mean. 5. I didnt know him to work for a foreign company. 6. If you want to be considered a good conversationalist, let the other people talk themselves out. 7. A hen has to lay eggs, a cow has to give milk, a canary has to sing and only a dog makes his living by giving you nothing but love. 8. The first people arriving in America from Holland built a town that they named New Amsterdam in honour of the capital of their country in Europe. 9. Id like you to take your sister to my my birthday party. 10. The job assigned is urgent and should be fulfilled by the end of the week. 11. He was sorry to learn that the conference had been postponed. 12. Having good manners he couldnt afford to be late. 13. She is not very good at solving logical problems so she asks her colleagues to help her. 14. I was pleased to be introduced to my new colleagues.
Tranlate the sentences into English. 1. Ïðåïîäàâàòåëü âèäåë, ÷òî ñòóäåíòû åãî íå ñëóøàþò, íî ïðîäîëæàë ÷èòàòü ëåêöèþ. 2. Ýòî Áèëë Ñìèò, íàø íîâûé ñîòðóäíèê. ß áû õîòåë, ÷òîáû âû ðàññêàçàëè åìó î åãî îáÿçàííîñòÿõ. 3. ßïîíñêèå äåòè íà÷èíàþò çàáîòèòüñÿ î ñâîåé êàðüåðå åù¸ òîãäà, êîãäà îíè ó÷àòñÿ â øêîëå. 4. Ëîðä áûë âîçìóùåí, êîãäà óâèäåë, ÷òî êàêîéòî ÷åëîâåê õîäèò â åãî ëåñó. 108
5. ß áû õîòåë, ÷òîáû âû ïîêàçàëè íàøèì ãîñòÿì ãîðîä. 6. Ïî÷åìó âû íå õîòèòå ïîñëóøàòü, êàê îí ðàññêàçûâàåò îá ýòîì ñàì? 7. Òåîðèÿ ìîòèâàöèè îáúÿñíÿåò, êàê âîçíèêàåò, ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ è ïðåêðàùàåòñÿ òî èëè èíîå ïîâåäåíèå ÷åëîâåêà. 8. Ðóêîâîäèòåëü ñðåäíåãî çâåíà âûïîëíÿåò êàê ðîëü íà÷àëüíèêà, òàê è ðîëü ïîä÷èíåííîãî. 9. Ðàçíûå ëþäè ïî-ðàçíîìó ñïðàâëÿþòñÿ ñî ñòðåññîì. 10. Íåêîòîðûå ëþäè ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî íå âñå ìîãóò çàíèìàòüñÿ áèçíåñîì. 11. Ìû ïîäïèñàëè êîíòðàêò c íàøèìè íåìåöêèìè ïàðòíåðàìè, â êîòîðîì óêàçàíû îáÿçàòåëüñòâà ñòîðîí. 12. ß âñòðåòèëñÿ ñ áûâøèì ñâîèì îäíîêëàññíèêîì è óçíàë, ÷òî îí îêîí÷èë óíèâåðñèòåò è ðàáîòàåò â êîëëåäæå. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words.
Punctuation can often (1 ) quite a lot. One day, as a teacher (2 ) into her classroom, she heard Tommy Smith whisper to the boy (3 ) to him: Here is the teacher. Ill bet the silly cow is (4 ) to talk about putting in commas. The teacher didnt say (5 ) but she (6 ) to talk about putting in commas, and explained (7 ) important (8 ) could be. To show what she meant, she wrote the sentence on the blackboard: Tommy Smith says the teacher is a silly cow. The class (9 ) and Tommy Smith (10 ) very red. Now, said the teacher, Ill show how important commas are. She put two commas into the sentence, and it now read: Tommy Smith, says the teacher, is a silly cow. 1. a) talk 2. a) walked
b) say b) goes 109
c) chat c) left
3. a) near 4. a) going 5. a) nothing 6. a) began 7. a) what 8. a) it 9. a) laughed 10. a) saw
b) not far b) liking b) something b) begin b) who b) they b) cried b) appeared
c) next c) wanting c) anything c) begins c) how c) he c) shouted c) looked
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N AFFIRMATION Thats right. Quite right. Thats so. Quite so. Of course. Certainly. Sure. Naturally.
MOVING THE WARDROBE (Dialogue)
Mrs. A: Denis, Id like to move this wardrobe a bit, but its far too heavy for me. Mr. A: Of course it is. You mustnt push heavy things alone. Its dangerous, you know. Mrs. A: Indeed it is. Youre quite right. Mr. A: Which way do you want me to move it, a little nearer to the wall? Mrs. A: Thats right, but not too near, please. Mr. A: Naturally Will that be enough? Mrs. A: Yes, dear, thank you. It looks better now, dont you think so? Mr. A: It certainly does, and itll be easier to do the carpet now, wont it? 110
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
New lords, new laws. Íîâàÿ ìåòëà ïî-íîâîìó ìåòåò. What is bred in the bone, will never be out of the flesh. Êàê âîëêà íè êîðìè, oí ñìîòðèò â ëåñ.
U N I T 8
The first blow is half the battle*.
Grammar: The Complex Subject Construction
Text A. Are You on the Top of the World? Text B. Different Colours in Different Countries Short Conversation
The Complex Subject (Ñëîæíîå ïîäëåæàùåå)
1) He is said to live in London. He is reported to live in London. He is known to live in London.
Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå. Ñîîáùàþò, ÷òî îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå.
2) He seems to live in London. He appears to live in London. He proves to live in London.
Êàæåòñÿ, îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå. Ïî-âèäèìîìó, îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå. Îêàçûâàåòñÿ, îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå.
3) He is likely to live in London.
Âåðîÿòíî, îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå.
* The first blow is half the battle. Ëèõà áåäà íà÷àëî.
He is unlikely to live in London. He is certain to live in London. He is sure to live in London.
Ìàëîâåðîÿòíî (âðÿä ëè), ÷òî îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå. Íåñîìíåííî (íàâåðíîå), îí æèâåò â Ëîíäîíå. _
Translate the sentences into Russian, define the Complex Subject. 1. This plant seems to have been producing such equipment since 1997. 2. The Cambridge High School is reported to raise its tutor fees. 3. The imports of Chinese textile are expected to be restricted. 4. Shakespeare is said to have to add luster to his name by procuring a coat of arms for his family. 5. The school system in the UK is known to be one of the most complicated in Europe. 6. The normal temperature of the dog is believed to be between 38 and 39 degrees. 7. The famous English poet George Gordon Byron is known to write his dogs epitaph. 8. Pigs are said to be used in Italy and France for truffle-hunting. 9. He is certain to be satisfied with a satisfactory mark, he hardly studied hard. 10. Public education is considered to have good academic standards, better exam results and dedicated staff. 11. The employees of this company are said to have long vacation period. 12. She didnt appear to be surprised at this news. 13. This book seems to be popular with the students. 14. He happened to look in that direction and saw a man running out of the house. 113
Exercise 2 Change the sentences using the Complex Subject. 1. Everybody knows that she is a theatre-goer. 2. They say he has a large collection of stamps. 3. It was reported that the exhibition would be held in January. 4. They said that solving thus problem is timeconsuming. 5. It is known that businessmen are interested in doing business with foreigners. 6. It is unlikely that the weather will improve soon. 7. It was reported that many cars had been destroyed by the teenagers. 8. It is likely that the manager will receive the representatives of the company on Wednesday. 9. It seemed that he didnt know the subject. 10. It is likely that he wants to be helped. 11. They say that modesty is one of the biggest virtues valued in Sweden. 12. It is likely that the flight will be delayed because of the weather. 13. It seemed that they werent surprised that the conference had been delayed. 14. It happened that he was at home at that time. 15. It seemed that they were disappointed by the results of the experiment.
Exercise 3 Translate the sentences into English using the Complex Subject. 1. Ïðåäïîëàãàëè, ÷òî åå ñïðîñÿò îá ýòîì. 2. Îí, âåðîÿòíî, ñåãîäíÿ íå ïðèäåò, â÷åðà îí ïëîõî ñåáÿ ÷óâñòâîâàë. 3. Ãîâîðèëè, ÷òî â ðåçóëüòàòå äîëãîãî îáñóæäåíèÿ ïðîáëåìà áûëà ðåøåíà. 114
4. Îæèäàþò, ÷òî äåëåãàöèÿ ïðèáóäåò çàâòðà âå÷åðîì. 5. Ñëó÷èëîñü òàê, ÷òî îíà ñëûøàëà, êàê îíè ñïîðèëè â ñîñåäíåé êîìíàòå. 6. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî ýòî çäàíèå áûëî ïîñòðîåíî â ïðîøëîì âåêå. 7. Íåëüçÿ îæèäàòü, ÷òî ïîãîäà çíà÷èòåëüíî èçìåíèòñÿ â áëèæàéøåå âðåìÿ. 8. Âû ñëó÷àéíî íå çíàåòå, ãäå ìîæíî êóïèòü ýòó êíèãó? 9. Âû, êàæåòñÿ, çàáûëè ïðåäñòàâèòü ñâîåãî äðóãà. 10. Êàçàëîñü, ÷òî îí ñîâñåì íå ó÷àñòâîâàë â ðàçãîâîðå. 11. Ãîòîâÿñü ê ïåðåãîâîðàì ñ èíîñòðàííîé ôèðìîé, îí, áåçóñëîâíî, èçó÷àë äåëîâîé ýòèêåò, ïîýòîìó ïåðåãîâîðû ïðîøëè óñïåøíî. 12. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî îí òðóäîãîëèê, íî ÿ íå âèäåëà, ÷òîáû îí äîëãî çàäåðæèâàëñÿ íà ðàáîòå. 13. Îêàçûâàåòñÿ, ýòî îáîðóäîâàíèå äàâíî âûïóñêàåòñÿ íàøèì çàâîäîì. 14. Âðÿä ëè ïðîôåññîð íå çàìåòèë, êàê ñòóäåíò âûøåë èç àóäèòîðèè. 15. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî ïðîãíîç ïîãîäû íå âñåãäà áûâàåò òî÷íûì.
Read and translate text A.
ARE YOU ON THE TOP OF THE WORLD? These days most doctors and scientists agree that our physical health is closely related with our psychological well-being. But what have the experts discovered about what makes us feel good? Some things that can make you feel better
As well as being important to your physical health, regular exercise is now believed to improve 115
your psychological state by releasing endorphins or happy chemicals into the brain. Some researchers consider it can be just as valuable as therapy in helping depression, and engendering a more positive outlook. Even a brisk ten-minute walk every day can help according to researchers. In one project, unemployed urban youths who undertook intensive sports training for several months, not only became involved in that sport, but also in other activities such as study, politics, and voluntary work.
A lively social life
According to experts, companionship and social support are vital to both our psychological and physical well-being one reason, perhaps, why married people tend to live longer than unmarried ones. Modern researchers emphasize the value of group social activities in this respect. Relationships we form at church or in clubs tend to be more supportive and uncritical than those we form at work or in the family, says Professor Michael Argyle, of Oxford Brookes University, and these positive relationships improve our self-esteem, which is vital to our physical and mental health. This is backed up by recent research which shows, perhaps surprisingly, that people who spend more time with others actually get fewer colds and viruses than those who stay at home on their own. In fact social support is so important to our mental and physical well-being that it may even increase our life expectancy! Another piece of research found that people who belong to church groups not only claim to be happier than those who dont, they suffer from less than half the number of heart attacks than the rest of the population, and live up to four years longer!
Watching soap operas on TV
One rather surprising piece of research found that, on the average, people who regularly watch soap on television are significantly happier than those who dont. Psychologists believe that this is because 116
such programmes provide viewers with an imaginary set of friends, and a sense of belonging to a community, in the same way that a club or a church might.
Many scientists these days believe that indulging in lifes little pleasures, a bar of chocolate, a glass of wine, a shopping trip, even a cigarette can actually improve your health, because of the psychological lift it gives you. There is evidence, for example, says Professor David Warburton of Reading University, that old people living in residential homes who have cocktail hour each day actually live longer! Indulging in moderation in the small pleasures of life can make people calmer, alleviate stress and provide positive health. There is a lot of truth in the old saying that a little of what you fancy does you good. Ànd some that can make you feel worse.
Feeling like an underdog*, it seems, can damage your health. Research by the National Rheumatism and Arthritis Council showed that workers who feel undervalued or out of control at work are significantly more likely to suffer from back problems. Depression, a spokesman claimed, is actually far more likely to cause backache than heavy lifting. Professor Warburton believes that one of the greatest health threats comes from negative feelings such as depression or guilt, which create stress hormones, producing cholesterol. Its quite likely that by worrying about whether or not you should be eating a chocolate bar you are doing yourself more harm than just getting on and eating it, says the professor.
Lack of bright light
Scientists have known for some time about Seasonal Affective Disorder: a form of depression * To feel like an underdog ÷óâñòâîâàòü ñåáÿ êàê ïîáèòàÿ ñîáàêà, ñ÷èòàòü ñåáÿ íåóäà÷íèêîì
caused by lack of light in winter, and thought to explain the relatively high suicide rates in countries such as Sweden where for part of the year days are very short. However, recent research has shown that those working night shifts in factories can suffer from the same problems, leading to stress and depression. The problem can be overcome by illuminating workplaces with lights three times brighter than usual, making workers feel happier and more alert.
A low-fat diet
A low-fat diet may be good for your waistline, but the latest research suggests that it is less beneficial psychologically. A team of volunteers at Sheffield University, asked to follow a diet consisting of just twenty-five percent fat (the level recommended by the World Health Organization), reported a marked increase in feelings of hostility and depression. And an earlier piece of research revealed, startlingly, that people on low-fat diets are more likely to meet a violent death!
Many of us are already aware that drinking coffee raises your blood pressure and can cause anxiety, but according to the latest research it can also make you bad-tempered. Mice who were given regular doses of caffeine by researchers, were found to be unusually aggressive.
Answer the questions. 1. Why does regular exercise improve our psychological state? 2. How is it possible to get rid of depression? 3. What is the positive result of undertaking intensive sports? 4. Why is belonging to church, club or any society useful for people? 5. Why do married people live longer than unmarried?
6. Why are people who regularly watch soap operas happier than those who dont? 7. What do scientists think of indulging in lifes little pleasures? 8. What little pleasures can you afford? 9. What are the consequences of low self-esteem? 10. What is Seasonal Affective Disorder? 11. What is SAD caused by? 12. What should we do to avoid SAD? 13. How do people who eat fat food behave? 14. Is a low-fat diet useful? Why? 15. Do you keep the diet?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with synonyms from the text. 1. A good manager understands that sincere ap-
preciation of his subordinates leads to high performance. 2. The nature serves the man, giving him everything he needs: air to breathe, food to eat, water to drink and so on. 3. Nuclear energy minister summed up his departments activities and underlined the most important tasks for the new year. 4. Our company signed the contract with the German company, we hope the cooperation will be profitable both for us and for our partners. 5. The Chinese have a proverb: He who treads softly, goes far. 6. Some doctors recommend to eat a sweet to lower negative emotions and stress. 7. A leaders job often includes changing his peoples attitude and behavior. 8. Active measures should be taken to create an international system of ecological security. 9. The US President George Bush signed legislation creating a new Department of Homeland Security devoted to preventing domestic terror attacks. 119
10. When Denis failed in the exam he felt very unhappy.
Read and translate text B.
DIFFERENT COLOURS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES Red Red warns of danger. The expression red alert is used to warn of a sudden and very dangerous situation. People imagine that the Devil is red. Red heart shapes and red roses are used to represent romantic love. Red clothes and lips and fingernails that are painted red are often associated with sexual desire. Red is thought to be an exciting colour; the expression paint the town red means to go out at night to bars, clubs, etc. and have a very good time. In politics, red is used to represent communism and socialism. In the UK the labour party is represented by a red rose. If someone is red in the face they are very embarrassed. It is traditional to welcome a king, queen or president to a place by having a red carpet for them to walk on. Pink In the UK and US, pink is thought of as a pretty colour that is worn by women and girls. Pale pink is associated with baby girls, who are traditionally dressed in this colour. Today many parents avoid dressing girls in pink because they think it strengthens sexual stereotypes. Pink is also connected with homosexual men, and is used in expressions such as the pink pound (= the money that homosexual men have available to spend). Green British and American people think of green as the colour that represents nature. If you describe a place as green, you mean it is covered with grass or trees: 120
green fields. The green belt is an area of land around a city where building is not allowed, in order to protect fields and woods. Green is the national colour of Ireland, also known as the Emerald Isle because of its many green fields. Green also means connected with the environment. Green issues are ideas about the environment that are discussed in parliament, newspapers, etc. Products that are described as green are thought to cause less harm to the environment than other products. Green is used to describe someone who is young and lacks experience in a job. Green represents jealousy. If you are green with envy, you are jealous of someone who has something that you want. The expression green-eyed monster is used to mean sexual jealousy. If someones face is green, they look pale and unhealthy, especially because they are about to vomit. Grey (BrE). Gray (AmE) In the US and UK, grey is connected with being dull and boring, it is, however, also a common colour for both men and womens clothes. A grey day is an unpleasant one because the sky is full of grey clouds. Grey is connected with old people, and is used in expressions such as the grey vote (= the support of old people in an election).
Answer the questions. 1. What is the red colour associated with? 2. What does expression red alert mean? 3. What do red heart shapes and red roses represent? 4. Do you agree that red is an exciting colour? 5. What colour do you prefer for your lips and fingernails? 6. What does red represent in politics? 7. What tradition is connected with a red carpet? 8. In what colour are baby girls traditionally dressed? 121
9. Why do many parents avoid dressing girls in pink now? 10. What does green colour represent for British and American people? 11. What is a green belt? 12. What colour is used to describe someone who is young and lacks experience in a job? 13. What colour is connected with jealousy? 14. What is the national colour of Ireland?
Match each of the words to its definitions. 1. lively
2. release 3. environment 4. urban 5. available 6. emphasize 7. embarrass 8. warn 9. underdog 10. excite 11. vital 12. companionship
a) give timely notice to (person, etc.) of impending danger or misfortune; caution against b) inferior or subjected person c) make confused; complicate d) essential to existence or to the matter in hand e) set free, liberate f) lifelike, energetic, full of life g) company of persons working together h) rouse feelings, faculties, etc.; to move (person) to strong emotion i) capable of being used; at ones disposal j) to lay a stress on word, fact k) surroundings, surrounding objects, conditions l) living or situated in a city
Read and translate the sentences, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals.
1. Have you got anything for me to read? 2. He said he didnt want me to wait for him long. 3. The goods having been delivered, the manager phoned to the company. 4. Everybody was looking for the document. But it was nowhere to be found. 5. When working with foreign partners, businessmen should be tolerant. 6. I want you to service my car as soon as possible. 7. One of the German clients refused to make a deal with the Russian firm only because he was not introduced to his new colleagues. 8. He left the office saying that the computer needed repairing. 9. Their boss wants his subordinates to work overtime. 10. Would you like me to pick you up at the hotel? 11. Have you heard anything about inspectors arriving? 12. Reading the contract closely he paid attention to some formalities. 13. The methods of educational establishments of all nations and ages having been fed into the American computer system, the result was that the best educational establishment was the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. 14. My boss kept insisting on my participation in the conference.
Translate the sentences into English.
1. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî ìóçûêà ìîæåò ïðèìåíÿòüñÿ äëÿ ëå÷åíèÿ ðàçíûõ áîëåçíåé. 2. Âðÿä ëè âû ñìîæåòå äîåõàòü òóäà ñåãîäíÿ, óæå ïîçäíî, à åõàòü òóäà áîëüøå ÷àñà. 123
3. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî â ýòîé ôèðìå ñóùåñòâóåò ïðîãðàììà, êîòîðàÿ ïîçâîëÿåò áûñòðî îçíàêîìèòüñÿ ñî ñïåöèôèêîé ðàáîòû êàê íîâîìó ñîòðóäíèêó, òàê è íîâîìó ðóêîâîäèòåëþ. 4. Ïðåæäå ÷åì ñòàòü ìèíèñòðîì, íóæíî ïðîéòè âñå ñòóïåíè èåðàðõèè ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ñëóæáû. 5. Ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, ÷òî ñòðåññ îòðèöàòåëüíî âëèÿåò íà ÷åëîâåêà, íî íåêîòîðûå âðà÷è ïîëàãàþò, ÷òî ñòðåññ ìîæíî èñïîëüçîâàòü êàê ëåêàðñòâî. 6. «Åäèíñòâåííûé ñïîñîá íàó÷èòü ÷åìó-íèáóäü äðóãèõ ýòî âûñòóïàòü â êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðà, ïóñòü äàæå îòðèöàòåëüíîãî, åñëè íè÷åãî äðóãîãî íå îñòàåòñÿ», ñêàçàë Ýéíøòåéí. 7. Îí, âåðîÿòíî, ïëîõî çíàåò ñâîè îáÿçàííîñòè, åñëè îí äóìàåò, ÷òî âñòðå÷à äåëåãàöèè íå åãî çàäà÷à. 8. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê ÷¸òêî îïðåäåëåíà öåëü íàïèñàíèÿ ïèñüìà, íóæíî ñîñòàâèòü åãî ïëàí. 9. Ñëèøêîì äëèííûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ çàòðóäíÿþò ïîíèìàíèå ïèñüìà. 10. Âðÿä ëè òåáå óäàñòñÿ õîðîøî ïîäãîòîâèòüñÿ ê ýêçàìåíó çà îäèí äåíü. 11. Ïðè íàïèñàíèè äåëîâîãî ïèñüìà ðåêîìåíäóåòñÿ ïðèäåðæèâàòüñÿ íåéòðàëüíîãî òîíà. 12. Ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ, ÷òî äîãîâîð áóäåò ïîäïèñàí ñðàçó ïîñëå äåëîâîé âñòðå÷è. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. The laws (1 ) the colour in a picture are different from those governing the colours in nature. The reason is that nature has three dimensions, and a picture has only two. Artists who (2 ) in colour realize the difference. They also (3 ) what role complementary colours play in (4 ). Skilful artists (5 ) red and green side by side and the effect is very (6 ) to the eye. Red affects green because it (7 ) on the opposite side of the colour wheel. 124
Red and yellow stand out in a painting, while blue expresses distance. Paul Cezanne, a French artist who used the ideas of Impressionists about colour, painted mountains blue and the earth in front of them yellow or red. Cezanne (8 ) colour to paint form. He liked to paint apples and often used blue for the background. The apples in his paintings (9 ) to be very round and three-dimensional. Some artists used colours (10 ) their emotions. 11. a) govern b) governing c) governed 12. a) paint b) painting c) paints 13. a) knowing b) to know c) know 14. a) paint b) painting c) to paint 15. a) are put b) to put c) put 16. a) pleasing b) please c) pleased 17. a) lie b) lies c) lay 18. a) use b) using c) used 19. a) seeming b) seem c) to seem 10. a) to express b) expressing c) expressed
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N AT A RESTAURANT
Waiter. Waitress. Head waiter. A table for two/three/four. Menu. Helping. A1 la carte. Special dishes. You are welcome! Lets meet in the lobby. Welcome to our restaurant! The check room. Mens room. Ladies room. 125
Here/over here/there/over there. On the left/on the right. We are happy to receive you. See you soon/later. Come again, please. You are always welcome! Drop in any time you like. Bring your friends along with you. Good luck to you! Same to you. Dialogue
Waiter: Good afternoon, sir. How many are you? Guest: We are two. Waiter: Take your seats at the table on your right,
its vacant. Here is the menu. Make your choice. Guest (to his friend): Lets see whats on the menu today. What shall we have? I think two helpings of hotsmoked sturgeon and meat assortment. Waiter: All right. Would you like any soup? Guest: Two vegetable soups, please, and two helpings of roast goose. Waiter: Sorry, the roast goose is off. I can recommend you roast beef. Guest: All right. And will you have anything to drink? PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
Like priest, like people. Êàêîâ ïîï, òàêîâ è ïðèõîä. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. Äóðàêàì çàêîí íå ïèñàí. 126
U N I T 9
Make the faults seem easy to correct*. Dale Carnegie
Grammar: The Infinitive, The Infinitive Constructions (Revision) Text A. Private Schools in the UK Text B. School Fee Hike Fever Rages Short Conversation
SECTION A Exercise 1
Translate the sentences into Russian, identify forms and functions of the Infinitive.
1. Every Tuesday evening Elizabeth II meets the Prime Minister to talk about the world news. 2. To deal with the Dutch is very easy because they are simple and flexible. 3. She was ashamed to admit that she was the last to congratulate them. 4. The desire to be important determines our behavior. * Make the faults seem easy to correct. Cîçäàéòå îùóùåíèå òîãî, ÷òî îøèáêè ëåãêî èñïðàâèòü.
5. The ceremony of coronation of the British monarch is known to take place at Westminster Abbey. 6. I saw her choose the books for the examination. 7. He was too noble to blame others. 8. Any fool is said to try to defend his or her mistakes. 9. This exam was the first to be passed by her. 10. The deepest principle in human nature is the craving to be appreciated. 11. Catherine the Great refused to open letters that were not addressed to Her Imperial Majesty. 12. To prepare for examination it is important to revise all the material. 13. Elizabeth II became the Queen in 1952, but unlike other monarchs before her, she wanted the ceremony to be on television. 14. To achieve success in business managers have to be aware of other national cultures.
Exercise 2 Change the sentences using the Infinitive and the Infinitive Constructions. 1. We know that the only interruption in the history of British monarchy was the Republic, which lasted from 1619 to 1660. 2. It is likely that from the very beginning horses were used to carry things. 3. It is known that hereditary principle of the Crown is preserved in Great Britain. 4. Scientists believe that horses appeared in America. 5. They say that Queen Elizabeth calls the Windsor family a firm. 6. It is likely that many foreign companies will agree to cooperate with Russian companies. 7. I saw that somebody came up to him and began to speak. 8. It is likely that the human history would have been quite different without horses. 128
9. He expected that we would see him off. 10. If you see that the secretary has received the mail ask her about the letter from the British company. 11. It appears that in Britain only uneducated people show off their knowledge. 12. It is unlikely that he will be hired on this job, he hasnt any experience.
Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive and the Infinitive Constructions. 1. Áðèòàíñêèé ìîíàðõ ñ÷èòàåòñÿ íàöèîíàëüíûì ñèìâîëîì. 2. Âðÿä ëè ìû ïîéäåì çàâòðà ãóëÿòü â ïàðê, ïî ïðîãíîçó ïîãîäû çàâòðà áóäåò èäòè äîæäü. 3. Îíè ïîëàãàëè, ÷òî èõ âñòðåòÿò íà âîêçàëå è îòâåçóò â îòåëü. 4. Ìû óäèâèëèñü, ÷òî îí ïåðâûì ïðèøåë íà ñîáðàíèå. 5. Íà ïîäãîòîâêó ïðàçäíè÷íîãî îáåäà ó àíãëèéñêîé êîðîëåâû óõîäèò òðè äíÿ. 6. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî êîðåéöû ñòàðàþòñÿ ñîîáùàòü ïëîõèå íîâîñòè êàê ìîæíî ïîçäíåå, ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ èõ êóëüòóðîé. 7. Ëþäÿì, êîòîðûå çàâîåâûâàëè ÷óæèå çåìëè, ïðèõîäèëîñü ýòè çåìëè êîíòðîëèðîâàòü. 8. Åãî ìå÷òà îêîí÷èòü óíèâåðñèòåò è çàíÿòüñÿ íàó÷íîé ðàáîòîé. 9. Êàæåòñÿ, êòî-òî ïîñòó÷àë â äâåðü. Âû íå ñëûøàëè? 10. Óìåòü ñëóøàòü çíà÷èò ñ÷èòàòüñÿ õîðîøèì ñîáåñåäíèêîì. 11. Êàæåòñÿ, äèñêóññèÿ áóäåò äîëãîé. 12. Âåðîÿòíî, ìíå ïðèäåòñÿ åõàòü â êîìàíäèðîâêó, ÷òîáû ïîñêîðåå óëàäèòü ýòîò âîïðîñ. 13. Íàâåðíîe, îí ñêîðî ïðèäåò, îí îáåùàë íå çàäåðæèâàòüñÿ. 129
14. Ìû õîòèì, ÷òîáû îíè îñòàíîâèëèñü ó íàñ, ó íàñ áîëüøàÿ êâàðòèðà.
SECTION B Read and translate text A. PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN THE UK The school system in the UK can proudly call itself one of the most complicated in Europe. Not only is it not the same across the kingdom but also the number of changes that have taken place in the last 50 years have made it equally confusing for a British person and for a foreigner. There are two types of schools in the UK: state schools where education is free and private schools where you have to pay. Private schools are called public. A long time ago when education was a privilege of the rich, the only schools where poor people could go were funded by charities. As it was public money, the schools for the poor were called public schools. In the course of history many public schools became very successful and turned into expensive private schools but the conservative British continued to call them public schools. Until very recently public schools were either allboys or all-girls. Public schools can be full boarding (pupils live there all academic year except for holidays), normal (pupils go home every day) and mixed (some pupils go home every weekend and some stay). Some public schools charge up to 20,000 pounds a year. There are some grants for bright pupils as well but the places are few and the competition is very strong. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that only six percent of the people in the UK can afford it. The other important criterion is that pupils have 130
to belong to the right class as the class system in Britain is still very important. Mostly, public education is a privilege of the upper middle and upper classes.
Harrow, the second best public school in the UK after Eton, was founded in 1571 as a public school for the children of poor farmers but rapidly became one of the most prestigious private schools in the country. Famous Old Harrovians include Winston Churchill and Lord Byron. One of the reasons why parents want their children to go to Harrow is that its aim is to produce young men who will go on to be leaders in their chosen professions (B. Lenon, Head Master). This means that Harrovians are more likely to do well than people who went to ordinary schools. Why? Because the quality of education is better since the school has better resources and funding. In addition, the school has an excellent reputation: the fact that you are an ex-Harrovian is some kind of passport for a brighter future. Harrow is an all-boy school with 800 pupils. It is a full boarding school with nineteen boarding houses. A boarding house is a building where pupils sleep and rest. Each boy either has a separate room or shares one with another boy. Boys security is one of the schools top priorities, so all boarding houses have three resident staff and very strong locks. Some also have a thick wall all around and a metal net over the yard. Even parents are not allowed there. The school has outstanding facilities including the best golf courses, a swimming pool, the latest computers and even the best school theatre in the UK. All teachers live in the school to make sure that pupils are offered a diverse range of evening and weekend activities.
Good nutrition is also very important. Have a look at the average menu: Breakfast Grilled Sausage, Bacon, Fried Egg with Fruit Juice Cereals Lunch A Choice of Breaded Fish or Roast Lamb with Potatoes or/and Vegetables Salads, Cherry Pie Supper A Choice of Burgers plus Pasta with Potatoes and Vegetables, Soup Candidates have to attend an interview, do well in primary school and pass a test. There are some free places for gifted pupils but most pupils have to pay about 13,000 pounds a year plus extra charges. The lowest admission age for the school is thirteen. The school is very prestigious, so parents apply as soon as their son is born. Normally parents register their son at least two years in advance.
Answer the questions. 1. What two types of schools are there in the UK? 2. What is the difference between them? 3. Why are private schools called public? 4. Are public schools divided into all-boys and allgirls? 5. Do pupils live in public schools? 6. What kind of children go to public schools? 7. What is the charge a year? 8. Are there any grants for bright pupils? 9. Why is Harrow a prestigious school? 132
10. What are the conditions in Harrow? 11. What facilities are there in Harrow? 12. Where do the teachers of Harrow live? Why? 13. Is nutrition important in Harrow? 14. Do you remember the average menu? 15. What is the lowest admission age for Harrow? 16. Why do parents apply to the school as soon as their son is born?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. If you want to win other people to your way of thinking, let them talk themselves out they know more about their problems and speciality. 2. Every applicant should go through the job interview. 3. Oxford University has brilliant reputation, that is why many young people would like to study there. 4. In the mid-1980s about 7,7 million people were attending publicly maintained schools in England and Wales. 5. Of the 34 traditional degree-granting universities in England, all except Oxford and Cambridge were established in the 19th and 20th centuries. 6. They carried on their conversation until late at night. 7. In 19391945 full time British university students totaled more than 290,000 annually. 8. Pride in being English is a national trait, although the English are considerably different in habits, manners, and even speech. 9. Eaton and Harrow are principal public schools in the UK. 10. It was quite natural he was glad that the professor had not criticized him as he had expected. 133
wit 1. óì (= wits) 2. ðàçóì 3. îñòðîóìèå 4. ñîîáðàçèòåëüíîñòü 5. îñòðÿê to have (to keep) ones wits (about) íå òåðÿòüñÿ, áûòü íà÷åêó to be at ones wits end áûòü â îò÷àÿíèè, ñòàòü â òóïèê he has quick/slow wits îí ñîîáðàçèòåëüíûé/ íåñîîáðàçèòåëüíûé blue, à 1. ãîëóáîé, ëàçóðíûé 2. èñïóãàííûé 3. óíûëûé, ïîäàâëåííûé 4. íåïðèñòîéíûé 5. îòíîñÿùèéñÿ ê ïàðòèè òîðè, êîíñåðâàòèâíûé to look blue èìåòü óíûëûé âèä things look blue äåëà ïëîõè oxford blue òåìíî-ñèíèé öâåò blue study (ìðà÷íîå) ðàçäóìüå, ðàçìûøëåíèå blue collar (worker) ðàáî÷èé blue fear (ðàçã.) ïàíèêà, çàìåøàòåëüñòâî to be blue õàíäðèòü blue devils óíûíèå blue water îòêðûòîå ìîðå to drink till alls blue äîïèòüñÿ äî áåëîé ãîðÿ÷êè to make/to turn the air blue ñêâåðíîñëîâèòü out of the blue êàê ñ íåáà (ñâàëèòüñÿ)
Read and translate text B. SCHOOL FEE HIKE FEVER RAGES
To many parents sending their children to good schools is becoming an expensive proposition as fees 134
are raised with monotonous regularity, placing a severe strain on their budgets. Time was when education was affordable. Time was when the Ministry of Educations stringent rules permitted a raise in tuition fee only in exceptional cases. Not any longer. With most parents budgets taking a severe beating, they are at their wits end. The fee fever has sapped their energy and weekended their savings. They too suffer rising inflation and appreciating currencies. Where do they turn to? Heres what they say: Education is now being run like a business. The high tuition fees do not anymore justify the services offered at schools. The erratic fee hike imposed each year by the upmarket schools is adding up to the familys financial burden. No new facilities are added at the school so the revision that comes as a bolt from the blue is uncalled for. In defence:
Almost 60 percent of the schools in the city that have asked for a hike in fees have been given the go-ahead and will, from the next academic year, raise the fees by 1020 percent. Here are some of the reasons for the hike in fees that the schools say they have been forced to do. Help offset increasing operational costs. Increasing recruitment and resource costs. High infrastructure costs and teachers salaries. Increasing inflation. The increase includes the costs of additional infrastructure and resources to ensure that the quality of education remains high. Rising costs of rent for teachers accommodation and school buildings; land and construction costs. There are also a number of schools which had requested for an increase in tuition fees but did not deserve any increase and therefore their applications were rejected.
Most schools that have applied for a fee hike this year are private schools or in the process of shifting to new premises. The officials agreed that the current standard has its shortcomings. Therefore, a memorandum has been raised to add new standards and criteria for the ministry of education in this regard. They are hopeful that the new standards will be approved soon. Meanwhile, the increase in fees will be effective next academic year for schools which start in September, while the Asian schools will implement it from next May. Exercise 4
Match each of the words to its definition.
1. diverse 2. charge 3. boarding school 4. average 5. afford 6. nutrition 7. hike 8. facility 9. stringent 10. proposition 11. staff 12. complicated
a) complex or intricate b) proposal, scheme proposed; problem for solution c) unimpeded opportunity d) body of persons working under central direction e) increase, raising f) school in which pupils live during term-time g) demand as price or sum (for) h) have the means; be rich enough i) supplying or receiving (of food) j) strict, requiring, exact k) of usual standard l) varied, changeful; unlike in nature or qualities
Answer the questions.
1. Was education affordable long time ago? 2. Was a raise in tuition fees regular? 136
3. What is parentss attitude to the raise in tuition fees? Why? 4. Do you agree that education is being run like a business now? 5. Do you think that the high tuition fees justify the services offered at schools? 6. Are any new facilities added at schools now? 7. Are tuition fees raised in many schools? 8. What are the reasons for the hike in fees? 9. Is the situation with education in Turkey like in other countries?
Read and translate the sentences, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. Americans are known to tend to be individualistic. 2. Private schools, like Harrow, are more likely to do well than ordinary schools. 3. The high tuition fees are not justified, education being unaffordable for many families. 4. The plane proved to be comfortable. 5. This manager is known to ask questions instead of giving orders. 6. He left the party without saying a word. 7. Most parents budget decreasing, sending children to good schools has become impossible. 8. Harrow, the second best school in the UK after Eton, is known to have been founded in 1571. 9. Some companies appear to be run effectively and respond to our needs. 10. Private schools in Britain are known to be called public. 11. The school principal drew parents attention to raising fees from the following academic year. 12. The boss told the secretary to carry out that assignment urgently. 13. Being close to the tsar, the Lyceum prepared young men for the important sectors of public service. 137
14. Regular physical exersices are believed to improve our psychological state.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Ñ÷èòàeòñÿ, ÷òî ìåëêèå óäîâîëüñòâèÿ óñïîêàèâàþò ÷åëîâåêà. 2. Îêàçûâàåòñÿ, ýòà ñòàòüÿ íàïèñàíà ñïåöèàëèñòîì, õîòÿ â ýòî òðóäíî ïîâåðèòü. 3. Âðÿä ëè ýòî ïîìåùåíèå ìîæíî èñïîëüçîâàòü êàê êëàññ. 4. Ó÷èòåëÿ õîòÿò, ÷òîáû âñå ó÷åíèêè áûëè äèñöèïëèíèðîâàííû è õîðîøî ó÷èëèñü, ÷òî, ê ñîæàëåíèþ, íåâîçìîæíî. 5. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî â Àìåðèêå ìíîãèå äåòè íå õîäÿò â øêîëó. 6. Êîíêóðñíàÿ ðàáîòà, êîòîðóþ äîëæíû áûëè âûïîëíèòü ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ðàçíûõ øêîë, áûëà äîâîëüíî òðóäíîé. 7. Âîò èçìåíåíèÿ, êîòîðûå íóæíî âíåñòè â ðàñïèñàíèå äî íà÷àëà ñåìåñòðà. 8. Íåóäèâèòåëüíî, ÷òî åãî äîêëàä îêàçàëñÿ ëó÷øèì, îí õîðîøî çíàåò ëèòåðàòóðó. 9. Îí, îêàçûâàåòñÿ, òîæå ó÷èëñÿ â íàøåé øêîëå. 10. Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû ïîñòóïèòü â ýòó ãèìíàçèþ, íóæíî ïðîéòè êîíêóðñ. 11. Íàâåðíîå, íå âñå âûïóñêíèêè ýòîãî èíñòèòóòà ðàáîòàþò ïî ñïåöèàëüíîñòè. 12. Âîò ïèñüìî, êîòîðîå íóæíî îòïðàâèòü êàê ìîæíî ñêîðåå, ïîòîìó ÷òî ìû çàèíòåðåñîâàíû â òîì, ÷òîáû ïîáûñòðåå ïîëó÷èòü îòâåò. TEST
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. In a democratic country (1 ) Great Britain the press ideally has three political functions: information, discussion and representation. It is supposed 138
(2 ) the voter reliable and complete information to base his judgment on. It should let him (3 ) the arguments for and against policy, and it should reflect the desires of the people as a whole. The British are one of the biggest newspaper-reading nations in the world. There are about 130 daily and Sunday newspapers, over 2,000 weekly newspapers and some 7,000 periodical publications in Britain. All the newspapers, (4 ) daily or Sunday can (5 ) into two groups: quality papers and popular papers. Quality papers include The Times, The Guardian, Daily Telegraph, The Financial Times, The Observer, The Sunday Times, and The Sunday Telegraph. They (6 ) national and international news. The distinction between quality and (7 ) papers is (8 ) primarily of educational level. Quality papers are those newspapers (9 ) are intended for the well educated people. All the rest are generally (10 ) popular newspapers. The most important of them are News of the World, Daily Mirror, The Sun, Daily Express. 1. a) as
2. a) give
c) to give
3. a) know
c) to know
4. a) whether
5. a) divide
c) be divided
6. a) report
b) are reported c) reports
7. a) informative
8. a) three
9. a) which
b) to call
10. a) call
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N LIKES AND DISLIKES It suits me. Its just my cup of tea. I dont care for that.
Thats more like that. Id rather we took our guest
Husband: Wife: Husband: Wife: Husband: Wife:
PLANS FOR ENTERTAINMENT (Dialogue) Well, now lets talk things over. Id like our guest to have a good time in London, you know. Naturally. What kind of entertainment have you in mind? A bit of sightseeing maybe, as it is his first visit here. Then we could do a theatre perhaps. Thats more like it. What about a show at the Music Hall? No Music Hall for me, thank you. Its not my cup of tea at all, and I dont think our guest would care for that sort of thing either. Id rather we took our guest to the Old Vic. It suits me.
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS Never offer to teach fish to swim. Ó÷åíîãî ó÷èòü òîëüêî ïîðòèòü. He will never set the Thames on fire. Îí çâåçä ñ íåáà íå õâàòàåò.
U N I T 10
Let the other people save face*. Dale Carnegie
Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (if-Ñlauses)
Text A. What Makes a Good Manager? Bill Gates 10 Tips Text B. Stress Interview Short Conversation
SECTION A If-Clauses
I. Indicative Mood If the weather is fine, we will go to the park.
Åñëè ïîãîäà áóäåò õîðîøàÿ, ìû ïîéäåì â ïàðê.
II. Subjunctive Mood If the weather were (was) Åñëè áû çàâòðà ïîãîäà fine tomorrow, we would áûëà õîðîøàÿ, ìû áû go to the park. ïîøëè â ïàðê. (= Were the weather fine, ) III. Subjunctive Mood 1) If the weather had been Åñëè áû â ïðîøëûå âûfine last weekend, we would õîäíûå ïîãîäà áûëà õîðîhave gone to the park. øàÿ, ìû áû ïîøëè â ïàðê. * Äàéòå ëþäÿì âîçìîæíîñòü ñîõðàíèòü ñâîþ ðåïóòàöèþ.
(= Had the weather been fine, ) 2) But for Ann, he couldnt have got the dictionary.
Åñëè áû íå Àíÿ, îí áû íå ñìîã äîñòàòü ñëîâàðü.
Translate the sentences into Russian. Define the type of the if-clauses. 1. If the author doesnt like people, people wont like his or her stories. 2. If Bill Gates hadnt been a software manager himself, there is no way he could have achieved his goal. 3. If I had been you I would undoubtedly have behaved as you have. 4. She couldnt have been much more bitter even if I had accused her of stealing something. 5. Had he said to her rude words only once, it might have been forgiven. 6. Theodore Roosevelt would never have been President of the United States if he hadnt had a challenge. 7. Were he a top manager how would he handle this problem? 8. When Theodore Roosevelt was in the White House, he confessed that if he could be right 75 percent of the time he could reach the highest measure of his expectations. 9. If you can be sure of being right only 55 percent of the time you can go down to Wall Street and make a million dollars a day. 10. If you cant be sure of being right even 55 percent of the time, why should you tell other people they are wrong? 11. If the student had known the quotation from Shakespeare, he would have passed the exam. 142
12. If he could have avoided the acute angle, he would have reached better result in negotiations. 13. But for him, I shouldnt have been able to finish my work in time. 14. If I hadnt been given a lesson, I would have made a mistake. 15. If any man ever had an occasion to criticize, surely it was young Lincoln. 16. What would you do if you were in my shoes?
Exercise 2 Complete the sentences. 1. If I hadnt been sure of it, 2. He is very reliable, he would have done it, if 3. If you wanted to take part in the discussion, you 4. Were I in your place, 5. If I had been told about the conference, I 6. Could I have the possibility to go to London, I 7. If this matter were solved in the nearest future 8. If we could have anticipated the results, we 9. Had he studied hard, he 10. She would have sent the telegram, if 11. If you had been more attentive, you 12. The letter would have been received in time, if 13. If the experienced employees had been hired by that company, 14. Were I invited to his birthday party, I 15. But for my friend,
Exercise 3 Translate the sentences into English using if-clauses. 1. Åñëè áû ìíå ñêàçàëè îá ýòîì ðàíüøå, ÿ áû íå ïîâåðèë. 2. Åñëè áû ýòîò ìåíåäæåð áûë õîðîøèì ïñèõîëîãîì, åìó áûëî áû ëåã÷å ðåøàòü âîïðîñû, ñâÿçàííûå ñ ïåðñîíàëîì. 143
3. Îí áû íàïèñàë ñòàòüþ â æóðíàë, åñëè áû åìó ïðåäëîæèëè. 4. Åñëè áû ìû îòïðàâèëè ïîñûëêó íåäåëþ íàçàä, îíà áû ïðèøëà ê Íîâîìó ãîäó. 5. Áóäü ÿ íà òâîåì ìåñòå, ÿ áû ïðîêîíñóëüòèðîâàëñÿ ó þðèñòà. 6. ß áû íàâåñòèë åãî, åñëè áû çíàë, ÷òî îí áîëåí. 7. Åñëè áû ñîòðóäíèêè ýòîé ôèðìû ëó÷øå çíàëè äåëîâîé ýòèêåò, èì áûëî áû ëåã÷å îáùàòüñÿ ñ çàðóáåæíûìè ïàðòíåðàìè. 8. Âû ìîãëè áû ñêàçàòü åé ïðàâäó, åñëè áû óâèäåëè åå? 9. Áûëî áû ñòðàííî, åñëè áû åãî óâîëèëè çà îïîçäàíèå. 10. Åñëè áû êîíòðàêò áûë ïîäïèñàí, ñåêðåòàðü ñîîáùèë áû âàì îá ýòîì. 11. Åñëè áû ÿ çíàë, ÷òî ýòî íåîáõîäèìî, ÿ áû ñäåëàë âñå âîçìîæíîå, ÷òîáû âûïîëíèòü åãî ïðîñüáó. 12. Åñëè ìíå ïðåäëîæàò ðàáîòó â ýòîé ôèðìå, ÿ îòêàæóñü. 13. Åñëè áû íå ìîè äðóçüÿ, ÿ áû íå çíàë, êàê ñïðàâèòüñÿ ñ ýòîé ïðîáëåìîé. 14. Åñëè áû ìåíåäæåð èçìåíèë ñâîå ðåøåíèå, ñëóæàùèå íå ïîíÿëè áû åãî. 15. Åñëè áû òû ñêàçàë ìíå îá ýòîì ðàíüøå, ÿ áû ïîñòóïèë ïî-äðóãîìó.
SECTION B Read and translate text A.
WHAT MAKES A GOOD MANAGER? BILL GATES 10 TIPS
There isnt a magic formula for good managers, of course, but if youre a manager perhaps these tips will help you be more effective. 1. Choose a field thoughtfully. Make it one you enjoy. Its hard to be productive without genuine 144
enthusiasm. This is true wherever youre a manager or employee. 2. Hire carefully and be willing to fire. You need a strong team, because a mediocre team gives mediocre results, no matter how well managed it is. One common mistake is holding onto somebody who doesnt quite measure up. Its easy to keep this person on the job because he isnt terrible at what he does. But a good manager will replace him or move him to a set of responsibilities where he can succeed unambiguously. 3. Create a productive environment. This is a particular challenge because it requires different approaches depending on the context. Sometimes you maximize productivity by giving everybody his or her own office. Sometimes you achieve it by moving everybody into open space. Sometimes you use financial incentives to stimulate productivity. A combination of approaches is usually required. One element that almost always increases productivity is providing an information system that empowers employees. When I was building Microsoft, I set out to create an environment where software developers could thrive. I wanted a company where engineers liked to work. I wanted to create a culture that encouraged them to work together, share ideas and remain highly motivated. If I hadnt been a software engineer myself, theres no way I could have achieved my goal. 4. Define success. Make it clear to your employees what constitutes success and how they should measure their achievements. Goals must be realistic. Project schedules, for example, must be set by the people who do the work. People will accept a bottoms-up deadline they helped set but theyll be cynical about a schedule imposed from the top that doesnt map to reality. Unachievable goals undermine an organization.
At my company, in addition to regular team meetings and one-on-one sessions between managers and employees, we use mass gatherings periodically and e-mail routinely to communicate what we expect from employees. 5. To be a good manager, you have to like people and be good at communicating. This is hard to fake. If you dont genuinely enjoy interacting with people, itll be hard to manage them well. You must have a wide range of personal contacts within your organization. You need relationships not necessarily personal friendships with a fair number of people, including your own employees. You must encourage these people to tell you whats going on (good or bad) and give you feedback about what people are thinking about the company and your role in it. 6. Develop your people to do their jobs better than you can. Transfer your skills to them. This is an exciting goal but it can be threatening to a manager who worries that hes training his replacement. If youre concerned, ask your boss: If I develop somebody who can do my job super well, does the company have some other challenge for me or not? Many smart managers like to see their employees increase their responsibilities because it frees the managers to tackle new or undone tasks. 7. Build morale. Make clear theres plenty of good will to go around and that its not just you as some hotshot manager whos going to look good if things go well. Give people sense of importance of what theyre working on its importance to the company, its importance to customers. When you achieve great results, everybody involved should share in the credit and feel good about it. 8. Take on projects yourself. You need to do more than communicate. 146
The last thing people want is a boss who just doles out stuff. From time to time prove you can be handson by taking on one of the less attractive tasks and using it as an example of how your employees should meet challenges. 9. Dont make the same decision twice. Spend the time and thought to make a solid decision the first time so that you dont revisit the issue unnecessarily. If you are too willing to reopen issues it interferes not only with your execution but also with your motivation to make a decision in the first place. People hate indecisive leadership, so you have to make choice. However, that doesnt mean you have to decide everything the moment it comes to your attention. Nor that you cant ever reconsider a decision. 10. Let people know whom to please. Maybe its you, maybe its your boss and maybe its somebody who works for you. Youre in trouble and risking paralysis in your organization when employees start saying to themselves: Am I supposed to be making this person happy or this other person happy? They seem to have different priorities. I dont pretend that these are the only 10 approaches a manager should keep in mind, or even that theyre the most important ones. There are lots of others. But these 10 ideas may help you manage well, and I hope they do.
Exercise 4 Answer the questions. 1. What do you know about Bill Gates? 2. Why should we choose a field of our activity thoughtfully? 3. Why does Bill Gates recommend to hire employees carefully and be willing to fire them? 4. What does productive environment mean? 5. What is Microsoft company characterized by? 147
6. Why is a project schedule set by the employees more effective than a schedule imposed from the top? 7. Why is it necessary for a productive manager to be good at communicating? 8. Do you know any company where a manager develops his/her subordinates to do their jobs better than he/she does? 9. Why shouldnt a manager make the same decision twice? 10. Are there any recommendations of Bill Gates which are useful for you?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. The pertinent question is not whether the manager is engaged in the communication, but whether he communicates with people well or poorly. 2. Universities state the purposes: teaching, research and training. 3. Remember your objectives when going to negotiations. 4. One of the usual type of the problem people is that the authoritarians talk too much and dont listen enough. 5. He was told that he would be dismissed if he was late for work. 6. This employee was transferred to another department, where his functions were more suitable for him. 7. The day-to-day activities of managers place a high value on effective interpersonal communications. 8. The way in which managers communicate is crucial for obtaining high performance. 9. When there is a vacancy in the company, it is the job of a personnel manager and his department to recruit a new employee. 148
10. A good manager delegates as much routine work as possible. Read and translate text B.
STRESS INTERVIEW A stress interview? Sounds like a Hollywood thriller set in an office, starring Keanu Reeves as a top manager. Not exactly. Its a new HR technology. A stress interview is a testing method for potential employees, like a job interview. Whats different is that the interviewer tries to put the interviewee into an unusual, unexpected situation, and then measure the reaction. So how does it work? For example a person with a medical degree might be asked to draw a simple blood cell on a piece of paper, or an engineer a basic electrical circuit. That doesnt sound very stressful! Next, the interviewer looks at the drawing and laughs, saying something like: You call this a blood cell? Is it really the best you can do? Thats just insulting. Possibly. But the reason for the simple task is just to test how a person reacts, especially if the interviewee is then challenged, told that their effort is wrong or inadequate. But the person interviewed has a doctors degree?! Thats the wrong reaction to stress question, and so would be an attempt to redraw the blood cell or become embarrassed. A correct reaction to Marky Stein, author of Interviews without Fear, would be to lean back from the drawing and calmly say: Yes, I think this is right. It is a blood cell. Is this a popular technique now? Professor Frank Heasley, president and CEO of recruitment association MedZilla.com says its all 149
the rage in the US and if you didnt see the motives of the recruiters, you wouldnt even count on job search success. What kind of stress questions am I likely to face? What would you do if you saw your colleague stealing money from a co-worker? How do you react when you see sexual harassment in the office? If the company failed to get a contract because of you, how would you react? Im not sure. And how do I cope without getting stressed? Just stay calm, smile, pause a few seconds to consider your answer if you need more time, casually utter: Thats a good question! Lets think about this one. Even with seemingly straightforward questions, try to figure out what the recruiter is trying to test. And be confident! But if they can ask you about anything at the stress interview According to Washington lawyer Michael Smith, practicing with Bechert company, the interview can try to surprise you, but it has no right to intimidate you. The recruiter must ask neutral questions, those which are connected with how a person would do the job, without bringing in private issues. If you consider that the interviewers have overstepped the mark, be diplomatic: ask them to return to the matter of the job on offer. In the worst cases you could take legal action against the interviewer. What if I just want to be a flower salesperson, do I have to go through this too? Stress interviews are mainly practiced in investment or consulting firms, professions in which stressful situations often occur. Its natural that a personnel manager would want to see how job applicant would react under pressure. Text is based on materials from the HRM Project (www.ru) run by Begin Group and MedZilla.com.
Exercise 6 Answer the questions. 1. What is a stress interview? 2. What is the purpose of stress interviews? 3. Do you think a stress interview helps to know a job applicant better? 4. Are stress interviews practiced for all jobs? 5. Can a job applicant prepare for a stress interview? How? 6. What recommendations can be taken into account by a job applicant? 7. Are stress interviews practiced in our city? 8. Have you ever had a stress interview?
Exercise 7 Match each of the words to its definition. 1. interfere 2. tackle 3. empower 4. applicant 5. challenge 6. straightforward 7. insult 8. unambiguous 9. fail 10. hire 11. circuit 12. dole (out)
a) employ for wages b) course or path of an electric current c) be missing or insufficient; become extinct, break down d) of one meaning; of undoubtful classification e) treat with scornful abuse; affront f) use money for wages, payment g) enable h) manage or overcome, grasp i) open, frank, of no complications j) one who applies k) invite to contest or duel l) come into collision, opposition (with) 151
Read and translate the sentences, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. If you try to please all, you will please none. 2. He behaves as if he has rats in his attic. 3. Men must be taught as if you taught them not. 4. Id like you to pay more attention to your responsibilities. 5. Priorities are sure to differ among students. 6. If you sell the cow, you sell her milk too. 7. I want my job to allow me to continue my education. 8. If that job had not been interesting for him, he would have changed it. 9. I was given an assignment to be done within three days. 10. When starting in the new position even an experienced manager often requires assistance of his colleagues. 11. Before arriving at the new job the manager usually meets with his new colleagues from different departments. 12. The main goal for managers is establishing relations at all levels. 13. Sometimes companies employ trained specialists to deal with the situation. 14. The consumer culture of young people is certain to be responsible for their outlook.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Åñëè òû íå õî÷åøü, ÷òîáû òåáÿ ðóãàëè, äåëàé âñå âîâðåìÿ. 2. Åñëè áû ýòîò ðóêîâîäèòåëü îáðàùàëñÿ ñ ïîä÷èíåííûìè êàê ñ êîëëåãàìè, à íå êàê ñî ñëóãàìè, îðãàíèçàöèÿ äîáèëàñü áû áîëüøèõ óñïåõîâ. 152
3. Íå êàæäûé ðóêîâîäèòåëü ñîãëàñåí ãîòîâèòü ñåáå çàìåíó, îñîáåííî åñëè îí âûñîêîãî ìíåíèÿ î ñåáå. 4. ß áû èíà÷å ãîòîâèëñÿ ê ñîáåñåäîâàíèþ, åñëè áû ÿ çíàë, ÷òî îíî áóäåò òàêèì òðóäíûì. 5. Åñëè âû ðóêîâîäèòåëü, òî â ñâîåé ïîâñåäíåâíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè âû äîëæíû ïðèäåðæèâàòüñÿ îïðåäåëåííûõ ïðàâèë. 6. Êàê âû äóìàåòå, íóæíî ëè óâîëüíÿòü ñîòðóäíèêà, åñëè íà÷àëüíèê ñ÷èòàåò, ÷òî îí íå ñïðàâëÿåòñÿ ñî ñâîèìè îáÿçàííîñòÿìè? 7. Áèëëó Ãåéòñó óäàëîñü ñîçäàòü êîìàíäó, ñ êîòîðîé åìó áûëî ëåãêî ðàáîòàòü. 8. Åñëè áû ÿ çíàë, êàêîå áîëüøîå çíà÷åíèå èìååò äåëîâîé ýòèêåò äëÿ äåëîâûõ ñâÿçåé, ÿ áû äîñêîíàëüíî èçó÷èë åãî. 9. Îäíà èç ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûõ îøèáîê ðóêîâîäèòåëÿ ýòî èãíîðèðîâàíèå èíòåðåñîâ ñâîèõ ïîä÷èíåííûõ. 10. Åñëè âû ïîñòàâèòå ñîòðóäíèêàì íåäîñòèæèìûå öåëè, òî âåëèêî áóäåò èõ ðàçî÷àðîâàíèå, êîãäà îíè ýòî ïîéìóò. 11. ×òîáû áûòü õîðîøèì ðóêîâîäèòåëåì, íóæíî âî âñåì ïîêàçûâàòü ïðèìåð ñâîèì ïîä÷èíåííûì. 12. Êîìèññèÿ ñòàðàëàñü ïîñòàâèòü ïðåòåíäåíòà â íåîáû÷íîå è íåïðåäâèäåííîå ïîëîæåíèå, íî åìó óäàâàëîñü áëàãîïîëó÷íî âûéòè èç íåãî. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. Henry Henke, a service manager for a large truck dealership in Lowell, Indiana, had a mechanic whose work had become (1 ) than satisfactory. Instead of bawling him out or threatening him, Mr. Henke called him into his office and had a heart-to-heart (2 ) with him. Bill, he said, you are a fine mechanic. You have been in this line of work for a good (3 ) of years. You have repaired many (4 ) to the customers sat153
isfaction. In fact, weve had a number of compliments about the (5 ) work you have done. Yet, (6 ), the time you take to complete each job has been increasing and your work has not been (7 ) your own old standards, and perhaps jointly we could find some way to (8 ) the problem. Bill responded that he hadnt realized he had been falling down in his duties and (9 ) his boss that he would try (10 ) in the future. Did he do it? You can be sure he did. 1. a) little
2. a) discussion
3. a) number
4. a) furniture
5. a) satisfactory
6. a) last time
b) next time
c) of late
7. a) to
b) up to
8. a) correct
9. a) said
10. a) improve
b) improving c) to improve
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N OFFERING REFRESHMENTS What would you like to have? Shall I fetch you a drink? Would you care for a drink? What will you have, tea or coffee? Would you prefer an orange juice? Here is an orange juice. Id love one, thank you. Thank you, an orange juice will do fine. Wont you have a cigarette, Mr. Smith? Yes, please. No, thank you (I dont smoke). May I trouble you for a light?
AT THE PARTY (Dialogue)
We are doing fine. No need to worry, everybody seems to be having a very good time. Shall I fetch you a drink? What would you like to have, a glass of sherry, cocktail, juice? Mother: Yes, please, an orange juice will do fine. Jane: Have the juice, please. And help yourself to the fruit. It goes well with my cocktail. Pete: Wont you have a cigarette, Mrs. King? Mrs. King: No, thank you, Pete, I dont smoke. Pete: What about you, sir? Mr. King: Yes, please. Thats very kind of you, this is my favourite brand. May I trouble you for a light? Pete: Oh, yes, of course, here you are. Jane:
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
No man is wise at all times. ×åëîâåêà áåç îøèáîê íå áûâàåò./Âñå ëþäè ãðåøíû. A bargain is a bargain. Óãîâîð äîðîæå äåíåã.
U N I T 11
Man proposes, but God disposes*.
Grammar: Subjunctive Mood (Subject Clauses It is necessary , It is important )
Text A. Theatergoers Get no Peace from Maddening Mobiles Text B. A New Frontier for Art Is the Cellphone Screen Short Conversation
Subjunctive Mood: Subject Clauses It is necessary.., It is important It is necessary It is important that he (should) come It is strange It is surprising It is possible (= It is necessary/ it is important for him to come.)
Íåîáõîäèìî, Âàæíî, Ñòðàííî, Óäèâèòåëüíî, Âîçìîæíî,
÷òîáû/÷òî îí ïðèøåë.
* Man proposes, but God disposes. ×åëîâåê ïðåäïîëàãàåò, à Áîã ðàñïîëàãàåò.
Translate the sentences into Russian, define the Subjunctive Mood. 1. It is surprising that he shouldnt have known it. 2. It is desirable that the contract be signed as soon as possible. 3. It is probable that the delegation should come tomorrow. 4. That the matter should have taken such a turn is not surprising. 5. It is necessary that the doctor should examine you immediately. 6. It is important that you may rely on his words. 7. It is important that the truth should be found out. 8. It is strange that he shouldnt have a cellphone. 9. It is impossible that he should have behaved so. 10. It is important that an applicant should be experienced. 11. When going to a job interview it is important that you shouldnt lose yourself. 12. It is desirable that you shouldnt be late.
Complete the sentences. 1. When preparing for the examination it is important that 2. It is not surprising that 3. The doctor says that it is desirable that 4. I think it is strange that 5. It was surprising that 6. He says that it wasnt unexpected that 7. She doesnt think that it is possible that 8. It is a pity that she should 9. Is it possible that he should 10. Is it necessary that I 11. Do you think it is impossible that 12. He says it is natural that 157
Translate the sentences into English using the Subjunctive Mood. 1. Æåëàòåëüíî, ÷òîáû âû íàâåñòèëè åå, îíà áîëååò. 2. Íåò íåîáõîäèìîñòè, ÷òîáû âû ãîâîðèëè åé îá ýòîì. 3. Ìîæåò ëè áûòü, ÷òî ñàìîëåò çàäåðæèâàåòñÿ? 4. Áûëî áû åñòåñòâåííî, ÷òîáû îí îïîçäàë, îí âñåãäà îïàçäûâàåò. 5. Íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû êîíòðàêò áûë ïîäïèñàí ñåãîäíÿ æå. 6. Âàæíî, ÷òîáû âû âûïîëíèëè âñå åãî ïîðó÷åíèÿ. 7. Íå ìîæåò áûòü, ÷òîáû îí â ãîñòÿõ âåë ñåáÿ òàê ñòðàííî. 8. Íóæíî, ÷òîáû îí âñå ðàññêàçàë äðóçüÿì. 9. Ñòðàííî, ÷òî îí íå ïîçâîíèë ìíå â÷åðà. 10. Óäèâèòåëüíî, ÷òî îí òàê ðàíî ïðèøåë íà ðàáîòó. 11. Còðàííî, ÷òî ìû íå âñòðåòèëèñü â÷åðà. 12. Íóæíî ëè, ÷òîáû îí ïåðåäåëàë ðàáîòó? 13. Íåîáÿçàòåëüíî ïèñüìåííî îòâå÷àòü íà âñå âîïðîñû. 14. Ñòðàííî, ÷òî îí äî ñèõ ïîð íå ïîçâîíèë, îí îáåùàë ïîçâîíèòü, êàê òîëüêî ïðèåäåò.
SECTION B Read and translate text A. THEATERGOERS GET NO PEACE FROM MADDENING MOBILES From the bow and arrow to nuclear technology the worlds greatest inventions have often been doubleedged swords. Mobile phones are no exception. 158
Whether a resident or a visitor, it is impossible not to notice the multitude of mobile phones in St. Petersburg. On buses and in cafe2s, in parks and in museums, noise from mobile phones clutters the air. To make matters worse, a general lack of voicemail messaging causes St. Petersburgers to answer their phones in circumstances that foreigners consider to be rude. Few dare to answer their phones during a performance in a theater, but a large portion of people with mobile phones forget to turn them off. The ring bleep and vibration destroy the concentration of others in the audience to the finer points of what is going on on the stage. We try to create an atmosphere, an aura, and the phones disturb that. Countless performances have been nearly ruined by mobile phones. Last summer during the performance of Wagners Die Walkyire in the Mariinsky Theater, a mobile phone rang during the Ride of the Walkyries scene, the operas highlight. By coincidence, the ring tone had the same melody, angering the conductor Valery Gergiev but causing the audience to laugh. It shows a lack of culture when people dont turn off their phones. It is necessary that everybody in the theater should turn them off. During a recent festival of modern drama an actor grew so annoyed at a ringing phone that he broke out of character and told the audience member to answer it. Actors routinely complain of the difficulty of getting into character and remembering lines amid the din of mobile phone rings. For an inexperienced actor the results can be disastrous. Audience members are not alone to blame, however. Conductor Pavel Aronovich insists that musicians mobile phones should be turned off during performances as well. 159
Given its persistence, there have been many ideas on how to solve this problem. It would be great to ban mobile phones from the theaters, some people say. There should be a powerful message to members of the audience to switch off or leave their phones at home. In the Mariinsky Theater there is already a lot of security. If they had metal detectors and forced people to leave their phones in the cloak room, that might work, said Aronovich. If people paid fines the problem would be solved, Peoples actress Krachkova said. She suggests a fine of twice the ticket price. Some plans have actually turned into solutions. A festival of modern drama last spring in St. Petersburg at the Lensoviet Theater, a few actors appeared on stage and performed a rap reminding people to turn their phones off. Their plea resulted in success. Net Guard, an Israel-based company manufactures increasingly popular mobile phone jammers. While most buyers are government agencies, their clientele is wide-ranging. Their C-Guard LP model, capable of jamming a mid-range theater, costs around 1,000 US dollars. A British-based company, Global Gadgets, offers similar model with a range of 50 meters for about 2,000 US dollars. Though most industrialized countries have laws against such devices, everyone understands that there is a problem to be solved. At least two detention centers in St. Petersburg have recently begun installing jamming equipment. One theater does not have to worry. The Estrada Theaters walls are so thick mobile phones are impossible to use inside. Despite reputation for pessimism, most Russians remain optimistic. We need two years to solve this problem, they say. 160
Exercise 4 Answer the questions. 1. Are all inventions useful for mankind? 2. There are many mobile phones in our city, arent there? 3. Why do not all people turn their phones off at the theatre? 4. Have you ever been present at the performance which was ruined by mobile phones? 5. What episode took place during the performance of Wagners Die Walkyire in the Mariinsky Theater? 6. What happened during the festival of modern drama? 7. What does Pavel Aronovich say about mobile phones? 8. Do you think fines will help solve the problem? 9. What did an actor who was annoyed at a ringing phone tell the audience during the festival of modern drama? 10. What did an actor of the Maly Drama Theater do before a performance? 11. What countries produce phone jammers? 12. When is Russia going to solve the problem of mobile phones?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. They say it will take them a week to find a solution for this problem. 2. His desk was filled with old papers and it was difficult to find the necessary document. 3. I forgot to switch off the iron and had to come back home, thats why I was late for the performance. 4. Smoking is forbidden in most offices. 161
5. One of the spectators forgot to turn his cellphone off and in the culminative point of the ballet the cellphone bleeped. 6. All of the students had cellphones which bleeped and disturbed the lecture. 7. At the culminative point of the negotiations our partner said that the negotiations should be delayed. 8. A leader tries to make people do things as he wants them to be done. 9. The manager was annoyed with the problem of delivery of the goods in time. 10. The phone ring bothered him when he was writing the report.
Read and translate text B. A NEW FRONTIER FOR ART IS THE CELLPHONE SCREEN
It seems there are few things now that cannot be sent to a cellphone games, pictures, videos. Top 40 music, live television and soon, companies promise, full-length feature films. So why not contemporary art? In March, a New York-based Web-site that celebrates graffiti and other street art began testing a system to address this shortcoming by allowing art lovers to down-load images created by emerging artists onto the video screens of their cellphones. Calling it a curated online art gallery for your mobile phone, the founders of the Web-site, Wooster collective.com, are hoping it will provide a new way for struggling young artists to make money. Many of the images in the projects first gallery show are familiar ones to fans of the kind of stickers, posters, freehand graffiti and stenciled paintings known as street art which appear on walls, mailboxes and bus stops in cities around the world. 162
Some practitioners, like Shepard Fairey, a Los Angeles artist considered one of the fathers of sticker art, have significant followings and have been able to get gallery shows and lucrative design and marketing work for clothing and record companies. But other street artists make little money. Is it possible that they should use this project? The founders of the cellphone project say they hope thousands of their fans around the world will be willing to pay their carriers 1.99 US dollars per image to have their work as wallpaper on their phones tiny screens. How much of revenue stream it will be will depend on a lot of factors, said Schiller, who founded the Web-site and the cellphone gallery with his wife, Sara. But the goal is really to try to find a way to help artists do what they do for a living. The artists will receive 11 percent of the money made when their images are downloaded, Mr. Schiller said. An additional 12 percent will go to Keep a Child Alive, a charity that provides medicine in Africa and elsewhere to children and adults who are H.I.V.-positive or have AIDS. The rest of the money goes to pay costs, Mr. Schiller said, adding that he and his wife make no money from the project. Nokia, the cellphone company, began a similar program last year. Mr. Schiller, who acknowledged in an interview that he had never downloaded an image onto his cellphone, said that since project began on March 14, several hundred people a day from various countries had downloaded the images.
Exercise 6 Answer the questions. 1. What kind of information can be downloaded in a cellphone? 2. When did the project gallery show start? 163
3. Do you think the new aspect of using cellphones will provide a new way to make money for young artists? 4. Why are many images in the project gallery show familiar to fans of stickers, posters and so on? 5. What is Shepard Fairey famous for? 6. What will the payment per image be according to the founders of the new cellphone project? 7. Who founded the Web-site and cellphone art gallery? 8. Do many people download gallery art?
Match each of the words with its definifion. 1. contemporary 2. rap 3. bleep 4. sword 5. lucrative 6. invention 7. audience 8. performance 9. emerge 10. fine 11. sticker 12. cause
a) thing invented; any new manufactured thing b) sum of money fixed as penalty c) come into view; rise into notice d) performing of play; carrying out; doing e) label or other paper gammed back; dogged or persistent person f) make (person) do, induce g) assembly of listeners or spectators h) belonging to the same time; modern i) slight blow j) ring; phone sound k) offensive weapon for cutting or thrusting, consisting of long blade with a handle l) yielding gain; profitable
Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. Mobile phones are certain to be used widely all over the world. 2. Some people think that if fines are introduced the problem with the cellphones will be settled. 3. It is necessary that all employees should develop their skills. 4. When achieving good results everybody should share success. 5. Providing an information system that empowers employees can increase productivity. 6. I heard the cellphone cluttering and remembered about the message I was to send. 7. Before entering the theatre one should switch off the cellphone. 8. Being productive without genuine enthusiasm is hard. 9. Having made the decision, the manager shouldnt change it. 10. If he had consulted a lawyer the matter could have been solved better. 11. If I had been fired without any reason, I would have required explanation. 12. The staff being hired carefully, the performance of the team was high. 13. Stress interview technique being used, the interviewee was placed in vulnerable position. 14. If he had been told that his behavior was inadequate, he would have been appalled.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Ïðîäàâåö ãðóáî ðàçãîâàðèâàë ñ êëèåíòîì è, ÷òî õóæå âñåãî, îí ñ÷èòàåò, ÷òî îí ïðàâ. 165
2. Åñëè áû âû áûëè äîñòàòî÷íî íàñòîé÷èâû, âû áû ñìîãëè äîáèòüñÿ ïîäïèñàíèÿ äîãîâîðà ñ áðèòàíñêîé ôèðìîé. 3. Íóæíî, ÷òîáû îí ïîíÿë, ÷òî îò íåãî ìíîãîå çàâèñèò. 4. Ñîâåùàíèå, êîòîðîå äîëæíî ïðîéòè â áëèæàéøåì áóäóùåì, áóäåò ïîñâÿùåíî ïåðñïåêòèâàì ðàáîòû íàøåé ôèðìû. 5. Ìîæåò áûòü, îí è áûë íà ëåêöèè, íî ÿ åãî íå âèäåë. 6. Ìåíÿ ïðåäóïðåäèëè, ÷òî íåîáõîäèìî âûêëþ÷èòü âñå ýëåêòðîïðèáîðû, êîãäà ÿ áóäó óõîäèòü èç ëàáîðàòîðèè. 7. Êîãäà åãî ñïðîñèëè, êàêîé ïðîåêò áóäåò îáñóæäàòüñÿ íà ñîáðàíèè, îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî íå èìååò ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ. 8. Íàâåðíîå, íåìíîãî íàéäåòñÿ ëþäåé, êîòîðûì íðàâèòñÿ ïîïàäàòü â ñòðåññîâûå ñèòóàöèè. 9. Ïîñëå ïðîñëóøèâàíèÿ íîâîé ïüåñû ðåæèññ¸ð ñêàçàë, ÷òî æåëàòåëüíî, ÷òîáû àâòîð âí¸ñ íåêîòîðûå èçìåíåíèÿ. 10. ß áû íà åãî ìåñòå ïðèí¸ñ èçâèíåíèÿ âñåì ñîòðóäíèêàì çà òî, ÷òî èì ïðèøëîñü çàäåðæàòüñÿ íà ðàáîòå. 11. Òåëåôîííàÿ ñëóæáà ïðåäîñòàâëÿåò íîâóþ óñëóãó «Ëîêàòîð», êîòîðàÿ ïîçâîëÿåò óñòàíîâèòü ìåñòîíàõîæäåíèå ñîòîâîãî òåëåôîíà. 12. Õîðîøåìó ðóêîâîäèòåëþ íåîáõîäèìî èìåòü êîíòàêò ñ áîëüøèíñòâîì ñîòðóäíèêîâ, ÷òîáû çíàòü èõ èíòåðåñû è ïîæåëàíèÿ. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. When Julius Caesar, Roman (1 ), invaded Britain in BC 5455, the Celtic tribes lived on the British (2 ). Their Celtic languages (3 ) survive as Gaelic in Scotland and Ireland, Welsh in Wales, 166
and Manx in the Isle of Man, as (4 ) as Breton in France. The Romans brought (5 ) to Britain, which was part of the Roman Empire (6 ) over 400 years. But early English did not develop mainly from Latin. So it is unlike French, Spanish and Italian, which did (7 ) directly from Latin. Early English was the language of the tribes (8 ) invaded from the East, from what is now Germany. They (9 ) different dialects of a Germanic language from which modern German (10 ). This explains why German and English are often similar, as many of their words developed from the same original language. 1. a) King 2. a) Ñontinent 3. a) yet 4. a) well 5. a) Slavonic 6. a) during 7. a) came 8. a) who 9. a) told 10. a) develop
b) Tsar b) Isles b) still b) good b) Indian b) for b) coming b) whom b) said b) developed
c) Emperor c) Peninsular c) already c) such c) Latin c) in time c) come c) which c) spoke c) will develop
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N DISAPROVAL AND OBJECTION Id rather you didnt do it*. I must put my foot down. I dont mind your doing it. I dont mind if you do it. Do it if you like. So far as I am concerned you may. If I were you Id do it. Youd better do it. * Id rather you didnt do it. ß áû íå õîòåë, ÷òîáû âû ýòî äåëàëè.
Lets get down to it or your mother will be back before well settle anything. Son: What do you mean? Father: Dont you remember? Its Mothers birthday in ten days time. Son: But of course, I do. Ive already got just the thing for her. But you, Ellen, you wont spill the beans? Daughter: Certainly not, what do you take me for? Father: If I were you, Mike, Id tell her. Son: Would you mind my switching the electric fire on, its rather chilly. Father: Switch it on if you like, I dont mind. Daughter: Id rather you didnt, Im too warm. But what about that birthday? Son: Lets have a party. We might have all our friends in. Father: So far as Im concerned you may have a few, but Id rather you didnt ask too many people. If its a big party, I must put my foot down, Im afraid. I dont mind your inviting friends, but not all of them.
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS A shy cat makes a proud mouse. Ó ðîáêîé êîøêè ìûøü ðåçâèòñÿ. The idle brain is the devils workshop. Îò áåçäåëüÿ âñÿêàÿ äóðü â ãîëîâó ëåçåò.
U N I T 12
When the peace has been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries everywhere is in danger. Franklin Roosevelt
Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (Object Clauses with verbs insist, require and others)
Text A. Three British Parties Agree on Strict Terrorism Laws Text B. Germans Like Details, Russians Value Speed Short Conversation
SECTION A The Subjunctive Mood: Object Clauses 1) The manager insists that he (should) come. (= The manager insists on his coming.) demands requires advises recommends suggests proposes agrees orders commands arranged
Ìåíåäæåð íàñòàèâàåò íà òîì, ÷òîáû îí ïðèøåë. òðåáóåò ñîâåòóåò ðåêîìåíäóåò ïðåäëàãàåò ñîãëàøàåòñÿ ïðèêàçûâàåò äîãîâîðèëñÿ 169
2) I regret Im sorry Im disappointed Im surprised
that you should ß ñîæàëåþ, think so. ÷òî âû òàê (= that you think äóìàåòå. so) ß ðàçî÷àðîâàí ß óäèâëåí
Translate the sentences into Russian, define the Object Clauses. 1. The doctor insists that the patient should be taken to the hospital. 2. The lawyer didnt recommend that the contract should be signed. 3. The professor advised that the student should use the notes on the subject. 4. I am disappointed that he should have failed in the examination. 5. The employees suggested that the discussion should be delayed. 6. The commander ordered that the officers should arrive at 17.00. 7. I regret that he should have behaved such a way. 8. The sellers demanded that the goods should be delivered within five days. 9. The partners arranged that the negotiations should be held in a week. 10. Im sorry that you should have done it. 11. The teacher was disappointed that the students should have learnt so little at their English classes. 12. The customer required that faulty parts of the equipment should be replaced at the sellers expense. 13. They were disappointed that their friends shouldnt have enjoyed the party. 14. I regret that you shouldnt know it. 170
Exercise 2 Change the sentences using Subjunctive Mood. 1. He suggested going for a walk. 2. The director insisted on signing the contract as soon as possible. 3. Everybody was surprised at his coming so early. 4. She was interested in being informed about all the details of the talks. 5. I was sorry for having interrupted their conversation. 6. I am surprised at your enjoying that film. 7. He was disappointed at having attended the lecture. 8. The boss ordered the secretary to send the fax immediately. 9. The general director demanded the employees to gather at 3 pm. 10. We were disappointed when we didnt find them at home. 11. The customer insisted on replacing the faulty part of the device. 12. He ordered to deliver the goods as soon as possible.
Exercise 3 Translate the sentences into English using Subjunctive Mood. 1. Âðà÷ íàñòàèâàåò, ÷òîáû ÿ ïðèíèìàë ëåêàðñòâà ðåãóëÿðíî. 2. Íà÷àëüíèê ïðèêàçàë, ÷òîáû ïèñüìî áûëî ïåðåâåäåíî è îòïðàâëåíî ê 5 ÷àñàì. 3. Îí ðåêîìåíäîâàë íàì ïîéòè íà âûñòàâêó àâòîìîáèëåé. 4. ß äóìàþ, ÷òî îí áûë ðàçî÷àðîâàí òåì, ÷òî íèêòî íå ïîñëåäîâàë åãî ñîâåòó. 5. Îí áóäåò ðàçî÷àðîâàí, êîãäà åãî ñòàòüÿ áóäåò íàïå÷àòàíà, òàê êàê îíà ñèëüíî ñîêðàùåíà. 171
6. Ìîé äðóã ïðåäëîæèë, ÷òîáû ìû ïðîâåëè ëåòî íà åãî äà÷å. 7. ß óäèâëåí, ÷òî âû íå çíàåòå òàêèõ ïðîñòûõ âåùåé. 8. Ìû áûëè ðàçî÷àðîâàíû òåì, ÷òî îí óåõàë, íå ïðîñòèâøèñü ñ íàìè. 9. Ñîòðóäíèêè ïîòðåáîâàëè, ÷òîáû èì ïîâûñèëè çàðïëàòó. 10. Ìíå ïîñîâåòîâàëè, ÷òîáû ÿ óçíàë î ôèðìå êàê ìîæíî áîëüøå ïåðåä òåì, êàê ÿ ïîéäó íà ñîáåñåäîâàíèå ïî ïîâîäó ðàáîòû. 11. ß î÷åíü ñîæàëåþ, ÷òî âû òàê ïîñòóïèëè. 12. Îíà áûëà óäèâëåíà, ÷òî íå çíàëà îá ýòîì. 13. ß ñîæàëåþ, ÷òî áûë ãðóá ñ âàìè. Ïðîñòèòå ìåíÿ, ïîæàëóéñòà. 14. ß áûë óäèâëåí òåì, ÷òî îí ñîâñåì íå ïîíèìàåò ìåíÿ.
SECTION B Read and translate text A. THREE BRITISH PARTIES AGREE ON STRICT TERRORISM LAWS Agreement on strict terrorism laws is more a common-sense response to the situation rather than any great change of policy. Blair met with Michael Howard, the leader of the Conservative Party, and Charles Kennedy, the leader of the Liberal Democrats. They agreed that several measures should be proposed new legislation, including the creation of laws against the preparation and incitement of terrorism, and the training of terrorists. A new law would give the home secretary the power, too, to deport or refuse entry to people with a record of inciting terrorism. The new laws are to be considered in the autumn when Parliament returns from its 172
summer recess, but are virtually assured of passage because of the agreement between the leaders. There remain other issues to be worked out, many of them on a wish list of new legislation put forward by the police and security services. Perhaps the most contentious of these is the proposal to increase the amount of time that terrorism suspects can be detained by the authorities without being charged with a crime. Currently, such suspects can be held for seven days, a period that can be increased to 14 with a special permission. The security services would like to increase the time to three times. Another proposal, broadly supported by both the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats, would change the law to allow the use of intercepted wiretap evidence in court. Two other measures, supported by the Conservatives, would create a dedicated police force for Britains borders, including airports and ports. The Liberal Democrats, usually the party most concerned with civil liberties, said that they were scrutinizing the new proposals closely but were eager to preserve the new cross-party consensus. We dont want the situation where weve signed up to one thing and then have it turn out to be slightly different, said Tim Colbourne, the partys adviser on home affairs. We would be the first party to stand up and shout if the government was proposing something unacceptable, but were broadly happy with this. Mark Oaten, the partys home affairs spokesman, said that he felt the governments approach had so far been balanced and constructive.
Exercise 4 Answer the questions. 1. What is the policy against terrorism? 2. What leaders did Tony Blair meet with?
3. Are there any laws against terrorism? 4. What new power should a new law give to the home secretary? 5. What other important proposals were put forward by the parties? 6. What is the proposal of the Conservatives? 7. Do you think that the cross-party consensus will help to take real measures against terrorism?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. Before signing the contract our manager studied it carefully. 2. We want to keep the cooperation with the British company and establish relations with other foreign countries. 3. The UK constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government, which puts the laws into effect, and the law courts, which interpret laws. 4. As a matter of fact, we fulfilled our commitments according to the contract. 5. The head of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister. 6. This question cant be settled now because the Committee is having holidays. 7. It is arguable whether our employees should take part in this project. 8. If our representatives had been present at the discussion, they could have proved that our goods were of high quality. 9. The most widespread freshwater fish found in England are trout and salmon. 10. About 20 percent of elementary and secondary schools are organized and maintained by the local governments and supported entirely by the British public funds. 174
Read and translate text B.
GERMANS LIKE DETAILS, RUSSIANS VALUE SPEED Russians perception of modern Germany is a mix of respect for its economic achievements and romantic affection for its cultural heritage. Nevertheless, the Germans addiction to schedules makes working with Russians difficult, locals say with a smile. Russia is not a country where you can plan far ahead, they say. Germans form the biggest foreign business community in Russia and are not lagging in cultural and educational exchanges either. Some 800 to 1,500 Germans are believed to live in St. Petersburg, most of them affiliated with either German or Russian companies, the statistics published this year by the House of German business in St. Petersburg said. The Russian market is perceived as something of a minefield, respondents said in the project called Perceptions of Germany and the Germans in Russia, conducted in late 2003. And although many Russians agree their country lacks clarity, transparency and political stability, Germans still target the Russian market because of its growth and potential, said the report. The research was ordered by the German Consulate General in St. Petersburg and carried out by the Center for Independent Sociological Research. On the other hand, Russian respondents said Germans were very cautious in business matters and not active enough due to legislative obstacles, the study reported. Several respondents recommend that Russians should be appointed as directors in joint venture Russian-German companies and representatives of German firms in Russia, as Germans do not have a complete understanding of Russian ways. Those Russians who had experienced working in Germany 175
liked that Germans did not give unrealistic promises and did not agree to accept overstated proposals. German employers treat their employees with great respect. They do not have the practice of Im the boss, youre the fool. The employees have the right to know everything, an interviewee said. Germans are accustomed to a different rhythm of life it is calmer and more predictable, Russian respondents said. For example, a German teacher asked the class to explain the notion of stress, the report told. Russians said that a relatives death was stressful. The German teacher did not accept the definition. Death is worse than stress. An example of stress is a bus leaving the station earlier than you arrived, she explained. In another situation described in the report, a German employee was distressed by the fact that it was snowing outside. She was worried how she would get home and could not concentrate on her work. Deviations from the accepted norm or schedule generally make Germans nervous, respondents said. German punctuality at work is reflected in meticulous planning of their days, weeks and even the whole year, the Russian interviewees said. Germans keep their promises much better than other nations, agreed a young Russian businessman. On the other hand, too much specialization may also cause problems. Narrow specialization of duties may be a serious problem in Germany. At a German company it is often difficult to find the person responsible for the precise issue in question. The key to the German heart is sincerity. Germans have difficulties with saying the truth directly in your face, so when you suddenly speak out openly, their hearts melt. For example, if you ask a German, Is my accent a problem for your understanding me? you are going to deserve your opponents respect. The key to the German mind is reliability. If you fulfill all your promises on time, everything will run
smoothly. The Germans are easy to work with, because you can count on the goals you have set together. Germans do not like to have any moral liabilities before their partners. If you help them, they will definitely return the favor. Germans have a complex of their own. Many of them dont think other nations like them. On the other hand, Russian respondents admitted that they tended to be more careful in what they said and the way they behaved when communicating with Western Europeans, because they felt they were being examined. Lack of good German language skills also make Russians feel self-conscious. To many respondents, speaking English to Germans helps break the ice, because it puts both sides into equal positions. The longer the Russian respondents lived in Germany, the more they found in common between Russians and Germans in general. Some Russians speak of strong emotional connections with the German culture. A young respondent said, When I came to Germany I bought a stereo and some CDs, including Beethoven, because I really like him. It suddenly struck me that it was there that he had heard and written down the tunes that are sounding in my head.
Exercise 6 Answer the questions. 1. What for do the Russians respect Germans first of all? 2. What is the Germans and the Russians addiction to schedule like? 3. How is the Russian market perceived by Germans? 4. By whom was the sociological research ordered and carried out? 5. Whom do respondents see as the directors of joint ventures? Why?
6. What is the German and Russian rhythm of life like? 7. What is stress for a German employee? 8. How do Germans and Russians keep their promises? 9. Why does speaking English in Germany help break the ice in communication? 10. Do you think there is anything in common between German and Russian cultures?
Match each of the words with its definition.
1. uncitement 2. measure 3. perception 4. intercept 5. contentious 6. legislation 7. charity 8. response 9. home secretary 10. scrutinize 11. recess 12. selfconscious
a) vacation; temporary cessation from work b) laws c) answer d) involving dispute, controvercy e) look closely at; examine in detail f) Minister in charge of Department of home affairs g) having consciousness of ones identity h) size or quantity found by measuring i) Christian love of fellowmen; kindness j) intuitive recognition k) urging; stirrig up l) seize, catch smth on the way from place to place
Read and translate the sentences, define the forms and functions of verbs and verbals. 1. The lawyer recommended that we should study closely the terms of payment once more before signing the contract. 178
2. I wouldnt like my friend to be interested only in money. 3. My scientific adviser recommended me to write more extensive introduction. 4. Would you like me to show you round the city? 5. Stress interview being used, the interviewee was placed in a vulnerable position and couldnt make a good impression on the interviewers. 6. I think his project could have been more interesting if he had used the latest information on the subject. 7. Unlike the Russians, Germans seem to be very cautious in business matters. 8. After meeting the delegates at the airport we took them to the hotel. 9. He is not only the first to come to the office, but he is also the first to leave it. 10. British parties agree that a new law should give the home secretary the power to deport or refuse entry to the people with a record of inciting terrorism. 11. If you fulfilled your promises on time, everything would run smoothly. 12. Our packing having been done, we left for the station. 13. 1,500 Germans are believed to live in St. Petersburg, most of them affiliated with either German businesses or Russian ones. 14. He was expected to face stressful questions at the interview.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Ó÷àñòíèêè ñîâåùàíèÿ íàñòàèâàëè íà òîì, ÷òîáû îñòàëüíûå âîïðîñû áûëè ïåðåíåñåíû íà ñëåäóþùåå çàñåäàíèå. 2. Ñîîáùàþò, ÷òî íà ôîðóìå áûëî âûäâèíóòî ïðåäëîæåíèå î ñîâìåñòíîé ðàáîòå ñòðàí-ó÷àñòíèö â îáëàñòè çàùèòû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû. 179
3. Ìèíèñòð âíóòðåííèõ äåë ïîòðåáîâàë îò ñâîèõ ïîä÷èíåííûõ áîëåå ÷åòêîé ðàáîòû. 4. Â îäíîì èç òåàòðîâ àäìèíèñòðàòîð ïîòðåáîâàë, ÷òîáû âî âðåìÿ ñïåêòàêëÿ çðèòåëè îòêëþ÷èëè ìîáèëüíûå òåëåôîíû. 5. Âíèìàòåëüíî èçó÷èâ âíåøíîñòü ïîñåòèòåëÿ, íà÷àëüíèê îòäåëà ïðåäëîæèë åìó âîéòè. 6. Êàæåòñÿ, ýòî ñîâìåñòíîå ïðåäïðèÿòèå íà÷èíàåò ïðîöâåòàòü. 7. Âåðîÿòíî, íàøè óñëîâèÿ îêàçàëèñü íåïðèåìëåìûìè äëÿ ýòîãî êëèåíòà, ïîýòîìó îí îòêàçàëñÿ îò íàøèõ óñëóã. 8. Ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, óçêàÿ ñïåöèàëèçàöèÿ ïðèâîäèò ê ïðèîáðåòåíèþ âûñîêèõ ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûõ óìåíèé, ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, îíà âûçûâàåò ìíîãî ïðîáëåì. 9. Êîãäà ó íåãî áûëè òðóäíîñòè, åãî ïîääåðæàëè äðóçüÿ. 10. Âåðîÿòíî, ïîñëå ðÿäà íåóäà÷ îí îñîçíàë ñâîè îøèáêè è òåïåðü ñòàðàåòñÿ èõ íå ïîâòîðÿòü. 11. Âñå ñîãëàñèëèñü, ÷òî áåçîïàñíîñòü ñòðàíû äîëæíà îáåñïå÷èâàòüñÿ ïîñòîÿííî. 12. Ïðåäñòàâèòåëè è êîíñåðâàòèâíîé, è ëèáåðàëüíî-äåìîêðàòè÷åñêîé ïàðòèé íàñòàèâàëè íà òîì, ÷òîáû çàêîí î ïðåäúÿâëåíèè çàïèñåé ïåðåõâà÷åííûõ ðàçãîâîðîâ â ñóäå áûë èçìåíåí. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words.
Negotiators are People First
A basic factor about negotiation is that you are (1 ) not with abstract representatives of the other side, but with human (2 ). They have emotions, deeply held values, and different backgrounds and viewpoints, and they are (3 ). So are you. This human aspect of negotiation can be (4 ) helpful or disastrous. The process of working out an 180
agreement may produce psychological commitment to a mutually satisfactory (5 ). A working relationship where trust, (6 ), respect, and friendship are built up over time can make each new negotiation smoother and more efficient. And peoples desire to feel good about themselves, and their concern for what others will think (7 ) them can make them more sensitive to another negotiators interests. On the other hand, people get angry, depressed, fearful, hostile, frustrated, and (8 ). They have egos that are easily threatened. Failing to deal with others sensitively as human beings prone to human reactions can be disastrous for a negotiation. Whatever (9 ) you are doing at any point during a negotiation, it is worth asking yourself, Am I (10 ) enough attention to the people? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
a) dealt b) deal c) dealing a) beings b) men c) people a) predictable b) foreseen c) unpredictable a) both b) and c) either a) outcome b) welcome c) income a) misunderstanding b) translating c) understanding 7. a) of b) with c) for 8. a) glad b) offended c) pleased 9. a) else b) yet c) still 10. a) drawing b) paying c) attracting
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N HEALTH Im feeling off colour. Im not feeling myself. Im feeling run down. Ive been overdoing things lately. Im running a temperature.
I have a headache. I have a sore throat. Hot water bottle. A touch of flu.
Mother: Tom: Mother: Tom: Father: Mother:
ARE YOU FINE? (Dialogue) Whats the matter, Tom, headache? Yes, rather. Ive been feeling off colour for two days now, and I woke up with a sore throat this morning. Shall I fetch you a couple of aspirins? No, thank you. Ive been taking aspirin all the time. As a matter of fact Im not feeling myself either. Perhaps weve got a touch of flu. It generally begins with a headache and a sore throat. No wonder with so much flu about.
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS One man, no man. Îäèí â ïîëå íå âîèí. Curses like chickens come home to roost. Îòîëüþòñÿ êîøêå ìûøêèíû ñë¸çêè.
U N I T 13 What is to be, will be. Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (Wishes)
Text A. Environmentalists Welcome Ratification of Vienna Treaty Text B. Hidden Costs of Mans Assault on Nature Short Conversation
The Subjunctive Mood (Wishes) 1) I wish I lived Æàëü, ÷òî ÿ æè- The reference to near the office. âó íå ðÿäîì ñ ðà- the present. áîòîé. 2) I wish I had gone there.
Æàëü, ÷òî ÿ íå ïîøåë òóäà.
3) I wish you Æàëü, ÷òî âû would not leave. óõîäèòå.
The reference to the past. The reference to the future or expression of desire.
Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. I wish I had known it earlier. 183
2. He said he wished he had gone to the party with his friends. 3. He wished he had known the customs and traditions of the Germans before the discussion. 4. I wish I were accustomed to the rhythm of life of our foreign customers. 5. I wished they had not fired that experienced employee. 6. We wish you could stay with us longer. 7. The teacher wished I worked harder at my English. 8. I think she wishes she was invited to the conference. 9. He wished he had taken part in the talks. 10. I wish the time didnt go so fast. 11. I wish I had more time for revising for my examination. 12. She wishes she didnt live so far from us. 13. I dont wish I were in his shoes now. 14. He said he wished he had had a dog when he was a child.
Exercise 2 Change the sentences using the verb to wish. 1. Its a pity that you couldnt come to the party. It was exiting. 2. He said he wanted to have more time to revise for the examination. 3. She said she wanted to speak to Mr. Manners. 4. I wanted my brother to live in our town. 5. Its a pity you didnt tell me everything at once. 6. Its a pity that the weather is not fine. 7. He regretted that he hadnt gone to the birthday party the day before. 8. She said she wanted to watch that film once more. 9. I regretted that I hadnt managed to go to the exhibition. 10. He said he didnt want to be in her place. 184
11. Its a pity that I didnt know that she was ill, I would have come and seen her. 12. I wanted to be introduced to your colleagues.
Translate the sentences using the verb to wish. 1. Æàëü, ÷òî òû íå ïîøåë ñ íàìè â÷åðà, áûëî î÷åíü âåñåëî. 2. Êàê áûëî áû õîðîøî, åñëè áû ñåé÷àñ áûëà âåñíà! 3. Æàëü, ÷òî ìû íå âñòðåòèëèñü ðàíüøå. 4. Ñèòóàöèÿ íåïðèÿòíàÿ. Íå õîòåë áû ÿ áûòü íà åãî ìåñòå. 5. Æàëü, ÷òî êàíèêóëû ïðîøëè òàê áûñòðî. 6. Îí ñîæàëåë, ÷òî íå óñïåë ê íà÷àëó êîíôåðåíöèè. 7. ß ñîæàëåë, ÷òî íå ïîïðîñèë åãî î ïîìîùè. Îí áû íå îòêàçàëñÿ ïîìî÷ü. 8. Îíà æàëååò, ÷òî íå çíàëà îá ýòîì ðàíüøå. 9. Æàëü, ÷òî âàì ïðèõîäèòñÿ óõîäèòü, äèñêóññèÿ áóäåò î÷åíü èíòåðåñîé. 10. ß ñîæàëåþ, ÷òî ýòî ñëó÷èëîñü. 11. Êàê áû ìíå õîòåëîñü, ÷òîáû âû ïðèåõàëè ê íàì ëåòîì! 12. Îí ãîâîðèò, ÷òî ñîæàëååò î òîì, ÷òî ïîññîðèëñÿ ñ ñåñòðîé. 13. Æàëü, ÷òî ó ìåíÿ íåò åãî òåëåôîíà, ÿ áû ïîçâîíèë åìó. 14. Åãî ðîäèòåëè ñîæàëåþò, ÷òî îí ìàëî âðåìåíè óäåëÿåò çàíÿòèÿì.
SECTION B Read and translate text A. ENVIRONMENTALISTS WELCOME RATIFICATION OF VIENNA TREATY Russias ratification of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is a positive step 185
that will lead to progress in nuclear waste handling, international environmentalists said last week. Under the treaty, Russia is committed to allocate 60 million US dollars that will be used as insurance that would be paid out in compensation if an accident occurs. Environmental organizations say that while the sum is not in line with estimates of the harm done by such accidents, it is better than nothing. I wish the insurance were a more real thing, Vladimir Chuprov, Greenpeaces nuclear energy expert said in a telephone interview from Moscow. The Federal Nuclear Power Agency is obliged to somehow set aside 60 million US dollars in case an accident happens. This is a small amount of money when the sums being paid in compensations for Chernobyl disaster, which are estimated at more than 200 billion US dollars, are taken into account, he added. The treaty was originally opened for signing on May 21, 1963, and came into force on November 12, 1977. Thirty countries had joined the treaty before Russia signed it on May 8, 1966. A law to ratify was passed by the State Duma in the beginning of this year. It was approved by the Federation Council and signed by President Vladimir Putin. Chuprov said Russia is already paying 1,5 billion US dollars a year in compensation for the damage to the health of people who cleaned up after the Chernobyl disaster. For the big problems that are the result of the existence of nuclear energy, this insurance money is just a fig leaf, but at least we now have a fig leaf, he said. But Bellona, an environmental organization based in Oslo, Norway, said the impact of the ratification of the treaty will be extremely positive for Russia, especially in relation to the program to dispose of
the radioactive material in old submarines in northern Russia. We welcome this decision because this shows Russia recognizes international rules for nuclear responsibility; it significantly eases, among other matters, assistance and cooperation of other countries with Russia in projects to provide nuclear safety and the clean-up of nuclear submarines in particular, Interfax quoted Bellona spokesman Igor Kudrik. Within the next few years, members of the G-7 group of leading industrial countries will transfer up to 20 billion US dollars to Russia to finance nuclear safety measures, environmentalists said. Sergei Antipov, head of the Federal Nuclear Power Agency, said it will take from 15 to 20 years to tackle the harmful consequences of the activity of Russian nuclear fleet. We estimate that it will take until 2010 to clear up decommissioned nuclear submarines, Interfax quoted him. But that is just for the submarines. Regarding the liquidation of all the harmful consequences of the nuclear fleets activity, it will take at least 15 or 20 years. The main problem for the Federal Nuclear Power Agency is to clear up coastal navy bases that have big amounts of liquid and solid radioactive waste from nuclear submarines stored on their territory, Antipov said. Of the 250 nuclear submarines built by Russia and the Soviet Union, 195 have been decommissioned. All radioactive materials have been removed from 111 of these. It is expected that more submarines will be decommissioned off in the near future, according to Federal Nuclear Power Agency. But this will be single vessels. There wont be such a fast rate of decommissioning as there was before, Antipov said.
Exercise 4 Answer the questions. 1. Why do we believe that Russias ratification of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability is a positive step? 2. What sum of money should Russia allocate as insurance that will be paid out in compensation if a nuclear accident occurs? 3. When was the treaty originally opened? 4. What amount of money did Russia pay in compensation for the damage to the health of people suffered in Chernobyl disaster? 5. Why will the impact of the ratification of the treaty be extremely positive for Russia? 6. How do the leading industrial countries help Russia to provide nuclear safety measures? 7. How long will it take Russia to tackle the harmful consequences of its nuclear fleets activities? 8. What is the main problem for the Federal Nuclear Power Agency? 9. Have all radioactive materials already been decommissioned?
Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. He is a thinker, he likes to deal with logic tasks. 2. A large sum of money was invested in this project. 3. The situation is not very favourable, but the things could have occurred much worse. 4. The Russian largest brewery Baltika exports its product to 36 countries because it takes into consideration the national peculiarities of foreign markets, 5. Nuclear waste can be dangerous for peoples health, it can inflict them injury if it is handled carelessly. 188
6. Our new project involves a few stages. 7. Last year the climatic and natural catastrophes fell upon some European and American countries. 8. The situation was simplified when the seller promised to replace the faulty parts. 9. According to the contract our partners are to deliver the goods within three months. 10. We are willing to get rid of the import goods because they are of low quality. Read and translate text B.
HIDDEN COSTS OF MANS ASSAULT ON NATURE For decades, scientists have been warning that human activities were extinguishing species, altering the climate and degrading landscapes. Now a group of experts has studied the issue in a new way, releasing a report that measures damage not to nature itself, but to the things nature does for people. In the report, part of a continuing project called the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, more than 1,300 ecologists and other researchers from 95 countries focus on the capacity of ecosystems to perform valuable functions like filtering water, providing food and pollinating crops. Their conclusion is bleak over all: 60 percent of those functions are being degraded by human activities, through direct actions like overfishing and through indirect ones, like the tendency of deforestation to raise the risk of floods. The report which was released recently and online at www. Millenniumassessment.org lists some instances in which destructive practices have changed and damage has been prevented, but says far more action is needed in the next several decades. We wish people recognized the true value of nature both in an economic sense and in the rich189
ness it provides to our lives, said a statement by the board of scientists who led the project. Above all, it continued, protection of these assets can no longer be seen as an optional extra to be considered once more pressing concerns such as wealth creation or national security have been dealt with. The study considered various kinds of ecosystem services simple provisioning, like supplying water and protein; regulatory functions, including a forests ability to store and filter water and to cool and humidify the air; cultural services, like providing a place for recreation; and life-support services, including photosynthesis and soil formation. Many of the regions where such natural assets are being most rapidly degraded are also the worlds poorest, the scientists said. And as a result, deteriorating environments are likely to impede efforts to stem poverty, disease and hunger in developing countries. But the study also said wealthy countries were contributing greatly to some problems for example, in soaring increases in agricultural runoff containing nitrogen, a fertilizer that can create oxygenstarved dead zones in coastal waters. The assessment, which cost 24 million US dollars, was commissioned five years ago by the United Nations and by countries adhering to global environmental treaties on preserving wetlands and migratory species, preventing the spread of deserts and conserving the diversity of species on earth. The study said the degradation of potentially renewable natural resources was being fueled partly by destructive subsidies, uncoordinated policies of government agencies dealing with overlapping activities like forestry farming and land tenure, lawlessness in frontier regions and the persistent treatment of natures bounty as free for ones use. 190
This assessment focused on how such losses directly affected human welfare. A prime example is the parched band of Africa below the Sahara Desert, where drought, combined with ever-growing demands for water, has contributed to recent social upheavals and bloodshed in Sudan. Dr. Harold A. Mooney, a biologist at Stanford and a lead author of the report, said that around the world, the dry-land problem really jumps out at you. You have two billion people there and huge limits on water, he continued. Some of the worlds highest population grows rates are in these dry regions and in mountain systems that are the least productive. That creates conditions for conflict.
Match each of the words to its definition.
1. consequence 2. occur 3. dispose 4. assault 5. insuarance 6. deforestation 7. allocate 8. oblige 9. decommission 10. estimate 11. liability 12. diversity
a) assign (to), locate b) assess, form an opinion of c) clearing of forests d) bind by oath e) obligation to do; legal bound f) unlikeness; different kind; variety g) place suitably in particular order, in proper position h) hostile attack i) put away from service j) thing or circumstance which follows as a result from something k) being on the safe side; premium l) exist, take place, happen 191
Exercise 7 Answer the questions. 1. How do the human activities influence the landscape and climate of the Earth? 2. What does the group of ecologists investigate? What is the subject of their research? 3. How many researchers presented their assessments to the project? 4. How many countries are represented by those scientists? 5. What direct and indirect negative effects of human activities do you know? 6. What ecosystem services are considered in the report? 7. When and by what organization was the project launched? 8. What is the aim of the project? 9. What is the main problem for the lead author?
Exercise 8 Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. People wish all countries recognized international rules for nuclear responsibilities. 2. Time and money permitting, I will go to study English in London. 3. The problem being urgent, the manager insisted on holding the meeting the next day. 4. More submarines are expected to be decommissioned in the nearest future. 5. The question being difficult to answer, I asked a minute to think it over. 6. 195 Russian submarines were decommissioned, all radioactive matter having been removed. 7. I wish it were not so cold. 192
8. The main problem for the National Nuclear Power Agency is to clear up costal navy bases which can damage the environment. 9. All the projects having been presented, the conference was over. 10. He insisted on my taking part in the talks. 11. It is desirable that the discussion should be completed by an excursion. 12. Speak louder so that everybody can hear you. 13. The accident might not have occurred if they had been more careful. 14. If five machines were ordered, the price would be reduced.
Traslate the sentences into English. 1. Òðóäíî ñåáå ïðåäñòàâèòü, ÷òî ïëåìåíà, æèâøèå íà àìåðèêàíñêîì êîíòèíåíòå äî Êîëóìáà, ãîâîðèëè íà àáñîëþòíî ðàçíûõ ÿçûêàõ. 2. Åñëè âû ïåðåéäåòå íà ýòó ðàáîòó, âàøè îáÿçàííîñòè çíà÷èòåëüíî óâåëè÷àòñÿ. 3. ×òî êàñàåòñÿ åãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ î âûâîçå ðàäèîàêòèâíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ, òî îíî çàñëóæèâàåò âíèìàíèÿ. 4. Ïîñòîÿííîå îáùåíèå ñ ëþäüìè èçìåíèëî åãî õàðàêòåð ê ëó÷øåìó. 5. Æàëü, ÷òî îí íå ñóìåë ïðàâèëüíî îöåíèòü ñâîé ïîñòóïîê. 6. ×òîáû ñòàòü õîðîøèì ñïåöèàëèñòîì, íóæíî êàê ìîæíî ÷àùå çàíèìàòüñÿ ðåøåíèåì çàäà÷, èìåþùèõ îòíîøåíèå ê âàøåé ñïåöèàëüíîñòè. 7. Ñëóæáà íà ïîäâîäíîé ëîäêå ïî÷¸òíà äëÿ âñåõ ìîðÿêîâ. 8. Ïðåäñòàâèòåëè âñåõ ñòðàí õîòåëè áû, ÷òîáû ìåðû ïî çàùèòå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû áûëè áîëåå ýôôåêòèâíûìè. 9. Æàëü, ÷òî ýòà îðãàíèçàöèÿ íå ñìîãëà âíåñòè çíà÷èòåëüíîãî âêëàäà â ïðåäëîæåííûé ïðîåêò. 193
10. Óâèäåâ òåìíîêîæèõ ëþäåé íà àìåðèêàíñêîì êîíòèíåíòå, Êîëóìá ðåøèë, ÷òî îí ïðèáûë â Èíäèþ. 11. Êàê æàëü, ÷òî âû íå ñìîãëè îöåíèòü åãî ïîïûòêó ïîìî÷ü âàì. 12. Åñëè áû îí ðàáîòàë òàê æå ìíîãî, êàê åãî ïîä÷èíåííûå, íèêòî áû íå âîçðàæàë ïðîòèâ ïåðåðàáîòêè. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. Native Americans
On the morning of October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus arrived (1 ) the New World. He thought that he was in India, and (2 ) he saw a group of dark-skinned people he called them Indians. This was a mistake, but the (3 ) Indian stuck. There were more (4 ) 2,000 tribes on the American continent (5 ) the time of Columbus. Each tribe had a different language. Some languages were as different from one (6 ) as English is from Chinese. But all Indians could (7 ) each other perfectly because they used one (8 ) language sign language. These tribes followed very different ways of life. Some were hunters, some were farmers. Some were peaceful, others warlike. Some groups (9 ) in great cities and (10 ) in small villages. Still others kept moving all the year round, hunting animals and gathering wild plants. 1. a) at 2. a) when 3. a) synonym 4. a) then 5. a) in
b) in b) where b) term b) than b) at 194
c) on c) if c) name c) them c) on
6. a) another 7. a) speak 8. a) different 9. a) lived 10. a) another
b) other b) say b) common b) live b) other
c) others c) understand c) individual c) lives c) others
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N PROBABILITY
It looks like It looks as if I wish I had (my umbrella with me). WEATHER TROUBLE (Dialogue)
Susan: I say, Mary, it looks like rain. Mary: Oh, bother! Its started raining! And no bus
coming this way. It looks as if we shall have to go by tube. Susan: Yes, it looks like it. Mary: Well, lets run to the Underground station. PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
Caution is the parent of safety. Áåðåæåíîãî Áîã áåðåæåò.
U N I T 14
All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds*.
Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (Revision)
Text A. World Leaders Unite on Action on Terrorism Text B. International Efforts to Limit the Death Penalty and the US Response Short Conversation
Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Subjunctive Mood. 1. If you were in Belgium, you would have to shake hands both on meeting and on leaving. 2. We wished our discussion had been more effective. 3. My friend suggested that we should take flowers with us when going to the birthday party. 4. It is necessary that the secretary should be very careful when dealing with correspondence. * All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. ×òî íè äåëàåòñÿ, âñå ê ëó÷øåìó./Âñå ê ëó÷øåìó â ýòîì ëó÷øåì èç ìèðîâ.
5. If the official regulations had been less complicated and difficult, we could have completed the project sooner. 6. I wish you had been more polite when dealing with our foreign partners. 7. It is necessary that people doing business in Portugal should have great amounts of patience. 8. I advise that you should take a gift with you: they love to receive gifts. 9. If you arrived in Britain before Christmas time you would see that everybody bought presents and souvenirs. 10. The professor recommended that we should concentrate on the examination questions and the way to make them meaningful for us. 11. She wished she had bought the dress of another colour. 12. If you had locked the door more carefully, you wouldnt have had to come back.
Exercise 2 Change the sentences using the Subjunctive Mood. 1. If you go abroad you will need visiting cards. 2. The director wanted the contract to be signed as soon as possible. 3. I regret that you didnt put warm clothes on, its cold outside. 4. I want our meeting to be more effective. 5. I regret that our discussion was so long. 6. Its a pity that you didnt take part in the competition. 7. Germans want their partners to arrive at the appointment on time. 8. The famous elderly poet Derzhavin said that he wanted Pushkin to become a poet. 9. The management of the theatre would like all the spectators to switch off their cellphones. 197
10. Its a pity you were late, the beginning of the performance was very interesting. 11. Id like you to stay at the Mandarin Hotel; you will be pleased and surprised. 12. The professor advised the students to review all the material of the course. 13. Our teacher recommended us to reduce nervousness and relax before the examination. 14. She regretted that her friends didnt stay with her.
Translate the sentences using the Subjunctive Mood. 1. Æàëü, ÷òî ìû íå ïîøëè íà ïðåçåíòàöèþ. Ãîâîðÿò, îíà áûëà î÷åíü èíòåðåñíàÿ. 2. Åñëè áû ó÷åíûå íå èçó÷àëè ïðîáëåìó çàãðÿçíåíèÿ îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, ìû áû íå çíàëè î êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêîì ñîñòîÿíèè ïðèðîäû. 3. Íóæíî, ÷òîáû ðåêëàìíàÿ ëèòåðàòóðà áûëà íàïå÷àòàíà íà ÿçûêå ïàðòíåðà. 4. Åñëè áû âû èìåëè äåëî ñ íåìåöêîé ôèðìîé, âû áû äîëæíû áûëè áûòü ïóíêòóàëüíû â ìåëî÷àõ. 5. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ëèöåÿ â Öàðñêîì Ñåëå íàñòàèâàëî íà òîì, ÷òîáû ëèöåèñòû íå ïîêèäàëè ëèöåÿ â òå÷åíèå âñåãî ïåðèîäà îáó÷åíèÿ. 6. Æàëü, ÷òî çàïðåò íà ñìåðòíóþ êàçíü íå âëèÿåò íà ÷èñëî òÿæêèõ ïðåñòóïëåíèé. 7. Îíà ñîæàëåëà, ÷òî âî âðåìÿ ïîåçäêè â Ïåòåðáóðã íå ïîñåòèëà Öàðñêîñåëüñêèé ëèöåé. 8. Äèðåêòîð ïîòðåáîâàë, ÷òîáû âñå ñîòðóäíèêè ïðèõîäèëè íà ðàáîòó áåç îïîçäàíèé. 9. Ïðåäñåäàòåëü ñîáðàíèÿ ñîæàëåë, ÷òî â äèñêóññèè ó÷àñòâîâàëî ìàëî ñòóäåíòîâ. 10. ß áû íà åãî ìåñòå ïðèíÿë ýòî ïðåäëîæåíèå. 11. Æàëü, ÷òî ïðèåì ïðîøåë ñëèøêîì îôèöèàëüíî, õîòåëîñü áû, ÷òîáû îáñòàíîâêà áûëà áîëåå ñåðäå÷íîé. 12. Åñëè áû âû ïîåõàëè â Èðëàíäèþ, òî, âåðîÿòíî, âèçèòíûå êàðòî÷êè âàì áû íå ïîíàäîáèëèñü. 198
13. Æàëü, ÷òî ìû íå çàêëþ÷èëè êîíòðàêò ñ ãðå÷åñêîé ôèðìîé, ñ ãðåêàìè ëåãêî îáùàòüñÿ. 14. Íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû â çàêëþ÷åíèè áûëè äàíû ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷àåìîìó âîïðîñó.
SECTION B Read and translate text A.
WORLD LEADERS UNITE ON ACTION ON TERRORISM
UNITED NATIONS World leaders united on the need to ban incitement of terrorism but fell short of ambitions for a fundamental reform of the United Nations at a summit on the agencys 60th anniversary. The 15-member Security Council held a rare toplevel session to adopt a resolution on terrorism proposed by Britain following July 7 London bombings. We have a solemn obligation to stop terrorism at its early stages, the US President George W. Bush told at the session. It is necessary that we should do all we can to disrupt each stage of planning and support for terrorist acts. Bush also issued a more nuanced appeal, saying that war alone would not defeat terrorism if the world ignored the hardship and oppression of others. Secretary General Kofi Annan told the gathering of kings, presidents and prime ministers that despite some progress, negotiators had failed to achieve the profound overhaul of UN policies and institutions he sought. He conceded that in many areas, including enlargement of the Security Council, members remained sharply divided. We have not yet achieved the sweeping and fundamental reform that I and many others believe is required, Annan said. 199
Our biggest challenge and our biggest failing is on nuclear proliferation and disarmament, he told on the opening session of the three-day summit. Negotiations on a summit document the world leaders are to endorse dropped disarmament proposals from Norway and South Africa, backed by about 80 nations. The United States objected to calls for nuclear disarmament but stressed the danger of terrorists and rogue states obtaining unconventional weapons. French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin served a reminder of the topicality of the issue, warning Iran that it faced referral to the UN Security Council unless it met its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Tehran insists it has the right to enrich uranium for what it says is a civilian nuclear program, but Western nations suspect it of a clandestine drive to develop an atomic bomb. The foreign ministers of France, Britain and Germany wanted a meeting with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on Thursday in what could be a lastditch effort to test the temperature of Irans new leadership on the nuclear issue, European diplomat said. Annan said it was a breakthrough that the international community had agreed for the first time, that it had a responsibility to intervene to protect civilians against genocide, war crimes and ethnic cleansing. But billions of people are still far from radical action to achieve the Millennium Development Goals halving extreme poverty by 2015, Annan told the gathering, which was overshadowed by a scandal over abuses of the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq. Bush referred obliquely to the scandal, saying the United Nations must be free of corruption, and accountable to the people it serves and practice the high moral standards it preached. The president also insisted that the United States should be committed to the Millennium Development
Goals. He pledged to drop all trade barriers if other countries did the same. Tanzanian President Benjamin William Mkapa said it never occurred to him that the UN members would have problems in agreeing to eradicate poverty. When a jumbo jet crashes, we will rush in with assistance but we forget that each day 30,000 children die unnecessarily from poverty-related preventable causes equivalent to 100 jumbo jet crashing every day, Mkapa said. In a veiled criticism of the United States, the worlds richest nation, Dutch Prime Minister JanPeter Balkenende said the Europeans had agreed to boost development aid spending, but we need to see more equal burden-sharing. Exercise 4 Answer the questions.
1. What purpose did the world leaders unite for? 2. How many members were there in the Security Council? 3. What resolution was adopted at the top-level session of the Security Council? 4. What did President Bush say in his appeal? 5. Why did Secretary General Kofi Annan think that the negotiators had failed? 6. What was Iran warned of? 7. What does Teheran insist on? 8. What did President Bush say about the goals and objectives of the United Nations? 9. How many children die from poverty-related causes each day? Exercise 5 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. If nothing unpredictable happens, we will hold
the meeting with our graduates in May. 201
2. One of the urgent problems is to do away with poverty in this country. 3. All the participants of the summit agree that it is necessary to promote political and economical cooperation of the countries. 4. In conclusion the lecturer emphasized that it was high time to protect our planet from human activity. 5. Our partners promise to do all their best to deliver the goods in time. 6. If I had known what difficulties I would face, I would have never started to solve that problem. 7. Unfortunately the negotiations were broken down because our partners didnt take into account the peculiarities of our national culture. 8. Speaking about improving of the performance the manager should remember that motivation is one of the most important factors. 9. Some efficient managers regularly hold meetings of their staff to consolidate the team. 10. I had to interfere with their talk because I was short of time.
Read and translate text B. INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS TO LIMIT THE DEATH PENALTY AND THE US RESPONSE
The Commission on Human Rights urges all states that still maintain the death penalty: Not to impose it for crimes committed by a person below 18 years of age; Not to impose the death penalty on a person suffering from any form of mental disorder; Not to execute any person as long as any related legal procedure, at international or national level, is pending; 202
Progressively to restrict the number of offences for which the death penalty may be imposed; To establish a moratorium on executions, with a view to completely abolishing the death penalty.
Resolution, UN Commission on Human Rights, April 28, 1999.
The world community is keenly aware that the death penalty is firmly entrenched in some countries and is not likely to be abolished in those countries any time soon, much of the international focus has been on ways to limit the most egregious aspects of the death penalty. Increasing attention has been directed to the US not because it is the worst violator of human rights, but because of its stated commitment to the same deals which have led other countries to seriously question the death penalty. The international human rights community has identified its chief concerns about the death penalty in the US: the execution of juvenile offenders; the execution of those suffering from mental retardation or severe mental illness; the execution of foreign nationals; the arbitrary application of the death penalty and the related problems of racial and economic bias. The practice of executing those who were under 18 at the time of their crime is directly prohibited by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other documents. The US has a long history of executing juvenile offenders. Since the founding of the country, approximately 355 juveniles have been executed. Twentythree states presently either have no age restriction on the use of the death penalty, or specifically allow it for those who committed their crime under the age of 18. The Supreme Court has ruled that it is not a cruel and unusual punishment to apply the death penalty 203
to those who were 16 or 17 years old at the time of their crime. With the Supreme Court approval, the execution of juvenile offenders has gone forward. Since 1973 in the US have sentenced ever 180 juvenile offenders to death and have carried out 13 executions. Ten of the 13 executions occurred in the 1990s, including 7 in Texas.
Exercise 6 Answer the questions. 1. What are the main issues dwelt upon by the Commission on Human Rights? 2. What does the statement of the Commission on Human Rights say about the juvenile offenders? 3. Why does the Commission on Human Rights insist on establishing a moratorium on executions and abolishing the death penalty completely? 4. How long is the history of executing juvenile offenders in the US? 5. Are there execution or penalty of jureniles in the US? 6. What was the position of the US Supreme Court towards the execution of juvenile offenders? 7. How many juveniles have been sentenced to death since 1973? 8. How many juveniles were executed in the 1990s in Texas? 9. What is your opinion of death penalty for juvenile offenders?
Exercise 7 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the texts. 1. The chairman encouraged the participants of the meeting to discuss the problem. 2. There was a to peaceful settlement of the international problems.
3. If there hadnt been any difficulties, the matter would have been solved long ago. 4. That company didnt manage to establish business relations with the Arabian firm. 5. He assumed that his point of view was not quite correct, but he didnt want to change his mind. 6. The boss emphasized that it was necessary to start negotiations as soon as possible. 7. It is necessary that all countries should put an end to racial discrimination. 8. We decided to support the initiative of our colleagues about the purchase of the new equipment. 9. If you had sent us all the necessary spare parts, we would have fulfilled our obligations. 10. Unfortunately now there are a lot of offenders under eighteen. 11. We could guess what his hidden idea was, but we didnt show it. 12. The disappearance of forests increases the risk of floods and other natural disasters. Exercise 8
Match each of the words to its definition.
1. execution 2. overhaul 3. proliferation 4. concede 5. hardship 6. solemn 7. suspect 8. abolish 9. defeat 10. rogue 11. reminder 12. profound
a) performed with religious rites or with ceremony b) do away with c) undesirable d) thing that reminds or is meant to remind e) effective actions; fulfilment f) admit; allow g) frustrate; nullify h) examine condition of i) rascal, swindler j) multiplication; growth; reproducing itself k) having great knowledge or insight l) hardness of fate or circumstance 205
Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of the verbs and verbals. 1. If the nuclear waste handling is dealt by all the environmentalists of the globe, this important international problem will be solved. 2. It is necessary that deforestation should be stopped. 3. The discussion of the problem of nuclear proliferation and disarmament having been finished, the participants of the session came up with another problem. 4. Some people think that the problem of terrorism is unlikely to be solved in the near future. 5. Being the most topical, the problem of nuclear disarmament took a long time. 6. Rendering assistance to the friends is common among people of all nations. 7. Deforestation increases the risk of floods and other natural disasters. 8. When starting this deal, I couldnt imagine that I would face with such complicated issues. 9. This employee doesnt seem to cope with his responsibilities. 10. I dont want anybody to intervene in my private affairs. 11. Referring to Human Rights some people afford to behave rude. 12. Death penalty is known to be the chief concern of the international Human Rights Community. 13. Juvenile offenders are likely to be one of the threats to the citizens. 14. This company is known to be very reliable, it always keeps its obligations.
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Îêàçàëîñü, ÷òî îí íåäîñòàòî÷íî îïûòåí, ÷òîáû ðóêîâîäèòü áîëüøîé îðãàíèçàöèåé. 206
2. Æàëü, ÷òî âû ðàñòåðÿëèñü íà ñîáåñåäîâàíèè. Âû áû âïîëíå ñïðàâèëèñü ñ îáÿçàííîñòÿìè áóõãàëòåðà. 3. Íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû âñå ëþäè ïîíèìàëè, ÷òî ïðèðîäà íóæäàåòñÿ â çàùèòå. 4. Ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ìíîãèõ ñòðàí ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî íåîáõîäèìî ïðîèçâåñòè ÿäåðíîå ðàçîðóæåíèå, ïðè ýòîì îíè ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî àðìèÿ äîëæíà ñîõðàíèòüñÿ â êàæäîé ñòðàíå. 5. Ïðîäîâîëüñòâåííàÿ ïðîãðàììà, êîòîðóþ íóæíî áûëî óòâåðäèòü, áûëà îñíîâíûì ïóíêòîì ïîâåñòêè äíÿ ñîâåùàíèÿ. 6. Íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû âñÿ ìèðîâàÿ îáùåñòâåííîñòü âêëþ÷èëàñü â áîðüáó ñ òåððîðèçìîì. 7. Áåäíîñòü ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñåðü¸çíîé ïðîáëåìîé äëÿ ìíîãèõ ñòðàí. 8. Ðàññêàçàâ ìíå î âçàèìîîòíîøåíèÿõ ìåæäó ñîòðóäíèêàìè îòäåëà, îí âçÿë ñ ìåíÿ ñëîâî ìîë÷àòü. 9. ÑØÀ, ãîâîðÿ î íåîáõîäèìîñòè ñîáëþäàòü ïðàâà ÷åëîâåêà, íå îòêàçûâàþòñÿ îò ñìåðòíîé êàçíè. 10. Òåððîðèçì ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñåðüåçíîé óãðîçîé äëÿ âñåõ, ïîýòîìó ëèäåðû âñåõ ñòðàí îáúåäèíÿþòñÿ äëÿ áîðüáû ñ òåððîðèçìîì. 11. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî â Òàóýðå æèâóò âîðîíû, êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñèìâîëîì áëàãîïîëó÷èÿ Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè. 12. Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî ýòîò ÷åëîâåê ñîâåðøèë ïðåñòóïëåíèå è åãî îæèäàåò òþðåìíîå çàêëþ÷åíèå. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words. The Tower of London and Its Ravens
The famous Tower of London was (1 ) by William the Conqueror. It is often (2 ) to as a place where horrible murders took place. (3 ) knows that in the past it was a fortress, a palace and a prison, and from the 13th century until 1834 it also (4 ) the royal Menagerie, the predecessor of the London Zoo. 207
But ravens are also associated with the Tower where, believe it or not, they are considered special (5 ). It is probable that there have always been ravens at the Tower, and there is a (6 ) that the Tower will fall if it (7 ) its ravens. The birds are therefore (8 ) guarded. Six are kept on the establishment and are (9 ) for by a Yeoman Warder. Each bird receives a weekly allowance of 19 pence worth of horseflesh, and they have their own quarters in a (10 ) by the Lanthorn Tower. You must not forget that ravens can attain a good age, and one of the Tower birds, James Crow, was a resident for 44 years. 1. a) destroyed b) built c) created 2. a) called b) named c) referred 3. a) everybody b) anybody c) all 4. a) placed b) housed c) included 5. a) visits b) visitors c) guests 6. a) legend b) history c) story 7. a) finds b) found c) loses 8. a) carelessly b) carefully c) attentively 9. a) care b) cares c) cared 10. a) house b) building c) cage
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N TRAVELLING BY PLANE
To book a seat. Seats are available. Excess luggage. Extra charge. City Terminal. AT THE AIRPORT AGENCY (Dialogue)
Clerk: Yes, sir? Can I help you? Dr. Anderson: I want to book a ticket to London. 208
Clerk: Dr. Anderson: Clerk: Dr. Anderson: Clerk: Dr. Anderson: Clerk: Dr. Anderson: Clerk: Dr. Anderson:
Certainly, sir. When do you wish to go? Id like to be in London tomorrow evening, not too late if possible. Yes, of course. I still have a few seats available for tomorrow afternoon. Let me see yes, flight 204 for London. When does the plane leave? 17.35. Will that be all right? Yes, quite. And when does it arrive at London Airport? Its due in at 19.07. Good. Tourist class will do for me. As you wish, sir. Here is your passenger ticket. Thank you and good-bye.
PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS The pen is mightier than the sword. ×òî íàïèñàíî ïåðîì, òîãî íå âûðóáèøü òîïîðîì. Time is the nurse and breeder of all good. Âðåìÿ ëå÷èò.
U N I T 15
The world is a small place*.
Grammar: Grammar Revision
Text A. Intercultural Communication Text B. The Words Have Changed, but the Grammar Is the Same Short Conversation
Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The first horses were likely to have been used to carry things and pull carts. 2. The European people use a fork as though it were a shovel, a fork being turned upside down and pushing everything including peas on top of it. 3. He would be very surprised if I told him that he had no sense of humour. 4. The teachers of the Lyceum at Tsarskoe Selo were considered to be the foremost people of the age in the field of education. 5. Some people think that it is necessary to impose death penalty for heavy crimes. * The world is a small place. Ìèð òåñåí.
6. If we thought about the main events in the history of mankind, we could see that it would have been impossible without a horse. 7. Prince Henry went to Eton school, its pupils wearing school uniform. 8. Horses are known to be popular with the Royal family. 9. To do well in any examination, you not only need to revise effectively, but also understand the importance of examination technique. 10. Another question to be discussed is training specialists to deal with problem situations. 11. The higher the position of the manager, the more individualized the adaptation program should be. 12. Your physical health is important, regular exercise is now believed to improve your psychological state. 13. Edward VIII was the only king to write his own life story. 14. When starting to revise the material for the examination it is necessary that you should be in the right frame of mind. 15. In Shakespeares time only a few million people spoke English, all of them living in what is now Great Britain. 16. We all have different ways of learning, so it is important that you should find out what suits you best. 17. One of the variants of English spoken and written today is Euro-English, it having its origin in the political arena of the European Community. 18. The research found out that people who belong to church groups, not only claim to be happier than those who dont, they suffer from less than half the number of heart attacks than the rest of the population and live up to four years longer. 19. Workers who feel undervalued are significantly more likely to suffer from back problems. 211
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû áûòü õîðîøèì ðóêîâîäèòåëåì, âû äîëæíû õîðîøî îòíîñèòüñÿ ê ëþäÿì è õîðîøî îáùàòüñÿ ñ íèìè. 2. Âî âðåìÿ ñòðåññ-èíòåðâüþ êîìèññèÿ ñòàðàåòñÿ ïîñòàâèòü êàíäèäàòà â íåîáû÷íûå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà è ïîñìîòðåòü, êàêîâà áóäåò åãî ðåàêöèÿ. 3. Åñëè áû ðîññèéñêèå áèçíåñìåíû ñêàçàëè, ÷òî êàêîé-ëèáî âîïðîñ íåëüçÿ ðåøèòü, òî ýòî îçíà÷àëî áû, ÷òî åãî ìîæíî îáñóäèòü. 4. Óäèâèòåëüíî, íî èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî îáû÷íûé ÷åëîâåê, êîòîðûé ðåãóëÿðíî ñìîòðèò «ìûëüíûå îïåðû», áîëåå ñ÷àñòëèâ, ÷åì òå ëþäè, êîòîðûå èõ íå ñìîòðÿò. 5. Ìû íå õîòèì, ÷òîáû ñèòóàöèÿ óõóäøèëàñü. 6. Æàëü, ÷òî ïåðâûé ýêçàìåí îíà ñäàëà íå òàê óäà÷íî, êàê õîòåëà. 7. Äåïðåññèÿ, êàê äîêàçàëè ó÷åíûå, ÷àùå âûçûâàeò ãîëîâíóþ áîëü è áîëü â ñïèíå, ÷åì ïîäíÿòèå òÿæåñòåé. 8. Âî âðåìÿ ýêñïåðèìåíòà áûëî äîêàçàíî, ÷òî ìûøè, êîòîðûì äàâàëè êîôå, ñòàíîâèëèñü àãðåññèâíûìè. 9. Ó êàæäîãî ëèöåèñòà áûëà ñâîÿ êðîøå÷íàÿ êîìíàòêà, ïðè ýòîì Ïóøêèí íàçûâàë ñâîþ êîìíàòó «Ïàëàòà ¹ 14». 10. Ìíîãèå ðîäèòåëè õîòÿò, ÷òîáû èõ äåòè ó÷èëèñü â ïðåñòèæíûõ øêîëàõ. 11. Ïðè ïîäãîòîâêå ê îòâåòó íà ýêçàìåíå íåîáõîäèìî óáåäèòüñÿ, ÷òî âû âíèìàòåëüíî ïðî÷èòàëè âîïðîñû. 12. Ïðåïîäàâàòåëü õîòåë, ÷òîáû âî âðåìÿ äèñêóññèè ñòóäåíòû ñâîáîäíî âûðàæàëè ñâîè ìûñëè, à íå ÷èòàëè ïî çàïèñè. 13. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî ëèöåèñò Êþõåëüáåêåð ìå÷òàë áûòü ïðîâèíöèàëüíûì ó÷èòåëåì ïîñëå îêîí÷àíèÿ ëèöåÿ. 212
14. Ãðàôèíÿ Àáåðêîðí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðà-ïðà-ïðàïðàâíó÷êîé Ïóøêèíà è Íèêîëàÿ I, îíà ó÷ðåäèëà ïðèç, êîòîðûé âðó÷àåòñÿ øêîëüíèêàì çà ëó÷øèå ñî÷èíåíèÿ î Ïóøêèíå. 15. Ïðè ïîäãîòîâêå ê ýêçàìåíàì ìîæíî ñëóøàòü ìóçûêó, íî ñìîòðåòü òåëåâèçîð íå ñëåäóåò. 16. Ñ÷èòàåòñÿ, ÷òî ëîøàäü îêàçàëà áîëüøîå âëèÿíèå íà ðàçâèòèå ÷åëîâå÷åñòâà. 17. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî ïðèíöåññà Àííà ïðèíèìàëà ó÷àñòèå â Îëèìïèéñêèõ èãðàõ. 18. Íåêîòîðûå òðóäîãîëèêè õîòÿò, ÷òîáû èõ êîëëåãè ðàáîòàëè òàê æå óñåðäíî, êàê è îíè. 19. Çàêîí÷èâ ýêñïåðèìåíò, ó÷åíûå áûëè ïîðàæåíû íåîæèäàííûìè ðåçóëüòàòàìè. 20. Ìåæêóëüòóðíûå ñâÿçè ïîëó÷èëè â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ øèðîêîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå, ïðè ýòîì áîëüøîå âíèìàíèå óäåëÿåòñÿ èçó÷åíèþ êóëüòóðíûõ òðàäèöèé è îáû÷àåâ ïàðòíåðîâ.
SECTION B Read and translate text A. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION When crossing borders, people of all countries experience cultural shock. The more experienced or well travelled the individual, the less traumatic the shock, and vice versa. Such shock can result in exhaustion, confusion, frustration. So it should be important that cultural shock should be decreased both in international meetings, diplomacy, negotiations and in management. Understanding the local cultural and business environment can give both negotiatiors and businessmen an advantage in their work. As is generally understood, the culture of a society comprises the shared values, understandings, assumptions, and goals that are learned from earlier 213
generations, imposed by present members of a society and passed on to succeeding generations. This shared outlook results in common attitudes, code of conduct, and expectations that subconsciously guide and control certain norms of behavior. Culture results in a basis for living grounded in shared communication, standards, codes of conduct and expectations. As the first step towards cultural sensitivity, an international manager should understand his or her own culture. This awareness helps to guard against adopting either a parochial or ethnocentric attitude. Parochialism occurs when a Frenchman, for example, expects those from or in another country to automatically fall into patterns of behavior common in France. Ethnocentrism is the attitude of those who operate from the assumption that their ways of doing things are best, no matter where or under what conditions they are applied. After studying his or her own culture, the managers next step towards establishing effective crosscultural relations is to develop cultural sensitivity. Managers not only must be aware of cultural variables and their effects on behavior in the workplace, but also must appreciate cultural diversity and understand how to build constructive working relationship anywhere in the world. Managers should recognize, of course, that generalizations in cultural profiles will produce only an approximation, or stereotype, of national character. We are repeatedly tending to generalize the behavior of people of different nationalities. It seesms that human mind cannot resist categorizing people and things. We create national stereotypes and cling tenaciously to our prejudices. Stereotypes should be taken into account, but only to some extent. Good managers or negotiators treat people as individuals, and they consciously avoid any form of stereotyping for the certain individuals. Cultural 214
profile is undoubtedly a more reliable starting point to help managers or negotiators in a specific international setting.
Exercise 3 Answer the questions. 1. Why do most people experience shock when crossing borders? 2. What can cultural shock result in? 3. What does the culture of the country comprise? 4. What is culture expressed in? 5. What is the first step to the effective intercultural communication? 6. Can cultural profile give the complete description of a national character? Why? 7. Can stereotyping do it? Why? 8. How do good efficient managers and negotiators treat people? 9. Is cultural profile or stereotype description a more reliable starting point to help people in specific international settings?
Exercise 4 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the text. 1. Our company is going to increase the range of
models of goods for the international market. 2. Many people value creative work more than money. 3. The company was insistently warned about the necessity to utilize industrial wastes. 4. During the job interview the panel used unusual technique. 5. This employee cant solve that problem, he is rather narrow-minded. 6. Undertaking that project requires involving many highly qualified specialists. 215
7. For foreign business people dealing with Russian business culture can be if not a shock, then at least a surprise. 8. Business success can be just a matter of understanding a few points of cultural etiquette. 9. There are different processes in any organization which can be classified. 10. Before undertaking some measures a manager should forecast what they can lead to.
Read and translate text B. THE WORDS HAVE CHANGED, BUT THE GRAMMAR IS THE SAME Linguists have devised a new way of linking languages, which they say has allowed them to reconstruct a network of languages near New Guinea. The new method is designed for languages so old that little trace of their common vocabulary remains. It forges connections between languages through grammatical features, which change less than words. With the new tools, historians may be able to peer considerably further back in time than 5,000 to 7,000 years or so that many linguists see as the limit beyond which no sure connections can be made between languages. The authors of the new method say the relationships they can construct may be 10,000 years or more. The researchers, who were led by Michael Dunn, of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, Holland, have published their work in the current issue of Science. They say that on the basis of grammatical similarities they have constructed a network of the Papuan languages spoken in the island group east of Papua New Guinea. Travelling eastward, these are the Bismarck Archipelago, Bougainville and the Solomon Islands. 216
The grammar-determined network correctly assigns all languages to their respective archipelagos. But the network gives a puzzling placement to the Solomon Islands languages. They fall in between those of the Bismarcks and Bougainville, stepping out of the sequence expected, if the islands were first occupied by people migrating from west to east. The explanation, Dr. Dunn and his colleagues say, is that 10,000 years ago, when sea levels were much lower because of the Pleistocene Ice Age, Bougainville and the Solomon Islands would have been joined in a single land mass, while the Bismarcks were separate. This might explain the Bougainville languages closer relationship to those of the Solomons and distance from those of the Bismarcks. It would also indicate that the grammar-based linking up a signal from 10,000 years ago. The Solomons lie at the very end of a migration route that might have been taken by the first modern humans, who left Africa some 50,000 years ago, and that few others may have reached. These early people reached Australia 5,000 years later and were established in the Bismarcks and Solomons 35,000 years ago. A much later group of emigrants, people speaking Austronesian, is known to have reached the islands about 4,000 years ago from home base in Taiwan. The Austronesian languages are a distinctive family with many shared words. Although all the non-Austronesian languages in the region are called Papuan, they do not have much in common with each other. Many linguists, including Dr. Dunn, believe that there are not enough remaining words of clearly common origin to define relationships between the Papuan languages. That was why Dr. Dunns team sought to link the languages through grammatical features, borrowing a statistical approach used by biologists to connect related objects in the most plausible way. 217
Russell Gray, a biologist at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, writes in Science that the grammar-based approach will be widely emulated by researchers studying languages in other regions. The technique is very promising, he said in an e-mail. Exercise 5 Answer the questions.
1. What does the new way of linking languages allow to do? 2. What purpose was the grammar-based method designed for? 3. How can connections between languages be determined? 4. What is this method based on? 5. Where was this method devised? 6. How did the researchers reconstruct the Papuan language? 7. In what other sciences does this method help to make discoveries? Exercise 6 Substitute the emphasized words with the synonyms from the texts. 1. Bill Gates deals with his employees with tact
and sensitivity. 2. People are usually inclined to demonstrate their strength. 3. Any generalization gives only an approximated image. 4. When I came into their office, I felt confused. 5. When he started working with that company, he had some hopes concerning the development of his career. 6. The next stage after studying the catalogue was to choose the products which we could buy from them. 218
7. This man is a famous inventor, he invented the latest models of units of computer hardware. 8. All these factories are united in one enterprise. 9. New technology was used when testing equipment. 10. The secretary promised to look into the matter once more. 11. There were many devices at the exhibition of new instruments. 12. To define if the material suits the first page of the newspaper, the editor should look through it closely. 13. Seeking for good places for living people moved from place to place. 14. During the discussion she presented a probable argument to prove her point of view. Exercise 7
Match each of the words to its definition.
a) remain in contact; stick; resist separation 2. cling b) be perplexed; perplex 3. appreciate c) imitate zealously; try to equal or excel, rival d) what one sees on looking out; 4. exhaustion view 5. share e) provincial; of parish f) amount of money; considered 6. emulate equivalent for something; worth desiring; utility 7. puzzle g) openness to external impres8. parochial sions, especially to words or opinions 9. sensitivity h) arise as consequence i) holding fast; keeping firm 10. outlook j) estimate aright; be; esteem highly 11. result (in) k) get away share of; possess 12. tenacious l) total loss of strength 1. value
Read and translate the sentences into Russian, define the forms and functions of verbs and verbals. 1. Were he a smart manager, he would be more interested in increasing skills of his employees. 2. When arriving in a foreign country, many people experience cultural shock. 3. Generalizing in cultural profiles can produce only approximation or stereotypes of national character. 4. We know the linguists to have invented a new way of linking languages. 5. If I hadnt been sure of his responsibility, I wouldnt have advised you to consult him. 6. Human mind seems to resist categorizing people of different nationalities. 7. Belvouare castle is known to belong to Earls Ratland. 8. Cultural awareness results in establishing relations with foreign partners. 9. If that company had recruited experienced and skilled employees, its development would have been more obvious. 10. We are aware that stereotypes should be taken into account, but only to some extent. 11. Roger Manners is proved to have written most of Shakespeares works. 12. After studying local cultural and business environment the manager can be sure in his activities. 13. If both parties treat partners as individuals and avoid any form of stereotyping, the cultural problems wont arise. 14. Cultural profile is certain to be a more reliable starting point for establishing relations than stereotyping. 220
Translate the sentences into English. 1. Ïî÷åìó âàì íå íðàâèòñÿ, êîãäà ëþäè ãîâîðÿò î ñòåðåîòèïàõ, âåäü ÷åëîâå÷åñêèé óì ñêëîíåí ê îáîáùåíèÿì? 2. Âîñïðèÿòèå êóëüòóðû äðóãîãî íàðîäà ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò îá îáðàçîâàííîñòè ÷åëîâåêà è î ãèáêîñòè åãî óìà. 3. Êóëüòóðíûé ïðîôèëü, áåçóñëîâíî, áîëåå íàäåæíîå ïîíÿòèå, ÷åì ñòåðåîòèï ïîâåäåíèÿ. 4. ×òîáû èçáåæàòü ïðîáëåì ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè ïåðåãîâîðîâ, íóæíî çàðàíåå ïðîäóìàòü âñå âîçìîæíûå òðóäíîñòè. 5. Åñëè áû ìû ñ÷èòàëè, ÷òî ýòîò âîïðîñ íóæíî îáñóäèòü çàðàíåå, ìû áû ñîîáùèëè îá ýòîì äèðåêòîðó. 6. Òðóäíî ïîâåðèòü, ÷òî ñîáàêà, ëó÷øèé äðóã ÷åëîâåêà, ïðîèçîøëà îò âîëêà. 7. Âñå ïðîãðåññèâíûå îðãàíèçàöèè ìèðà ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî ñ òåððîðèçìîì äîëæíî áûòü ïîêîí÷åíî. 8. Â òå÷åíèå ìíîãèõ ëåò ó÷åíûå èçó÷àþò âëèÿíèå ÷åëîâå÷åñêîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè íà ïðèðîäíûå ðåñóðñû. 9. Åñëè áû ïðèáûëü ýòîé êîìïàíèè óìåíüøèëàñü, åå ìåíåäæåðû íàøëè áû íîâûå ñôåðû äëÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòè. 10. Õîðîøåå îáðàçîâàíèå î÷åíü âàæíî äëÿ ïîëó÷åíèÿ õîðîøåé ðàáîòû. 11. Ðîññèÿ ïëàíèðóåò îñóùåñòâèòü ýêñïîðò óñëóã â îáëàñòè îáðàçîâàíèÿ. 12. Ñïåöèàëèñòû ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî ïîëîæèòåëüíûå ýìîöèè îêàçûâàþò áëàãîïðèÿòíîå âîçäåéñòâèå íà çäîðîâüå ÷åëîâåêà. T E S T
Fill in the gaps with the suitable words.
There are three big problems with communication. First, negotiators may not be talking to each (1 ), 221
or at least not in such a way as to be understood. Frequently each side has given up on the other and is no (2 ) attempting any serious communication with it. Instead they talk merely to impress third parties or their (3 ) constituency. Rather than trying to dance with their negotiating partner into a more constructive step, they (4 ) to talk the spectators into taking sides. Effective (5 ) between the parties is all but impossible if each plays to the gallery. Even if you are talking directly and clearly to them, they may not be (6 ) you. This constitutes the second problem in communication. Note how often people dont seem to pay enough attention to what you say. Probably equally often you would be unable to repeat what they (7 ). The third communication problem is (8 ). What one says, the other may misinterpret. (9 ) the parties speak different languages, the chance for misunderstanding is compounded. For example, in Persian, the word compromise lacks positive meaning it has in English, a midway solution both sides can live with, but only has a negative (10 ). 1. a) another b) other 2. a) time b) more 3. a) own b) close 4. a) make b) help 5. a) communication b) argument c) introduction 6. a) listening b) speaking 7. a) said b) speaking 8. a) interpreting b) misunderstanding c) understanding 9. a) when b) what 10. a) significance b) meaning
c) different c) longer c) private c) try
c) hearing c) want
c) how c) translation
S H O R T C O N V E R S AT I O N TELEPHONE CONVERSATION
To make an appointment. May/can/could I speak to , please? Speaking. Calling. Im looking forward to seeing you. Give him my regards. CONFIRMING AN APPOINTMENT (Dialogue)
Secretary: Can I speak to Mr. Ward, please? Mr. Ward: Ward speaking. Secretary: Mr. Ward, this is Mr. Stocks secretary. Im calling to confirm your appointment with Mr. Stock next Friday at 4 pm. Mr. Ward: Thank you. Im looking forward to seeing Mr. Stock next Friday. Will you give him my best regards, please. Secretary: I will. Good-bye, Mr. Ward. Mr. Ward: Good-bye. PROVERBS, SAYINGS, QUOTATIONS
When the cats away, the mice will play. Êîò èç äîìó, ìûøè â ïëÿñ.
VOCABULARY A a bit adv íåìíîãî , , a1 la carte [ a lA ka:t] ïîðöèîííîå áëþäî a lot (of) ìíîãî, ìíîãèå abandon v ïîêèäàòü, áðîñàòü abbey n àááàòñòâî abbreviation n ñîêðàùåíèå abolish v îòìåíÿòü above all ïðåæäå âñåãî, â îñíîâíîì, áîëüøå âñåãî absent-minded a ðàññåÿííûé Absolute Participial Construction íåçàâèñèìûé ïðè÷àñòíûé îáîðîò (ëèíãâ.) academic year ó÷åáíûé ãîä , accent [B ksAnt] n óäàðåíèå, ïðîèçíîøåíèå, àêöåíò
accession n âñòóïëåíèå íà ïðåñòîë, ïðèõîä ê âëàñòè accident n íåñ÷àñòíûé ñëó÷àé, àâàðèÿ; ñëó÷àéíîñòü accommodate v ïðåäîñòàâëÿòü æèëüå, îêàçûâàòü óñëóãó according (to) â ñîîòâåòñòâèè (ñ) account n ñ÷åò accountability n îò÷åòíîñòü accountable a ïîäîò÷åòíûé achieve v äîñòèãàòü, äîáèâàòüñÿ achievement n äîñòèæåíèå acknowledge v ïðèçíàâàòü, ïîäòâåðæäàòü ïîëó÷åíèå across prep ÷åðåç, ïîïåðåê, íà òîé ñòîðîíå ïî òó ñòîðîíó
Active Voice äåéñòâèòåëüíûé çàëîã activities n äåÿòåëüíîñòü, äåéñòâèÿ actually [,BktjuAli] adv
äåéñòâèòåëüíî, íà ñàìîì äåëå acute a îñòðûé, ïðîíçèòåëüíûé, ñèëüíûé adapt v ïðèñïîñàáëèâàòü(ñÿ) adapter n àäàïòåð, ïåðåõîäíèê add v äîáàâëÿòü adhere v ïðèäåðæèâàòüñÿ adjust v ïðèñïîñàáëèâàòü, ðåãóëèðîâàòü admit v äîïóñêàòü, ïîçâîëÿòü, ïðèíèìàòü adopt v ïðèíèìàòü, óñâàèâàòü adroit a ëîâêèé adult n âçðîñëûé adult n âçðîñëûé adverbial modifier îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî (ëèíãâ.) advertise [¢BdvAtaIz] v ðåêëàìèðîâàòü advice n ñîâåò, èçâåùåíèå, óâåäîìëåíèå advise v ñîâåòîâàòü affair n äåëî affect v âîçäåéñòâîâàòü, âëèÿòü affiliated a äî÷åðíèé (î êîìïàíèè) affirmation n óòâåðæäåíèå afford v ïîçâîëèòü ñåáå
afraid (be afraid of) èñïóãàííûé (áîÿòüñÿ) afterthought n ìûñëü, ïðèøåäøàÿ â ãîëîâó ñëèøêîì ïîçäíî against prep ïðîòèâ, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ, ê age n âîçðàñò, âåê, ïåðèîä, ýïîõà ageing n ñòàðåíèå agenda n ïîâåñòêà (äíÿ) agree v ñîãëàøàòüñÿ agreement n ñîãëàøåíèå alert a òðåâîæíûé alert v ïðåäóïðåæäàòü alleviate [A,li:vIeIt] v îáëåã÷àòü allocate v âûäåëÿòü, ïîðó÷àòü allow v ïîçâîëÿòü, ðàçðåøàòü almost adv ïî÷òè alongside (with) ðÿäîì (ñ) aloud adv âñëóõ also adv òîæå, òàêæå, ê òîìó æå although conj õîòÿ always adv âñåãäà ambition n ÷åñòîëþáèå, àìáèöèÿ, öåëü amid prep ñðåäè, ìåæäó amount n êîëè÷åñòâî, ñóììà amusing a çàíèìàòåëüíûé, çàáàâíûé ancient [,eInSAnt] a äðåâíèé, ñòàðûé and so on è òàê äàëåå angel [,eIndZAl] n àíãåë angle n óãîë
angry a ñåðäèòûé, ãíåâíûé; be angry (with) ñåðäèòüñÿ, çëèòüñÿ (íà) animal n æèâîòíîå anniversary n ãîäîâùèíà annoy v äîñàæäàòü, äîêó÷àòü, ðàçäðàæàòü , annual [ BnjuAl] a åæåãîäíûé anticipate v îæèäàòü, ïðåäâèäåòü, ïðåäâêóøàòü, ïðåä÷óâñòâîâàòü anxiety n áåñïîêîéñòâî, òðåâîãà, îïàñåíèå apology n èçâèíåíèå , appal [A pD:l] v ïóãàòü, óæàñàòü apparent a î÷åâèäíûé, âèäèìûé apparently adv î÷åâèäíî, ÿâíî, âåðîÿòíî, ïîâèäèìîìó appeal v îáðàùàòüñÿ, àïåëëèðîâàòü, ïðèçûâàòü appear v ïîÿâëÿòüñÿ, êàçàòüñÿ appetizer n çàêóñêà appliance n ïðèáîð applicant n êàíäèäàò, àáèòóðèåíò apply v ïðèìåíÿòü appoint v íàçíà÷àòü , appreciate [A pri:SieIt] v îöåíèâàòü, (âûñîêî) öåíèòü appreciation n îöåíêà, âûñîêàÿ îöåíêà, ïîíèìàíèå, ïðèçíàòåëüíîñòü
approach n ïîäõîä; v ïðèáëèæàòüñÿ, ïîäõîäèòü appropriate a ïîäõîäÿùèé, óìåñòíûé approve v îäîáðÿòü approximately adv ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî area n îáëàñòü, ÷àñòü, ó÷àñòîê argument n àðãóìåíò, äîâîä, îáñóæäåíèå, ñïîð arise (arose, arisen) v âîçíèêàòü, ïîÿâëÿòüñÿ , Aristotle [A rIstAtl] Àðèñòîòåëü arm/arms n îðóæèå armed forces âîîðóæåííûå ñèëû around prep âîêðóã; adv âñþäó, êðóãîì arrange v óñòðàèâàòü, ïðèâîäèòü â ïîðÿäîê, îðãàíèçîâûâàòü, ðàñïîëàãàòü arrive (in, at) v ïðèáûâàòü, ïðèõîäèòü arthritis n àðòðèò artist n õóäîæíèê, àðòèñò as a whole â öåëîì assault n íàïàäåíèå, àòàêà assembly n ñîáðàíèå, àññàìáëåÿ assess v îöåíèâàòü asset n èìóùåñòâî, öåííîå êà÷åñòâî, äîñòîèíñòâî
assign v ïîðó÷àòü, ïðåäïèñûâàòü, ïðåäíàçíà÷àòü assignment n çàäàíèå, ïðåäïèñàíèå assistance n ïîìîùü assistant professor n äîöåíò associate v ñâÿçûâàòü, ñîåäèíÿòü(ñÿ), àññîöèèðîâàòüñÿ, îáùàòüñÿ astonish v èçóìëÿòü, ïîðàæàòü at least ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå at once ñðàçó, íåìåäëåííî attack n àòàêà, íàïàäåíèå, ïðèñòóï attend v ïîñåùàòü attick n ÷åðäàê attractive a ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûé attribute n îïðåäåëåíèå (ëèíãâ.) , audience [ D:dIAns] n àóäèòîðèÿ, ïóáëèêà, àóäèåíöèÿ auditory à ñëóõîâîé , aura [ D:rA] n îðåîë, àòìîñôåðà , Australia [D: streIljA] n Àâñòðàëèÿ authoritarian a àâòîðèòàðíûé authority/ies n âëàñòü, ïîëíîìî÷èÿ available a èìåþùèéñÿ â íàëè÷èè, äîñòóïíûé average a ñðåäíèé
avoid v èçáåãàòü, óêëîíÿòüñÿ award v íàãðàæäàòü, ïðèñóæäàòü
back n îáðàòíàÿ ñòîðîíà, ñïèíà; v ïîääåðæèâàòü backache n áîëü â ñïèíå backbone n îñíîâà, ãëàâíàÿ îïîðà; ïîçâîíî÷íèê background n ïðåäûñòîðèÿ, îïûò, ôîí backward a îáðàòíûé, îòñòàëûé bacon n áåêîí, âåò÷èíà bad luck íåóäà÷à bad-tempered a âñïûëü÷èâûé, ðàçäðàæèòåëüíûé banish v âûñûëàòü (â ññûëêó) bar n áàð, ñòîéêà, áðóñîê; bar of chocolate ïëèòêà øîêîëàäà , Barbados [ba beIdAUz] Áàðáàäîñ barely adv åäâà , bargain [ ba:gIn] n ñäåëêà barrier n áàðüåð base v îñíîâûâàòü(ñÿ), áàçèðîâàòüñÿ battle n áèòâà, ñðàæåíèå, áîé bay n áóõòà, çàëèâ; at bay â áåçâûõîäíîì ïîëîæåíèè
BC (= before Christ) äî Ðîæäåñòâà Õðèñòîâà, äî íàøåé ýðû be afraid áîÿòüñÿ be ashamed ñòûäèòüñÿ be aware (of) ñîçíàâàòü, îñîçíàâàòü be concerned áåñïîêîèòüñÿ be delighted áûòü â âîñòîðãå be fond of ëþáèòü be good at èìåòü ñïîñîáíîñòü (ê) be present ïðèñóòñòâîâàòü be responsible (for) áûòü îòâåòñòâåííûì (çà) beach n áåðåã ìîðÿ, ïëÿæ beating n ïîðàæåíèå, áèòâà beer [bIA] n ïèâî beg pardon ïðîñèòü èçâèíåíèÿ, ïðîùåíèÿ beg v ïðîñèòü, óìîëÿòü behave v âåñòè ñåáÿ belief n âåðà believe v âåðèòü, ñ÷èòàòü bell n êîëîêîë, êîëîêîëü÷èê, çâîíîê bellboy n êîðèäîðíûé bellhop n êîðèäîðíûé belong (to) v ïðèíàäëåæàòü below prep ïîä, íèæå belt n ïîÿñ, ðåìåíü; çîíà bend (bent, bent) v ãíóòü(ñÿ), ñãèáàòü
beneficial a áëàãîòâîðíûé, âûãîäíûé, öåëåáíûé, ïîëåçíûé beside prep ðÿäîì (ñ), îêîëî besides adv êðîìå òîãî, ïîìèìî; prep êðîìå bestseller n áåñòñåëëåð bet (bet, bet/ betted, betted) v äåðæàòü ïàðè, áèòüñÿ îá çàêëàë beverage [,bevArIdZ] n íàïèòîê billion n ìèëëèàðä bitter a ãîðüêèé, ðåçêèé, îæåñòî÷åííûé blade n ëåçâèå blame v âèíà blank a ïóñòîé, ÷èñòûé, íåèñïèñàííûé bleep v ñèãíàëèòü, ãóäåòü blind [blaInd] a ñëåïîé blood n êðîâü bloodshed n êðîâîïðîëèòèå blow n óäàð boarding house n ïàíñèîíàò, ïàíñèîí boarding school n çàêðûòîå ó÷åáíîå çàâåäåíèå body n òåëî, êîðïóñ, ãðóïïà, îðãàí bolster v ïîäïèðàòü, ïîääåðæèâàòü bomb [bDm] v áîìáèòü bone n êîñòü bonus [,bAUnAs] n ïðåìèÿ
book v çàêàçûâàòü, áðîíèðîâàòü; book in advance çàêàçûâàòü çàðàíåå book (tickets) v çàêàçûâàòü (áèëåòû) boost v ñòèìóëèðîâàòü, äàâàòü òîë÷îê borrow v çàíèìàòü (ó êîãî-íèáóäü) bother v áåñïîêîèòü bottom-up adv ââåðõ äíîì bounty n ùåäðîñòü, âîçíàãðàæäåíèå brain n ìîçã, ñîîáðàçèòåëüíîñòü, ðàññóäîê brand n ôèðìåííàÿ ìàðêà, ñîðò bread v îáâàëèâàòü â ñóõàðÿõ, ïàíèðîâàòü break (broke, broken) (out) v ðàçðàçèòüñÿ, ðàçðàæàòüñÿ breakthrough n ðàçðûâ, ïðîðûâ breed (bred, bred) v ðàçâîäèòü, ïîðîæäàòü breed n ïîðîäà, ïîòîìñòâî , brewery [ bru:ArI] n ïèâîâàðåííûé çàâîä brilliant a áëåñòÿùèé, áëèñòàòåëüíûé, âûäàþùèéñÿ, ÿðêèé, âåëèêîëåïíûé, âåëè÷åñòâåííûé broadly adv øèðîêî, âîîáùå
Buckingham Palace , , [ bEkINAm pBlIs] Áóêèíãåìñêèé äâîðåö (ðåçèäåíöèÿ àíãëèéñêèõ ìîíàðõîâ) , budget [ bEdZIt] n áþäæåò burden n áðåìÿ burger n áþðãåð burglar n âçëîìùèê burst (into) v âîðâàòüñÿ, âçîðâàòüñÿ , bury [ berI] v çàðûâàòü, çàêàïûâàòü, õîðîíèòü business trip êîìàíäèðîâêà buy (bought, bought) v ïîêóïàòü bygone n ïðîøëîå bå likely âåðîÿòíî bîring a ñêó÷íûé
cable n êàáåëü, êàíàò , cafe2 [ kBfeI] n êàôå , caffein(e) [ kBfi:n] n êîôåèí cake n ïèðîæíîå calm [ka:m] a ñïîêîéíûé, òèõèé , Canada [ kBnAdA] Êàíàäà canary n êàíàðåéêà cannon n ïóøêà, îðóäèå cap n êåïêà, ôóðàæêà, øàïêà capacity n ñïîñîáíîñòü care (for) v çàáîòèòüñÿ , career [kA rIA] n êàðüåðà carefully adv îñòîðîæíî, òùàòåëüíî
caricature [,kBrIkA,tjuA] n êàðèêàòóðà carnation n ãâîçäèêà carpet n êîâåð carriage n êàðåòà, âàãîí, ýêèïàæ carry (out) v âûïîëíÿòü carry v íåñòè, âåçòè cart n òåëåãà, ïîâîçêà carålessly adv íåâíèìàòåëüíî, íåáðåæíî, áåççàáîòíî cast-iron [,ka:st,aIAn] n ÷óãóí castle [ka:sl] n çàìîê casually adv íåáðåæíî, ñëó÷àéíî catalogue [,kBtAlAg] n êàòàëîã catch (caught, caught) v ëîâèòü, ïîéìàòü cattle n ñêîò cause n ïðè÷èíà, äåëî cause v áûòü ïðè÷èíîé, ïðè÷èíÿòü, âûçûâàòü cautious [,kD:SAs] a îñòîðîæíûé cede v óñòóïàòü celebrate v ïðàçäíîâàòü celebration n ïðàçäíîâàíèå cell n êàìåðà, êåëüÿ, ÿ÷åéêà, ýëåìåíò cellphone n ñîòîâûé òåëåôîí centre n öåíòð century n âåê, ñòîëåòèå CEO (chief executive officer) ãëàâíûé àäìèíèñòðàòîð
cereals n êàøà certain a íåêîòîðûé, îïðåäåëåííûé; to a certain extent äî îïðåäåëåííîé ñòåïåíè certainly adv êîíå÷íî certificate [sA,tIfIkIt] n ñåðòèôèêàò chain n öåïü chair n ñòóë, êðåñëî; êàôåäðà chairperson n ïðåäñåäàòåëü challenge n âûçîâ, èñïûòàíèå chance n âîçìîæíîñòü, øàíñ change v ìåíÿòü, èçìåíÿòü(ñÿ), îáìåíèâàòü change ones mind ïåðåäóìàòü changeful a ïîëíûé ïåðåìåí charge n ïëàòà charge v íàçíà÷àòü öåíó, ïðåäïèñûâàòü, òðåáîâàòü charity n áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîñòü charm n îáàÿíèå, î÷àðîâàíèå chat v áîëòàòü, áåñåäîâàòü, íåïðèíóæäåííî áîëòàòü cheap a äåøåâûé cheek n ùåêà cheerful a áîäðûé, âåñåëûé, ÿðêèé chemical n õèìèêàò
cherish v ëåëåÿòü, õðàíèòü, íåæíî ëþáèòü cherry n ÷åðåøíÿ, âèøíÿ chicken n öûïëåíîê China [,tSaInA] n Êèòàé; ôàðôîð choice n âûáîð choke v çàäûõàòüñÿ cholesterol n õîëåñòåðîë choose (chose, chosen) v âûáèðàòü, èçáèðàòü; ïðåäïî÷èòàòü church n öåðêîâü circuit n öåïü (ýë.) circumstance , [ sA:kAmstAns] n îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî civil liberties ãðàæäàíñêèå ñâîáîäû civilization [,sIvIlaI,zeIS(A)n] n öèâèëèçàöèÿ claim v òðåáîâàòü, ïðåòåíäîâàòü clandestine a ïîäïîëüíûé, òàéíûé clarify v ðàçúÿñíÿòü, óòî÷íÿòü clarity n ÿñíîñòü classmate n îäíîêëàññíèê cleanse v î÷èùàòü closely adv âíèìàòåëüíî, òùàòåëüíî clutter v çàãðîìîæäàòü, ñîçäàâàòü ïîìåõè coach v òðåíèðîâàòü coat n ïàëüòî, ïèäæàê coat of arms ãåðá coin n ìîíåòà
coin v ÷åêàíèòü (ìîíåòó), ôàáðèêîâàòü, ñîçäàâàòü (íîâûå ñëîâà) collaboration n ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâî, ñîâìåñòíàÿ ðàáîòà college n êîëëåäæ, èíñòèòóò collie n êîëëè combat n áèòâà, áîé; v áîðîòüñÿ (ïðîòèâ) comma n çàïÿòàÿ commission n ïîðó÷åíèå, çàêàç, äîâåðåííîñòü, ïîëíîìî÷èå commit v ñîâåðøàòü common a îáùèé, îáû÷íûé commonwealth n ñîäðóæåñòâî Commonwealth (the) n Ñîäðóæåñòâî, Ôåäåðàöèÿ, ãîñóäàðñòâî community n îáùåñòâåííîñòü, îáùèíà companionship n îáùåíèå, ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâî competition n êîíêóðñ, ñîðåâíîâàíèå, êîíêóðåíöèÿ complain v (of) æàëîâàòüñÿ (íà) complementary a äîïîëíèòåëüíûé complete a ïîëíûé, çàâåðøåííûé completely adv ïîëíîñòüþ, ñîâåðøåííî Complex Object ñëîæíîå äîïîëíåíèå (ëèíãâ.)
complicate v óñëîæíÿòü complicated a ñëîæíûé concede v óñòóïàòü, äîïóñêàòü concept n ïîíÿòèå, èäåÿ, îáùåå ïðåäñòàâëåíèå, êîíöåïöèÿ concern v áåñïîêîèòü, âîâëåêàòü, êàñàòüñÿ concierge [,kD:nsI,LAZ] n êîíñüåðæ(êà) conclude v çàêëþ÷àòü (ñäåëêó), çàêàí÷èâàòü condemn v îñóæäàòü, ïîðèöàòü condition v ôîðìèðîâàòü, îáðàáàòûâàòü; n óñëîâèå confess v ñîçíàâàòüñÿ, ïðèçíàâàòü, èñïîâåäîâàòüñÿ confident a óâåðåííûé, ñàìîóâåðåííûé, óâåðåííûé â ñåáå confines n ãðàíèöû, ðóáåæ confuse v îçàäà÷èâàòü, çàïóòûâàòü, ïðèâîäèòü â çàìåøàòåëüñòâî, ñìóùàòü connect v ñîåäèíÿòü, ñâÿçûâàòü conquer [,kDNkA] v çàâîåâûâàòü, ïîêîðÿòü, ïîä÷èíÿòü consciousness n ñîçíàíèå, ñîçíàòåëüíîñòü, ñàìîñîçíàíèå consensus n åäèíîå ìíåíèå, êîíñåíñóñ
consider v ñ÷èòàòü, ðàññìàòðèâàòü consist (of) v ñîñòîÿòü (èç) consort n ñóïðóã(à) constable [,kDnstAbl] n êîíñòåáëü, ïîëèöåéñêèé construct v ñîîðóæàòü, ñòðîèòü consul [kDnsl] n êîíñóë consume v ïîòðåáëÿòü, ðàñõîäîâàòü contemporary a ñîâðåìåííûé contentious [kAn,tenSAs] a ñïîðíûé contest v áîðîòüñÿ, êîíêóðèðîâàòü continue v ïðîäîëæàòü(ñÿ), ñîõðàíÿòü(ñÿ) contribute v âíîñèòü (âêëàä) controvercy n äèñêóññèÿ, ñïîð convenience n óäîáñòâî conversation n áåñåäà conversationalist n ñîáåñåäíèê cope (with) v ñïðàâèòüñÿ (ñ) corgi n êîðãè (ïîðîäà êîðîëåâñêèõ ñîáàê) corporal punishment òåëåñíîå íàêàçàíèå corporate a êîðïîðàòèâíûé, îáùèé correct v èñïðàâëÿòü correspondence n êîððåñïîíäåíöèÿ, ïåðåïèñêà
cost n ñòîèìîñòü, öåíà; v (cost, cost) ñòîèòü count v ñ÷èòàòü countless a íåèñ÷èñëèìûé, áåñ÷èñëåííûé courage n ñìåëîñòü, õðàáðîñòü, ìóæåñòâî , courier [ kurIA] n êóðüåð course n êóðñ, íàïðàâëåíèå, òå÷åíèå, õîä course paper êóðñîâàÿ ðàáîòà court n ñóä covenant n îáÿçàòåëüñòâî cow n êîðîâà crave v ñòðàñòíî æåëàòü, æàæäàòü; ïðîñèòü, óìîëÿòü create v òâîðèòü, ñîçäàâàòü, âîçäâèãàòü creative à òâîð÷åñêèé, èçîáðåòàòåëüíûé creature n ñóùåñòâî, ñîçäàíèå credit n êðåäèò, äîëæíîå crime n ïðåñòóïëåíèå criminal n ïðåñòóïíèê; a óãîëîâíûé criterion (pl criteria) êðèòåðèé cross-cultural communication ìåæêóëüòóðíîå îáùåíèå crown n êîðîíà crumble v ðàçðóøàòüñÿ, ãèáíóòü, ðàçâàëèâàòüñÿ
crunch time êðèòè÷åñêèé ìîìåíò culminative a êóëüìèíàöèîííûé, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ â çåíèòå curate v êóðèðîâàòü currency n äåíüãè, âàëþòà currently adv â äàííûé íàñòîÿùèé ìîìåíò , curriculum [kA rIkjulAm] n ó÷åáíûé ïëàí curse n ðóãàòåëüñòâî, ïðîêëÿòèå curtain [kA:tn] n çàíàâåñ, çàíàâåñêà custom n òðàäèöèÿ, îáû÷àé, ïðèâû÷êà customer n ïîêóïàòåëü, êëèåíò, çàêàç÷èê customs n òàìîæíÿ cut (cut, cut) v ðåçàòü, óðåçàòü, ñíèæàòü
dachshund [¢dBkshund] n òàêñà daily a åæåäíåâíûé damage n óùåðá, ïîâðåæäåíèå; v ïîðòèòü, íàíîñèòü óùåðá dangerous a îïàñíûé dark-complexioned a ñìóãëûé darkness n òåìíîòà , daughter [ dD:tA] n äî÷ü dead a ìåðòâûé, íåæèâîé, íåïîäâèæíûé
deadline n ïîñëåäíèé/ ïðåäåëüíûé ñðîê deal (with) v èìåòü äåëî (ñ), çàíèìàòüñÿ, ðåøàòü, îáùàòüñÿ deal n ñäåëêà death n ñìåðòü decade n äåñÿòèëåòèå decide v ðåøàòü decision n ðåøåíèå declare v ïðîâîçãëàøàòü, îáúÿâëÿòü decommission v çä. ðàçîáðàòü decrease v óìåíüøàòü, ïîíèæàòü, óáàâëÿòü dedicate v ïîñâÿùàòü deduce v ïðèõîäèòü ê çàêëþ÷åíèþ deep a ãëóáîêèé defend v çàùèùàòü define v îïðåäåëÿòü, óñòàíàâëèâàòü çíà÷åíèå definition n îïðåäåëåíèå deforestation n âûðóáêà ëåñà degrade v óõóäøàòüñÿ, äåãðàäèðîâàòü degree n ñòåïåíü, ãðàäóñ, óðîâåíü delay v îòêëàäûâàòü delegate v äåëåãèðîâàòü, ïîðó÷àòü demand n òðåáîâàíèå, ñïðîñ; v òðåáîâàòü demolish v ñíåñòè, ðàçãðîìèòü deny v îòðèöàòü, îòâåðãàòü, îòðåêàòüñÿ
depend (on) v çàâèñåòü (îò) dependent a çàâèñèìûé deport v äåïîðòèðîâàòü, âûñûëàòü derive (from) v ïðîèñõîäèòü (èç), ïðîèñõîäèòü (îò) descendant n ïîòîìîê descent n ïðîèñõîæäåíèå; ñïóñê desert v ïîêèäàòü deserve v çàñëóæèâàòü, çàñëóæèòü desirable a æåëàòåëüíûé, ïðèâëåêàòåëüíûé desire n æåëàíèå despite prep íåñìîòðÿ (íà) destination n ìåñòî íàçíà÷åíèÿ destiny n ñóäüáà, óäåë destructive a ðàçðóøèòåëüíûé desñend v îïóñêàòüñÿ, ñíèæàòüñÿ, ïðîèñõîäèòü (èç) detain v çàäåðæèâàòü, óäåðæèâàòü, çàìåäëÿòü detect v îáíàðóæèâàòü, îòêðûâàòü develop v ðàçâèâàòü(ñÿ), ðàçðàáàòûâàòü developer n ðàçðàáîò÷èê device n ïðèáîð, óñòðîéñòâî devote v ïîñâÿùàòü dial n öèôåðáëàò; v íàáèðàòü íîìåð
die v óìèðàòü, óãàñàòü differ (from) v îòëè÷àòüñÿ (îò), ðàçëè÷àòüñÿ difference n ðàçëè÷èå, ðàçíèöà dim v ïîòóñêíåòü, çàòóìàíèòü(ñÿ) dimension n èçìåðåíèå, ðàçìåðû din n ãðîõîò direction n íàïðàâëåíèå, ðóêîâîäñòâî disapproval n íåîäîáðåíèå disarmament n ðàçîðóæåíèå disastrous a áåäñòâåííûé, ãèáåëüíûé discovery n îòêðûòèå, îáíàðóæåíèå discussion n äèñêóññèÿ, îáñóæäåíèå disease n áîëåçíü dislike v íå ëþáèòü, èñïûòûâàòü íåïðèÿçíü dismal a ìðà÷íûé, óíûëûé dismiss v óâîëüíÿòü disposal n ðàñïîëîæåíèå, ðàçìåùåíèå dispose v ðàñïîëàãàòü, ðàçìåùàòü, ðàññòàâëÿòü disrupt v íàðóøàòü distance n ðàññòîÿíèå, äèñòàíöèÿ distinction n îòëè÷èå distinguishing a îòëè÷èòåëüíûé distort v èñêàæàòü
distraction n îòâëå÷åíèå, ïóòàíèöà distress n îò÷àÿíèå; v îãîð÷àòü diverse a ðàçíîîáðàçíûé divert [daI,vA:t] v îòâëåêàòü, îòâîäèòü do ones best ñäåëàòü âñå âîçìîæíîå do shopping äåëàòü ïîêóïêè doberman n äîáåðìàí dog v ïðåñëåäîâàòü, õîäèòü ïî ïÿòàì dole (out) v ðàçäàâàòü domestic a äîìàøíèé, âíóòðåííèé, ñåìåéíûé dont mention it íè÷åãî; íå çà ÷òî donkey n îñ¸ë dose n äîçà double v óäâàèâàòü double-edged a îáîþäîîñòðûé download v çàãðóæàòü downstairs adv âíèçó, âíèç draw (drew, drawn) v ÷åðòèòü, ðèñîâàòü; òàùèòü dream (dreamt, dreamt/ dreamed, dreamed) v ìå÷òàòü, âèäåòü ñíû, âèäåòü âî ñíå dreary a ìðà÷íûé, òîñêëèâûé; ïå÷àëüíûé, ãðóñòíûé drive (drove, driven) v åõàòü, âåñòè (ìàøèíó), 235
Egypt [,I:dZIpt] n Åãèïåò election n âûáîðû, èçáðàíèå elite [eI,li:t] n ýëèòà embarrass v çàòðóäíÿòü, ñìóùàòü, ñòåñíÿòü emergency n êðàéíÿÿ íåîáõîäèìîñòü, ÷ðåçâû÷àéíàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ empire [,empaIA] n èìïåðèÿ employee n ðàáîòíèê, ñëóæàùèé, ñîòðóäíèê employer n ðàáîòîäàòåëü empower v óïîëíîìî÷èâàòü enable v äàâàòü âîçìîæíîñòü, ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü encourage v ïîîùðÿòü, E ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü earn v çàðàáàòûâàòü, enemy n âðàã çàñëóæèâàòü engine n äâèãàòåëü, earth n çåìëÿ ìîòîð Easter n Ïàñõà åasy a ëåãêèé, óäîáíûé, engrossed a ïîãëîùåííûé, óâëå÷åííûé íåïðèíóæäåííûé; adv enjoy v ïîëó÷àòü óäîëåãêî âîëüñòâèå, íàñëàæäàòüeducate v âîñïèòûâàòü, ñÿ äàâàòü îáðàçîâàíèå, enlargement n óâåëè÷åòðåíèðîâàòü íèå education n îáðàçîâàenough [I,nEf] adv íèå, âîñïèòàíèå äîñòàòî÷íî educational establishenter v âõîäèòü, ïîñòóment ó÷åáíîå çàâåäåïàòü, âñòóïàòü íèå entertainment n ðàçâëåefficiently adv ýôôåê÷åíèå òèâíî entire a âåñü effort n ïîïûòêà, entirely adv ïîëíîñòüþ, óñèëèå ñîâåðøåííî
âåçòè; n ïîåçäêà, äâèæåíèå driver n âîäèòåëü drop (in) v çàõîäèòü drop a line ÷åðêíóòü íåñêîëüêî ñòðîê Drop in any time you like. Çàõîäèòå â ëþáîå âðåìÿ. drought n çàñóõà drug n íàðêîòèê Duchess [,dEtSIs] n ãåðöîãèíÿ due to prep áëàãîäàðÿ dull a òóïîé, ãëóïûé, ñêó÷íûé, ìîíîòîííûé during prep âî âðåìÿ, â òå÷åíèå
entrenched a óêîðåíèâøèéñÿ entry n âõîä, âúåçä environment n îêðóæåíèå, îêðóæàþùàÿ îáñòàíîâêà, îêðóæàþùàÿ ñðåäà epitaph n ýïèòàôèÿ equal a ðàâíûé equip v îáîðóäîâàòü, îñíàùàòü equipment n îáîðóäîâàíèå, îñíàùåíèå erase v ñòèðàòü erect v ñîîðóæàòü, âîññòàíàâëèâàòü, âîçâîäèòü erratic a áåñïîðÿäî÷íûé, ñóìàñáðîäíûé error n îøèáêà especially adv îñîáåííî establish v óñòàíàâëèâàòü, ó÷ðåæäàòü establishment n ó÷ðåæäåíèå estimate v îöåíèâàòü, äàâàòü îöåíêó etc. è ò. ä. etiquette n ýòèêåò European [,juArA,pi:An] a åâðîïåéñêèé evaluate v îöåíèâàòü even adv äàæå event n ñîáûòèå everything pron âñ¸ evidence n äîêàçàòåëüñòâî, ïîêàçàíèå exact a òî÷íûé, ñòðîãèé, ïðàâèëüíûé, âåðíûé
exactly adv òî÷íî, èìåííî excellent a îòëè÷íûé, ïðåâîñõîäíûé excite v âîçáóæäàòü, âîëíîâàòü exciting a âîçáóæäàþùèé execute v âûïîëíÿòü, îñóùåñòâëÿòü execution n âûïîëíåíèå; êàçíü executive n äîëæíîñòíîå ëèöî, ðóêîâîäèòåëü, àäìèíèñòðàòîð exercise v îñóùåñòâëÿòü, ïðîÿâëÿòü; òðåíèðîâàòüñÿ exhibition n âûñòàâêà exhilaration n âçâîëíîâàííîñòü exist v ñóùåñòâîâàòü existence n ñóùåñòâîâàíèå expect v îæèäàòü, ïðåäïîëàãàòü expense n òðàòà, ðàñõîä expensive a äîðîãîé experience n îïûò explain v îáúÿñíÿòü, òîëêîâàòü, îïðàâäûâàòü explore v èññëåäîâàòü explosive n âçðûâ÷àòîå âåùåñòâî express v âûðàæàòü exquisite a èçûñêàííûé, óòîí÷åííûé externally adv âíåøíå 237
extinguish v óíè÷òîæèòü, ïîãàñèòü extreme a êðàéíèé, ñèëüíåéøèé
face v ñòîÿòü ëèöîì (ê), ñòàëêèâàòüñÿ (ñ) facility n ïðèñïîñîáëåíèå, óñëóãà; pl facilities îáîðóäîâàíèå, ïîìåùåíèå; âîçìîæíîñòè, áëàãîïðèÿòíûå óñëîâèÿ failure n íåóäà÷à, ïðîâàë, ïîâðåæäåíèå fair n ÿðìàðêà faithful a âåðíûé, ïðåäàííûé fake v ïîääåëûâàòü fall (fell, fallen) v ïàäàòü, óïàñòü fall asleep óñíóòü fall in love âëþáèòüñÿ, âëþáëÿòüñÿ familiar a çíàêîìûé famous a çíàìåíèòûé fan n ïîêëîííèê, áîëåëüùèê fancy v õîòåòü, âîîáðàæàòü fat n æèð fault n íåäîñòàòîê, äåôåêò, âèíà, îøèáêà favo(u)r v îêàçûâàòü ïðåäïî÷òåíèå favourite a ëþáèìûé feasible a îñóùåñòâèìûé
feature film õóäîæåñòâåííûé ôèëüì fee n ïëàòà, ãîíîðàð; school fees ïëàòà çà îáó÷åíèå feed (fed, fed) v çàãðóæàòü, êîðìèòü feel (felt, felt) v ÷óâñòâîâàòü, îùóùàòü feel like an underdog ÷óâñòâîâàòü ñåáÿ êàê ïîáèòàÿ ñîáàêà feel off colour ÷óâñòâîâàòü ñëàáîñòü feel run down áûòü ðàçáèòûì, ÷óâñòâîâàòü ñëàáîñòü feeling n îùóùåíèå, ÷óâñòâî fertilizer n óäîáðåíèå fetch v ïðèíîñèòü, ïðèâîäèòü fever n ëèõîðàäêà few a íåìíîãèå; a few íåñêîëüêî field n îáëàñòü, ïîëå fight (fought, fought) v ñðàæàòüñÿ, áîðîòüñÿ, äðàòüñÿ figure [,fIgA] n ôèãóðà, âíåøíèé âèä, îáðàç; öèôðà fill v íàïîëíÿòü(ñÿ) find (found, found) v íàõîäèòü find (found, found) (out) v óçíàòü, âûÿâèòü, ïîíÿòü findings n çàêëþ÷åíèå, ðåçóëüòàòû 238
fine a õîðîøèé, ïðåêðàñíûé, ïðåâîñõîäíûé; n øòðàô fingernail n íîãîòü fire n îãîíü; v óâîëüíÿòü fish n ðûáà fit v ñîîòâåòñòâîâàòü, ãîäèòüñÿ, ñîâïàäàòü fitting a íàäëåæàùèé fix v óñòàíàâëèâàòü, íàçíà÷àòü, íàëàæèâàòü, îðãàíèçîâûâàòü flesh n ïëîòü, ìÿêîòü flexible a ãèáêèé flock n ñòàäî (îâåö), ñòàÿ, òîëïà flood [flEd] n íàâîäíåíèå, ïîòîï fluently adv áåãëî, ñâîáîäíî focus v ñîáèðàòü(ñÿ), ôîêóñèðîâàòü, ñîñðåäîòî÷èâàòü food n åäà, ïèùà footprint n ñëåä, îòïå÷àòîê íîãè forcibly adv íàñèëüíî foreign a èíîñòðàííûé, çàðóáåæíûé, âíåøíèé foreigner n èíîñòðàíåö foremost a ïåðåäîâîé, ïåðåäíèé, ñàìûé âàæíûé foretell (foretold, foretold) v ïðåäñêàçûâàòü forget (forgot, forgotten) v çàáûâàòü forgive v ïðîñòèòü, ïðîùàòü
fork n âèëêà former n áûâøèé, ïðåæíèé foster v ïîîùðÿòü, áëàãîïðèÿòñòâîâàòü found v çàêëàäûâàòü, ó÷ðåæäàòü, îñíîâûâàòü foundation n îñíîâàíèå, îñíîâà; ôîíä founder n îñíîâàòåëü, ñîçäàòåëü, ó÷ðåäèòåëü frame n ñòðîåíèå, ñòðóêòóðà, ñèñòåìà; ðàìà, ðàìêà frank a îòêðîâåííûé frantic a áåçóìíûé, îáåçóìåâøèé free a ñâîáîäíûé frequently adv ÷àñòî fried eggs ÿè÷íèöà friends-in-arms áðàòüÿ ïî îðóæèþ frighten v ïóãàòü, èñïóãàòü; be frightened áîÿòüñÿ frontier n ãðàíèöà frustrate v ðàññòðàèâàòü, ñðûâàòü fry v æàðèòü fulfill v èñïîëíÿòü, ðåàëèçîâàòü full-time work ïîëíûé ðàáî÷èé äåíü function n ôóíêöèÿ fund v âêëàäûâàòü êàïèòàë funny a ñìåøíîé, çàáàâíûé furniture n ìåáåëü
G.P. (General Practitioner) âðà÷ îáùåé ïðàêòèêè, òåðàïåâò gadget n ïðèñïîñîáëåíèå Gaelic [,geIlIk] a ãàýëüñêèé gain v çàðàáàòûâàòü, èçâëåêàòü, äîáèâàòüñÿ game n èãðà gather v ñîáèðàòü(ñÿ) gay a âåñåëûé generally adv âîîáùå, îáû÷íî generation n ïîêîëåíèå, âîñïðîèçâîäñòâî genocide [¢dZenAsaId] n ãåíîöèä genuine [¢dZenjuIn] a ïîäëèííûé, èñòèííûé, íåïîääåëüíûé genuinely adv èñêðåííå Gerund n ãåðóíäèé
get through v ñîåäèíèòü(ñÿ), äîçâîíèòüñÿ give (gave, given) a lift ïîäâåçòè, ïîäâîçèòü give (up) v îòêàçàòüñÿ, îñòàâèòü gladness n ðàäîñòü, óäîâîëüñòâèå gloomy a ìðà÷íûé, òåìíûé, óãðþìûé glory n cëàâà go ahead v ïðîäâèãàòüñÿ, íà÷èíàòü go back to (date) îòíîñèòüñÿ (ê)
go fishing õîäèòü íà ðûáàëêó go sightseeing îñìàòðèâàòü äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòè goal n öåëü good luck óäà÷à goodness n äîáðîòà, âåëèêîäóøèå, ëþáåçíîñòü goods n òîâàð, òîâàðû goose (pl geese) n ãóñü govern v óïðàâëÿòü, ðóêîâîäèòü government n ïðàâèòåëüñòâî, óïðàâëåíèå governor n ãóáåðíàòîð, äèðåêòîð, íà÷àëüíèê Governor-General n ãåíåðàë-ãóáåðíàòîð gradually adv ïîñòåïåííî graduate (from) [,grBdjueIt] v çàêàí÷èâàòü (óíèâåðñèòåò) graduate [,grBdjuIt] n âûïóñêíèê graffity n ãðàôôèòè granddaughter n âíó÷êà grant v âûäàâàòü, íàçíà÷àòü grasp v ñõâàòèòü grasshopper n êóçíå÷èê gratitude n áëàãîäàðíîñòü Greece [gri:s] n Ãðåöèÿ greet v ïðèâåòñòâîâàòü, çäîðîâàòüñÿ greyhound n áîðçàÿ
ground n îñíîâàíèå; çåìëÿ guard v îõðàíÿòü guest [gest] n ãîñòü, ïîñòîÿëåö, æèëåö guide n ãèä, ïðîâîäíèê, ýêñêóðñîâîä guilt n âèíà, âèíîâíîñòü
half n ïîëîâèíà hall n çàë handle v ñïðàâëÿòüñÿ, îáðàùàòüñÿ (ñ), óïðàâëÿòü handwriting n ïî÷åðê handy à óäîáíûé, áëèçêèé, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä ðóêîé happen v ñëó÷àòüñÿ, ïðîèñõîäèòü happiness n ñ÷àñòüå hardly adv åäâà, åäâà ëè, âðÿä ëè hardship n òðóäíîñòü, ëèøåíèå, òÿæåëîå èñïûòàíèå harmful a âðåäíûé harmony n ãàðìîíèÿ, ñîçâó÷èå hate v íå ëþáèòü, íåíàâèäåòü headache n (bad) (ñèëüíàÿ) ãîëîâíàÿ áîëü health n çäîðîâüå healthy a çäîðîâûé, ïîëåçíûé hear (heard, heard) v ñëûøàòü, ñëóøàòü, âíèìàòü
heart [ha:t] n ñåðäöå, ñóòü heat n æàð, æàðà heavy a òÿæåëûé, ñèëüíûé hefty à èçðÿäíûé, çäîðîâåííûé heir [LA] n íàñëåäíèê helping n ïîðöèÿ Her Imperial Majesty Å¸ Êîðîëåâñêîå Âåëè÷åñòâî Her Majesty Å¸ Âåëè÷åñòâî herd n ñòàäî, ãóðò; ïàñòóõ; v ãíàòü, ñãîíÿòü here adv çäåñü hereditary a íàñëåäñòâåííûé hide (hid, hidden) v ïðÿòàòü, ñêðûâàòü high-end a (÷òî-ëèáî) ñàìîãî âûñîêîãî êà÷åñòâà high-ranking a âûñîêîïîñòàâëåííûé hike n õîä, äâèæåíèå, ìàðø hire v àðåíäîâàòü, ñíèìàòü, áðàòü íàïðîêàò hold (held, held) v äåðæàòü, îáëàäàòü home secretary ìèíèñòð âíóòðåííèõ äåë homeowner n äîìîâëàäåëåö honest [,DnIst] a ÷åñòíûé honorary [,DnArArI] degree ïî÷åòíàÿ ñòåïåíü 241
honour [,D:nA] n ÷åñòü, ñëàâà; v ïî÷èòàòü, óäîñòàèâàòü hoof n êîïûòî hope v íàäåÿòüñÿ hopelessness n áåçíàäåæíîñòü Horace [,hOrAs] Ãîðàöèé horse n ëîøàäü, êîíü horsepower n ëîøàäèíàÿ ñèëà hospital n áîëüíèöà, ãîñïèòàëü hostility n âðàæäåáíîñòü hot-smoked sturgeon îñåòðèíà ãîðÿ÷åãî êîï÷åíèÿ hot water bottle n ãðåëêà hour [auA] n ÷àñ Houses of Parliament Ïàðëàìåíò housekeeper n ýêîíîìêà How are you? Êàê ïîæèâàåòå? Êàê âàøè äåëà? How do you do Çäðàâñòâóéòå. however adv îäíàêî HR ÷åëîâå÷åêèé ðåñóðñ HRM (human resources management) ðóêîâîäñòâî ÷åëîâå÷åñêèìè ðåñóðñàìè huge a îãðîìíûé, ãðîìàäíûé human rights ïðàâà ÷åëîâåêà humidity n âëàæíîñòü
Hungary [,hENgArI] n Âåíãðèÿ hunt v îõîòèòüñÿ hurry n ñïåøêà; v ñïåøèòü, òîðîïèòüñÿ hurt (hurt, hurt) v ïðè÷èíèòü áîëü, ïîâðåäèòü husband n ìóæ hussar [,hU,za:] n ãóñàð hymn [hIm] n öåðêîâíûé ãèìí I
Id rather ëó÷øå áû ; ìåíÿ áû áîëüøå óñòðîèëî, åñëè áû iceberg n àéñáåðã identify v îïðåäåëÿòü, îïîçíàâàòü idle a ïðàçäíûé, ëåíèâûé ignorant a íåâåæåñòâåííûé, íåñâåäóùèé ignore v èãíîðèðîâàòü illness n áîëåçíü illuminate v îñâåùàòü illustrious [I,lEstrIAs] a áëåñòÿùèé image n îáðàç, îòðàæåíèå, èìèäæ imaginary a âîîáðàæàåìûé, ìíèìûé imagine v ïðåäñòàâëÿòü (ñåáå), âîîáðàæàòü immediately adv íåìåäëåííî, íåïîñðåäñòâåííî impact n âîçäåéñòâèå; v âîçäåéñòâîâàòü
impartiality n áåñïðèñòðàñòíîñòü impend v íàâèñàòü, óãðîæàòü impending a íàäâèãàþùèéñÿ implement v âûïîëíÿòü, îñóùåñòâëÿòü important a âàæíûé impose v íàëàãàòü, íàâÿçûâàòü impossible a íåâîçìîæíûé impression n âïå÷àòëåíèå improve v óëó÷øàòü impål v ïðèâîäèòü â äâèæåíèå, ïîáóæäàòü impîrtance n âàæíîñòü, çíà÷èòåëüíîñòü in advance âïåðåä, çàðàíåå in this regard â ýòîì îòíîøåíèè incentive n ñòèìóë, ìàòåðèàëüíîå ïîîùðåíèå incite v âîçáóæäàòü, ïîáóæäàòü incitement n ïîáóæäåíèå, ñòèìóë include v çàêëþ÷àòü, âêëþ÷àòü, ñîäåðæàòü â ñåáå incorporate v ñîäåðæàòü, âêëþ÷àòü increase v óâåëè÷èâàòü, ïîäíèìàòü indecisive a íåðåøèòåëüíûé
indeed adv íà ñàìîì äåëå independent a íåçàâèñèìûé, ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíûé independently adv ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî, íåçàâèñèìî Indicative Mood èçúÿâèòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå
induce v âûçûâàòü, ïîáóæäàòü indulge v ïîòâîðñòâîâàòü, ïîòàêàòü industrious a òðóäîëþáèâûé, óñåðäíûé influence v âëèÿòü, îêàçûâàòü âëèÿíèå inhabitant n æèòåëü innumerable a áåñ÷èñëåííûé inscribe v íàäïèñûâàòü, âïèñûâàòü, âûðåçàòü inside n âíóòðåííÿÿ ñòîðîíà, âíóòðåííîñòü, èçíàíêà insist (on) v íàñòàèâàòü (íà) instance ïðèìåð; for instance íàïðèìåð instantly adv íåìåäëåííî, ñðàçó instead (of) adv âìåñòî, âçàìåí insulting a îñêîðáèòåëüíûé insurance [In¢SuArAns] n ñòðàõîâîé ïîëèñ, ñòðàõîâêà intelligent a óìíûé, ðàçóìíûé, ñìûøëåíûé
, Israeli [Iz reIlI] a èçðà-
interact v âçàèìîäåé-
issue [¢ISu:] n âîïðîñ,
interfere v âìåøèâàòü-
ñóòü, âûïóñê; v èçäà-
internalize v çä. óñâî-
âàòü, âûïóñêàòü, âûòåêàòü
interpersonal a ìåæëè÷-
item n ïðåäìåò, ïóíêò
interregnum n ìåæäóöàðñòâèå
jammer n ñòàíöèÿ
jealousy n ðåâíîñòü,
interrupt v ïðåðûâàòü, ñÿ
interruption n ïðåðûâàíèå, ïåðåðûâ
intervene v âìåøèâàòüñÿ, ìåøàòü
intricate a çàìûñëîâàòûé
introduce v ïðåäñòàâëÿòü
invent v èçîáðåòàòü
invert v ïåðåâîðà÷èâàòü, ïåðåñòàâëÿòü,
çàâèñòü , jewel [ dZu:Al] n äðàãîöåííûé êàìåíü
job n ðàáîòà
jointly adv ñîâìåñòíî journey n ïîåçäêà, ïóòåøåñòâèå
judge v ñóäèòü, îñóæäàòü
judiciary n ñóä, ñóäåáíûé ïðîöåññ
juice n ñîê; ðàçã. áåíçèí
jumbo n ðåàêòèâíûé
just adv òî÷íî, êàê ðàç,
investment n èíâåñòèinvite v ïðèãëàøàòü
involve v âîâëåêàòü, âêëþ÷àòü
justify v îïðàâäûâàòü(ñÿ) juvenile n ïîäðîñòîê, íåñîâåðøåííîëåòíèé
inward a âíóòðåííèé , Ireland [ aIAlAnd] n Èðëàíäèÿ
ironside n îòâàæíûé, ðåøèòåëüíûé ÷åëîâåê
irritate v ðàçäðàæàòü
irritation n ðàçäðàæåíèå
keen a îñòðûé, ïðîíçèòåëüíûé, ñèëüíûé
keep (kept, kept) (on) v ïðîäîëæàòü keep in touch ñâÿçàòüñÿ ñ (êåì-ëèáî)
isle [aIl] n îñòðîâ
kettle n ÷àéíèê key n êëþ÷, ðàçãàäêà, êîä, ïîäñòðî÷íûé ïåðåâîä kick v óäàðÿòü íîãîé, ëÿãàòüñÿ; kick in âçëîìàòü, âîðâàòüñÿ kid n êîçëåíîê, ðåáåíîê, ìàëûø kinaesthetic a êèíåñòåòè÷åñêèé kind n ðîä, ñîðò, âèä kindness n äîáðîòà, äîáðîæåëàòåëüíîñòü, ëþáåçíîñòü kingdom n êîðîëåâñòâî
lay (laid, laid) (out) v ðàñêëàäûâàòü, èçëàãàòü lead (led, led) v âåñòè, ïðèâîäèòü leadership n ðóêîâîäñòâî least a íàèìåíüøèé; adv ìåíüøå âñåãî; at least ïî êðàéíåé ìåðå leave (left, left) v îñòàâëÿòü, ïîêèäàòü, óåçæàòü, ïåðååçæàòü leave n îòïóñê legal a ïðàâîâîé, þðèäè÷åñêèé, ñóäåáíûé legislation n çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî legislature n çàêîíîäàL òåëüíûå îðãàíû label v ïðèëåïèòü áèðêó length n äëèíà labour n òðóä level n óðîâåíü lack v èñïûòûâàòü liability [laiA¢bIlAtI] n íåäîñòàòîê, íóæäàòüñÿ îòâåòñòâåííîñòü, ladies room æåíñêàÿ/ îáÿçàòåëüñòâî èé êîìíàòà/òóàëåò liable a îòâåòñòâåííûé, lamb n ÿãíåíîê, áàðàîáÿçàòåëüíûé øåê liberate v îñâîáîæäàòü land n çåìëÿ library n áèáëèîòåêà landscape n ïåéçàæ, lie (lay, laid) v ëåæàòü, ëàíäøàôò íàõîäèòüñÿ, çàêëþ÷àòüñÿ language n ÿçûê lie n ëîæü, îáìàí; v last v äëèòüñÿ, ïðîäîëëãàòü æàòüñÿ lift n ëèôò; v ïîäíèlast-ditch a îò÷àÿííûé ìàòü, ïîäâîçèòü lately adv â ïîñëåäíåå like a ïîäîáíûé, ïîõîâðåìÿ æèé laugh v ñìåÿòüñÿ lip n ãóáà law n çàêîí, ïðàâî lively a æèâîé, îæèâlawlessness n áåççàêîíèå ëåííûé lawn n ãàçîí local a ìåñòíûé 245
lock n çàìîê, v çàïèðàòü longevity n äîëãîëåòèå look after v çàáîòèòüñÿ, óõàæèâàòü Lord God Ãîñïîäü Áîã lose (lost, lost) v òåðÿòü, ëèøàòüñÿ, ïðîèãðûâàòü lose ones temper ïîòåðÿòü ñàìîîáëàäàíèå loss n ïîòåðÿ lot n ïàðòèÿ (òîâàðîâ), (çåìåëüíûé) ó÷àñòîê, ó÷àñòü loudly adv ãðîìêî low a íèçêèé, òèõèé, ïîäàâëåííûé loyal a âåðíûé, ëîÿëüíûé loyalty n âåðíîñòü, ëîÿëüíîñòü lucrative [,lu:krAtIv] a ïðèáûëüíûé, äîõîäíûé luggage n áàãàæ luster n áëåñê luxurious [lEg,zjuArIAs] a ðîñêîøíûé luxury [,lEkSArI] n ðîñêîøü lyceum [laI,sIAm] n ëèöåé
madden v ñâîäèòü ñ óìà, ïðèâîäèòü â áåøåíñòâî magic a ìàãè÷åñêèé, âîëøåáíûé maid n ãîðíè÷íàÿ mail n ïî÷òà
mainly adv ãëàâíûì îáðàçîì major a ãëàâíûé, ñòàðøèé majority n áîëüøèíñòâî make notes çàïèñûâàòü, äåëàòü çàïèñè make sure óáåäèòüñÿ, óäîñòîâåðèòüñÿ mankind n ÷åëîâå÷åñòâî manner n ñïîñîá, ìåòîä, îáðàç äåéñòâèÿ manufacturer n ïðîèçâîäèòåëü, èçãîòîâèòåëü mark n îòìåòêà, îöåíêà; v îòìå÷àòü market n ðûíîê marriage n áðàê, ñâàäüáà marry v æåíèòüñÿ, âûõîäèòü çàìóæ master n õîçÿèí match v ñî÷åòàòü, ïîäõîäèòü, ñîâïàäàòü mate n òîâàðèù, íàïàðíèê mature a âçðîñëûé maybe adv ìîæåò áûòü mean (meant, meant) v çíà÷èòü, îçíà÷àòü, èìåòü â âèäó meaningful a çíà÷èòåëüíûé, âðàçóìèòåëüíûé means n ñðåäñòâî, ñïîñîá; by all means ëþáûì ñïîñîáîì, ëþáîé öåíîé meanwhile adv òåì âðåìåíåì, ìåæäó òåì measure [,meZA] v èçìåðÿòü
meat n ìÿñî mechanic [mI,kBnIk] n ìåõàíèê mediocre [,mi:dI,AUkA] a çàóðÿäíûé, ïîñðåäñòâåííûé melt v ïëàâèòüñÿ memento n íàïîìèíàíèå, ñóâåíèð memoirs n âîñïîìèíàíèÿ, ìåìóàðû mens room ìóæñêàÿ êîìíàòà, òóàëåò mentality n ìåíòàëèòåò mention v óïîìèíàòü menu [,menju:] n ìåíþ merit n çàñëóãà mess n áåñïîðÿäîê, íåðàçáåðèõà message n ñîîáùåíèå, çàïèñêà middle a ñðåäíèé midnight n ïîëíî÷ü mild a ìÿãêèé, ëåãêèé, íåçíà÷èòåëüíûé millennium n òûñÿ÷åëåòèå mind n óì, ðàçóì, óìñòâåííûå ñïîñîáíîñòè mind v âîçðàæàòü, èìåòü (÷òî-ëèáî ïðîòèâ), ïîìíèòü, ñìîòðåòü (çà ÷åì-ëèáî) ministry n ìèíèñòåðñòâî mint n ìÿòà Mint ìîíåòíûé äâîð miracle v ÷óäî mirror n çåðêàëî misfortune n íåñ÷àñòüå
miss v ïðîïóñêàòü, ïðîïóñòèòü, ïðîìàõíóòüñÿ misunderstanding n íåïîíèìàíèå mnemonics [nI¢mOnIks] n ìíåìîíèêà model n ìîäåëü; v ìîäåëèðîâàòü moderate a íåçíà÷èòåëüíûé, óìåðåííûé moderation n óìåðåííîñòü modern a ñîâðåìåííûé modesty n ñêðîìíîñòü monarch [,mOnAk] n ìîíàðõ monarchy [,mOnAkI] n ìîíàðõèÿ monster n ìîíñòð, ÷óäîâèùå Montaigne [mOn,teIn] Ìîíòåíü monument n ïàìÿòíèê moon n ëóíà motto [,mOtAU] n äåâèç mould v ëåïèòü, ôîðìèðîâàòü mount v ñàäèòüñÿ íà ëîøàäü, âçáèðàòüñÿ, ïîäíèìàòüñÿ mountain [¢mauntin] n ãîðà mouth n ðîò, óñòüå, âõîä move v äâèãàòü(ñÿ), ïåðåäâèãàòü(ñÿ), ïåðååçæàòü mull (over) [mEl] v ðàçìûøëÿòü, ðàçäóìûâàòü multiple a ìíîãîêðàòíûé, ìíîãî÷èñëåííûé
multitude n ìíîæåñòâî, áîëüøîå ÷èñëî muscle [mEsl] n ìûøöà, ìóñêóë musician n ìóçûêàíò
national a íàöèîíàëüíûé, íàðîäíûé, ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé naturally adv åñòåñòâåííî nature n ïðèðîäà near a áëèçêèé nearly adv áëèçêî, ïî÷òè, ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî, îêîëî need v íóæäàòüñÿ, èìåòü ïîòðåáíîñòü, òðåáîâàòüñÿ negotiable a ïðîõîäèìûé, âîçìîæíûé äëÿ ïåðåãîâîðîâ negotiations [nI,gAUSI¢eIS(A)nz] n ïåðåãîâîðû net n ñåòü, ñåòêà network n ñåòü Never mind! Íè÷åãî! newcomer n íîâè÷îê Newfoundland n íüþôàóíäëåíä, ñîáàêà-âîäîëàç nickname n ïðîçâèùå, êëè÷êà nitrogen n àçîò no wonder íåóäèâèòåëüíî noise n øóì, ãâàëò, ãàì, ãðîõîò, ïîìåõà note n çàïèñêà, çàïèñü,
áàíêíîòà noticeably adv çàìåòíî notion n ïîíÿòèå, ïðåäñòàâëåíèå noun n èìÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå nuance [nju(:),a:ns] n íþàíñ, îòòåíîê nuclear a ÿäåðíûé number n ÷èñëî, êîëè÷åñòâî; a number of ðÿä, íåêîòîðîå êîëè÷åñòâî nutrition n ïèòàíèå
object n ïðåäìåò, îáúåêò, öåëü object (to) v âîçðàæàòü, ïðîòåñòîâàòü objection n âîçðàæåíèå objective n öåëü, ñòðåìëåíèå; a îáúåêòèâíûé obligation n îáÿçàòåëüñòâî observation n íàáëþäåíèå, çàìå÷àíèå obvious a î÷åâèäíûé, ÿâíûé occasionally adv âðåìÿ îò âðåìåíè, èçðåäêà occupation n çàíÿòèå occur v ïðîèñõîäèòü, ñëó÷àòüñÿ oddity n ðåäêîñòü, ñòðàííîñòü of course abv êîíå÷íî offend v îáèæàòü, îñêîðáëÿòü
offender n ïðàâîíàðóøèòåëü offensive a îñêîðáèòåëüíûé offer n ïðåäëîæåíèå; v ïðåäëàãàòü official n îôèöèàëüíîå ëèöî offset (offset, offset) v êîìïåíñèðîâàòü, âîçìåùàòü, âîçíàãðàæäàòü once more åùå ðàç on-line a íåàâòîíîìíûé, ïîäêëþ÷åííûé opinion n ìíåíèå opportunity n (áëàãîïðèÿòíàÿ) âîçìîæíîñòü opposite a ïðîòèâîïîëîæíûé oppression n óãíåòåíèå opt v âûáèðàòü order n çàêàç, ïðèêàç, îðäåí; out of order íå â ïîðÿäêå; v çàêàçûâàòü, ïðèêàçûâàòü; in order to äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû ordinary a çàóðÿäíûé, îáû÷íûé, îáûêíîâåííûé origin n ïðîèñõîæäåíèå otherwise adv èíà÷å, ïîäðóãîìó outlook n âçãëÿä, âîççðåíèÿ outstanding a âûäàþùèéñÿ, çíàìåíèòûé outward a âíåøíèé over here adv âîò çäåñü over there adv âîí òàì
overdo (overdid, overdone) v ïåðåñòàðàòüñÿ overhaul n ïåðåñìîòð, êàïèòàëüíûé ðåìîíò overlap v ïåðåêðûâàòü, ÷àñòè÷íî ñîâïàäàòü overseas adv çà ðóáåæîì, çà ãðàíèöåé overshadow v âîçâûøàòüñÿ, çàòìåâàòü overstep v ïåðåõîäèòü, ïåðåéòè overwork v ïåðåãðóæàòüñÿ own a ñîáñòâåííûé; v âëàäåòü oxn (pl oxen) áûê, âîë, áóéâîë, áèçîí Oxonian [Dk¢sAunjAn] n (áûâøèé) ñòóäåíò Îêñôîðäñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà oxygen [¢DksidZAn] êèñëîðîä
package n ïàêåò packet n ïà÷êà, ïàêåò page n ñòðàíèöà paint v ïèñàòü êðàñêàìè, çàíèìàòüñÿ æèâîïèñüþ painting n æèâîïèñü pair n ïàðà palace n äâîðåö pale a áëåäíûé paper n áóìàãà, ãàçåòà, ñòàòüÿ, íàó÷íûé äîêëàä paralysis [pArBlIsIs] n ïàðàëè÷
parch v âûæèãàòü participant n ó÷àñòíèê Participle n ïðè÷àñòèå
perceive v âîñïðèíèìàòü, îñîçíàâàòü percent n ïðîöåíò (ëèíãâ.) percentage n ïðîöåíò, particularly adv îñîáåíïðîöåíòíîå îòíîøåíèå íî perceptible a îùóòèìûé perception n âîñïðèÿpass v ïðîõîäèòü, òèå, îùóùåíèå ïðîåçæàòü perfect a ñîâåðøåííûé, pass the examination áåçóïðå÷íûé, ïðåêðàññäàòü ýêçàìåí íûé Passive Voice ñòðàäàperformance n ïðåäñòàâòåëüíûé çàëîã (ëèíãâ.) ëåíèå, ñïåêòàêëü, past n ïðîøëîå, ïðîèñïîëíåíèå, âûïîëíåøåäøåå íèå pasta n ìàêàðîííûå perhaps adv ìîæåò èçäåëèÿ áûòü, âîçìîæíî patient n ïàöèåíò, perish v ïîãèáàòü áîëüíîé; a òåðïåëèperk n ëüãîòà âûé, óïîðíûé patrol v ïàòðóëèðîâàòü, permit v çàïðåùàòü Persians [,pA:S(A)nz] n îõðàíÿòü ïåðñû pattern n îáðàçåö persist (in) v óïîðñòâîpause v äåëàòü ïàóçó/ âàòü, óïîðíî ïðîäîëïåðåðûâ æàòü pay (paid, paid) v ïëàpersistent a íåïðåêðàòèòü ùàþùèéñÿ, ñòîéêèé pea [pi:] n ãîðîõ person n ÷åëîâåê, peace n ìèð, ñïîêîéñòëè÷íîñòü; ñóáúåêò, îñîáà âèå, ïîêîé personality n ëè÷íîñòü, peak n ïèê, âåðøèíà èíäèâèäóàëüíîñòü, peculiar a ñïåöèôè÷åëè÷íûå ñâîéñòâà ñêèé, îñîáåííûé, ñâîåîápersonalize v îëèöåòâîðàçíûé, îñîáûé ðÿòü, âîïëîùàòü peculiarity [pi,kju:lIBritI] personnel n ïåðñîíàë, n îñîáåííîñòü, ñòðàíøòàò, ëè÷íûé ñîñòàâ íîñòü personnel manager n peer n ðîâíÿ; ëîðä, ïýð ìåíåäæåð ïî ïåðñîíàëó penalty n íàêàçàíèå pending a ïðåäñòîÿùèé pervert v ðàçâðàùàòü, ðàñòëåâàòü peninsula n ïîëóîñòðîâ 250
pharaoh [,fLrAU] n ôàðàîí physical [,fIzIkl] a ôèçè÷åñêèé pick (up) v çàåçæàòü, çàáèðàòü pie n ïèðîã, ïèðîæîê piece n êóñîê, äåòàëü pig n ñâèíüÿ pillar n ñòîëï, ñòîëá, êîëîííà pillow n ïîäóøêà pilot n ëîöìàí, ïèëîò, ëåò÷èê pinch v ïðèùåìèòü, ñäàâëèâàòü, ñæèìàòü pincher n ïèí÷åð pink a ðîçîâûé pinstriped a ïîëîñàòûé, â ïîëîñêó place n ìåñòî; v ïîìåùàòü, ðàçìåùàòü; çä. óçíàâàòü plain n ðàâíèíà, ïîëå plant n çàâîä plead (with) v óìîëÿòü please v íðàâèòüñÿ, óãîæäàòü, ïîëó÷àòü óäîâîëüñòâèå pleasure n óäîâîëüñòâèå pledge v äàâàòü òîðæåñòâåííîå îáåùàíèå plenty (of) n ìíîãî, ìíîæåñòâî poem n ñòèõîòâîðåíèå, ïîýìà poetry n ïîýçèÿ point of view n òî÷êà çðåíèÿ pointer n ïîéíòåð police [pA,li:s] n ïîëèöèÿ
policy n ïîëèòèêà, ñòðàõîâîé ïîëèñ polite a âåæëèâûé, ñâåòñêèé politics [,pOlItIks] n ïîëèòèêà poodle [pu:dl] n ïóäåëü poor a áåäíûé, ïëîõîé population n íàñåëåíèå possibility n âîçìîæíîñòü possibly adv âîçìîæíî postpone v îòêëàäûâàòü, îòñðî÷èâàòü pound n ôóíò ñòåðëèíãîâ poverty n áåäíîñòü power n ñèëà, ìîùü, ýíåðãèÿ, âëàñòü, äåðæàâà powerful a ìîùíûé, ìîãóùåñòâåííûé practice n ïðàêòèêà, ïðèâû÷êà, îáû÷àé practise v ïðàêòèêîâàòüñÿ, çàíèìàòüñÿ (÷åì-ëèáî) praise n ïîõâàëà, âîñõâàëåíèå; v õâàëèòü, âîñõâàëÿòü preach [pri:tS] v ïðîèçíîñèòü ïðîïîâåäü, ïðîïîâåäîâàòü precede [pri,si:d] v ïðåäøåñòâîâàòü, èäòè ïåðåä precedence [pri(:)¢si:dAns] n ïðåäøåñòâîâàíèå, ïåðâåíñòâî, ïðåâîñõîäñòâî precise a òî÷íûé, ïóíêòóàëüíûé, àêêóðàòíûé
predecessor [,pri:dIsAsA] n ïðåäøåñòâåííèê, ïðåäîê predicate n ñêàçóåìîå
prefer v ïðåäïî÷èòàòü preference n ïðåäïî÷òåíèå premise n ïîìåùåíèå; ïðåäïîñûëêà prepare v ãîòîâèòü(ñÿ) preposition n ïðåäëîã
prescribe v ïðîïèñûâàòü, ïðåäïèñûâàòü preserve v ñîõðàíÿòü pressure n äàâëåíèå, íàïðÿæåíèå pressurize v îêàçûâàòü äàâëåíèå pretend v ïðèòâîðÿòüñÿ prevent v ïðåäîòâðàùàòü, ïðåäîõðàíÿòü, ïðåäóïðåæäàòü prevision n îáåñïå÷åíèå price n öåíà priest n ñâÿùåííèê primary school íà÷àëüíàÿ øêîëà prince n ïðèíö, êíÿçü priority n ïåðâîî÷åðåäíàÿ çàäà÷à private a ÷àñòíûé, çàêðûòûé privilege [,prIvIlIdZ] n ïðèâèëåãèÿ Privy Council , , [ prIvI kaUnsIl] òàéíûé ñîâåò prize n ïðèç probably adv âåðîÿòíî
proclaim v ïðîâîçãëàøàòü, îáúÿâëÿòü procure v ïðèîáðåòàòü produce v ïðîèçâîäèòü, ïîñòàâëÿòü, ñîçäàâàòü production n ïðîèçâîäñòâî, âûðàáîòêà, ïðîäóêöèÿ productive a ïðîäóêòèâíûé, ïðîèçâîäèòåëüíûé productivity n ïðîäóêòèâíîñòü, ïðîèçâîäèòåëüíîñòü profile n ïðîôèëü, î÷åðòàíèå, êîíòóð profound a ãëóáîêèé, îñíîâàòåëüíûé proliferation n ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå promise v îáåùàòü, óâåðÿòü promote v ïîâûøàòü â äîëæíîñòè, ðåêëàìèðîâàòü promotion n ïîâûøåíèå â äîëæíîñòè, ðåêëàìèðîâàíèå pronoun n ìåñòîèìåíèå prophesy v ïðîðî÷èòü proposal n ïðåäëîæåíèå propose v ïðåäëàãàòü, ïðåäïîëàãàòü proposition n ïðåäïîëîæåíèå protect v çàùèùàòü protein n áåëîê, ïðîòåèí proud a ãîðäûé; to be proud of ãîðäèòüñÿ prove v îêàçûâàòüñÿ, äîêàçûâàòü
provide v îáåñïå÷èâàòü, ïðåäóñìàòðèâàòü psychological
quote v öèòèðîâàòü, íàçíà÷àòü (öåíó)
ïñèõîëîãè÷åñêèé public school (UK) ÷àñòíàÿ øêîëà; (US) ãîñóäàðñòâåííàÿ øêîëà public service ãîñóäàðñòâåííàÿ ñëóæáà pull yourself together âîçüìè ñåáÿ â ðóêè punctuation n ïóíêòóàöèÿ purchase n ïîêóïêà purpose n öåëü purse n êîøåëåê, ñóìêà pursue [pA,sju:] v ñëåäîâàòü, çàíèìàòüñÿ, îñóùåñòâëÿòü push v òîëêàòü put (put, put) forward v âûäâèãàòü puzzle n çàãàäêà, ãîëîâîëîìêà pyramid [,pIrAmId] n ïèðàìèäà
rag n òðÿïêà, ëîñêóò; pl òðÿïüå rage v áóøåâàòü, ñâèðåïñòâîâàòü, áåñèòüñÿ raise v ïîäíèìàòü, ïîâûøàòü range n ðÿä, àññîðòèìåíò, âûáîð rank n ðÿä, ðàíã, ÷èí rap v ñòó÷àòü rapidly adv áûñòðî rare a ðåäêèé rather adv äîâîëüíî, íåñêîëüêî, ïðåäïî÷òèòåëüíî realize v îñîçíàâàòü, îñóùåñòâëÿòü, ðåàëèçîâàòü reason n ïðè÷èíà rebel [rebl] n áóíòàðü receive v ïîëó÷àòü, âñòðå÷àòü, ïðèíèìàòü recently adv íåäàâíî, íà äíÿõ recess n ïåðåðûâ â çàñåäàíèÿõ, êàíèêóëû recognition n ïðèçíàíèå recognize v óçíàâàòü, ïðèçíàâàòü recreate v âîññòàíàâëèâàòü ñèëû, âîññîçäàâàòü recruit v âåðáîâàòü, íàíèìàòü íà ðàáîòó recurring [ri¢kA:riN] à ïîñòîÿííî âîçíèêàþùèé
, [,saIkA lOdZIkAl]
quality n êà÷åñòâî, ñâîéñòâî quantity n êîëè÷åñòâî queen n êîðîëåâà quietly adv ñïîêîéíî quite adv äîâîëüíî, ñîâåðøåííî quite right ñîâåðøåííî âåðíî quite so èìåííî òàê
reduce v ïîíèæàòü, îñëàáëÿòü, ñîêðàùàòü, óìåíüøàòü referral [rI¢fA:rAl] n íàïðàâëåíèå (íà ðàáîòó, ê âðà÷ó) refined a óòîí÷åííûé refuse v îòêàçàòü(ñÿ), îòêàçûâàòü(ñÿ) regard n âíèìàíèå, îòíîøåíèå, óâàæåíèå region n ðåãèîí register v ðåãèñòðèðîâàòü, çàïèñûâàòü regnant à öàðñòâóþùèé regularly adv ðåãóëÿðíî, ðîâíî rein(s) n ïîâîä, ïîâîäüÿ, âîææè relate v ðàññêàçûâàòü, óñòàíàâëèâàòü, áûòü ñâÿçàííûì relationship n îòíîøåíèÿ, ñâÿçü relative n ðîäñòâåííèê release v âûïóñêàòü, îñâîáîæäàòü reliable a íàäåæíûé rely (on) v ïîëàãàòüñÿ (íà) remain v îñòàâàòüñÿ, ñîõðàíÿòüñÿ remember v ïîìíèòü, âñïîìèíàòü, ïåðåäàâàòü ïðèâåò remind v íàïîìèíàòü reminder n íàïîìèíàíèå reminiscent [,remI,nIsnt] a íàïîìèíàþùèé remote-control device ïóëüò äèñòàíöèîííîãî óïðàâëåíèÿ
remotely adv îòäàëåííî remove v óáèðàòü, ñíèìàòü rent n êâàðòèðíàÿ ïëàòà repair v ðåìîíòèðîâàòü, ÷èíèòü, èñïðàâëÿòü replace v çàìåíÿòü report v ñîîáùàòü represent v ïðåäñòàâëÿòü representation n ïðåäñòàâèòåëüñòâî, ïðåäñòàâëåíèå representative n ïðåäñòàâèòåëü reproduce v âîñïðîèçâîäèòü, ðàçìíîæàòüñÿ request n ïðîñüáà; v (ïî)ïðîñèòü require v òðåáîâàòü rescue n ñïàñåíèå resemblance n ñõîäñòâî reserve the accommodation çàêàçàòü íîìåð (â ãîñòèíèöå) resident n æèòåëü residential home æèëîé äîì resist the temptation óñòîÿòü ïðîòèâ ñîáëàçíà resource n ðåñóðñ respect n óâàæåíèå; v óâàæàòü response n îòâåò, ðåàêöèÿ responsibility n îòâåòñòâåííîñòü, îáÿçàííîñòü responsible a îòâåòñòâåííûé
rest n îñòàëüíîå, îñòàëüíûå result (in) v ïðèâîäèòü (ê) retriever n îõîòíè÷üÿ ñîáàêà return v âîçâðàùàòü(ñÿ), èäòè îáðàòíî, îòäàâàòü, ïîâòîðÿòüñÿ; îòâå÷àòü reveal v îáíàðóæèâàòü, îòêðûâàòü revision n ïåðåñìîòð, ïîâòîðåíèå, ïðîâåðêà revisit v ñíîâà ïîñåòèòü, âåðíóòüñÿ , rheumatism [ ru:mAtIzm] n ðåâìàòèçì ride (rode, ridden) v åõàòü, åçäèòü, åçäèòü âåðõîì ridiculous a ñìåõîòâîðíûé, ñìåøíîé right a ïðàâèëüíûé, íóæíûé, ïîäõîäÿùèé, ñïðàâåäëèâûé; ïðàâûé ring (rang, rung) v çâåíåòü, çâó÷àòü ring up (ïî)çâîíèòü rise (rose, risen) v ïîäíèìàòü(ñÿ), ïîâûøàòü(ñÿ) road n ïóòü, äîðîãà roast lamb æàðåíàÿ áàðàíèíà Rome [rAUm] n Ðèì roost n íàñåñò, êóðÿòíèê root n êîðåíü roteveiler n ðîòâåéëåð round a êðóãëûé
rouse v áóäèòü, âîçáóäèòü routine a ïîâñåäíåâíûé, îáû÷íûé royal a êîðîëåâñêèé ruin v ðàçîðÿòü, ðàçðóøàòü, êðóøèòü ruler n ïðàâèòåëü run (ran, run) v áåãàòü, äâèãàòüñÿ, óïðàâëÿòü, âåñòè, ðàáîòàòü, äåéñòâîâàòü rush v áðîñàòüñÿ, íåñòèñü, óñòðåìëÿòüñÿ
saddle n ñåäëî safe a áåçîïàñíûé, áëàãîïîëó÷íûé salary n çàðïëàòà salesperson n ïðîäàâåö sanity n ðàññóäîê, ðàçóìíîñòü sap v âûñàñûâàòü satisfactory a óäîâëåòâîðèòåëüíûé satisfy v óäîâëåòâîðÿòü, ñîîòâåòñòâîâàòü, îòâå÷àòü (òðåáîâàíèÿì) sausage n êîëáàñà, ñàðäåëüêà, ñîñèñêà save v ñïàñàòü, ýêîíîìèòü scare (away) v îòïóãèâàòü schedule BrE [¢Sedjul]; AmE [¢skedjul] n ðàñïèñàíèå, ãðàôèê ðàáîòû scheme [ski:m] n ïëàí, ïðîåêò, ïðîãðàììà, ðàñïîëîæåíèå, ñõåìà
schoolmaster n øêîëüíûé ó÷èòåëü, ïåäàãîã, âîñïèòàòåëü science [,saIAns] n íàóêà scientific [sAIAn¢tIfIk] a íàó÷íûé scientific adviser íàó÷íûé ðóêîâîäèòåëü scientist [¢saIAntIst] n ó÷åíûé screen n ýêðàí, âåòðîâîå ñòåêëî scrutinize v âíèìàòåëüíî ðàññìàòðèâàòü, òùàòåëüíî èññëåäîâàòü search v èñêàòü, îáûñêèâàòü security n áåçîïàñíîñòü Security Council Ñîâåò Áåçîïàñíîñòè see (saw, seen) off v ïðîâîäèòü, ïðîâîæàòü (êîãî-ëèáî) See you soon/later! Äî ñêîðîãî ñâèäàíèÿ!/ Ïîêà! seek (sought, sought) v èñêàòü seemingly adv ïî-âèäèìîìó seize v õâàòàòü, ñõâàòûâàòü, çàâëàäåâàòü self-conscious a íåëîâêèé, çàñòåí÷èâûé self-control n ñàìîîáëàäàíèå self-esteem n ÷óâñòâî ñîáñòâåííîãî äîñòîèíñòâà self-indulgence n ñàìîìíåíèå sell (sold, sold) v ïðîäàâàòü
sense n ÷óâñòâî, îùóùåíèå, ñìûñë sense of humor ÷óâñòâî þìîðà sensitive a ÷óâñòâèòåëüíûé, ÷óòêèé sentence n (ãðàì.) ïðåäëîæåíèå; ïðèãîâîð sentence v ïðèãîâàðèâàòü, âûíîñèòü ïðèãîâîð serious [,sIArIAs] a ñåðüåçíûé servant n ñëóãà service n îáñëóæèâàíèå, ñåðâèñ, óñëóãà; v îáñëóæèâàòü set (set, set) v íàçíà÷àòü, óñòàíàâëèâàòü set (up) v ó÷ðåæäàòü, óñòàíàâëèâàòü setter n ñåòòåð settle v óëàæèâàòü, ðåãóëèðîâàòü, ïðèâîäèòü â ïîðÿäîê severe [sI,vIA] a æåñòîêèé, ñåðüåçíûé shake (shook, shaken) v òðÿñòè, äðîæàòü; to shake hands çäîðîâàòüñÿ çà ðóêó shame n ñòûä; what a shame! êàê æàëü! shape n ôîðìà share v äåëèòü(ñÿ), ðàçäåëèòü shareholder n àêöèîíåð sharp a îñòðûé, îò÷åòëèâûé, îïðåäåëåííûé sheep (pl sheep) n îâöà, áàðàí, îâöû
shepherd [,SepAd] n ïàñòóõ shift n ñìåíà; v ïåðåäâèãàòü, ïåðåìåùàòü shine (shone, shoue) v ñèÿòü, áëèñòàòü, áëåñòåòü shoe [Su:] n òóôëÿ shortcoming n íåäîñòàòîê shoulder n ïëå÷î shovel n ëîïàòà show off v õâàñòàòüñÿ side n ñòîðîíà, êîìàíäà, áîê sign [saIn] v ïîäïèñûâàòü significant a çíà÷èòåëüíûé significantly adv çíà÷èòåëüíî silence n òèøèíà silly a ãëóïûé similar a ñõîäíûé, ïîäîáíûé simplify v óïðîùàòü since prep, cj ñ, ñ òåõ ïîð (êàê); òàê êàê sincere [sin¢siA] a èñêðåííèé sincerity [sin¢seriti] n èñêðåííîñòü site n ìåñòî, ïëîùàäêà situate v ðàñïîëàãàòü, ðàçìåùàòü size n ðàçìåð, âåëè÷èíà, ìàñøòàá skil(l)ful a èñêóñíûé, óìåëûé slave v ðàáîòàòü êàê ðàá slight a íåçíà÷èòåëüíûé, òîíêèé, õðóïêèé
slow (down) v çàìåäëÿòü, çàìåäëèòü smooth à ãëàäêèé, ðîâíûé, îäíîðîäíûé snack n ëåãêàÿ çàêóñêà so far äî ñèõ ïîð, ïîêà íå soap [sAUp] n ìûëî soft-lead pencil n ôëîìàñòåð software n ïðîãðàììíîå îáåñïå÷åíèå solemn [,sOlAm] a òîðæåñòâåííûé solid a òâåðäûé, íåïîêîëåáèìûé solve v ðåøàòü, ðàñêðûâàòü solve the problem ðåøàòü ïðîáëåìó somehow adv êàêèì-òî îáðàçîì, êàê-íèáóäü sometimes adv èíîãäà sort out (papers, mail) v paçáèðàòü(ñÿ), ñîðòèðîâàòü sound v (ïðî)çâó÷àòü soup [su:p] n ñóï source n èñòî÷íèê sovereign [,sOvrIn] n ìîíàðõ, ïîâåëèòåëü, ñîâåðåí spare a ñâîáîäíûé, ëèøíèé special dish ôèðìåííîå áëþäî speciality n ñïåöèàëüíîñòü species n âèä
specifics n ñïåöèôèêàöèÿ, èíñòðóêöèÿ ïî èñïîëüçîâàíèþ spectator n çðèòåëü speech n ðå÷ü spill (spilt, spilt/spilled, spilled) v ïðîëèâàòü, ðàçëèâàòü spokesman n ïðåäñòàâèòåëü spot n ïÿòíî, ìåñòî spread (spread, spread) v ðàñïðîñòðàíÿòü, ðàçáðàñûâàòü spring (sprang, sprung) v ïðûãàòü, âñêàêèâàòü, áðàòü íà÷àëî squirrel n áåëêà staff v íàáèðàòü êàäðû, óêîìïëåêòîâûâàòü øòàò stage n ñòàäèÿ, ýòàï, ñöåíà stammer v çàèêàòüñÿ stamp n ìàðêà star v èãðàòü ãëàâíóþ ðîëü state n ãîñóäàðñòâî, øòàò, ñîñòîÿíèå statement n çàÿâëåíèå statesman n ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé äåÿòåëü statue n ñòàòóÿ steal (stole, stolen) v êðàñòü, âîðîâàòü stick (stuck, stuck) v ïðèêëåèâàòü, íàêëåèâàòü, íàñàæèâàòü sticker n íàêëåéêà stiff a ãóñòîé, òóãîé
still adv åùå, òåì íå ìåíåå stir n øóì, ñåíñàöèÿ v âîëíîâàòü Stockholm [,stOkhAUm] n Ñòîêãîëüì store n óíèâåðìàã straightforward a ïðîñòîé, ïðÿìîé straightway adv ñðàçó, íåìåäëåííî strategy [v¢strBtIdZI] n ñòðàòåãèÿ stray n áåçäîìíûé; à áðîäÿ÷èé strengthen v óêðåïëÿòü, óñèëèâàòü strictness n ñòðîãîñòü stringent a ñòðîãèé strong a ñèëüíûé, êðåïêèé struggle v áîðîòüñÿ, ñðàæàòüñÿ, äðàòüñÿ stuff n ìàòåðèàë, âåùåñòâî sturdy a êðåïêèé stutter v çàèêàòüñÿ subconsciousness n ïîäñîçíàíèå subject n òåìà, ïðåäìåò, ïîäëåæàùåå (ëèíãâ.) Subjunctive Mood ñîñëàãàòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå
submarine n ïîäâîäíàÿ ëîäêà subordinate n ïîä÷èíåííûé (ëèíãâ.) subordinate clause ïðèäàòî÷íîå ïðåäëîæåíèå (ëèíãâ.)
subsidy n ñóáñèäèÿ, äîòàöèÿ substitute v çàìåíÿòü, çàìåùàòü subtle [sEtl] a òîíêèé, åäâà óëîâèìûé succeed v íàñëåäîâàòü, áûòü ïðååìíèêîì; äîñòèãàòü öåëè; ñëåäîâàòü (çà), ñìåíÿòü success n óñïåõ successful à óñïåøíûé successfully v óñïåøíî succession n ïðàâî íàñëåäîâàíèÿ, ïðååìñòâåííîñòü successor n ïðååìíèê, íàñëåäíèê sudden a íåîæèäàííûé suffer v ñòðàäàòü suffocate v çàäûõàòüñÿ suggest v ïðåäëàãàòü suicide [,sju:IsaId] n ñàìîóáèéñòâî suit n êîñòþì; v ïîäõîäèòü, ñîîòâåòñòâîâàòü suitable a ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèé, ïîäõîäÿùèé summon v ñîçûâàòü, ñîáèðàòü superior a ïðåâîñõîäÿùèé, ñòàðøèé supernatural a ñâåðõúåñòåñòâåííûé supper n óæèí supply v äîñòàâëÿòü, ïîñòàâëÿòü support n ïîääåðæêà; v ïîääåðæèâàòü
suppose v ïîëàãàòü, ïðåäïîëàãàòü Supreme Court Âåðõîâíûé Ñóä sure a âåðíûé, íàäåæíûé sure adv êîíå÷íî surprise n óäèâëåíèå; v óäèâëÿòü surroundings n (pl) îêðåñòíîñòè survive v âûæèòü, ñîõðàíèòüñÿ, óöåëåòü suspect n ïîäîçðåâàåìûé; v ïîäîçðåâàòü swear (swore, sworn) v êëÿñòüñÿ, ðóãàòüñÿ Sweden [swi:dn] n Øâåöèÿ sweet n êîíôåòà swimming pool ïëàâàòåëüíûé áàññåéí switch (off) v âûêëþ÷àòü sympathy n ñî÷óâñòâèå synonym n ñèíîíèì sååm v êàçàòüñÿ, îêàçàòüñÿ
table dhote dish [,ta:bl,dAUt , dIS] n ïîðöèîííîå áëþäî tackle v ñïðàâëÿòüñÿ (ñ) tactless a áåñòàêòíûé tailcoat n ôðàê take (took, taken) (off) v ñíÿòü (îäåæäó); âçëåòàòü (î ñàìîëåòå) take a beating òåðïåòü ïîðàæåíèå
take into account ïðèíèìàòü â ðàñ÷åò take into consideration ïðèíèìàòü âî âíèìàíèå take legal actions (against) íà÷àòü ñóäåáíûé ïðîöåññ take place ïðîèñõîäèòü, èìåòü ìåñòî task n çàäà÷à tax n íàëîã teach (taught, taught) v ïðåïîäàâàòü, íàó÷èòü tear n ñëåçà teenage a ïîäðîñòêîâûé tempt v èñêóøàòü, ñîáëàçíÿòü tend v èìåòü òåíäåíöèþ (ê), íàïðàâëÿòüñÿ tenure n ñðîê àðåíäû term n ñðîê, ïåðèîä, òåðìèí, òðèìåñòð; pl óñëîâèÿ, âûðàæåíèÿ term of office ñðîê ïîëíîìî÷èé (ïðåçèäåíòà, ñåíàòîðà) terrier n òåðüåð test pilot ëåò÷èê-èñïûòàòåëü theatergoer n òåàòðàë theatre n òåàòð theme [Fi:m] n òåìà, ïðåäìåò there adv òàì, òóäà therefore adv ïîýòîìó thesis [,Fi:sis] n äèññåðòàöèÿ thick a òîëñòûé, ãóñòîé, òóïîé
though [GAU] adv õîòÿ, îäíàêî thought n ìûñëü, ðàçìûøëåíèå, ñîîáðàæåíèå threat n óãðîçà thriller n òðèëëåð throat n ãîðëî throne n òðîí throughout prep ïî, â òå÷åíèå, âåçäå, ïîâñþäó thrust v òîëêàòü thunder n ãðîì tier n ÿðóñ, ñëîé timetable n ðàñïèñàíèå, ãðàôèê ðàáîòû tiny a êðîøå÷íûé tired à óñòàëûé tolerant a òîëåðàíòíûé, òåðïèìûé toothbrush n çóáíàÿ ùåòêà top n âåðøèíà, âåðõ, âåðõóøêà, ìàêóøêà topic n òåìà, ïðåäìåò topicality n àêòóàëüíîñòü totally adv ïîëíîñòüþ, ñîâåðøåííî touch v êàñàòüñÿ, òðîãàòü, ïðèòðàãèâàòüñÿ touchy a îáèä÷èâûé, ðàçäðàæèòåëüíûé towards prep ïî îòíîøåíèþ (ê) traffic n äâèæåíèå, òðàíñïîðò train v ó÷èòü, îáó÷àòü, òðåíèðîâàòü trait n ÷åðòà
áðîäèòü, áðåñòè transfer v ïåðåäàâàòü, ïåðåâîçèòü transmission n ïåðåäà÷à transparency n ïðîçðà÷íîñòü transparent a ïðîçðà÷íûé travel v ïóòåøåñòâîâàòü, åçäèòü, ïåðåäâèãàòüñÿ tread (trod, trodden) v ñòóïàòü, øàãàòü, èäòè treasure n ñîêðîâèùå; v ëåëåÿòü, õðàíèòü êàê çåíèöó îêà treatment n îáðàùåíèå, ëå÷åíèå treaty n äîãîâîð tribe n ïëåìÿ trip n ïîåçäêà, ïðîãóëêà trouble n çàòðóäíåíèå, áåñïîêîéñòâî, õëîïîòû; v áåñïîêîèòü(ñÿ) trousers n áðþêè truffle n òðþôåëü trustworthy a íàäåæíûé, çàñëóæèâàþùèé äîâåðèÿ truth [ ] n ïðàâäà, èñòèíà try v ïûòàòüñÿ, ñòàðàòüñÿ, ïðîáîâàòü, èñïûòûâàòü tube (= Underground) n ìåòðî tuition n îáó÷åíèå; ÷àñòíûå óðîêè; ïëàòà çà îáó÷åíèå tramp v
turn v ïîâîðà÷èâàòü turn down v óìåíüøàòü, îòêëîíÿòü turn off v âûêëþ÷àòü tutor n ïðåïîäàâàòåëü, ðåïåòèòîð twice adv äâàæäû US (United States of America) ÑØÀ (Ñîåäèíåííûå Øòàòû Àìåðèêè) UK (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) Ñîåäèíåííîå Êîðîëåâñòâî Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè è Ñåâåðíîé Èðëàíäèè U
unacceptable a íåïðèåìëåìûé unambiguously adv íåäâóñìûñëåííî uncomfortable a íåóäîáíûé unconventional weapons îñîáûå âèäû âîîðóæåíèÿ under direction ïîä ðóêîâîäñòâîì underline v ïîä÷åðêèâàòü undertake (undertook, undertaken) v ïðåäïðèíèìàòü undervalue v íåäîîöåíèâàòü undoubtedly [ ¢ ] adv íåñîìíåííî, áåç ñîìíåíèÿ
uneasiness [En¢I:zInIs] n íåóäîáñòâî, áåñïîêîéñòâî, òðåâîãà uneducated à íåîáðàçîâàííûé unexpected a íåîæèäàííûé unfortunately adv ê ñîæàëåíèþ uniform n ôîðìà unique [ju:,ni:k] a óíèêàëüíûé, ñâîåîáðàçíûé unit n åäèíèöà, ïîäðàçäåëåíèå, áëîê unite v îáúåäèíÿòü United Nations Îðãàíèçàöèÿ Îáúåäèíåííûõ Íàöèé unity n åäèíñòâî unjustified a íåîïðàâäàííûé unless cj åñëè íå unlike a íåïîõîæèé (íà); íå òàêîé, êàê; îòëè÷íûé (îò) unload v ðàçãðóæàòü unpredictable a íåïðåäñêàçóåìûé until cj, prep äî òåõ ïîð, ïîêà; äî unusually adv íåîáû÷íî upgrade v ìîäåðíèçèðîâàòü, ïîâûøàòü, óñëîæíÿòü upheaval n ïåðåâîðîò upmarket à äîðîãîé, ýëèòàðíûé upper a âåðõíèé upside down ââåðõ íîãàìè, ââåðõ äíîì
urban a ãîðîäñêîé urge v ïîáóæäàòü, óáåæäàòü, íàñòàèâàòü urgent a ñðî÷íûé, íàñòîé÷èâûé use v èñïîëüçîâàòü, óïîòðåáëÿòü usual a îáû÷íûé utter à ïîëíûé, ãëóáîêèé, ñîâåðøåííûé
vacant a ñâîáîäíûé, âàêàíòíûé vacation n îòïóñê vague [,veIg] a ñìóòíûé, íåîïðåäåëåííûé, ðàñïëûâ÷àòûé valuable a öåííûé value v îöåíèâàòü variety n ðàçíîîáðàçèå, ìíîãîîáðàçèå vast a îáøèðíûé, íåîáúÿòíûé vegetable n îâîù venture n ïðåäïðèÿòèå, ðèñêîâàííîå ïðåäïðèÿòèå èëè íà÷èíàíèå versatility n ðàçíîñòîðîííîñòü, óíèâåðñàëüíîñòü vessel n ñóäíî, ñîñóä viceversa íàîáîðîò victory n ïîáåäà view v ðàññìàòðèâàòü, îöåíèâàòü viewer n çðèòåëü violent a æåñòîêèé, íàñèëüñòâåííûé
virtue n äîáðîäåòåëü visual a çðèòåëüíûé, âèçóàëüíûé vital a æèçíåííî âàæíûé, æèçíåííî íåîáõîäèìûé voicemail n ãîëîñîâàÿ ïî÷òà voluntary [¢volAntArI] a äîáðîâîëüíûé vomit v ñòðàäàòü ðâîòîé, èçâåðãàòü vote n ãîëîñîâàíèå, ãîëîñ vulnerable a óÿçâèìûé, ðàíèìûé
wear (wore, worn) v íîñèòü (îäåæäó), íàäåâàòü weekly a åæåíåäåëüíûé weep (wept, wept) v ïëàêàòü, ðûäàòü weighty a òÿæåëûé, ãðóçíûé wellbeing n áëàãîïîëó÷èå Westminster Abbey Âåñòìèíñòåðñêîå àááàòñòâî what pron ÷òî; êàêîé wheel n êîëåñî whenever adv êîãäà áû íè, âñÿêèé ðàç, â ëþáîå âðåìÿ which pron êîòîðûé waistcoat n æèëåò while cj ïîêà, â òî âðåìÿ waiter n îôèöèàíò êàê waitress n îôèöèàíòêà whisper n øîïîò; v walk v õîäèòü, èäòè, øåïòàòü åõàòü, èäòè ïåøêîì whole a öåëûé, âåñü want v õîòåòü, íóæäàòü- wholly adv ïîëíîñòüþ, ñÿ öåëèêîì war [wD:] n âîéíà whose pron ÷åé wardrobe n ïëàòÿíîé widespread a ðàñïðîøêàô, ãàðäåðîá ñòðàíåííûé warehouse n ñêëàä wife n æåíà warn v ïðåäóïðåæäàòü will v æåëàòü, õîòåòü, warning n ïðåäóïðåæïðîÿâëÿòü âîëþ äåíèå will-power n ñèëà âîëè wash (up) v ìûòü ïîñóäó win (won, won) v âûèãwaste n îòõîäû, îòáðîñû ðàòü, ïîáåäèòü, îäåðway n ïóòü, äîðîãà, æàòü ïîáåäó ñïîñîá, ìàíåðà, îáðàç wind n âåòåð wealth n áîãàòñòâî, wine n âèíî îáèëèå wise a ìóäðûé weapon [,wepAn] n îðówit n óì, ðàçóì, ñîîáðàæèå çèòåëüíîñòü
within prep âíóòðè, â ïðåäåëàõ without prep áåç wolf n âîëê wolfhound n âîëêîäàâ wonder n ÷óäî, èçóìëåíèå; I wonder èíòåðåñíî wood n ëåñ, äåðåâî, äðîâà word n ñëîâî workaholic n òðóäîãîëèê workshop n ìàñòåðñêàÿ world n ìèð worm n ÷åðâü worry [,wErI] v áåñïîêîèòüñÿ, âîëíîâàòüñÿ worship n ïîêëîíåíèå, ïðåêëîíåíèå; v ïîêëîíÿòüñÿ, ïðåêëîíÿòüñÿ
worth [wAi:F] n ñòîèìîñòü wrong a íåïðàâèëüíûé, íåâåðíûé
xerox [,zIArDks] n êñåðîêñ
yard n äâîð, ñàä, ÿðä yearly adv åæåãîäíî yet adv åù¸, âñ¸ åù¸; óæå yield v ïðèíîñèòü, îòñòóïàòü, äàâàòü (äîõîä) You are always welcome! Ìû âñåãäà âàì ðàäû.
LITERATURE 1. Alexander L. G. Longman English grammar practice. 1998. 2. Cotton D., Robbins S. Business Class. Course book. Longman, 1993. 3. Carnegie D. How to win friends and influence people. LondonTorontoSydneyTokyo. 1982. 4. Collins. Russian-English, English-Russian Dictionary. Harper Collins Publishers, 1994. 5. Ganshina M. A., Vasilevskaya N. M. English Grammar. M., Higher School publishing house. 1964. 6. Goodale M. The Language of meetings. Language Teaching Publications. 1987. 7. Macmillan. English Dictionary for advanced learners. Oxford, 2003. 8. Vince M. Advanced Languace Practice. MacmillanHeinemann, 2004. 9. Oxford Illustrated Dictionary. Oxford. 1962. 10. Murphy R. English Grammar in use. Intermediate. Cambridge University press. 1998. 11. The Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University press. 1987. 12. Rutkowska W. When? Where? and How? Warzawa, 1966. 13. English newspapers and magazines. 1. Àëåêñååâà Ë. Ñ. Ñáîðíèê öèòàò è èçðå÷åíèé íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå. Ì.: Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå îòíîøåíèÿ, 1964. 2. Áîëüøîé àíãëî-ðóññêèé ñëîâàðü / Ïîä îáù. ðóê. äîêòîðà ôèëîë. íàóê, ïðîôåññîðà È. Ð. Ãàëüïåðèíà. Ì., 1978. 3. Ãàíö Í. Â., Ëèõîìàíîâà Ë. Ô. Àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê äëÿ óïðàâëåíöåâ. ÑÏá.: ÑÇÀÃÑ, 2000. 4. Ãà÷å÷èëàäçå À. Ä., Ïàññåê Ê. Ô. English Humour. Publishing house International relations. 1964. 5. Äóäêèíà Ã. À., Ïàâëîâà Ì. Â., Ðåé Ç. Ã., Õâàëüíîâà À. Ò. Àíãëèéñêèé äëÿ äåëîâîãî îáùåíèÿ. Ì., Ôèëîëîãèÿ òðè. 2002. 6. Êàðà÷àðîâà Í. Ì., Ìàñëåííèêîâà À. À., Îñèïîâà Ý. Ô.,
Ñàëüå Ò. Å., Òðåòüÿêîâà Ò. Ï., Øàðãîðîäñêàÿ À. À., Òàðàñîâà È. È. Àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê äëÿ ãóìàíèòàðíûõ âóçîâ. ÑÏá.: Ëàíü, 1997. 7. Êóçüìèí Ñ. Ñ., Øàäðèí Í. Ë. Ðóññêî-àíãëèéñêèé ñëîâàðü ïîñëîâèö è ïîãîâîðîê. ÑÏá.: Ëàíü, 1996.
ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ ÏÐÅÄÈÑËÎÂÈÅ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Ââîäíûé òåñò . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 U N I T 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Grammar: Participle
SECTION À . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Text A. The Monarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Text B. A Job for Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
U N I T 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Grammar: Absolute Participial Construction
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Text A. People, People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Text B. A Horse Built the Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
U N I T 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Grammar: Participle, Participial Ñonstructions (Revision)
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 SECTION Â . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Text A. The Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Text B. Hotel Computers That Know Just What Guests Will Want . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
U N I T 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Grammar: Gerund SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Text A. How to Prepare for Examinations . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Text B. Crunch Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
U N I T 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Grammar: -Ing Forms (Revision) SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Text A. Cross-Cultural Business Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Text B. Russian-Foreign Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
U N I T 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Grammar: The Infinitive (Forms and Functions) SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Text A. Stress Is Good for You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Text B. Mans Best Friend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
U N I T 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 The Complex Object Construction SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Text A. Job Satisfaction or Money? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Text B. Helping the New Boss Adapt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
U N I T 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Grammar: The Complex Subject Construction SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Text A. Are You on the Top of the World? . . . . . . . . . . 115
Text B. Different Colours in Different Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
U N I T 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Grammar: The Infinitive, The Infinitive Constructions (Revision)
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Text A. Private Schools in the UK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Text B. School Fee Hike Fever Rages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
U N I T 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (if-Ñlauses)
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Text A. What Makes a Good Manager? Bill Gates 10 Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Text B. Stress Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
U N I T 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Grammar: Subjunctive Mood (Subject Clauses It is necessary , It is important )
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Text A. Theatergoers Get no Peace from Maddening Mobiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Text B. A New Frontier for Art Is the Cellphone Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
U N I T 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (Object Clauses with verbs insist, require and others)
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Text A. Three British Parties Agree on Strict Terrorism Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 268
Text B. Germans Like Details, Russians Value Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
U N I T 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (Wishes)
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Text A. Environmentalists Welcome Ratification of Vienna Treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Text B. Hidden Costs of Mans Assault on Nature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
U N I T 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Grammar: The Subjunctive Mood (Revision)
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Text A. World Leaders Unite on Action on Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Text B. International Efforts to Limit the Death Penalty and the US Response . . . . . . 202 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
U N I T 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Grammar: Grammar Revision
SECTION A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 SECTION B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Text A. Cross-Cultural Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Text B. The Words have Changed, but the Grammar Is the Same . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 SHORT CONVERSATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 VOCABULARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
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â·Ìîñêâå: óë. Êðàñíîáîãàòûðñêàÿ, 31 òåë./ôàêñ: (495) 964-02-10, 964-08-46 å-mail: [email protected]
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Êîíîâàëåíêî Æàííà Ôåäîðîâíà ÇÀÁÛËÈµÀÍÃËÈÉÑÊÈÉ?µÏÐÎÄÎËÆÀÅÌµÂÑÏÎÌÈÍÀÒÜ Ó÷åáíîå·ïîñîáèå Ðåäàêòîð Å.Ì.·Øïèëþê Òåõíè÷åñêèé ðåäàêòîð Í.À.·Ïëàòîíîâà Êîððåêòîð Å.Ã.·Òèãîíåí Èçäàòåëüñòâî «ÊÀÐÎ», ËÐ ¹ 065644 195279, Ñàíêò-Ïåòåðáóðã, øîññå Ðåâîëþöèè, ä. 88, (812) 570-54-97 Ïîäïèñàíî â ïå÷àòü 25.07.2007. Ôîðìàò 84 õ 108 1/32 . Áóìàãà ãàçåòíàÿ. Ïå÷àòü îôñåòíàÿ. Óñë. ïå÷. ë. 14,3. Òèðàæ 5000 ýêç. Çàêàç ¹ Îòïå÷àòàíî ïî òåõíîëîãèè CtP â ÎÀÎ «Ïå÷àòíûé äâîð» èì. À.Ì. Ãîðüêîãî 197110, Ñàíêò-Ïåòåðáóðã, ×êàëîâñêèé ïð., 15.